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Sample records for family promote cancer

  1. Ras-association domain family 1C protein promotes breast cancer cell migration and attenuates apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragon Robert J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ras association domain family 1 (RASSF1 gene is a Ras effector encoding two major mRNA forms, RASSF1A and RASSF1C, derived by alternative promoter selection and alternative mRNA splicing. RASSF1A is a tumor suppressor gene. However, very little is known about the function of RASSF1C both in normal and transformed cells. Methods Gene silencing and over-expression techniques were used to modulate RASSF1C expression in human breast cancer cells. Affymetrix-microarray analysis was performed using T47D cells over-expressing RASSF1C to identify RASSF1C target genes. RT-PCR and western blot techniques were used to validate target gene expression. Cell invasion and apoptosis assays were also performed. Results In this article, we report the effects of altering RASSF1C expression in human breast cancer cells. We found that silencing RASSF1C mRNA in breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB231 and T47D caused a small but significant decrease in cell proliferation. Conversely, inducible over-expression of RASSF1C in breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231 and T47D resulted in a small increase in cell proliferation. We also report on the identification of novel RASSF1C target genes. RASSF1C down-regulates several pro-apoptotic and tumor suppressor genes and up-regulates several growth promoting genes in breast cancer cells. We further show that down-regulation of caspase 3 via overexpression of RASSF1C reduces breast cancer cells' sensitivity to the apoptosis inducing agent, etoposide. Furthermore, we found that RASSF1C over-expression enhances T47D cell invasion/migration in vitro. Conclusion Together, our findings suggest that RASSF1C, unlike RASSF1A, is not a tumor suppressor, but instead may play a role in stimulating metastasis and survival in breast cancer cells.

  2. The Importance of Older Family Members in Providing Social Resources and Promoting Cancer Screening in Families with a Hereditary Cancer Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Hadley, Donald W.; Goergen, Andrea F.; Skapinsky, Kaley F.; Devlin, Hillary C.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates the role of older family members as providers of social resources within familial network systems affected by an inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome. Design and Methods: Respondents who previously participated in a study that involved genetic counseling and testing for Lynch syndrome and their family network…

  3. Members of the heat-shock protein 70 family promote cancer cell growth by distinct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Mikkel; Daugaard, Mads; Jensen, Mette Hartvig

    2005-01-01

    Whereas the stress-inducible heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) has gained plenty of attention as a putative target for tumor therapy, little is known about the role of other Hsp70 proteins in cancer. Here we present the first thorough analysis of the expression and function of the cytosolic Hsp70 pro...

  4. HER family kinase domain mutations promote tumor progression and can predict response to treatment in human breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Boulbes, Delphine R.

    2014-11-11

    Resistance to HER2-targeted therapies remains a major obstacle in the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Understanding the molecular pathways that contribute to the development of drug resistance is needed to improve the clinical utility of novel agents, and to predict the success of targeted personalized therapy based on tumor-specific mutations. Little is known about the clinical significance of HER family mutations in breast cancer. Because mutations within HER1/EGFR are predictive of response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in lung cancer, we investigated whether mutations in HER family kinase domains are predictive of response to targeted therapy in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. We sequenced the HER family kinase domains from 76 HER2-overexpressing invasive carcinomas and identified 12 missense variants. Patients whose tumors carried any of these mutations did not respond to HER2 directed therapy in the metastatic setting. We developed mutant cell lines and used structural analyses to determine whether changes in protein conformation could explain the lack of response to therapy. We also functionally studied all HER2 mutants and showed that they conferred an aggressive phenotype and altered effects of the TKI lapatinib. Our data demonstrate that mutations in the finely tuned HER kinase domains play a critical function in breast cancer progression and may serve as prognostic and predictive markers.

  5. Incentives to promote family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Sarah H; Gaalema, Diann E; Herrmann, Evan S

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Family Ties: The Role of Family Context in Family Health History Communication About Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Vivian M; Corona, Rosalie; Bodurtha, Joann N; Quillin, John M

    2016-01-01

    Family health history about cancer is an important prevention and health promotion tool. Yet few studies have identified family context factors that promote such discussions. We explored relations among family context (cohesion, flexibility, and openness), self-efficacy, and cancer communication (gathering family history, sharing cancer risk information, and frequency) in a diverse group of women enrolled in a randomized control trial. Baseline survey data for 472 women were analyzed. The women's average age was 34 years, 59% identified as Black, 31% had graduated high school, and 75% reported a family history of any cancer. Results showed that greater family cohesion and flexibility were related to higher communication frequency and sharing cancer information. Women who reported greater self-efficacy were more likely to have gathered family history, shared cancer risk information, and communicated more frequently with relatives. Openness was not associated with communication but was related to greater family cohesion and flexibility. Adjusting for demographic variables, self-efficacy, and family cohesion significantly predicted communication frequency. Women with higher self-efficacy were also more likely to have gathered family health history about cancer and shared cancer risk information. Future research may benefit from considering family organization and self-efficacy when developing psychosocial theories that in turn inform cancer prevention interventions.

  7. Family support in cancer survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Kazilan, Fitrisehara

    2011-01-01

    This paper raises issues about the role of family members in providing support for breast cancer survivors. Data were collected from 400 breast cancer survivors in Peninsular Malaysia through a custom-designed questionnaire fielded at hospitals and support group meetings. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The analyses show that all family members could be supportive, especially in decision making and help with emotional issues. The spouse was the main support provider among the family members (others were children, parents, siblings and more distant relatives). The results also indicated that a significant percentage practiced collaborative decision-making. Breast cancer survivors needed their family members' support for information on survivorship strategies such as managing emotions, health, life style and dietary practice. The family members' supportive role may be linked to the Malaysian strong family relationship culture. For family members to contribute more adequately to cancer survivorship, it is suggested that appropriate educational intervention also be provided to them.

  8. Familial colorectal cancer type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Da Silva, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Heredity is a major cause of colorectal cancer, but although several rare high-risk syndromes have been linked to disease-predisposing mutations, the genetic mechanisms are undetermined in the majority of families suspected of hereditary cancer. We review the clinical presentation, histopathologic...... features, and the genetic and epigenetic profiles of the familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) syndrome with the aim to delineate tumor characteristics that may contribute to refined diagnostics and optimized tumor prevention....

  9. Family Caregivers in Cancer (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the caregiver needs it. Education and Information Coping Skills Counseling Family Meetings Home Care Help Hospice Care for the Cancer Patient Caregivers have a very hard job and it's normal to need help. Although ...

  10. Promoting resilience among parents and caregivers of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Baker, K Scott; Syrjala, Karen L; Back, Anthony L; Wolfe, Joanne

    2013-06-01

    Promoting resilience is an aspect of psychosocial care that affects patient and whole-family well-being. There is little consensus about how to define or promote resilience during and after pediatric cancer. The aims of this study were (1) to review the resilience literature in pediatric cancer settings; (2) to qualitatively ascertain caregiver-reported perceptions of resilience; and (3) to develop an integrative model of fixed and mutable factors of resilience among family members of children with cancer, with the goal of enabling better study and promotion of resilience among pediatric cancer families. The study entailed qualitative analysis of small group interviews with eighteen bereaved parents and family members of children with cancer treated at Seattle Children's Hospital. Small-group interviews were conducted with members of each bereaved family. Participant statements were coded for thematic analysis. An integrative, comprehensive framework was then developed. Caregivers' personal appraisals of the cancer experience and their child's legacy shape their definitions of resilience. Described factors of resilience include baseline characteristics (i.e., inherent traits, prior expectations of cancer), processes that evolve over time (i.e., coping strategies, social support, provider interactions), and psychosocial outcomes (i.e., post-traumatic growth and lack of psychological distress). These elements were used to develop a testable model of resilience among family members of children with cancer. Resilience is a complex construct that may be modifiable. Once validated, the proposed framework will not only serve as a model for clinicians, but may also facilitate the development of interventions aimed at promoting resilience in family members of children with cancer.

  11. Sonic Hedgehog-GLI Family Zinc Finger 1 Signaling Pathway Promotes the Growth and Migration of Pancreatic Cancer Cells by Regulating the Transcription of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 5A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuanfu; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Hui; Dai, Weiqi; Guo, Chuanyong; Xie, Chuangao; Wei, Shumei; He, Shengli; Xu, Xiaorong

    2015-11-01

    The Hh (hedgehog) signaling pathway is still waiting for further studies because its downstream molecular mechanism remains elusive. Because EIF5A2 (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2) gene was up-regulated upon Gli1 (GLI family zinc finger 1) in pancreatic cancer (PC) cells, we speculated that this pathway might promote tumor progression through regulating EIF5A2. We investigated regulation effect of Hh signaling pathway to EIF5A2 gene transcription by Gli1 knockdown or overexpression in PC cell lines first. Then, the regulation mechanism of Gli1 to EIF5A2 gene was studied at transcription level. Finally, we studied cancer-promoting effects of Gli1-dependent EIF5A2 in PC cells. The data showed that Gli1 up-regulated expression of EIF5A2 by promoting transcription via cis-acting elements in PC cells. Moreover, vimentin gene was up-regulated significantly by sonic hedgehog (SHh)/Gli1 expression increasing, and E-cadherin was significantly reduced. The EIF5A2 knockdown partially reversed cell proliferation and migration induced by artificial SHh overexpression and inhibited epithelial mesenchymal transition process in PC cells with SHh overexpression (P cells. Thus, EIF5A2 oncogene effect could be incorporated into cancer-promoting molecular network upon Hh signaling pathway.

  12. The NmrA-like family domain containing 1 pseudogene Loc344887 is amplified in gallbladder cancer and promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Cai; Wang, Shou-Hua; Ou, Hong-Hui; Zhu, Bing; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Yang; Li, Hua

    2017-09-01

    The expression pattern and biological role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in cancer has been reported to be involved in many cancers. Here, we report the expression and biological role of a newly discovered lncRNA NmrA-like family domain containing 1 pseudogene (Loc344887) in gallbladder cancer (GBC). In this study, we found that the expression of Loc344887 was significantly elevated in GBC tissues and cell lines when compared with matched normal tissues and normal epithelial bile duct cell line, respectively. High Loc344887 was associated with larger tumor size. Loc344887 was upregulated significantly after ectopic expression of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) in GBC cells. Downregulation of Loc344887 in GBC cells suppressed cell proliferation, blocked cells in G0/S phase, and decreased the migration and invasion cell numbers. In addition, downregulation of Loc344887 decreased the expression of transcription factor Twist, mesenchymal marker Vimentin, and N-cadherin and increased the expression of epithelial maker E-cadherin, which could prompt a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition phenotype. These results demonstrated that Loc344887 might contribute to cell proliferation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition process in GBC, which might be a potential therapeutic target. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. The TEAD Family and Its Oncogenic Role in Promoting Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The TEAD family of transcription factors is necessary for developmental processes. The family members contain a TEA domain for the binding with DNA elements and a transactivation domain for the interaction with transcription coactivators. TEAD proteins are required for the participation of coactivators to transmit the signal of pathways for the downstream signaling processes. TEADs also play an important role in tumor initiation and facilitate cancer progression via activating a series of progression-inducing genes, such as CTGF, Cyr61, Myc and Gli2. Recent studies have highlighted that TEADs, together with their coactivators, promote or even act as the crucial parts in the development of various malignancies, such as liver, ovarian, breast and prostate cancers. Furthermore, TEADs are proposed to be useful prognostic biomarkers due to the ideal correlation between high expression and clinicopathological parameters in gastric, breast, ovarian and prostate cancers. In this review, we summarize the functional role of TEAD proteins in tumorigenesis and discuss the key role of TEAD transcription factors in the linking of signal cascade transductions. Improved knowledge of the TEAD proteins will be helpful for deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis and identifying ideal predictive or prognostic biomarkers, even providing clinical translation for anticancer therapy in human cancers.

  14. The TEAD Family and Its Oncogenic Role in Promoting Tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuhang; Huang, Tingting; Cheng, Alfred S L; Yu, Jun; Kang, Wei; To, Ka Fai

    2016-01-21

    The TEAD family of transcription factors is necessary for developmental processes. The family members contain a TEA domain for the binding with DNA elements and a transactivation domain for the interaction with transcription coactivators. TEAD proteins are required for the participation of coactivators to transmit the signal of pathways for the downstream signaling processes. TEADs also play an important role in tumor initiation and facilitate cancer progression via activating a series of progression-inducing genes, such as CTGF, Cyr61, Myc and Gli2. Recent studies have highlighted that TEADs, together with their coactivators, promote or even act as the crucial parts in the development of various malignancies, such as liver, ovarian, breast and prostate cancers. Furthermore, TEADs are proposed to be useful prognostic biomarkers due to the ideal correlation between high expression and clinicopathological parameters in gastric, breast, ovarian and prostate cancers. In this review, we summarize the functional role of TEAD proteins in tumorigenesis and discuss the key role of TEAD transcription factors in the linking of signal cascade transductions. Improved knowledge of the TEAD proteins will be helpful for deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis and identifying ideal predictive or prognostic biomarkers, even providing clinical translation for anticancer therapy in human cancers.

  15. Health promotion of families of deaf children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Albuquerque Frota

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the impact of hearing loss in the family dynamics of the deaf child; identify the family’s knowledge about deafness, understand how parents experience the diagnosis and treatment of child with hearing impairment. Methods: The study has aqualitative approach developed at the Center for Integrated Medical Care - NAMI, attached to the University of Fortaleza - UNIFOR located in Fortaleza - CE, Brazil. The participants were six mothers of children with hearing impairment. Data collection was carried outthrough participant observation and semi-structured interview. The Thematic Analysis of Bardin was used for processing the data. Results: After coding, some categories emerged from the discourse: Misinformation of Hearing Loss; impact of the discovery of hearingloss, caregivers and facilitators of the development of the deaf children. Conclusion: The birth of a deaf child alters the previous family balance, causing specific problems, such as the communication barrier, whose solution is related to how to handle the situation. Itis necessary to promote changes, emphasizing the involvement of caregivers and loved as facilitators of deaf child’s development. In Phonoaudiology, this attitude represents discovering new ways to identify the need for the subject, which requires strategies thatvalue their opinion, allowing the expression of expectations, perceptions, representations and feelings.

  16. Family communication during the cancer experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Julie; Bowen, Deborah J; Badr, Hoda; Hannon, Peggy; Hay, Jennifer; Regan Sterba, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The family is often the primary support unit for the cancer patient. We are beginning to understand the impact of a cancer diagnosis on the family, but we are still far from understanding the complex process of how and why information is communicated within families during and after a cancer diagnosis. As survival rates increase and treatments become more complex, understanding how to improve communication processes within the family will become even more vital to supporting families and improving patient outcomes. In this article, we present the results of a 2-hour working group convened during a cancer communications workshop held at the 2008 Society of Behavioral Medicine meeting. During the session, an interdisciplinary group of investigators met and discussed the current state of the science with respect to familial communication during the cancer experience. We focused our discussion on four general areas: current state of the research, theoretical perspectives, methodological perspectives, and areas for future research and intervention in order to understand family communication in this context. Currently, most research has focused on couples and caregivers, mainly in the context of breast cancer. More research is needed into a wider array of cancers and expanding our theoretical foundations into understanding communication between other family members and approaching the family as a unit. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for three content areas to focus future research and intervention development efforts, namely, (1) familial life course, (2) technological advances, and (3) changing structure of the family.

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at CDH1 promoter region in familial gastric cancer Polimorfismos de nucleótido único (SNPs en la región promotora CDH1 en cáncer gástrico familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramos-de la Medina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: gastric cancer is the most frequent gastrointestinal malignancy in Mexico and the proportion of patients younger than 40 years is one of the highest reported in the world literature. Recently several families with familial diffuse gastric cancer have been identified at the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition. Germline mutations in the E-cadherin gene (CHD1 have been described that result in the development of diffuse hereditary gastric cancer in young patients. Methods: the complete coding sequence at exons 1 to 16 and the promoter region of CDH1 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood samples of two patients with early onset familial diffuse gastric cancer. Results: no germline inactivating mutations of CHD1 were found on either patient. Single nucleotide polymorphisms -160 C→A were detected in the promoter region of CDH1 in both patients. Conclusions: the polymorphism -160 C→A theoretically confers an increased risk of developing diffuse gastric cancer. The relatives of these patients may an increased risk of gastric cancer among other tumors. There is presently not enough evidence to consider the -160 C→A polymorphism an etiologic factor of diffuse gastric cancer in these patients since the frequency and type of genetic alterations of CDH1 are largely unknown in the Mexican population. It will be necessary to conduct epidemiologic studies in the Mexican population to determine the influence that genetic alterations have on the genesis of diffuse gastric carcinoma.Introducción: el cáncer gástrico es la neoplasia más frecuente del tracto gastrointestinal en México y la proporción de pacientes menores de 40 años es una de las más altas reportadas en la literatura mundial. Recientemente se han identificado en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición varias familias con cáncer gástrico difuso familiar. Múltiples mutaciones germinales del gene de E-cadherina (CHD1

  18. Can ideal family values be promoted in Nigeria through welfare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... This paper has discussed how values can be promoted as crucial role of the family in the society. ... Solutions and recommendations were also proffered through welfare counseling to solve the problems facing family values for its promotion in Nigeria society.

  19. relationship between family history of breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... Moreover, familial breast cancer patients present especially progesterone receptor-negative tumors (P=0.0380). CONCLUSIONS: Our initial significant findings show that familial breast cancer seems to affect young women and tends to present high Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grade tumors with lymph node.

  20. Shared vision promotes family firm performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, John E.

    2015-01-01

    A clear picture of the influential drivers of private family firm performance has proven to be an elusive target. The unique characteristics of private family owned firms necessitate a broader, non-financial approach to reveal firm performance drivers. This research study sought to specify and evaluate the themes that distinguish successful family firms from less successful family firms. In addition, this study explored the possibility that these themes collectively form an effective organizational culture that improves longer-term firm performance. At an organizational level of analysis, research findings identified four significant variables: Shared Vision (PNS), Role Clarity (RCL), Confidence in Management (CON), and Professional Networking (OLN) that positively impacted family firm financial performance. Shared Vision exhibited the strongest positive influence among the significant factors. In addition, Family Functionality (APGAR), the functional integrity of the family itself, exhibited a significant supporting role. Taken together, the variables collectively represent an effective family business culture (EFBC) that positively impacted the long-term financial sustainability of family owned firms. The index of effective family business culture also exhibited potential as a predictive non-financial model of family firm performance. PMID:26042075

  1. Shared vision promotes family firm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, John E

    2015-01-01

    A clear picture of the influential drivers of private family firm performance has proven to be an elusive target. The unique characteristics of private family owned firms necessitate a broader, non-financial approach to reveal firm performance drivers. This research study sought to specify and evaluate the themes that distinguish successful family firms from less successful family firms. In addition, this study explored the possibility that these themes collectively form an effective organizational culture that improves longer-term firm performance. At an organizational level of analysis, research findings identified four significant variables: Shared Vision (PNS), Role Clarity (RCL), Confidence in Management (CON), and Professional Networking (OLN) that positively impacted family firm financial performance. Shared Vision exhibited the strongest positive influence among the significant factors. In addition, Family Functionality (APGAR), the functional integrity of the family itself, exhibited a significant supporting role. Taken together, the variables collectively represent an effective family business culture (EFBC) that positively impacted the long-term financial sustainability of family owned firms. The index of effective family business culture also exhibited potential as a predictive non-financial model of family firm performance.

  2. Shared Vision promotes family firm performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Edward Neff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A clear picture of the influential drivers of private family firm performance has proven to be an elusive target. The unique characteristics of private family owned firms necessitate a broader, non-financial approach to reveal firm performance drivers. This research study sought to specify and evaluate the themes that distinguish successful family firms from less successful family firms. In addition, this study explored the possibility that these themes collectively form an effective organizational culture that improves longer-term firm performance. At an organizational level of analysis, research findings identified four significant variables: Shared Vision (PNS, Role Clarity (RCL, Confidence in Management (CON, and Professional Networking (OLN that positively impacted family firm financial performance. Shared Vision exhibited the strongest positive influence among the significant factors. In addition, Family Functionality (APGAR, the functional integrity of the family itself exhibited a significant supporting role. Taken together, the variables collectively represent an effective family business culture (EFBC that positively impacted the long-term financial sustainability of family owned firms. The index of effective family business culture also exhibited potential as a predictive non-financial model of family firm performance.

  3. Hereditary & familial colorectal cancer : Identification, characteristics, surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, F.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases, 15-20% is related to familial or hereditary factors. Diagnosing familial and hereditary CRC syndromes is important for several reasons. One of these is that surveillance colonoscopies can reduce CRC incidence and mortality importantly. A complete family history

  4. Epigenetic Silencing of HOPX Promotes Cancer Progression in Colorectal Cancer

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    Hiroshi Katoh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Homeodomain-only protein X (HOPX-β promoter methylation was recently shown to be frequent in human cancers and was suggested as tumor suppressor gene in esophageal and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanistic roles of HOPX-β promoter methylation and its clinical relevance in colorectal cancer (CRC. HOPX-β promoter methylation was assessed in human CRC cell lines and 294 CRC tissues. HOPX mRNA and protein levels were measured in relation to HOPX-β promoter methylation. The effects of forced HOPX expression on tumorigenesis were studied using in vitro and in vivo assays. The association between HOPX-β promoter methylation and clinical relevance of CRC patients was determined. HOPX-β promoter methylation is cancer-specific and frequently found in CRC cell lines and tissues, resulting in the down-regulation of HOPX mRNA and protein levels. In CRC cell lines, forced expression of HOPX suppressed proliferation, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. DNA microarray analyses suggested critical downstream genes that are associated with cancer cell proliferation, invasion or angiogenesis. In a mouse xenograft model, HOPX inhibited tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. Finally, HOPX-β promoter methylation was associated with worse prognosis of stage III CRC patients (hazard ratio= 1.40, P = .035 and also with poor differentiation (P = .014. In conclusion, HOPX-β promoter methylation is a frequent and cancer-specific event in CRC progression. This epigenetic alteration may have clinical ramifications in the diagnosis and treatment of CRC patients.

  5. Parents' Romantic Attachment Predicts Family Ritual Meaning and Family Cohesion Among Parents and Their Children With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Crespo, Carla; Canavarro, M Cristina; Kazak, Anne E

    2017-01-01

    Family functioning is associated with adaptation in pediatric illness. This study examines the role of parents’ relationships (specifically romantic attachment) as a predictor of family ritual meaning and family cohesion for parents and their children with cancer. The dyads, 58 partnered Portuguese parents and their children in treatment, reported on family ritual meaning and family cohesion at Time 1 (T1) and after 6 months (T2). Parents also completed the questionnaire assessing romantic attachment at T1. Parents’ avoidant attachment, but not anxious attachment, predicted lower family ritual meaning and family cohesion after 6 months. T2 family ritual meaning mediated the relationship between T1 avoidant attachment and T2 family cohesion. Parents’ avoidant attachment may have a negative effect on family functioning in parents and children. Clinical intervention to address avoidant attachment or/and to promote family ritual meaning may help strengthen family ties.

  6. Promoting Culturally Respectful Cancer Education Through Digital Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Lanier, Anne; Dignan, Mark; Revels, Laura; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Cueva, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of mortality among Alaska Native people. Over half of Alaska Native people live in rural communities where specially trained community members called Community Health Aides/Practitioners (CHA/Ps) provide health care. In response to CHA/Ps’ expressed desire to learn more about cancer, four 5-day cancer education and digital storytelling courses were provided in 2014. Throughout each course, participants explored cancer information, reflected on their personal experiences, and envisioned how they might apply their knowledge within their communities. Each course participant also created a personal and authentic digital story, a methodology increasingly embraced by Indigenous communities as a way to combine storytelling traditions with modern technology to promote both individual and community health. Opportunities to learn of CHA/Ps’ experiences with cancer and digital storytelling included a 3-page end-of-course written evaluation, a weekly story-showing log kept for 4 weeks post-course, a group teleconference held 1–2 weeks post-course, and a survey administered 6 months post-course. Participants described digital storytelling as a culturally respectful way to support cancer awareness and education. Participants described the process of creating digital stories as supporting knowledge acquisition, encouraging personal reflection, and sparking a desire to engage in cancer risk reduction activities for themselves and with their families and patients. As a result of creating a personalized digital story, CHA/Ps reported feeling differently about cancer, noting an increase in cancer knowledge and comfort to talk about cancer with clients and family. Indigenous digital stories have potential for broad use as a culturally appropriate health messaging tool. PMID:27429956

  7. Promoting Culturally Respectful Cancer Education Through Digital Storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Lanier, Anne; Dignan, Mark; Revels, Laura; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Cueva, Katie

    Cancer is the leading cause of mortality among Alaska Native people. Over half of Alaska Native people live in rural communities where specially trained community members called Community Health Aides/Practitioners (CHA/Ps) provide health care. In response to CHA/Ps' expressed desire to learn more about cancer, four 5-day cancer education and digital storytelling courses were provided in 2014. Throughout each course, participants explored cancer information, reflected on their personal experiences, and envisioned how they might apply their knowledge within their communities. Each course participant also created a personal and authentic digital story, a methodology increasingly embraced by Indigenous communities as a way to combine storytelling traditions with modern technology to promote both individual and community health. Opportunities to learn of CHA/Ps' experiences with cancer and digital storytelling included a 3-page end-of-course written evaluation, a weekly story-showing log kept for 4 weeks post-course, a group teleconference held 1-2 weeks post-course, and a survey administered 6 months post-course. Participants described digital storytelling as a culturally respectful way to support cancer awareness and education. Participants described the process of creating digital stories as supporting knowledge acquisition, encouraging personal reflection, and sparking a desire to engage in cancer risk reduction activities for themselves and with their families and patients. As a result of creating a personalized digital story, CHA/Ps reported feeling differently about cancer, noting an increase in cancer knowledge and comfort to talk about cancer with clients and family. Indigenous digital stories have potential for broad use as a culturally appropriate health messaging tool.

  8. Other cancers in lung cancer families are overwhelmingly smoking-related cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyao Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Familial risks of lung cancer are well-established, but whether lung cancer clusters with other discordant cancers is less certain, particularly beyond smoking-related sites, which may provide evidence on genetic contributions to lung cancer aetiology. We used a novel approach to search for familial associations in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. This involved assessment of familial relative risk for cancer X in families with increasing numbers of lung cancer patients and, conversely, relative risks for lung cancer in families with increasing numbers of patients with cancers X. However, we lacked information on smoking. The total number of lung cancers in the database was 125 563. We applied stringent statistical criteria and found that seven discordant cancers were associated with lung cancer among family members, and six of these were known to be connected with smoking: oesophageal, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, cervical, kidney and urinary bladder cancers. A further novel finding was that cancer of unknown primary also associated with lung cancer. We also factored in histological evidence and found that anal and connective tissue cancers could be associated with lung cancer for reasons other than smoking. For endometrial and prostate cancers, suggestive negative associations with lung cancer were found. Although we lacked information on smoking it is prudent to conclude that practically all observed discordant associations of lung cancer were with cancers for which smoking is a risk factor.

  9. An investigation of the colorectal cancer experience and receptivity to family-based cancer prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Asiedu, Gladys B; Egginton, Jason; Sinicrope, Pamela; Opyrchal, Seung M L; Howell, Lisa A; Patten, Christi; Boardman, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a shared family experience and may provide a "teachable moment" to motivate at-risk family members to adopt cancer prevention and health promotion behaviors. This study explored how a diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is experienced by family members and may be used to develop a family-based CRC prevention program. Preferences regarding content, timing, and modes of program delivery were examined. Social cognitive theory provided the conceptual framework for the study. This study employed mixed methodology (semi-structured interviews and self-report questionnaires). Participants included 73 adults (21 patients, 52 family members) from 23 families (two patients were deceased prior to being interviewed). Most patients (n = 14; 67 %) were interviewed 1-5 years post-diagnosis. Individual interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and content analyzed. For many, a CRC diagnosis was described as a shared family experience. Family members supported each other's efforts to prevent CRC through screening, exercising, and maintaining a healthy diet. Teachable moments for introducing a family-based program included the time of the patient's initial cancer surgery and post-chemotherapy. Reported willingness to participate in a family-based program was associated with risk perception, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and the social/community context in which the program would be embedded. Program preferences included cancer screening, diet/nutrition, weight management, stress reduction, and exercise. Challenges included geographic dispersion, variation in education levels, generational differences, and scheduling. CRC patients and family members are receptive to family-based programs. Feasibility concerns, which may be mitigated but not eliminated with technological advances, must be addressed for successful family-based programs.

  10. Do celebrity cancer diagnoses promote primary cancer prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John W; Althouse, Benjamin M; Noar, Seth M; Cohen, Joanna E

    2014-01-01

    Celebrity cancer diagnoses generate considerable media coverage of and increase interest in cancer screening, but do they also promote primary cancer prevention? Daily trends for smoking cessation-related media (information-availability) and Google queries (information-seeking) around Brazilian President and smoker Lula da Silva's laryngeal cancer diagnosis announcements were compared to a typical period and several cessation awareness events. Cessation media coverage was 163% (95% confidence interval, 54-328) higher than expected the week after the announcement but returned to typical levels the second week. Cessation queries were 67% (95% confidence interval, 40-96) greater the week after Lula's announcement, remaining 153% (95% confidence interval, 121-188), 130% (95% confidence interval, 101-163) and 71% (95% confidence interval, 43-100) greater during the second, third, and fourth week after the announcement. There were 1.1 million excess cessation queries the month after Lula's announcement, eclipsing query volumes for the week around New Years Day, World No Tobacco Day, and Brazilian National No Smoking Day. Just as celebrity diagnoses promote cancer screening, they may also promote primary prevention. Discovery of this dynamic suggests the public should be further encouraged to consider primary (in addition to the usual secondary) cancer prevention around celebrity diagnoses, though more cases, cancers, and prevention behaviors must be explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Social work with families at social risk promoting gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pivoriene J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the research whose aim is to find out the attitudes of social workers toward gender equality. The qualitative research was carried out in 2014 in order to find out social workers' attitudes to gender equality in families and families at social risk, as well as obstacles and possibilities for implementation of gender equality in families at social risk. Eight social workers working with families at social risk were interviewed using semi-structured interview and content analysis for research data analysis. The research data reveals that gender equality in the family can be reached by mutual agreement, when the division of duties and responsibilities is in accordance with needs and abilities of family members. Good family relations are emphasized as a prerequisite for gender equality. Families at social risk with unbalanced social functioning and relationships are affected by stereotyped thinking about gender roles. As informants point out, this makes gender equality impossible in families at social risk. Social workers reveal that they do not directly relate the gender dimension with social work practice, and as a result it becomes problematic to promote gender equality in families at social risk. The main obstacles for implementation of gender equality are clients' resistance to change, too much responsibilities put on women-mother by social workers and other institutions that deal with social risk families, lack of information on gender equality and tools for promoting gender equality in the family. However, the informants provide solutions for promotion of gender equality in micro, mezzo and macro practice that correspond to the guidelines presented in the documents and strategies on gender equality at national and EU level.

  12. Does familial breast cancer and thymoma suggest a cancer syndrome? A family perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wei; Ding, Yibing; Zhou, Lixing; Chen, Qiuyan; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Yongzheng; Mei, Yuna; Jin, Yu; Gao, Qian; Yi, Long

    2015-12-01

    Concurrence of breast cancer or thymoma with other malignancies in individual families is often observed, but the familial concurrence of breast cancer and thymoma has not yet been reported. Herein we reported a family encompassing five breast/ovarian cancer patients and two thymoma patients. Whole genome linkage analysis detected no haplotype co-segregating with both types of the tumors. In all patients with breast/ovarian cancer, genetic analysis revealed a clinically untested variant c.5141T>G in exon 18 of the BRCA1 gene, which could be a cancer-causing variant based on the functional study of Lee et al. (2010) and our current pedigree analysis. In the two thymoma patients in our family, targeted sequencing of RAD51L1 and BMP2 genes in and near the translocation site of chromosome 14 and 20 previously reported in two thymoma families, did not find any pathogenic mutation. In the present study, we identified a clinically unconfirmed BRCA1 variant segregating with breast/ovarian cancer patients in an individual family, suggesting it to be clinically functional. Our evidence, however, did not support the notion that the concurrent appearance of breast cancer and thymoma in our family represents a familial cancer syndrome caused by the same genetic disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of family institutes in promoting the practice of family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampage, Cheryl

    2014-09-01

    Much of the development of family therapy as a discipline was an outcome of the clinical, training, and theory-building activities conducted at family institutes around the United States. Beginning in the 1960s, these institutes were the crucibles in which the concepts and practices of family therapy flourished. The author, a leader at one of the largest family institutes in the United States, discusses the role of family institutes in promoting the practice of family therapy, as well as the challenges of doing so. © 2014 FPI, Inc.

  14. Familial testicular cancer and developmental anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrus, D.; Kuba, D.; Chrenova, S.; Matoska, J.

    1997-01-01

    Familial occurrence belongs to factors followed in etiology and pathogenesis of testicular germ-cell tumors. Association with abnormal testicular development, or with other risk factors is relatively frequent. In our material 650 patients had been treated for testicular cancer in the period of 1981-1995. Familial occurrence was observed 7-times (1.08), most frequently in combination with cryptorchidism. Individual families were analyzed in details, including HLA typing. On basis of the observations the supplementation of initial examination of each patient with suspicious testicular cancer with detailed familiar history aimed also at the occurrence of urogenital developmental anomalies and tumors has been recommended. The knowledge about familial tumor occurrence in the first-degree relatives in combination with thorough testicular self-examination is being considered of great importance in the secondary prevention. (author)

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-mediated upregulation of hepatic microRNA-181 family promotes cancer cell migration by targeting MAPK phosphatase-5, regulating the activation of p38 MAPK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi-Kyung [Center for Integrated Risk Research, Cellular and Molecular Toxicology Laboratory, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) (Korea, Republic of); School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong-Keun [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jae-Chun, E-mail: ryujc@kist.re.kr [Center for Integrated Risk Research, Cellular and Molecular Toxicology Laboratory, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Growing evidence indicates that changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression in cancer induced by chemical carcinogens play an important role in cancer development and progression by regulating related genes. However, the mechanisms underlying miRNA involvement in hepatocarcinogenesis induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) remain unclear. Thus, the identification of aberrant miRNA expression during PAH-induced cancer cell migration will lead to a better understanding of the substantial role of miRNAs in cancer progression. In the present study, miRNA expression profiling showed significant upregulation of miR-181a, -181b, and -181d in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2 line) exposed to benzo[a]anthracene (BA) and benzo[k]fluoranthene (BF). MAPK phosphatase-5 (MKP-5), a validated miR-181 target that deactivates MAPKs, was markedly suppressed while phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was increased after BA and BF exposure. The migration of HepG2 cells, observed using the scratch wound-healing assay, also increased in a dose-dependent manner. Depletion of miR-181 family members by miRNA inhibitors enhanced the expression of MKP-5 and suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Furthermore, the depletion of the miR-181 family inhibited cancer cell migration. Based on these results, we conclude that the miR-181 family plays a critical role in PAH-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by targeting MKP-5, resulting in the regulation of p38 MAPK activation. - Highlights: • We found significant upregulation of miR-181 family in HCC exposed to BA and BF. • We identified the MKP-5 as a putative target of miR-181 family. • MKP-5 was suppressed while p-P38 was increased after BA and BF exposure. • The migration of HepG2 cells increased in a dose-dependent manner.

  16. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa M Pelttari

    Full Text Available Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS. We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259 and population controls (n = 3586 from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR: 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.11-1.19, P = 8.88 x 10-16 and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16-1.32, P = 6.19 x 10-11, compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk.

  17. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Vilske, Sara; Nevanlinna, Viivi; Ranta, Salla; Schleutker, Johanna; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Figueroa, Jonine; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Dunning, Alison M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Rosenberg, Efraim H.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Van Dyck, Laurien; Janssen, Hilde; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E.; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje J.; Collée, Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert N.; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Couch, Fergus J.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Mattson, Johanna; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.19, P = 8.88 x 10−16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16–1.32, P = 6.19 x 10−11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk. PMID:27149063

  18. Enterobacter Strains Might Promote Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurdakul, Dilşad; Yazgan-Karataş, Ayten; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2015-09-01

    Many studies have been performed to determine the interaction between bacterial species and cancer. However, there has been no attempts to demonstrate a possible relationship between Enterobacter spp. and colon cancer so far. Therefore, in the present study, it is aimed to investigate the effects of Enterobacter strains on colon cancer. Bacterial proteins were isolated from 11 Enterobacter spp., one Morganella morganii, and one Escherichia coli strains, and applied onto NCM460 (Incell) and CRL1790 (ATCC) cell lines. Cell viability and proliferation were determined in MTS assay. Flow Cytometry was used to detect CD24 level and apoptosis. Real-Time PCR studies were performed to determine NFKB and Bcl2 expression. Graphpad Software was used for statistical analysis. The results showed that proteins, isolated from the Enterobacter spp., have significantly increased cell viability and proliferation, while decreasing the apoptosis of the cell lines tested. The data in the present study indicated that Enterobacter strains might promote colon cancer. Moreover, Enterobacter spp. could be a clinically important factor for colon cancer initiation and progression. Studies can be extended on animal models in order to develop new strategies for treatment.

  19. Germline TERT promoter mutations are rare in familial melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harland, Mark; Petljak, Mia; Robles-Espinoza, Carla Daniela

    2016-01-01

    telomere length of a carrier was similar to wild-type cases. We provide evidence confirming that a rare promoter variant of TERT (c.-57 T>G) is associated with high penetrance, early onset melanoma and potentially other cancers, and explains

  20. Family resources study: part 1: family resources, family function and caregiver strain in childhood cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Severe illness can disrupt family life, cause family dysfunction, strain resources, and cause caregiver burden. The family's ability to cope with crises depends on their resources. This study sought to assess families of children with cancer in terms of family function-dysfunction, family caregiver strain and the adequacy of family resources using a new family resources assessment instrument. Methods This is a cross-sectional study involving 90 Filipino family caregivers of children undergoing cancer treatment. This used a self-administered questionnaire composed of a new 12-item family resources questionnaire (SCREEM-RES) based on the SCREEM method of analysis, Family APGAR to assess family function-dysfunction; and Modified Caregiver Strain Index to assess strain in caring for the patient. Results More than half of families were either moderately or severely dysfunctional. Close to half of caregivers were either predisposed to strain or experienced severe strain, majority disclosed that their families have inadequate economic resources; many also report inaccessibility to medical help in the community and insufficient educational resources to understand and care for their patients. Resources most often reported as adequate were: family's faith and religion; help from within the family and from health providers. SCREEM-RES showed to be reliable with Cronbach's alpha of 0.80. There is good inter-item correlation between items in each domain: 0.24-0.70. Internal consistency reliability for each domain was also good: 0.40-0.92. Using 2-point scoring system, Cronbach's alpha were slightly lower: full scale (0.70) and for each domain 0.26-.82. Results showed evidence of association between family resources and family function based on the family APGAR but none between family resources and caregiver strain and between family function and caregiver strain. Conclusion Many Filipino families of children with cancer have inadequate resources, especially economic

  1. Health promotion needs of Hammanskraal families with adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research on which this article is reporting, was to explore and describe the health promotion needs of families with adolescents orphaned by human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The research was located within a qualitative paradigm that is both exploratory and descriptive.

  2. Families Promoting Travel Skills for Their Children with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L. Penny; Corn, Anne L.

    2003-01-01

    This article suggests ways that families of children with visual impairments can promote the travel skills of their children. Topics covered include ways to share information during travel, involving children in travel, involving children with nondrivers, helping adolescents who will not drive gain increased independence, and supporting young…

  3. Promoting family resilience in South Africa: a community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes some projects in KwaZulu-Natal, which adopted a community psychological, multi-cultural counselling approach in promoting family resilience. Following definition of relevant concepts, the article describes the training of community psychologists and multicultural counsellors with special reference to ...

  4. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelttari, Liisa M; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition......, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD......51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients...

  5. TET1 promotes cisplatin-resistance via demethylating the vimentin promoter in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xi; Zhou, Yuanyuan; You, Yuanyi; Lu, Jiaojiao; Wang, Lijie; Hou, Huilian; Li, Jing; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Le; Li, Xu

    2017-04-01

    The development of chemo-resistance impairs the outcome of the first line platinum-based chemotherapies for ovarian cancer. Deregulation of DNA methylation/demethylation provides a critical mechanism for the occurrence of chemo-resistance. The ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of dioxygenases including TET1/2/3 plays an important part in DNA demethylation, but their roles in cisplatin resistance have not been elucidated. Using cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell models, we found that TET1 was significantly upregulated in cisplatin-resistant CP70 cells compared with that in cisplatin-sensitive A2780 cells. Ectopic expression of TET1 in A2780 cells promoted cisplatin resistance and decreased cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin, while inhibition of TET1 by siRNA transfection in CP70 cells attenuated cisplatin resistance and enhanced cytotoxicity of cisplatin. Increased TET1 induced re-expression of vimentin through active DNA demethylation, and cause partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) in A2780 cells. Contrarily, knocking down of TET1 in CP70 cells reduced vimentin expression and reversed EMT process. Immunohistochemical analysis of TET1 in human ovarian cancer tissues revealed that TET1 existed in nucleus and cytoplasm in ovarian cancer tissues. And the expression of nuclear TET1 was positively correlated with residual tumor and chemotherapeutic response. Thus, TET1 expression causes resistance to cisplatin and one of the targets of TET1 action is vimentin in ovarian cancer. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  6. Familial Colorectal Cancer Type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetner, Diana Bregner; Bisgaard, Marie Luise

    2017-01-01

    cases. FCCTX differs in clinical, morphological and molecular genetic characteristics compared to LS, including a later age of onset, distal location of tumours in the colon, lower risk of developing extracolonic tumours and a higher adenoma/carcinoma ratio, which indicates a slower progression to CRC......The genetic background is unknown for the 50-60% of the HNPCC families, who fulfill the Amsterdam criteria, but do not have a mutation in an MMR gene, and is referred to as FCCTX. This study reviews the clinical, morphological and molecular characteristics of FCCTX, and discusses the molecular....... Certain characteristics are shared with sporadic CRC, e.g. similarities in gene expression and a high degree of CIN+, with significanly increased 20q gain in FCCTX. Other molecular characteristics of FCCTX include longer telomere length and hypomethylation of LINE-1, both being a possible explanation...

  7. Innovative Program Aims to Improve Support for Cancer Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family caregivers provide the vast majority of care for people with cancer. The Family Caregiver Project at the City of Hope Cancer Center is an educational program intended to provide health professionals with the tools and information needed to help family caregivers care for themselves and their loved ones with cancer.

  8. Proposed Organization of Family Cancer Clinics in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunta Setiaji

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Around 10-15% of breast cancers are associated hereditary and/or familial predisposition. By definition familial breast occurs in two or more first degree relatives within a nuclear pedigree (first or second degree relatives. Hereditary and familial cancer displays different characteristics in the pathological features, clinical course, response to treatment, and outcomes. Therefore, specific consultation and treatment need to be addressed to patients with hereditary or familial predisposition for example the need for rigorous surveillance and preventive treatment including options for preventive surgery. Cancer clinical genetic service is not yet formally available in daily clinical practice in Indonesia. Surgeons usually become the first medical specialist to see cancer patients with familial predisposition, therefore they have to elaborate clinical cancer genetic service under Family Cancer Clinic (FCC. Clinical genetic service within FCC consists of several step-wise tasks including assessment of personal and family history of cancer, personalized cancer risk assessment, review of medical and family history, individual cancer screening and surveillance recommendations, genetic testing if necessary, discussion of benefits and limitations of genetic test, cancer risk reduction options and preventive strategies, and opportunity to participate in research as well as clinical trial. Nation-wide network for FCC is of importance to share knowledge and skill to perform cancer genetic service. Ability to perform genetic test including the interpretation in Indonesia has also been required. Keywords: familial cancer, hereditary cancer, genetic counseling, family cancer clinics

  9. Cysteine transporter SLC3A1 promotes breast cancer tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Wang, Yongbin; Li, Wei; Liu, Xinyi; Lv, Yixuan; Li, Xiaoling; Mi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Cysteine is an essential amino acid for infants, aged people as well as patients with metabolic disorders. Although the thiol group of cysteine side chain is active in oxidative reactions, the role of cysteine in cancer remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the expression level of the solute carrier family 3, member 1 (SLC3A1), the cysteine carrier, tightly correlated with clinical stages and patients' survival. Elevated SLC3A1 expression accelerated the cysteine uptake and the accumulation of reductive glutathione (GSH), leading to reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS increased the stability and activity of PP2Ac, resulting in decreased AKT activity. Hence, SLC3A1 activated the AKT signaling through inhibiting PP2A phosphatase activity. Consistently, overexpression of SLC3A1 enhanced tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells, whereas blocking SLC3A1 either with specific siRNA or SLC3A1 specific inhibitor sulfasalazine suppressed tumor growth and also abolished dietary NAC-promoted tumor growth. Collectively, our data demonstrate that SLC3A1 promotes cysteine uptake and determines cellular response to antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, suggesting SLC3A1 is a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer.

  10. Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Triple negative cancers are a type of breast cancer that lack estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Guidelines Version 2.2014 Genetics/Familial ...

  11. PROMOTING TRADITIONAL FAMILY BY THE CHURCH – RELIGIOUS MARKETING STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian GAVRA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We live in a postmodern period where the old values or imperatives have lost the force as they were replaced by new values. Amidst this chaos, the Church opens its road by promoting values such as family and marriage based upon responsibility, understanding, compromise, etc. If the current trends move towards the personal satisfaction with everything this aspect involves, the Church is trying to preserve the traditionalism, the union between a man and a woman, the marriage. In our work we aim to analyze the methods by which the Orthodox Church promotes the heterosexual marriage.

  12. Targeting Hyaluronic Acid Family for Cancer Chemoprevention and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokeshwar, Vinata B.; Mirza, Summan; Jordan, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid or hyaluronan (HA) is perhaps one of the most uncomplicated large polymers that regulates several normal physiological processes and, at the same time, contributes to the manifestation of a variety of chronic and acute diseases, including cancer. Members of the HA signaling pathway (HA synthases, HA receptors, and HYAL-1 hyaluronidase) have been experimentally shown to promote tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis, and hence each of them is a potential target for cancer therapy. Furthermore, as these members are also overexpressed in a variety of carcinomas, targeting of the HA family is clinically relevant. A variety of targeted approaches have been developed to target various HA family members, including small-molecule inhibitors and antibody and vaccine therapies. These treatment approaches inhibit HA-mediated intracellular signaling that promotes tumor cell proliferation, motility, and invasion, as well as induction of endothelial cell functions. Being nontoxic, nonimmunogenic, and versatile for modifications, HA has been used in nanoparticle preparations for the targeted delivery of chemotherapy drugs and other anticancer compounds to tumor cells through interaction with cell-surface HA receptors. This review discusses basic and clinical translational aspects of targeting each HA family member and respective treatment approaches that have been described in the literature. PMID:25081525

  13. Family Rituals and Quality of Life in Children With Cancer and Their Parents: The Role of Family Cohesion and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Carla; Canavarro, M. Cristina; Kazak, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Family rituals are associated with adaptive functioning in pediatric illness, including quality of life (QoL). This article explores the role of family cohesion and hope as mediators of this association in children with cancer and their parents. Methods Portuguese children with cancer (N = 389), on- and off-treatment, and one of their parents completed self-report measures. Structural equation modeling was used to examine direct and indirect links between family rituals and QoL. Results When children and parents reported higher levels of family rituals, they also reported more family cohesion and hope, which were linked to better QoL. At the dyadic level, children’s QoL was related to parents’ family rituals through the child’s family cohesion. This model was valid across child’s age-group, treatment status, and socioeconomic status. Conclusions Family rituals are important in promoting QoL in pediatric cancer via family cohesion and hope individually and via family cohesion in terms of parent–child interactions. PMID:25775914

  14. Family Rituals and Quality of Life in Children With Cancer and Their Parents: The Role of Family Cohesion and Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Crespo, Carla; Canavarro, M Cristina; Kazak, Anne E

    2015-08-01

    Family rituals are associated with adaptive functioning in pediatric illness, including quality of life (QoL). This article explores the role of family cohesion and hope as mediators of this association in children with cancer and their parents. Portuguese children with cancer (N = 389), on- and off-treatment, and one of their parents completed self-report measures. Structural equation modeling was used to examine direct and indirect links between family rituals and QoL. When children and parents reported higher levels of family rituals, they also reported more family cohesion and hope, which were linked to better QoL. At the dyadic level, children's QoL was related to parents' family rituals through the child's family cohesion. This model was valid across child's age-group, treatment status, and socioeconomic status. Family rituals are important in promoting QoL in pediatric cancer via family cohesion and hope individually and via family cohesion in terms of parent-child interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. On the efficiency of multiple media family planning promotion campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the result of a study conducted by Miriam N. Jato on the impact of multimedia family planning communication campaigns on contraceptive use. The study was conducted in Tanzania, where a government program integrated family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988, while in 1992 a private-sector condom-marketing program begun and a national population policy for wider distribution of family planning information was adopted by the government. In less than 3 years, contraceptive use was found to have doubled to a level of 11.3% and the total fertility rate declined from an average of 6.3 to 5.8 live births. The result of the study indicates that exposure to media sources of family planning messages was directly associated with increased contraceptive use. Moreover, the use of modern methods increased among women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources, as did discussion of family planning with spouses and attendance of health facilities. The programmatic implications of the results confirm that utilization of multiple media channels in the promotion of family planning and other reproductive issues must be continued, with emphasis on media sources that reach large audiences.

  16. Family Caregivers for Cancer Patients in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warunee Meecharoen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This integrative review was conducted to describe findings from Thai studies concerning family caregivers for cancer patients. Twenty-three studies that were published from 1994 to 2009 were considered. There were 15 quantitative studies and 8 qualitative studies. The stress and coping model developed by Lazarus and Folkman was the most popular theory that was used to guide the studies. The variables that were explored in the quantitative studies consisted of social support, stress, coping, caregiver burden, quality of life (QOL, and others. The qualitative findings revealed that there were several themes such as the following: the meaning of being family caregivers for cancer patients, the meaning of care, the experiences of caregivers, and the problems and needs of family caregivers in the Thai context. The evidence from the 23 studies reviewed showed that the state of knowledge of cancer caregivers in the Thai context is at an early stage compared with the state of knowledge in Western countries. More research needs to be done to explore the concepts related to negative and positive outcomes of caregiving.

  17. The influence of family management style on psychosocial problems of childhood cancer survivors in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hee; Im, Yeo Jin

    2015-04-01

    To examine the psychosocial problems of childhood cancer survivors in Korea and investigate whether such problems are influenced by family management style. Family members of 158 childhood cancer survivors answered a questionnaire on demographic and illness characteristics, described psychosocial problems in their children using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC), and completed the Family Management Measure (FaMM). Perceived economic status and all six subscales of the FaMM were significantly correlated with children's psychosocial problems. In a multiple regression model, the Family Life Difficulty and Parental Mutuality scales of the FaMM were each independent predictors of psychosocial problems in young cancer survivors. A detailed care plan designed to (1) promote balance between the management of a child's condition and normal family life and (2) encourage parents to share their feelings with one another and provide mutual support should be required to improve psychosocial outcomes for childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. YAP enhances autophagic flux to promote breast cancer cell survival in response to nutrient deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghe Song

    Full Text Available The Yes-associated protein (YAP, a transcriptional coactivator inactivated by the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, functions as an oncoprotein in a variety of cancers. However, its contribution to breast cancer remains controversial. This study investigated the role of YAP in breast cancer cells under nutrient deprivation (ND. Here, we show that YAP knockdown sensitized MCF7 breast cancer cells to nutrient deprivation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, in response to ND, YAP increased the autolysosome degradation, thereby enhancing the cellular autophagic flux in breast cancer cells. Of note, autophagy is crucial for YAP to protect MCF7 cells from apoptosis under ND conditions. In addition, the TEA domain (TEAD family of growth-promoting transcription factors was indispensable for YAP-mediated regulation of autophagy. Collectively, our data reveal a role for YAP in promoting breast cancer cell survival upon ND stress and uncover an unappreciated function of YAP/TEAD in the regulation of autophagy.

  19. Endogenous retroviral promoter exaptation in human cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Babaian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer arises from a series of genetic and epigenetic changes, which result in abnormal expression or mutational activation of oncogenes, as well as suppression/inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Aberrant expression of coding genes or long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs with oncogenic properties can be caused by translocations, gene amplifications, point mutations or other less characterized mechanisms. One such mechanism is the inappropriate usage of normally dormant, tissue-restricted or cryptic enhancers or promoters that serve to drive oncogenic gene expression. Dispersed across the human genome, endogenous retroviruses (ERVs provide an enormous reservoir of autonomous gene regulatory modules, some of which have been co-opted by the host during evolution to play important roles in normal regulation of genes and gene networks. This review focuses on the “dark side” of such ERV regulatory capacity. Specifically, we discuss a growing number of examples of normally dormant or epigenetically repressed ERVs that have been harnessed to drive oncogenes in human cancer, a process we term onco-exaptation, and we propose potential mechanisms that may underlie this phenomenon.

  20. Unique Features of Germline Variation in Five Egyptian Familial Breast Cancer Families Revealed by Exome Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong C Kim

    Full Text Available Genetic predisposition increases the risk of familial breast cancer. Recent studies indicate that genetic predisposition for familial breast cancer can be ethnic-specific. However, current knowledge of genetic predisposition for the disease is predominantly derived from Western populations. Using this existing information as the sole reference to judge the predisposition in non-Western populations is not adequate and can potentially lead to misdiagnosis. Efforts are required to collect genetic predisposition from non-Western populations. The Egyptian population has high genetic variations in reflecting its divergent ethnic origins, and incident rate of familial breast cancer in Egypt is also higher than the rate in many other populations. Using whole exome sequencing, we investigated genetic predisposition in five Egyptian familial breast cancer families. No pathogenic variants in BRCA1, BRCA2 and other classical breast cancer-predisposition genes were present in these five families. Comparison of the genetic variants with those in Caucasian familial breast cancer showed that variants in the Egyptian families were more variable and heterogeneous than the variants in Caucasian families. Multiple damaging variants in genes of different functional categories were identified either in a single family or shared between families. Our study demonstrates that genetic predisposition in Egyptian breast cancer families may differ from those in other disease populations, and supports a comprehensive screening of local disease families to determine the genetic predisposition in Egyptian familial breast cancer.

  1. Causal relationship between health promoting behavior and quality of life in cervical cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taechaboonsermsak, Pimsurang; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Fungladda, Wijitr; Wilailak, Sarigapan

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the causal relationships among age, education, family income, and stage of carcinoma, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy, health promoting behavior and quality of life in patients with cervical cancer. Pender's Health Promotion Model (1996) provided a guide for the conceptual framework of this study. Purposive sampling was employed to recruit 488 cervical cancer patients who were undergoing radiotherapy at seven public hospitals in five areas of Thailand. The instruments used in this study included a Personal Data Form, Cognitive perception Form, Health promoting behavior scale, the social support questionnaire and The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy General (FACT-G) form. The proposed model was tested and modified by the LISREL Program. The modified model adequately fitted with the data. The results demonstrate that health promoting behavior had a significant direct positive effect on quality of life (beta = 0.71, p health promoting behaviors (P = 0.69, p health promoting behavior (beta = 0.70, p health promoting behavior tended to have a higher quality of life. The findings indicate that Pender's Health Promotion Model is a useful guide for explaining and predicting the health promoting behavior and the quality of life of Thai cervical cancer patients who were undergoing radiotherapy. The significance of cognitive perceptual factors and social support confirm health promoting behavior as a goal directed towards the level of well being. This has implications for health care systems in planning interventions to promote health promoting behavior in a health promotion setting in cervical cancer patients for a better quality of life and healthy. A longitudinal study and experimental study are recommended for further study.

  2. Relationships between family resilience and posttraumatic growth in breast cancer survivors and caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Li, Yuli; Chen, Lijun; Li, Yurong; Qi, Weiye; Yu, Li

    2018-04-01

    To examine the relationships between family resilience and posttraumatic growth (PTG) of breast cancer survivors and caregiver burden among principal caregivers in China. Participants in this cross-sectional study comprised 108 women aged 26 to 74 years (M = 49, SD = 9) with early-stage breast cancer and 108 principal caregivers. Participants were recruited from a comprehensive cancer center of a public hospital in Shandong Province, China. The principal caregivers completed the Shortened Chinese Version of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale and the Chinese Version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview; patients completed the Short Form of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and questions designed to obtain sociodemographic information. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to assess the adjusted association between family resilience and PTG and caregiver burden, while controlling for sociodemographics. Families showed a slightly elevated level of family resilience since the cancer experience, and patients showed a moderate degree of PTG. Principal caregivers reported moderate burden. The Shortened Chinese Version of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale total score was positively related to the Short Form of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory total score (β = .28, P resilience impacts PTG of breast cancer survivors and caregiver burden. Our findings indicated the necessity of interventions to facilitate family resilience, promote PTG among breast cancer survivors, and decrease family members' caregiver burden. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The KinFact intervention - a randomized controlled trial to increase family communication about cancer history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodurtha, Joann N; McClish, Donna; Gyure, Maria; Corona, Rosalie; Krist, Alexander H; Rodríguez, Vivian M; Maibauer, Alisa M; Borzelleca, Joseph; Bowen, Deborah J; Quillin, John M

    2014-10-01

    Knowing family history is important for understanding cancer risk, yet communication within families is suboptimal. Providing strategies to enhance communication may be useful. Four hundred ninety women were recruited from urban, safety-net, hospital-based primary care women's health clinics. Participants were randomized to receive the KinFact intervention or the control handout on lowering risks for breast/colon cancer and screening recommendations. Cancer family history was reviewed with all participants. The 20-minute KinFact intervention, based in communication and behavior theory, included reviewing individualized breast/colon cancer risks and an interactive presentation about cancer and communication. Study outcomes included whether participants reported collecting family history, shared cancer risk information with relatives, and the frequency of communication with relatives. Data were collected at baseline, 1, 6, and 14 months. Overall, intervention participants were significantly more likely to gather family cancer information at follow-up (odds ratio [OR]: 2.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.01, 3.71) and to share familial cancer information with relatives (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.48). Communication frequency (1=not at all; 4=a lot) was significantly increased at follow-up (1.67 vs. 1.54). Differences were not modified by age, race, education, or family history. However, effects were modified by pregnancy status and genetic literacy. Intervention effects for information gathering and frequency were observed for nonpregnant women but not for pregnant women. Additionally, intervention effects were observed for information gathering in women with high genetic literacy, but not in women with low genetic literacy. The KinFact intervention successfully promoted family communication about cancer risk. Educating women to enhance their communication skills surrounding family history may allow them to partner more effectively with their families and ultimately

  4. APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases in double-strand DNA break repair and cancer promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowarski, Roni; Kotler, Moshe

    2013-06-15

    High frequency of cytidine to thymidine conversions was identified in the genome of several types of cancer cells. In breast cancer cells, these mutations are clustered in long DNA regions associated with single-strand DNA (ssDNA), double-strand DNA breaks (DSB), and genomic rearrangements. The observed mutational pattern resembles the deamination signature of cytidine to uridine carried out by members of the APOBEC3 family of cellular deaminases. Consistently, APOBEC3B (A3B) was recently identified as the mutational source in breast cancer cells. A3G is another member of the cytidine deaminases family predominantly expressed in lymphoma cells, where it is involved in mutational DSB repair following ionizing radiation treatments. This activity provides us with a new paradigm for cancer cell survival and tumor promotion and a mechanistic link between ssDNA, DSBs, and clustered mutations. Cancer Res; 73(12); 3494-8. ©2013 AACR. ©2013 AACR.

  5. Cancer prevention and health promotion for people with intellectual disabilities: an exploratory study of staff knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, L M; Taggart, L; Cousins, W

    2011-03-01

    As people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are living longer, their chances of developing cancer also increases. However, recognising the early signs and symptoms of cancer in a population with cognitive impairment and communication difficulties poses difficulties for both family carers and professional care staff. Engagement in health promotion and cancer prevention activities is also a challenge; yet, people with ID have an equal right to these important public services as other members of the population. The aim of this study was to examine how care staff engaged in cancer prevention and health promotion activities on behalf of people with ID. This was an exploratory descriptive study using a postal survey design employing a questionnaire. Fifteen residential facilities for adults with ID were targeted within one geographic region of the UK. In total, 40 residential staff completed a questionnaire about their knowledge of the risk and protective factors of stomach, breast, cervical and testicular cancer. Staff then completed questionnaires regarding 90 adults with ID, recording details about body mass index (BMI), lifestyle choices (i.e. smoking, dietary intake), Helicobacter pylori testing, family history of cancer and staff's health promotion and cancer prevention activities with these individuals. The women with ID were reported to have significantly higher BMIs than the men with ID and only two people with ID had been tested for the H. pylori infection: potential risk factors for developing breast and stomach cancer, respectively. The majority of the staff reported that they did not receive training in cancer prevention. Likewise, the majority of the staff reported that they were unaware of the family histories of the people with ID in their care. Reports varied with how staff engaged with people with ID regarding stomach, breast, cervical and testicular cancer health promotion activities and cancer screening opportunities. Findings of this study show

  6. Can unknown predisposition in familial breast cancer be family-specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Henry; Wen, Hongxiu; Kim, Yeong C; Snyder, Carrie; Kinarsky, Yulia; Chen, Pei Xian; Xiao, Fengxia; Goldgar, David; Cowan, Kenneth H; Wang, San Ming

    2013-01-01

    Genetic predisposition plays a key role in the development of familial breast cancer. In spite of strong familial clustering of the disease and extensive efforts made during the past decade; however, progress has been slow in identifying genetic predisposition for the majority of familial breast cancer families. The question arises therefore as to whether current approaches are adequate in identifying the unknown genetic predisposition. We analyzed eight members of a BRCA1-, BRCA2-, p53-, and PTEN-negative breast cancer family, of which five had breast cancer, one is an obligate gene carrier, and two were unaffected. We sequenced the entire coding region of the genome for each member using exome sequencing to identify nonsynonymous variants. We identified 55 nonsynonymous germline variants affecting 49 genes in multiple members of the family, of which 22 are predicted to have damaging effects. We validated 20 of the 22 selected variants in the family by Sanger sequencing. Two variants in KAT6B, an acetal transferase gene, were identified in six family members of which five were affected with breast cancer and one is the unaffected obligate carrier. We further examined the presence of the identified variants in a cohort of 40 additional breast cancer cases from 22 familial breast cancer families, but none of the 22 variants was detected in these cases. Sequencing the entire coding exons in KAT6B detects no variants in these cases. Our results show that genetic predisposition for familial breast cancer can be rich in an affected family, but the predisposition can be family-specific. As such, it will be difficult to detect them by applying population-based approach. Our study supports the concept that focusing on each affected family will be required to determine the genetic predisposition for many familial breast cancer families whose genetic dispositions remain unknown. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The role of social support, family identification, and family constraints in predicting posttraumatic stress after cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzman, Samantha; Sani, Fabio; Munro, Alastair J

    2017-09-01

    We compared social support with other potential psychosocial predictors of posttraumatic stress after cancer. These included family identification, or a sense of belonging to and commonality with family members, and family constraints, or the extent to which family members are closed, judgmental, or unreceptive in conversations about cancer. We also tested the hypothesis that family constraints mediate the relationship between family identification and cancer-related posttraumatic stress. We used a cross-sectional design. Surveys were collected from 205 colorectal cancer survivors in Tayside, Scotland. Both family identification and family constraints were stronger independent predictors of posttraumatic stress than social support. In multivariate analyses, social support was not a significant independent predictor of posttraumatic stress. In addition, there was a significant indirect effect of family identification on posttraumatic stress through family constraints. Numerous studies demonstrate a link between social support and posttraumatic stress. However, experiences within the family may be more important in predicting posttraumatic stress after cancer. Furthermore, a sense of belonging to and commonality with the family may reduce the extent to which cancer survivors experience constraints on conversations about cancer; this may, in turn, reduce posttraumatic stress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Accuracy of family history of cancer : clinical genetic implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijmons, RH; Boonstra, AE; Reefhuis, J; Hordijk-Hos, JM; de Walle, HEK; Oosterwijk, JC; Cornel, MC

    Family medical history is the cornerstone of clinical genetic diagnosis and management in cases of familial cancer. The soundness of medical decisions can be compromised if reports by the family on affected relatives are inaccurate. Although very time consuming, family medical histories are

  9. Economic impact of advanced pediatric cancer on families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Kira; Dussel, Veronica; Orellana, Liliana; Kang, Tammy; Geyer, Russ; Feudtner, Chris; Wolfe, Joanne

    2014-03-01

    Despite emerging evidence of substantial financial distress in families of children with complex illness, little is known about economic hardship in families of children with advanced cancer. To describe perceived financial hardship, work disruptions, income losses, and associated economic impact in families of children with advanced cancer stratified by federal poverty level (FPL). Cross-sectional survey of 86 parents of children with progressive, recurrent, or nonresponsive cancer at three children's hospitals. Seventy-one families with complete income data (82%) are included in this analysis. Parental work disruptions were prevalent across all income levels, with 67 (94%) families reporting some disruption. At least one parent quit a job because of the child's illness in 29 (42%) families. Nineteen (27%) families described their child's illness as a great economic hardship. Income losses because of work disruptions were substantial for all families; families at or below 200% FPL, however, were disproportionately affected. Six (50%) of the poorest families lost more than 40% of their annual income as compared with two (5%) of the wealthiest families (P = 0.006). As a result of income losses, nine (15%) previously nonpoor families fell from above to below 200% FPL. The economic impact of pediatric advanced cancer on families is significant at all income levels, although poorer families suffer disproportionate losses. Development of ameliorative intervention strategies is warranted. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical application of family management styles to families of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Susan K

    2006-01-01

    The potential clinical application of family management styles for working with families who have children with cancer is discussed. Case studies are used to illustrate the usefulness and clinical application of the model.

  11. Promoting Exercise in Young Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In children and adolescent cancer survivors, an online game helped them get regular exercise, as this NCI Cancer Currents post explains. A NCI-funded trial is testing the approach for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors.

  12. Childhood cancers in families with and without Lynch syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, John A.; Reece, Jeanette C.; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Casey, Graham; Durno, Carol A.; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Potter, John D.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Le Marchand, Loïc; Lindor, Noralane M.; Hopper, John L.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Win, Aung Ko

    2015-01-01

    Background Inheritance of a germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes or the EPCAM gene is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, and other adult malignancies (Lynch syndrome). The risk of childhood cancers in Lynch syndrome families, however, is not well studied. Materials and Methods Using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry, we compared the proportion of childhood cancers (diagnosed before 18 years of age) in the first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of 781 probands with a pathogenic mutation in one of the MMR genes; MLH1 (n = 275), MSH2 (n = 342), MSH6 (n = 99), or PMS2 (n = 55) or in EPCAM (n = 10) (Lynch syndrome families), with that of 5073 probands with MMR-proficient colorectal cancer (non-Lynch syndrome families). Results There was no evidence of a difference in the proportion of relatives with a childhood cancer between Lynch syndrome families (41/17,230; 0.24 %) and non-Lynch syndrome families (179/94,302; 0.19 %; p = 0.19). Incidence rate of all childhood cancers was estimated to be 147 (95 % CI 107–206) per million population per year in Lynch syndrome families and 115 (95 % CI 99.1–134) per million population per year in non-Lynch syndrome families. There was no evidence for a substantial increase in the risk of all childhood cancers, hematologic cancers, brain and central nervous system cancers, Lynch syndrome-associated cancers, or other cancers in Lynch syndrome families compared with non-Lynch syndrome families. Larger studies, however, are required to more accurately define the risk of specific individual childhood cancers in Lynch syndrome families. Conclusion The risk of childhood cancers does not appear to be significantly increased in Lynch syndrome families compared with non-Lynch syndrome families. Larger studies, however, are required to more accurately define the risk of specific individual childhood cancers in Lynch syndrome families. PMID:25963852

  13. Promotion of Civic Engagement with the Family Leadership Training Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, David; Forlenza, Eileen; Christensen, Kyle; Prendergast, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    In this efficacy study, both quantitative and qualitative data were used to gauge the effects of the Family Leadership Training Institute (FLTI) on civic knowledge and empowerment, civic engagement, and community health. The sample of 847 FLTI participants and 166 comparison adults completed pretest and posttest surveys. Medium to very large short-term effects were observed in civic literacy, empowerment, and engagement. Results mapping interviews were conducted with a stratified random sample of FLTI graduates (n = 52) to assess long-term (M = 2.73 years) program impact. Most FLTI graduates (86%) sustained meaningful, sometimes transformative, levels of civic engagement after program completion. This engagement involved multiple forms of leadership, most often advocacy, program implementation, and media campaigns; 63% of graduates directed at least some of their activities to marginalized populations. Content analyses of graduates' civic (capstone) projects and results mapping story maps indicated that 81-90% of community activities aligned with public health priorities. Thus, one promising means to promote community health is to empower families to develop leadership skills, become engaged in civic life, and forge connections with diverse constituents. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  14. Family Adjustment to Childhood Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kristin A.; Marsland, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review integrates qualitative and quantitative research findings regarding family changes in the context of childhood cancer. Twenty-eight quantitative, 42 qualitative, and one mixed-method studies were reviewed. Included studies focused on family functioning, marital quality, and/or parenting in the context of pediatric cancer,…

  15. Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: Implications for Family Leisure Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radina, M. Elise

    2009-01-01

    An estimated 20% of breast cancer survivors face the chronic condition of breast cancer-related lymphedema. This study explored the ways in which women with this condition experienced changes in their participation in family leisure as one indicator of family functioning. Participants (N = 27) were interviewed regarding lifestyles before and after…

  16. Support for Teens When a Family Member has Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a parent, brother, or sister has been diagnosed with cancer, family members need extra support. Information to help teens learn how to cope, talk with family members, manage stress, and get support from counselors when a loved one has been diagnosed with, or is being treated for, cancer.

  17. Aberrant Promoter Hypermethylation of RASSF Family Members in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Antje M.; Haag, Tanja; Walesch, Sara [Institute for Genetics, University of Giessen, Giessen D-35392 (Germany); Herrmann-Trost, Peter [Institute of Pathology, Halle D-06097 (Germany); Marsch, Wolfgang C. [Department of Dermatology, University of Halle, Halle D-06120 (Germany); Kutzner, Heinz [DermPath, Friedrichshafen D-88048 (Germany); Helmbold, Peter [Department of Dermatology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg D-69120 (Germany); Dammann, Reinhard H., E-mail: Reinhard.Dammann@gen.bio.uni-giessen.de [Institute for Genetics, University of Giessen, Giessen D-35392 (Germany)

    2013-11-18

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is one of the most aggressive cancers of the skin. RASSFs are a family of tumor suppressors that are frequently inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in various cancers. We studied CpG island promoter hypermethylation in MCC of RASSF2, RASSF5A, RASSF5C and RASSF10 by combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) in MCC samples and control tissue. We found RASSF2 to be methylated in three out of 43 (7%), RASSF5A in 17 out of 39 (44%, but also 43% in normal tissue), RASSF5C in two out of 26 (8%) and RASSF10 in 19 out of 84 (23%) of the cancer samples. No correlation between the methylation status of the analyzed RASSFs or between RASSF methylation and MCC characteristics (primary versus metastatic, Merkel cell polyoma virus infection, age, sex) was found. Our results show that RASSF2, RASSF5C and RASSF10 are aberrantly hypermethylated in MCC to a varying degree and this might contribute to Merkel cell carcinogenesis.

  18. Family Relationships and Psychosocial Dysfunction among Family Caregivers of Patients with Advanced Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Kathrine Grovn; Trevino, Kelly; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Caring for a family member with advanced cancer strains family caregivers. Classification of family types has been shown to identify patients at risk of poor psychosocial function. However, little is known about how family relationships affect caregiver psychosocial function. OBJECTIVES...... Study) were analyzed using Gaussian Mixture Modeling as the primary method to identify family types based on the Family Relationship Index questionnaire. We then examined the relationship between family type and caregiver quality of life (Medical Outcome Survey Short Form), social support (Interpersonal...... of quality of life and perceived social support in comparison to supportive family types. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified supportive, low-expressive, and detached family types among caregivers of advanced cancer patients. The supportive family type was associated with the best outcomes and detached...

  19. Benefits of Attending a Weekend Childhood Cancer Survivor Family Retreat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashore, Lisa; Bender, Joyce

    2017-09-01

    To explore the long-term benefits to families of childhood cancer survivors who attended a weekend childhood cancer survivor family retreat. Descriptive-qualitative study including families who had attended the weekend retreat at least once but not in the past 12 months, and who attend a large pediatric hematology and oncology cancer survivorship program in Texas. A semistructured interview guide was used during three audio-taped focus groups to explore the benefits of having attended a weekend retreat. Descriptive qualitative analysis was used to analyze the focus groups' transcripts. Seven families participated in the focus groups, and the themes identified were reconnecting (with others or family), putting life in perspective, and changing outlook on life. Retreats offer families of cancer survivors opportunities to reconnect with others and their own family members in a therapeutic environment. These reconnections in a therapeutic environment enriched the families' positive outlooks on life and changed their perspectives. Families of childhood cancer survivors report a lack of support following the completion of therapy. Retreats in a nonclinical therapeutic setting optimize family-perceived support, relationship building, and reconnecting survivor families. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms at Familial Bladder Cancer: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Ceylan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is the seventh most common cancer in men in the world, it is the second most seen cancer after lung cancer and the first in urogenital tumours in Turkey. Many molecular epidemiologic studies have been reported to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. In this report, a family with transitional bladder cancer have also MTHFR A1298C heterozygosity which supports the association between MTHFR variants and bladder cancer. This %uFB01nding should be further validated by prospective and larger studies with more diverse ethnic groups.

  1. The Needs of Family Members of Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    8217 t .. I , University of Washington Abstract THE NEEDS OF FAMILY MEMBERS OF CANCER PATIENTS by Jaime Sue Iversen Chairperson of the Supervisory... THE NEEDS OF FAMILY MEMBERS OF CANCER PATIENTS by Jaime Sue Iversen A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of...any means shall not be allowed without my written permission. Signature Date I- University of Washington Abstract THE NEEDS OF FAMILY MEMBERS OF

  2. The updated Swedish family-cancer database used to assess familial risks of prostate cancer during rapidly increasing incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemminki Kari

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Swedish Family-Cancer Database has been used for some 10 years in the study of familial risks at all common sites. In the present paper we describe some of the main features of version VII of this Database, assembled in year 2006. This update included all residents in Sweden born or immigrated in 1932 and later (offspring with their biological parents, a total of 11.5 million individuals. Cancer cases were retrieved from the Swedish Cancer Registry from years 1958 to 2004, including over 1.2 million first and multiple primary cancers and in situ tumours. We show one application of the Database in the study of familial risks in prostate cancer, with special reference to the modification of familial risk at the time of about 50% increase in incidence due to prostate specific antigen (PSA screening. The familial risks for prostate cancer were 1.92 for sons of affected fathers, 3.03 for brothers and 5.44 for men with an affected father and an affected brother. Familial risk for prostate cancer according to the time since the first family member was diagnosed showed significant increases for two family members being diagnosed in the same year compared to 5+ years apart. Increased surveillance and the availability of PSA screening are the likely reasons for the overestimated familial relative risk shortly after the first diagnosis. This lead time bias should be considered in clinical counselling.

  3. Auramine O, an incense smoke ingredient, promotes lung cancer malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Jia-Chen; Huang, Wei-Chien; Yang, Juan-Cheng; Chen, Guan-Yu; Fan, Chi-Chen; Chien, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Pei-Shan; Candice Lung, Shih-Chun; Chang, Wei-Chao

    2017-11-01

    Burning incense to worship deities is a popular religious ritual in large parts of Asia, and is a popular custom affecting more than 1.5 billion adherents. Due to incomplete combustion, burning incense has been well recognized to generate airborne hazards to human health. However, the correlation between burning incense and lung cancer in epidemiological studies remains controversy. Therefore, we speculated that some unknown materials in incense smoke are involved in the initiation or progression of lung cancer. Based on this hypothesis, we identified a major compound auramine O (AuO) from the water-soluble fraction of incense burned condensate using mass spectrometry. AuO is commonly used in incense manufacture as a colorant. Due to thermostable, AuO released from burned incenses becomes an unexpected air pollutant. AuO is classified as a Group 2B chemical by the International Agency of Research on Cancer (IARC), however, the damage of AuO to the respiratory system remains elusive. Our study revealed that AuO has no apparent effect on malignant transformation; but, it dramatically promotes lung cancer malignancy. AuO accumulates in the nucleus and induces the autophagy activity in lung tumor cells. AuO significantly enhances migration and invasive abilities and the in vitro and in vivo stemness features of lung tumor cells through activating the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A1 (ALDH1A1), and ALDH1A1 knockdown attenuates AuO-induced autophagy activity and blocks AuO-induced lung tumor malignancy. In conclusion, we found that AuO, an ingredient of incense smoke, significantly increases the metastatic abilities and stemness characters of lung tumor cells through the activation of ALDH1A1, which is known to be associated with poor outcome and progression of lung cancer. For public health, reducing or avoiding the use of AuO in incense is recommended. © 2017 The Authors Environmental Toxicology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Family History of Cancer in Relation to Breast Cancer Subtypes in African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, Traci N; Rosenberg, Lynn; Castro-Webb, Nelsy; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Charlot, Marjory; Park, Song-Yi; Bandera, Elisa V; Troester, Melissa A; Ambrosone, Christine B; Palmer, Julie R

    2016-02-01

    The evidence on the relation of family history of cancers other than breast cancer to breast cancer risk is conflicting, and most studies have not assessed specific breast cancer subtypes. We assessed the relation of first-degree family history of breast, prostate, lung, colorectal, ovarian, and cervical cancer and lymphoma or leukemia, to the risk of estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)), ER(-), and triple-negative breast cancer in data from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Consortium. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were 3,023 ER(+) and 1,497 ER(-) breast cancer cases (including 696 triple-negative cases) and 17,420 controls. First-degree family history of breast cancer was associated with increased risk of each subtype: OR = 1.76 (95% CI, 1.57-1.97) for ER(+), 1.67 (1.42-1.95) for ER(-), and 1.72 (1.38-2.13) for triple-negative breast cancer. Family history of cervical cancer was associated with increased risk of ER(-) (OR = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.36-4.20), but not ER(+) cancer. Family history of both breast and prostate cancer was associated with increased risk of ER(+) (3.40; 2.42-4.79) and ER(-) (2.09; 1.21-3.63) cancer, but family history of both breast and lung cancer was associated only with ER(-) cancer (2.11; 1.29-3.46). A family history of cancers other than breast may influence the risk of breast cancer, and associations may differ by subtype. Greater surveillance and counseling for additional screening may be warranted for women with a family history of cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Relationship between individual and family characteristics and psychosocial factors in persons with familial pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Meghan; Hong, Fangxin; Lawrence, Janette; Blonquist, Traci; Syngal, Sapna

    2018-03-23

    Describe relationships between self-reported personal demographics or familial characteristics and psychosocial outcomes (PROMIS® Global Health, Impact of Event Scale-R (pancreatic cancer risk related distress), cancer risk perception, and cancer worry) in participants with inherited or familial pancreatic cancer risk. A multi-site cross-sectional survey of adults with elevated pancreatic cancer risk based on family history. All variables were summarized with descriptive statistics. T-test, Chi-Square/Fisher's exact test were used to assess univariate associations and backward model selection was used in multivariable analysis. Respondents (N=132) reported moderate to high frequency of cancer worry and 59.3% perceived a 50% or more perceived lifetime risk for pancreatic cancer, which far exceeds objective risk estimates. Cancer worry was associated with female gender (p=0.03) and pancreatic cancer risk specific distress (p=0.05). Higher risk perception was associated with having a high-school education or less (p=0.001), higher distress (p=0.02) and cancer worry (p=0.008) and family cancer death experience (p=0.02). Higher distress was associated with experience as a caregiver to a seriously ill family member in the past 5 years (p=0.006). Individuals with inherited or familial pancreatic cancer risk experience cancer worry, distress, and have increased risk perception, particularly in the period following caring for a loved one with cancer. Routine evaluation of distress in this setting, as well as the development of supportive care resources, will help support patients living with risk for pancreatic cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Developing a culturally responsive breast cancer screening promotion with Native Hawaiian women in churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue

    2008-08-01

    This article presents findings from research to develop the promotional component of a breast cancer screening program for Native Hawaiian women associated with historically Hawaiian churches in medically underserved communities.The literature on adherence to health recommendations and health promotions marketing guided inquiry on screening influences. Focus groups and individual interviews patterned on the culturally familiar practice of talk story were conducted with 60 Hawaiian women recruited through religious and social organizations.Text data were analyzed with an incremental process involving content analysis and Airhihenbuwa's PEN-3 model. Key informants and senior colleagues reviewed preliminary findings to ensure accuracy of interpretation. Findings reflect collectivist values at the intersection of indigenous Hawaiian culture and religiosity. Inclusion of messages that encourage holistic health across the intergenerational continuum of extended family and fictive kin, reinforcement from spiritual leaders, and testimonials of cancer survivors and family members may facilitate Hawaiian women's screening intent.

  7. Prognostic significance of cancer family history for patients with gastric cancer: a single center experience from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowen; Cai, Hong; Yu, Lin; Huang, Hua; Long, Ziwen; Wang, Yanong

    2016-06-14

    Family history of cancer is a risk factor for gastric cancer. In this study, we investigated the prognoses of gastric cancer patients with family history of cancer. A total of 1805 gastric cancer patients who underwent curative gastrectomy from 2000 to 2008 were evaluated. The clinicopathologic parameters and prognoses of gastric cancer patients with a positive family history (PFH) of cancer were compared with those with a negative family history (NFH). Of 1805 patients, 382 (21.2%) patients had a positive family history of cancer. Positive family history of cancer correlated with younger age, more frequent alcohol and tobacco use, worse differentiation, smaller tumor size, and more frequent tumor location in the lower 1/3 of the stomach. The prognoses of patients with a positive family history of cancer were better than that of patients with a negative family history. Family history of cancer independently correlated with better prognosis after curative gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients.

  8. Cancer symptom transition periods of children and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Roberta Lynn; Degner, Lesley Faith

    2004-05-01

    Children with cancer are reported to experience many symptoms during the cancer trajectory. However, minimal qualitative research has been conducted that explores children's and families' experiences of symptoms. An understanding of the symptom trajectory, grounded in children's and families' experiences, is essential to providing comprehensive and sensitive care to children with cancer and their families. This paper reports a study designed to explore and describe the symptom course in childhood cancer as experienced by children and their families. Guided by the philosophy of interpretive interactionism, a longitudinal qualitative study was undertaken. A purposive sample of 39 families of children with cancer who resided in Western Canada participated. The children ranged in age from 4.5 to 18 years and varied in their cancer diagnoses. Multiple data collection methods included formal and informal interviewing and participant observation. Data were analysed by the constant comparative method. Development of illness narratives added to an understanding of children's and families' experiences. A substantive theory entitled 'Children's and Families' Lived Experience of Childhood Cancer Symptoms' emerged from the findings. This depicts the experience of cancer in relation to children's changing symptom trajectory. A core category of the theory, 'passage through the transition periods', shows how changing symptom experiences affected children's and families' ways of being in the world. These were reflected in six transition periods: (1) it is just the flu; (2) it is more than the flu; (3) it hits home; (4) it is nasty; (5) it is not so bad, it is pretty good; and (6) it is 'dragsville'. The changing roles and responsibilities of family members, and how the family existed in the cancer world, varied depending on the transition period through which they were passing. Transition periods not only reinforce the dynamic nature of the experience of childhood cancer but, more

  9. Strengths and resources used by Australian and Danish adult patients and their family caregivers during treatment for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coyne, Elisabeth; Dieperink, K. B.; Østergaard, Birte

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Family plays an essential role in supporting the patient with cancer, however, relatively little attention has been given to understanding the strengths and resources of the family unit across different settings and countries. This study aims to investigate the strengths and resources of ...... patients and family respond in different ways related to their family functioning. There is a need for nurses to work closely with the family to understand their strengths and resources, and tailor support and information for family to promote optimal patient outcomes....

  10. Using a family systems approach to investigate cancer risk communication within melanoma families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Julie N.; Hay, Jennifer; Kuniyuki, Alan; Asgari, Maryam M; Press, Nancy; Bowen, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The family provides an important communication nexus for information and support exchange about family cancer history, and adoption of family-wide cancer risk reduction strategies. The goals of this study were to: 1) use the family systems theory to identify characteristics of this sample of families at increased risk of developing melanoma and 2) to relate familial characteristics to the frequency and style of familial risk communication. METHODS Participants were first-degree relatives (n=313) of melanoma patients, recruited into a family web-based intervention study. We used multivariable logistic regression models to analyze the association between family functioning and family communication. RESULTS Most participants were female (60%), with an average age of 51 years. Fifty percent of participants reported that they spoke to their relatives about melanoma risk and people were more likely to speak to their female family members. Familial adaptation, cohesion, coping, and health beliefs were strongly associated with an open style of risk communication within families. None were associated with a blocked style of risk communication. Only cohesion and adaptation were associated with the amount of risk communication that occurred within families. CONCLUSIONS Overall, individuals who came from families that were more highly cohesive, adaptable, and shared strong beliefs about melanoma risk were more likely to communicate openly about melanoma. The fact that this association was not consistent across blocked communication and communication frequency highlights the multifaceted nature of this process. Future research should focus on the interplay between different facets of communication. PMID:20119933

  11. Familial breast cancer: what the radiologist needs to know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    About 10% of breast cancers are ''hereditary'', i.e. caused by a pathogenic mutation in one of the ''breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes'' (BRCA). The BRCA genes 1 and 2 identified to date follow an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. A clustering of breast cancer in a family without a documented mutation and without a recognizable inheritance pattern is usually referred to as ''familial cancer''. A distinction between hereditary and familial is difficult in the individual case because not all of the genetic mutations that cause breast cancer susceptibility are known and thus amenable to genetic testing. Women who are suspected of or documented as carrying a breast cancer susceptibility gene face a substantially increased lifetime risk of breast (and ovarian) cancer ranging from 60-80% for breast and up to 40% for ovarian cancer. In addition, the disease develops at a young age (the personal risk starts increasing at age 25; average age of diagnosis is 40). BRCA-associated breast cancers tend to exhibit histologic and histochemical evidence of aggressive biologic behavior (usually grade 3, receptor negative) with very fast growth rates. In particular BRCA1-associated breast cancer may be indistinguishable from fibroadenomas: They appear as well-defined, roundish, hypoechoic masses with smooth borders, without posterior acoustic shadowing on ultrasound, without associated microcalcifications on mammography, and with strong wash-out phenomenon on breast MRI. This article reviews the different options that exist for the prevention of familial or hereditary breast cancer and the specific difficulties that are associated with the radiological diagnosis of these cancers. Lastly, an overview is given of the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of the different imaging modalities for early diagnosis of familial and hereditary breast cancer. (orig.)

  12. Establishing a family risk assessment clinic for breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulsow, Jurgen

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting European women and the leading cause of cancer-related death. A total of 15-20% of women who develop breast cancer have a family history and 5-10% a true genetic predisposition. The identification and screening of women at increased risk may allow early detection of breast cancer and improve prognosis. We established a family risk assessment clinic in May 2005 to assess and counsel women with a family history of breast cancer, to initiate surveillance, and to offer risk-reducing strategies for selected high-risk patients. Patients at medium or high risk of developing breast cancer according to NICE guidelines were accepted. Family history was determined by structured questionnaire and interview. Lifetime risk of developing breast cancer was calculated using Claus and Tyrer-Cuzick scoring. Risk of carrying a breast cancer-related gene mutation was calculated using the Manchester system. One thousand two hundred and forty-three patients have been referred. Ninety-two percent were at medium or high risk of developing breast cancer. Formal assessment of risk has been performed in 368 patients, 73% have a high lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, and 72% a Manchester score >or=16. BRCA1\\/2 mutations have been identified in 14 patients and breast cancer diagnosed in two. Our initial experience of family risk assessment has shown there to be a significant demand for this service. Identification of patients at increased risk of developing breast cancer allows us to provide individuals with accurate risk profiles, and enables patients to make informed choices regarding their follow-up and management.

  13. [Nucleotide sequence of HLA-DQA1 promoter region (QAP) in a lung cancer patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, C; Zhou, W; Song, C

    1996-06-01

    The HLA-DQA1 allele and nucleotide sequence of HLA-DQA1 promoter region (QAP) in a patient with IDDM complicated lung cancer have been identified by PCR/SSCP, PCR/SSCP and PCR/sequencing. The results showed that: (1) All of the lung cancer patient and his family members carried HLA-DQA1* 0301/0501 alleles. (2) a single base substitution G-->A at position -155 and deletion CAA at position -161 to -163 occurred in the patient. These results suggest that the mutation of HLA-DQA1 promoter region may modulate HLA-DQA1 gene expression by trans-acting factors binding to variant cis-acting elements and may be responsible for pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  14. Family support and the child as health promoting agent in the Arctic - "the Inuit way".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Andersen, Ruth A; Borup, Ina

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the UN's 1990 'Convention on the Right's of the Child' 1990, and the associated definition of health promotion as a community's ability to recognise, define and make decisions on how to create a healthy society, this article describes and analyses how family support networks are conceived and present themselves in perinatal Inuit families. This literature review conducted an initial and secondary search using the keywords and combinations of the keywords: healthy families, health promoting families, resiliency, Arctic, Inuit, Family support, was executed in PubMed, Popline, CSA and CINAHL. The tertiary literature search was then combined with literature gleaned from literature lists, and other relevant articles were selected. Individual members of the family contribute to the health of the family, but the child is often the catalyst for health promotion within the family, not only the siblings to the unborn child, but also the unborn child. Perinatal entities create their own networks that support and develop concepts of family and support systems. Resiliency, kinship and ecocultural process within the family are concomitant to the health of perinatal family and of the children. More research is needed that moves children from being viewed as the receivers of health towards being seen as the promoters of health and an important actor as health promoting agent within the family.

  15. Participation of the family in hospital-based palliative cancer care: perspective of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Miranda da Silva

    Full Text Available The objective was to understand the perspective of nurses about the participation of the family in palliative cancer care and to analyze the nursing care strategies to meet their needs. Descriptive and qualitative research, conducted at the National Cancer Institute between January and March 2013, with 17 nurses. Elements of the Roy Adaptation Model were used for the interpretation of the data. Two categoriesemergedfrom the thematic analysis: perspective of nurses about the presence and valuation of family in the hospital; and appointing strategies to encourage family participation in care and meet their needs. This participation is essentialand represents a training opportunity for the purpose of homecare. Nurses create strategies to encourage it and seek to meet the needs. The results contribute to promote the family adaptation and integrity, in order to balance the dependent and independent behaviors, aimingfor quality of life and comfort. Further studies are neededdue to the challenges of the specialty.

  16. Familial Renal Cancer: Molecular Genetics and Surgical Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen W. Barrisford

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial renal cancer (FRC is a heterogeneous disorder comprised of a variety of subtypes. Each subtype is known to have unique histologic features, genetic alterations, and response to therapy. Through the study of families affected by hereditary forms of kidney cancer, insights into the genetic basis of this disease have been identified. This has resulted in the elucidation of a number of kidney cancer gene pathways. Study of these pathways has led to the development of novel targeted molecular treatments for patients affected by systemic disease. As a result, the treatments for families affected by von Hippel-Lindau (VHL, hereditary papillary renal carcinoma (HPRC, hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC, and Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD are rapidly changing. We review the genetics and contemporary surgical management of familial forms of kidney cancer.

  17. GSTT2 promoter polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Sun-A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione S-transferases are a group of enzymes that participate in detoxification and defense mechanisms against toxic carcinogens and other compounds. These enzymes play an important role in human carcinogenesis. In the present study, we sought to determine whether GSTT2 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are associated with colorectal cancer risk. Methods A total of 436 colorectal cancer patients and 568 healthy controls were genotyped for three GSTT2 promoter SNPs (-537G>A, -277T>C and -158G>A, using real-time TaqMan assay and direct sequencing. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA was performed to determine the effects of polymorphisms on protein binding to the GSTT2 promoter. Results The -537A allele (-537G/A or A/A was significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.373, p = 0.025, while the -158A allele (-158G/A or A/A was involved in protection against colorectal cancer (OR = 0.539, p = 0.032. Haplotype 2 (-537A, -277T, -158G was significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.386, p = 0.021, while haplotype 4 (-537G, -277C, -158A protected against colorectal cancer (OR = 0.539, p = 0.032. EMSA data revealed lower promoter binding activity in the -537A allele than its -537G counterpart. Conclusion Our results collectively suggest that SNPs and haplotypes of the GSTT2 promoter region are associated with colorectal cancer risk in the Korean population.

  18. Susceptibility to breast cancer Cuban families and intervention strategy proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robaina, Martha S.; Menendez, Ibis; Valdes, Zodilina; Diaz, Milania

    2009-01-01

    In breast cancer, as in most cancers, mutations usually occur in somatic cells, but sometimes occur in germ cells. The carriers of these mutations germ have up to 80% risk of having the disease course of their lives and pass it on to their offspring, they are called hereditary cancers. In this work studied 50 tested history relatives of this neoplasm from consulting advice genetic hereditary breast cancer. The tree was made pedigree of the family of each test and been classified risk using the criteria of Hampel et al. Other malignancies were identified through the analysis of pedigrees and performed syndromic classification of families. It develops an algorithm for the care of breast cancer families hereditary and plotted strategies identified by risk taking that each category implies a different intervention. It recommended to continue studying the value of marking lesions subclinical and train staff to perform this technique for its widespread use in the country. (Author)

  19. miR-200–containing extracellular vesicles promote breast cancer cell metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Minh T.N.; Hamar, Peter; Guo, Changying; Basar, Emre; Perdigão-Henriques, Ricardo; Balaj, Leonora; Lieberman, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Not all cancer cells within a tumor are capable of metastasizing. The microRNA-200 (miR-200) family, which regulates the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, is enriched in the serum of patients with metastatic cancers. Ectopic expression of miR-200 can confer metastatic ability to poorly metastatic tumor cells in some settings. Here, we investigated whether metastatic capability could be transferred between metastatic and nonmetastatic cancer cells via extracellular vesicles. miR-200 was secreted in extracellular vesicles from metastatic murine and human breast cancer cell lines, and miR-200 levels were increased in sera of mice bearing metastatic tumors. In culture, murine and human metastatic breast cancer cell extracellular vesicles transferred miR-200 microRNAs to nonmetastatic cells, altering gene expression and promoting mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. In murine cancer and human xenograft models, miR-200–expressing tumors and extracellular vesicles from these tumors promoted metastasis of otherwise weakly metastatic cells either nearby or at distant sites and conferred to these cells the ability to colonize distant tissues in a miR-200–dependent manner. Together, our results demonstrate that metastatic capability can be transferred by the uptake of extracellular vesicles. PMID:25401471

  20. The Contribution of Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 Promoter Genotypes in Breast Cancer in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, An-Kuo; Hsiao, Chieh-Lun; Shih, Tzu-Ching; Wang, Hwei-Chung; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chang, Wen-Shin; Liu, Liang-Chih; Way, Tzong-DER; Chung, Jing-Gung; Bau, DA-Tian

    2017-09-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of enzymes are in charge of degradation of various components of the extracellular matrix and their functional genetic polymorphisms may be associated with cancer susceptibility. The functional polymorphisms in the promoter region of MMP7 (A-181G and C-153T) have been reported to influence the binding capacity of nuclear proteins and may contribute to genetic susceptibility to cancer. In this study, we focused on investigating the contribution of the genotypes of MMP7 (A-181G and C-153T) to breast cancer in Taiwan. These two polymorphisms were genotyped in 1,232 patients with breast cancer and 1,232 controls by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology. The odds ratios (ORs) after adjusting for age, family history of cancer, smoking and alcohol drinking status for those carrying AG and GG genotypes at MMP7 promoter A-181G were 1.22 (95%CI=0.91-1.63, p=0.2235) and 2.84 (95%CI=1.64-7.48, p=0.0007) respectively, compared to those carrying the wild-type AA genotype. Supporting this finding, the adjusted OR for those carrying the G allele at MMP7 promoter A-181G was 1.57 (95%CI=1.29-1.93, p=0.0008), compared to those carrying the wild-type A allele. There was no polymorphic genotype at MMP7 C-153T found among any of the investigated individuals. Our findings suggest that the MMP7 A-181G polymorphisms may play a role in determining personal cancer susceptibility and GG genotype at MMP7 A-181G may serve as a biomarker for early detection and prediction of breast cancer in Taiwanese. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Nifedipine promotes the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Qing Guo

    Full Text Available Nifedipine is widely used as a calcium channel blocker (CCB to treat angina and hypertension,but it is controversial with respect the risk of stimulation of cancers. In this study, we demonstrated that nifedipine promoted the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells both invivo and invitro. However, verapamil, another calcium channel blocker, didn't exert the similar effects. Nifedipine and high concentration KCl failed to alter the [Ca2+]i in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that such nifedipine effect was not related with calcium channel. Moreover, nifedipine decreased miRNA-524-5p, resulting in the up-regulation of brain protein I3 (BRI3. Erk pathway was consequently activated and led to the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Silencing BRI3 reversed the promoting effect of nifedipine on the breast cancer. In a summary, nifedipine stimulated the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells via the axis of miRNA-524-5p-BRI3-Erk pathway independently of its calcium channel-blocking activity. Our findings highlight that nifedipine but not verapamil is conducive for breast cancer growth and metastasis, urging that the caution should be taken in clinic to prescribe nifedipine to women who suffering both hypertension and breast cancer, and hypertension with a tendency in breast cancers.

  2. Targeting SRC Family Kinases in HSP90 in Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Targeting SRC Family Kinases and HSP90 in Lung Cancer...COVERED Annual 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting SRC Family Kinases in HSP90 in Lung Cancer 5b. GRANT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nedd9, Src , HSP90

  3. Simple strategies for vaginal health promotion in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jeanne; Goldfrank, Deborah; Schover, Leslie R

    2011-02-01

    With the population of cancer survivors nearing 12 million, an ever-increasing number of women will face vaginal health issues related to their disease and/or treatment. Abrupt menopause triggered by cancer treatment, for example, can cause intense and prolonged estrogen deprivation symptoms, including vaginal dryness and discomfort. Simple strategies to promote vaginal health are available. To provide a comprehensive overview of vaginal health issues caused by estrogen deprivation in female cancer patients/survivors and provide recommendations to identify, treat, and promote vaginal health. We describe a treatment algorithm, based on scientific literature and supported by clinical experience, found to be effective in treating these patients at two major cancer centers. We also provide examples of handouts for patient education on vaginal health promotion. Evidence-based medicine and psychosocial literature, in addition to clinical experience at two major cancer centers. Simple, non-hormonal interventions for sexual dysfunction are often overlooked. Several studies show that education on vaginal lubricants, moisturizers, and dilator use (as needed) can decrease the morbidity of vaginal atrophy. These studies also provide support for our clinical treatment recommendations. Our goal in this article is to increase awareness of these strategies and to provide assistance to general gynecologists and oncologists caring for cancer patients and survivors. Dedicating a small amount of time to educate female cancer survivors about methods to promote vaginal health can result in the reduction or elimination of vaginal discomfort. Non-hormonal vaginal health strategies often appear sufficient to remedy these issues. However, large randomized trials are needed, varying the format and components of the treatment program and exploring efficacy in various groups of female cancer survivors. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Embryonic morphogen nodal promotes breast cancer growth and progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela F Quail

    Full Text Available Breast cancers expressing human embryonic stem cell (hESC-associated genes are more likely to progress than well-differentiated cancers and are thus associated with poor patient prognosis. Elevated proliferation and evasion of growth control are similarly associated with disease progression, and are classical hallmarks of cancer. In the current study we demonstrate that the hESC-associated factor Nodal promotes breast cancer growth. Specifically, we show that Nodal is elevated in aggressive MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and Hs578t human breast cancer cell lines, compared to poorly aggressive MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines. Nodal knockdown in aggressive breast cancer cells via shRNA reduces tumour incidence and significantly blunts tumour growth at primary sites. In vitro, using Trypan Blue exclusion assays, Western blot analysis of phosphorylated histone H3 and cleaved caspase-9, and real time RT-PCR analysis of BAX and BCL2 gene expression, we demonstrate that Nodal promotes expansion of breast cancer cells, likely via a combinatorial mechanism involving increased proliferation and decreased apopotosis. In an experimental model of metastasis using beta-glucuronidase (GUSB-deficient NOD/SCID/mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPSVII mice, we show that although Nodal is not required for the formation of small (<100 cells micrometastases at secondary sites, it supports an elevated proliferation:apoptosis ratio (Ki67:TUNEL in micrometastatic lesions. Indeed, at longer time points (8 weeks, we determined that Nodal is necessary for the subsequent development of macrometastatic lesions. Our findings demonstrate that Nodal supports tumour growth at primary and secondary sites by increasing the ratio of proliferation:apoptosis in breast cancer cells. As Nodal expression is relatively limited to embryonic systems and cancer, this study establishes Nodal as a potential tumour-specific target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  5. Embryonic morphogen nodal promotes breast cancer growth and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quail, Daniela F; Zhang, Guihua; Walsh, Logan A; Siegers, Gabrielle M; Dieters-Castator, Dylan Z; Findlay, Scott D; Broughton, Heather; Putman, David M; Hess, David A; Postovit, Lynne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancers expressing human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-associated genes are more likely to progress than well-differentiated cancers and are thus associated with poor patient prognosis. Elevated proliferation and evasion of growth control are similarly associated with disease progression, and are classical hallmarks of cancer. In the current study we demonstrate that the hESC-associated factor Nodal promotes breast cancer growth. Specifically, we show that Nodal is elevated in aggressive MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and Hs578t human breast cancer cell lines, compared to poorly aggressive MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines. Nodal knockdown in aggressive breast cancer cells via shRNA reduces tumour incidence and significantly blunts tumour growth at primary sites. In vitro, using Trypan Blue exclusion assays, Western blot analysis of phosphorylated histone H3 and cleaved caspase-9, and real time RT-PCR analysis of BAX and BCL2 gene expression, we demonstrate that Nodal promotes expansion of breast cancer cells, likely via a combinatorial mechanism involving increased proliferation and decreased apopotosis. In an experimental model of metastasis using beta-glucuronidase (GUSB)-deficient NOD/SCID/mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPSVII) mice, we show that although Nodal is not required for the formation of small (apoptosis ratio (Ki67:TUNEL) in micrometastatic lesions. Indeed, at longer time points (8 weeks), we determined that Nodal is necessary for the subsequent development of macrometastatic lesions. Our findings demonstrate that Nodal supports tumour growth at primary and secondary sites by increasing the ratio of proliferation:apoptosis in breast cancer cells. As Nodal expression is relatively limited to embryonic systems and cancer, this study establishes Nodal as a potential tumour-specific target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  6. Family history in breast cancer is not a prognostic factor?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jobsen, J.J.; Meerwaldt, J.H.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if breast conservative treatment is justified for patients with a positive family history of breast cancer and to investigate whether they have a worse prognosis. We performed a prospective cohort study of breast cancer patients, treated with breast conservative

  7. Role of chance in familial aggregaton of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katballe, N.; Bentzen, S.M.; Christensen, M.

    2001-01-01

    A prospective population-based study recorded family trees of 77 colorectal cancer patients younger than 50 years of age. Using mathematical modeling of population age-incidence data, we estimate that 1 (95% confidence limits 0 and 3) of these families is expected to meet the Amsterdam criteria I...

  8. History, Pathogenesis, and Management of Familial Gastric Cancer: Original Study of John XXIII's Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is associated with the E-cadherin germline mutations, but genetic determinants have not been identified for familial intestinal gastric carcinoma. The guidelines for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer are clearly established; however, there are no defined recommendations for the management of familial intestinal gastric carcinoma. Methods. In this study we describe Pope John XXIII's pedigree that harboured gastric cancer as well as six other family members. Family history was analysed according to the International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium criteria, and gastric tumours were classified in accord with the last Japanese guidelines. Results. Seven out of 109 members in this pedigree harboured gastric cancer, affecting two consecutive generations. John XXIII's clinical tumour (cTN was classified as cT4bN3a (IV stage. In two other cases, gastric carcinomas were classified as intestinal histotype and staged as pT1bN0 and pT2N2, respectively. Conclusions. Pope John XXIII's family presents a strong aggregation for gastric cancer affecting almost seven members; it spreads through two consecutive generations. In absence of defined genetic causes and considering the increased risk of gastric cancer’s development in these families, as well as the high mortality rates and advanced stages, we propose an intensive surveillance protocol for asymptomatic members.

  9. Provider Perspectives on Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening Among Refugee Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ornelas, India J; Do, H Hoai; Magarati, Maya; Jackson, J Carey; Taylor, Victoria M

    2017-06-01

    Many refugees in the United States emigrated from countries where the incidence of cervical cancer is high. Refugee women are unlikely to have been screened for cervical cancer prior to resettlement in the U.S. National organizations recommend cervical cancer screening for refugee women soon after resettlement. We sought to identify health and social service providers' perspectives on promoting cervical cancer screening in order to inform the development of effective programs to increase screening among recently resettled refugees. This study consisted of 21 in-depth key informant interviews with staff from voluntary refugee resettlement agencies, community based organizations, and healthcare clinics serving refugees in King County, Washington. Interview transcripts were analyzed to identify themes. We identified the following themes: (1) refugee women are unfamiliar with preventive care and cancer screening; (2) providers have concerns about the timing of cervical cancer education and screening; (3) linguistic and cultural barriers impact screening uptake; (4) provider factors and clinic systems facilitate promotion of screening; and (5) strategies for educating refugee women about screening. Our findings suggest that refugee women are in need of health education on cervical cancer screening during early resettlement. Frequent messaging about screening could help ensure that women receive screening within the early resettlement period. Health education videos may be effective for providing simple, low literacy messages in women's native languages. Appointments with female clinicians and interpreters, as well as clinic systems that remind clinicians to offer screening at each appointment could increase screening among refugee women.

  10. Evaluation of breast cancer knowledge among health promoters in Mexico before and after focused training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Nancy L; Kouri, Elena M; Ornelas, Héctor Arreola; Méndez, Oscar; Valladares, Laura Magaña; Knaul, Felicia Marie

    2014-10-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Mexico. We assessed the effectiveness of a train-the-trainer program in two Mexican states in improving knowledge among professional and nonprofessional community health workers. We worked with local organizations to develop and implement a train-the-trainer program to improve breast cancer knowledge among community health workers, including professional health promoters (PHPs) who were trained and then trained nonprofessional community health promoters (CHPs). We surveyed participants before and after training that included in-person and online classes and again approximately 3 months later. We used paired t tests and chi-square tests to compare survey responses at the different times. We also used logistic regression to assess whether promoter characteristics were associated with greater improvements in breast cancer knowledge after training. Overall, 169 PHPs (mean age, 36 years) completed training and provided a 10-hour training course to 2,651 CHPs, who also completed the pre- and post-training survey. For both PHPs and CHPs, post-training surveys demonstrated increases in an understanding of breast cancer as a problem; an understanding of screening, treatment, and insurance coverage issues; and knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms, and what constitutes a family history of breast cancer (all p < .05). These improvements were maintained 3 to 6 months after training. Train-the-trainer programs hold promise for leveraging community health workers, who far outnumber other health professionals in many low- and middle-income countries, to engage in health promotion activities for cancer and other noncommunicable diseases. ©AlphaMed Press.

  11. Health Promoting Lifestyle Among Israeli Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebergall-Wischnitzer, Michal; Buyum, Moriya; DeKeyser Ganz, Freda

    2016-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for recurrence of their primary cancer as well as other secondary site cancers. The survivors are also at increased risk for long-term effects such as chronic illnesses. Health promoting lifestyles are therefore especially important for childhood cancer survivors. The purpose of the study was to describe the health promoting behaviors of childhood cancer survivors and to determine whether these behaviors are associated with demographic and clinical characteristics. This is a descriptive-comparative study that took place in an oncology follow-up clinic in Israel. Seventy-seven childhood cancer survivors. Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile 2, questionnaire (interpersonal relationships, spiritual growth, physical activity, nutrition, health responsibility, and stress management), and smoking and alcohol consumption and a demographic-clinical questionnaire. The mean item score was moderate-high. Survivors scored highest on interpersonal relationships and spiritual growth while the lowest scoring activities were physical activity and nutrition. About 30% of the survivors abstained from smoking and alcohol consumption. Women, as opposed to men, were more likely to have higher scores related to nutrition and interpersonal relationships while singles as opposed to those who were married were found to have higher scores related to spiritual growth. Health behaviors associated with interpersonal relationships and spiritual growth were more likely to be performed compared to physical activity, good nutrition, and decreased smoking and alcohol consumption. Special attention should be placed on promoting physical activity and good nutrition among survivors of childhood cancer. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  12. Cancer as a complex phenotype: pattern of cancer distribution within and beyond the nuclear family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laufey T Amundadottir

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The contribution of low-penetrant susceptibility variants to cancer is not clear. With the aim of searching for genetic factors that contribute to cancer at one or more sites in the body, we have analyzed familial aggregation of cancer in extended families based on all cancer cases diagnosed in Iceland over almost half a century. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have estimated risk ratios (RRs of cancer for first- and up to fifth-degree relatives both within and between all types of cancers diagnosed in Iceland from 1955 to 2002 by linking patient information from the Icelandic Cancer Registry to an extensive genealogical database, containing all living Icelanders and most of their ancestors since the settlement of Iceland. We evaluated the significance of the familial clustering for each relationship separately, all relationships combined (first- to fifth-degree relatives and for close (first- and second-degree and distant (third- to fifth-degree relatives. Most cancer sites demonstrate a significantly increased RR for the same cancer, beyond the nuclear family. Significantly increased familial clustering between different cancer sites is also documented in both close and distant relatives. Some of these associations have been suggested previously but others not. CONCLUSION: We conclude that genetic factors are involved in the etiology of many cancers and that these factors are in some cases shared by different cancer sites. However, a significantly increased RR conferred upon mates of patients with cancer at some sites indicates that shared environment or nonrandom mating for certain risk factors also play a role in the familial clustering of cancer. Our results indicate that cancer is a complex, often non-site-specific disease for which increased risk extends beyond the nuclear family.

  13. Navigating cancer using online communities: a grounded theory of survivor and family experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Lydia Jo; Beaver, Kinta; Dey, Paola; Choong, Kartina

    2017-12-01

    People affected by cancer often have unmet emotional and social support needs. Online cancer communities are a convenient channel for connecting cancer survivors, allowing them to support one another. However, it is unclear whether online community use makes a meaningful contribution to cancer survivorship, as little previous research has examined the experience of using contemporary cancer communities. We aimed to explore the experiences of visitors to online cancer communities. Twenty-three in-depth interviews were conducted with online cancer community visitors, including cancer survivors (n = 18), family members (n = 2), and individuals who were both a survivor and family member (n = 3). Interviews were analysed using a grounded theory approach. A theory developed explaining how individuals 'navigated' the experience of cancer using online cancer communities. Online advice and information led participants on a 'journey to become informed'. Online friendships normalised survivorship and cast participants on a 'journey to recreate identity'. Participants navigated a 'journey through different worlds' as they discovered relevant and hidden communities. This theory highlights virtual paths people affected by cancer can take to self-manage their experience of the disease. Online community experiences can be improved by promoting online evaluation skills and signposting visitors to bereavement support. Cancer survivors can benefit through both lurking and posting in online communities. However, individuals risk becoming distressed when they befriend individuals who may soon die. Additionally, people affected by rarer cancers can struggle to find shared experiences online and may need to look elsewhere for support.

  14. Workplace Wellness Programs to Promote Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldano, Sharon K

    2016-08-01

    To define the diversity of and business case for workplace wellness programs, highlight best practices for a comprehensive health promotion program, and describe the opportunities for employees to become wellness advocates. Current literature and articles published between 2010 and 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Enhancement Research Organization, National Business Group on Health, Wellness Councils of America, best practice program guidelines and internet resources. Employers are increasingly affected by rising health care costs and epidemic rates of obesity and associated chronic diseases within the workforce. Employers who offer workplace wellness programs can contribute to the overall health and well-being of their employees, improve employee productivity and retention, and reduce absenteeism and health care costs. Employees participating in workplace wellness programs can reduce their health risks and serve as health promotion advocates. Nurses can lead by example by participating in their workplace wellness programs, serving as an advocate to influence their employers and colleagues, and educating their patients regarding the benefits of workplace wellness programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Have Journal...Will Travel: Promoting Family Involvement in Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, Devon

    This project is designed to engage families in shared literacy activities. The K-2 students take turns taking home a book bag that includes a stuffed toy, a book, art supplies, a topic to discuss with their families, and a journal to share their thoughts and ideas. Through the experience they build positive memories of literacy activities. During…

  16. Documenting Different Domains of Promotion of Autonomy in Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Claudia; Regalia, Camillo; Pelucchi, Sara; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Parental promotion of autonomy for offspring well-being has been widely recognized in developmental psychology. Recent studies, however, show that this association varies across cultures. Such variation may reflect inappropriate measurement of this dimension of parenting. Therefore, three existing measures of promotion of autonomy were used to…

  17. Promoting Patient and Caregiver Engagement to Care in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Saita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The positive outcomes associated with Patient Engagement (PE have been strongly supported by the recent literature. However, this concept has been marginally addressed in the context of cancer. Limited attention has also received the role of informal caregivers in promoting physical and psychological well-being of patients, as well as the interdependence of dyads. The Cancer Dyads Group Intervention (CDGI is a couple-based psychosocial intervention developed to promote engagement in management behaviors, positive health outcomes, and the quality of the relationship between cancer patients and their informal caregivers. The article examines the ability of the CDGI to promote adaptive coping behaviors and the perceived level of closeness by comparing cancer patients participating in the intervention and patients receiving psychosocial care at usual. Results indicate that individuals diagnosed with cancer attending the CDGI present significant increases in Fighting Spirit and Avoidance, while reporting also reduced levels of Fatalism and Anxious Preoccupation. Initial indications suggest that the intervention may contribute to strengthening the relationship with the primary support person.

  18. Offshoring to Promote the Internationalization of Family Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Merino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of sourcing abroad on exporting in the case of Spanish manufacturing firms that are family-owned. Sourcing abroad can be a channel that places the firm in a better position to export, not only because it increases the productivity of the firm, but also because it provides information, new managerial procedures or just the acceptance by the family owners of a more complex strategy. The empirical analysis presents the premium on the probability of being an exporter for those firms that offshore part of their production, and compares this with the results for non-family firms. The results show that there is a significant premium for SMEs on the probability of exporting, but not on the intensity of those exports, and that this occurs at the same levels in family and non-family firms.

  19. Familial gastric cancer and Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, G; Pedrazzani, C; Marrelli, D; Pinto, E; Roviello, F

    2010-05-01

    Gastric cancer occurs in some familial diseases with inherited cancer predisposition. Genetic factors have been correlated with the hereditary diffuse gastric cancer and other familial gastric cancer conditions as hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The present study was aimed at searching for germ line mutations of TP53 gene in familial gastric cancer with cluster for Li-Fraumeni syndrome or Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome. Twenty-three pedigrees with characteristics for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome were identified. DNA of the proband was sequenced using polymerase chain reaction/single-strand conformation polymorphism. Among these 23 cases, no germ line mutation of TP53 was identified, while two single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in four patients. In our area, in which a high rate of familial aggregation was demonstrated, the lack of germ line mutation of TP53 together with the infrequency of mutation of E-cadherin gene seem to limit the role of genetic predisposition in the development of gastric cancer.

  20. Joint Families and Cancer Diagnosis in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Sushant

    2018-02-26

    Background: Each year, there are over a million new cases of cancer in India, which causes many untimely deaths and increases the economic burden to households. By focusing on preventative measures and finding socioeconomic and behavioral contributors to cancer, steps can be taken to help alleviate this burden. This study aims to find the effect living in a joint family can have on being diagnosed with cancer in rural India. Methods: The study estimates the effect living in a joint family, along with other demographic information, has on being diagnosed with cancer using a logit estimation model. The data for the study was collected from a survey was conducted on the households of the Handiganur village (N=251) comprising of several demographic, social, and medical questions. Results: The study found that living in a joint family lowers the odds of having cancer. The results indicate that living in a joint family reduces the probability of being diagnosed by 7.23 percentage points and is significant at a 5% level. Furthermore, among the other tested variables, eating habit is negatively significant at 5% level, suggesting that if a person eats 3 to 4 times a day his or her likelihood of suffering from cancer will be lowered by 6.55 percentage points. Access to public wells and drinking alcohol both increase the likelihood of being diagnosed with cancer by 7.90 (p<0.1) percentage points and 11.90 (p<0.05) percentage points respectively. Conclusions: The negative effect of joint family could be due to two possible reasons. The first is that there is in fact a biological reason. The second reason for this result could be a false negative, as it could be because people in joint families are not getting the necessary check-ups required to diagnose cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  1. Incorporation of detailed family history from the Swedish Family Cancer Database into the PCPT risk calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Sonja; Fallah, Mahdi; Leach, Robin J; Thompson, Ian M; Freedland, Stephen; Hemminki, Kari; Ankerst, Donna P

    2015-02-01

    A detailed family history provides an inexpensive alternative to genetic profiling for individual risk assessment. We updated the PCPT Risk Calculator to include detailed family histories. The study included 55,168 prostate cancer cases and 638,218 controls from the Swedish Family Cancer Database who were 55 years old or older in 1999 and had at least 1 male first-degree relative 40 years old or older and 1 female first-degree relative 30 years old or older. Likelihood ratios, calculated as the ratio of risk of observing a specific family history pattern in a prostate cancer case compared to a control, were used to update the PCPT Risk Calculator. Having at least 1 relative with prostate cancer increased the risk of prostate cancer. The likelihood ratio was 1.63 for 1 first-degree relative 60 years old or older at diagnosis (10.1% of cancer cases vs 6.2% of controls), 2.47 if the relative was younger than 60 years (1.5% vs 0.6%), 3.46 for 2 or more relatives 60 years old or older (1.2% vs 0.3%) and 5.68 for 2 or more relatives younger than 60 years (0.05% vs 0.009%). Among men with no diagnosed first-degree relatives the likelihood ratio was 1.09 for 1 or more second-degree relatives diagnosed with prostate cancer (12.7% vs 11.7%). Additional first-degree relatives with breast cancer, or first-degree or second-degree relatives with prostate cancer compounded these risks. A detailed family history is an independent predictor of prostate cancer compared to commonly used risk factors. It should be incorporated into decision making for biopsy. Compared with other costly biomarkers it is inexpensive and universally available. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The KinFact Intervention – A Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Family Communication About Cancer History

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClish, Donna; Gyure, Maria; Corona, Rosalie; Krist, Alexander H.; Rodríguez, Vivian M.; Maibauer, Alisa M.; Borzelleca, Joseph; Bowen, Deborah J.; Quillin, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Knowing family history is important for understanding cancer risk, yet communication within families is suboptimal. Providing strategies to enhance communication may be useful. Methods: Four hundred ninety women were recruited from urban, safety-net, hospital-based primary care women's health clinics. Participants were randomized to receive the KinFact intervention or the control handout on lowering risks for breast/colon cancer and screening recommendations. Cancer family history was reviewed with all participants. The 20-minute KinFact intervention, based in communication and behavior theory, included reviewing individualized breast/colon cancer risks and an interactive presentation about cancer and communication. Study outcomes included whether participants reported collecting family history, shared cancer risk information with relatives, and the frequency of communication with relatives. Data were collected at baseline, 1, 6, and 14 months. Results: Overall, intervention participants were significantly more likely to gather family cancer information at follow-up (odds ratio [OR]: 2.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.01, 3.71) and to share familial cancer information with relatives (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.48). Communication frequency (1=not at all; 4=a lot) was significantly increased at follow-up (1.67 vs. 1.54). Differences were not modified by age, race, education, or family history. However, effects were modified by pregnancy status and genetic literacy. Intervention effects for information gathering and frequency were observed for nonpregnant women but not for pregnant women. Additionally, intervention effects were observed for information gathering in women with high genetic literacy, but not in women with low genetic literacy. Conclusions: The KinFact intervention successfully promoted family communication about cancer risk. Educating women to enhance their communication skills surrounding family history may allow them to partner

  3. The transtheoretical model, health belief model, and breast cancer screening among Iranian women with a family history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadegan, Ziba; Fathollahi-Dehkordi, Fariba; Hematti, Simin; Sirous, Reza; Tavakoli, Neda; Rouzbahani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Participation of Iranian women with a family history of breast cancer in breast cancer screening programs is low. This study evaluates the compliance of women having a family history of breast cancer with clinical breast exam (CBE) according to the stage of transtheoretical model (TTM) and health belief model (HBM). In this cross-sectional study, we used Persian version of champion's HBM scale to collect factors associated with TTM stages applied to screening from women over 20 years and older. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS, using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, independent t -test, and analysis of covariance. Final sample size was 162 women. Thirty-three percent were in action/maintenance stage. Older women, family history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives, personal history of breast disease, insurance coverage, and a history of breast self-examination were associated with action/maintenance stage. Furthermore, women in action/maintenance stages had significantly fewer perceived barriers in terms of CBE in comparison to women in other stages ( P 0.05). The finding indicates that the rate of women in action/maintenance stage of CBE is low. Moreover, results show a strong association between perceived barriers and having a regular CBE. These clarify the necessity of promoting national target programs for breast cancer screening, which should be considered as the first preference for reducing CBE barriers.

  4. Stress-induced cleavage of Myc promotes cancer cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conacci-Sorrell, Maralice; Ngouenet, Celine; Anderson, Sarah; Brabletz, Thomas; Eisenman, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Evasion of apoptosis is critical in Myc-induced tumor progression. Here we report that cancer cells evade death under stress by activating calpain-mediated proteolysis of Myc. This generates Myc-nick, a cytoplasmic, transcriptionally inactive cleavage product of Myc. We found conversion of Myc into Myc-nick in cell lines and tissues derived from multiple cancers. In colon cancer, the production of Myc-nick is enhanced under stress conditions such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation. Under these conditions, ectopic expression of Myc-nick promotes anchorage-independent growth and cell survival at least in part by promoting autophagy. Myc-nick also delays colon cancer cell death after treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs such as etoposide, cisplatin, and imatinib. Furthermore, colon cancer cells expressing a cleavage-resistant form of Myc undergo extensive apoptosis but are rescued by overexpression of Myc-nick. We also found that ectopic expression of Myc-nick results in the induction of the actin-bundling protein fascin, formation of filopodia, and increased cell motility—all mediators of tumor metastasis. Myc-nick-induced survival, autophagy, and motility require Myc box II (MBII), a region of Myc-nick that recruits acetyltransferases that in turn modify cytoplasmic proteins, including α-tubulin and ATG3. Our results suggest that Myc-nick-induced survival and motility contribute to colon cancer progression and metastasis. PMID:24696454

  5. CXCL5 Promotes Prostate Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesa A Begley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available CXCL5 is a proangiogenic CXC-type chemokine that is an inflammatory mediator and a powerful attractant for granulocytic immune cells. Unlike many other chemokines, CXCL5 is secreted by both immune (neutrophil, monocyte, and macrophage and nonimmune (epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cell types. The current study was intended to determine which of these cell types express CXCL5 in normal and malignant human prostatic tissues, whether expression levels correlated with malignancy and whether CXCL5 stimulated biologic effects consistent with a benign or malignant prostate epithelial phenotype. The results of these studies show that CXCL5 protein expression levels are concordant with prostate tumor progression, are highly associated with inflammatory infiltrate, and are frequently detected in the lumens of both benign and malignant prostate glands. Exogenous administration of CXCL5 stimulates cellular proliferation and gene transcription in both nontransformed and transformed prostate epithelial cells and induces highly aggressive prostate cancer cells to invade through synthetic basement membrane in vitro. These findings suggest that the inflammatory mediator, CXCL5, may play multiple roles in the etiology of both benign and malignant proliferative diseases in the prostate.

  6. Resilience in families with a child with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, Abraham Petrus; Vansteenwegen, Alfons; Geldhof, Annelies

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and explore resilience factors associated with family adaption after a child had been diagnosed with cancer. Using a cross-sectional survey research design, parents (n = 26), and children (n = 25) from the same families independently completed six self-report questionnaires, as well as responded to an open-ended question about those qualities that helped their family through the period following the diagnosis. The most significant results came from the children's data. According to these results, connectedness within the family, the experience of control over life events, family routines, positive, and supportive communication, redefinition of crisis situations, and lastly, a passive appraisal of crisis situations, were positively linked to better family adaptation. The identified factors should be strengthened and developed in families finding themselves in a similar situation.

  7. Unfinished Business in Families of Terminally Ill With Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ryoko; Arao, Harue; Takao, Ayumi; Masutani, Eiko; Morita, Tatsuya; Shima, Yasuo; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Aoyama, Maho; Miyashita, Mitsunori

    2017-12-01

    Unfinished business often causes psychological issues after bereavement. Providing care for families of terminally ill patients with cancer to prevent unfinished business is important. To clarify the prevalence and types of unfinished business in families of end-of-life patients with cancer admitted to palliative care units (PCUs), explore depression and grief associated with unfinished business, and explore the factors affecting unfinished business. We conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous, self-report questionnaire survey with 967 bereaved families of patients with cancer admitted to PCUs. The questionnaire assessed the presence or the absence of unfinished business, content of unfinished business, depression, grief, process of preparedness, condition of the family and patient, and the degree of involvement of health care professionals. Questionnaires were sent to 967 families, and 73.0% responded. In total, 26.0% of families had some unfinished business, with improvement of the patient-family relationship being a common type of unfinished business. Families with unfinished business had significantly higher depression and grief scores after bereavement compared with those without. Factors that influenced the presence or the absence of unfinished business were preparedness for the patient's death (P = 0.001), discussion between the patient and family about the disease trajectory and way to spend daily life (P business. Health care professionals should coordinate the appropriate timing for what the family wishes to do, with consideration of family dynamics, including the family's preparedness, communication pattern, and relationships. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cancer prevalence in 129 breast-ovarian cancer families tested for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As expected, female breast and ovarian cancer was significantly increased in all three groups. Furthermore, male breast cancer was significantly elevated in the BRCA2-positive and BRCA-negative groups. Stomach cancer prevalence was significantly elevated in the BRCA2-positive families compared with the general ...

  9. Expression of Long Noncoding RNA Urothelial Cancer Associated 1 Promotes Cisplatin Resistance in Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bi; Huang, Zhi; Gao, Rui; Zeng, Zhu; Yang, Weiming; Sun, Yuan; Wei, Wei; Wu, Zhongqing; Yu, Lei; Li, Qinshan; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Fenghu; Liu, Guoli; Liu, Bingjie; Leng, Li; Zhan, Wei; Yu, Yanlong; Yang, Guozhen; Zhou, Shi

    2017-04-01

    Cisplatin resistance is still one of the main reasons for failure of clinical therapy for cervical cancer. But the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in cisplatin resistance of cervical cancer have still remained unclear. Recent studies reported that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are novel nonprotein-coding transcripts, which might play a key role in cancer biogenesis and prognosis. One of the lncRNAs, urothelial cancer associated 1 (UCA1), has been shown to promote different types of cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. This study showed that overexpression of UCA1 confers cisplatin resistance by promoting cancer cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. In addition, knockdown of UCA1 remarkably decreased cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer cells. Moreover, results also indicated that UCA1 was involved in signaling pathways modulating cell apoptosis and proliferation. UCA1 suppressed apoptosis by downregulating caspase 3 and upregulating CDK2, whereas enhanced cell proliferation by increased level of survivin and decreased level of p21. This study reports for the first time that UCA1 might play an important role in the cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer, and also explain partially how UCA1 promotes cisplatin resistance in cancer cells. These results provide evidence to support that UCA1 can be used as a potential target for a novel therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer.

  10. The pathology of familial breast cancer: histological features of cancers in families not attributable to mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakhani, S. R.; Gusterson, B. A.; Jacquemier, J.; Sloane, J. P.; Anderson, T. J.; van de Vijver, M. J.; Venter, D.; Freeman, A.; Antoniou, A.; McGuffog, L.; Smyth, E.; Steel, C. M.; Haites, N.; Scott, R. J.; Goldgar, D.; Neuhausen, S.; Daly, P. A.; Ormiston, W.; McManus, R.; Scherneck, S.; Ponder, B. A.; Futreal, P. A.; Peto, J.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Bignon, Y. J.; Stratton, M. R.

    2000-01-01

    Breast cancers arising in carriers of mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, differ histologically from each other and from breast cancers unselected for a family history. However, a substantial proportion of families with multiple cases of breast cancer is not

  11. Promoter hypomethylation and upregulation of trefoil factors in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Tørring, Niels

    2010-01-01

    . In clinical samples, methylation of the promoter/enhancer regions of TFF1 and TFF3 was significantly lower in PC compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The present study shows an inverse relation between promoter methylation and expression of trefoil factors. Preliminary analysis on clinical samples...... cell lines with significant TFF expression as compared to benign immortalized prostate cell lines and PC cell lines not expressing trefoil factor. The most striking difference was observed for CpG sites located close to the AUG start codon overlapping several putative binding sites for cellular......Trefoil factors, mucin-associated peptides, are overexpressed in prostate cancer (PC). We hypothesized that promoter methylation contributes to the regulation of trefoil factors (TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3) in human prostate cells. Here we show hypomethylation of promoter regions of TFF1 and TFF3 in PC...

  12. Frequent DPH3 promoter mutations in skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, Evgeniya; Heidenreich, Barbara; Nagore, Eduardo; Rachakonda, P Sivaramakrishna; Hosen, Ismail; Akrap, Ivana; Traves, Víctor; García-Casado, Zaida; López-Guerrero, José Antonio; Requena, Celia; Sanmartin, Onofre; Serra-Guillén, Carlos; Llombart, Beatriz; Guillén, Carlos; Ferrando, Jose; Gimeno, Enrique; Nordheim, Alfred; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-11-03

    Recent reports suggested frequent occurrence of cancer associated somatic mutations within regulatory elements of the genome. Based on initial exome sequencing of 21 melanomas, we report frequent somatic mutations in skin cancers in a bidirectional promoter of diphthamide biosynthesis 3 (DPH3) and oxidoreductase NAD-binding domain containing 1 (OXNAD1) genes. The UV-signature mutations occurred at sites adjacent and within a binding motif for E-twenty six/ternary complex factors (Ets/TCF), at -8 and -9 bp from DPH3 transcription start site. Follow up screening of 586 different skin lesions showed that the DPH3 promoter mutations were present in melanocytic nevi (2/114; 2%), melanoma (30/304; 10%), basal cell carcinoma of skin (BCC; 57/137; 42%) and squamous cell carcinoma of skin (SCC; 12/31; 39%). Reporter assays carried out in one melanoma cell line for DPH3 and OXNAD1 orientations showed statistically significant increased promoter activity due to -8/-9CC > TT tandem mutations; although, no effect of the mutations on DPH3 and OXNAD1 transcription in tumors was observed. The results from this study show occurrence of frequent somatic non-coding mutations adjacent to a pre-existing binding site for Ets transcription factors within the directional promoter of DPH3 and OXNAD1 genes in three major skin cancers. The detected mutations displayed typical UV signature; however, the functionality of the mutations remains to be determined.

  13. Can a selfie promote public engagement with skin cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Leas, Eric; Althouse, Benjamin M; Dredze, Mark; Kelley, Dannielle; Ayers, John W

    2017-11-03

    Social media may provide new opportunities to promote skin cancer prevention, but research to understand this potential is needed. In April of 2015, Kentucky native Tawny Willoughby (TW) shared a graphic skin cancer selfie on Facebook that subsequently went viral. We examined the volume of comments and shares of her original Facebook post; news volume of skin cancer from Google News; and search volume for skin cancer Google queries. We compared these latter metrics after TWs announcement against expected volumes based on forecasts of historical trends. TWs skin cancer story was picked up by the media on May 11, 2015 after the social media post had been shared approximately 50,000 times. All search queries for skin cancer increased 162% (95% CI 102 to 320) and 155% (95% CI 107 to 353) on May 13th and 14th, when news about TW's skin cancer selfie was at its peak, and remained higher through May 17th. Google searches about skin cancer prevention and tanning were also significantly higher than expected volumes. In practical terms, searches reached near-record levels - i.e., May 13th, 14th and 15th were respectively the 6th, 8th, and 40th most searched days for skin cancer since January 1, 2004 when Google began tracking searches. We conclude that an ordinary person's social media post caught the public's imagination and led to significant increases in public engagement with skin cancer prevention. Digital surveillance methods can rapidly detect these events in near real time, allowing public health practitioners to engage and potentially elevate positive effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fusobacterium nucleatum Promotes Chemoresistance to Colorectal Cancer by Modulating Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, TaChung; Guo, Fangfang; Yu, Yanan; Sun, Tiantian; Ma, Dan; Han, Jixuan; Qian, Yun; Kryczek, Ilona; Sun, Danfeng; Nagarsheth, Nisha; Chen, Yingxuan; Chen, Haoyan; Hong, Jie; Zou, Weiping; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2017-07-27

    Gut microbiota are linked to chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis. Chemotherapy failure is the major cause of recurrence and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. Here, we investigated the contribution of gut microbiota to chemoresistance in patients with colorectal cancer. We found that Fusobacterium (F.) nucleatum was abundant in colorectal cancer tissues in patients with recurrence post chemotherapy, and was associated with patient clinicopathological characterisitcs. Furthermore, our bioinformatic and functional studies demonstrated that F. nucleatum promoted colorectal cancer resistance to chemotherapy. Mechanistically, F. nucleatum targeted TLR4 and MYD88 innate immune signaling and specific microRNAs to activate the autophagy pathway and alter colorectal cancer chemotherapeutic response. Thus, F. nucleatum orchestrates a molecular network of the Toll-like receptor, microRNAs, and autophagy to clinically, biologically, and mechanistically control colorectal cancer chemoresistance. Measuring and targeting F. nucleatum and its associated pathway will yield valuable insight into clinical management and may ameliorate colorectal cancer patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of family cancer history data in high-risk families: the influence of cancer site, ethnicity, kinship degree, and multiple family reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehranifar, Parisa; Wu, Hui-Chen; Shriver, Tom; Cloud, Ann J; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-02-01

    Information on family cancer history (FCH) is often collected for first-degree relatives, but more extensive FCH information is critical for greater accuracy in risk assessment. Using self-reported diagnosis of cancer as the gold standard, we examined differences in the sensitivity and specificity of relative-reported FCH by cancer site, race/ethnicity, language preference, and kinship degree (1,524 individuals from 557 families; average number of relatives per family = 2.7). We evaluated the impact of FCH data collected in 2007-2013 from multiple relatives by comparing mean values and proportions for the number of relatives with any cancer, breast cancer, or ovarian cancer as reported by a single relative and by multiple relatives in the same family. The sensitivity of FCH was lower in Hispanics, Spanish-speaking persons, and third-degree relatives (e.g., for all cancers, sensitivities were 80.7%, 87.4%, and 91.0% for third-, second-, and first-degree relatives, respectively). FCH reported by multiple relatives included a higher number of relatives with cancer than the number reported by a single relative (e.g., mean increase of 1.2 relatives with any cancer), with more relatives diagnosed with any cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer in 52%, 36% and 12% of families, respectively. Collection of FCH data from multiple relatives may provide a more comprehensive picture of FCH and may potentially improve risk assessment and preventive care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Urological cancer related to familial syndromes

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    Walter Henriques da Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cancer related to hereditary syndromes corresponds to approximately 5-10% of all tumors. Among those from the genitourinary system, many tumors had been identified to be related to genetic syndromes in the last years with the advent of new molecular genetic tests. New entities were described or better characterized, especially in kidney cancer such as hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC, succinate dehydrogenase kidney cancer (SDH-RCC, and more recently BAP1 germline mutation related RCC. Among tumors from the bladder or renal pelvis, some studies had reinforced the role of germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR genes, especially in young patients. In prostate adenocarcinoma, besides mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes that are known to increase the incidence of high-risk cancer in young patients, new studies have shown mutation in other gene such as HOXB13 and also polymorphisms in MYC, MSMB, KLK2 and KLK3 that can be related to hereditary prostate cancer. Finally, tumors from testis that showed an increased in 8 - 10-fold in siblings and 4 - 6-fold in sons of germ cell tumors (TGCT patients, have been related to alteration in X chromosome. Also genome wide association studies GWAS pointed new genes that can also be related to increase of this susceptibility.

  17. XCR1 promotes cell growth and migration and is correlated with bone metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ting; Han, Shuai; Wu, Zhipeng; Han, Zhitao; Yan, Wangjun; Liu, Tielong; Wei, Haifeng; Song, Dianwen; Zhou, Wang, E-mail: brilliant212@163.com; Yang, Xinghai, E-mail: cnspineyang@163.com; Xiao, Jianru, E-mail: jianruxiao83@163.com

    2015-08-21

    Bone metastasis occurs in approximately 30–40% patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the mechanism underlying this bone metastasis remains poorly understood. The chemokine super family is believed to play an important role in tumor metastasis in lung cancer. The chemokine receptor XCR1 has been identified to promote cell proliferation and migration in oral cancer and ovarian carcinoma, but the role of XCR1 in lung cancer has not been reported. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that XCR1 was overexpressed in lung cancer bone metastasis as compared with that in patients with primary lung cancer. In addition, the XCR1 ligand XCL1 promoted the proliferation and migration of lung cancer cells markedly, and knockdown of XCR1 by siRNA abolished the effect of XCL1 in cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, we identified JAK2/STAT3 as a novel downstream pathway of XCR1, while XCL1/XCR1 increased the mRNA level of the downstream of JAK2/STAT3 including PIM1, JunB, TTP, MMP2 and MMP9. These results indicate that XCR1 is a new potential therapeutic target for the treatment of lung cancer bone metastasis. - Highlights: • XCR1 is overexpressed in bone metastasis compared with primary NSCLC. • XCR1 activation by XCL1 promotes lung cancer cell proliferation and migration. • JAK2/STAT3 is a novel potential downstream pathway of XCR1.

  18. Comprehensive family hygiene promotion in peri-urban Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    primary aim of this study was to assess the differential effects of hygiene education alone compared with hygiene education plus hygiene products on the .... such as after handling body fluids or blood, after touching a pet, after playing outside, after .... greater challenges to personal and family hygiene owing to restrictions ...

  19. Familial skin cancer syndromes: Increased melanoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransohoff, Katherine J; Jaju, Prajakta D; Jaju, Prajaka D; Tang, Jean Y; Carbone, Michele; Leachman, Sancy; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2016-03-01

    Phenotypic traits, such as red hair and freckling, increase melanoma risk by 2- to 3-fold. In addition, approximately 10% of melanomas are caused by inherited germline mutations that increase melanoma risk from 4- to >1000-fold. This review highlights the key genes responsible for inherited melanoma, with an emphasis on when a patient should undergo genetic testing. Many genetic syndromes associated with increased melanoma risk are also associated with an increased risk of other cancers. Identification of these high-risk patients is essential for preventive behavior reinforcement, genetic counseling, and ensuring other required cancer screenings. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Attitudes of Chinese Cancer Patients and Family Caregivers toward Advance Directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Advance directives (ADs have been legislated in many countries to protect patient autonomy regarding medical decisions at the end of life. China is facing a serious cancer burden and cancer patients’ quality at the end of life should be a concern. However, limited studies have been conducted locally to gather information about attitudes toward ADs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese cancer patients and family caregivers toward ADs and to explore the predictors that are associated with attitudes. The study indicated that although there was low awareness of ADs, most cancer patients and family caregivers had positive attitudes toward ADs after related information was explained to them. Participants preferred to discuss ADs with medical staff when they were diagnosed with a life-threatening disease. Preferences for refusing life-sustaining treatment and choosing Hospice-Palliative Care (HPC at the end of life would increase the likelihood of agreeing with ADs. This suggests that some effective interventions to help participants better understand end-of-life treatments are helpful in promoting ADs. Moreover, the development of HPC would contribute to Chinese cancer patients and family caregivers agreeing with ADs.

  1. Interaction of Dietary Fatty Acids with Tumour Necrosis Factor Family Cytokines during Colon Inflammation and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straková, Nicol; Vaculová, Alena Hyršlová; Tylichová, Zuzana; Šafaříková, Barbora; Kozubík, Alois

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal homeostasis is precisely regulated by a number of endogenous regulatory molecules but significantly influenced by dietary compounds. Malfunction of this system may result in chronic inflammation and cancer. Dietary essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and short-chain fatty acid butyrate produced from fibre display anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Both compounds were shown to modulate the production and activities of TNF family cytokines. Cytokines from the TNF family (TNF-α, TRAIL, and FasL) have potent inflammatory activities and can also regulate apoptosis, which plays an important role in cancer development. The results of our own research showed enhancement of apoptosis in colon cancer cells by a combination of either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or butyrate with TNF family cytokines, especially by promotion of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and modulation of NFκB activity. This review is focused mainly on the interaction of dietary PUFAs and butyrate with these cytokines during colon inflammation and cancer development. We summarised recent knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects and outcomes for intestinal cell behaviour and pathologies. Finally, the possible application for the prevention and therapy of colon inflammation and cancer is also outlined. PMID:24876678

  2. CYP17 genetic polymorphism, breast cancer, and breast cancer risk factors: Australian Breast Cancer Family Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jiun-Horng; Gertig, Dorota M; Chen, Xiaoqing; Dite, Gillian S; Jenkins, Mark A; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; McCredie, Margaret RE; Giles, Graham G; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John L; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Because CYP17 can influence the degree of exposure of breast tissues to oestrogen, the interaction between polymorphisms in this gene and hormonal risk factors is of particular interest. We attempted to replicate the findings of studies assessing such interactions with the -34T?C polymorphism. Methods Risk factor and CYP17 genotyping data were derived from a large Australian population-based case-control-family study of 1,284 breast cancer cases and 679 controls. Crude and adjust...

  3. Family Perspectives on Hospice Care Experiences of Patients with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pallavi; Wright, Alexi A; Hatfield, Laura A; Temel, Jennifer S; Keating, Nancy L

    2017-02-01

    Purpose To determine whether hospice use by patients with cancer is associated with their families' perceptions of patients' symptoms, goal attainment, and quality of end-of-life (EOL) care. Methods We interviewed 2,307 families of deceased patients with advanced lung or colorectal cancer who were enrolled in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance study (a multiregional, prospective, observational study) and died by 2011. We used propensity-score matching to compare family-reported outcomes for patients who did and did not receive hospice care, including the presence and relief of common symptoms (ie, pain, dyspnea), concordance with patients' wishes for EOL care and place of death, and quality of EOL care. We also examined associations between hospice length of stay and these outcomes among hospice enrollees. Results In a propensity-score-matched sample of 1,970 individuals, families of patients enrolled in hospice reported more pain in their patient compared with those not enrolled in hospice. However, families of patients enrolled in hospice more often reported that patients received "just the right amount" of pain medicine (80% v 73%; adjusted difference, 7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1 to 12 percentage points) and help with dyspnea (78% v 70%; adjusted difference, 8 percentage points; 95% CI, 2 to 13 percentage points). Families of patients enrolled in hospice also more often reported that patients' EOL wishes were followed (80% v 74%; adjusted difference, 6 percentage points; 95% CI, 2 to 11 percentage points) and "excellent" quality EOL care (57% v 42%; adjusted difference, 15 percentage points; 95% CI, 11 to 20). Families of patients who received > 30 days of hospice care reported the highest quality EOL outcomes. Conclusion Hospice care is associated with better symptom relief, patient-goal attainment, and quality of EOL care. Encouraging earlier and increased hospice enrollment may improve EOL experiences for patients with

  4. Family history in public health practice: a genomic tool for disease prevention and health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Rodolfo; Yoon, Paula W; Qureshi, Nadeem; Green, Ridgely Fisk; Khoury, Muin J

    2010-01-01

    Family history is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Professional guidelines usually include family history to assess health risk, initiate interventions, and motivate behavioral changes. The advantages of family history over other genomic tools include a lower cost, greater acceptability, and a reflection of shared genetic and environmental factors. However, the utility of family history in public health has been poorly explored. To establish family history as a public health tool, it needs to be evaluated within the ACCE framework (analytical validity; clinical validity; clinical utility; and ethical, legal, and social issues). Currently, private and public organizations are developing tools to collect standardized family histories of many diseases. Their goal is to create family history tools that have decision support capabilities and are compatible with electronic health records. These advances will help realize the potential of family history as a public health tool.

  5. Combined RASSF1A and RASSF2A Promoter Methylation Analysis as Diagnostic Biomarker for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Meng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoter hypermethylation, a widely studied epigenetic event known to influence gene expression levels, has been proposed as a potential biomarker in multiple types of cancer. Clinical diagnostic biomarkers are needed for reliable prediction of bladder cancer recurrence. In this paper, DNA promoter methylation of five C-terminal Ras-association family members (RASSF1A, RASSF2A, RASSF4, RASSF5, and RASSF6 was studied in 64 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE bladder cancer and normal adjacent tissues using methylation-specific high-resolution melting (MS-HRM analysis. Results showed that 73% (30/41 of transitional cell carcinoma, 100% (3/3 of squamous cell carcinoma, and 100% (4/4 of small cell carcinoma demonstrated promoter methylation of the RASSF1A or RASSF2A gene, but only 6% (1/16 of normal tissues had promoter methylation of RASSF genes. Testing positive for hypermethylation of RASSF1A or RASSF2A promoter provided 77% sensitivity and 94% specificity for identification of cancer tissues with an area under the curve of 0.854, suggesting that promoter methylation analysis of RASSF1A and RASSF2A genes has potential for use as a recurrence biomarker for bladder cancer patients.

  6. Metabolic pathways promoting cancer cell survival and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroughs, Lindsey K; DeBerardinis, Ralph J

    2015-04-01

    Activation of oncogenes and loss of tumour suppressors promote metabolic reprogramming in cancer, resulting in enhanced nutrient uptake to supply energetic and biosynthetic pathways. However, nutrient limitations within solid tumours may require that malignant cells exhibit metabolic flexibility to sustain growth and survival. Here, we highlight these adaptive mechanisms and also discuss emerging approaches to probe tumour metabolism in vivo and their potential to expand the metabolic repertoire of malignant cells even further.

  7. Germline rearrangements in families with strong family history of glioma and malignant melanoma, colon, and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Cederquist, Kristina; Aradottir, Steina; Borg, Åke; Armstrong, Georgina N.; Shete, Sanjay; Lau, Ching C.; Bainbridge, Matthew N.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Lai, Rose; Il'yasova, Dora; Houlston, Richard S.; Schildkraut, Joellen; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Olson, Sara H.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Lachance, Daniel H.; Wrensch, Margaret; Davis, Faith G.; Merrell, Ryan; Johansen, Christoffer; Sadetzki, Siegal; Bondy, Melissa L.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Adatto, Phyllis; Morice, Fabian; Payen, Sam; McQuinn, Lacey; McGaha, Rebecca; Guerra, Sandra; Paith, Leslie; Roth, Katherine; Zeng, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Yung, Alfred; Aldape, Kenneth; Gilbert, Mark; Weinberger, Jeffrey; Colman, Howard; Conrad, Charles; de Groot, John; Forman, Arthur; Groves, Morris; Levin, Victor; Loghin, Monica; Puduvalli, Vinay; Sawaya, Raymond; Heimberger, Amy; Lang, Frederick; Levine, Nicholas; Tolentino, Lori; Saunders, Kate; Thach, Thu-Trang; Iacono, Donna Dello; Sloan, Andrew; Gerson, Stanton; Selman, Warren; Bambakidis, Nicholas; Hart, David; Miller, Jonathan; Hoffer, Alan; Cohen, Mark; Rogers, Lisa; Nock, Charles J; Wolinsky, Yingli; Devine, Karen; Fulop, Jordonna; Barrett, Wendi; Shimmel, Kristen; Ostrom, Quinn; Barnett, Gene; Rosenfeld, Steven; Vogelbaum, Michael; Weil, Robert; Ahluwalia, Manmeet; Peereboom, David; Staugaitis, Susan; Schilero, Cathy; Brewer, Cathy; Smolenski, Kathy; McGraw, Mary; Naska, Theresa; Rosenfeld, Steven; Ram, Zvi; Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Bokstein, Felix; Umansky, Felix; Zaaroor, Menashe; Cohen, Avi; Tzuk-Shina, Tzeela; Voldby, Bo; Laursen, René; Andersen, Claus; Brennum, Jannick; Henriksen, Matilde Bille; Marzouk, Maya; Davis, Mary Elizabeth; Boland, Eamon; Smith, Marcel; Eze, Ogechukwu; Way, Mahalia; Lada, Pat; Miedzianowski, Nancy; Frechette, Michelle; Paleologos, Nina; Byström, Gudrun; Svedberg, Eva; Huggert, Sara; Kimdal, Mikael; Sandström, Monica; Brännström, Nikolina; Hayat, Amina; Tihan, Tarik; Zheng, Shichun; Berger, Mitchel; Butowski, Nicholas; Chang, Susan; Clarke, Jennifer; Prados, Michael; Rice, Terri; Sison, Jeannette; Kivett, Valerie; Duo, Xiaoqin; Hansen, Helen; Hsuang, George; Lamela, Rosito; Ramos, Christian; Patoka, Joe; Wagenman, Katherine; Zhou, Mi; Klein, Adam; McGee, Nora; Pfefferle, Jon; Wilson, Callie; Morris, Pagan; Hughes, Mary; Britt-Williams, Marlin; Foft, Jessica; Madsen, Julia; Polony, Csaba; McCarthy, Bridget; Zahora, Candice; Villano, John; Engelhard, Herbert; Borg, Ake; Chanock, Stephen K; Collins, Peter; Elston, Robert; Kleihues, Paul; Kruchko, Carol; Petersen, Gloria; Plon, Sharon; Thompson, Patricia; Johansen, C.; Sadetzki, S.; Melin, B.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Lau, Ching C.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Armstrong, Georgina N.; Liu, Yanhong; Shete, Sanjay; Yu, Robert K.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Weinberg, Jeffrey; Houlston, Richard S.; Hosking, Fay J.; Robertson, Lindsay; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Sloan, Andrew E.; Barnett, Gene; Devine, Karen; Wolinsky, Yingli; Lai, Rose; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Il'yasova, Dora; Schildkraut, Joellen; Sadetzki, Siegal; Yechezkel, Galit Hirsh; Bruchim, Revital Bar-Sade; Aslanov, Lili; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Kosteljanetz, Michael; Broholm, Helle; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Olson, Sara H.; Schubert, Erica; DeAngelis, Lisa; Jenkins, Robert B.; Yang, Ping; Rynearson, Amanda; Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Henriksson, Roger; Melin, Beatrice S.; Cederquist, Kristina; Aradottir, Steina; Borg, Åke; Merrell, Ryan; Lada, Patricia; Wrensch, Margaret; Wiencke, John; Wiemels, Joe; McCoy, Lucie; McCarthy, Bridget J.; Davis, Faith G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although familial susceptibility to glioma is known, the genetic basis for this susceptibility remains unidentified in the majority of glioma-specific families. An alternative approach to identifying such genes is to examine cancer pedigrees, which include glioma as one of several cancer phenotypes, to determine whether common chromosomal modifications might account for the familial aggregation of glioma and other cancers. Methods Germline rearrangements in 146 glioma families (from the Gliogene Consortium; http://www.gliogene.org/) were examined using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. These families all had at least 2 verified glioma cases and a third reported or verified glioma case in the same family or 2 glioma cases in the family with at least one family member affected with melanoma, colon, or breast cancer.The genomic areas covering TP53, CDKN2A, MLH1, and MSH2 were selected because these genes have been previously reported to be associated with cancer pedigrees known to include glioma. Results We detected a single structural rearrangement, a deletion of exons 1-6 in MSH2, in the proband of one family with 3 cases with glioma and one relative with colon cancer. Conclusions Large deletions and duplications are rare events in familial glioma cases, even in families with a strong family history of cancers that may be involved in known cancer syndromes. PMID:24723567

  8. Aberrant Promoter Methylation of the Tumour Suppressor RASSF10 and Its Growth Inhibitory Function in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje M. Richter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, with 1.7 million new cases each year. As early diagnosis and prognosis are crucial factors in cancer treatment, we investigated potential DNA methylation biomarkers of the tumour suppressor family Ras-association domain family (RASSF. Promoter hypermethylation of tumour suppressors leads to their inactivation and thereby promotes cancer development and progression. In this study we analysed the tumour suppressors RASSF1A and RASSF10. Our study shows that RASSF10 is expressed in normal breast but inactivated by methylation in breast cancer. We observed a significant inactivating promoter methylation of RASSF10 in primary breast tumours. RASSF10 is inactivated in 63% of primary breast cancer samples but only 4% of normal control breast tissue is methylated (p < 0.005. RASSF1A also shows high promoter methylation levels in breast cancer of 56% vs. 8% of normal tissue (p < 0.005. Interestingly more than 80% of breast cancer samples harboured a hypermethylation of RASSF10 and/or RASSF1A promoter. Matching samples exhibited a strong tumour specific promoter methylation of RASSF10 in comparison to the normal control breast tissue. Demethylation treatment of breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and T47D reversed RASSF10 promoter hypermethylation and re-established RASSF10 expression. In addition, we could show the growth inhibitory potential of RASSF10 in breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and T47D upon exogenous expression of RASSF10 by colony formation. We could further show, that RASSF10 induced apoptotic changes in MCF7 and T47D cells, which was verified by a significant increase in the apoptotic sub G1 fraction by 50% using flow cytometry for MCF7 cells. In summary, our study shows the breast tumour specific inactivation of RASSF10 and RASSF1A due to DNA methylation of their CpG island promoters. Furthermore RASSF10 was characterised by the ability to block growth of breast cancer cell lines by apoptosis

  9. SLUG promotes prostate cancer cell migration and invasion via CXCR4/CXCL12 axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uygur Berna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SLUG is a zinc-finger transcription factor of the Snail/Slug zinc-finger family that plays a role in migration and invasion of tumor cells. Mechanisms by which SLUG promotes migration and invasion in prostate cancers remain elusive. Methods Expression level of CXCR4 and CXCL12 was examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and qPCR analyses. Forced expression of SLUG was mediated by retroviruses, and SLUG and CXCL12 was downregulated by shRNAs-expressing lentiviruses. Migration and invasion of prostate cancer were measured by scratch-wound assay and invasion assay, respectively. Research We demonstrated that forced expression of SLUG elevated CXCR4 and CXCL12 expression in human prostate cancer cell lines PC3, DU145, 22RV1, and LNCaP; conversely, reduced expression of SLUG by shRNA downregulated CXCR4 and CXCL12 expression at RNA and protein levels in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, ectopic expression of SLUG increased MMP9 expression and activity in PC3, 22RV1, and DU-145 cells, and SLUG knockdown by shRNA downregulated MMP9 expression. We showed that CXCL12 is required for SLUG-mediated MMP9 expression in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, we found that migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells was increased by ectopic expression of SLUG and decreased by SLUG knockdown. Notably, knockdown of CXCL12 by shRNA impaired SLUG-mediated migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells. Lastly, our data suggest that CXCL12 and SLUG regulate migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells independent of cell growth. Conclusion We provide the first compelling evidence that upregulation of autocrine CXCL12 is a major mechanism underlying SLUG-mediated migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells. Our findings suggest that CXCL12 is a therapeutic target for prostate cancer metastasis.

  10. Completeness of pedigree and family cancer history for ovarian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Yedong; Lim, Myong Cheol; Seo, Sang Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Sang Yoon

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the completeness of pedigree and of number of pedigree analysis to know the acceptable familial history in Korean women with ovarian cancer. Interview was conducted in 50 ovarian cancer patients for obtaining familial history three times over the 6 weeks. The completeness of pedigree is estimated in terms of familial history of disease (cancer), health status (health living, disease and death), and onset age of disease and death. The completion of pedigree was 79.3, 85.1, and 85.6% at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd time of interview and the time for pedigree analysis was 34.3, 10.8, and 3.1 minutes, respectively. The factors limiting pedigree analysis were as follows: out of contact with their relatives (38%), no living ancestors who know the family history (34%), dispersed family member because of the Korean War (16%), unknown cause of death (12%), reluctance to ask medical history of relatives (10%), and concealing their ovarian cancer (10%). The percentage of cancers revealed in 1st (2%) and 2nd degree (8%) relatives were increasing through surveys, especially colorectal cancer related with Lynch syndrome (4%). Analysis of pedigree at least two times is acceptable in Korean woman with ovarian cancer from the first study. The completion of pedigree is increasing, while time to take family history is decreasing during three time survey.

  11. Coping Well with Advanced Cancer: A Serial Qualitative Interview Study with Patients and Family Carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Catherine; Roberts, Diane; Appleton, Lynda; Calman, Lynn; Large, Paul; Lloyd-Williams, Mari; Grande, Gunn

    2017-01-01

    To understand successful strategies used by people to cope well when living with advanced cancer; to explore how professionals can support effective coping strategies; to understand how to support development of effective coping strategies for patients and family carers. Qualitative serial (4-12 week intervals) interview study with people with advanced cancer and their informal carers followed by focus groups. The iterative design had a novel focus on positive coping strategies. Interview analysis focused on patients and carers as individuals and pairs, exploring multiple dimensions of their coping experiences. Focus group analysis explored strategies for intervention development. 26 people with advanced (stage 3-4) breast, prostate, lung or colorectal cancer, or in receipt of palliative care, and 24 paired nominated informal/family carers. Participants recruited through outpatient clinics at two tertiary cancer centres in Merseyside and Manchester, UK, between June 2012 and July 2013. 45 patient and 41 carer interviews were conducted plus 4 focus groups (16 participants). People with advanced cancer and their informal/family carers develop coping strategies which enable effective management of psychological wellbeing. People draw from pre-diagnosis coping strategies, but these develop through responding to the experience of living with advanced cancer. Strategies include being realistic, indulgence, support, and learning from others, which enabled participants to regain a sense of wellbeing after emotional challenge. Learning from peers emerged as particularly important in promoting psychological wellbeing through the development of effective 'everyday', non-clinical coping strategies. Our findings challenge current models of providing psychological support for those with advanced cancer which focus on professional intervention. It is important to recognise, enable and support peoples' own resources and coping strategies. Peer support may have potential, and could

  12. With increasing age at tumor diagnosis in familial cancer: Cancer is limited to fewer organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsson H

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary cancer that has monogenic inheritance affects every tenth patient, on average, who is diagnosed with cancer, and it has been suggested, based on twin studies, that approximately 30% of all cancer patients have a genetic predisposition to developing cancer. In this article, the author posited that familial syndromes become more organ specific with increasing age at tumor presentation to the point that very late in life, only a few organs are affected by tumors. The reason for this could be that the tumor originates from a more differentiated, organ-specific progenitor/stem cell later in life, while the progenitor/stem cell might be involved in organogenesis in different organs earlier in life. Examples are given for skin cancer, colon, endometrial and breast cancer. Patients with familial cancer who present with cancer at an older age have a more organ-restricted disease. This could be because the tumor has a more differentiated progenitor/stem cell origin. Examples are given for families with breast cancer, melanoma, non-melanoma skin cancer, endometrial and colon cancer.

  13. The rationale for targeting the LOX family in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Holly E; Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine T

    2012-01-01

    and are the subject of much effort to understand their roles in cancer. In this Review we discuss the roles of members of this family in the remodelling of the tumour microenvironment and their paradoxical roles in tumorigenesis and metastasis. We also discuss how targeting this family of proteins might lead to a new......The therapeutic targeting of extracellular proteins is becoming hugely attractive in light of evidence implicating the tumour microenvironment as pivotal in all aspects of tumour initiation and progression. Members of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of proteins are secreted by tumours...

  14. p53 protein aggregation promotes platinum resistance in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang-Hartwich, Y; Soteras, M G; Lin, Z P; Holmberg, J; Sumi, N; Craveiro, V; Liang, M; Romanoff, E; Bingham, J; Garofalo, F; Alvero, A; Mor, G

    2015-07-01

    High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC), the most lethal gynecological cancer, often leads to chemoresistant diseases. The p53 protein is a key transcriptional factor regulating cellular homeostasis. A majority of HGSOCs have inactive p53 because of genetic mutations. However, genetic mutation is not the only cause of p53 inactivation. The aggregation of p53 protein has been discovered in different types of cancers and may be responsible for impairing the normal transcriptional activation and pro-apoptotic functions of p53. We demonstrated that in a unique population of HGSOC cancer cells with cancer stem cell properties, p53 protein aggregation is associated with p53 inactivation and platinum resistance. When these cancer stem cells differentiated into their chemosensitive progeny, they lost tumor-initiating capacity and p53 aggregates. In addition to the association of p53 aggregation and chemoresistance in HGSOC cells, we further demonstrated that the overexpression of a p53-positive regulator, p14ARF, inhibited MDM2-mediated p53 degradation and led to the imbalance of p53 turnover that promoted the formation of p53 aggregates. With in vitro and in vivo models, we demonstrated that the inhibition of p14ARF could suppress p53 aggregation and sensitize cancer cells to platinum treatment. Moreover, by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry we discovered that the aggregated p53 may function uniquely by interacting with proteins that are critical for cancer cell survival and tumor progression. Our findings help us understand the poor chemoresponse of a subset of HGSOC patients and suggest p53 aggregation as a new marker for chemoresistance. Our findings also suggest that inhibiting p53 aggregation can reactivate p53 pro-apoptotic function. Therefore, p53 aggregation is a potential therapeutic target for reversing chemoresistance. This is paramount for improving ovarian cancer patients' responses to chemotherapy, and thus increasing their

  15. The ADAMs family of proteases: new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for cancer?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2011-06-09

    Abstract The ADAMs are transmembrane proteins implicated in proteolysis and cell adhesion. Forty gene members of the family have been identified, of which 21 are believed to be functional in humans. As proteases, their main substrates are the ectodomains of other transmembrane proteins. These substrates include precursor forms of growth factors, cytokines, growth factor receptors, cytokine receptors and several different types of adhesion molecules. Although altered expression of specific ADAMs has been implicated in different diseases, their best-documented role is in cancer formation and progression. ADAMs shown to play a role in cancer include ADAM9, ADAM10, ADAM12, ADAM15 and ADAM17. Two of the ADAMs, i.e., ADAM10 and 17 appear to promote cancer progression by releasing HER\\/EGFR ligands. The released ligands activate HER\\/EGFR signalling that culminates in increased cell proliferation, migration and survival. Consistent with a causative role in cancer, several ADAMs are emerging as potential cancer biomarkers for aiding cancer diagnosis and predicting patient outcome. Furthermore, a number of selective ADAM inhibitors, especially against ADAM10 and ADAM17, have been shown to have anti-cancer effects. At least one of these inhibitors is now undergoing clinical trials in patients with breast cancer.

  16. Identification of a DMBT1 polymorphism associated with increased breast cancer risk and decreased promoter activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchatchou, Sandrine; Riedel, Angela; Lyer, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    According to present estimations, the unfavorable combination of alleles with low penetrance but high prevalence in the population might account for the major part of hereditary breast cancer risk. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) has been proposed as a tumor suppressor for breast cancer...... and other cancer types. Genomewide mapping in mice further identified Dmbt1 as a potential modulator of breast cancer risk. Here, we report the association of two frequent and linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with increased breast cancer risk in women above the age of 60 years: DMBT1 c.-93C......>T, rs2981745, located in the DMBT1 promoter; and DMBT1 c.124A>C, p.Thr42Pro, rs11523871(odds ratio [OR]=1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.21-2.29, P=0.0017; and OR=1.66; 95% CI=1.21-2.28, P=0.0016, respectively), based on 1,195 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative German breast cancer families and 1...

  17. Molecular cytogenetic in the familial cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermak, M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of cancer diseases is accompanied by number of genetic changes at different levels of the genome. Some of these changes are still subject of research but others are already known in such an extent that they are associated with a specific type of malignity, the development, or treatment possibilities. The cancer genetics dispose of wide range of techniques, with reliable detection of the causal changes. Starting the molecular cytogenetics has launched a new era in diagnostics of genetic aberrations. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) definitely changed cytogenetic world from black and white to color one and set the foundation of modern investigative methods such as M-FISH, CGH, array CGH and many others. Successively all these methodologies have become a part of routine cancer diagnostics thorough the world. Actually, when much attention is given mostly to submicroscopic changes in DNA supposed as predispositions to various malignancies, the molecular cytogenetics is trying to success in competition of modern highly sensitive molecular biology methods. (author)

  18. Promoting family meals: a review of existing interventions and opportunities for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Laura; Oh, April; Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that regular family meals protect against unhealthy eating and obesity during childhood and adolescence. However, there is limited information on ways to promote family meals as part of health promotion and obesity prevention efforts. The primary aim of this review was to synthesize the literature on strategies to promote family meals among families with school-aged children and adolescents. First, we reviewed interventions that assess family meals as an outcome and summarized strategies that have been used in these interventions. Second, we reviewed correlates and barriers to family meals to identify focal populations and target constructs for consideration in new interventions. During May 26–27, 2014, PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched to identify literature on family meals published between January 1, 2000 and May 27, 2014. Two reviewers coded 2,115 titles/abstracts, yielding a sample of 139 articles for full-text review. Six interventions and 43 other studies presenting data on correlates of or barriers to family meals were included in the review. Four interventions resulted in greater family meal frequency. Although there were a small number of interventions, intervention settings were diverse and included the home, community, medical settings, the workplace, and the Internet. Common strategies were goal setting and interactive group activities, and intervention targets included cooking and food preparation, cost, shopping, and adolescent influence. Although methodological nuances may contribute to mixed findings, key correlates of family meals were employment, socioeconomic and demographic factors, family structure, and psychosocial constructs. Barriers to consider in future interventions include time and scheduling challenges, cost, and food preferences. Increasing youth involvement in mealtime, tailoring interventions to family characteristics, and providing support for families experiencing time-related barriers are suggested

  19. Ecology meets cancer biology: The cancer swamp promotes the lethal cancer phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Sarah R.; Pienta, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    As they grow, tumors fundamentally alter their microenvironment, disrupting the homeostasis of the host organ and eventually the patient as a whole. Lethality is the ultimate result of deregulated cell signaling and regulatory mechanisms as well as inappropriate host cell recruitment and activity that lead to the death of the patient. These processes have striking parallels to the framework of ecological biology: multiple interacting ecosystems (organ systems) within a larger biosphere (body), alterations in species stoichiometry (host cell types), resource cycling (cellular metabolism and cell-cell signaling), and ecosystem collapse (organ failure and death). In particular, as cancer cells generate their own niche within the tumor ecosystem, ecological engineering and autoeutrophication displace normal cell function and result in the creation of a hypoxic, acidic, and nutrient-poor environment. This “cancer swamp” has genetic and epigenetic effects at the local ecosystem level to promote metastasis and at the systemic host level to induce cytokine-mediated lethal syndromes, a major cause of death of cancer patients. PMID:25895024

  20. Resilience in Families of Husbands with Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, Abraham P.; Thiel, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies qualities associated with the successful adaptation of families with a husband diagnosed with prostate cancer. Both qualitative and quantitative measures were used in this cross-sectional survey research design. Twenty-one husbands and their spouses independently completed six questionnaires and a biographical questionnaire,…

  1. Building Family Capacity for Native Hawaiian Women with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokuau, Noreen; Braun, Kathryn L.; Daniggelis, Ephrosine

    2012-01-01

    Native Hawaiian women have the highest breast cancer incidence and mortality rates when compared with other large ethnic groups in Hawai'i. Like other women, they rely on the support of their families as co-survivors. This project explored the feasibility and effects of a culturally tailored educational intervention designed to build family…

  2. Activating mutation in MET oncogene in familial colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schildkraut Joellen M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, the lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC is 5%, and it is the second leading cause of death from cancer. The presence of family history is a well established risk factor with 25-35% of CRCs attributable to inherited and/or familial factors. The highly penetrant inherited colon cancer syndromes account for approximately 5%, leaving greater than 20% without clear genetic definition. Familial colorectal cancer has been linked to chromosome 7q31 by multiple affected relative pair studies. The MET proto-oncogene which resides in this chromosomal region is considered a candidate for genetic susceptibility. Methods MET exons were amplified by PCR from germline DNA of 148 affected sibling pairs with colorectal cancer. Amplicons with altered sequence were detected with high-resolution melt-curve analysis using a LightScanner (Idaho Technologies. Samples demonstrating alternative melt curves were sequenced. A TaqMan assay for the specific c.2975C >T change was used to confirm this mutation in a cohort of 299 colorectal cancer cases and to look for allelic amplification in tumors. Results Here we report a germline non-synonymous change in the MET proto-oncogene at amino acid position T992I (also reported as MET p.T1010I in 5.2% of a cohort of sibling pairs affected with CRC. This genetic variant was then confirmed in a second cohort of individuals diagnosed with CRC and having a first degree relative with CRC at prevalence of 4.1%. This mutation has been reported in cancer cells of multiple origins, including 2.5% of colon cancers, and in Conclusions Although the MET p.T992I genetic mutation is commonly found in somatic colorectal cancer tissues, this is the first report also implicating this MET genetic mutation as a germline inherited risk factor for familial colorectal cancer. Future studies on the cancer risks associated with this mutation and the prevalence in different at-risk populations will

  3. Penetrance of breast cancer, ovarian cancer and contralateral breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 families : high cancer incidence at older age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, Dorina M.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Leegte, Beike K.; Schaapveld, Michael; Mourits, Marian J. E.; de Vries, J; van der Hout, Annemieke H.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.

    Accurate estimations of lifetime risks of breast and ovarian cancer are crucial for counselling women from BRCA1/2 families. We therefore determined breast and ovarian cancer penetrance in BRCA1/2 mutation families in the northern Netherlands and compared them with the incidence of cancers in the

  4. Family Connections: Visual Supports for Promoting Social Skills in Young Children--A Family Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Amelia K.

    2012-01-01

    Family members of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often face social, emotional, and behavioral challenges in the home. Difficulty communicating with family members, forming relationships with friends, and responding appropriately to others can cause significant challenges in the home (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…

  5. Nutrient-based dietary patterns, family history, and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Edefonti, Valeria; Bravi, Francesca; Ferraroni, Monica; Franceschi, Silvia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Montella, Maurizio; Talamini, Renato; Decarli, Adriano

    2011-11-01

    The effect of dietary habits on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk may be modified by a family history of CRC. We analyzed data from an Italian case-control study, including 1953 CRC cases and 4154 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for combined categories of family history and tertiles of two a posteriori dietary patterns were derived using multiple logistic regression models. Compared with individuals without family history and in the lowest tertile category of the 'starch-rich' pattern, the ORs of CRC were 1.38 (95% CI: 1.19-1.61) for the group without family history and in the highest tertile, 2.89 (95% CI: 2.30-3.64) for the one with family history and in the lowest tertile, and 4.00 (95% CI: 3.03-5.27) for the one with family history and in the highest tertile. Compared with individuals without family history and in the highest tertile of the 'vitamins and fiber' pattern, the ORs were 1.29 (95% CI: 1.12-1.48) for the group without family history and in the lowest tertile, 2.89 (95% CI: 2.30-3.64) for the one with family history and in the highest tertile, and 3.74 (95% CI: 2.85-4.91) for the one with family history and in the lowest tertile. Family history of CRC and 'starch-rich' or 'vitamins and fiber' patterns has an independent effect on CRC risk in our population. However, as having a family history plausibly implies shared environmental and/or genetic risk factors, our results could not exclude that dietary habits can modify genetic susceptibility to CRC.

  6. Mutation analysis of the AATF gene in breast cancer families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haanpää, Maria; Reiman, Mervi; Nikkilä, Jenni; Erkko, Hannele; Pylkäs, Katri; Winqvist, Robert

    2009-01-01

    About 5-10% of breast cancer is due to inherited disease predisposition. Many previously identified susceptibility factors are involved in the maintenance of genomic integrity. AATF plays an important role in the regulation of gene transcription and cell proliferation. It induces apoptosis by associating with p53. The checkpoint kinases ATM/ATR and CHEK2 interact with and phosphorylate AATF, enhancing its accumulation and stability. Based on its biological function, and direct interaction with several known breast cancer risk factors, AATF is a good candidate gene for being involved in heritable cancer susceptibility. Here we have screened the entire coding region of AATF in affected index cases from 121 Finnish cancer families for germline defects, using conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis and direct sequencing. Altogether seven different sequence changes were observed, one missense variant and six intronic ones. Based on the in silico analyses of these sequence alterations, as well as their occurrence in cases and controls, none of them, however, were predicted to be pathogenic. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the mutation screening of the AATF gene in familial breast cancer cases. No evidence for the association with breast cancer was observed

  7. Depression and family support in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su JA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Jian-An Su,1–3,* Dah-Cherng Yeh,4,* Ching-Chi Chang,5,* Tzu-Chin Lin,6,7 Ching-Hsiang Lai,8 Pei-Yun Hu,8 Yi-Feng Ho,9 Vincent Chin-Hung Chen,1,2 Tsu-Nai Wang,10,11 Michael Gossop12 1Chang Gung Medical Foundation, Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan; 2Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Surgery, Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University and Department of Psychiatry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 6Department of Psychiatry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 7Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 8Department of Medical Informatics, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 9Tsaotun Psychiatric Center, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Nan-Tou,Taiwan; 10Department of Public Health, College of Health Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 11Center of Excellence for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 12King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Among the survivors, depression is one of the most common psychiatric comorbidities. This paper reports the point prevalence of major depressive disorder among breast cancer patients and the association between family support and major depressive disorder.Methods: Clinical data were collected from a breast cancer clinic of a general hospital in central Taiwan. Participants included 300 patients who were older than 18 years and diagnosed with breast cancer. Among these individuals, we used Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (a structural diagnostic tool for

  8. Tissue Factor promotes breast cancer stem cell activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Hudhaifah; Harrison, Hannah; Clarke, Robert; Landberg, Goran; Bundred, Nigel J; Versteeg, Henri H; Kirwan, Cliona C

    2017-04-18

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cells that can self-renew and initiate tumours. The clotting-initiating protein Tissue Factor (TF) promotes metastasis and may be overexpressed in cancer cells with increased CSC activity. We sought to determine whether TF promotes breast CSC activity in vitro using human breast cancer cell lines. TF expression was compared in anoikis-resistant (CSC-enriched) and unselected cells. In cells sorted into of TF-expressing and TF-negative (FACS), and in cells transfected to knockdown TF (siRNA) and overexpress TF (cDNA), CSC activity was compared by (i) mammosphere forming efficiency (MFE) (ii) holoclone colony formation (Hc) and (iii) ALDH1 activity. TF expression was increased in anoikis-resistant and high ALDH1-activity T47D cells compared to unselected cells. FACS sorted TF-expressing T47Ds and TF-overexpressing MCF7s had increased CSC activity compared to TF-low cells. TF siRNA cells (MDAMB231,T47D) had reduced CSC activity compared to control cells. FVIIa increased MFE and ALDH1 in a dose-dependent manner (MDAMB231, T47D). The effects of FVIIa on MFE were abrogated by TF siRNA (T47D). Breast CSCs (in vitro) demonstrate increased activity when selected for high TF expression, when induced to overexpress TF, and when stimulated (with FVIIa). Targeting the TF pathway in vivo may abrogate CSC activity.

  9. Systematic Review: Family Resilience After Pediatric Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schoors, Marieke; Caes, Line; Verhofstadt, Lesley L; Goubert, Liesbet; Alderfer, Melissa A

    2015-10-01

    A systematic review was conducted to (1) investigate family resilience in the context of pediatric cancer, and (2) examine theoretical, methodological, and statistical issues in this literature. Family resilience was operationalized as competent family functioning after exposure to a significant risk. Following guidelines for systematic reviews, searches were performed using Web of Science, Pubmed, Cochrane, PsycInfo, and Embase. After screening 5,563 articles, 85 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were extracted for review. Findings indicated that most families are resilient, adapting well to the crisis of cancer diagnosis. However, a subset still experiences difficulties. Methodological issues in the current literature hamper strong nuanced conclusions. We suggest future research with a greater focus on family resilience and factors predicting it, based on available theory, and conducted with attention toward unit of measurement and use of appropriate statistical analyses. Improvements in research are needed to best inform family-based clinical efforts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The experience of rural families in the face of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardon-Perlini, Nara Marilene Oliveira; Ângelo, Margareth

    2017-01-01

    To understand the meanings of cancer within the experience of rural families and how such meanings influence family dynamics. Qualitative study guided by Symbolic Interactionism as a theoretical framework and Grounded Theory as a methodological framework. Six rural families (18 participants) undergoing the experience of having a relative with cancer participated in the interview. Constant comparative analysis of data allowed the elaboration of an explanatory substantive theory, defined by the main category Caregiving to support the family world, which represents the family's symbolic actions and strategies to reconcile care for the patient and care for family life. Throughout the experience, rural families seek to preserve the interconnected symbolic elements that provide support for the family world: family unit, land, work and care. Compreender os significados do câncer presentes na experiência de famílias rurais e como esses significados influenciam a dinâmica familiar. Estudo qualitativo orientado pelo Interacionismo Simbólico como referencial teórico e pela Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados como referencial metodológico. Participaram, por meio de entrevista, seis famílias rurais (18 participantes) que estavam vivendo a experiência de ter um familiar com câncer. A análise comparativa constante dos dados permitiu a elaboração de uma teoria substantiva explicativa da experiência, definida pela categoria central Cuidando para manter o mundo da família amparado, que representa as ações e estratégias simbólicas da família visando a conciliar o cuidado do familiar doente e o cuidado da vida familiar. Ao longo da experiência, a família rural procura preservar os elementos simbólicos que, conectados, constituem o amparo do mundo da família: a unidade familiar, a terra, o trabalho e o cuidado.

  11. Attitudes Toward Family Involvement in Cancer Treatment Decision Making: The Perspectives of Patients, Family Caregivers, and Their Oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Wook; Cho, Juhee; Roter, Debra L; Kim, So Young; Yang, Hyung Kook; Park, Keeho; Kim, Hyung Jin; Shin, Hee-Young; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Park, Jong Hyock

    2017-06-01

    To investigate how cancer patients, family caregiver, and their treating oncologist view the risks and benefits of family involvement in cancer treatment decision making (TDM) or the degree to which these perceptions may differ. A nationwide, multicenter survey was conducted with 134 oncologists and 725 of their patients and accompanying caregivers. Participant answered to modified Control Preferences Scale and investigator-developed questionnaire regarding family involvement in cancer TDM. Most participants (>90%) thought that family should be involved in cancer TDM. When asked if the oncologist should allow family involvement if the patient did not want them involved, most patients and caregivers (>85%) thought they should. However, under this circumstance, only 56.0% of oncologists supported family involvement. Patients were significantly more likely to skew their responses toward patient rather than family decisional control than were their caregivers (P family decisional control than caregivers (P family involvement is helpful and neither hamper patient autonomy nor complicate cancer TDM process. Oncologists were largely positive, but less so in these ratings than either patients or caregivers (P family caregivers, and, to a lesser degree, oncologists expect and valued family involvement in cancer TDM. These findings support a reconsideration of traditional models focused on protection of patient autonomy to a more contextualized form of relational autonomy, whereby the patient and family caregivers can be seen as a unit for autonomous decision. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Familial Breast and Bowel Cancer: Does It Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Rodney J

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is much debate in the literature about familial predispositions to breast and bowel cancers yet little evidence is forthcoming to suggest that there are susceptibility genes that can account for such kindreds. Within the context of known susceptibility genes the most controversial syndrome is hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC. In HNPCC, breast cancers do occur yet their incidence overall is no different to that of the general population yet when studied at the molecular level these tumours often display DNA microsatellite instability suggesting that they do indeed belong to this genetic entity. In this review we examine the relationship between breast and bowel cancer and suggest a possible explanation for the diverse points of view described in the literature.

  13. RNA profiling reveals familial aggregation of molecular subtypes in non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Tan, Qihua

    2014-01-01

    and provide evidence for epigenetic inactivation of BRCA1 in three of the tumors. In addition, 7 BRCA2-like tumors were found. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding indicates involvement of hereditary factors in non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families in which family members may carry genetic susceptibility not just to breast...... cancer but to a particular subtype of breast cancer. This is the first study to provide a biological link between breast cancers from family members of high-risk non-BRCA1/2 families in a systematic manner, suggesting that future genetic analysis may benefit from subgrouping families into molecularly......BACKGROUND: In more than 70% of families with a strong history of breast and ovarian cancers, pathogenic mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 cannot be identified, even though hereditary factors are expected to be involved. It has been proposed that tumors with similar molecular phenotypes also share similar...

  14. Health Education and Health Promotion Skills of Health Care Professionals Working in Family Health Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Kabasakal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Preventable diseases pose a serious problem worldwide. The role of primary healthcare professionals is especially significant in promoting health. Aim: It is aimed to determine the health care professionals working in family health centres have on health education and health promotion skills. Method: The study sample included 144 health care professionals employed in one of 33 family health centres in Ankara Province. The study data were collected using a survey developed on the health education and health promotion skills included in the family medicine specialty education and curriculum from 2008. Results: It was found that 33.3% of the health care professionals had planned to receive health education, and that approximately half of the health care professionals had actively practiced health education and health promotion skills. Considering that time constraints were reported to be the most significant barriers to health promotion, primary health care professionals, most particularly the nurses, should be provided with comprehensive continuing educative training on health promotion and health education skills to foster their professional development. Health promotion and health education trainings shall serve to help them become more active and take on the responsibility of assuming counselling and training roles in health education.

  15. Epigenetic down-regulated DDX10 promotes cell proliferation through Akt/NF-κB pathway in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, Muhuizi; Bo, Qifang; Qi, Lixia

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer contributes to the majority of ovarian cancer, while the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Recently, some DEAD box protein 1 has been reported play a tumor suppressor role in ovarian cancer progression. However, the functions of DEAD box protein (DDX) members in ovarian cancer development remain largely unknown. In current study, we retrieved GEO databases and surprisingly found that DDX10 is significantly down-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues compared with normal ovary. These findings suggest that DDX10 might also play a suppressive role in ovarian cancer. We then validated the down-regulated expression pattern of DDX10 in fresh ovarian cancer tissues. Furthermore, both loss- and gain-functions assays reveal that the down-regulated DDX10 could promote ovarian cancer proliferation in vitro and the xenograft subcutaneous tumor formation assays confirmed these findings in vivo. In addition, we found that DDX10 is epigenetic silenced by miR-155-5p in ovarian cancer. Moreover, we further preliminary illustrated that down-regulated DDX10 promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation through Akt/NF-κB pathway. Taken together, in current study, we found a novel tumor suppressor, DDX10, is epigenetic silenced by miR-155-5p in ovarian cancer, and the down-regulated expression pattern of DDX10 promotes ovarian cancer proliferation through Akt/NF-κB pathway. Our findings shed the light that DDX families might be a novel for ovarian cancer treatment. - Highlights: • A novel DEAD box protein, DDX10 is significantly down-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues. • Down-regulated DDX10 promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation and growth both in vitro and in vivo. • miR-155-5p is highly expressed in ovarian cancer tissues and epigenetically targets DDX10. • DDX10 and miR-155-5p regulates Akt/p65 axis in ovarian cancer cells.

  16. Epigenetic down-regulated DDX10 promotes cell proliferation through Akt/NF-κB pathway in ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Muhuizi; Bo, Qifang; Qi, Lixia, E-mail: lixiaqi_dph@sina.com

    2016-01-22

    Ovarian cancer contributes to the majority of ovarian cancer, while the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Recently, some DEAD box protein 1 has been reported play a tumor suppressor role in ovarian cancer progression. However, the functions of DEAD box protein (DDX) members in ovarian cancer development remain largely unknown. In current study, we retrieved GEO databases and surprisingly found that DDX10 is significantly down-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues compared with normal ovary. These findings suggest that DDX10 might also play a suppressive role in ovarian cancer. We then validated the down-regulated expression pattern of DDX10 in fresh ovarian cancer tissues. Furthermore, both loss- and gain-functions assays reveal that the down-regulated DDX10 could promote ovarian cancer proliferation in vitro and the xenograft subcutaneous tumor formation assays confirmed these findings in vivo. In addition, we found that DDX10 is epigenetic silenced by miR-155-5p in ovarian cancer. Moreover, we further preliminary illustrated that down-regulated DDX10 promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation through Akt/NF-κB pathway. Taken together, in current study, we found a novel tumor suppressor, DDX10, is epigenetic silenced by miR-155-5p in ovarian cancer, and the down-regulated expression pattern of DDX10 promotes ovarian cancer proliferation through Akt/NF-κB pathway. Our findings shed the light that DDX families might be a novel for ovarian cancer treatment. - Highlights: • A novel DEAD box protein, DDX10 is significantly down-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues. • Down-regulated DDX10 promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation and growth both in vitro and in vivo. • miR-155-5p is highly expressed in ovarian cancer tissues and epigenetically targets DDX10. • DDX10 and miR-155-5p regulates Akt/p65 axis in ovarian cancer cells.

  17. FOXD1 promotes breast cancer proliferation and chemotherapeutic drug resistance by targeting p27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yi-Fan; Zhao, Jing-Yu; Yue, Hong [Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of the General Hospital of CPLA, Beijing 100048 (China); Hu, Ke-Shi; Shen, Hao [Department of Anesthesiology, The General Hospital of CPLA, Beijing 100853 (China); Guo, Zheng-Gang, E-mail: gsgzg304@163.com [Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of the General Hospital of CPLA, Beijing 100048 (China); Su, Xiao-Jun, E-mail: lucusebibi@163.com [Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of the General Hospital of CPLA, Beijing 100048 (China)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • FOXD1 is up-regulated in breast cancer tissues. • FOXD1 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and chemoresistance by inducing G1 to S transition. • FOXD1 transcriptionally suppresses p27 expression. - Abstract: Forkhead transcription factors are essential for diverse processes in early embryonic development and organogenesis. As a member of the forkhead family, FOXD1 is required during kidney development and its inactivation results in failure of nephron progenitor cells. However, the role of FOXD1 in carcinogenesis and progression is still limited. Here, we reported that FOXD1 is a potential oncogene in breast cancer. We found that FOXD1 is up-regulated in breast cancer tissues. Depletion of FOXD1 expression decreases the ability of cell proliferation and chemoresistance in MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas overexpression of FOXD1 increases the ability of cell proliferation and chemoresistance in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, we observed that FOXD1 induces G1 to S phase transition by targeting p27 expression. Our results suggest that FOXD1 may be a potential therapy target for patients with breast cancer.

  18. 'Through my eyes': health-promoting factors described by photographs taken by children with experience of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einberg, E-L; Nygren, J M; Svedberg, P; Enskär, K

    2016-01-01

    Health promotion for children with cancer should be based on the children's own needs and desires. Because there is a lack of knowledge in this area, the aim of this study was to explore what promotes health from the perspective of children with experience of cancer treatment. Fifteen children between 8 and 12 years of age participated in focus groups with three children in each group. The children were given a camera and instructions to photograph subjects that promote their health. Focus group discussions were based on the photographs and the children's own description of those photographs. The analysis of focus group discussions and photographs was conducted using inductive content analysis. According to the children, health-promoting factors are defined as meaningful relationships, recreational activities and a trustful environment. Meaningful relationships include togetherness within the family, affection for pets and friendship with peers. Recreational activities include engagement in play and leisure, withdrawal for relaxation and feeling enjoyment. Trustful environment includes confidence in significant others and feeling safe. Knowledge from this study can contribute to health promotion interventions and quality improvements in the health care of children with experience of cancer treatment. Children's experiences with what promotes health in their everyday lives provide a better understanding of the type of support children prefer when promoting their own health. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A marketing campaign to promote screening for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amid I; Jedele, Jenefer M; Lim, Sungwoo; Tellez, Marisol

    2012-09-01

    Organizers of the Detroit Oral Cancer Prevention Project at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, launched a multifaceted media campaign targeted toward a high-risk population to raise awareness about oral cancer, educate the public regarding the importance of early detection and increase screening rates. The authors present data about the effectiveness of the campaign with regard to the screening behaviors of medical and dental providers. Before the start of the campaign and during each of the three years of the campaign, the authors mailed surveys to random samples of physicians and dentists practicing in targeted and non-targeted areas. More dentists than physicians reported screening patients routinely, and dentists reported that they referred more patients for biopsy or further evaluation compared with physicians. A larger proportion of dentists and physicians in the targeted area than in the nontargeted area reported that their patients had seen or heard the advertisements. A larger proportion of dentists in the targeted area than in the nontargeted area reported an increase in patients' questions and requests for screening, even after the authors accounted for demographic characteristics (adjusted odds ratio = 2.47). The survey findings show that the media campaign was effective in influencing providers' screening for signs and symptoms of oral cancer. An increase in patients' requests for screening as a result of the implementation of mass media campaigns may promote oral cancer screening and improve patients' chances of survival.

  20. [Evaluation of an educational booklet about childcare promotion from the family's perception regarding health and citizenship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Monica Lilia Vigna Silva; Fracolli, Lislaine Aparecida

    2008-09-01

    This study evaluates the instrument of childcare promotion, the educational booklet Toda hora e hora de cuidar (Anytime is time to care), through the analysis of the caregivers' perception regarding the issues discussed in the booklet. This is a descriptive study using the quantitative and qualitative approaches. Interviews were carried out with 89 family caregivers, users of the Family Health Program in the city of São Paulo. It was observed that most mothers had not completed basic education, and reported the booklet contents were understandable and interesting. The concept regarding childcare was related to affective and work activities. Compared to other institutions, the Basic Health Unit stands out as an important social support. In conclusion, evidence shows that the booklet is effective as an instrument to promote skills and potentials of the community, family and individuals. Furthermore, it is important to use instruments that facilitate the learning process focused on health promotion and community empowerment.

  1. Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Wei [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Guifang [Department of Pathology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Cai, Xiaojun [Department of Ophthalmology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Falck, John R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. -- Highlights: ► CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. ► The pro-angiogenic effects of CYP4Z1 have

  2. Determining the familial risk distribution of colorectal cancer: A data mining approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Rowena; Jenkins, Mark A.; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Ouakrim, Driss Ait; Giles, Graham G.; Casey, Graham; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W.; Le Marchand, Loic; Newcomb, Polly A.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Hopper, John L.; Win, Aung Ko

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to characterize the distribution of colorectal cancer risk using family history of cancers by data mining. Family histories for 10,066 colorectal cancer cases recruited to population cancer registries of the Colon Cancer Family Registry were analyzed using a data mining framework. A novel index was developed to quantify familial cancer aggregation. Artificial neural network was used to identify distinct categories of familial risk. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of colorectal cancer were calculated for each category. We identified five major, and sixty-six minor categories of familial risk for developing colorectal cancer. The distribution the major risk categories were: (i) 7% of families (SIR=7.11; 95%CI=6.65–7.59) had a strong family history of colorectal cancer; (ii) 13% of families (SIR=2.94; 95%CI=2.78–3.10) had a moderate family history of colorectal cancer; (iii) 11% of families (SIR=1.23; 95%CI=1.12–1.36) had a strong family history of breast cancer and weak family history of colorectal cancer; (iv) 9% of families (SIR=1.06; 95% CI=0.96–1.18) had a strong family history of prostate cancer and a weak family history of colorectal cancer; and (v) 60% of families (SIR=0.61; 95%CI=0.57–0.65) had weak family history of all cancers. There is a wide variation of colorectal cancer risk that can be categorized by family history of cancer, with a strong gradient of colorectal cancer risk between the highest and lowest risk categories. The risk of colorectal cancer for people with the highest risk category of family history (7% of the population) was 12-times that for people in the lowest risk category (60%) of the population. Data mining was proven an effective approach for gaining insight into the underlying cancer aggregation patterns and for categorizing familial risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:26681340

  3. Alphavbeta6-Fyn signaling promotes oral cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowu; Yang, Yongjian; Hu, Yongmei; Dang, Dongmin; Regezi, Joseph; Schmidt, Brian L; Atakilit, Amha; Chen, Bing; Ellis, Duncan; Ramos, Daniel M

    2003-10-24

    We have previously shown that the integrin beta6 is neo-expressed in invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and is correlated with oral tumor progression. However, the mechanism by which the integrin beta6 promotes oral tumor progression is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether integrin beta6 signaling activates Fyn and thus promotes oral squamous cell carcinoma progression. We analyzed the integrin beta6 signaling complex and investigated the function of these signaling molecules in oral SCC cells. We found that, upon ligation of the integrin beta6 with fibronectin, beta6 complexed with Fyn and activated it. The activation of Fyn recruited and activated focal adhesion kinase to this complex. This complex was necessary to activate Shc and to couple beta6 signaling to the Raf-ERK/MAPK pathway. This pathway transcriptionally activated the matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene and promoted oral SCC cell proliferation and experimental metastasis in vivo. These findings indicate that integrin beta6 signaling activates Fyn and thus promotes oral cancer progression.

  4. Validity of self-reported family history of cancer: A systematic literature review on selected cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiederling, Jonas; Shams, Ahmad Zia; Haug, Ulrike

    2016-10-01

    Evidence regarding validity of self-reported family history of cancer (FHC) has been reviewed only for breast, colorectal, prostate, ovarian, endometrial and uterine cancer. We aimed to systematically review studies assessing validity of self-reported family history for the remaining cancer sites. We searched the Medline database for relevant studies published by January 2016. We extracted information on the study design and the positive predictive value (PPV) of self-reported FHC, defined as the proportion of reported cancer diagnoses among relatives that was confirmed by a reference standard (as a measure of over-reporting). We also extracted information on sensitivity of self-reported FHC (as a measure of underreporting). Overall, 21 studies were included that provided information on the PPV of self-reported FHC for relevant cancers and four studies also provided information on sensitivity. The PPV was highest (mostly >70%) for pancreatic, lung, thyroid and urinary system cancers and for leukemia and lymphoma, while it was lowest for stomach and liver cancer. Sensitivity was highest (>70%) for pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, brain cancer, melanoma, leukemia and lymphoma. For several cancers, sample sizes were low and the number of studies limited, particularly regarding sensitivity of self-reported FHC. In conclusion, for some cancers (e.g., pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, leukemia, lymphoma) self-reported FHC can be considered sufficiently valid to be useful, for example, in preventive counseling. For several cancers, it is not sufficiently studied or the pattern is inconsistent. This needs to be taken into account when using self-reported information about FHC in clinical practice or epidemiological research. © 2016 UICC.

  5. LINE-1 methylation is inherited in familial testicular cancer kindreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadalla Shahinaz M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT are the most frequent cancers among young men. There is a clear familial component to TGCT etiology, but no high-penetrance susceptibility gene has been identified. Epigenetic aberrations of the genome represent an alternative mechanism for cancer susceptibility; and, studies suggest that epigenetic changes that influence cancer risk can be inherited through the germline. Global DNA hypomethylation has been associated with the risk of cancers of the bladder and head/neck. Methods We performed a pilot study of global methylation at long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINE-1 in peripheral blood DNA isolated from 466 family members of 101 multiple-case testicular cancer families. Results Investigating the correlation of LINE-1 methylation levels among parent-child pairs independent of affection status (n = 355 revealed a strong positive association only between mother-daughter (r = 0.48, P = r = 0.31, P = 0.02, suggesting gender-specific inheritance of methylation. Incorporating cancer status, we observed a strong correlation in LINE-1 methylation levels only among affected father-affected son pairs (r = 0.49, P = 0.03. There was a marginally significant inverse association between lower LINE-1 methylation levels and increased TGCT risk, compared with healthy male relatives (P = 0.049. Conclusions Our data suggest that heritability of LINE-1 methylation may be gender-specific. Further, the strong correlation between LINE-1 methylation levels among affected father-affected son pairs suggests that transgenerational inheritance of an epigenetic event may be associated with disease risk. Larger studies are needed to clarify these preliminary observations.

  6. Gα12/13 signaling promotes cervical cancer invasion through the RhoA/ROCK-JNK signaling axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Bo; Cui, Jinquan; Wang, Wuliang; Deng, Kehong

    2016-01-01

    Several reports have indicated a role for the members of the G12 family of heterotrimeric G proteins (Gα12 and Gα13) in oncogenesis and tumor cell growth. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the role of G12 signaling in cervical cancer. We demonstrated that expression of the G12 proteins was highly upregulated in cervical cancer cells. Additionally, expression of the activated forms of Gα12/Gα13 but not expression of activated Gαq induced cell invasion through the activation of the RhoA family of G proteins, but had no effect on cell proliferation in the cervical cancer cells. Inhibition of G12 signaling by expression of the RGS domain of the p115-Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (p115-RGS) blocked thrombin-stimulated cell invasion, but did not inhibit cell proliferation in cervical cells, whereas the inhibition of Gαq (RGS2) had no effect. Furthermore, G12 signaling was able to activate Rho proteins, and this stimulation was inhibited by p115-RGS, and Gα12-induced invasion was blocked by an inhibitor of RhoA/B/C (C3 toxin). Pharmacological inhibition of JNK remarkably decreased G12-induced JNK activation. Both a JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and a ROCK inhibitor (Y27632) reduced G12-induced JNK and c-Jun activation, and markedly inhibited G12-induced cellular invasion. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that stimulation of G12 proteins is capable of promoting invasion through RhoA/ROCK-JNK activation. -- Highlights: •Gα12/Gα13 is upregulated in cervical cancer cell lines. •Gα12/Gα13 is not involved in cervical cancer cell proliferation. •Gα12/Gα13 promotes cervical cancer cell invasion. •The role of Rho G proteins in G12-promoted cervical cancer cell invasion. •G12 promotes cell invasion through activation of the ROCK-JNK signaling axis.

  7. A Novel Method to Screen for Dominant Negative ATM Mutations in Familial Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khanna, Kum K; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Grimmond, Sean

    2005-01-01

    ... cancer in their family but no pathogenic BR CA1 or BRCA2 mutation (BRCAx' families). We have analysed 252 cell lines established from index cases from BRCAx families for ATM expression and activity...

  8. Distinct Gene Expression Signatures in Lynch Syndrome and Familial Colorectal Cancer Type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Veerla, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects.......Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects....

  9. [Empowering the family-center health model: the toy library as a health promotion platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Chu; Tsai, Yen-Chih

    2011-02-01

    Facing the lowest birth rates in its history, Taiwan is increasingly recognizing the centrality of children's healthcare needs to effective family care. The World Health Organization's goal of health for all emphasizes health promotion. However, little research attention has been given to how families actively promote personal health in everyday life. This article considers 'family-centric' healthcare, with a particular emphasis on children's health and well-being and the mother health promotion model. Authors employ a 'toy library' as the health promotion platform to build community interaction and empower the health enhancement process. Results suggested the following: 1. The fixed-point type toy library may be an effective tool in a health promotion strategy; 2. A model may be developed for rural institution agencies; 3. Cooperation may be facilitated using a medical service vehicle; 4. The love bag program can serve extended purposes. The authors found that the empowerment and growth of tribal mothers is a key element to facilitate the successful development of their children. Based on findings, the implementation of a toy library as the platform to build community-based health promotion model is suggested.

  10. Risk of gynecologic cancers in Danish hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boilesen, Astrid Elisabeth Bruun; Bisgaard, Marie Luise; Bernstein, Inge

    2008-01-01

    . Data in the Danish HNPCC register on the frequency and lifetime risk of gynecologic cancers were analyzed and the actual surveillance strategy discussed in relation to the results. DESIGN: Register-based retrospective study. METHOD: A total of 1,780 at-risk women were identified and epidemiological...... of ovarian cancer were identified with a lifetime risk of three to four times the general population. No significant correlation was found between the frequency of ovarian cancer and MMR gene mutation status in the families. CONCLUSION: The benefit of surveillance concerning gynecological cancers seems...

  11. Protein Kinase C-ε Promotes EMT in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC), a family of serine/threonine kinases, plays critical roles in signal transduction and cell regulation. PKCε, a member of the novel PKC family, is known to be a transforming oncogene and a tumor biomarker for aggressive breast cancers. In this study, we examined the involvement of PKCε in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), the process that leads the way to metastasis. Overexpression of PKCε was sufficient to induce a mesenchymal phenotype in non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial MCF-10 A cells. This was accompanied by a decrease in the epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, and claudin-1, and an increase in mesenchymal marker vimentin. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) induced Snail expression and mesenchymal morphology in MCF-10 A cells, and these effects were partially reversed by the PKCε knockdown. PKCε also mediated cell migration and anoikis resistance, which are hallmarks of EMT. Thus, our study demonstrates that PKCε is an important mediator of EMT in breast cancer. PMID:24701121

  12. Oncogenic intra-p53 family member interactions in human cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eFerraiuolo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The p53 gene family members p53, p73 and p63 display several isoforms derived from the presence of internal promoters and alternative splicing events. They are structural homologues but hold peculiar functional properties. p53, p73 and p63 are tumor suppressor genes that promote differentiation, senescence and apoptosis. p53, unlike p73 and p63, is frequently mutated in cancer often displaying oncogenic gain of function (GOF activities correlated with the induction of proliferation, invasion, chemoresistance and genomic instability in cancer cells. These oncogenic functions are promoted either by the aberrant transcriptional cooperation of mutant p53 (mutp53 with transcription cofactors (e.g., NF-Y, E2F1, Vitamin D Receptor (VDR, Ets-1, NF-kB and YAP or by the interaction with the p53 family members, p73 and p63, determining their functional inactivation. The instauration of these aberrant transcriptional networks leads to increased cell growth, low activation of DNA damage response pathways (DNA damage response (DDR, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs response, enhanced invasion and high chemoresistance to different conventional chemotherapeutic treatments. Several studies have clearly shown that different cancers harboring mutant p53 proteins exhibit a poor prognosis when compared to those carrying wild type p53 (wt-p53 protein. The interference of mutantp53/p73 and/or mutantp53/p63 interactions, thereby restoring p53, p73 and p63 tumor suppression functions, could be among the potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of mutant p53 human cancers.

  13. Demographic characteristics, call details and psychosocial support needs of the family/friends of someone diagnosed with cancer who access Australian Cancer Council telephone information and support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckel, Leila; Fennell, Kate M; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Byrnes, Monica; Livingston, Patricia M

    2017-06-01

    Community-based cancer organizations provide telephone-based information and support services to assist people diagnosed with cancer and their family/friends. We investigated the demographic characteristics and psychosocial support needs of family/friends who contacted Australian Cancer Council 13 11 20 information and support helplines. Data collected on 42,892 family/friends who contacted a 13 11 20 service across Australia from January 2010 to December 2012 were analyzed. Chi-square analysis was used to examine associations between caller groups and reasons for calling, logistic regression to examine age and gender interaction effects. The majority of calls received were from women (81%) of middle- (40%) and high-socio-economic backgrounds (41%), aged 40-59 years (46%); 52% phoned for information on cancer diagnosis (including early detection, risk factors), 22% on treatment/disease management, and 26% phoned seeking psychological/emotional support. Information on a diagnosis was significantly more often the reason older males called, compared to female callers of any age. Overall, 32% found out about the service through Cancer Council resources or events, 20% from the media, 18% from the internet; 11% from health professionals. Family/friends of persons diagnosed with cancer have specific information and support needs. This study identifies groups of family/friends to whom the promotion of this service could be targeted. Within Australia and internationally, clinicians and oncology nurses as well as allied health professionals can provide an important role in increasing access to cancer telephone support services to ensure the needs of the family and friends of people affected by cancer are being met. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Domestic Violence and Private Family Court Proceedings: Promoting Child Welfare or Promoting Contact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Gillian S

    2016-06-01

    Despite improved understanding regarding domestic violence, child welfare and child contact, and related policy developments, problems persist regarding how the family courts deal with fathers' violence in contested contact/residence cases. In the study reported here, analysis was undertaken of welfare reports prepared for the courts in such cases to investigate how and to what extent issues of domestic violence and children's perspectives on these issues were taken into account when making recommendations to the courts. Analysis found that despite evidence of domestic violence and child welfare concerns, contact with fathers was viewed as desirable and inevitable in the vast majority of cases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Regulation of Src Family Kinases in Human Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Banibrata; Johnson, Faye M.

    2011-01-01

    The nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase Src plays a crucial role in the signal transduction pathways involved in cell division, motility, adhesion, and survival in both normal and cancer cells. Although the Src family kinases (SFKs) are activated in various types of cancers, the exact mechanisms through which they contribute to the progression of individual tumors remain to be defined. The activation of Src in human cancers may occur through a variety of mechanisms that include domain interaction and structural remodeling in response to various activators or upstream kinases and phosphatastes. Because of Src's prominent roles in invasion and tumor progression, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, and the development of metastasis, Src is a promising target for cancer therapy. Several small molecule inhibitors of Src are currently being investigated in clinical trials. In this article, we will summarize the mechanisms regulating Src kinase activity in normal and cancer cells and discuss the status of Src inhibitor development against various types of cancers. PMID:21776389

  16. Family history of cancer and the risk of bladder cancer: A case-control study from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Bosetti, Cristina; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Montella, Maurizio; Libra, Massimo; Facchini, Gaetano; Ferraroni, Monica; Tavani, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva

    2017-06-01

    A family history of bladder cancer has been associated with the risk of bladder cancer, but quantification of the excess risk in different populations is still a relevant issue. Further, the role of a family history of other cancers on the risk of bladder cancer remains unclear. We analyzed data from an Italian case-control study, including 690 bladder cancer cases and 665 hospital controls. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated through unconditional logistic regression models, adjusted for sex, age, study center, year of interview and further for education, smoking and sibling's number. The OR for family history of bladder cancer was 2.13 (95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) 1.02-4.49) from the model with partial adjustment, and 1.99 (95%CI 0.91-4.32) after additional adjustment for smoking and siblings' number, based on 23 cases (3.3%) and 11 controls (1.7%) with a family history of bladder cancer. The fully adjusted OR was 3.77 when the relative was diagnosed at age below 65years. Smokers with a family history of bladder cancer had a four-fold increased risk compared to non-smokers without a family history. Bladder cancer risk was significantly increased among subjects with a family history of hemolymphopoietic cancers (OR=2.97, 95%CI 1.35-6.55). Family history of cancer at other sites showed no significant association with bladder cancer risk. This study confirms an approximately two-fold increased risk of bladder cancer for family history of bladder cancer, and indicates a possible familial clustering of bladder cancer with cancers of the hemolymphopoietic system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Heritability of Radiation Response in Lung Cancer Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-Erich Wichmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiation sensitivity is assumed to be a cancer susceptibility factor due to impaired DNA damage signalling and repair. Relevant genetic factors may also determine the observed familial aggregation of early onset lung cancer. We investigated the heritability of radiation sensitivity in families of 177 Caucasian cases of early onset lung cancer. In total 798 individuals were characterized for their radiation-induced DNA damage response. DNA damage analysis was performed by alkaline comet assay before and after in vitro irradiation of isolated lymphocytes. The cells were exposed to a dose of 4 Gy and allowed to repair induced DNA-damage up to 60 minutes. The primary outcome parameter Olive Tail Moment was the basis for heritability estimates. Heritability was highest for basal damage (without irradiation 70% (95%-CI: 51%–88% and initial damage (directly after irradiation 65% (95%-CI: 47%–83% and decreased to 20%–48% for the residual damage after different repair times. Hence our study supports the hypothesis that genomic instability represented by the basal DNA damage as well as radiation induced and repaired damage is highly heritable. Genes influencing genome instability and DNA repair are therefore of major interest for the etiology of lung cancer in the young. The comet assay represents a proper tool to investigate heritability of the radiation sensitive phenotype. Our results are in good agreement with other mutagen sensitivity assays.

  18. Family aggregation study for breast cancer in Cienfuegos province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosa Aguila, Leydi Maria; Marcheco Teruel, Beatriz; Ocanna Gil, Maria Antonia

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequent causes of death in developed countries and it is the second cause of female mortality for malignant tumor in Cuba. We conducted an observational, analytic, transversal study of cases and controls for the purpose of evaluating the clinical, epidemiologic and genealogical behavior of breast cancer in Cienfuegos province, in a period of 6 years. The universe of the study was made up of 304 women distributed in 152 cases and 152 controls; they were surveyed after they gave their informed consent. Collected data were processed by means of methods of inferential statistics. It was observed that most of the cases were diagnosed in patients aged 50 to 59 years, with 24.34%, the most frequent type was infiltrating duct carcinoma, with 43.42%. We found statistical association with the personal history of benign breast pathology and the family history of cancer of any type. Presence of familial aggregation was observed for breast cancer in the first-degree relatives and the non-genetic risk factors; they did not show significant association with the occurrence of the disease in the studied population

  19. Evaluation of the Geographical and Family Background of Student Nurses and Midwives and their Knowledge of Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkistanli, Esin Ceber; Ergun, Fisun Enuzun; Sari, Dilek; Dalli, Dilek; Aydemir, Gulsun

    2002-01-01

    Plant foods are the custodians of numerous dietary constituents, including vitamins, minerals, fibre, and other potentially anticarcinogenic agents. Eating habits are influenced by many biological, social, psychological, and cultural factors. Despite the relative paucity of definite evidence relevant to prevention in cancer and the tools available for early detection of cancer, people should be informed about the protective factors (dietary influence, life-style and exercise) continuously to develop new habits which will protect against cancer. A descriptive study was here designed to examine the effects of geographical and family background on nutrition of nursing students and their knowledge of recommended dietary guidelines for health promotion and cancer prevention. Most of students and their families lived in Aegean and Marmara regions, and in general they regularly consumed vegetables, fruits and cereals. Fresh vegetable and fruit consumption is rather high in Thrace, Aegean, Marmara and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. Students were found to be well informed during courses on dietary guidelines for health promotion and cancer prevention. The greatest promise for cancer prevention rests on our ability to change multiple and often interrelated behaviours that have been shown to increase the risk of cancer.

  20. Familial Predisposition for Salivary Gland Cancer in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Aro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Salivary gland cancer (SGC accounts for 3–5% of head and neck malignancies, and register-based studies estimate the familial proportion to be 0.15%. Objective We studied familial predisposition for SGC in the genetically distinct Finnish population. Patients and Methods We sent a patient questionnaire to 161 Finnish SGC patients, 86 of whom responded. Results A total of 76% of the patients reported having one or more relatives with cancer, 30% two or more, and 9% three or more but only one patient reported having a relative with SGC. Tracing the birthplaces of the SGC patients’ grandparents showed no regional clustering suggestive of a founder effect. Conclusions Lack of familial SGC patients and the absence of a founder effect strongly suggest that familial predisposition for SGC is insignificant in the Finnish population. Various histological subtypes and the rarity of these neoplasms make it impossible to draw conclusions about site-specific association between SGC and other malignancies.

  1. Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Cancer Survivors and Their Family Members: Korea Community Health Survey, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mi Ah

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of perceived stress and depressive symptoms in cancer survivors and their family members compared with subjects without cancer and without family members with cancer. The subjects of this cross-sectional study were adults ≥19 years old who participated in the 2012 Korea Community Health Survey. Stress and depressive symptoms in cancer survivors and their family members were assessed and compared to symptoms in control groups by chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Of the 6783 cancer survivors, 26.9% and 8.7% reported having stress and depressive symptoms, respectively, and 27.7% and 5.9% of family members of cancer survivors reported having stress and depressive symptoms, respectively. Cancer survivors showed higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for stress (aOR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16-1.37) and depressive symptoms (aOR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.57-2.11) than subjects without cancer history. Family members of cancer survivors showed a higher OR for stress and depressive symptoms than subjects without a family member who survived cancer. Cancer survivors and family members of cancer survivors had more stress and depressive symptoms than controls. Careful management for cancer patients and their family members should include screening for stress and depression to improve mental health associated with cancer survivorship.

  2. CDKN2A is the main susceptibility gene in Italian pancreatic cancer families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiorzo, Paola; Fornarini, Giuseppe; Sciallero, Stefania; Battistuzzi, Linda; Belli, Fiorenza; Bernard, Loris; Bonelli, Luigina; Borgonovo, Giacomo; Bruno, William; De Cian, Franco; Decensi, Andrea; Filauro, Marco; Faravelli, Francesca; Gozza, Alberto; Gargiulo, Sara; Mariette, Frederique; Nasti, Sabina; Pastorino, Lorenza; Queirolo, Paola; Savarino, Vincenzo; Varesco, Liliana; Scarrà, Giovanna Bianchi

    2012-03-01

    Background Most familial pancreatic cancer (FPC) remains unexplained. The identification of individuals with a high genetic risk of developing pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) is important to elucidate its biological basis and is critical to better define emerging strategies for the detection of early pancreatic neoplasms. Patients and methods A series of 225 consecutively enrolled patients with PC were tested for CDKN2A mutations. After personal and family cancer histories of all the patients had been reviewed, a subset of the patients were classified as FPC and were also tested for mutations in PALLD, PALB2, BRCA1 and BRCA2 as FPC candidate genes. Results The CDKN2A mutation rate in the 225 PC cases was 5.7%. The CDKN2A founder mutations, p.E27X and p.G101W, were predominant, but the mutation spectrum also included p.L65P, p.G67R and two novel, potentially pathogenic variants, promoter variant c.-201ACTC>CTTT and p.R144C. None of the patients with FPC harboured germline mutations in PALLD, PALB2 or BRCA2. One family was positive for the BRCA1 UV variant p.P727L. Strikingly, five of 16 patients with FPC (31%) carried CDKN2A mutations. Conclusion These findings suggest that a sizeable subset of Italian FPC families may carry CDKN2A mutations. This result may be of value for identifying the best candidates for future PC screening trials in Italy.

  3. My university. What I learned from the Productive Cooperative Movement to Promotion of Humanistic Family Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, C

    1990-07-01

    Based on experiences with the Productive Cooperative Movement and the Parasite Control Movement in Japan, the Japanese Family Planning Movement began in April 1954. The resultant private and nonprofit Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) followed and it served to help Japan achieve its goal of reducing fertility by promoting family planning. It did so by publishing a monthly newsletter on family planning, hosting meetings and national conventions, spreading information via the mass media, and selling contraceptives and educational materials. JFPA earned funding from these sales with no support from the government thereby establishing self dependence and freedom to speak candidly to the government. The JFPA learned that families wanted to improve their standard of living and were willing to limit family size to 2 children. After the birth rate peaked in 1955, the birth rate and the number of illegal abortions decreased. In the 1950s, JFPA joined the International Planned Parenthood Federation and subsequently learned of the problems faced by developing countries. Based on the successful reduction of fertility in Japan and a strong economic base, JFPA and the government were in a position to organize an international cooperation program for family planning. Therefore, the leader of JFPA resigned to found the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning which promotes family planning in developing countries via its integrated family planning, nutrition, and parasite control program. A steering committee composed of leaders from government, universities, and private organizations sets the policies for the program in each country. It is to the Japanese government's advantage to work with private organizations instead of providing all social services because they are flexible and provide administrative stability and national expenses are minimized.

  4. hypoxia-inducible factors activate CD133 promoter through ETS family transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Ohnishi

    Full Text Available CD133 is a cellular surface protein that has been reported to be a cancer stem cell marker, and thus it is considered to be a potential target for cancer treatment. However, the mechanism regulating CD133 expression is not yet understood. In this study, we analyzed the activity of five putative promoters (P1-P5 of CD133 in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells and colon cancer cell line WiDr, and found that the activity of promoters, particularly of P5, is elevated by overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Deletion and mutation analysis identified one of the two E-twenty six (ETS binding sites (EBSs in the P5 region as being essential for its promoter activity induced by HIF-1α and HIF-2α. In addition, a chromatin imunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that HIF-1α and HIF-2α bind to the proximal P5 promoter at the EBSs. The immunoprecipitation assay showed that HIF-1α physically interacts with Elk1; however, HIF-2α did not bind to Elk1 or ETS1. Furthermore, knockdown of both HIF-1α and HIF-2α resulted in a reduction of CD133 expression in WiDr. Taken together, our results revealed that HIF-1α and HIF-2α activate CD133 promoter through ETS proteins.

  5. The effect of 5-HTT gene promoter polymorphism on impulsivity depends on family relations in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paaver, Marika; Kurrikoff, Triin; Nordquist, Niklas; Oreland, Lars; Harro, Jaanus

    2008-07-01

    The short (S) allele of the 5-HTT gene promoter region polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), in combination with adverse environmental influence, leads to higher likelihood of depression. Impulsivity has been related to low serotonin turnover, poor regulation of affect, and problems in the family, including child maltreatment. The current study explored the effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene and adverse family environment on impulsivity in adolescents. Healthy adolescents participating in the Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (n=483) filled the Adaptive and Maladaptive Impulsivity Scale (AMIS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), a scale measuring family relations, and were genotyped. While genotype alone was not associated with thoughtlessness, BIS-11 impulsiveness, fast decision-making or excitement seeking, 5-HTTLPR S allele carriers, however, had higher scores of disinhibition. In girls carrying the S allele, scores of thoughtlessness and disinhibition depended on family relations, being higher with less warmth in the family. Adverse family relations had no effect on impulsivity in girls with LL genotype. In boys, the effects of family relations on maladaptive impulsivity did not depend on genotype. However, the S allele and high maltreatment in the family both independently increased disinhibition and the BIS-11 score in boys. Family environment and the 5-HTTLPR genotype had no interactive effect on excitement seeking or fast decision-making. In summary, carrying the S allele may lead to high maladaptive impulsivity due to higher sensitivity to environmental adversity, which is more significantly expressed in girls.

  6. Functional and cancer genomics of ASXL family members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, M

    2013-01-01

    Additional sex combs-like (ASXL)1, ASXL2 and ASXL3 are human homologues of the Drosophila Asx gene that are involved in the regulation or recruitment of the Polycomb-group repressor complex (PRC) and trithorax-group (trxG) activator complex. ASXL proteins consist of ASXN, ASXH, ASXM1, ASXM2 and PHD domains. ASXL1 directly interacts with BAP1, KDM1A (LSD1), NCOA1 and nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), such as retinoic acid receptors, oestrogen receptor and androgen receptor. ASXL family members are epigenetic scaffolding proteins that assemble epigenetic regulators and transcription factors to specific genomic loci with histone modifications. ASXL1 is involved in transcriptional repression through an interaction with PRC2 and also contributes to transcriptional regulation through interactions with BAP1 and/or NHR complexes. Germ-line mutations of human ASXL1 and ASXL3 occur in Bohring-Opitz and related syndromes. Amplification and overexpression of ASXL1 occur in cervical cancer. Truncation mutations of ASXL1 occur in colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI), malignant myeloid diseases, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and liver, prostate and breast cancers; those of ASXL2 occur in prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer and breast cancer and those of ASXL3 are observed in melanoma. EPC1-ASXL2 gene fusion occurs in adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma. The prognosis of myeloid malignancies with misregulating truncation mutations of ASXL1 is poor. ASXL family members are assumed to be tumour suppressive or oncogenic in a context-dependent manner. PMID:23736028

  7. The influence of financial incentive programs in promoting sustainable forestry on the nation's family forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Kilgore; John L. Greene; Michael G. Jacobson; Thomas J. Straka; Steven E. Daniels

    2006-01-01

    Financial incentive programs were evaluated to assess their contribution to promoting sustainable forestry practices on the nation’s family forests. The evaluation consisted of an extensive review of the literature on financial incentive programs, a mail survey of the lead administrator of financial incentive programs in each state forestry agency, and focus groups...

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Coping, Illness Perception, and Family Adaptability in Oncological Patients with a Family History of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolica, Roxana; Iorga, Magdalena; Petrariu, Florin Dumitru; Azoicai, Doina

    2017-01-01

    Aim . The study investigated the differences between patients with and without a family history of cancer regarding coping strategies, illness perception, and family adaptability to the disease. Material and Methods . A total of 124 patients diagnosed with cancer were included in the research (55 of them with a family history of cancer). The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire , the Strategic Approach to Coping Scale , the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale , and the Illness Perception Questionnaire were applied. The data were processed using the SPSS 21 software. Results . Patients with previous records of cancer in the family get significantly higher scores for the illness coherence factor. Family satisfaction is significantly higher for patients with a genetic risk, compared to the one reported by patients who suffer from the disease but have no genetic risk. Cognitive-behavioral coping strategies and family cohesion are factors that correlate with an adaptive perception of the illness in the case of patients with a family history of cancer. Conclusion . Results are important for the construction of strategies used for patients with a family history of cancer.

  9. Five years of prospective screening of high-risk individuals from families with familial pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, P; Kann, P H; Fendrich, V; Habbe, N; Schneider, M; Sina, M; Slater, E P; Heverhagen, J T; Gress, T M; Rothmund, M; Bartsch, D K

    2009-10-01

    Familial pancreatic cancer (FPC) accounts for approximately 3% of all pancreatic cancer (PC) cases. It has been suggested that high-risk individuals (HRIs) should be offered a screening programme. To evaluate the diagnostic yield of a prospective screening programme in HRIs from families with FPC over a period of 5 years. HRIs of families with FPC of the National German Familial Pancreatic Cancer Registry (FaPaCa) were counselled and enrolled in a prospective, board-approved PC screening programme. Screening included clinical examination, laboratory tests, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and MRI with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP) and MR angiography. Between June 2002 and December 2007, 76 HRIs of families with FPC took part in the screening programme with a total of 182 examination visits. Twenty-eight patients revealed abnormalities in EUS (n = 25) and/or MR/MRCP (n = 12). In 7 patients fine needle aspiration cytology was performed. Operative pancreatic explorations were performed in 7 individuals, resulting in limited resections in 6 cases. Histopathological examination of the resected specimens showed serous oligocystic adenomas (n = 3), pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (PanIN1) lesions with lobular fibrosis (n = 1), PanIN2 lesions (n = 1) and PanIN1 lesion plus a gastric type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 1). In FPC an EUS/MR/MRCP-based screening programme leads to the detection of potential precursor lesions of PC. However, the yield of an extensive screening programme is low, especially since the tumourigenic value of low grade PanIN lesions is not yet defined. Taking into account the enormous psychological stress for the tested individual and the high costs, a general PC screening in HRIs is not justified.

  10. Health promotion needs of Hammanskraal families with adolescents orphaned by HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Peu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Health promotion is regarded as the cornerstone of good health. It is the action expected from individuals and families in order to better their own health situation. Health promotion is an art and science (Edelman & Mandle, 2002:16 that is integrated into the primary health care to reduce existing health problems. The purpose of the research on which this article is reporting, was to explore and describe the health promotion needs of families with adolescents orphaned by human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS. The research was located within a qualitative paradigm that is both exploratory and descriptive. Eight families who were purposely selected participated in the research process. Qualitative methods, such as group interviews and field notes were utilised to collect data. The health promotion needs of the families with adolescents orphaned by HIV/AIDS were explored and described. Tesch’s analysis process, which entails a series of steps, was followed (Creswell, 2003:192. Themes, categories and subcategories that form the central focus of health promotion needs emerged during the data analysis. These themes,categories and subcategories are used to develop guidelines for health promotion. Opsomming Die bevordering van gesondheid is die hoeksteen van gesondheid. Dit is die aksie wat van individue en familie verwag word, sodat hulle hul eie gesondheidstoestand kan verbeter. Die bevordering van gesondheid is ‘n kuns en ‘n wetenskap, wat geïntegreer is in primêre gesondheidsorg, om bestaande gesondheidsprobleme te verminder (Edelman & Mandle, 2002:16. Die doel van die navorsing, waarna in hierdie artikel verwys word, was om uit te vind wat die gesondheidsorgbehoeftes van families, met adolessente wat wees gelaat is as gevolg van menslike immunogebrek virus of verworve immuungebrek sindroom (MIV/VIGS, is, en dit te beskryf. Die navorsing was binne die raamwerk van ‘n kwalitatiewe paradigma, wat

  11. Colon and rectal cancer survival by tumor location and microsatellite instability: the Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Lindor, Noralane M; Jenkins, Mark A; Baron, John A; Win, Aung Ko; Gallinger, Steven; Gryfe, Robert; Newcomb, Polly A

    2013-08-01

    Cancers in the proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum are frequently studied together; however, there are biological differences in cancers across these sites, particularly in the prevalence of microsatellite instability. We assessed the differences in survival by colon or rectal cancer site, considering the contribution of microsatellite instability to such differences. This is a population-based prospective cohort study for cancer survival. This study was conducted within the Colon Cancer Family Registry, an international consortium. Participants were identified from population-based cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Information on tumor site, microsatellite instability, and survival after diagnosis was available for 3284 men and women diagnosed with incident invasive colon or rectal cancer between 1997 and 2002, with ages at diagnosis ranging from 18 to 74. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios for the association between all-cause mortality and tumor location, overall and by microsatellite instability status. Distal colon (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.49-0.71) and rectal cancers (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.81) were associated with lower mortality than proximal colon cancer overall. Compared specifically with patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting no/low microsatellite instability, patients with distal colon and rectal cancers experienced lower mortality, regardless of microsatellite instability status; patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting high microsatellite instability had the lowest mortality. Study limitations include the absence of stage at diagnosis and cause-of-death information for all but a subset of study participants. Some patient groups defined jointly by tumor site and microsatellite instability status are subject to small numbers. Proximal colon cancer survival differs from survival for distal colon and rectal cancer in a manner apparently dependent on microsatellite instability status. These

  12. Molecular analysis of precursor lesions in familial pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Crnogorac-Jurcevic

    Full Text Available With less than a 5% survival rate pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC is almost uniformly lethal. In order to make a significant impact on survival of patients with this malignancy, it is necessary to diagnose the disease early, when curative surgery is still possible. Detailed knowledge of the natural history of the disease and molecular events leading to its progression is therefore critical.We have analysed the precursor lesions, PanINs, from prophylactic pancreatectomy specimens of patients from four different kindreds with high risk of familial pancreatic cancer who were treated for histologically proven PanIN-2/3. Thus, the material was procured before pancreatic cancer has developed, rather than from PanINs in a tissue field that already contains cancer. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling using such unique specimens was performed. Bulk frozen sections displaying the most extensive but not microdissected PanIN-2/3 lesions were used in order to obtain the holistic view of both the precursor lesions and their microenvironment. A panel of 76 commonly dysregulated genes that underlie neoplastic progression from normal pancreas to PanINs and PDAC were identified. In addition to shared genes some differences between the PanINs of individual families as well as between the PanINs and PDACs were also seen. This was particularly pronounced in the stromal and immune responses.Our comprehensive analysis of precursor lesions without the invasive component provides the definitive molecular proof that PanIN lesions beget cancer from a molecular standpoint. We demonstrate the need for accumulation of transcriptomic changes during the progression of PanIN to PDAC, both in the epithelium and in the surrounding stroma. An identified 76-gene signature of PDAC progression presents a rich candidate pool for the development of early diagnostic and/or surveillance markers as well as potential novel preventive/therapeutic targets for both familial and sporadic

  13. Cancer diagnosis disclosure preferences of family caregivers of cancer patients in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsirafy, Samy A; Abdel-Kareem, Shady S; Ibrahim, Noha Y; Abolkasem, Mohamed A; Farag, Dina E

    2017-11-01

    Family caregivers (FCs) of cancer patients are frequently seen as a barrier to honest communication with patients in Egypt. This study was conducted to investigate the attitude of FCs of cancer patients toward cancer diagnosis disclosure (CDD) and its determinants. A structured interview was used to assess the preferences of 288 FCs regarding CDD. According to the FCs, 85% of patients were aware of their diagnosis. The majority (81%) of FCs preferred CDD to patients. In case they developed cancer, 92% of FCs wanted to know their diagnosis and 88% wanted to inform their families. In a univariate analysis, factors associated with FCs' negative attitude toward CDD to patients were as follows: patient's lower level of education (P = .001), patient's rural residence (P < .001), hematological malignancies (P < .001), FC's belief that the patient is unaware of diagnosis (P < .001), FC's unwillingness to know his/her own cancer diagnosis (P < .001), and FC's unwillingness to inform his/her family about his/her cancer diagnosis (P < .001). Only 2 factors predicted independently the negative attitude of FCs toward CDD, the FC's belief that the patient is unaware of diagnosis (P < .001), and the FC's unwillingness to know his/her own cancer diagnosis (P = .049). The results suggest that the majority of FCs of Egyptian cancer patients prefer CDD to patients. The finding that the vast majority of FCs of aware patients preferred CDD suggests that the reaction of Egyptian patients to CDD is acceptable by FCs. Family caregivers with a negative attitude toward CDD may be reflecting their own fears. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Karmic quest: Thai family caregivers promoting a peaceful death for people with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilmanat, Kittikorn; Street, Annette F

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports the constructions of karma by four Thai family caregivers living with a dying person with AIDS in Southern Thailand. These four families form a subset of a larger ethnographic case study exploring the experiences of families living with a relative with AIDS. Serial interviews, observations, and field journal were used as data collection methods with the four families. The findings indicated that the karmic quest is a dominant theme in the narratives of these families caring for their loved ones dying with AIDS. The 'calm and peaceful' death that is described in the palliative care literature equated with their desire for the Buddhist philosophy of a harmonious death. The families used the law of karma and reincarnation as their main frame of reference and mobilised their religious resources to create meaning and purpose. Karmic healing activities were aimed at ending suffering, promoting a peaceful and calm death and ensuring a better life in the next one. The findings are important for the development of palliative nursing practice in Thailand by acknowledging religious and cultural values to promote peaceful death.

  15. Variants in estrogen-biosynthesis genes CYP17 and CYP19 and breast cancer risk: a family-based genetic association study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, Habibul; Whittemore, Alice S; Chen, Yu; Senie, Ruby T; Hamilton, Steven P; Wang, Qiao; Gurvich, Irina; Santella, Regina M

    2005-01-01

    Case-control studies have reported inconsistent results concerning breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that control endogenous estrogen biosynthesis. We report findings from the first family-based association study examining associations between female breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in two key estrogen-biosynthesis genes CYP17 (T→C promoter polymorphism) and CYP19 (TTTA repeat polymorphism). We conducted the study among 278 nuclear families containing one or more daughters with breast cancer, with a total of 1123 family members (702 with available constitutional DNA and questionnaire data and 421 without them). These nuclear families were selected from breast cancer families participating in the Metropolitan New York Registry, one of the six centers of the National Cancer Institute's Breast Cancer Family Registry. We used likelihood-based statistical methods to examine allelic associations. We found the CYP19 allele with 11 TTTA repeats to be associated with breast cancer risk in these families. We also found that maternal (but not paternal) carrier status of CYP19 alleles with 11 repeats tended to be associated with breast cancer risk in daughters (independently of the daughters' own genotype), suggesting a possible in utero effect of CYP19. We found no association of a woman's breast cancer risk either with her own or with her mother's CYP17 genotype. This family-based study indicates that a woman's personal and maternal carrier status of CYP19 11 TTTA repeat allele might be related to increased breast cancer risk. However, because this is the first study to report an association between CYP19 11 TTTA repeat allele and breast cancer, and because multiple comparisons have been made, the associations should be interpreted with caution and need confirmation in future family-based studies

  16. Family history of prostate and colorectal cancer and risk of colorectal cancer in the Women's health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer L; Yee, Cecilia; Paskett, Electra; Schwartz, Ann G; Lane, Dorothy; Palmer, Nynikka R A; Bock, Cathryn H; Nassir, Rami; Simon, Michael S

    2017-12-13

    Evidence suggests that risk of colorectal and prostate cancer is increased among those with a family history of the same disease, particularly among first-degree relatives. However, the aggregation of colorectal and prostate cancer within families has not been well investigated. Analyses were conducted among participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational cohort, free of cancer at the baseline examination. Subjects were followed for colorectal cancer through August 31st, 2009. A Cox-proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to estimate risk of colorectal cancer associated with a family history of prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and both cancers among first-degree relatives of all participants and stratified by race (African American vs. White). Of 75,999 eligible participants, there were 1122 colorectal cancer cases diagnosed over the study period. A family history of prostate cancer alone was not associated with an increase in colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for confounders (aHR =0.94; 95% CI =0.76, 1.15). Separate analysis examining the joint impact, a family history of both colorectal and prostate cancer was associated with an almost 50% increase in colorectal cancer risk (aHR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.10), but similar to those with a family history of colorectal cancer only (95% CI = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.11, 1.54). Our findings suggest risk of colorectal cancer is increased similarly among women with colorectal cancer only and among those with both colorectal and prostate cancer diagnosed among first-degree family members. Future studies are needed to determine the relative contribution of genes and shared environment to the risk of both cancers.

  17. Development Model Sustainable Promoted by the Family Agriculture in Function of Environmental Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Agra Zamith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to indicate directions of alternatives to self-sustainable development outlined at the principle of a family socioeconomic context, and sustainability, environmental  protection  promoted  by  family  agriculture.  The  inclusion  of  Family agriculture model in the discussion, of the preliminary verification of the agricultural production methods used by family units at the time ensuring the livelihood and allows the marketing  of  surplus  production  levels.  The  method  employed  was  the  hypothetical- deductive, with explanatory purpose, which means corresponded to the selection of authors who have the necessary support to the understanding of the precautionary principle in environmental law.

  18. Parents' Perspectives of Changes Within the Family Functioning After a Pediatric Cancer Diagnosis: A Multi Family Member Interview Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schoors, Marieke; De Mol, Jan; Morren, Hanne; Verhofstadt, Lesley L; Goubert, Liesbet; Van Parys, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    Pediatric cancer is a life-threatening disease that challenges the life of the diagnosed child, the parents, and possible siblings. Moreover, it also places considerable demands on family life. The aim of this study was to explore changes in the family functioning after a pediatric cancer diagnosis. Ten couples who had a child with leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma were interviewed individually about their experiences. Interviews were semistructured, and the data were analyzed using Multi Family Member Interview Analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) Family Cohesion: Strengthened Versus Fragmented; (b) Educational Norms and Values: Overindulgence Versus Being Stricter, and (c) Normality: Loss Versus Preservation. The conflicting dynamics present in these emerging themes exemplify the complexity of this process of family adaptation. This study illustrates the need to take into account the family level, as well as the conflicting feelings parents may experience after a pediatric cancer diagnosis.

  19. Possible consequences of applying guidelines to healthy women with a family history of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asperen, CJ; Tollenaar, RAEM; Krol-Warmerdam, EMM; Blom, Jannet; Hoogendoorn, WE; Seynaeve, CMJC; Brekelmans, CTM; Devilee, P; Cornelisse, CJ; Klijn, JGM; de Bock, GH

    Possible effects of consistently applying published guidelines on healthy women with breast cancer in their family history were analysed. We investigated 1060 unrelated breast cancer patients and calculated the numbers of first-degree relatives that would be referred to a familial cancer clinic if

  20. Germline EMSY sequence alterations in hereditary breast cancer and ovarian cancer families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Kirsi M; Nurminen, Riikka; Kankuri-Tammilehto, Minna; Kallioniemi, Anne; Laasanen, Satu-Leena; Schleutker, Johanna

    2017-07-24

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations explain approximately one-fifth of the inherited susceptibility in high-risk Finnish hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families. EMSY is located in the breast cancer-associated chromosomal region 11q13. The EMSY gene encodes a BRCA2-interacting protein that has been implicated in DNA damage repair and genomic instability. We analysed the role of germline EMSY variation in breast/ovarian cancer predisposition. The present study describes the first EMSY screening in patients with high familial risk for this disease. Index individuals from 71 high-risk, BRCA1/2-negative HBOC families were screened for germline EMSY sequence alterations in protein coding regions and exon-intron boundaries using Sanger sequencing and TaqMan assays. The identified variants were further screened in 36 Finnish HBOC patients and 904 controls. Moreover, one novel intronic deletion was screened in a cohort of 404 breast cancer patients unselected for family history. Haplotype block structure and the association of haplotypes with breast/ovarian cancer were analysed using Haploview. The functionality of the identified variants was predicted using Haploreg, RegulomeDB, Human Splicing Finder, and Pathogenic-or-Not-Pipeline 2. Altogether, 12 germline EMSY variants were observed. Two alterations were located in the coding region, five alterations were intronic, and five alterations were located in the 3'untranslated region (UTR). Variant frequencies did not significantly differ between cases and controls. The novel variant, c.2709 + 122delT, was detected in 1 out of 107 (0.9%) breast cancer patients, and the carrier showed a bilateral form of the disease. The deletion was absent in 897 controls (OR = 25.28; P = 0.1) and in 404 breast cancer patients unselected for family history. No haplotype was identified to increase the risk of breast/ovarian cancer. Functional analyses suggested that variants, particularly in the 3'UTR, were located within regulatory

  1. Black Families' Lay Views on Health and the Implications for Health Promotion: A Community-Based Study in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, Bertha

    2012-01-01

    Many studies focusing on beliefs about health and health promotion have paid little attention to the life experiences of Black and other visible minority ethnic families in western societies. This paper is a report of a study exploring Black families' beliefs about health and the implications of such beliefs for health promotion. Ten Black…

  2. Emotional wellbeing and mental health: an exploration into health promotion in young people and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdale, Gillian E; Long, Andrew F

    2015-01-01

    Promoting mental health and emotional wellbeing (EWB) in children and young people (YP) is vitally important for their psycho-social development. Critical review of the literature reveals a dearth of research that has explored the perspective of the child, adolescent or adult in this concept, with much research being intervention focused and promoted at crisis level. The current study aims to address this gap in understanding of young persons' and parents' perspectives. A small-scale, exploratory qualitative study was conducted with YP, and parents of YP aimed at exploring the meaning of EWB and how it could be promoted. Data were collected via focus groups with 15 YP (aged 18-24 years) and 15 interviews with parents of a different group of YP. Study participants identified key constructs for good EWB as stability, coping ability, happiness, confidence, balance, empathy and being grounded. Feeling comfortable with self, managing and controlling emotions and having the confidence to persevere with challenges were all felt to contribute to a positive sense of EWB. Sources of support were overwhelmingly cited as family and friends, with schools identified as a potentially good environment for supporting and promoting the EWB of pupils. Participants stressed the need for a positive attitude change towards YP, advocating this as promoting a sense of belonging and community citizenship. A lay-informed 'recipe' for successful EWB promotion is drawn out, centred on the core goal of raising awareness and understanding of YP's EWB, in the YP themselves, their parents, schools and the wider community. This research provides key messages for society, policy makers, education and public health and healthcare practitioners for integration into the delivery of services for YP and families that include education on supporting EWB, activities for YP and a multi-agency approach to supporting families within the community. © Royal Society for Public Health 2014.

  3. Cancer patients' use of family practice and secondary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokolowski, Ineta; Kjeldgaard, Anette Hvenegaard; Olesen, Frede

    Aims: We know that in Denmark some 90% of citizens have contact with family practice (FP) during a year and around 40% has contact with secondary care.  This demands efforts to create integrated and shared care. The aim of this study is to document the pattern of contacts with FP among patients...... population b) about 33,000 patients diagnosed with cancer in 2007, and c) about 220,000 patients living with a previous diagnosis of cancer.        Results: Data for the total population is known. The total number of contacts with FP in daytime is about 38.4 million, with out of hours service about 2...

  4. Spiritual Coping: A Gateway to Enhancing Family Communication During Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Anne M; Fischer, Judith; Purdom, Ann; Cobos, Everardo; Helmeke, Karen B

    2016-02-01

    The researchers examined the spiritual coping, family communication, and family functioning of 95 participants in 34 families by an online survey. Multilevel linear regression was used to test whether individuals' and families' higher endorsement of more use of spiritual coping strategies to deal with a member's cancer would be associated with higher scores on family communication and family functioning, and whether better communication would also be associated with higher family functioning scores. Results revealed that spiritual coping was positively associated with family communication, and family communication was positively associated with healthier family functioning. The researchers provide suggestions for further research.

  5. Communication and technology in genetic counseling for familial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, H T; Snyder, C; Stacey, M; Olson, B; Peterson, S K; Buxbaum, S; Shaw, T; Lynch, P M

    2014-03-01

    When a cancer predisposing germline mutation is detected in an index case, the presence of the underlying syndrome is confirmed and the potential for predictive testing of at-risk relatives is established. However, the reporting of a positive family history does not routinely lead to communication of information about risk to close, much less distant relatives. This review summarizes information technology utilized to address penetration or 'reach' of knowledge of risk within extended families, including the use of telephone and video counseling to reach distant patients, and anticipate novel internet-based processes for communication between investigators and relatives. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Family-building After Breast Cancer: Considering the Effect on Adherence to Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Catherine; Thom, Bridgette; Teplinsky, Eleonora; Carleton, Jane; Kelvin, Joanne F

    2017-06-01

    Adherence to endocrine therapy (ET) is a longstanding problem in breast cancer (BC) survivorship care, particularly among younger women. Younger patients have reported lower ET initiation rates and greater rates of early discontinuation and are considered an "at risk" group for nonadherence. For women who hope to have children in the future, concerns about premature menopause and the implications of postponing childbearing for the 5 to 10 years of ET are widespread. Preliminary evidence suggests that prioritizing fertility, along with concerns about side effects, leads to ET noninitiation and early discontinuation. Clinical efforts to improve adherence might need to consider patients' family-building goals during the course of treatment and to appropriately counsel patients according to their priorities and family-building intentions. Educational materials about family building after cancer are still not consistently available or provided. Helping patients to access trusted informational resources and decision support tools, in conjunction with medical counseling, will promote informed decisions regarding ET adherence and pregnancy that are medically appropriate. Such shared patient-provider decision-making about ET adherence and pregnancy could help to maximize patient autonomy by incorporating their values, preferences, and priorities into decisions, using providers' medical expertise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early-life family structure and microbially induced cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Blaser

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer may follow exposure to an environmental agent after many decades. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori, known to be acquired early in life, increases risk for gastric adenocarcinoma, but other factors are also important. In this study, we considered whether early-life family structure affects the risk of later developing gastric cancer among H. pylori+ men.We examined a long-term cohort of Japanese-American men followed for 28 y, and performed a nested case-control study among those carrying H. pylori or the subset carrying the most virulent cagA+ H. pylori strains to address whether family structure predicted cancer development. We found that among the men who were H. pylori+ and/or cagA+ (it is possible to be cagA+ and H. pylori- if the H. pylori test is falsely negative, belonging to a large sibship or higher birth order was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma late in life. For those with cagA+ strains, the risk of developing gastric cancer was more than twice as high (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.0 among those in a sibship of seven or more individuals than in a sibship of between one and three persons.These results provide evidence that early-life social environment plays a significant role in risk of microbially induced malignancies expressing five to eight decades later, and these findings lead to new models to explain these interactions.

  8. Costs of promoting cancer screening: Evidence from CDC's Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangka, Florence K L; Subramanian, Sujha; Hoover, Sonja; Royalty, Janet; Joseph, Kristy; DeGroff, Amy; Joseph, Djenaba; Chattopadhyay, Sajal

    2017-06-01

    The Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) provided funding to 29 grantees to increase colorectal cancer screening. We describe the screening promotion costs of CRCCP grantees to evaluate the extent to which the program model resulted in the use of funding to support interventions recommended by the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). We analyzed expenditures for screening promotion for the first three years of the CRCCP to assess cost per promotion strategy, and estimated the cost per person screened at the state level based on various projected increases in screening rates. All grantees engaged in small media activities and more than 90% used either client reminders, provider assessment and feedback, or patient navigation. Based on all expenditures, projected cost per eligible person screened for a 1%, 5%, and 10% increase in state-level screening proportions are $172, $34, and $17, respectively. CRCCP grantees expended the majority of their funding on Community Guide recommended screening promotion strategies but about a third was spent on other interventions. Based on this finding, future CRC programs should be provided with targeted education and information on evidence-based strategies, rather than broad based recommendations, to ensure that program funds are expended mainly on evidence-based interventions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Promoting improved family caregiver health literacy: evaluation of caregiver communication resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Elaine; Goldsmith, Joy; Ferrell, Betty; Ragan, Sandra L

    2017-07-01

    Family caregivers of cancer patients have a vital role in facilitating and sharing information about cancer, revealing a need to develop caregiver health literacy skills to support caregiver communication. The goal of this study was to investigate caregiver print materials and develop and assess a new caregiver communication resource titled A Communication Guide for Caregivers TM . Using a model of six domains of caregiver health literacy skills, print cancer education materials were collected and evaluated for caregiver communication support. A new caregiver communication resource was also developed and assessed by caregivers and healthcare providers. Caregivers reviewed content and assessed utility, relatability, and reading quality. Healthcare providers also assessed whether the material would be understandable and usable for cancer caregivers. Only three of the 28 print materials evaluated were written at the recommended sixth grade reading level and only five addressed all six caregiver health literacy skills. Readability scores for A Communication Guide for Caregivers TM were at the sixth grade level, and caregivers reported its contents were relatable, useful, and easy to read. Healthcare providers also rated the material as easy for patient/family members of diverse backgrounds and varying levels of literacy to understand and use. Existing print-based caregiver education materials do not address caregivers' health literacy skill needs and are aimed at a highly literate caregiving population. A Communication Guide for Caregivers TM meets health literacy standards and family caregiver and provider communication needs. The findings are relevant for healthcare professionals who provide cancer education. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Minimizing the cancer-promotional activity of cox-2 as a central strategy in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis examining long-term mortality in subjects who participated in controlled studies evaluating the impact of daily aspirin on vascular risk, has concluded that aspirin confers substantial protection from cancer mortality. Remarkably, low-dose aspirin was as effective as higher-dose regimens; hence this protection may be achievable with minimal risk. There is reason to believe that this protection stems primarily from inhibition of cox-2 in pre-neoplastic lesions. Since safe aspirin regimens can only achieve a partial and transitory inhibition of cox-2, it may be feasible to complement the cancer-protective benefit of aspirin with other measures which decrease cox-2 expression or which limit the bioactivity of cox-2-derived PGE2. Oxidative stress boosts cox-2 expression by up-regulating activation of NF-kappaB and MAP kinases; NADPH oxidase activation may thus promote carcinogenesis by increasing cox-2 expression while also amplifying oxidant-mediated mutagenesis. A prospective cohort study has observed that relatively elevated serum bilirubin levels are associated with a marked reduction in subsequent cancer mortality; this may reflect bilirubin's physiological role as a potent inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. It may be feasible to mimic this protective effect by supplementing with spirulina, a rich source of a phycobilin which shares bilirubin's ability to inhibit NADPH oxidase. Ancillary antioxidant measures - phase 2 inducing phytochemicals, melatonin, N-acetylcysteine, and astaxanthin - may also aid cox-2 down-regulation. The cancer protection often associated with high-normal vitamin D status may be attributable, in part, to the ability of the activated vitamin D receptor to decrease cox-2 expression while promoting PGE2 catabolism and suppressing the expression of PGE2 receptors. Diets with a relatively low ratio of omega-6 to long-chain omega-3 fats may achieve cancer protection by antagonizing the production and bioactivity of PGE2. Growth

  11. RAD51C germline mutations in breast and ovarian cancer cases from high-risk families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Clague

    Full Text Available BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the most well-known breast cancer susceptibility genes. Additional genes involved in DNA repair have been identified as predisposing to breast cancer. One such gene, RAD51C, is essential for homologous recombination repair. Several likely pathogenic RAD51C mutations have been identified in BRCA1- and BRCA2-negative breast and ovarian cancer families. We performed complete sequencing of RAD51C in germline DNA of 286 female breast and/or ovarian cancer cases with a family history of breast and ovarian cancers, who had previously tested negative for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. We screened 133 breast cancer cases, 119 ovarian cancer cases, and 34 with both breast and ovarian cancers. Fifteen DNA sequence variants were identified; including four intronic, one 5' UTR, one promoter, three synonymous, and six non-synonymous variants. None were truncating. The in-silico SIFT and Polyphen programs were used to predict possible pathogenicity of the six non-synonomous variants based on sequence conservation. G153D and T287A were predicted to be likely pathogenic. Two additional variants, A126T and R214C alter amino acids in important domains of the protein such that they could be pathogenic. Two-hybrid screening and immunoblot analyses were performed to assess the functionality of these four non-synonomous variants in yeast. The RAD51C-G153D protein displayed no detectable interaction with either XRCC3 or RAD51B, and RAD51C-R214C displayed significantly decreased interaction with both XRCC3 and RAD51B (p<0.001. Immunoblots of RAD51C-Gal4 activation domain fusion peptides showed protein levels of RAD51C-G153D and RAD51C-R214C that were 50% and 60% of the wild-type, respectively. Based on these data, the RAD51C-G153D variant is likely to be pathogenic, while the RAD51C- R214C variant is hypomorphic of uncertain pathogenicity. These results provide further support that RAD51C is a rare breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene.

  12. Mismatch Repair Polymorphisms as Markers of Breast Cancer Prevalence in the Breast Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappil, Maya; Terry, Mary Beth; Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette; Liao, Yuyan; Santella, Regina M

    2016-09-01

    Major breast cancer susceptibility genes involved in DNA repair, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been identified. However, mutations in these genes account for only 5-10% of identified breast cancer cases. Additional DNA repair pathway genes may also contribute to susceptibility. We investigated the association between 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mismatch repair (MMR) genes and breast cancer risk among 313 sister-sets enrolled in the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR) (n=744) using conditional logistic regression analysis. An increase in breast cancer risk was observed for women with the MUTYH_rs3219489 variant allele (odds ratio (OR)=2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.10-4.52) and for women with the MSH2_rs2303428 variant allele (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.00-2.99). Deficiencies in DNA repair pathways, such as MMR, have implications for the onset of familial breast cancer. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. Feasibility of a mobile phone application to promote physical activity in cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Background: Regular participation in physical activity is associated with improved physical and psychosocial outcomes in cancer survivors. However, physical activity levels are low during and after cancer treatment. Interventions to promote physical activity in this population are needed. Mobile technology has potential, but currently, there is no mobile phone application designed to promote physical activity in cancer survivors. Objectives: The first aim is to assess feasibility and...

  14. Levels of Distress in Women With a Family History of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to determine the levels of distress in women with a family history of ovarian cancer and to identify the mediating factors between risk of developing ovarian cancer...

  15. Exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells activate NF-κB pathway in macrophages to promote cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijun; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Hui; Yuan, Xiao; Sun, Yaoxiang; Pan, Zhaoji; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2016-09-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized membrane vesicles secreted by both normal and cancer cells. Emerging evidence indicates that cancer cells derived exosomes contribute to cancer progression through the modulation of tumor microenvironment. However, the effects of exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells on macrophages are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the biological role of gastric cancer cells derived exosomes in the activation of macrophages. We demonstrated that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes activated macrophages to express increased levels of proinflammatory factors, which in turn promoted tumor cell proliferation and migration. In addition, gastric cancer cells derived exosomes remarkably upregulated the phosphorylation of NF-κB in macrophages. Inhibiting the activation of NF-κB reversed the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in macrophages and blocked their promoting effects on gastric cancer cells. Moreover, we found that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes could also activate macrophages from human peripheral blood monocytes through the activation of NF-κB. In conclusion, our results suggest that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes stimulate the activation of NF-κB pathway in macrophages to promote cancer progression, which provides a potential therapeutic approach for gastric cancer by interfering with the interaction between exosomes and macrophages in tumor microenvironment.

  16. A Model of Engagement Promotion in a Professionally Facilitated Online Intervention for Couples Affected by Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianakieva, Iana; Fergus, Karen; Ahmad, Saunia; Pos, Alberta; Pereira, Amanda

    2016-10-01

    Professionally facilitated web-based interventions for couples affected by an illness such as cancer are growing in popularity. Attrition rates for such online programs, however, are substantially higher than what is observed in face-to-face therapeutic contexts, and lower levels of participant engagement are associated with poorer outcomes. In the present investigation, a task analysis was employed to develop a model of engagement promotion in an online intervention for couples affected by breast cancer called "Couplelinks." Results indicated that facilitators utilized a variety of meta-processes, such as humanizing the technology, and associated "eBehaviors," to maintain three relationships involved in promoting online engagement: (a) between the facilitator and couple; (b) between the intervention and couple; and (c) between the partners within the couple. © 2016 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  17. Discontinuation of anti-VEGF cancer therapy promotes metastasis through a liver revascularization mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yunlong; Zhang, Yin; Iwamoto, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The impact of discontinuation of anti-VEGF cancer therapy in promoting cancer metastasis is unknown. Here we show discontinuation of anti-VEGF treatment creates a time-window of profound structural changes of liver sinusoidal vasculatures, exhibiting hyper-permeability and enlarged open-pore sizes...... for uninterrupted and sustained antiangiogenic therapy for treatment of human cancers....

  18. Clinical and pathologic features of familial pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, Jeremy L; Johns, Amber L; Simpson, Skye H; Cowley, Mark J; Pajic, Marina; Chang, David K; Nagrial, Adnan M; Chin, Venessa T; Chantrill, Lorraine A; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R Scott; Gill, Anthony J; Samra, Jaswinder S; Kench, James G; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Tucker, Katherine M; Spigelman, Allan D; Waddell, Nic; Grimmond, Sean M; Biankin, Andrew V

    2014-12-01

    Inherited predisposition to pancreatic cancer contributes significantly to its incidence and presents an opportunity for the development of early detection strategies. The genetic basis of predisposition remains unexplained in a high proportion of patients with familial PC (FPC). Clinicopathologic features were assessed in a cohort of 766 patients who had been diagnosed with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PC). Patients were classified with FPC if they had ≥1 affected first-degree relatives; otherwise, they were classified with sporadic PC (SPC). The prevalence of FPC in this cohort was 8.9%. In FPC families with an affected parent-child pair, 71% in the subsequent generation were 12.3 years younger at diagnosis. Patients with FPC had more first-degree relatives who had an extrapancreatic malignancy (EPM) (42.6% vs 21.2; P2 years) was associated with poor survival in both groups. FPC represents 9% of PC, and the risk of malignancy in kindred does not appear to be confined to the pancreas. Patients with FPC have more precursor lesions and include fewer active smokers, but other clinicopathologic factors and outcome are similar to those in patients with SPC. Furthermore, some FPC kindreds may exhibit anticipation. A better understanding of the clinical features of PC will facilitate efforts to uncover novel susceptibility genes and the development of early detection strategies. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  19. Exploring cancer genetics and care of the family: an evolving challenge for palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Alison Kate

    2006-02-01

    There is a growing scientific understanding and increasing public awareness of the influence of genetics on the development of cancer. This article, which is based on a review of the literature, focuses on how the awareness of genetic predisposition to cancer is affecting patients and their families. It highlights the way that risk assessment for predisposition to cancer can conflict with traditional models of informed consent and can cause concern for families. It suggests that there is need for informed discussion within palliative care about how best to support families with concerns about a family history of cancer.

  20. Pain and Anxiety versus Sense of Family Support in Lung Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lekka, Dimitra; Pachi, Argiro; Tselebis, Athanasios; Zafeiropoulos, Georgios; Bratis, Dionisios; Evmolpidi, Argiri; Ilias, Ioannis; Karkanias, Athanasios; Moussas, Georgios; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Syrigos, Konstantinos N.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is a stressful condition for both patient and family. The anxiety and pain accompanying cancer and its treatment have a significant negative influence on the patient’s quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between anxiety, pain, and perceived family support in a sample of lung cancer patients. The sample consisted of a total of 101 lung cancer outpatients receiving treatment at the oncology department of a general hospital. Anxiety, pain (severi...

  1. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Germline Mutations Screening in Algerian Breast/Ovarian Cancer Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Cherbal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women in Algeria. The contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations to hereditary breast/ovarian cancer in Algerian population is largely unknown. Here, we describe analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in 86 individuals from 70 families from an Algerian cohort with a personal and family history suggestive of genetic predisposition to breast cancer.

  2. Methylation of Breast Cancer Predisposition Genes in Early-Onset Breast Cancer: Australian Breast Cancer Family Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron M Scott

    Full Text Available DNA methylation can mimic the effects of both germline and somatic mutations for cancer predisposition genes such as BRCA1 and p16INK4a. Constitutional DNA methylation of the BRCA1 promoter has been well described and is associated with an increased risk of early-onset breast cancers that have BRCA1-mutation associated histological features. The role of methylation in the context of other breast cancer predisposition genes has been less well studied and often with conflicting or ambiguous outcomes. We examined the role of methylation in known breast cancer susceptibility genes in breast cancer predisposition and tumor development. We applied the Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchip (HM450K array to blood and tumor-derived DNA from 43 women diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 40 years and measured the methylation profiles across promoter regions of BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, PALB2, CDH1, TP53, FANCM, CHEK2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Prior genetic testing had demonstrated that these women did not carry a germline mutation in BRCA1, ATM, CHEK2, PALB2, TP53, BRCA2, CDH1 or FANCM. In addition to the BRCA1 promoter region, this work identified regions with variable methylation at multiple breast cancer susceptibility genes including PALB2 and MLH1. Methylation at the region of MLH1 in these breast cancers was not associated with microsatellite instability. This work informs future studies of the role of methylation in breast cancer susceptibility gene silencing.

  3. Methylation of Breast Cancer Predisposition Genes in Early-Onset Breast Cancer: Australian Breast Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Cameron M; Joo, JiHoon Eric; O'Callaghan, Neil; Buchanan, Daniel D; Clendenning, Mark; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Wong, Ee Ming; Southey, Melissa C

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation can mimic the effects of both germline and somatic mutations for cancer predisposition genes such as BRCA1 and p16INK4a. Constitutional DNA methylation of the BRCA1 promoter has been well described and is associated with an increased risk of early-onset breast cancers that have BRCA1-mutation associated histological features. The role of methylation in the context of other breast cancer predisposition genes has been less well studied and often with conflicting or ambiguous outcomes. We examined the role of methylation in known breast cancer susceptibility genes in breast cancer predisposition and tumor development. We applied the Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchip (HM450K) array to blood and tumor-derived DNA from 43 women diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 40 years and measured the methylation profiles across promoter regions of BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, PALB2, CDH1, TP53, FANCM, CHEK2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Prior genetic testing had demonstrated that these women did not carry a germline mutation in BRCA1, ATM, CHEK2, PALB2, TP53, BRCA2, CDH1 or FANCM. In addition to the BRCA1 promoter region, this work identified regions with variable methylation at multiple breast cancer susceptibility genes including PALB2 and MLH1. Methylation at the region of MLH1 in these breast cancers was not associated with microsatellite instability. This work informs future studies of the role of methylation in breast cancer susceptibility gene silencing.

  4. Targeted sequencing of established and candidate colorectal cancer genes in the Colon Cancer Family Registry Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Leon; Guo, Yan; Du, Liping; Clendenning, Mark; Rosty, Christophe; Lindor, Noralane M; Gruber, Stephen B; Buchanan, Daniel D

    2017-11-07

    The underlying genetic cause of colorectal cancer (CRC) can be identified for 5-10% of all cases, while at least 20% of CRC cases are thought to be due to inherited genetic factors. Screening for highly penetrant mutations in genes associated with Mendelian cancer syndromes using next-generation sequencing (NGS) can be prohibitively expensive for studies requiring large samples sizes. The aim of the study was to identify rare single nucleotide variants and small indels in 40 established or candidate CRC susceptibility genes in 1,046 familial CRC cases (including both MSS and MSI-H tumor subtypes) and 1,006 unrelated controls from the Colon Cancer Family Registry Cohort using a robust and cost-effective DNA pooling NGS strategy. We identified 264 variants in 38 genes that were observed only in cases, comprising either very rare (minor allele frequency cancer susceptibility genes BAP1, CDH1, CHEK2, ENG, and MSH3 . For the candidate CRC genes, we identified likely pathogenic variants in the helicase domain of POLQ and in the LRIG1 , SH2B3 , and NOS1 genes and present their clinicopathological characteristics. Using a DNA pooling NGS strategy, we identified novel germline mutations in established CRC susceptibility genes in familial CRC cases. Further studies are required to support the role of POLQ , LRIG1 , SH2B3 and NOS1 as CRC susceptibility genes.

  5. Familial Risk and Heritability of Cancer Among Twins in Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucci, Lorelei A; Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Harris, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Estimates of familial cancer risk from population-based studies are essential components of cancer risk prediction. OBJECTIVE: To estimate familial risk and heritability of cancer types in a large twin cohort. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective study of 80,309 monozygotic...... to follow-up. EXPOSURES: Shared environmental and heritable risk factors among pairs of twins. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The main outcome was incident cancer. Time-to-event analyses were used to estimate familial risk (risk of cancer in an individual given a twin's development of cancer) and heritability...... (proportion of variance in cancer risk due to interindividual genetic differences) with follow-up via cancer registries. Statistical models adjusted for age and follow-up time, and accounted for censoring and competing risk of death. RESULTS: A total of 27,156 incident cancers were diagnosed in 23...

  6. Aberrant gene promoter methylation associated with sporadic multiple colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Gonzalo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC multiplicity has been mainly related to polyposis and non-polyposis hereditary syndromes. In sporadic CRC, aberrant gene promoter methylation has been shown to play a key role in carcinogenesis, although little is known about its involvement in multiplicity. To assess the effect of methylation in tumor multiplicity in sporadic CRC, hypermethylation of key tumor suppressor genes was evaluated in patients with both multiple and solitary tumors, as a proof-of-concept of an underlying epigenetic defect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined a total of 47 synchronous/metachronous primary CRC from 41 patients, and 41 gender, age (5-year intervals and tumor location-paired patients with solitary tumors. Exclusion criteria were polyposis syndromes, Lynch syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. DNA methylation at the promoter region of the MGMT, CDKN2A, SFRP1, TMEFF2, HS3ST2 (3OST2, RASSF1A and GATA4 genes was evaluated by quantitative methylation specific PCR in both tumor and corresponding normal appearing colorectal mucosa samples. Overall, patients with multiple lesions exhibited a higher degree of methylation in tumor samples than those with solitary tumors regarding all evaluated genes. After adjusting for age and gender, binomial logistic regression analysis identified methylation of MGMT2 (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.97; p = 0.008 and RASSF1A (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.01 to 4.13; p = 0.047 as variables independently associated with tumor multiplicity, being the risk related to methylation of any of these two genes 4.57 (95% CI, 1.53 to 13.61; p = 0.006. Moreover, in six patients in whom both tumors were available, we found a correlation in the methylation levels of MGMT2 (r = 0.64, p = 0.17, SFRP1 (r = 0.83, 0.06, HPP1 (r = 0.64, p = 0.17, 3OST2 (r = 0.83, p = 0.06 and GATA4 (r = 0.6, p = 0.24. Methylation in normal appearing colorectal mucosa from patients with multiple and solitary CRC showed no relevant

  7. The pathology of familial breast cancer: Immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osin, Pinchas P; Lakhani, Sunil R

    1999-01-01

    Extensive studies of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast tumours have been carried out in the few years since the identification of these familial breast cancer predisposing genes. The morphological studies suggest that BRCA1 tumours differ from BRCA2 tumours and from sporadic breast cancers. Recent progress in immunohistochemistry and molecular biology techniques has enabled in-depth investigation of molecular pathology of these tumours. Studies to date have investigated issues such as steroid hormone receptor expression, mutation status of tumour suppressor genes TP53 and c-erbB2, and expression profiles of cell cycle proteins p21, p27 and cyclin D 1 . Despite relative paucity of data, strong evidence of unique biological characteristics of BRCA1-associated breast cancer is accumulating. BRCA1-associated tumours appear to show an increased frequency of TP53 mutations, frequent p53 protein stabilization and absence of imunoreactivity for steroid hormone receptors. Further studies of larger number of samples of both BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated tumours are necessary to clarify and confirm these observations

  8. Germline rearrangements in families with strong family history of glioma and malignant melanoma, colon, and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Cederquist, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although familial susceptibility to glioma is known, the genetic basis for this susceptibility remains unidentified in the majority of glioma-specific families. An alternative approach to identifying such genes is to examine cancer pedigrees, which include glioma as one of several can...

  9. Cancer cell specific cytotoxic gene expression mediated by ARF tumor suppressor promoter constructs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurayoshi, Kenta [Department of Bioscience, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Ozono, Eiko [Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary, University of London, John Vane Science Centre, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ (United Kingdom); Iwanaga, Ritsuko; Bradford, Andrew P. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, 12800 East 19th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Komori, Hideyuki [Center for Stem Cell Biology, Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ohtani, Kiyoshi, E-mail: btm88939@kwansei.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • ARF promoter showed higher responsiveness to deregulated E2F activity than the E2F1 promoter. • ARF promoter showed higher cancer cell-specificity than E2F1 promoter to drive gene expression. • HSV-TK driven by ARF promoter showed higher cancer cell-specific cytotoxicity than that driven by E2F1 promoter. - Abstract: In current cancer treatment protocols, such as radiation and chemotherapy, side effects on normal cells are major obstacles to radical therapy. To avoid these side effects, a cancer cell-specific approach is needed. One way to specifically target cancer cells is to utilize a cancer specific promoter to express a cytotoxic gene (suicide gene therapy) or a viral gene required for viral replication (oncolytic virotherapy). For this purpose, the selected promoter should have minimal activity in normal cells to avoid side effects, and high activity in a wide variety of cancers to obtain optimal therapeutic efficacy. In contrast to the AFP, CEA and PSA promoters, which have high activity only in a limited spectrum of tumors, the E2F1 promoter exhibits high activity in wide variety of cancers. This is based on the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Defects in the RB pathway and activation of the transcription factor E2F, the main target of the RB pathway, are observed in almost all cancers. Consequently, the E2F1 promoter, which is mainly regulated by E2F, has high activity in wide variety of cancers. However, E2F is also activated by growth stimulation in normal growing cells, suggesting that the E2F1 promoter may also be highly active in normal growing cells. In contrast, we found that the tumor suppressor ARF promoter is activated by deregulated E2F activity, induced by forced inactivation of pRB, but does not respond to physiological E2F activity induced by growth stimulation. We also found that the deregulated E2F activity, which activates the ARF promoter, is detected only in cancer cell lines. These observations suggest that ARF promoter

  10. Protocadherin-10 acts as a tumor suppressor gene, and is frequently downregulated by promoter methylation in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chan; Bu, Xiaona; Jiang, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Protocadherin-10 (PCDH10), a member of non-clustered protocadherin family which plays important roles in calcium-dependent cell-cell signal transduction and adhesion. PCDH10 functions as a tumor suppressor gene and its expression is downregulated by promoter methylation in many malignances. In the present study, we explored PCDH10 expression and promoter methylation status, and its biological effects in pancreatic cancer cells, and furthermore, we explored the mechanism of PCDH10 preliminary in pancreatic cancer cells. the mRNA level of PCDH10 was detected by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR and promoter methylation status examined by methylation-specific PCR in the pancreatic cancer cells (Capan-1, Panc-1, AsPC-1 and BxPC-3) as well as the human normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells HPDE6-C7 which was used as a control. The human pancreatic cells were transfected with plasmid pcDNA3.1-PCDH10 or pcDNA3.1 by lipofectamine 2000. The biological function of PCDH10 in pancreatic cancer cells was determined by CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry, Transwell invasion assay and wound-healing assay. The levels of apoptosis related proteins were examined by western blotting. PCDH10 expression was obviously downregulated in the pancreatic cancer cells (Capan-1, Panc-1, BxPC-3) compared to the normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. PCDH10 promoter methylation was observed in the two pancreatic cancer cells Capan-1 and BxPC-3,and the expression of PCDH10 could be restored after treating with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A in the two cell types. Overexpression of PCDH10 can inhibit the proliferation, migration, invasion ability of pancreatic cancer cells and induce apoptosis. Ectopic expression of PCDH10 could increase the levels of PARP, caspase-3, caspase-9 and decrease the level of bcl-2, AKT and p-AKT. PCDH10 acts as a tumor suppressor gene, and is frequently down-regulated by promoter methylation in pancreatic cancer cells. PCDH

  11. Cellular Adhesion Promotes Prostate Cancer Cells Escape from Dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppender, Nazanin; Larson, Sandy; Lakely, Bryce; Kollath, Lori; Brown, Lisha; Coleman, Ilsa; Coleman, Roger; Nguyen, Holly; Nelson, Peter S; Corey, Eva; Snyder, Linda A; Vessella, Robert L; Morrissey, Colm; Lam, Hung-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Dissemination of prostate cancer (PCa) cells to the bone marrow is an early event in the disease process. In some patients, disseminated tumor cells (DTC) proliferate to form active metastases after a prolonged period of undetectable disease known as tumor dormancy. Identifying mechanisms of PCa dormancy and reactivation remain a challenge partly due to the lack of in vitro models. Here, we characterized in vitro PCa dormancy-reactivation by inducing cells from three patient-derived xenograft (PDX) lines to proliferate through tumor cell contact with each other and with bone marrow stroma. Proliferating PCa cells demonstrated tumor cell-cell contact and integrin clustering by immunofluorescence. Global gene expression analyses on proliferating cells cultured on bone marrow stroma revealed a downregulation of TGFB2 in all of the three proliferating PCa PDX lines when compared to their non-proliferating counterparts. Furthermore, constitutive activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), a downstream effector of integrin-beta1 and TGF-beta2, in non-proliferating cells promoted cell proliferation. This cell proliferation was associated with an upregulation of CDK6 and a downregulation of E2F4. Taken together, our data provide the first clinically relevant in vitro model to support cellular adhesion and downregulation of TGFB2 as a potential mechanism by which PCa cells may escape from dormancy. Targeting the TGF-beta2-associated mechanism could provide novel opportunities to prevent lethal PCa metastasis.

  12. Microtubule-associated protein Mdp3 promotes breast cancer growth and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tala; Xie, Songbo; Sun, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoou; Ran, Jie; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Dengwen; Liu, Min; Bao, Gang; Zhou, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide with a high mortality rate, and the identification of new biomarkers and targets for this disease is greatly needed. Here we present evidence that microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 7 domain-containing protein 3 (Mdp3) is highly expressed in clinical samples and cell lines of breast cancer. The expression of Mdp3 correlates with clinicopathological parameters indicating breast cancer malignancy. In addition, Mdp3 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and motility in vitro and stimulates breast cancer growth and metastasis in mice. Mechanistic studies reveal that γ-tubulin interacts with and recruits Mdp3 to the centrosome and that the centrosomal localization of Mdp3 is required for its activity to promote breast cancer cell proliferation and motility. These findings suggest a critical role for Mdp3 in the growth and metastasis of breast cancer and may have important implications for the management of this disease.

  13. Familial Risk and Heritability of Colorectal Cancer in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Rebecca E; Möller, Sören; Passarelli, Michael N

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We analyzed data from twins to determine how much the familial risk of colorectal cancer can be attributed to genetic factors vs environment. We also examined whether heritability is distinct for colon vs rectal cancer, given evidence of distinct etiologies. METHODS: Our data set...... to genetic factors (heritability). RESULTS: From earliest registration in 1943 through 2010, 1861 individuals were diagnosed with colon cancer and 1268 with rectal cancer. Monozygotic twins of affected co-twins had an FRR for colorectal cancer of 3.1 (95% CI, 2.4-3.8) relative to the cohort risk. Dizygotic.......3 (95% CI, 2.1-4.5) for monozygotic twins and 2.6 (95% CI, 1.7-3.5) for dizygotic twins. For rectal cancer, comparable estimates were 3.3 (95% CI, 1.5-5.1) for monozygotic twins and 2.6 (95% CI, 1.2-4.0) for dizygotic twins. Heritability estimates for colon and rectal cancer were 16% (95% CI, 0...

  14. Consistency of prediction across generation: explaining quality of life by family functioning and health-promoting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sehrish; Malik, Jamil A

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to investigate the consistency of relationship between family functioning, health-promoting behaviors, and quality of life across generations in joint families. The sample comprises of 79 joint families (N = 316 members, n = 79 grandparents (grandfathers = 27, grandmothers = 52) n = 158 parents (fathers = 79, mothers = 79), and n = 79 grandchildren (girls = 61, boys = 18)). Data were collected on Self-Report Family Inventory, SFI, Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, HPLP-II, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale BREF WHO QOL BREF. All three variables, i.e., family functioning, health-promoting behaviors, and quality of life, were modeled as latent variables. Analyses were conducted separately for each group. Results showed that in grandparents, family functioning predicted (β = .44, p life (R (2) = .85). Family functioning appears to have significant indirect effects (β = .34, p life. The model fit indices showed a good fit (IFI = .917, CFI = .910, RMSEA = .078) of the model of the data. For all other groups, i.e., fathers, mothers, and grandchildren, family functioning and health-promoting behaviors independently predicted quality of life (R (2) = .55, .67, and .54, respectively). Our results showed that family functioning and health-promoting behaviors are consistent predictors of quality of life across generations.

  15. Family history of cancer, personal history of medical conditions and risk of oral cavity cancer in France: the ICARE study.

    OpenAIRE

    Radoï, Loredana; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Guida, Florence; Cyr, Diane; Menvielle, Gwenn; Schmaus, Annie; Carton, Matthieu; Cénée, Sylvie; Sanchez, Marie; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Trétarre, Brigitte; Stücker, Isabelle; Luce, Danièle

    2013-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of family history of cancer and personal history of other medical conditions in the aetiology of the oral cavity cancer in France. METHODS: We used data from 689 cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and 3481 controls included in a population-based case--control study, the ICARE study. Odds-ratios (ORs) associated with family history of cancer and personal medical conditions and their 95% confidence inte...

  16. Family functioning and perceived support from nurses during cancer treatment among Danish and Australian patients and their families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, Karin B; Coyne, Elisabeth; Creedy, Debra K

    2018-01-01

    such as cancer. However, family functioning and supportive care from nurses may vary across cultures and settings. DESIGN AND METHODS: A descriptive, cross sectional comparative design with patients and family members from Denmark and Australia. Participants were asked to fill in translated versions......AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare family functioning and perceptions of support from nurses among Danish and Australian adult oncology patients and family members. BACKGROUND: Family can have a strong influence on the health of individuals, providing support during a health crisis...... nurses. CONCLUSIONS: Family functioning was comparable between Denmark and Australia. Family members reported less emotional support than patients. Nurses need to consider the patient and the family as a unit with This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Microtubule-Associated Protein Mdp3 Promotes Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Tala,; Xie, Songbo; Sun, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoou; Ran, Jie; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Dengwen; Liu, Min; Bao, Gang; Zhou, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide with a high mortality rate, and the identification of new biomarkers and targets for this disease is greatly needed. Here we present evidence that microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 7 domain-containing protein 3 (Mdp3) is highly expressed in clinical samples and cell lines of breast cancer. The expression of Mdp3 correlates with clinicopathological parameters indicating breast cancer malignancy. In addition, Mdp3 promotes breast ...

  18. Health promotion in families who have children with intellectual and developmental disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emira Švraka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability is the state of stopped or incomplete mental development which is featured by the impairment of abilities occurring at the development age and contributes to general level of intelligence, such as speech, cognitive, motor and social abilities. Disability can occur together or separately from other mental or physical disorders. 290 million people worldwide are estimated to have disabilities. Health is a core element in quality of life, but poverty, marginalization, limited access to primary health care, and lack of health promotion knowledge compromise health. Based on a research results in all nine areas of the family life quality (health, nancial status, family relations, support of other, support of services, influence of values, career, leisure and recreation, and community interaction community could influence with the permanent preventive measures on 6 concepts of family life quality: importance, possibility, initiative, achievement, stability and satisfaction. The research could be of great help for the development of comprehensive strategies for improvement of quality of life for families that have one or more members with intellectual disability. From inclusion we expect approach to individual and his/her family by the society, to take into account all their diversities, preservation and improvement of their personal physical and mental health, for optimal possible functioning, at all personal and social levels.

  19. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in breast cancer families: Are there more breast cancer-susceptibility genes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serova, O.M.; Mazoyer, S.; Putet, N. [CNRS, Lyon (France)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    To estimate the proportion of breast cancer families due to BRCA1 or BRCA2, we performed mutation screening of the entire coding regions of both genes supplemented with linkage analysis of 31 families, 8 containing male breast cancers and 23 site-specific female breast cancer. A combination of protein-truncation test and SSCP or heteroduplex analyses was used for mutation screening complemented, where possible, by the analysis of expression level of BRCA1 and BRCA2 alleles. Six of the eight families with male breast cancer revealed frameshift mutations, two in BRCA1 and four in BRCA2. Although most families with female site-specific breast cancers were thought to be due to mutations in either BRCA1 or BRCA2, we identified only eight mutations in our series of 23 site-specific female breast cancer families (34%), four in BRCA1 and four in BRCA2. According to the posterior probabilities calculated for mutation-negative families, based on linkage data and mutation screening results, we would expect 8-10 site-specific female breast cancer families of our series to be due to neither BRCA1 nor BRCA2. Thus, our results suggest the existence of at least one more major breast cancer-susceptibility gene. 24 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Impact of family history of breast cancer on tumour characteristics, treatment, risk of second cancer and survival among men with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchardy, Christine; Rapiti, Elisabetta; Fioretta, Gerald; Schubert, Hyma; Chappuis, Pierre; Vlastos, Georges; Benhamou, Simone

    2013-11-12

    Male breast cancer patients have a higher risk of developing a second primary cancer, but whether this risk differs according to the family history of breast or ovarian cancers remains to be elucidated. We aimed to determine the effect of a positive family history among men diagnosed with breast cancer on tumour characteristics, treatment, second cancer occurrence and overall survival. We included 46 patients with known information on the family history of breast or ovarian cancer recorded at the Geneva Cancer Registry between 1970 and 2009. We compared patients with and without a family history with chi-square of heterogeneity, risk of second cancer with standardised incidence ratios (SIRs), and overall survival by Kaplan-Meier methods. Approximately 20% of men with breast cancer had a positive family history. No differences were observed between men with and without familial risk except that patients with increased risk were more likely to receive radiotherapy and hormone therapy when compared with patients without familial risk. This more complete therapy is likely to be explained by the heightened awareness of cancer treatment among breast cancer patients with affected family members. Six men developed a second cancer. SIRs for second cancer were not significantly increased among patients with or without familial risk (1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-6.97 and 1.04, 95% CI 0.28-2.66, respectively). Overall survival was not significantly different between the two groups. Prognosis was similar among patients with or without familial risk. Our results are however based on small numbers and larger registry-based cohorts of males with precise data on familial risk are still warranted.

  1. Familial Breast Cancer in Costa Rica: An Initial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ramírez Monge

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a worldwide problem because of its high rates of incidence and associated mortality. By 2000, more than 6.2 million people died from this illness worldwide. Among all types of cancer, breast cancer is one of the most studied. Each year, one million new cases are diagnosed around the world. We can classify breast cancer into two main kinds: sporadic cases and those which are a product of inherited genetic alterations. Approximately 5-10% of breast cancer cases are the result of inherited mutations, or alterations in breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Like other countries, Costa Rica possesses high rates of incidence and mortality for breast cancer. According to the "Registro Nacional de Tumores" (National Office of Tumor Records, in 2000 breast cancer had the highest rate of incidence and in 2002 it had the highest rate of mortality in comparison to other types of cancer. For this reason and the generalized lack of knowledge in the field we conducted an epidemiological research on breast cancer patients from Hospital San Juan de Dios, San José, Costa Rica, to find families with a history of breast cancer, and to determine the occurrence of familial cases within the population studied. So far, we have found 23 families, within which we discovered very informative cases that have rendered the identification of a pattern of inheritance. These findings allow us to announce that in Costa Rica there are several cases of inherited breast cancer and that we need more research is needed to improve the prevention, control, and treatment of this disease. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 531-536. Epub 2004 Dic 15.El cáncer es un problema a nivel mundial porque posee altas tasas de incidencia y mortalidad. Para el año 2000 más de 6.2 millones de personas murieron a causa de esta enfermedad. El cáncer de mama es uno de los tipos de cáncer más estudiados en el mundo por las mismas razones. Cada año, se diagnostican más de un mill

  2. Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsono

    1989-07-01

    Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program.

  3. Family history and risk of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anna L V; Andersson, Therese M-L; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Cnattingius, Sven; Dickman, Paul W; Lambe, Mats

    2015-05-01

    The risk of breast cancer is at least two-fold increased in young women with a family history of breast cancer. Pregnancy has a dual effect on breast cancer risk; a short-term increase followed by a long-term protection. We investigated if the risk of breast cancer during and within 10 years following pregnancy is affected by a family history of breast cancer. We followed a cohort of women aged 15-44 years between 1963 and 2009 identified in Swedish population-based registers. Family history was defined as having a mother or sister with breast cancer. We estimated incidence rate ratios of breast cancer during pregnancy and time intervals up to 10 years post-delivery, with a focus on pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC), defined as breast cancer during pregnancy or within 2 years post-delivery. In 3,452,506 women, there were 15,548 cases of breast cancer (1208 were PABC). Compared to nulliparous women, the risk of breast cancer was decreased during pregnancy, similar during first year and increased during second year post-delivery. The pattern was similar in women with or without family history of breast cancer. A peak in risk was observed 5-6 years following the first birth regardless of family history. After a second birth, this peak was only present in women with a family history. Our results indicate that women with a family history of breast cancer do not have a different breast cancer risk during and within 10 years following pregnancy compared to women without a family history.

  4. Gynecologic cancer prevention in Lynch syndrome/hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee-may; Yang, Kathleen Y; Little, Sarah E; Cheung, Michael K; Caughey, Aaron B

    2007-07-01

    Women from Lynch syndrome/hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch/HNPCC) families have an increased lifetime risk of developing endometrial and ovarian cancer. This study models a comparison of management strategies for women who carry a Lynch/HNPCC mutation. A decision analytic model with three arms was designed to compare annual gynecologic examinations with annual screening (ultrasonography, endometrial biopsy, CA 125) and with hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy at age 30 years The existing literature was searched for studies on the accuracy of endometrial and ovarian cancer screening using endometrial biopsy, transvaginal ultrasonography, and serum CA 125. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database from 1988 to 2001 was used to estimate cancer mortality outcomes. In the surgical arm, 0.0056% of women were diagnosed with ovarian cancer and 0.0060% of women with endometrial cancer. These numbers increased to 3.7% and 18.4% in women being screened, and 8.3% and 48.7% in women undergoing annual examinations, respectively. Surgical management led to the longest expected survival time at 79.98 years, followed by screening at 79.31 years, and annual examinations at 77.41 years. If starting at age 30 and discounting life years at 3%, surgery still leads to the greatest expected life years. When comparing prophylactic surgery with the screening option, one would need to perform 75 surgeries to save one woman's entire life. For cancer prevention, however, only 28 and 6 prophylactic surgeries would need to be performed to prevent one case of ovarian and endometrial cancer, respectively. Risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy may be considered in women with Lynch/HNPCC to prevent gynecologic cancers and their associated morbidities.

  5. Coordination of cancer care between family physicians and cancer specialists: Importance of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Julie; Miedema, Baukje; Carroll, June C; Manca, Donna P; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Webster, Fiona; Grunfeld, Eva

    2016-10-01

    To explore health care provider (HCP) perspectives on the coordination of cancer care between FPs and cancer specialists. Qualitative study using semistructured telephone interviews. Canada. A total of 58 HCPs, comprising 21 FPs, 15 surgeons, 12 medical oncologists, 6 radiation oncologists, and 4 GPs in oncology. This qualitative study is nested within a larger mixed-methods program of research, CanIMPACT (Canadian Team to Improve Community-Based Cancer Care along the Continuum), focused on improving the coordination of cancer care between FPs and cancer specialists. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, telephone interviews were conducted with HCPs involved in cancer care. Invitations to participate were sent to a purposive sample of HCPs based on medical specialty, sex, province or territory, and geographic location (urban or rural). A coding schema was developed by 4 team members; subsequently, 1 team member coded the remaining transcripts. The resulting themes were reviewed by the entire team and a summary of results was mailed to participants for review. Communication challenges emerged as the most prominent theme. Five key related subthemes were identified around this core concept that occurred at both system and individual levels. System-level issues included delays in medical transcription, difficulties accessing patient information, and physicians not being copied on all reports. Individual-level issues included the lack of rapport between FPs and cancer specialists, and the lack of clearly defined and broadly communicated roles. Effective and timely communication of medical information, as well as clearly defined roles for each provider, are essential to good coordination of care along the cancer care trajectory, particularly during transitions of care between cancer specialist and FP care. Despite advances in technology, substantial communication challenges still exist. This can lead to serious consequences that affect clinical decision making

  6. The odd-skipped family of zinc finger genes promotes Drosophila leg segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Irene; Green, Ryan B; Dunaevsky, Olga; Lengyel, Judith A; Rauskolb, Cordelia

    2003-11-15

    Notch signaling controls formation of joints at leg segment borders and growth of the developing Drosophila leg. Here, we identify the odd-skipped gene family as a key group of genes that function downstream of the Notch receptor to promote morphological changes associated with joint formation during leg development. odd, sob, drm, and bowl are expressed in a segmental pattern in the developing leg, and their expression is regulated by Notch signaling. Ectopic expression of odd, sob, or drm can induce invaginations in the leg disc epithelium and morphological changes in the adult leg that are characteristic of endogenous invaginating joint cells. These effects are not due to an alteration in the expression of other genes of the developing joint. While odd or drm mutant clones do not affect leg segmentation, and thus appear to act redundantly, bowl mutant clones do perturb leg development. Specifically, bowl mutant clones result in a failure of joint formation from the distal tibia to tarsal segment 5, while more proximal clones cause melanotic protrusions from the leg cuticle. Together, these results indicate that the odd-skipped family of genes mediates Notch function during leg development by promoting a specific aspect of joint formation, an epithelial invagination. As the odd-skipped family genes are involved in regulating cellular morphogenesis during both embryonic segmentation and hindgut development, we suggest that they may be required in multiple developmental contexts to induce epithelial cellular changes.

  7. Linguistic indicators of patient, couple, and family adjustment following breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Megan L; Mehl, Matthias R; Smith, Hillary L; Weihs, Karen L

    2013-07-01

    This study examined how language reflective of emotional and social processes during a cancer-related discussion relates to patient, couple, and family adjustment after breast cancer. It investigated whether emotional expression or relational focus, manifested in language use, indicates healthy family coping following breast cancer. Family members each completed measures of adjustment (Family Environment Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and patient Profile of Mood States) and engaged in a 15-min family discussion about how they have coped with breast cancer. Transcripts from the discussion were submitted to a text-analysis software program to obtain frequency of positive and negative emotion words, and personal pronouns spoken by each family member. The relationship between self-reports of adjustment and frequency of language use during the family discussion was analyzed with regression models. Partners' positive emotion words were indicative of better family adjustment, patients' negative emotion words indicated greater family conflict, and sons' and daughters' anger words indicated poorer adjustment, whereas their anxiety words indicated better family adjustment. Partner we-talk was related to better dyadic adjustment, and couples' 'you' was somewhat related to worse adjustment at all levels. Important information about how a family copes with breast cancer can be obtained by attending to families' emotional and relational language. This study suggests that clinicians and members of families' support networks can gauge how well a family has adapted after the breast cancer experience by attending to the type of words that each family member uses to describe how they coped with breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Do people really know what makes a family history of cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jennifer N W; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-12-01

    Family history is often referred to as a family tree in casual everyday conservations, but it carries a different connotation in medicine. This study is the first to investigate people's understanding of 'family medical history' and the concept of 'family' in the context of inherited cancer. Three hundred and nine staff at the Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds completed an online web survey. Not all respondents understood or knew what makes a family history of cancer. Only 54% knew exactly the type of information required to make a family history. Apart from blood relatives, adopted and step-siblings, step parents, in-laws, spouses, friends and colleagues were also named as 'family' for family history taking. Personal experience of living with cancer and academic qualification were not significant in influencing knowledge of family history. There is misunderstanding and poor knowledge of family history of cancer and the type of information required to make a family history even in a sample of people teaching and researching medicine and health issues. Public understanding of the value of family medical history in cancer prevention and management is important if informed clinical decisions and appropriate health care are to be delivered. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. US correlation for MRI-detected breast lesions in women with familial risk of breast cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sim, L.S.; Hendriks, J.H.C.L.; Bult, P.; Fook-Chong, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the value of US correlation for MRI-detected breast lesions in women with familial risk of breast cancer. METHODS: From an initial dataset of 245 women with positive family history who had breast cancer surveillance involving mammography or MRI between November 1994 and February

  10. Breast Cancer Screening in Women with a Familial or Genetic Predisposition: the role of MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kriege (Mieke)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWomen with a strong family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer combined with young ages at diagnosis of affected family members have an increased risk of these types of cancer. In 1994 and 1995 respectively, the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were identified. A germline mutation in one of

  11. Breast Cancer Screening in Women with a Familial or Genetic Predisposition: the role of MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kriege (Mieke)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWomen with a strong family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer combined with young ages at diagnosis of affected family members have an increased risk of these types of cancer. In 1994 and 1995 respectively, the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were identified. A germline mutation in one

  12. A pooled analysis of the outcome of prospective colonoscopic surveillance for familial colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesher, David; Dove-Edwin, Isis; Sasieni, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance guidelines for the management of familial colorectal cancer (FCC), a dominant family history of colorectal cancer in which the polyposis syndromes and Lynch syndrome have been excluded, are not firmly established. The outcome of colonoscopic surveillance is studied using data from six...

  13. Promoting early detection of breast cancer and care strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women particularly in developing countries like Nigeria, with high mortality, and economic costs. Worldwide, it is predicted that more than one million women are diagnosed with breast cancer, and more than 400,000 will die from the disease every year. A comparative integrative ...

  14. Ultrasonographic prediction of highly aggressive telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyuk; Ki, Chang-Seok; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Oh, Young Lyun; Jang, Hye Won; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Shin, Jung Hee

    2017-08-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations are found in highly aggressive thyroid malignancies. Our aim was to define the ultrasonographic features of telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer and to evaluate their predictive performances. Ultrasonographic findings were reviewed for 185 patients with surgically confirmed papillary thyroid cancer between 1994 and 2004. Genomic DNA to identify telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations was extracted from archived surgical specimens. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare clinical factors and ultrasonographic findings between telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated and wild-type papillary thyroid cancers. A telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutation was detected in 8.1% (15 of 185) of specimens from papillary thyroid cancer patients with a strong trend toward increasing age. Nonparallel orientation and microlobulated margin were independent ultrasonographic findings for predicting telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer in patients over 50 years (odds ratio 5.898, 95% confidence interval 1.092-31.851, P = 0.039 for orientation; odds ratio 5.813, 95% confidence interval 1.320-25.602, P = 0.020 for margin). Prevalence of telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations increased to 50.0% in papillary thyroid cancer patients older than 50 years with both ultrasonographic findings and was 0% in patients without either finding. For identifying telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer, ultrasonographic had 64.3% sensitivity, 80.8% specificity, 50.0% positive predictive value and 88.4% negative predictive value. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer could be suggested by the ultrasonographic features of nonparallel orientation and microlobulated margin in patients older than 50 years. Prebiopsy recognition of this unique

  15. Virotherapy targeting cyclin E overexpression in tumors with adenovirus-enhanced cancer-selective promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei-Hsin; Rao, Xiao-Mei; Duan, Xiaoxian; Li, Xiao-Feng; Egger, Michael E; McMasters, Kelly M; Zhou, H Sam

    2015-02-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy can selectively destroy cancer cells and is a potential approach in cancer treatment. A strategy to increase tumor-specific selectivity is to control the expression of a key regulatory viral gene with a tumor-specific promoter. We have previously found that cyclin E expression is augmented in cancer cells after adenovirus (Ad) infection. Thus, the cyclin E promoter that is further activated by Ad in cancer cells may have unique properties for enhancing oncolytic viral replication. We have shown that high levels of viral E1a gene expression are achieved in cancer cells infected with Ad-cycE, in which the endogenous Ad E1a promoter was replaced with the cyclin E promoter. Ad-cycE shows markedly selective oncolytic efficacy in vitro and destroys various types of cancer cells, including those resistant to ONYX-015/dl1520. Furthermore, Ad-cycE shows a strong capacity to repress A549 xenograft tumor growth in nude mice and significantly prolongs survival. This study suggests the potential of Ad-cycE in cancer therapy and indicates the advantages of using promoters that can be upregulated by virus infection in cancer cells in development of oncolytic viruses. Key messages: Cyclin E promoter activity is high in cancer cells and enhanced by adenovirus infection. Cyclin E promoter is used to control the E1a gene of a tumor-specific oncolytic adenovirus. Ad-cycE efficiently targets cancer cells and induces oncolysis. Ad-cycE significantly repressed xenograft tumor and prolonged survival.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms of Bcl-2 promoter in cancer susceptibility and prognosis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhongqiang; Yang, Binhui; Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Wei; He, Qihua; Peng, Xingchun

    2017-04-11

    Bcl-2 is critical for tumorigenesis. However, previous studies on the association of Bcl-2 promoter polymorphisms with predisposition to different cancer types are somewhat contradictory. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis regarding the relationship between Bcl-2 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and cancer susceptibility and prognosis. Up to August 2016, 32 original publications were identified covering two Bcl-2 promoter SNPs (rs2279115 and rs1801018). Our results showed statistically significant association between rs2279115 and cancer susceptibility and prognosis in all four genetic models but not in rs1801018. Subgroups analysis indicated that rs2279115 was associated with a significantly higher risk of cancer susceptibility in Asia but not in Caucasian. Furthermore, rs2279115 was associated with a significantly higher risk in digestive system cancer and endocrine system cancer but not in breast cancer, respiratory cancer and hematopoietic cancer. Simultaneously, rs2279115 was correlated with a significantly higher risk of cancer prognosis in Asia but not in Caucasian. Considering these promising results, rs2279115 may be a tumor marker for cancertherapy in Asia. Sensitivity analysis show four gene model were stable, and no publication bias was observed in all four gene model. Large sample size, different ethnic population and different cancer type are warranted to validate this association.

  17. Family history of cancer and the risk of laryngeal cancer: a case-control study from Italy and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavello, Werner; Turati, Federica; Bosetti, Cristina; Talamini, Renato; Levi, Fabio; Lucenteforte, Ersilia; Chiesa, Fausto; Franceschi, Silvia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva

    2012-02-01

    Only limited data is available on the relationship between family history of laryngeal and other neoplasms and laryngeal cancer risk. We investigated the issue using data from a multicentre case-control study conducted in Italy and Switzerland between 1992 and 2009 including 852 cases with histologically confirmed laryngeal cancer and 1970 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non neoplastic conditions. Unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, study center, education, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and number of siblings were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of laryngeal cancer. The multivariate OR was 2.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-5.3) in subjects reporting a first-degree relative with laryngeal cancer, as compared to subjects with no family history. The OR was higher when the relative was diagnosed before 60 years of age (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.4-8.8). As compared to subjects without family history, non-smokers, and moderate drinkers, the OR was 37.1 (95% CI 9.9-139.4) for current smokers, heavy drinkers, with family history of laryngeal cancer. Family history of colorectal (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3) and kidney (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-12.1) cancer were also associated to an increased risk of laryngeal cancer, while no significant increase in risk was found for family history of cancer at all sites, excluding the larynx (OR = 1.1). Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  18. Virotherapy Targeting Cyclin E Overexpression in Tumors with Adenovirus-enhanced Cancer Selective Promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei-Hsin; Rao, Xiao-Mei; Duan, Xiaoxian; Li, Xiao-Feng; Egger, Michael E.; McMasters, Kelly M.; Zhou, H. Sam

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy can selectively destroy cancer cells and is a potential approach in cancer treatment. A strategy to increase tumor-specific selectivity is to control the expression of a key regulatory viral gene with a tumor-specific promoter. We have previously found that cyclin E expression is augmented in cancer cells after adenovirus (Ad) infection. Thus, the cyclin E promoter that is further activated by Ad in cancer cells may have unique properties for enhancing oncolytic viral replication. We have shown that high levels of viral E1a gene expression are achieved in cancer cells infected with Ad-cycE, in which the endogenous Ad E1a promoter was replaced with the cyclin E promoter. Ad-cycE shows markedly selective oncolytic efficacy in vitro and destroys various types of cancer cells, including those resistant to ONYX-015/dl1520. Furthermore, Ad-cycE shows a strong capacity to repress A549 xenograft tumor growth in nude mice and significantly prolongs survival. This study suggests the potential of Ad-cycE in cancer therapy and indicates the advantages of using promoters that can be upregulated by virus infection in cancer cells in development of oncolytic viruses. PMID:25376708

  19. Dyadic Associations Between Cancer-Related Stress and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Colorectal Cancer Patients and Their Family Caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, Kelly M.; Kim, Youngmee; Llabre, Maria M.; Carver, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how stress from cancer affects fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) in cancer patients and their family caregivers during the year following diagnosis. Colorectal cancer patients and their caregivers (92 dyads) completed questionnaires at two (T1), six (T2), and 12 months post-diagnosis (T3). Individuals reported perceived cancer-related stress (CRS) at T1 and days of adequate FVC at T1 through T3. Both patients and caregivers reported inadequate FVC during the first year...

  20. Upregulation of E2F8 promotes cell proliferation and tumorigenicity in breast cancer by modulating G1/S phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Lin, Chuyong; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Shu; Bao, Yong; Yang, Qi; Song, Libing; Lin, Huanxin

    2016-01-01

    E2F transcription factors are involved in cell cycle regulation and synthesis of DNA in mammalian cells, and simultaneously play important roles in the development and progression of cancer when dysregulated. E2F8, a novel identified E2F family member, was found to be associated with the progression of several human cancers; however, the biological role and clinical significance of E2F8 in breast cancer remain to be further elucidated. Herein, we report that E2F8 is robustly elevated in breast cancer cell lines and clinical breast cancer tissue samples, respectively. The high expression level of E2F8 significantly correlates with clinical progression (P = 0.001), poor patient survival (P Ki67 staining index (P = 0.008) in 187 human breast cancer specimens. Furthermore, we find that overexpressing E2F8 promotes, whereas silencing E2F8 suppresses, the proliferation and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. We further demonstrate that E2F8 transcriptionally upregulates CCNE1 and CCNE2 via directly interacting with their respective gene promoter, which accelerates the transition of G1 to S phase of breast cancer cells. Taken together, these findings uncover a novel biologic role and regulatory mechanism of E2F8 responsible for the progression of breast cancer, indicating E2F8 may represent a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target against breast cancer. PMID:26992224

  1. The work of nurses in the Family Health Strategy - aspects of promoting health practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Abrahão

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was focused on the identification of strategies of care focused on health promotion, used in the work of nurses in family health. It is a descriptive study in a qualitative approach performed in the health units in the city of Iguaba Grande, RJ, Brazil. As a result two categories emerged. The first one, ‘Tension in the area of the caregiver’ found that the work of professionals is guided in a permanent tension between the practice focused on the use of instruments from the biomedical model and actions to create a dialogical care. ‘Production of unique areas’ demonstrated that nurses value the unique needs of the health users. It is concluded that strategies of health promotion from the investigative experience incorporate elements of production of unique areas under tensions from the clinical model of attention, leading to a creative investment and creator of strategies in this setting of primary care.

  2. Promoting the selection of healthy food through menu item description in a family-style restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, J J; Elder, J P; Peterson, G; Knisley, P M; Carleton, R A

    1987-01-01

    We describe an attempt to influence the selection of menu items in a family-style restaurant. Three different messages, varying in content and emphasis, were used to promote one food special each intervention day. One message emphasized that the specials were particularly healthful, being relatively low in fat, sodium, and cholesterol. A second message stressed flavor and added that the choice was healthful. A third, nonspecific message made no mention of taste or health factors, but simply noted that there was a daily special. Results indicated that restaurant patrons selected healthful specials when the message noted that the choice was healthful but emphasized flavor. Patrons were apparently more open to information about the palatability of the food than its healthfulness per se. These results have implications for point-of-purchase health promotion efforts in general, especially those involving food-labeling programs in restaurants and grocery stores.

  3. Genetic variations in SMAD7 are associated with colorectal cancer risk in the colon cancer family registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejuan Jiang

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide studies identified a risk locus for colorectal cancer at 18q21, which maps to the SMAD7 gene. Our objective was to confirm the association between SMAD7 SNPs and colorectal cancer risk in the multi-center Colon Cancer Family Registry.23 tagging SNPs in the SMAD7 gene were genotyped among 1,592 population-based and 253 clinic-based families. The SNP-colorectal cancer associations were assessed in multivariable conditional logistic regression.Among the population-based families, both SNPs rs12953717 (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.49, and rs11874392 (odds ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.92 were associated with risk of colorectal cancer. These associations were similar among the population- and the clinic-based families, though they were significant only among the former. Marginally significant differences in the SNP-colorectal cancer associations were observed by use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cigarette smoking, body mass index, and history of polyps.SMAD7 SNPs were associated with colorectal cancer risk in the Colon Cancer Family Registry. There was evidence suggesting that the association between rs12953717 and colorectal cancer risk may be modified by factors such as smoking and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  4. Breast Cancer Screening Practice and Health-Promoting Behavior Among Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Im Kim, RN, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: On the basis of these results, public education about importance of breast cancer screening and health promoting behavior should be strongly advocated by health professionals and mass media in China.

  5. Osteoprotegerin mediates tumor-promoting effects of Interleukin-1beta in breast cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, S.T.M. (Stephanie Tsang Mui); D. Geerts (Dirk); Roseman, K. (Kim); Renaud, A. (Ashleigh); Connelly, L. (Linda)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ It is widely recognized that inflammation promotes breast cancer invasion and metastasis. Given the complex nature of the breast tumor inflammatory microenvironment, much remains to be understood of the molecular mechanisms that govern these effects. We have

  6. [Adolescent confronting cancer and its place in the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavand, Aurélie; Grandjean, Hélène; Vignes, Michel

    2007-04-01

    Adolescent medicine is expanding in Europe with particular attention being given to cancer of adolescents and its treatment. At a time where specialised units for adolescents are being born, it is essential to collect the current knowledge on the pathological impact of the illness in this age period whose limits themselves are often blurred (13-21 years or 15-25 years). Adolescence is a transition between childhood and adulthood, during which one seeks psychological and emotional development. Cancer, by its direct repercussion on the adolescent and also by the disorganisation of the family, can involve risks impending the process of maturation and can also be a purveyor of psychological after-affects. The occurrence of the illness can isolate the adolescent and leak to a restriction of the psychological investment. The reality of possible death can hinder the ill adolescent from developing his natural opposition to the adults who represent authority such as parents or nurses, thereby hindering access to autonomy, independence and identity construction. One can find oneself locked in a state of trouble, confusion, becoming a stranger to oneself, with an impression of distance waxing between the young patient and others. The parents find themselves weakening and must make calls on their supporters. The siblings see their daily life becoming more unsettled and find themselves confronted by parents less available and reassuring. The impact on the brothers and sisters vary depending on their age and the capacity of the parent's adaptation. From the onset, adolescents struck by cancer necessitate an adaptation of the medical staff. The medical information, the treatment and the aid-care contracts must be approved by the adolescent himself but the parent's involvement remains essential. It is necessary to create an alliance of three. Conflicts and rivalry occur frequently between parents and the medical staff. One must study the possibility of creating a place adapted to

  7. Family Matters: Adjustment to genetic cancer susceptibility testing

    OpenAIRE

    Oostrom, Iris

    2006-01-01

    textabstractCancer is generally feared because it is associated with death and severe physical suffering. It is one of the most common causes of death in the Netherlands. Breast and colon cancer are the most prevalent types of cancer among women. Frequently occurring types in men are cancer of colon, lung and prostate. About 5% of colorectal and breast cancer arises as a result of a mutation in an inherited cancer susceptibility gene. Knowledge about these cancer susceptibility genes has been...

  8. Does risk of endometrial cancer for women without a germline mutation in a DNA mismatch repair gene depend on family history of endometrial cancer or colorectal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Rajani; Jenkins, Mark A.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Marchand, Loïc Le; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Hopper, John L.; Win, Aung Ko

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether risk of endometrial cancer for women without a germline mutation in a DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene depends on family history of endometrial or colorectal cancer. Methods We retrospectively followed a cohort of 79,166 women who were recruited to the Colon Cancer Family Registry, after exclusion of women who were relatives of a carrier of a MMR gene mutation. The Kaplan-Meier failure method was used to estimate the cumulative risk of endometrial cancer. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for association between family history of endometrial or colorectal cancer and risk of endometrial cancer. Results A total of 628 endometrial cancer cases were observed, with mean age at diagnosis of 54.4 (standard deviation 15.7) years. The cumulative risk of endometrial cancer to age 70 years was estimated to be 0.94% (95% CI 0.83–1.05) for women with no family history of endometrial cancer, and 3.80% (95% CI 2.75–4.98) for women with at least one first- or second-degree relative with endometrial cancer. Compared with women without family history, we found an increased risk of endometrial cancer for women with at least one first-or second-degree relative with endometrial cancer (HR 3.66, 95% CI 2.63–5.08), and for women with one first-degree relative with colorectal cancer diagnosed at age <50 years (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.15–1.91). Conclusion An increased risk of endometrial cancer is associated with a family history of endometrial cancer or early-onset colorectal cancer for women without a MMR gene mutation; indicating for potential underlying genetic and environmental factors shared by colorectal and endometrial cancers other than caused by MMR gene mutations. PMID:24631449

  9. The relationship between family history of cancer, coping style and psychological distress

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu; Cao, Chunmei

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between family history of cancer, coping style and psychological distress. Methods: Total 80 patients with family history of cancer and 72 normal controls were analyzed using self-reporting inventory (SCL-90), coping style scale and impact of event scale-revised (IES-R). Results: 1. Between the two groups of patients, there were significant differences in anxiety, depression, cancer-specific distress and coping style. 2. Psychological distress (anxie...

  10. ABERRANT METHYLATION OF THE PROMOTER OF APC, CDH13 AND MGMT GENES IN COLORECTAL CANCER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant methylation of gene promoter regions is the main epigenetic change characterizing colorectal cancer. Methylation levels of 42 CpG-sites of promoter regions of the MGMT, APC and CDH13 genes in colorectal cancer were studied in comparison with methylation levels of the adjacent normal tissue in 25 patients. Pyrosequencing showed an increase in methylation levels of promoter regions of the MGMT, APC and CDH13 genes in tumor samples by 3 to 5 times. These tumor samples were screened for activating SNP-mutations in the KRAS (40 %, NRAS (0 % and BRAF (0 % oncogenes. SNP-mutations in the KRAS gene were accompanied by hypermethylation of one or more promoters of the studied genes. Association of this epigenetic index with tumor metastasis was proved. The data on an increase in methylation of the promoter regions of oncosupressor genes can be used as sensitive prognostic markers of progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer.

  11. Is prevalence of colorectal polyps higher in patients with family history of colorectal cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Murad-Regadas, Sthela Maria; Bezerra, Carla Camila Rocha; Peixoto, Ana Ligia Rocha; Regadas, Francisco Sérgio Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras; Siebra, José Airton Gonçalves; da Silva Fernandes, Graziela Olivia; Vasconcelos, Rafael Aragão

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjectives:To assess the prevalence of polyps in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer, in comparison to asymptomatic individuals with indication for screening.Methods:A prospective study in a group of patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I: no family history of colorectal cancer, and Group II: with a family history in first-degree relatives. Demographic characteristics, findings on colonoscopy...

  12. Relationships between MGMT promoter methylation and gastric cancer: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan; Cao, Tao; Han, Ya-Di; Huang, Fu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A DNA repair enzyme, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), plays an important role in the development of gastric cancers. However, the role of MGMT promoter methylation in the occurrence of gastric cancer and its relationships with clinicopathologic characteristics has not been fully clarified. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the associations between MGMT promoter methylation and gastric cancer. Electronic databases, including PubMed and Web of Science, were used to systematically search related clinical studies published in English until April 1, 2016. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to evaluate the associations between MGMT promoter methylation and gastric cancer risk or clinicopathologic characteristics. A total of 16 studies including 1,935 patients and 1,948 control persons were included in the analysis. Our study suggested that MGMT promoter methylation frequency was associated with gastric cancer (OR=3.46, 95% CI: 2.13–5.61, PMGMT promoter methylation in the no lymph node metastasis group was lower than that in lymph node metastasis group, with marginal significance (OR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.42–1.01, P=0.05). Additionally, the methylation rate of the MGMT promoter was much lower in patients without distant metastases than in those with metastases (OR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.18–0.40, PMGMT promoter methylation with Lauren classification, tumor location, tumor invasion, or Helicobacter pylori infection was found. In conclusion, the methylation status of the MGMT promoter was related to gastric cancer risk, distant metastasis, and lymph node metastasis, which indicates that MGMT promoter methylation may play an important role in gastric cancer development. PMID:27785051

  13. Familial clustering of cancer in two tertiary care hospitals in Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe the occurrence of cancers in families of individuals diagnosed cancer. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Outpatient cancer clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Radiotherapy Clinic at Nairobi Hospital. Subjects: Patients with a tissue histological or cytological diagnosis of ...

  14. Surveillance for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer - A long-term study on 114 families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappel, WHDTN; Nagengast, FM; Griffioen, G; Menko, FH; Taal, BG; Kleibeuker, JH; Vasen, HF

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. Mutation carriers have a 60 to 85 percent risk of developing colorectal cancer. In the Netherlands hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families are monitored in an intensive

  15. Emotional, Biological, and Cognitive Impact of a Brief Expressive Writing Intervention for African American Women at Familial Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis

    2007-01-01

    ...) than women without familial breast cancer risk. The proposed study will examine the impact of an expressive writing intervention on emotional biological, and cognitive processes among women at familial breast cancer risk...

  16. Emotional, Biological, and Cognitive Impact of a Brief Expressive Writing Intervention for Women at Familial Breast Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis

    2006-01-01

    ...) than women without familial breast cancer risk. The proposed study will examine the impact of an expressive writing intervention on emotional biological and cognitive processes among women at familial breast cancer risk...

  17. Coronin 3 promotes gastric cancer metastasis via the up-regulation of MMP-9 and cathepsin K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Gui

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronins are a family of highly evolutionary conserved proteins reportedly involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics, although only coronin 3 has been shown to be related to cancer cell migration. In glioblastoma cells, the knockdown of coronin 3 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion. Coronin 3 is also associated with the aggression and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this paper, we analyze the migration, invasion and metastasis abilities of gastric cancer cells after up- or down-regulation of coronin 3, and explore the mechanism of coronin 3 in the process of gastric cancer metastasis. Results The expression of coronin 3 was higher in the highly metastatic sub-cell line MKN28-M, which we established in our laboratory. We also demonstrated that the expression of coronin 3 was remarkably higher in lymph lode metastases than in primary gastric cancer tissues, and over-expression of coronin 3 was correlated with the increased clinical stage and lymph lode metastasis. Recombinant lentiviral vectors encoding shRNAs were designed to down-regulate coronin 3 expression in gastric cancer cell lines. Stable knockdown of coronin 3 by this lentiviral vector could efficiently inhibit the migration and invasion of MKN45 gastric cancer cells. In contrast, up-regulation of coronin 3 significantly enhanced migration and invasion of MKN28-NM cells. In addition, knockdown of coronin 3 significantly reduced liver metastasis in mice after tail vein injection of gastric cancer cells. The Human Tumor Metastasis PCR Array was used to screen the metastasis-associated genes identified by the down-regulation of coronin 3, and the results suggested that, following the knockdown of coronin 3, the tumor cell migration and invasion were inhibited by the reduced expression of MMP-9 and cathepsin K. Conclusion Coronin 3 is highly expressed in gastric cancer metastases and can promote the metastatic behaviors of gastric cancer

  18. Association between protocadherin 8 promoter hypermethylation and the pathological status of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Hui; Wang, Jianming; Liu, Qingzuo; Wang, Yongqiang; Feng, Fan; Shi, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes has been confirmed to serve a pivotal role in tumorigenesis. Protocadherin 8 ( PCDH8 ), a novel tumor suppressor gene, has been reported to be inactivated by promoter hypermethylation a number of cancer types, including bladder cancer and renal cell carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of PCDH8 hypermethylation in prostate cancer and its potential as a novel biomarker of prostate cancer. The transcriptional levels of PCDH8 were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 82 prostate cancer tissues as well as 30 prostate hyperplasia tissues, and verified the protein level by western blot analysis of representative samples. PCDH8 expression levels were found to be reduced to 0.30±0.10 in 70.7% (58/82) of prostate cancer tissues. To identify the possible reason for mRNA downregulation, the methylation status of the PCDH8 promoter was assessed in prostate cancer tissues and prostate hyperplasia tissues by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). A total of 47 prostate cancer patients who exhibited reduced PCDH8 expression (57.3%; 47/82) also showed promoter hypermethylation (47/58). None of the samples (0/30) in the benign prostate hyperplasia group were positive on MSP. Furthermore, the associations between the methylation status of the PCDH8 promoter and various clinicopathological features of prostate cancer were analyzed, revealing that the methylation status of PCDH8 was closely associated with tumor size, tumor shape (papillary/non-papillary), tumor stage and tumor grade (all P0.05). Additionally, patients with hypermethylation of the PCDH8 gene promoter had a relapse rate of 36.17% and a mortality rate of 29.79%, which were significantly higher than the hypermethylation-negative patients (Pprediction of prognosis in prostate cancer.

  19. Influence of family size and birth order on risk of cancer: a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevier, Melanie; Weires, Marianne; Thomsen, Hauke; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2011-01-01

    Family size and birth order are known to influence the risk of some cancers. However, it is still unknown whether these effects change from early to later adulthood. We used the data of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to further analyze these effects. We selected over 5.7 million offspring with identified parents but no parental cancer. We estimated the effect of birth order and family size by Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, period, region and socioeconomic status. We divided the age at diagnosis in two groups, below and over 50 years, to identify the effect of family size and birth order for different age periods. Negative associations for increasing birth order were found for endometrial, testicular, skin, thyroid and connective tissue cancers and melanoma. In contrast, we observed positive association between birth order and lung, male and female genital cancers. Family size was associated with decreasing risk for endometrial and testicular cancers, melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma; risk was increased for leukemia and nervous system cancer. The effect of birth order decreased for lung and endometrial cancer from age at diagnosis below to over 50 years. Combined effects for birth order and family size were marginally significant for thyroid gland tumors. Especially, the relative risk for follicular thyroid gland tumors was significantly decreased for increasing birth order. Our findings suggest that the effect of birth order decreases from early to late adulthood for lung and endometrial cancer

  20. Two different BRCA2 mutations found in a multigenerational family with a history of breast, prostate, and lung cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caporale DA

    2014-06-01

    BRCA2. This mutation that has been reported in many women of Spanish descent is within a hotspot and is predicted to have resulted from three separate mutational events. Although sporadic mutations can occur, more than likely it is the result of a germ line mutation inherited from the Italian family line and was carried by a father that died of prostate cancer. Since individual III-2 had an early onset of breast cancer, it is recommended that siblings of II-1 seek genetic counseling and be screened for the BRCA2-3036delACAA variant. The individual with breast and lung cancer (II-8 was not a carrier of this mutation, but rather a carrier of the BRCA2-c.6275_6276delTT (6503delTT, which is also a truncated mutation but more common in those of Irish/Scottish descent. It is recommended that her immediate family members be screened for this mutation to assess their risk of breast cancer. We conclude that DNA screening of the BRCA2 promoter region and the BRCA2-6503delTT site from a lung tumor biopsy taken from individual II-8 would provide more insight into the possible association of this BRCA2 variant with lung cancer.Keywords: breast/prostate/lung cancers, BRCA2 deletions, AS PCR, genogram

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells promote colorectal cancer progression through AMPK/mTOR-mediated NF-?B activation

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiao-Bing; Liu, Yang; Wang, Gui-Hua; Xu, Xiao; Cai, Yang; Wang, Hong-Yi; Li, Yan-Qi; Meng, Hong-Fang; Dai, Fu; Jin, Ji-De

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exert a tumor-promoting effect in a variety of human cancers. This study was designed to identify the molecular mechanisms related to the tumor-promoting effect of MSCs in colorectal cancer. In vitro analysis of colorectal cancer cell lines cultured in MSC conditioned media (MSC-CM) showed that MSC-CM significantly promoted the progression of the cancer cells by enhancing cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. The tumorigenic effect of MSC-CM was att...

  2. Oncologists' assessments of lung cancer patient and family disagreements regarding treatment decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminoff, Laura A; Dorflinger, Lindsey; Agyemang, Amma; Baker, Sherman; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen

    2012-07-01

    Disagreements between cancer patients and their caregivers about treatment and care can affect the patient's physical and mental well-being. Therefore it is important to understand if oncologists can accurately identify the presence of patient-caregiver decisional conflict. This study examined assessments made by lung cancer patients, their caregivers, and their oncologists regarding patient-caregiver disagreements concerning treatment and care decisions. We assessed the extent to which the patient, caregiver, and oncologist reported disagreement between the patient and the family member regarding treatment decisions in 134 patient-caregiver-oncologist triads. Descriptive statistics were used to explore rates of concordance amongst all possible combinations of raters. Loglinear models were tested for 3-way agreement. Most patient-caregiver pairs, 82.1% (n = 110), reported agreement concerning presence or absence of decisional conflict. Oncologists were more successful in detecting absence of conflict than the presence of conflict. When the caregiver and the oncologist agreed, it was regarding the absence of conflict (64.9%), rather than the presence of conflict. In 10.6% (n = 15) of cases, oncologists reported that conflictual relationships negatively impacted their ability to provide patient care. Recent models of cancer patient care promote including the caregiver fully in the process while respecting the primacy of the patient's perspective. However, these models assume that the oncologist will recognize when disagreements exist and be able to assist in conflict resolution. The degree to which the oncologist identified that conflict exists and implications for their ability to provide patient care when familial disagreements existed are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Friere's dialogic concept enables family health program teams to incorporate health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Ivonete T S B; Almeida, Maria C P

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The study analyzes the possibility of incorporating health promotion measures into the work processes of Family Health Program teams at a primary health care clinic in Brazil. We used the participatory research concept developed in 1968 by Freire. The study sample comprised the end-users of the health care system, together with 3 multidisciplinary teams. A total of 77 health care users and 55 health professionals participated in the study. Culture circles composed of health care professionals, and users from different areas investigated generative topics, encoded/decoded topics, and engaged in critical probing for clarification. Topics affecting quality of life and health were heuristically evaluated. Although most topics were related to changing the focus of health care facilities, some were related to subsidizing community-based interventions, improving environmental strategies, individual skills, and public policies. Incorporating the novel health promotion measures and creating an expanded full-treatment clinic are important steps toward that goal. Topics that can stimulate dialogue among the members of the culture circles include creating an environment of closer cultural contact, with repercussions for work processes, family health models, and general health models, as well as the inclusion of social aspects in the decision-making processes related to health issues that affect the living conditions of the population. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Active video games to promote physical activity in children with cancer: a randomized clinical trial with follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhanen, Lotta; Järvelä, Liisa; Lähteenmäki, Päivi M; Arola, Mikko; Heinonen, Olli J; Axelin, Anna; Lilius, Johan; Vahlberg, Tero; Salanterä, Sanna

    2014-04-05

    Low levels of physical activity, musculoskeletal morbidity and weight gain are commonly reported problems in children with cancer. Intensive medical treatment and a decline in physical activity may also result in reduced motor performance. Therefore, simple and inexpensive ways to promote physical activity and exercise are becoming an increasingly important part of children's cancer treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of active video games in promotion of physical activity in children with cancer. The research is conducted as a parallel randomized clinical trial with follow-up. Patients between 3 and 16 years old, diagnosed with cancer and treated with vincristine in two specialized medical centers are asked to participate. Based on statistical estimates, the target enrollment is 40 patients. The intervention includes playing elective active video games and, in addition, education and consultations for the family. The control group will receive a general recommendation for physical activity for 30 minutes per day. The main outcomes are the amount of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Other outcomes include motor performance, fatigue and metabolic risk factors. The outcomes are examined with questionnaires, diaries, physical examinations and blood tests at baseline and at 2, 6, 12 and 30 months after the baseline. Additionally, the children's perceptions of the most enjoyable activation methods are explored through an interview at 2 months. This trial will help to answer the question of whether playing active video games is beneficial for children with cancer. It will also provide further reasoning for physical activity promotion and training of motor skills during treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01748058 (October 15, 2012).

  5. Oral cancer - improving early detection and promoting prevention. Are you up to date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mighell, A J; Gallagher, J E

    2012-09-01

    Oral cancer is increasingly common. The need for early detection and promoting prevention is greater than ever and relevant to all who are responsible for the care of patients. Recent addition of oral cancer detection to the list of continuing professional development (CPD) topics recommended by the General Dental Council (GDC) reflects this importance.

  6. Promoter Methylation Primarily Occurs in Tumor Cells of Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Wouter K.; Verpooten, Gonda F.; Kramer, Henk; Louwagie, Joost; Groen, Harry J. M.

    Background: The distribution of promoter methylation throughout the lungs of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unknown. In this explorative study, we assessed the methylation status of the promoter region of 11 genes in brush samples of 3 well-defined endobronchial locations in

  7. The Effect of Telephone Counseling and Education on Breast Cancer Screening in Family Caregivers of Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiriani, Khadijeh; Motevasselian, Monireh; Farnia, Farahnaz; Shiryazdi, Seyed Mostafa; Khodayarian, Mahsa

    2017-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy among females. Family history is a key risk factor for breast cancer. Breast cancer screening practices are vital in patients with family history of breast cancer. Telephone counseling and education may be appropriate for improved breast cancer screening. This study was done to determine family caregiver patients' knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer and practice of breast cancer screening and also to assess the effect of telephone counseling and education on mammography screening. This study was a community-based trial. The participants of the study were 90 caregivers who were randomly divided into an experimental group, telephone counseling and education, and a control group. The intervention group received counseling and education phone calls. A three-section questionnaire was responded and filled out through telephone interviews with the participants. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS18, using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that 88.9% of the participants did not know when to do breast self-exam (BSE). Mammography was performed by the participants before and after the telephone counseling in intervention group (Ppatients was low. Telephone counseling and educating may provide a suitable technique for earlier detection of breast cancer in family caregivers of breast cancer patients and it can influence the decision making regarding mammography screening among 40-year-old or older women. Trial Registration Number: 2017052316870N3.

  8. ZNF830 mediates cancer chemoresistance through promoting homologous-recombination repair

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guo; Chen, Jianxiang; Qiao, Yiting; Shi, Yaru; Liu, Wei; Zeng, Qi; Xie, Hui; Shi, Xiaorui; Sun, Youwei; Liu, Xu; Li, Tongyu; Zhou, Liqian; Wan, Jianqin; Xie, Tian; Wang, Hangxiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Homologous recombination (HR), which mediates the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), is crucial for maintaining genomic integrity and enhancing survival in response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy in human cancers. However, the mechanisms of HR repair in treatment resistance for the improvement of cancer therapy remains unclear. Here, we report that the zinc finger protein 830 (ZNF830) promotes HR repair and the survival of cancer cells in response to DNA damage. Mechanistica...

  9. Stress-induced Premature Promotes Prostate Cancer Growth and Metastasis through Alteration of Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    fibroblast was not clear. Given that the cancer cells at orthotopic site had sufficient nutrition supplies from circulation, the growth promoting...factors secrete by senescent fibroblasts was dispensable. But at subcutaneous site, cancer cells were in a harsh environment with limited nutrition ...Genet 2005; 37: 116-118. 14. Wright WE, Shay JW. Telomere biology in aging and cancer. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005; 53: S292-294. 15. Gardner JP, Kimura

  10. Family Communication, Risk Perception and Cancer Knowledge of Young Adults from BRCA1/2 Families: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alison L; Butow, Phyllis N; Vetsch, Janine; Quinn, Veronica F; Patenaude, Andrea F; Tucker, Katherine M; Wakefield, Claire E

    2017-12-01

    Understanding challenges in familial communication of cancer risk has informed genetic service delivery. Parent-child interactions have received considerable attention, but few studies focus on young adulthood experiences within BRCA1/2 families. Young adults are approaching, or at a life stage where awareness of hereditary cancer risk is vital for informed choice of risk management options. This review assesses family communication, risk perception and cancer knowledge held by 18-40 year old individuals who have a parent with a BRCA1/2 gene mutation or carry the gene mutation themselves. Thirteen papers met the inclusion criteria. One utilized a 'mixed methods' methodology and the remaining used a qualitative approach. Findings were synthesized into themes and reported narratively. In general, parents are communicating openly about genetic risk with young adult offspring, but there is evidence that some young adults are withholding information from their parents about their own test results. Risk perception is influenced by a family history of cancer, childbearing plans and health providers' advice. Misconceptions about genetic risk appear to be common and gaps in hereditary cancer knowledge are evident. It is unclear whether incorrect knowledge was passed from parents to offspring. Health providers need to provide developmentally appropriate services for emerging adults (18-25 years old), with particular support in navigating through risk management options.

  11. Family History of Breast Cancer as a Determinant of the Risk of Developing Endometrial and Ovarian Cancers: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kazerouni, N. N

    2002-01-01

    Statement of the problem: Although endometrial and ovarian cancers share some of the same reproductive, hormonal, and genetic risk factors with breast cancer, it is not well established if a family history of breast cancer...

  12. Human Nanog pseudogene8 promotes the proliferation of gastrointestinal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Keita; Hirano, Gen; Hirahashi, Minako; Isobe, Taichi; Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi; Kusaba, Hitoshi; Baba, Eishi; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi; Akashi, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that human solid tumor cells originate from cancer stem cells (CSCs). In cancer cell lines, tumor-initiating CSCs are mainly found in the side population (SP) that has the capacity to extrude dyes such as Hoechst 33342. We found that Nanog is expressed specifically in SP cells of human gastrointestinal (GI) cancer cells. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that NanogP8 but not Nanog was expressed in GI cancer cells. Transfection of NanogP8 into GI cancer cell lines promoted cell proliferation, while its inhibition by anti-Nanog siRNA suppressed the proliferation. Immunohistochemical staining of primary GI cancer tissues revealed NanogP8 protein to be strongly expressed in 3 out of 60 cases. In these cases, NanogP8 was found especially in an infiltrative part of the tumor, in proliferating cells with Ki67 expression. These data suggest that NanogP8 is involved in GI cancer development in a fraction of patients, in whom it presumably acts by supporting CSC proliferation. -- Highlights: ► Nanog maintains pluripotency by regulating embryonic stem cells differentiation. ► Nanog is expressed in cancer stem cells of human gastrointestinal cancer cells. ► Nucleotide sequencing revealed that Nanog pseudogene8 but not Nanog was expressed. ► Nanog pseudogene8 promotes cancer stem cells proliferation. ► Nanog pseudogene8 is involved in gastrointestinal cancer development.

  13. Human Nanog pseudogene8 promotes the proliferation of gastrointestinal cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Keita, E-mail: uchino13@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hirano, Gen [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hirahashi, Minako [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Isobe, Taichi; Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi; Kusaba, Hitoshi; Baba, Eishi [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Akashi, Koichi [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2012-09-10

    There is emerging evidence that human solid tumor cells originate from cancer stem cells (CSCs). In cancer cell lines, tumor-initiating CSCs are mainly found in the side population (SP) that has the capacity to extrude dyes such as Hoechst 33342. We found that Nanog is expressed specifically in SP cells of human gastrointestinal (GI) cancer cells. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that NanogP8 but not Nanog was expressed in GI cancer cells. Transfection of NanogP8 into GI cancer cell lines promoted cell proliferation, while its inhibition by anti-Nanog siRNA suppressed the proliferation. Immunohistochemical staining of primary GI cancer tissues revealed NanogP8 protein to be strongly expressed in 3 out of 60 cases. In these cases, NanogP8 was found especially in an infiltrative part of the tumor, in proliferating cells with Ki67 expression. These data suggest that NanogP8 is involved in GI cancer development in a fraction of patients, in whom it presumably acts by supporting CSC proliferation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog maintains pluripotency by regulating embryonic stem cells differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog is expressed in cancer stem cells of human gastrointestinal cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nucleotide sequencing revealed that Nanog pseudogene8 but not Nanog was expressed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog pseudogene8 promotes cancer stem cells proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog pseudogene8 is involved in gastrointestinal cancer development.

  14. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells promote pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, S.Q.; Cao, J.; Zhang, Q.Y.; Li, Y.Y.; Yan, Y.Q.; Yu, F.X.

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and the possible mechanism involved, ADSCs were cocultured with pancreatic cancer cells, and a cell counting kit (CCK-8) was used to detect the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. ELISA was used to determine the concentration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the supernatants. RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in pancreatic cancer cells and ADSCs. An in vitro invasion assay was used to measure invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. SDF-1 was detected in the supernatants of ADSCs, but not in pancreatic cancer cells. Higher CXCR4 mRNA levels were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines compared with ADSCs (109.3±10.7 and 97.6±7.6 vs 18.3±1.7, respectively; P<0.01). In addition, conditioned medium from ADSCs promoted the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, and AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, significantly downregulated these growth-promoting effects. We conclude that ADSCs can promote the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, which may involve the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis

  15. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells promote pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, S.Q.; Cao, J. [Department of Liver Surgery I, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Q.Y.; Li, Y.Y. [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Yan, Y.Q. [Department of Liver Surgery I, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Yu, F.X. [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China)

    2013-09-27

    To explore the effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and the possible mechanism involved, ADSCs were cocultured with pancreatic cancer cells, and a cell counting kit (CCK-8) was used to detect the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. ELISA was used to determine the concentration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the supernatants. RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in pancreatic cancer cells and ADSCs. An in vitro invasion assay was used to measure invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. SDF-1 was detected in the supernatants of ADSCs, but not in pancreatic cancer cells. Higher CXCR4 mRNA levels were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines compared with ADSCs (109.3±10.7 and 97.6±7.6 vs 18.3±1.7, respectively; P<0.01). In addition, conditioned medium from ADSCs promoted the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, and AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, significantly downregulated these growth-promoting effects. We conclude that ADSCs can promote the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, which may involve the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

  16. CREB promotes laryngeal cancer cell migration via MYCT1/NAT10 axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang ZX

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Zhao-Xiong Zhang,1 Wan-Ni Zhang,1 Yuan-Yuan Sun,1 Yun-Hui Li,2 Zhen-Ming Xu,3 Wei-Neng Fu1 1Department of Medical Genetics, China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, No 202 Hospital of PLA, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Otolaryngology, No 463 Hospital of PLA, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Purpose: CREB, MYCY1 and NAT10 are involved in cancer cell migration. However, the relationship between these three proteins and their role in laryngeal cancer cell migration remains unknown. Methods: Transient gene transfection was performed in laryngeal cancer cells. Bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the binding of CREB to MYCT1 promoter. Binding of CREB to the promoter of MYCT1 was monitored by luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation method in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Real-time RT-PCR and Western bolt were applied to detect gene transcription and translation levels, respectively. Laryngeal cancer cell migration was assayed by transwell cham­ber experiment. Results: CREB protein expression was significantly up-regulated in laryngeal cancer tissues and associated with cancer differentiation, tumor stage, and lymphatic metasta­sis. CREB inhibits MYCT1 expression by direct binding to its promoter. Meanwhile, MYCT1 has a negative impact on the NAT10 gene expression. Furthermore, CREB promotes NAT10 expression via down-regulating the MYCT1 gene expression. In addition, contrary to MYCT1, CREB and NAT10 enhanced laryngeal cancer cell migration. MYCT1 and NAT10 significantly rescued the effects of CREB and MYCT1 on Hep2 cell migration, respectively. Conclusion: CREB promotes laryngeal cancer cell migration via MYCT1/NAT10 axis, suggesting that CREB might be a potential prognostic marker in laryngeal cancer. Keywords: laryngeal cancer, CREB, MYCT1, NAT10, migration

  17. Up-regulation of METCAM/MUC18 promotes motility, invasion, and tumorigenesis of human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Shao-xi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflicting research has identified METCAM/MUC18, an integral membrane cell adhesion molecule (CAM in the Ig-like gene super-family, as both a tumor promoter and a tumor suppressor in the development of breast cancer. To resolve this, we have re-investigated the role of this CAM in the progression of human breast cancer cells. Methods Three breast cancer cell lines were used for the tests: one luminal-like breast cancer cell line, MCF7, which did not express any METCAM/MUC18, and two basal-like breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, which expressed moderate levels of the protein. MCF7 cells were transfected with the human METCAM/MUC18 cDNA to obtain G418-resistant clones which expressed the protein and were used for testing effects of human METCAM/MUC18 expression on in vitro motility and invasiveness, and in vitro and in vivo tumorigenesis. Both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells already expressed METCAM/MUC18. They were directly used for in vitro tests in the presence and absence of an anti-METCAM/MUC18 antibody. Results In MCF7 cells, enforced METCAM/MUC18 expression increased in vitro motility, invasiveness, anchorage-independent colony formation (in vitro tumorigenesis, and in vivo tumorigenesis. In both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells, the anti-METCAM/MUC18 antibody inhibited both motility and invasiveness. Though both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells established a disorganized growth in 3D basement membrane culture assay, the introduction of the anti-METCAM/MUC18 antibody completely destroyed their growth in the 3D culture. Conclusion These findings support the notion that human METCAM/MUC18 expression promotes the progression of human breast cancer cells by increasing their motility, invasiveness and tumorigenesis.

  18. Analysis of the AHR gene proximal promoter GGGGC-repeat polymorphism in lung, breast, and colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spink, Barbara C. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Bloom, Michael S. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Wu, Susan [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Sell, Stewart; Schneider, Erasmus [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Ding, Xinxin [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Spink, David C., E-mail: spink@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates expression of numerous genes, including those of the CYP1 gene family. With the goal of determining factors that control AHR gene expression, our studies are focused on the role of the short tandem repeat polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, located in the proximal promoter of the human AHR gene. When luciferase constructs containing varying GGGGC repeats were transfected into cancer cell lines derived from the lung, colon, and breast, the number of GGGGC repeats affected AHR promoter activity. The number of GGGGC repeats was determined in DNA from 327 humans and from 38 samples representing 5 species of non-human primates. In chimpanzees and 3 species of macaques, only (GGGGC){sub 2} alleles were observed; however, in western gorilla, (GGGGC){sub n} alleles with n = 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 were identified. In all human populations examined, the frequency of (GGGGC){sub n} was n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6. When frequencies of the (GGGGC){sub n} alleles in DNA from patients with lung, colon, or breast cancer were evaluated, the occurrence of (GGGGC){sub 2} was found to be 8-fold more frequent among lung cancer patients in comparison with its incidence in the general population, as represented by New York State neonates. Analysis of matched tumor and non-tumor DNA samples from the same individuals provided no evidence of microsatellite instability. These studies indicate that the (GGGGC){sub n} short tandem repeats are inherited, and that the (GGGGC){sub 2} allele in the AHR proximal promoter region should be further investigated with regard to its potential association with lung cancer susceptibility. - Highlights: • The AHR proximal promoter contains a polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, where n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6 • Matched tumor and non-tumor DNA did not show (GGGGC){sub n} microsatellite instability • AHR promoter activity of a construct with (GGGGC){sub 2} was lower than that of (GGGGC){sub 4} • The frequency of (GGGGC){sub 2} in lung

  19. Canonical and Non-Canonical NF-κB Signaling Promotes Breast Cancer Tumor-Initiating Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendellen, Megan F.; Bradford, Jennifer W.; Lawrence, Cortney L.; Clark, Kelly S.; Baldwin, Albert S.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are a sub-population of cells that exhibit a robust ability to self-renew and contribute to the formation of primary tumors, the relapse of previously treated tumors, and the development of metastases. TICs have been identified in various tumors, including those of the breast, and are particularly enriched in the basal-like and claudin-low subtypes of breast cancer. The signaling pathways that contribute to the function and maintenance of TICs are under intense study. We explored the potential involvement of the NF-κB family of transcription factors in TICs in cell lines that are representative of basal-like and claudin-low breast cancer. NF-κB was found to be activated in breast cancer cells that form tumorspheres efficiently. Moreover, both canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling is required for these cells to self-renew in vitro and to form xenograft tumors efficiently in vivo using limiting dilutions of cells. Consistent with this, canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling is activated in TICs isolated from breast cancer cell lines. Experimental results indicate that NF-κB promotes the function of TICs by stimulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and by upregulating the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. The results suggest the use of NF-κB inhibitors for clinical therapy of certain breast cancers. PMID:23474754

  20. Wonders & Worries: evaluation of a child centered psychosocial intervention for families who have a parent/primary caregiver with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Farya; Prezio, Elizabeth A

    2017-07-01

    Scant evidence exists to guide interventions for children who have a parent with cancer. This study evaluated the outcomes of a community based psychosocial intervention targeted to children dealing with parental or primary caregiver cancer. This curriculum provided an age-appropriate understanding of the illness, facilitated the expression of feelings, identified individual coping skills to help ease feelings related to parent's cancer, and enhanced the family's ability to communicate about the disease. Families whose children participated in the six-week curriculum-based intervention completed a questionnaire that included demographic information, a five-item assessment of changes in parenting abilities, and a nine-item assessment of changes in children's behavioral issues. The prevalence of each reported item was determined through a secondary analyses of cross-sectional data derived from a multi-year sample of these survey results. A sample of 156 families responded to the survey between 2009 and 2014. A majority of families described improvement in all five areas of parenting abilities assessed including communication skills and confidence in parenting. Amelioration of multiple children's issues was reported including improved communication skills (87%), reduced anxiety (84%), increased feeling of security at home (90%), and improved school performance (73%). The results reported here suggest that this child centered psychosocial intervention promoted positive adaptation by actively supporting families and children while a parent/primary caregiver coped with a cancer diagnosis. Future research is planned utilizing a randomized controlled study design to formally evaluate the effectiveness and preventative impact of this manualized six-week curriculum. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Prediagnostic alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer survival: The Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Robinson, Jamaica R; Campbell, Peter T; Win, Aung Ko; Figueiredo, Jane C; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A

    2017-05-15

    Although previous studies have noted an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) among moderate to heavy alcohol consumers in comparison with nondrinkers, the relation between alcohol consumption and CRC survival remains unclear. Cases of incident invasive CRC diagnosed between 1997 and 2007 were identified via population-based cancer registries at 4 study sites in the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Study participants completed a risk-factor questionnaire on prediagnostic behaviors, including wine, beer, and liquor consumption, at the baseline. Prospective follow-up for survival was conducted for 4966 CRC cases. Cox regression was used to compare nondrinkers with individuals who consumed, on average, 1 or more servings of alcohol per day in the years preceding their CRC diagnosis with respect to overall and disease-specific survival. Separate analyses by beverage type, stratified by patient and tumor attributes, were also performed. All models were adjusted for the age at diagnosis, sex, study site, year of diagnosis, smoking history, body mass index, and education. Prediagnostic beer and liquor consumption was not associated with CRC survival; however, higher levels of wine consumption were modestly associated with a better prognosis overall (CRC-specific hazard ratio [HR], 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-1.03; overall HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.53-0.94). Similar patterns were noted in stratified analyses. These findings suggest that prediagnostic wine consumption is modestly associated with more favorable survival after CRC. Cancer 2017;123:1035-43. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  2. Punica granatum (Pomegranate activity in health promotion and cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become one of the most fatal diseases in most countries. In spite of the medical care developing, cancer still remains a significant problem. The majority of the cancers are resistant to treatment. Thus, the research for novel, more efficient and less side effect treatment methods continues. Pomegranate contains strong antioxidant activity, with potential health interests. Research concern in pomegranate is increasing because of their anticancer potential due to possess rich in polyphenols. We highlight the pomegranate potential health benefits and mechanism of cancer progression inhibition. Pomegranate has indicated antiproliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects on different cancer cell line in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial. The aim of this review is to evaluate functional properties and the medical benifits of pomegranate against various cancer diseases. In addition, pomegranate properties in in vitro and in vivo experimental human and animal clinical trials and its future use are explored. The available data suggest that Punica granatum (pomegranate might be used in the control and potential therapeutic for some disease conditions and benefits human health status. This review summarizes in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial studies highlighting the pomegranate role in prevent and treatment of breast, prostate, lung, colon, skin and hepatocellular cell cancers.

  3. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) activity in health promotion and cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Cancer has become one of the most fatal diseases in most countries. In spite of the medical care developing, cancer still remains a significant problem. The majority of the cancers are resistant to treatment. Thus, the research for novel, more efficient and less side effect treatment methods continues. Pomegranate contains strong antioxidant activity, with potential health interests. Research concern in pomegranate is increasing because of their anticancer potential due to possess rich in polyphenols. We highlight the pomegranate potential health benefits and mechanism of cancer progression inhibition. Pomegranate has indicated antiproliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects on different cancer cell line in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial. The aim of this review is to evaluate functional properties and the medical benifits of pomegranate against various cancer diseases. In addition, pomegranate properties in in vitro and in vivo experimental human and animal clinical trials and its future use are explored. The available data suggest that Punica granatum (pomegranate) might be used in the control and potential therapeutic for some disease conditions and benefits human health status. This review summarizes in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial studies highlighting the pomegranate role in prevent and treatment of breast, prostate, lung, colon, skin and hepatocellular cell cancers. PMID:29441150

  4. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) activity in health promotion and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri-Jahromi, Shahindokht

    2018-01-30

    Cancer has become one of the most fatal diseases in most countries. In spite of the medical care developing, cancer still remains a significant problem. The majority of the cancers are resistant to treatment. Thus, the research for novel, more efficient and less side effect treatment methods continues. Pomegranate contains strong antioxidant activity, with potential health interests. Research concern in pomegranate is increasing because of their anticancer potential due to possess rich in polyphenols. We highlight the pomegranate potential health benefits and mechanism of cancer progression inhibition. Pomegranate has indicated antiproliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects on different cancer cell line in vitro , in vivo and clinical trial. The aim of this review is to evaluate functional properties and the medical benifits of pomegranate against various cancer diseases. In addition, pomegranate properties in in vitro and in vivo experimental human and animal clinical trials and its future use are explored. The available data suggest that Punica granatum (pomegranate) might be used in the control and potential therapeutic for some disease conditions and benefits human health status. This review summarizes in vitro , in vivo and clinical trial studies highlighting the pomegranate role in prevent and treatment of breast, prostate, lung, colon, skin and hepatocellular cell cancers.

  5. A Study Of The Effects Of Illness Experienced By Families Of Oral And Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyalaxmi A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What are the various areas and burden a family experiences due to presence of oral and oropharyngeal cancer patient. Objectives: 1. To identify the family burden like financial burden, disruption of routine activities and family leisure etc. 2. To study the severity of family burden experienced by the families of oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients. Study design: Case- control. Setting: Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute (G.C.R.I, Ahmedabad. Participants: 100 cases belonging to the diagnostic categories no. 140-46 of ICD â€"9 and 100 controls belonging to the diagnostic categories other than no. 140-46 of ICD-9 Statistical analysis: Proportions, Chi-square test and Z test. Results: Financial burden was observed in 36% of cases and 43% of controls had burden on the family. Out of 43% respondents reporting any burden, 36(83.72% were identified with severe burden.

  6. MiR-1228 promotes breast cancer cell growth and metastasis through targeting SCAI protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Luoqiang; Liu, Dan; Liang, Hongyan; Xue, Li; Su, Changlei; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women around the world. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying breast cancer pathogenesis are only partially understood. Here, in this study, we found that miR-1228 was up-regulated in breast cancer cell lines and tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-1228 mimics leads to promoted cell growth, invasion and migration. Using bioinfomatic analysis and 3'UTR luciferase reporter assay, we determined SCAI can be directly targeted by miR-1228, which can down-regulate endogenous SCAI protein level. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that SCAI was down-regulated in breast cancer cell lines and tissues. Rescue experiment demonstrated that miR-1228 promoted cell growth is attenuated by over-expression of MOAP1 and miR-1228 promoted cell invasion and migration can be attenuated by over-expression of SCAI. Taken together, this study provides evidences that miR-1228 serves as an oncogene to promote breast cancer proliferation, invasion and migration, which may become a critical therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment.

  7. Family Matters: Adjustment to genetic cancer susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.I.H. van Oostrom (Iris)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractCancer is generally feared because it is associated with death and severe physical suffering. It is one of the most common causes of death in the Netherlands. Breast and colon cancer are the most prevalent types of cancer among women. Frequently occurring types in men are cancer

  8. The IAP Protein Family, SMAC Mimetics and Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philchenkov, Alex; Miura, Koh

    2016-01-01

    Since the acquired resistance of cells to apoptosis is one of the major hallmarks of cancer, the endogenous inhibitors of apoptosis can be regarded as promising targets in the design of anticancer therapeutics. In addition to their antiapoptotic activity, inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are able to regulate numerous other cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and migration, as well as proinflammatory and immune responses. Study of the IAP family as target molecules in targeted therapies has recently focused on SMAC mimetics as synthetic IAP antagonists that have been under development as promising therapeutics. To overview the background of IAP proteins and to focus on the development of SMAC mimetics, the present review first looks at the mechanisms of IAP proteins' antiapoptotic activities and those for controlling those activities; then the SMAC mimetics, including birinapant, LCL161, and DEBIO1143/AT-406, and their clinical trials are introduced. To further clarify the processes to exert the efficacies of SMAC mimetics, it is necessary to determine therapeutic biomarkers that predict and assess them, which may include caspases and factors in the TNFα pathway.

  9. CpG promoter methylation of the ALKBH3 alkylation repair gene in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Olafur Andri; Hermanowicz, Stefan; van der Horst, Jasper; Hilmarsdottir, Holmfridur; Staszczak, Zuzanna; Jonasson, Jon Gunnlaugur; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Gudjonsson, Thorkell; Sigurdsson, Stefan

    2017-07-05

    DNA repair of alkylation damage is defective in various cancers. This occurs through somatically acquired inactivation of the MGMT gene in various cancer types, including breast cancers. In addition to MGMT, the two E. coli AlkB homologs ALKBH2 and ALKBH3 have also been linked to direct reversal of alkylation damage. However, it is currently unknown whether ALKBH2 or ALKBH3 are found inactivated in cancer. Methylome datasets (GSE52865, GSE20713, GSE69914), available through Omnibus, were used to determine whether ALKBH2 or ALKBH3 are found inactivated by CpG promoter methylation. TCGA dataset enabled us to then assess the impact of CpG promoter methylation on mRNA expression for both ALKBH2 and ALKBH3. DNA methylation analysis for the ALKBH3 promoter region was carried out by pyrosequencing (PyroMark Q24) in 265 primary breast tumours and 30 proximal normal breast tissue samples along with 8 breast-derived cell lines. ALKBH3 mRNA and protein expression were analysed in cell lines using RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. DNA alkylation damage assay was carried out in cell lines based on immunofluorescence and confocal imaging. Data on clinical parameters and survival outcomes in patients were obtained and assessed in relation to ALKBH3 promoter methylation. The ALKBH3 gene, but not ALKBH2, undergoes CpG promoter methylation and transcriptional silencing in breast cancer. We developed a quantitative alkylation DNA damage assay based on immunofluorescence and confocal imaging revealing higher levels of alkylation damage in association with epigenetic inactivation of the ALKBH3 gene (P = 0.029). In our cohort of 265 primary breast cancer, we found 72 cases showing aberrantly high CpG promoter methylation over the ALKBH3 promoter (27%; 72 out of 265). We further show that increasingly higher degree of ALKBH3 promoter methylation is associated with reduced breast-cancer specific survival times in patients. In this analysis, ALKBH3 promoter methylation at >20

  10. Rationale for promoting physical activity among cancer survivors: literature review and epidemiologic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Lee, Hyo

    2014-03-01

    To review the extant literature on the link between physical activity and health outcomes among cancer survivors; identify evidence-based strategies to promote physical activity among this population; and conduct an epidemiologic study based on gaps from the literature review, examining the association between physical activity and various biologic markers. The authors used PubMed and Google Scholar up to July 2013, as well as data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the empirical study. Studies were examined through a systematic review process. In the epidemiologic study, 227 adult cancer survivors wore an accelerometer for four days or longer, with biologic markers (e.g., cholesterol) assessed from a blood sample. The review study demonstrated that cancer survivors are relatively inactive, but physical activity may help to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence and cancer-related mortality, increase cancer treatment rates, reduce pain and other side effects associated with cancer treatment, and improve physical and mental health. The epidemiologic study showed that physical activity was associated with several understudied biomarkers (e.g., neutrophils, white blood cells) that are linked with cancer recurrence, cancer-related mortality, and other chronic diseases. Nurses are encouraged to promote physical activity in cancer survivors.

  11. Psychometric Validation of an Instrument to Measure Family Coping During a Child's Hospitalization for Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Qi-Yuan; Kong, Sarah K F; Wong, Frances K Y; You, Li-Ming; Yan, Jun; Zhou, Xue-Zhen; Li, Xian-Wen

    Families with children hospitalized for cancer treatment experience multiple, serious challenges. Family coping is a crucial moderator between family stress and family adaptation. A newly developed instrument, the Hospitalization Coping Scale (HCS), measures the effectiveness of family coping during a child's hospitalization. The aims of this study were to revise and validate the psychometric properties of the HCS for families with children hospitalized for cancer treatment in pediatric oncology departments in Mainland China. Psychometric properties of the HCS were examined among 253 families with children hospitalized in pediatric oncology departments in 4 hospitals. Reliability, construct validity, known-group validity, and concurrent validity of the revised HCS were examined. The revised 15-item HCS contains 3 renamed factors: maintaining mental stability, mutual support for child care, and seeking support from external systems. Cronbach's α coefficients for the total and 3 factors were .87, .78, .83, and .79, respectively. The revised scale demonstrated sound known-group validity and concurrent validity. The revised 15-item HCS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure coping effectiveness of families with children hospitalized for cancer treatment. The HCS can be used by pediatric oncology nurses to assess the effectiveness of family coping during a hospitalization of their child with cancer and may help pediatric oncology nurses to develop and implement realistic support strategies based on assessments of family coping effectiveness.

  12. Somatic LKB1 mutations promote cervical cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana N Wingo

    Full Text Available Human Papilloma Virus (HPV is the etiologic agent for cervical cancer. Yet, infection with HPV is not sufficient to cause cervical cancer, because most infected women develop transient epithelial dysplasias that spontaneously regress. Progression to invasive cancer has been attributed to diverse host factors such as immune or hormonal status, as no recurrent genetic alterations have been identified in cervical cancers. Thus, the pressing question as to the biological basis of cervical cancer progression has remained unresolved, hampering the development of novel therapies and prognostic tests. Here we show that at least 20% of cervical cancers harbor somatically-acquired mutations in the LKB1 tumor suppressor. Approximately one-half of tumors with mutations harbored single nucleotide substitutions or microdeletions identifiable by exon sequencing, while the other half harbored larger monoallelic or biallelic deletions detectable by multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA. Biallelic mutations were identified in most cervical cancer cell lines; HeLa, the first human cell line, harbors a homozygous 25 kb deletion that occurred in vivo. LKB1 inactivation in primary tumors was associated with accelerated disease progression. Median survival was only 13 months for patients with LKB1-deficient tumors, but >100 months for patients with LKB1-wild type tumors (P = 0.015, log rank test; hazard ratio = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.083 to 0.77. LKB1 is thus a major cervical tumor suppressor, demonstrating that acquired genetic alterations drive progression of HPV-induced dysplasias to invasive, lethal cancers. Furthermore, LKB1 status can be exploited clinically to predict disease recurrence.

  13. Clinically relevant lessons from Family HealthLink: a cancer and coronary heart disease familial risk assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Kevin; Sturm, Amy C; Rettig, Amy; McElroy, Joseph; Agnese, Doreen

    2015-06-01

    A descriptive retrospective study was performed using two separate user cohorts to determine the effectiveness of Family HealthLink as a clinical triage tool. Cohort 1 consisted of 2,502 users who accessed the public website. Cohort 2 consisted of 194 new patients in a Comprehensive Breast Center setting. For patient users, we assessed documentation of family history and genetics referral. For all users seen in a genetics clinic, the Family HealthLink assessment was compared with that performed by genetic counselors and genetic testing outcomes. For general public users, the percentage meeting high-risk criteria were: for cancer only, 22.2%; for coronary heart disease only, 24.3%; and for both diseases, 10.4%. These risk stratification percentages were similar for the patient users. For the patient users, there often was documentation of family history of certain cancer types by oncology professionals, but age of onset and coronary heart disease family history were less complete. Of 142 with high-risk assignments seen in a genetics clinic, 130 (91.5%) of these assignments were corroborated. Forty-two underwent genetic testing and 17 (40.5%) had new molecular diagnoses established. A significant percentage of individuals are at high familial risk and may require more intensive screening and referral. Interactive family history triage tools can aid this process.Genet Med 17 6, 493-500.

  14. Breast cancer and breast health awareness as an evolving health promotion concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plesnicar, A.; Kralj, B.; Kovac, V.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease in the majority of developed countries. In the last few years the introduction of mammography screening programmes has resulted in an improved survival of breast cancer patients. However, the incidence of the disease in these countries is still on the increase. Present focus on secondary breast cancer prevention activities, consisting of early detection and treatment, cannot ensure a decrease of breast cancer incidence. Improved breast health awareness could therefore represent a part of specific health promotion activities aimed at decreasing the incidence of breast cancer. Conclusions. In developed countries breast cancer is a significant health care issue. Secondary breast cancer prevention activities should therefore be complemented by specific health promotion activities in order to reduce its incidence in the future. Primary breast cancer prevention would include health promotion activities aimed at enhancement of the individual as well as collective breast health awareness. Properly enlightened members of the influential population groups could attain appropriate changes in the fields of legislation, taxation, customs and commercial regulations that would enable women to control their own breast health. (author)

  15. The involvement of Bcl-2 family proteins in AKT-regulated cell survival in cisplatin resistant epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yan; Jin, Shiguang; Li, Xueping; Wang, Daxin

    2017-01-03

    Many studies involving patients with cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer have shown that AKT activation leads to inhibition of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to examine the potential involvement of the Bcl-2 family proteins in AKT-regulated cell survival in response to cisplatin treatment. Cisplatin-sensitive (PEO1) and cisplatin-resistant (PEO4) cells were taken from ascites of patients with ovarian cancer before cisplatin treatment and after development of chemoresistance. It was found that cisplatin treatment activated the AKT signaling pathway and promoted cell proliferation in cisplatin-resistant EOC cells. When AKT was transfected into nucleus of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells, DNA-PK was phosphorylated at S473. The activated AKT (pAKT-S473) in these cells inhibited the death signal induced by cisplatin thereby inhibiting cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. Results from this study showed that the combination of cisplatin, DNA-PK inhibitor NU7441, and AKT inhibitor TCN can overcome drug resistance, increase apoptosis, and re-sensitize PEO4 cells to cisplatin treatment. A decrease in apoptotic activity was seen in PEO4 cells when Bad was downregulated by siRNA, which indicated that Bad promotes apoptosis in PEO4 cells. Use of the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-737 showed that ABT-737 binds to Bcl-2 but not Mcl-1 and releases Bax/Bak which leads to cell apoptosis. The combination of ABT-737 and cisplatin leads to a significant increase in the death of PEO1 and PEO4 cells. All together, these results indicate that Bcl-2 family proteins are regulators of drug resistance. The combination of cisplatin and Bcl-2 family protein inhibitor could be a strategy for the treatment of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer.

  16. "Cancer--Educate to Prevent"--high-school teachers, the new promoters of cancer prevention education campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ana; Moreira, Luís; Santos, Helena; Ribeiro, Nuno; Carvalho, Luís; Santos-Silva, Filipe

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and thus represents a priority for national public health programs. Prevention has been assumed as the best strategy to reduce cancer burden, however most cancer prevention programs are implemented by healthcare professionals, which constrain range and educational impacts. We developed an innovative approach for cancer prevention education focused on high-school biology teachers, considered privileged mediators in the socialization processes. A training program, "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" was applied, so that the teachers were able to independently develop and implement prevention campaigns focused on students and school-related communities. The program encompassed different educational modules, ranging from cancer biology to prevention campaigns design. Fifty-four teachers were empowered to develop and implement their own cancer prevention campaigns in a population up to five thousands students. The success of the training program was assessed through quantitative evaluation--questionnaires focused on teachers' cancer knowledge and perceptions, before the intervention (pre-test) and immediately after (post-test). The projects developed and implemented by teachers were also evaluated regarding the intervention design, educational contents and impact on the students' knowledge about cancer. This study presents and discusses the results concerning the training program "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" and clearly shows a significant increase in teacher's cancer literacy (knowledge and perceptions) and teachers' acquired proficiency to develop and deliver cancer prevention campaigns with direct impact on students' knowledge about cancer. This pilot study reinforces the potential of high-school teachers and schools as cancer prevention promoters and opens a new perspective for the development and validation of cancer prevention education strategies, based upon focused interventions in restricted targets (students

  17. Familial breast cancer: what the radiologist needs to know; Familiaere Brustkrebserkrankung: klinische Grundlagen und Frueherkennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, C.K. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetskliniken Bonn (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    About 10% of breast cancers are ''hereditary'', i.e. caused by a pathogenic mutation in one of the ''breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes'' (BRCA). The BRCA genes 1 and 2 identified to date follow an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. A clustering of breast cancer in a family without a documented mutation and without a recognizable inheritance pattern is usually referred to as ''familial cancer''. A distinction between hereditary and familial is difficult in the individual case because not all of the genetic mutations that cause breast cancer susceptibility are known and thus amenable to genetic testing. Women who are suspected of or documented as carrying a breast cancer susceptibility gene face a substantially increased lifetime risk of breast (and ovarian) cancer ranging from 60-80% for breast and up to 40% for ovarian cancer. In addition, the disease develops at a young age (the personal risk starts increasing at age 25; average age of diagnosis is 40). BRCA-associated breast cancers tend to exhibit histologic and histochemical evidence of aggressive biologic behavior (usually grade 3, receptor negative) with very fast growth rates. In particular BRCA1-associated breast cancer may be indistinguishable from fibroadenomas: They appear as well-defined, roundish, hypoechoic masses with smooth borders, without posterior acoustic shadowing on ultrasound, without associated microcalcifications on mammography, and with strong wash-out phenomenon on breast MRI. This article reviews the different options that exist for the prevention of familial or hereditary breast cancer and the specific difficulties that are associated with the radiological diagnosis of these cancers. Lastly, an overview is given of the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of the different imaging modalities for early diagnosis of familial and hereditary breast cancer. (orig.)

  18. High Expression of Cell Division Cycle 42 Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Growth and Predicts Poor Outcome of Pancreatic Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dejun; Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Yajun; Hong, Liang; Wang, Changming; Wei, Ziran; Cai, Qingping; Yan, Ronglin

    2017-04-01

    Cell division cycle 42 (CDC42), an important member of the Rho family, is overexpressed in various human cancers. However, its expression and role in pancreatic cancer (PC) are not well understood. The present study was designed to investigate the expression patterns and underlying cellular mechanisms of CDC42 in PC. First, immunohistochemical analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were performed to detect CDC42 expression in clinical pancreatic carcinoma and adjacent tissues. Second, differential expression of CDC42 between PC cells and normal cells was evaluated by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Third, the correlation between CDC42 expression as well as clinicopathological characteristics and patient survival was analyzed. Finally, CDC42 was knocked down to examine its role both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed significantly increased CDC42 expression in pancreatic tumor tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues, as revealed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunostaining. Compared to PanC-1 cells, CDC42 expression was downregulated in HPDE6-C7 cells as shown by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. High CDC42 expression was observed in 69.2% (83/120) of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients and was significantly associated with tumor differentiation (p = 0.013), median tumor size (p = 0.005), tumor infiltration (pT stage, p = 0.04), lymph nodal status (pN stage, p = 0.044) and TNM staging (p = 0.003). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed CDC42 expression to be an independent predictor of survival of PC patients (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.60-5.61, p = 0.001). Finally, we found that CDC42 promoted the proliferation of PanC-1 cells both in vivo and in vitro. Our findings reveal that CDC42 might play an important role in promoting PC development, and the findings suggest that CDC42 might serve as a potential prognostic indicator of PC.

  19. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allory, Yves; Beukers, Willemien; Sagrera, Ana

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hotspot mutations in the promoter of the gene coding for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) have been described and proposed to activate gene expression. OBJECTIVES: To investigate TERT mutation frequency, spectrum, association with expression and clinical outcome, and potential ...

  20. Human colorectal cancer-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote colorectal cancer progression through IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochao; Hu, Fayong; Li, Geng; Li, Guodong; Yang, Xi; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Rongsheng; Zhang, Bixiang; Feng, Yongdong

    2018-01-18

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to localize in colorectal carcinomas, and participate in the formation of the tumor microenvironment. They have recently been isolated from colorectal cancer tissues, and are implicated in the growth, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells. However, the roles and detailed mechanisms associated with human colorectal cancer-derived MSCs (CC-MSCs) have not been fully addressed. In this study, we found that CC-MSCs increased the migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells and promoted the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro. We also found that CC-MSCs enhanced the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer in vivo. Mechanistically, we determined that interleukin-6 (IL-6) was the most highly expressed cytokine in the CC-MSC conditioned medium, and promoted the progression of colorectal cancer cells through IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling, which activated PI3K/AKT signaling. We used anti-IL-6 antibody to target IL-6. Collectively, these results reveal that the IL-6 secreted by CC-MSCs enhances the progression of colorectal cancer cells through IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling, and could provide a novel therapeutic or preventive target.

  1. Intronic TP53 Germline Sequence Variants Modify the Risk in German Breast/Ovarian Cancer Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xuan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To establish the contribution of TP53 germline mutations to familial breast/ovarian cancer in Germany we screened the complete coding region of the TP53 gene in a series of German breast/ovarian cancer families negative for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Two different intronic TP53 sequence variants were identified in 6/48 (12.5% breast/ovarian cancer families. A novel A to T nucleotide change at position 17708 in intron 10 segregating with the disease was detected in three breast cancer families (6.2%. One 17708 A>T-associated breast tumour showed loss of the wild-type allele. This variant was also found in 5/112 (4.5% healthy controls indicating that it is a polymorphism. A second sequence variant changing a G to C at position 13964 in intron 6 not segregating with the disease was found in two breast cancer families and one breast-ovarian cancer family (6.2%. This variant has previously been shown to occur at an elevated frequency in hereditary breast cancer patients from North America and to be of functional importance leading to inhibition of apoptosis and prolongation of cell survival after DNA-damage. Screening of 185 consecutive unselected German breast cancer patients revealed the 13964 G>C variant in four patients (2.2%. Immunohistochemical analysis of the TP53 protein showed negative immunoreactivity in normal and tumour tissues of one 17708 A>T and six 13964 G>C carriers. TP53 overexpression was detected in the tumour tissue of one sporadic breast cancer patient carrying the 13964 G>C variant. Our results show that intronic changes of the TP53 gene may act as or be associated with risk modifiers in familial breast cancer.

  2. MiR-1228 promotes breast cancer cell growth and metastasis through targeting SCAI protein

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Luoqiang; Liu, Dan; Liang, Hongyan; Xue, Li; Su, Changlei; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women around the world. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying breast cancer pathogenesis are only partially understood. Here, in this study, we found that miR-1228 was up-regulated in breast cancer cell lines and tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-1228 mimics leads to promoted cell growth, invasion and migration. Using bioinfomatic analysis and 3’UTR luciferase reporter assay, we determined SCAI can be directly targeted by miR-1228, which can ...

  3. Pancreatic stellate cells promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Masamune, Atsushi; Watanabe, Takashi; Ariga, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Hiromichi; Hamada, Shin; Satoh, Kennichi; Egawa, Shinichi; Unno, Michiaki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Recent studies have shown that pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. → Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed loose cell contacts and scattered, fibroblast-like appearance. → PSCs decreased the expression of epithelial markers but increased that of mesenchymal markers, along with increased migration. → This study suggests epithelial-mesenchymal transition as a novel mechanism by which PSCs contribute to the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There is accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Because epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in the progression of pancreatic cancer, we hypothesized that PSCs promote EMT in pancreatic cancer cells. Panc-1 and SUIT-2 pancreatic cancer cells were indirectly co-cultured with human PSCs isolated from patients undergoing operation for pancreatic cancer. The expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers was examined by real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining. The migration of pancreatic cancer cells was examined by scratch and two-chamber assays. Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed loose cell contacts and a scattered, fibroblast-like appearance. The expression of E-cadherin, cytokeratin 19, and membrane-associated β-catenin was decreased, whereas vimentin and Snail (Snai-1) expression was increased more in cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs than in mono-cultured cells. The migration of pancreatic cancer cells was increased by co-culture with PSCs. The PSC-induced decrease of E-cadherin expression was not altered by treatment with anti

  4. Tissue microarrays for testing basal biomarkers in familial breast cancer cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozany Mucha Dufloth

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The proteins p63, p-cadherin and CK5 are consistently expressed by the basal and myoepithelial cells of the breast, although their expression in sporadic and familial breast cancer cases has yet to be fully defined. The aim here was to study the basal immunopro-file of a breast cancer case series using tissue microarray technology. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional study at Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil, and the Institute of Pathology and Mo-lecular Immunology, Porto, Portugal. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry using the antibodies p63, CK5 and p-cadherin, and also estrogen receptor (ER and Human Epidermal Receptor Growth Factor 2 (HER2, was per-formed on 168 samples from a breast cancer case series. The criteria for identifying women at high risk were based on those of the Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. RESULTS: Familial tumors were more frequently positive for the p-cadherin (p = 0.0004, p63 (p < 0.0001 and CK5 (p < 0.0001 than was sporadic cancer. Moreover, familial tumors had coexpression of the basal biomarkers CK5+/ p63+, grouped two by two (OR = 34.34, while absence of coexpression (OR = 0.13 was associ-ated with the sporadic cancer phenotype. CONCLUSION: Familial breast cancer was found to be associated with basal biomarkers, using tissue microarray technology. Therefore, characterization of the familial breast cancer phenotype will improve the understanding of breast carcinogenesis.

  5. Activating chronic kidney disease patients and family members through the Internet to promote integration of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Trisolini

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the potential role of the Internet as a vehicle for improving integration of care through activating chronic kidney disease patients and their family members. Also, to describe how that potential is being developed through a website sponsored by the Medicare program in the United States. Background: The Internet is expanding at a rapid rate, and health-related websites are one of its most popular features. Efforts to promote integration of care have focused mainly on providers up to now, and more emphasis is needed on the potential roles of patients. Chronically ill patients have particular needs for improved education about their conditions and enhanced involvement in care planning and treatment decisions. Medicare developed the Dialysis Facility Compare website to serve those goals for people with chronic kidney disease. Methods: We conducted qualitative research with 140 chronic kidney disease patients and family members, and 130 renal care professionals to evaluate and improve the Dialysis Facility Compare website. A series of 19 focus groups, 13 triads (small focus groups, and 56 individual interviews were conducted in four regions of the United States and by telephone. Results: We found that the Dialysis Facility Compare website has the potential to improve integration of care for people with chronic kidney disease in at least three ways. First: by expanding the roles of patients as members of the multi-disciplinary team of caregivers treating their disease. Second: through better integration of the informal care provided in the home and community with the formal care provided by health professionals. Third: by improving coordination of between care provided in the pre-dialysis and dialysis phases of the disease. Discussion: We developed recommendations for revising and enhancing the Dialysis Facility Compare website in a number of ways to better promote patient activation and integration of care. The unique features

  6. In Asian americans, is having a family member diagnosed with cancer associated with fatalistic beliefs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolee Polek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cancer can evoke long-held cultural beliefs which either facilitate or impede efforts to expand the health literacy of families. Among these beliefs is fatalism which holds that controlling ones′ outcome is not possible, and that ones′ outcome is predestined. Some fatalistic beliefs are broadly held within the Asian American (AA community and may be challenged or reinforced by the experience of having a family member diagnosed with cancer. This study evaluated the relationship between having a family member diagnosed with cancer and selected demographics in AAs on fatalistic beliefs. Methods: Data from 519 AA subjects from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health Information Trends Survey were used to complete a secondary analysis. Descriptive statistics characterize fatalistic beliefs. Four models using four questions assessed fatalistic beliefs as dependent variables and independent variables of having or not having a family member diagnosed with cancer, completing college or not, sex, and age were assessed using ordinal regression. Results: All of the fatalistic beliefs examined were endorsed by large portions of the subjects. When considering the role of being exposed to having a family member with cancer, it was associated with an increase in the likelihood in a belief that one is likely to get cancer, and everything can cause cancer. Being exposed to a family member diagnosed with cancer was not significantly associated with believing, there was little one could do to control their cancer risk. This belief was broadly rejected. While the belief that there are so many different recommendations about preventing cancer, it is hard to know what to do, was broadly endorsed and not associated with having a family member diagnosed with cancer. Conclusions: The major practice implications within oncology nursing suggest the importance in assessing cancer health literacy and providing corrective knowledge in families

  7. BRCA Mutations Increase Fertility in Families at Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Arbre, Marie; Bidet, Yannick; Laquet, Claire; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Bignon, Yves-Jean

    2015-01-01

    Deleterious mutations in the BRCA genes are responsible for a small, but significant, proportion of breast and ovarian cancers (5 - 10 %). Proof of de novo mutations in hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) families is rare, in contrast to founder mutations, thousands of years old, that may be carried by as much as 1 % of a population. Thus, if mutations favoring cancer survive selection pressure through time, they must provide advantages that compensate for the loss of life expectancy. This hypothesis was tested within 2,150 HBOC families encompassing 96,325 individuals. Parameters included counts of breast/ovarian cancer, age at diagnosis, male breast cancer and other cancer locations. As expected, well-known clinical parameters discriminated between BRCA-mutated families and others: young age at breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and male breast cancer. The major fertility differences concerned men in BRCA-mutated families: they had lower first and mean age at paternity, and fewer remained childless. For women in BRCA families, the miscarriage rate was lower. In a logistic regression including clinical factors, the different miscarriage rate and men's mean age at paternity remained significant. Fertility advantages were confirmed in a subgroup of 746 BRCA mutation carriers and 483 non-carriers from BRCA mutated families. In particular, female carriers were less often nulliparous (9.1 % of carriers versus 16.0 %, p = 0.003) and had more children (1.8 ± 1.4 SD versus 1.5 ± 1.3, p = 0.002) as well as male carriers (1.7 ± 1.3 versus 1.4 ± 1.3, p = 0.024). Although BRCA mutations shorten the reproductive period due to cancer mortality, they compensate by improving fertility both in male and female carriers.

  8. Relationships between MGMT promoter methylation and gastric cancer: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu D

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dan Yu, Tao Cao, Ya-Di Han, Fu-Sheng Huang Department of Laboratory Medicine, Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: A DNA repair enzyme, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT, plays an important role in the development of gastric cancers. However, the role of MGMT promoter methylation in the occurrence of gastric cancer and its relationships with clinicopathologic characteristics has not been fully clarified. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the associations between MGMT promoter methylation and gastric cancer. Electronic databases, including PubMed and Web of Science, were used to systematically search related clinical studies published in English until April 1, 2016. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated to evaluate the associations between MGMT promoter methylation and gastric cancer risk or clinicopathologic characteristics. A total of 16 studies including 1,935 patients and 1,948 control persons were included in the analysis. Our study suggested that MGMT promoter methylation frequency was associated with gastric cancer (OR=3.46, 95% CI: 2.13–5.61, P<0.001. Moreover, the frequency of MGMT promoter methylation in the no lymph node metastasis group was lower than that in lymph node metastasis group, with marginal significance (OR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.42–1.01, P=0.05. Additionally, the methylation rate of the MGMT promoter was much lower in patients without distant metastases than in those with metastases (OR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.18–0.40, P<0.001. No significant association of MGMT promoter methylation with Lauren classification, tumor location, tumor invasion, or Helicobacter pylori infection was found. In conclusion, the methylation status of the MGMT promoter was related to gastric cancer risk, distant metastasis, and lymph node metastasis, which indicates that MGMT promoter methylation may play an important role in

  9. Progesterone receptor isoform-specific promoter methylation: association of PRA promoter methylation with worse outcome in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiraja, Thushangi N; Shetty, Priya B; Jelinek, Jaroslav; He, Rong; Hartmaier, Ryan; Margossian, Astrid L; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Issa, Jean-Pierre J; Oesterreich, Steffi

    2011-06-15

    ERα and PR levels are critical determinants for breast cancer prognosis and response to endocrine therapy. Although PR is known to be silenced by methylation of its promoter, few studies have correlated methylation with PR levels and outcome in breast cancer. There is only one previous small study comparing methylation of the two PR isoforms, PRA and PRB, which are expressed from different promoters, and finally, there is no prior knowledge of associations between isoform-specific methylation and outcome. We conducted a cohort-based study to test for associations between PRA and PRB methylation, expression, and clinical outcome in tamoxifen-treated patients (n = 500), and in patients who underwent surgery only (n = 500). Methylation and PR levels were measured by bisulfite pyrosequencing and ligand-binding assay, respectively. Low PR levels were significantly associated with worse outcome in all patients. PRA and PRB promoters were methylated in 9.6% and 14.1% of the breast tumors, respectively. The majority (74%) of PR-negative tumors were not methylated despite the significant inverse correlation of methylation and PR levels. PRA methylation was significantly associated with PRB methylation, although a subset of tumors had PRA only (3.9%) or PRB only (8.3%) methylated. Methylation of PRA, but not PRB was significantly associated with worse outcome in the tamoxifen-treated group. Mechanisms other than promoter methylation may be more dominant for loss of PR. Isoform-specific methylation events suggest independent regulation of PRA and PRB. Finally, this article shows for the first time that PRA methylation plays a unique role in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer. ©2011 AACR.

  10. Progesterone receptor isoform-specific promoter methylation — Association of PRA promoter methylation with worse outcome in breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiraja, Thushangi N; Shetty, Priya B; Jelinek, Jaroslav; He, Rong; Hartmaier, Ryan; Margossian, Astrid L; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Issa, Jean-Pierre J; Oesterreich, Steffi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose ERα and PR levels are critical determinants for breast cancer prognosis and response to endocrine therapy. Although PR is known to be silenced by methylation of its promoter, few studies have correlated methylation with PR levels and outcome in breast cancer. There is only one previous small study comparing methylation of the two PR isoforms, PRA and PRB, which are expressed from different promoters, and finally, there is no prior knowledge of associations between isoform-specific methylation and outcome. Experimental Design We conducted a cohort-based study to test for associations between PRA and PRB methylation, expression, and clinical outcome in tamoxifen-treated patients (n=500), and in patients who underwent surgery only (n=500). Methylation and PR levels were measured by bisulfite pyrosequencing and ligand binding assay, respectively. Results Low PR levels were significantly associated with worse outcome in all patients. PRA and PRB promoters were methylated in 9.6% and 14.1% of the breast tumors, respectively. The majority (74%) of PR-negative tumors were not methylated despite the significant inverse correlation of methylation and PR levels. PRA methylation was significantly associated with PRB methylation, although a subset of tumors had PRA only (3.9%) or PRB only (8.3%) methylated. Methylation of PRA, but not PRB was significantly associated with worse outcome in the tamoxifen treated group. Conclusions Mechanisms other than promoter methylation may be more dominant for loss of PR. Isoform-specific methylation events suggest independent regulation of PRA and PRB. Finally, this study shows for the first time that PRA methylation plays a unique role in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer. PMID:21459801

  11. MYBL2 is a Potential Prognostic Marker that Promotes Cell Proliferation in Gallbladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Bin Liang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gallbladder cancer (GBC is an aggressive and highly lethal biliary tract malignancy, with extremely poor prognosis. In the present study, we analyzed the potential involvement of MYBL2, a member of the Myb transcription factor family, in the carcinogenesis of human GBC. Methods: MYBL2 expression levels were measured in GBC and cholecystitis tissue specimens using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemical (IHC assays. The effects of MYBL2 on cell proliferation and DNA synthesis were evaluated using Cell Counting Kit-8 assay (CCK-8, colony formation, and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU retention assay, flow cytometry analysis, western blot, and a xenograft model of GBC cells in nude mice. Results: MYBL2 expression was increased in GBC tissues and associated with histological differentiation, tumour invasion, clinical stage and unfavourable overall survival in GBC patients. The downregulation of MYBL2 expression resulted in the inhibition of GBC cell proliferation, and DNA replication in vitro, and the growth of xenografted tumours in nude mice. Conversely, MYBL2 overexpression resulted in the opposite effects. Conclusions: MYBL2 overexpression promotes GBC cell proliferation through the regulation of the cell cycle at the S and G2/M phase transitions. Thus, MYBL2 could serve as a potential prognostic and therapeutic biomarker in GBC patients.

  12. Clinical significance of promoter region hypermethylation of microRNA-148a in gastrointestinal cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun JX

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jingxu Sun,1,* Yongxi Song,1,* Zhenning Wang,1 Guoli Wang,2 Peng Gao,1 Xiaowan Chen,1 Zhaohua Gao,1 Huimian Xu1 1Department of Surgical Oncology and General Surgery, First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: MicroRNAs are associated with tumor genesis and progression in various carcinomas. MicroRNA-148a (miR-148a was reported to have low expression in gastrointestinal cancers, and might be regulated by promoter region DNA methylation. Methods: Bisulfite-modified sequencing was used to determine the promoter region DNA methylation status of human gastrointestinal cancer cell lines. Expression levels of miR-148a in cell lines treated with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Total DNA was extracted from the tissues of 64 patients with gastric cancer and 51 patients with colorectal cancer. Methylation status was determined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. All statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 17.0 software. Results: The promoter regions of genes in human gastrointestinal cancer cell lines were all hypermethylated, except for HT-29, and the expression of miR-148a tended to be higher than in controls after treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. The methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction results showed that 56.25% of gastric cancer tissues and 19.61% of colorectal cancer tissues were hypermethylated. A strong correlation was found between the expression of miR-148a and the methylation status of promoter regions (P<0.001, chi-square test and Pearson’s correlation. Furthermore, promoter region CpG site hypermethylation of miR-148a was correlated with increased tumor size (P=0.01 in gastric cancer after analyzing the correlation between

  13. Oral contraceptive and reproductive risk factors for ovarian cancer within sisters in the breast cancer family registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, J S; Daly, M B; Buys, S S; Genkinger, J M; Liao, Y; Terry, M B

    2014-02-18

    Oral contraceptive use has been consistently associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer in unrelated, average risk women; however little data exist on whether this benefit extends to higher risk women from cancer families. To examine this, we conducted family-based analyses using the Breast Cancer Family Registry. We used generalised estimating equations to obtain the population average effect across all families (n=389 cases, n=5643 controls) and conditional logistic regression to examine within-family differences in a subset with at least two sisters discordant on ovarian cancer status (n=109 cases, n=149 unaffected sister controls). In the multivariable generalised estimating equation model there was a reduced risk of ovarian cancer for ever use of oral contraceptives compared with never use (OR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.91), and in the conditional logistic model there was a similar inverse association; however, it was not statistically significant (OR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.23, 1.17). We examined this association by BRCA1/2 status and observed a statistically significant reduced risk in the non-carriers only. We observed a decreased risk of ovarian cancer with oral contraceptive use supporting that this association observed in unrelated women extends to related women at higher risk.

  14. RHOA inactivation enhances Wnt signaling and promotes colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo; Macaya, Irati; Bazzocco, Sarah; Mazzolini, Rocco; Andretta, Elena; Dopeso, Higinio; Mateo-Lozano, Silvia; Bilić, Josipa; Cartón-García, Fernando; Nieto, Rocio; Suárez-López, Lucia; Afonso, Elsa; Landolfi, Stefania; Hernandez-Losa, Javier; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Cajal, Santiago Ramón y; Tabernero, Josep; Tebbutt, Niall C.; Mariadason, John M.; Schwartz, Simo; Arango, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the small GTPase RHOA has strong oncogenic effects in many tumor types, although its role in colorectal cancer remains unclear. Here we show that RHOA inactivation contributes to colorectal cancer progression/metastasis, largely through the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. RhoA inactivation in the murine intestine accelerates the tumorigenic process and in human colon cancer cells leads to the redistribution of β-catenin from the membrane to the nucleus and enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signaling, resulting in increased proliferation, invasion and de-differentiation. In mice, RHOA inactivation contributes to colon cancer metastasis and reduced RHOA levels were observed at metastatic sites compared to primary human colon tumors. Therefore, we have identified a new mechanism of activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and characterized the role of RHOA as a novel tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. These results constitute a shift from the current paradigm and demonstrate that RHO GTPases can suppress tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:25413277

  15. Long Noncoding RNA Ceruloplasmin Promotes Cancer Growth by Altering Glycolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesha Rupaimoole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs significantly influence the development and regulation of genome expression in cells. Here, we demonstrate the role of lncRNA ceruloplasmin (NRCP in cancer metabolism and elucidate functional effects leading to increased tumor progression. NRCP was highly upregulated in ovarian tumors, and knockdown of NRCP resulted in significantly increased apoptosis, decreased cell proliferation, and decreased glycolysis compared with control cancer cells. In an orthotopic mouse model of ovarian cancer, siNRCP delivered via a liposomal carrier significantly reduced tumor growth compared with control treatment. We identified NRCP as an intermediate binding partner between STAT1 and RNA polymerase II, leading to increased expression of downstream target genes such as glucose-6-phosphate isomerase. Collectively, we report a previously unrecognized role of the lncRNA NRCP in modulating cancer metabolism. As demonstrated, DOPC nanoparticle-incorporated siRNA-mediated silencing of this lncRNA in vivo provides therapeutic avenue toward modulating lncRNAs in cancer.

  16. Cancer Risk-Promoting Information: The Communication Environment of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Rachel F; Kohler, Racquel E; Viswanath, K

    2017-09-01

    Young adulthood represents a time of myriad transitions, which leave young adults (YAs) more susceptible to the influences of cancer risk-promoting information. The tobacco, alcohol, indoor tanning, and food and beverage industries engage in aggressive marketing strategies through both traditional and social media to target this age group to consume their products, which have known links to cancer. Despite this barrage of messaging, detailed data are lacking on the communication behaviors of subgroups of this diverse age group, particularly those from low SES. This paper explores the available data on media usage among YAs and describes the cancer risk-promoting information environment, with a focus on communication inequalities and their implications for cancer research and control. Nationally representative data on media consumption patterns indicate that the majority of YAs access a diverse range of traditional and social media platforms, but these data do not fully describe differences at the intersection of age and important factors such as SES, gender, race/ethnicity, or urban/rural residence. Meanwhile, risk-promoting information is heavily marketed to YAs across media, with an increasing focus on using social media sites to normalize products and evade marketing restrictions. Gaps in the available data on YAs' media consumption behaviors, coupled with aggressive risk-promoting marketing strategies toward YAs, may impede cancer control efforts. Relationships between exposure to various cancer risk-promoting information, concurrent risk behaviors, SES disparities, and communication inequalities should be investigated to develop innovative and effective control programs and policies to promote cancer control in this important group. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Influence of nutritional status, hormones serum levels, and family history on breast cancer development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Jiménez, Emilio; García López, Pedro A; Schmidt-Río-Valle, Jacqueline; Valenza, Carmen

    2012-10-01

    Several studies have analyzed the relation between obesity and the hormonal imbalances generated by overweight and a family history of breast cancer. All of these factors are potentially implicated in the early development of breast cancer. To verify the existence of a significant relation between the nutritional status of breast cancer patients, their hormone serum levels (estrogens, prolactin, and progesterone), and the existence of a family history of breast cancer. Retrospective data was collected from clinical records of 524 women diagnosed with breast cancer in a Spanish hospital. There was a positive association between estrogen, progesterone and prolactin serum levels and body mass index. The elevations in hormone levels occurred earlier in life among women with a family history of breast cancer. A two way ANOVA found a significant association between progesterone and prolactin levels with the age at diagnosis of breast cancer. Extreme serum levels of these hormones appear to be related to the early development of breast cancer, which in turn is influenced by the existence of a family history of cancer among those women with normal or average hormone levels.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in a cancer care and treatment facility in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Katende, Godfrey; Nakimera, Lillian

    2017-01-01

    Background The process of caregiving may cause emotional distress in form of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients. Little is known about the prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in Uganda. Objectives To determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression and related factors associated with abnormal levels of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in a cancer care and treatment facility in Uganda. Methods Aft...

  19. Elevated expression and potential roles of human Sp5, a member of Sp transcription factor family, in human cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yongxin; Guo Yingqiu; Ge Xijin; Itoh, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Akira; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we describe the expression and function of human Sp5, a member of the Sp family of zinc finger transcription factors. Like other family members, the Sp5 protein contains a Cys2His2 zinc finger DNA binding domain at the C-terminus. Our experiments employing Gal4-Sp5 fusion proteins reveal multiple transcriptional domains, including a N-terminal activity domain, an intrinsic repressive element, and a C-terminal synergistic domain. Elevated expression of Sp5 was noted in several human tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer, and colon cancer. To study the effects of the Sp5 protein on growth properties of human cancer cells and facilitate the identification of its downstream genes, we combined an inducible gene expression system with microarray analysis to screen for its transcriptional targets. Transfer of Sp5 into MCF-7 cells that expressed no detectable endogenous Sp5 protein elicited significant growth promotion activity. Several of the constitutively deregulated genes have been associated with tumorigenesis (CDC25C, CEACAM6, TMPRSS2, XBP1, MYBL1, ABHD2, and CXCL12) and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathways (BAMBI, SIX1, IGFBP5, AES, and p21 WAF1 ). This information could be utilized for further mechanistic research and for devising optimized therapeutic strategies against human cancers

  20. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Yijing; Tang, Huijuan; Guo, Yan; Guo, Jing; Huang, Bangxing; Fang, Fang; Cai, Jing, E-mail: caijingmmm@hotmail.com; Wang, Zehua, E-mail: zehuawang@163.net

    2015-09-10

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs.

  1. Facilitators and Challenges in Psychosocial Adaptation to Being at Increased Familial Risk of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiniger, Louise; Price, Melanie A; Charles, Margaret; Butow, Phyllis N

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the process of psychosocial adaptation to familial risk in tested and untested individuals at increased familial risk of cancer. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study of 36 women participating in the Kathleen Cuningham Consortium for Research into Familial Breast cancer (kConFab) Psychosocial study. Facilitators and challenges in psychosocial adaptation were identified through semi-structured interviews. The women, who were either tested (carriers or non-carriers of breast cancer susceptibility mutations) or untested (ineligible for testing or eligible but delayed or declined testing), described personal, support network and healthcare characteristics that impacted on the adaptation process. Challenges in one domain could be overcome by facilitators in other domains and key differences relating to whether women had undergone testing, or not, were identified. Tested and untested women with an increased familial risk of breast cancer may benefit from support tailored to their mutation testing status in order to enhance adaptation.

  2. Clinical and genetic characteristics of Chinese hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xu-Lin; Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Su-Zhan; Cai, Shan-Rong; Huang, Yan-Qin; Jiang, Qiang; Zheng, Shu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the clinical characteristics of Chinese hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families and to screen the germline mutations of human mismatch repair genes hMLH1 and hMSH2 in the probands.

  3. Family Caregivers in Cancer: Roles and Challenges (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the challenges faced by family caregivers of cancer patients. This summary focuses on typical caregiver roles and concerns, and helpful interventions for caregivers.

  4. A comparison of physical health status, self-esteem, family support and health-promoting behaviours between aged living alone and living with family in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Sohyune R; Yun, Eun K

    2011-06-01

    This study examined and compared the physical health status, self-esteem, family support and health-promoting behaviours between aged living alone and the aged living with family. As the Korean population ages, the number of older people living alone is steadily rising. Previous studies have been conducted to define the factors affecting the health of older people. However, research studies focused on the impact of family support, which potentially affects the overall health of older people, have been rarely conducted. This was a comparative descriptive design. The survey included a set of four questionnaires. All measures were self-administered. In the data analysis, descriptive statistics were used to analyse the demographic characteristics. The Chi-square test and independent t-test were used to examine the differences between the aged living alone and the aged living with family. The physical health status (t=-40·85, pself-esteem (t=-26·75, pexercise (t=-15·86, pself-esteem and health-promoting behaviours than the aged living alone. Clinical practice should be focused on emotional support with family or society for Korean aged, especially the aged living alone. Also, the practice should be adjusted to encourage the health-promoting behaviour for them as well. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Recurrence in oral and pharyngeal cancer is associated with quantitative MGMT promoter methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taioli, Emanuela; Ragin, Camille; Wang, Xiao-hong; Chen, Jiangying; Langevin, Scott M; Brown, Ashley R; Gollin, Susanne M; Garte, Seymour; Sobol, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers that predict clinical response, tumor recurrence or patient survival are severely lacking for most cancers, particularly for oral and pharyngeal cancer. This study examines whether gene-promoter methylation of tumor DNA correlates with survival and recurrence rates in a population of patients with oral or pharyngeal cancer. The promoter methylation status of the DNA repair gene MGMT and the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and RASSF1 were evaluated by methylation-specific PCR in 88 primary oral and pharyngeal tumors and correlated with survival and tumor recurrence. Quantitative MGMT methylation was also assessed. 29.6% of the tumors presented with MGMT methylation, 11.5% with CDKN2A methylation and 12.1% with RASSF1 methylation. MGMT promoter methylation was significantly associated with poorer overall and disease-free survival. No differences in methylation status of MGMT and RASSF1 with HPV infection, smoking or drinking habits were observed. A significant inverse trend with the amount of MGMT methylation and overall and disease-free survival was observed (p trend = 0.002 and 0.001 respectively). These results implicate MGMT promoter methylation as a possible biomarker for oral and pharyngeal cancer prognosis. The critical role of MGMT in DNA repair suggests that defective DNA repair may be correlative in the observed association between MGMT promoter methylation and tumor recurrence. Follow-up studies should include further quantitative MSP-PCR measurement, global methylation profiling and detailed analysis of downstream DNA repair genes regulated by promoter methylation

  6. TNRC9 downregulates BRCA1 expression and promotes breast cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jingxuan; Dsouza, Shoba P; Bakhru, Sasha; Al-Azwani, Eman K; Ascierto, Maria L; Sastry, Konduru S; Bedri, Shahinaz; Kizhakayil, Dhanya; Aigha, Idil I; Malek, Joel; Al-Bozom, Issam; Gehani, Salah; Furtado, Stacia; Mathiowitz, Edith; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M; Chouchane, Lotfi

    2013-05-01

    Although the linkage between germline mutations of BRCA1 and hereditary breast/ovarian cancers is well established, recent evidence suggests that altered expression of wild-type BRCA1 might contribute to the sporadic forms of breast cancer. The breast cancer gene trinucleotide-repeat-containing 9 (TNRC9; TOX3) has been associated with disease susceptibility but its function is undetermined. Here, we report that TNRC9 is often amplified and overexpressed in breast cancer, particularly in advanced breast cancer. Gene amplification was associated with reduced disease-free and metastasis-free survival rates. Ectopic expression of TNRC9 increased breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and survival after exposure to apoptotic stimuli. These phenotypes were associated with tumor progression in a mouse model of breast cancer. Gene expression profiling, protein analysis, and in silico assays of large datasets of breast and ovarian cancer samples suggested that TNRC9 and BRCA1 expression were inversely correlated. Notably, we found that TNRC9 bound to both the BRCA1 promoter and the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) complex, a regulator of BRCA1 transcription. In support of this connection, expression of TNRC9 downregulated expression of BRCA1 by altering the methylation status of its promoter. Our studies unveil a function for TNRC9 in breast cancer that highlights a new paradigm in BRCA1 regulation.

  7. IL33 Promotes Colon Cancer Cell Stemness via JNK Activation and Macrophage Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Min; Li, Yongkui; Huang, Kai; Qi, Shanshan; Zhang, Jian; Zgodzinski, Witold; Majewski, Marek; Wallner, Grzegorz; Gozdz, Stanislaw; Macek, Pawel; Kowalik, Artur; Pasiarski, Marcin; Grywalska, Ewelina; Vatan, Linda; Nagarsheth, Nisha; Li, Wei; Zhao, Lili; Kryczek, Ilona; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Zheng; Zou, Weiping; Wang, Lin

    2018-01-01

    The expression and biological role of IL33 in colon cancer is poorly understood. In this study, we show that IL33 is expressed by vascular endothelial cells and tumor cells in the human colon cancer microenvironment. Administration of human IL33 and overexpression of murine IL33 enhanced human and murine colon cancer cell growth in vivo, respectively. IL33 stimulated cell sphere formation and prevented chemotherapy-induced tumor apoptosis. Mechanistically, IL33 activated core stem cell genes NANOG, NOTCH3, and OCT3/4 via the ST2 signaling pathway, and induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) activation and enhanced binding of c-Jun to the promoters of the core stem cell genes. Moreover, IL33 recruited macrophages into the cancer microenvironment and stimulated them to produce prostaglandin E2, which supported colon cancer stemness and tumor growth. Clinically, tumor IL33 expression associated with poor survival in patients with metastatic colon cancer. Thus, IL33 dually targets tumor cells and macrophages and endows stem-like qualities to colon cancer cells to promote carcinogenesis. Collectively, our work reveals an immune-associated mechanism that extrinsically confers cancer cell stemness properties. Targeting the IL33 signaling pathway may offer an opportunity to treat patients with metastatic cancer. PMID:28249897

  8. Celebrity appeal: reaching women to promote colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Lobb, Kathleen

    2015-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign works with the Entertainment Industry Foundation's National Colorectal Cancer Research Alliance to develop public service announcements (PSAs) featuring celebrities. Selection of Screen for Life celebrity spokespersons is based on a variety of factors, including their general appeal and personal connection to colorectal cancer. Screen for Life PSAs featuring celebrities have been disseminated exclusively through donated media placements and have been formatted for television, radio, print, and out-of-home displays such as dioramas in airports, other transit stations, and shopping malls. A 2012 national survey with women aged 50-75 years (n=772) investigated reported exposure to Screen for Life PSAs featuring actor Terrence Howard. In total, 8.3% of women recalled exposure to the PSAs. Celebrity spokespersons can attract the attention of both target audiences and media gatekeepers who decide which PSAs will receive donated placements.

  9. Phenotypic analysis of familial breast cancer: comparison of BRCAx tumors with BRCA1-, BRCA2-carriers and non-familial breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloraifi, F; Alshehhi, M; McDevitt, T; Cody, N; Meany, M; O'Doherty, A; Quinn, C M; Green, A J; Bracken, A; Geraghty, J G

    2015-05-01

    Women with inherited pathogenic mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes have up to an 85% risk of developing breast cancer in their lifetime. However, only about 20% of familial breast cancer is attributed to mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, while a further 5-10% are attributed to mutations in other rare susceptibility genes such as TP53, STK11, PTEN, ATM and CHEK2. Despite extensive efforts to explain the missing heritability of this disease, the majority of familial clustering in breast cancer remains largely unexplained. We aim to analyze the pathology of familial cases of which no pathogenic mutation is yet identified. We compared the pathological phenotype of BRCA1/BRCA2 negative familial breast cancer (BRCAx) to BRCA1-positive, BRCA2-positive and sporadic cases without a family history. Age-adjusted analysis is summarized in odd's ratios and confidence intervals for tumor type, grade, lymph node, ER and HER2 status. We found non-familial cases to be more likely to be ER positive (P = 0.041) as compared with BRCAx tumors. More cases of lobular carcinoma were found with BRCAx as compared to BRCA1 tumors (P = 0.05). After multivariate logistic regression analysis, BRCAx tumors are more likely ER positive (P = 0.001) and HER2 positive (P = 0.047) in comparison to BRCA1. Conversely, BRCAx cases are less likely to be ER positive (P = 0.02) but more likely to be HER2 positive (P = 0.021) as compared with BRCA2 tumors. Our findings suggest that BRCA1, BRCA2 and BRCAx tumors differ in phenotype from non-familial and familial BRCA1-positive and BRCA2-positive tumors. Further studies will need to be performed in this important population in order to develop strategies for early detection and prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Strengthen the cancer surveillance to promote cancer prevention and control in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J

    2018-01-23

    Cancer is a major chronic disease threatening the people's health in China. We reviewed the latest advances on cancer surveillance, prevention and control in our country, which may provide important clues for future cancer control. We used data from the National Central Cancer Registry, to describe and analyze the latest cancer statistics in China. We summarized updated informations on cancer control policies, conducting network, as well as programs in the country. We provided important suggestions on the future strategies of cancer prevention and control. The overall cancer burden in China has been increasing during the past decades. In 2014, there were about 3 804 000 new cancer cases and 2 296 000 cancer deaths in China. The age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality rates were 190.63/100 000 and 106.98/100 000, respectively. China has formed a comprehensive network on cancer prevention and control. Nationwide population-based cancer surveillance has been built up. The population coverage of cancer surveillance has been expanded, and the data quality has been improved. As the aging population is increasing and unhealthy life styles persist in our country, there will be an unnegligible cancer burden in China. Based on the comprehensive rationale of cancer control and prevention, National Cancer Center of China will perform its duty for future precise cancer control and prevention, based on cancer surveillance statistics.

  11. Psychological morbidity in family caregivers of people living with terminal cancer: Prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areia, Neide P; Fonseca, Gabriela; Major, Sofia; Relvas, Ana P

    2018-02-26

    The issues surrounding a patient's terminal phase of cancer and the imminent death of the individual represent a major family crisis affecting all its members. The goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity in family caregivers of persons with terminal cancer in terms of psychological distress, depression, anxiety, somatization, and complicated anticipatory grief, and to determine which factors may influence these responses. One hundred and twelve family caregivers of individuals with terminal cancer completed an assessment protocol comprising the Brief Symptom Inventory (depression, anxiety, somatization, and a computed score for global distress), the Marwit-Meuser Caregiver Grief Inventory - Short Form (anticipatory grief), the Family Inventory of Needs (importance and satisfaction of needs), and the Systemic Clinical Outcome Routine Evaluation -15 (family functioning). Prevalence of psychological morbidity was determined through descriptive and frequency statistics. Predictors of psychological morbidity were ascertained through structural equation modelling methods. Result Regarding the prevalence of psychological morbidity in family caregivers, 66.1% reported high levels of distress, 68.8% showed high risk of depression, 72.3% showed high risk of anxiety, 50.9% reported high levels of somatization, and 25.9% showed high risk of complicated anticipatory grief. It was found that the predictors of age, gender, relationship to the family member with terminal cancer, the caregiving role played (i.e., primary vs. nonprimary), the satisfaction of needs by healthcare professionals, and family functioning play an important role in terms of one's risk of developing psychological morbidity. Significance of results This study revealed an alarming prevalence of psychological morbidity in family caregivers of individuals living with terminal cancer, making it crucial to move forward from a patient-centered approach to a family-centrad approach

  12. Teeth Tales: a community-based child oral health promotion trial with migrant families in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Christian, Bradley; Gold, Lisa; Young, Dana; de Silva, Andrea; Calache, Hanny; Gussy, Mark; Watt, Richard; Riggs, Elisha; Tadic, Maryanne; Hall, Martin; Gondal, Iqbal; Pradel, Veronika; Moore, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Teeth Tales trial aimed to establish a model for child oral health promotion for culturally diverse communities in Australia. Design An exploratory trial implementing a community-based child oral health promotion intervention for Australian families from migrant backgrounds. Mixed method, longitudinal evaluation. Setting The intervention was based in Moreland, a culturally diverse locality in Melbourne, Australia. Participants Families with 1–4-year-old children, self-identified as being from Iraqi, Lebanese or Pakistani backgrounds residing in Melbourne. Participants residing close to the intervention site were allocated to intervention. Intervention The intervention was conducted over 5 months and comprised community oral health education sessions led by peer educators and follow-up health messages. Outcome measures This paper reports on the intervention impacts, process evaluation and descriptive analysis of health, knowledge and behavioural changes 18 months after baseline data collection. Results Significant differences in the Debris Index (OR=0.44 (0.22 to 0.88)) and the Modified Gingival Index (OR=0.34 (0.19 to 0.61)) indicated increased tooth brushing and/or improved toothbrushing technique in the intervention group. An increased proportion of intervention parents, compared to those in the comparison group reported that they had been shown how to brush their child's teeth (OR=2.65 (1.49 to 4.69)). Process evaluation results highlighted the problems with recruitment and retention of the study sample (275 complete case families). The child dental screening encouraged involvement in the study, as did linking attendance with other community/cultural activities. Conclusions The Teeth Tales intervention was promising in terms of improving oral hygiene and parent knowledge of tooth brushing technique. Adaptations to delivery of the intervention are required to increase uptake and likely impact. A future cluster randomised controlled trial

  13. Teeth Tales: a community-based child oral health promotion trial with migrant families in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Christian, Bradley; Gold, Lisa; Young, Dana; de Silva, Andrea; Calache, Hanny; Gussy, Mark; Watt, Richard; Riggs, Elisha; Tadic, Maryanne; Hall, Martin; Gondal, Iqbal; Pradel, Veronika; Moore, Laurence

    2015-06-11

    The Teeth Tales trial aimed to establish a model for child oral health promotion for culturally diverse communities in Australia. An exploratory trial implementing a community-based child oral health promotion intervention for Australian families from migrant backgrounds. Mixed method, longitudinal evaluation. The intervention was based in Moreland, a culturally diverse locality in Melbourne, Australia. Families with 1-4-year-old children, self-identified as being from Iraqi, Lebanese or Pakistani backgrounds residing in Melbourne. Participants residing close to the intervention site were allocated to intervention. The intervention was conducted over 5 months and comprised community oral health education sessions led by peer educators and follow-up health messages. This paper reports on the intervention impacts, process evaluation and descriptive analysis of health, knowledge and behavioural changes 18 months after baseline data collection. Significant differences in the Debris Index (OR=0.44 (0.22 to 0.88)) and the Modified Gingival Index (OR=0.34 (0.19 to 0.61)) indicated increased tooth brushing and/or improved toothbrushing technique in the intervention group. An increased proportion of intervention parents, compared to those in the comparison group reported that they had been shown how to brush their child's teeth (OR=2.65 (1.49 to 4.69)). Process evaluation results highlighted the problems with recruitment and retention of the study sample (275 complete case families). The child dental screening encouraged involvement in the study, as did linking attendance with other community/cultural activities. The Teeth Tales intervention was promising in terms of improving oral hygiene and parent knowledge of tooth brushing technique. Adaptations to delivery of the intervention are required to increase uptake and likely impact. A future cluster randomised controlled trial would provide strongest evidence of effectiveness if appropriate to the community, cultural and

  14. How Do Families Assess and Manage the Pain of Cancer Patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Ligita, Titan; Dewi, Ariyani Pradana; Febriyanti, Tri Rina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pain assessment and pain management for patients living with cancer performed by nurses have been improved gradually. This strategy needs the roles of both nurses and families of patients living with cancer. Prior to the application of effective pain management, it is vital to perform pain assessment. The involvement of families in patients care may assist nurses to optimize caring and thus the patients are monitored continuously. But, there is still limited study about the invo...

  15. Mobile Phone Technology to Increase Genetic Counseling for Women with Ovarian Cancer and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Oncologist discussing screening and prevention strategies Day 4: Cancer Genetics and My Family • Sharing information with family • Video: Patient...individual meeting with a study investigator (Niendorf). This information will then be shared with the team for final refinement and development... BiKEs ). Specific Aims: 1) Evaluate response of primary ovarian cancer cells grown in immunodeficient mice (Avatar mice) to targeted cellular

  16. CacyBP/SIP promotes the proliferation of colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihong Zhai

    Full Text Available CacyBP/SIP is a component of the ubiquitin pathway and is overexpressed in several transformed tumor tissues, including colon cancer, which is one of the most common cancers worldwide. It is unknown whether CacyBP/SIP promotes the proliferation of colon cancer cells. This study examined the expression level, subcellular localization, and binding activity of CacyBP/SIP in human colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of the hormone gastrin. We found that CacyBP/SIP was expressed in a high percentage of colon cancer cells, but not in normal colonic surface epithelium. CacyBP/SIP promoted the cell proliferation of colon cancer cells under both basal and gastrin stimulated conditions as shown by knockdown studies. Gastrin stimulation triggered the translocation of CacyBP/SIP to the nucleus, and enhanced interaction between CacyBP/SIP and SKP1, a key component of ubiquitination pathway which further mediated the proteasome-dependent degradation of p27kip1 protein. The gastrin induced reduction in p27kip1 was prevented when cells were treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. These results suggest that CacyBP/SIP may be promoting growth of colon cancer cells by enhancing ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27kip1.

  17. Expression of the EGF Family in Gastric Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Ostergaard; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths in both men and women. The epidermal growth factor receptors are EGFR, HER2, HER3 and HER4. Of the four epidermal growth factor receptors, EGFR and HER2 are well-known oncogenes involved in gastric cancer. Little, however, is known about...

  18. Familial aggregation of childhood and adult cancer in the Utah genealogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Rachel E; Stiller, Charles A; Bunch, Kathryn J; Milne, Elizabeth; Mineau, Geraldine P; Murphy, Michael F G

    2013-12-15

    A small proportion of childhood cancer is attributable to known hereditary syndromes, but whether there is any familial component to the remainder remains uncertain. We explored familial aggregation of cancer in a population-based case-control study using genealogical record linkage and designed to overcome limitations of previous studies. Subjects were selected from the Utah Population Database. We compared risk of cancer in adult first-degree relatives of children who were diagnosed with cancer with the risk in relatives of children who had not had a cancer diagnosed. We identified 1,894 childhood cancer cases and 3,788 controls; 7,467 relatives of cases and 14,498 relatives of controls were included in the analysis. Relatives of children with cancer had a higher risk of cancer in adulthood than relatives of children without cancer [odds ratio (OR) 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.56]; this was restricted to mothers and siblings and was not evident in fathers. Familial aggregation appeared stronger among relatives of cases diagnosed before 5 years of age (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.13-1.95) than among relatives of cases who were older when diagnosed (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.98-1.51). These findings provide evidence of a generalized excess of cancer in the mothers and siblings of children with cancer. The tendency for risk to be higher in the relatives of children who were younger at cancer diagnosis should be investigated in other large data sets. The excesses of thyroid cancer in parents of children with cancer and of any cancer in relatives of children with leukemia merit further investigation. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  19. Prognostic values of distinct CBX family members in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Yuan-Ke; Lin, Hao-Yu; Chen, Chun-Fa; Zeng, De

    2017-01-01

    Chromobox (CBX) family proteins are canonical components in polycomb repressive complexes 1 (PRC1), with epigenetic regulatory function and transcriptionally repressing target genes via chromatin modification. A plethora of studies have highlighted the function specifications among CBX family

  20. Applicability of HIN-1, MGMT and RASSF1A promoter methylation as biomarkers for detecting field cancerization in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzwieser, Melanie; Holzweber, Elisabeth; Pfeiler, Georg; Hacker, Stefan; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-09-14

    It has been shown in some articles that genetic and epigenetic abnormalities cannot only be found in tumor tissues but also in adjacent regions that appear histologically normal. This phenomenon is metaphorically called field cancerization or field defect. Field cancerization is regarded as clinically significant because it is assumed to be an important factor in local recurrence of cancer. As the field showing these molecular abnormalities may not be removed completely by surgery, these changes might lead to neoplasms and subsequent transformation to a tumor. We aimed to investigate the applicability of the methylation status of six tumor suppressor genes as biomarkers for detecting field cancerization in breast cancer. The promoter methylation status of CCND2, DAPK1, GSTP1, HIN-1, MGMT and RASSF1A was determined by methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis. MS-HRM methods for CCND2, MGMT and RASSF1A were developed in-house, primer sequences for DAPK1, GSTP1 and HIN-1 have already been published. Biopsy samples were taken from tumor, tumor-adjacent and tumor-distant tissue from 17 breast cancer patients. Normal breast tissues of four healthy women served as controls. All MS-HRM methods proved to be very sensitive. LODs were in the range from 0.1 to 1.5 %, LOQs ranged from 0.3 to 5.3 %. A total of 94 %, 82 % and 65 % of the tumors showed methylation of RASSF1A, HIN-1 and MGMT promoters, respectively. The methylation status of these promoters was significantly lower in tumor-distant tissues than in tumor tissues. Tumor-adjacent tissues showed higher methylation status of RASSF1A, HIN-1 and MGMT promoters than tumor-distant tissues, indicating field cancerization. The methylation status of the HIN-1 promoter in tumor-adjacent tissues was found to correlate strongly with that in the corresponding tumors (r = 0.785, p methylation status of the HIN-1 promoter can be considered the best suitable biomarker for detecting field cancerization

  1. Oestrogen receptor beta isoform expression in sporadic colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis and progressive stages of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanato Filho, Paulo Roberto; Aguiar Júnior, Samuel; Begnami, Maria Dirlei

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-β (ERβ). The expression of ERβ isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas are ...... provide a better understanding of oestrogens and their potential preventive and therapeutic effects on sporadic colorectal cancer and cancers associated with FAP syndrome.......BACKGROUND: Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-β (ERβ). The expression of ERβ isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas...... was identified in sporadic polyps and in sporadic colorectal cancer as well as in polyps from FAP syndrome patients compared with normal tissues (p

  2. Estrogen and estrogen receptor alpha promotes malignancy and osteoblastic tumorigenesis in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sweta; Tai, Qin; Gu, Xiang; Schmitz, James; Poullard, Ashley; Fajardo, Roberto J; Mahalingam, Devalingam; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhu, Xueqiong; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2015-12-29

    The role of estrogen signaling in regulating prostate tumorigenesis is relatively underexplored. Although, an increasing body of evidence has linked estrogen receptor beta (ERß) to prostate cancer, the function of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in prostate cancer is not very well studied. We have discovered a novel role of ERα in the pathogenesis of prostate tumors. Here, we show that prostate cancer cells express ERα and estrogen induces oncogenic properties in prostate cancer cells through ERα. Importantly, ERα knockdown in the human prostate cancer PacMetUT1 cells as well as pharmacological inhibition of ERα with ICI 182,780 inhibited osteoblastic lesion formation and lung metastasis in vivo. Co-culture of pre-osteoblasts with cancer cells showed a significant induction of osteogenic markers in the pre-osteoblasts, which was attenuated by knockdown of ERα in cancer cells suggesting that estrogen/ERα signaling promotes crosstalk between cancer and osteoblastic progenitors to stimulate osteoblastic tumorigenesis. These results suggest that ERα expression in prostate cancer cells is essential for osteoblastic lesion formation and lung metastasis. Thus, inhibition of ERα signaling in prostate cancer cells may be a novel therapeutic strategy to inhibit the osteoblastic lesion development as well as lung metastasis in patients with advanced prostate cancer.

  3. GTPBP4 Promotes Gastric Cancer Progression via Regulating P53 Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: gastric cancer is a serious health concern with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is urgent to find novel targets for gastric cancer diagnosis and treatment. Methods: qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry assays were used to detect GTPBP4 expression in gastric cancer tissues, and gastric cancer and gastric epithelial cells. Lentivirus infection was used to construct GTPBP4 stable knockdown cells. Annexin V/PI apoptosis, CCK8, EdU incorporation and cell clone formation analysis were performed to evaluate the effects of GTPBP4 on gastric cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Further RNA-based high-throughput sequencing and co-IP assays were constructed to explore the related mechanisms contributing to GTPBP4-mediated effects. Results: GTPBP4 expression was significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues, and positively correlated with gastric cancer stages. Meanwhile, GTPBP4 level was markedly upregulated in gastric cancer cells than in gastric epithelial cells. Additionaly, stable knockdown of GTPBP4 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, p53 and its related signaling were significantly activated in GTPBP4 stable knockdown cells. And GTPBP4 interacted with p53 in gastric cancer cells. Conclusions: our results provide insights into mechanistic regulation and linkage of the GTPBP4-p53 in gastric cancer, and also a valuable potential target for gastric cancer.

  4. The relationship of colorectal cancer with familial history of gastrointestinal cancers and personal history of colon polyps in Khorramabad(2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    korosh Ghanadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of familial history of gastrointestinal cancers and personal history of colon polyps with colorectal cancer incidence in khorramabad in 2012. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 50 patients with definite diagnosis of colon cancer based on colonoscopy and pathology in 2012. The control group included 56 persons from outpatients without a history of gastrointestinal diseases admitted to the skin and eye clinics of shohada ashayer hospital, who were matched with the patients for age and gender. The two groups were studied in terms of familial history of gastrointestinal diseases in immediate relatives and personal history of colorectal polyps using a self-constructed questionnaire. Fisher exact test and odds ratio estimate was used for data analysis. Results: The mean age of the patients was 52.8±15.5 years old, and 56% were male. A significant relationship was found between familial history of gastric and colon cancers in immediate relatives and colorectal cancer incidence in the patients (p<0.05. The odds ratio estimate of colorectal cancer incidence in the individuals with a positive history of gastric cancer and colon cancers in immediate relatives were respectively 3.96(CI=1.44-6.61 and 6.75 (CI=2.4-11.1 times of the estimate in the control individuals. No significant relationship was found between a history of esophageal cancers in immediate relatives with colon cancer incidence in the patients (p=0.61. Moreover, a significant relationship was found between a history of colon polyps and colorectal cancer incidence (p=0.004. Conclusion: The results of the present study should be confirmed in the further studies with larger sample sizes, so that serious measures to control the cancer can be taken through developing comprehensive prevention programs based on screening.

  5. Promoting Early Detection of Breast Cancer and Care Strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The cancer burden in low-middle-income countries is growing, with the survival rates much poorer than those in high-income countries4,5. In low-middle-income countries like Nigeria, advanced stage of the disease at diagnosis .... Consistent with this statement, the objective of the. BHGI was aimed at defining reasonable ...

  6. Human leukocyte antigen-G expression and polymorphisms promote cancer development and guide cancer diagnosis/treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Yu, Shuwen; Han, Yali; Wang, Yunshan; Sun, Yuping

    2018-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a non-classical HLA molecule, predominantly expressed in cytotrophoblast cells to protect the fetus during pregnancy. Notably, a high frequency of HLA-G expression has been observed in a wide variety of cancer types in previous studies. Furthermore, HLA-G expression in cancer has been considered to be detrimental, since it can protect cancer cells from natural killer cell cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated destruction, promote tumor spreading and shorten the survival time of patients by facilitating tumor immune evasion. In addition, HLA-G polymorphisms have been investigated in numerous types of cancer and are considered as risk factors and predictive markers of cancer. This review focuses on HLA-G expression and its polymorphisms in cancer, analyzing the mechanisms of HLA-G in promoting cancer development, and evaluating the potential and value of its clinical application as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker, or even as a prospective therapeutic target in certain types of tumors. PMID:29399142

  7. Human leukocyte antigen-G expression and polymorphisms promote cancer development and guide cancer diagnosis/treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Yu, Shuwen; Han, Yali; Wang, Yunshan; Sun, Yuping

    2018-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a non-classical HLA molecule, predominantly expressed in cytotrophoblast cells to protect the fetus during pregnancy. Notably, a high frequency of HLA-G expression has been observed in a wide variety of cancer types in previous studies. Furthermore, HLA-G expression in cancer has been considered to be detrimental, since it can protect cancer cells from natural killer cell cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated destruction, promote tumor spreading and shorten the survival time of patients by facilitating tumor immune evasion. In addition, HLA-G polymorphisms have been investigated in numerous types of cancer and are considered as risk factors and predictive markers of cancer. This review focuses on HLA-G expression and its polymorphisms in cancer, analyzing the mechanisms of HLA-G in promoting cancer development, and evaluating the potential and value of its clinical application as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker, or even as a prospective therapeutic target in certain types of tumors.

  8. C-C motif ligand 5 promotes migration of prostate cancer cells in the prostate cancer bone metastasis microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Satoko; Izumi, Kouji; Hiratsuka, Kaoru; Maolake, Aerken; Natsagdorj, Ariunbold; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Iwamoto, Hiroaki; Kadomoto, Suguru; Makino, Tomoyuki; Naito, Renato; Kadono, Yoshifumi; Lin, Wen-Jye; Wufuer, Guzailinuer; Narimoto, Kazutaka; Mizokami, Atsushi

    2018-03-01

    Chemokines and their receptors have key roles in cancer progression. The present study investigated chemokine activity in the prostate cancer bone metastasis microenvironment. Growth and migration of human prostate cancer cells were assayed in cocultures with bone stromal cells. The migration of LNCaP cells significantly increased when co-cultured with bone stromal cells isolated from prostate cancer bone metastases. Cytokine array analysis of conditioned medium from bone stromal cell cultures identified CCL5 as a concentration-dependent promoter of LNCaP cell migration. The migration of LNCaP cells was suppressed when C-C motif ligand 5 (CCL5) neutralizing antibody was added to cocultures with bone stromal cells. Knockdown of androgen receptor with small interfering RNA increased the migration of LNCaP cells compared with control cells, and CCL5 did not promote the migration of androgen receptor knockdown LNCaP. Elevated CCL5 secretion in bone stromal cells from metastatic lesions induced prostate cancer cell migration by a mechanism consistent with CCL5 activity upstream of androgen receptor signaling. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  9. Family Members of Cancer Patients in Korea Are at an Increased Risk of Medically Diagnosed Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngdae Cho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Family members are often cancer patients’ primary source of social and emotional support and make a major contribution to how well patients manage their illness. We compared the prevalence of depression in the family members of cancer patients and the general population. Methods This study used the data from the fourth, fifth, and sixth rounds of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The variable of interest was the presence of a cohabitating cancer patient in the family and the dependent variable was the presence of diagnosed depression. Results The odds of having medically diagnosed depression in those with a cohabitating cancer patient in the family were significantly higher than among those who did not have cancer patients in their families (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 2.17; p=0.009. The OR for females was 1.59, and this increase was statistically significant (95% CI, 1.09 to 2.31; p=0.02. Conclusions We need to invest more effort into diagnosing and managing depression in the family members of cancer patients. This will have an impact both on their quality of life and on the well-being of patients, as supporters and caregivers play an instrumental role in helping patients manage their illness.

  10. Association between promoter polymorphisms of OPN gene and cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu JW

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jingwei Liu,1–2 Caiyun He,1–2 Quan Yuan,1–2 Zhenning Wang,1–2 Chengzhong Xing,1–2 Yuan Yuan1–2 1Tumor Etiology and Screening Department of Cancer Institute and General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, 2Key Laboratory of Cancer Etiology and Prevention, China Medical University, Liaoning Provincial Education Department, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Background: Results of the association between polymorphisms of osteopontin (OPN gene promoter region and risk of cancer were inconclusive. The aim of this meta-analysis was to elucidate whether OPN promoter polymorphisms were associated with cancer risk.Methods: Electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure were systematically searched. Odd ratios (ORs and their 95% confidential interval (CI were used to assess the strength of association between OPN promoter polymorphisms and cancer risks.Results: Nine studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. For OPN rs17524488 polymorphism, carriers of GG or -/G genotype were significantly associated with increased cancer risk compared with wild-type -/- carriers, respectively (GG vs -/-: OR =1.40, 95% CI =1.03–1.91, P=0.033; -/G vs -/-: OR =1.22, 95% CI =1.07–1.40, P=0.002. Additionally, G allele was significantly associated with increased cancer risk compared with (- allele (OR =1.21, 95% CI =1.04–1.40, P=0.016. However, no significant association was observed of OPN rs11730582 polymorphism and cancer risk (CC vs TT: OR =0.98, 95% CI =0.49–1.97, P=0.964; CT vs TT: OR =0.88, 95% CI =0.54–1.43, P=0.610.Conclusion: Carriers of GG or -/G genotype of OPN promoter rs17524488 (-156-/G polymorphism might be associated with increased risk of cancer compared with wild-type -/- carriers, respectively. However, no significant association was observed between OPN promoter rs11730582 (-443C/T polymorphism and risk of cancer. Keywords: OPN

  11. The influence of family adaptability and cohesion on anxiety and depression of terminally ill cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Yoon; Jeong, Young-Jin; Lee, Junyong; Moon, Nayun; Bang, Inho; Kim, Hyunju; Yun, Kyung-Sook; Kim, Yong-I; Jeon, Tae-Hee

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of family members on terminally ill cancer patients by measuring the relationship of the presence of the family caregivers, visiting time by family and friends, and family adaptability and cohesion with patient's anxiety and depression. From June, 2016 to March, 2017, 100 terminally ill cancer patients who were admitted to a palliative care unit in Seoul, South Korea, were surveyed, and their medical records were reviewed. The Korean version of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales III and Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale was used. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses were used. The results of the chi-square analysis showed that the presence of family caregivers and family visit times did not have statistically significant effects on anxiety and depression in terminally ill cancer patients. In multiple logistic regression, when adjusted for age, sex, ECOG PS, and the monthly average income, the odds ratios (ORs) of the low family adaptability to anxiety and depression were 2.4 (1.03-5.83) and 5.4 (1.10-26.87), respectively. The OR of low family cohesion for depression was 5.4 (1.10-27.20) when adjusted for age, sex, ECOG PS, and monthly average household income. A higher family adaptability resulted in a lower degree of anxiety and depression in terminally ill cancer patients. The higher the family cohesion, the lower the degree of depression in the patient. The presence of the family caregiver and the visiting time by family and friends did not affect the patient's anxiety and depression.

  12. Overexpression of Long Non-Coding RNA TUG1 Promotes Colon Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hui-Yuan; Sui, Ming-Hua; Yu, Xiao; Qu, Zhen; Hu, Jin-Chen; Sun, Hai-Qing; Zheng, Hai-Tao; Zhou, Kai; Jiang, Li-Xin

    2016-09-16

    BACKGROUND Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent and deadly cancers worldwide. It is still necessary to further define the mechanisms and explore therapeutic targets of colon cancer. Dysregulation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been shown to be correlated with diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. This study aimed to characterize the biological mechanism of taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) in colon cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression level of TUG1 and p63 in 75 colon cancer tissues and the matched adjacent non-tumor tissue. In vitro, cultured colon cancer cell lines HCT-116 and LoVo were used as cell models. TUG1 and p63 were silenced via transferring siRNA into HCT-116 or LoVo. The effects of TUG1 were investigated by examining cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. RESULTS Among the 75 colon cancer cases, the expression of TUG1 was significantly higher in colon cancer tissues compared with the matched adjacent non-tumor tissue, while p63 expression was lower in the tumor tissue. In HCT-116 and LoVo, the expression of TUG1 was significantly increased by p63 siRNA transfection. Furthermore, down-regulation of TUG1 by siRNA significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and promoted colon cancer cell apoptosis. In addition, inhibition of TUG1 expression significantly blocked the cell migration ability of colon cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS LncRNA TUG1 may serve as a potential oncogene for colon cancer. Overexpressed TUG1 may contribute to promoting cell proliferation and migration in colon cancer cells.

  13. How do Families Assess and Manage the Pain of Cancer Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titan Ligita

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain assessment and pain management for patients living with cancer performed by nurses have been improved gradually. This strategy needs the roles of both nurses and families of patients living with cancer. Prior to the application of effective pain management, it is vital to perform pain assessment. The involvement of families in patients care may assist nurses to optimize caring and thus the patients are monitored continuously. But, there is still limited study about the involvement of families in pain assessment and pain management. This study was aimed to explore how the family performed pain assessment and pain management for patients living with cancer. Method: This was a phenomenology study and also used purposive sampling methods. Participants were family members of patients living with cancer around Pontianak - Indonesia. The datas were collected through in-depth interview in order to revealed some themes/context and was analyzed through Thematic Analysis. Result: The highlighted contexts in this study were the meaning of pain, the impact of pain, the process of pain assessment and pain management carried out by the families, as well as the facilitating factors and the barriers in assessing and managing the pain. Discussion: Experiences of the families in assessing and managing the pain may provide information for nurses about how to fulfil the needs of the family on skills needed. Therefore, the consistency and continuity of pain assessment and pain management are important. Consequently, the nurses must ensure that the family are ready to take care the patients, so that the pain control can be optimal dn side effects can be avoided. The accurity of information about the patients provided by the family may determine the nurse to make decisions in providing best practice for the patients in controlling their pain. Keywords: family, assess, manage, pain, cancer patient

  14. A case of familial breast cancer with double heterozygosity for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomizu, Tadashi; Matsuzaki, Masami; Katagata, Naoto; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Sakuma, Takeshi; Monma, Tomoyuki; Saito, Motonobu; Watanabe, Fumiaki; Midorikawa, Shinichi; Yamaguchi, Yoshiko

    2015-09-01

    We report an extremely rare case of familial breast cancer with deleterious germline mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, of which, to date, no such case has been reported among Japanese breast/ovarian cancer patients. Genetic testing of the family members indicated that the same double heterozygosity for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes was transmitted to the paternal cousin, and the same BRCA2 mutation to the younger sister with bilateral breast cancer, younger brother with stomach cancer, and proband's son and daughter without cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of BRCA protein expression was performed using breast cancer tissues from the proband with double heterozygosity for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and from her sibling without BRCA1 mutation but with BRCA2 mutation. There was no staining of either BRCA in the proband and no staining of BRCA2 in the sibling.

  15. Family history of colorectal cancer is not associated with colorectal cancer survival regardless of microsatellite instability status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I.; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Campbell, Peter T.; Win, Aung Ko; Jenkins, Mark A.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Gryfe, Robert; Potter, John D.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) in first-degree relatives have an elevated risk of developing CRC themselves, particularly CRC exhibiting high microsatellite instability (MSI-high). Given that MSI-high CRC is associated with a favorable prognosis, it is plausible that having a family history of CRC could, in turn, be favorably associated with CRC survival. Methods This study comprised N=4284 incident CRC cases enrolled in the Colon Cancer Family Registry via population-based cancer registries. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we evaluated the association between family history and both overall and disease-specific survival, accounting for MSI status and tumor site via stratified analyses and statistical adjustment. Results There was no evidence of association between family history and overall [hazard ratio (HR)=0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-1.08] or disease-specific survival (HR=1.03, 95% CI: 0.85-1.24) for all cases combined, after adjustment for MSI status or tumor site. Only for rectal cancer cases was CRC family history modestly associated with more favorable overall survival (HR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.56-0.99). Conclusions Although individuals with a family history of CRC were more likely to have MSI-high tumors than those with non-familial disease, this did not translate to a survival benefit. Impact Overall, there is no evidence that family history of CRC is associated with CRC survival; however, specific mechanisms underlying family history may have prognostic impact and merit further study. PMID:24891550

  16. The impact of parental cancer on children and the family : a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A; Huizinga, GA; van der Graaf, WTA; Hoekstra, HJ; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM

    2004-01-01

    Objective. Children of cancer patients may go through a distressing time. The aim of this review was to survey present knowledge on the impact of parental cancer on children and the family. Design. Studies published between January 1980 and March 2004 addressing emotional, social, behavioural,

  17. Parental type of personality, negative affectivity and family stressful events in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Gordana; Culić, Srđana; Benko, Marta; Jakupcević, Katja Kalebić; Stepan, Jasminka; Sprajc, Mirjana

    2010-09-01

    Psychological interactions between parents,children and social environment are very important for childhood health. The type of personality and stressful events are probably also cancer risk factors. We investigated personality types A/B and D (negative affectivity and social inhibition) in parents of children with cancer (PCC), as well as social environmental factors, and family / children's stressful events before the appearance of cancer. Bortner Type A Scale for evaluating parental type A/B personality, and 14 question personality test (DS14) for parental type D personality (negative affectivity and social inhibition score) were performed. Questionnaire eligible information about stressful events and social environmental factors in children with cancer (CC) were analyzed. Analyzing 127 PCC and 136 parents of healthy children (PHC) we found no significant differences in A/B type personality and social inhibition. There was significant difference in negative affectivity. PCC had more negative affectivity than PHC. We found more stressful events before cancer appearance in the families of children with cancer (FCC) than in healthy families (FHC), and more children's stressful events in CC then in healthy ones (HC). There were more quarrels in FCC, while CC were more "easy good-mannered children" than HC. Our results support the hypothesis that stress is a cancer risk factor and the idea that impaired parental functioning may be a mechanism linking family stress with the aetiology of cancer.

  18. Types of cancers diagnosed and the preference of families of adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancer has become one of the top causes of death in developing nations killing more people than the common infectious diseases do. For several reasons, disclosing cancer diagnosis to the patient is a challenging job for physicians and family members. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was ...

  19. The influence of family history on prostate cancer risk : implications for clinical management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madersbacher, Stephan; Alcaraz, Antonio; Emberton, Mark; Hammerer, Peter; Ponholzer, Anton; Schroeder, Fritz H.; Tubaro, Andrea

    A family history of prostate cancer has long been identified as an important risk factor for developing the disease. This risk factor can be easily assessed in clinical practice and current guidelines recommend to initiate prostate cancer early detection 5 years earlier (i.e. around the age of 40

  20. Informing family members about a hereditary predisposition to cancer: attitudes and practices among clinical geneticists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stol, Y.; Menko, F.H.; Westerman, M.J.; Janssens, M.J.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    If a hereditary predisposition to colorectal cancer or breast cancer is diagnosed, most guidelines state that clinical geneticists should request index patients to inform their at-risk relatives about the existence of this condition in their family, thus enabling them to consider presymptomatic

  1. [Why and how to promote decision-making autonomy of cancer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Julien

    2018-02-01

    Involvement of patients in decision-making about their health has been promoted nationally and internationally since several years. Despite this, patient (and their relatives) participation remains insufficient and one of the objectives of the current French national cancer policy (Plan cancer 2014-2019) is to give everyone the possibility to play an active role in the management of their care. This overview focuses on decision-making autonomy of cancer patients through two main questions: why and how to promote it? After a brief review of the decision-making models described in the literature in the past decades insisting on the major role of the decisional context and the dynamic character of this context, this article presents a selection of published works which aimed to respond to those 2 questions. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of Chemokines in Promoting Colorectal Cancer Invasion/Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Itatani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Although most of the primary CRC can be removed by surgical resection, advanced tumors sometimes show recurrences in distant organs such as the liver, lung, lymph node, bone or peritoneum even after complete resection of the primary tumors. In these advanced and metastatic CRC, it is the tumor-stroma interaction in the tumor microenvironment that often promotes cancer invasion and/or metastasis through chemokine signaling. The tumor microenvironment contains numerous host cells that may suppress or promote cancer aggressiveness. Several types of host-derived myeloid cells reside in the tumor microenvironment, and the recruitment of them is under the control of chemokine signaling. In this review, we focus on the functions of chemokine signaling that may affect tumor immunity by recruiting several types of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC to the tumor microenvironment of CRC.

  3. Current nutrition promotion, beliefs and barriers among cancer nurses in Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra G. Puhringer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Many cancer patients and survivors do not meet nutritional and physical activity guidelines, thus healthier eating and greater levels of physical activity could have considerable benefits for these individuals. While research has investigated cancer survivors’ perspective on their challenges in meeting the nutrition and physical guidelines, little research has examined how health professionals may assist their patients meet these guidelines. Cancer nurses are ideally placed to promote healthy behaviours to their patients, especially if access to dieticians or dietary resources is limited. However, little is known about cancer nurses’ healthy eating promotion practices to their patients. The primary aim of this study was to examine current healthy eating promotion practices, beliefs and barriers of cancer nurses in Australia and New Zealand. A secondary aim was to gain insight into whether these practices, beliefs and barriers were influenced by the nurses’ hospital or years of work experience.Patients and Methods. An online questionnaire was used to obtain data. Sub-group cancer nurse comparisons were performed on hospital location (metropolitan vs regional and rural and years of experience (<25 or ≥25 years using ANOVA and chi square analysis for continuous and categorical data respectively.Results. A total of 123 Australasian cancer nurses responded to the survey. Cancer nurses believed they were often the major provider of nutritional advice to their cancer patients (32.5%, a value marginally less than dieticians (35.9% but substantially higher than oncologists (3.3%. The majority promoted healthy eating prior (62.6%, during (74.8% and post treatment (64.2%. Most cancer nurses felt that healthy eating had positive effects on the cancer patients’ quality of life (85.4%, weight management (82.9%, mental health (80.5%, activities of daily living (79.7% and risk of other chronic diseases (79.7%, although only 75.5% agreed or

  4. Mint3 in bone marrow-derived cells promotes lung metastasis in breast cancer model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toshiro; Murakami, Yoshinori; Seiki, Motoharu; Sakamoto, Takeharu

    2017-08-26

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women in the world. Although breast cancer is well treatable at the early stage, patients with distant metastases show a poor prognosis. Data from recent studies using transplantation models indicate that Mint3/APBA3 might promote breast cancer malignancy. However, whether Mint3 indeed contributes to tumor development, progression, or metastasis in vivo remains unclear. To address this, here we examined whether Mint3 depletion affects tumor malignancy in MMTV-PyMT breast cancer model mice. In MMTV-PyMT mice, Mint3 depletion did not affect tumor onset and tumor growth, but attenuated lung metastases. Experimental lung metastasis of breast cancer Met-1 cells derived from MMTV-PyMT mice also decreased in Mint3-depleted mice, indicating that host Mint3 expression affected lung metastasis of MMTV-PyMT-derived breast cancer cells. Further bone marrow transplant experiments revealed that Mint3 in bone marrow-derived cells promoted lung metastasis in MMTV-PyMT mice. Thus, targeting Mint3 in bone marrow-derived cells might be a good strategy for preventing metastasis and improving the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. MEK inhibitor, PD98059, promotes breast cancer cell migration by inducing β-catenin nuclear accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Ge, Chao-Chao; Wang, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Xiao; Li, Xiao-Min; Li, Wei; Wang, Sha-Sha; Liu, Tong; Hou, Jiu-Zhou; Sun, Hua; Fang, Dong; Xie, Song-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Abnormal activation of the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway has been observed in breast cancer. Thus, a number of MEK inhibitors have been designed as one treatment option for breast cancer. Although some studies have found that these MEK inhibitors inhibit the growth of a variety of human cancer cells, some trials have shown that the use of MEK inhibitors as a treatment for breast cancer does not adequately improve survival for unknown reasons. In the present study, MEK inhibitor PD98059 was used to evaluate its anticancer effects on human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and to explore the possible mechanism of action. Our results revealed that MEK inhibitor PD98059 exhibited antiproliferative effects in a dose- and time-dependent manner in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Conversely, incubation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells with PD98059 promoted their migration. Further investigation disclosed that the enhanced ability of migration promoted by PD98059 was dependent on β-catenin nuclear translocation in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB‑231 cells. Subsequent experiments documented that activation of EGFR signaling induced by PD98059 increased the amount of β-catenin in the nucleus. Taken together, our findings may elucidate a possible mechanism explaining the ineffectiveness of MEK inhibitors in breast cancer treatment and improve our understanding of the role of MEK in cancer.

  6. Interleukin-18 gene promoter and serum level in women with ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsami Dehaghani, Alamtaj; Shahriary, Khatere; Kashef, Mohammad Amin; Naeimi, Sirous; Fattahi, Mohammad Javad; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2009-11-01

    IL-18, initially defined as a potent inducer of IFN- gamma production, is a systemic, multifunctional cytokine with both pro-cancerous and anti-cancer activities. The contribution of the IL-18 promoter polymorphisms at positions -607 (C/A) and -137 (G/C) to cancer development has been reported. We sought to examine IL-18 serum level and its polymorphisms in Iranian women with ovarian cancer. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at positions -607 (C/A) and -137 (G/C) were analyzed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction in 85 women with ovarian cancer and 158 healthy controls. IL-18 serum level was determined using ELISA method. No significant association was found between the allele, genotype, and haplotype distributions of the SNPs and ovarian cancer. Mean IL-18 serum level was significantly higher in patients than in controls (P = 0.008). Comparing IL-18 serum levels with genotypes at positions -607 and -137 revealed no significant difference. No association was also found between IL-18 levels and the disease stage. In conclusion, our results indicate that IL-18 promoter polymorphisms at positions -607 (C/A) and -137 (G/C) appear not to confer susceptibility to ovarian cancer in Iranian population; however, IL-18 serum level increases in ovarian cancer patients.

  7. CHIP promotes thyroid cancer proliferation via activation of the MAPK and AKT pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacy, Urumchi General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, Urumchi, Xinjiang 830000 (China); Liu, Lianyong [Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Punan Hospital, Shanghai 200125 (China); He, Xiaohua; Shen, Yunling; Liu, Xuerong; Wei, Jing; Yu, Fang [Department of Endocrinology, Urumchi General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, Urumchi, Xinjiang 830000 (China); Tian, Jianqing, E-mail: jianqing0991@163.com [Department of Endocrinology, Urumchi General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, Urumchi, Xinjiang 830000 (China)

    2016-08-26

    The carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a U box-type ubiquitin ligase that plays crucial roles in various biological processes, including tumor progression. To date, the functional mechanism of CHIP in thyroid cancer remains unknown. Here, we obtained evidence of upregulation of CHIP in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. CHIP overexpression markedly enhanced thyroid cancer cell viability and colony formation in vitro and accelerated tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, CHIP knockdown impaired cell proliferation and tumor growth. Notably, CHIP promoted cell growth through activation of MAPK and AKT pathways, subsequently decreasing p27 and increasing cyclin D1 and p-FOXO3a expression. Our findings collectively indicate that CHIP functions as an oncogene in thyroid cancer, and is therefore a potential therapeutic target for this disease. - Highlights: • CHIP is significantly upregulated in thyroid cancer cells. • Overexpression of CHIP facilitates proliferation and tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer cells. • Silencing of CHIP inhibits the proliferation and tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer cells. • CHIP promotes thyroid cancer cell proliferation via activating the MAPK and AKT pathways.

  8. The Association Between MGMT Promoter Methylation and Patients with Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaolong; Xu, Jifei; Fang, Weiyang; Zhao, Zhenfeng; Wang, Fan; Tong, Zhuting

    2017-04-01

    Several previous studies have suggested that MGMT promoter methylation is significantly associated with gastric cancer, but the results were not consistent. Hence, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis to explore the potential correlation of MGMT promoter methylation with gastric cancer and its clinicopathologic characteristics. Searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) literature databases were conducted to identify relevant studies published in English or Chinese before July 1, 2016. The meta-analysis was performed using Stata 12.0 software. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the association between MGMT promoter methylation and gastric cancer. We also conducted a subgroup analysis and metaregression to explore sources of heterogeneity. We identified 12 articles that met the inclusion criteria. The 12 articles described 14 studies that included 1571 tumor tissues and 1243 controls. The meta-analysis results demonstrated that the frequency of MGMT promoter methylation was higher in gastric cancer tissues compared with adjacent tissues and normal tissues (OR = 4.06, 95% CI: 2.55-6.46, p MGMT promoter methylation and clinicopathological characteristics indicated that MGMT promoter hypermethylation was significantly associated with tumor-node-metastasis stage, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.18-3.75, p = 0.011; OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.47-2.68, p MGMT promoter methylation could play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis and may serve as an important biomarker for gastric cancer progression.

  9. Early detection of breast and ovarian cancer in families with BRCA mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, HFA; Tesfay, E; Mourits, MJE; Rutgers, E; Verheyen, R; Oosterwijk, J; Beex, L; Boonstra, J.

    Women at risk of breast and ovarian cancer due to a genetic predisposition may opt for preventive surgery or surveillance. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of surveillance in families with a BRCA mutation. Sixty-eight BRCA-families underwent surveillance using annual

  10. Family functioning and adolescents' emotional and behavioral problems : when a parent has cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Hoekstra, H.J.; van der Graaf, W.T.A.; van de Wiel, H.B.; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, G.A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This article focuses on possible relationships between functioning of adolescents with a parent diagnosed with cancer 1-5 years earlier and family environment. Patients and methods: In all, 138 patients, 114 spouses and 221 adolescents completed the Family Environment Scale.

  11. Cross-Ethnicity Measurement Equivalence of Family Coping for Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-won; Townsend, Aloen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examines the equivalence of a measure of family coping, the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation scales (F-COPES), in Chinese American and Korean American breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods: Factor structure and cross-ethnicity equivalence of the F-COPES were tested using structural equation modeling with 157…

  12. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients

  13. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients.

  14. Family members' perceptions of cancer pain. Comparisons with patient sensory report and by patient psychologic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, J L; Wilkie, D J

    1995-12-01

    This study was the first to compare patient and family member perceptions of sensory pain and to describe the relationships between these perceptions and psychological factors in patients with lung cancer and pain. Our findings indicate that family members understand the patient's pain location about 75% of the time; however, family members rarely understand the patient's pain intensity, pain quality, or pain pattern. Our findings also indicate that family members tend to overestimate strategies used by patients to cope with pain, especially in patients with low levels of anxiety and in patients with an internal locus of control. Although findings from this study differ from some previous studies, our study provides additional data to suggest that discrepancies may exist between family member and patient perceptions of the cancer pain experience. Nurses need to be aware of potential discrepancies and to combine assessment information from both patients and family members when developing pain management interventions.

  15. MGMT promoter methylation status in brain metastases from colorectal cancer and corresponding primary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maglio, Giovanna; Casagrande, Mariaelena; Guardascione, Michela; Fontanella, Caterina; Lutrino, Stefania Eufemia; Rihawi, Karim; Pisa, Federica Edith; Tuniz, Francesco; Fasola, Gianpiero; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Aprile, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases (BM) from colorectal cancer are usually associated with poor prognosis. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate MGMT promoter methylation in BM and their corresponding primary colorectal cancer tumors. MGMT promoter methylation status was assessed by pyrosequencing in 53 consecutive patients resected for BM. A concordance analysis between BM and matched primary tumor was performed in 39 cases. MGMT methylation was found in 34 (64.2%) BM and in 25 corresponding primary tumors (64.1%). Median survival after neurosurgery was independent from MGMT promoter methylation (163 days for those with methylated MGMT versus 193 days for the unmethylated). Epigenetic MGMT promoter methylation was common and the concordance between primary and secondary lesions was high.

  16. Revealing a cancer diagnosis to patients: attitudes of patients, families, friends, nurses, and physicians in Lebanon—results of a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, F.; Othman, A.; el Baba, G.; Kattan, J.

    2015-01-01

    approach. Physicians also prefer to communicate the reality of the disease at the time of diagnosis, but in actuality, they instead disclose it progressively during treatment. Faith is helpful for acceptance of the diagnosis, and families play a key role in the support of the patients. An open discussion involving all members of society is necessary to attain a better understanding of this issue and to promote timely disclosure of a cancer diagnosis. PMID:26300677

  17. Revealing a cancer diagnosis to patients: attitudes of patients, families, friends, nurses, and physicians in Lebanon-results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, F; Othman, A; El Baba, G; Kattan, J

    2015-08-01

    communicate the reality of the disease at the time of diagnosis, but in actuality, they instead disclose it progressively during treatment. Faith is helpful for acceptance of the diagnosis, and families play a key role in the support of the patients. An open discussion involving all members of society is necessary to attain a better understanding of this issue and to promote timely disclosure of a cancer diagnosis.

  18. Seminal Plasma Proteins as Androgen Receptor Coregulators Promote Prostate Cancer Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    the presence of zinc was found to induce androgen-mediated PSA expression in AR-positive prostate cancer cells. Reportable Outcomes Ishiguro ...prostatectomy. Hum Pathol 43: 6 1991–2000, 2012. Appendix Ishiguro H, Izumi K, Zheng Y, Kashiwagi E, Kawahara T, Miyamoto H: Semenogelin I promotes...PROSTATE CANCER CELL GROWTH VIA FUNCTIONING AS AN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR COACTIVATOR AND PROTECTING AGAINST ZINC CYTOTOXICITY Hitoshi Ishiguro *, Baltimore

  19. Lysophosphatidic Acid Up-Regulates Hexokinase II and Glycolysis to Promote Proliferation of Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Abir; Ma, Yibao; Yuan, Fang; Gong, Yongling; Fang, Zhenyu; Mohamed, Esraa M; Berrios, Erika; Shao, Huanjie; Fang, Xianjun

    2015-09-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a blood-borne lipid mediator, is present in elevated concentrations in ascites of ovarian cancer patients and other malignant effusions. LPA is a potent mitogen in cancer cells. The mechanism linking LPA signal to cancer cell proliferation is not well understood. Little is known about whether LPA affects glucose metabolism to accommodate rapid proliferation of cancer cells. Here we describe that in ovarian cancer cells, LPA enhances glycolytic rate and lactate efflux. A real time PCR-based miniarray showed that hexokinase II (HK2) was the most dramatically induced glycolytic gene to promote glycolysis in LPA-treated cells. Analysis of the human HK2 gene promoter identified the sterol regulatory element-binding protein as the primary mediator of LPA-induced HK2 transcription. The effects of LPA on HK2 and glycolysis rely on LPA2, an LPA receptor subtype overexpressed in ovarian cancer and many other malignancies. We further examined the general role of growth factor-induced glycolysis in cell proliferation. Like LPA, epidermal growth factor (EGF) elicited robust glycolytic and proliferative responses in ovarian cancer cells. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin, however, potently stimulated cell proliferation but only modestly induced glycolysis. Consistent with their differential effects on glycolysis, LPA and EGF-dependent cell proliferation was highly sensitive to glycolytic inhibition while the growth-promoting effect of IGF-1 or insulin was more resistant. These results indicate that LPA- and EGF-induced cell proliferation selectively involves up-regulation of HK2 and glycolytic metabolism. The work is the first to implicate LPA signaling in promotion of glucose metabolism in cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Five recurrent BRCA1/2 mutations are responsible for cancer predisposition in the majority of Slovenian breast cancer families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novakovic Srdjan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both recurrent and population specific mutations have been found in different areas of the world and more specifically in ethnically defined or isolated populations. The population of Slovenia has over several centuries undergone limited mixing with surrounding populations. The current study was aimed at establishing the mutation spectrum of BRCA1/2 in the Slovenian breast/ovarian cancer families taking advantage of a complete cancer registration database. A second objective was to determine the cancer phenotype of these families. Methods The original population database was composed of cancer patients from the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana in Slovenia which also includes current follow-up status on these patients. The inclusion criteria for the BRCA1/2 screening were: (i probands with at least two first degree relatives with breast and ovarian cancer; (ii probands with only two first degree relatives of breast cancer where one must be diagnosed less than 50 years of age; and (iii individual patients with breast and ovarian cancer, bilateral breast cancer, breast cancer diagnosed before the age of 40 and male breast cancer without any other cancer in the family. Results Probands from 150 different families met the inclusion criteria for mutation analysis of which 145 consented to testing. A BRCA1/2 mutation was found in 56 (39%. Two novel large deletions covering consecutive exons of BRCA1 were found. Five highly recurrent specific mutations were identified (1806C>T, 300T>G, 300T>A, 5382insC in the BRCA1 gene and IVS16-2A>G in the BRCA2 gene. The IVS16-2A>G in the BRCA2 gene appears to be a unique founder mutation in the Slovenian population. A practical implication is that only 4 PCR fragments can be used in a first screen and reveal the cancer predisposing mutation in 67% of the BRCA1/2 positive families. We also observed an exceptionally high frequency of 4 different pathogenic missense mutations, all affecting one of

  1. Promoter de-methylation of cyclin D2 by sulforaphane in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Anna; Wong, Carmen P; Yu, Zhen; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H; Ho, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, induces potent anti-proliferative effects in prostate cancer cells. One mechanism that may contribute to the anti-proliferative effects of SFN is the modulation of epigenetic marks, such as inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes. However, the effects of SFN on other common epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation are understudied. Promoter hyper-methylation of cyclin D2, a major regulator of cell cycle, is correlated with prostate cancer progression, and restoration of cyclin D2 expression exerts anti-proliferative effects on LnCap prostate cancer cells. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of SFN on DNA methylation status of cyclin D2 promoter, and how alteration in promoter methylation impacts cyclin D2 gene expression in LnCap cells. We found that SFN significantly decreased the expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), especially DNMT1 and DNMT3b. Furthermore, SFN significantly decreased methylation in cyclin D2 promoter regions containing c-Myc and multiple Sp1 binding sites. Reduced methlyation of cyclin D2 promoter corresponded to an increase in cyclin D2 transcript levels, suggesting that SFN may de-repress methylation-silenced cyclin D2 by impacting epigenetic pathways. Our results demonstrated the ability of SFN to epigenetically modulate cyclin D2 expression, and provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which SFN may regulate gene expression as a prostate cancer chemopreventive agent.

  2. Promoter de-methylation of cyclin D2 by sulforaphane in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Anna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, induces potent anti-proliferative effects in prostate cancer cells. One mechanism that may contribute to the anti-proliferative effects of SFN is the modulation of epigenetic marks, such as inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC enzymes. However, the effects of SFN on other common epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation are understudied. Promoter hyper-methylation of cyclin D2, a major regulator of cell cycle, is correlated with prostate cancer progression, and restoration of cyclin D2 expression exerts anti-proliferative effects on LnCap prostate cancer cells. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of SFN on DNA methylation status of cyclin D2 promoter, and how alteration in promoter methylation impacts cyclin D2 gene expression in LnCap cells. We found that SFN significantly decreased the expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs, especially DNMT1 and DNMT3b. Furthermore, SFN significantly decreased methylation in cyclin D2 promoter regions containing c-Myc and multiple Sp1 binding sites. Reduced methlyation of cyclin D2 promoter corresponded to an increase in cyclin D2 transcript levels, suggesting that SFN may de-repress methylation-silenced cyclin D2 by impacting epigenetic pathways. Our results demonstrated the ability of SFN to epigenetically modulate cyclin D2 expression, and provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which SFN may regulate gene expression as a prostate cancer chemopreventive agent.

  3. Variations in the NBN/NBS1 gene and the risk of breast cancer in non-BRCA1/2 French Canadian families with high risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desjardins Sylvie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome is a chromosomal instability disorder characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and increased frequency of cancers. Familial studies on relatives of these patients indicated that they also appear to be at increased risk of cancer. Methods In a candidate gene study aiming at identifying genetic determinants of breast cancer susceptibility, we undertook the full sequencing of the NBN gene in our cohort of 97 high-risk non-BRCA1 and -BRCA2 breast cancer families, along with 74 healthy unrelated controls, also from the French Canadian population. In silico programs (ESEfinder, NNSplice, Splice Site Finder and MatInspector were used to assess the putative impact of the variants identified. The effect of the promoter variant was further studied by luciferase gene reporter assay in MCF-7, HEK293, HeLa and LNCaP cell lines. Results Twenty-four variants were identified in our case series and their frequency was further evaluated in healthy controls. The potentially deleterious p.Ile171Val variant was observed in one case only. The p.Arg215Trp variant, suggested to impair NBN binding to histone γ-H2AX, was observed in one breast cancer case and one healthy control. A promoter variant c.-242-110delAGTA displayed a significant variation in frequency between both sample sets. Luciferase reporter gene assay of the promoter construct bearing this variant did not suggest a variation of expression in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, but indicated a reduction of luciferase expression in both the HEK293 and LNCaP cell lines. Conclusion Our analysis of NBN sequence variations indicated that potential NBN alterations are present, albeit at a low frequency, in our cohort of high-risk breast cancer cases. Further analyses will be needed to fully ascertain the exact impact of those variants on breast cancer susceptibility, in particular for variants located in NBN promoter region.

  4. Variations in the NBN/NBS1 gene and the risk of breast cancer in non-BRCA1/2 French Canadian families with high risk of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjardins, Sylvie; Beauparlant, Joly Charles; Labrie, Yvan; Ouellette, Geneviève; INHERIT BRCAs; Durocher, Francine

    2009-01-01

    The Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome is a chromosomal instability disorder characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and increased frequency of cancers. Familial studies on relatives of these patients indicated that they also appear to be at increased risk of cancer. In a candidate gene study aiming at identifying genetic determinants of breast cancer susceptibility, we undertook the full sequencing of the NBN gene in our cohort of 97 high-risk non-BRCA1 and -BRCA2 breast cancer families, along with 74 healthy unrelated controls, also from the French Canadian population. In silico programs (ESEfinder, NNSplice, Splice Site Finder and MatInspector) were used to assess the putative impact of the variants identified. The effect of the promoter variant was further studied by luciferase gene reporter assay in MCF-7, HEK293, HeLa and LNCaP cell lines. Twenty-four variants were identified in our case series and their frequency was further evaluated in healthy controls. The potentially deleterious p.Ile171Val variant was observed in one case only. The p.Arg215Trp variant, suggested to impair NBN binding to histone γ-H2AX, was observed in one breast cancer case and one healthy control. A promoter variant c.-242-110delAGTA displayed a significant variation in frequency between both sample sets. Luciferase reporter gene assay of the promoter construct bearing this variant did not suggest a variation of expression in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, but indicated a reduction of luciferase expression in both the HEK293 and LNCaP cell lines. Our analysis of NBN sequence variations indicated that potential NBN alterations are present, albeit at a low frequency, in our cohort of high-risk breast cancer cases. Further analyses will be needed to fully ascertain the exact impact of those variants on breast cancer susceptibility, in particular for variants located in NBN promoter region

  5. Nationwide Registry-Based Analysis of Cancer Clustering Detects Strong Familial Occurrence of Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahteristo, Pia; Patama, Toni; Li, Yilong; Saarinen, Silva; Kilpivaara, Outi; Pitkänen, Esa; Knekt, Paul; Laaksonen, Maarit; Artama, Miia; Lehtonen, Rainer; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Pukkala, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Many cancer predisposition syndromes are rare or have incomplete penetrance, and traditional epidemiological tools are not well suited for their detection. Here we have used an approach that employs the entire population based data in the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR) for analyzing familial aggregation of all types of cancer, in order to find evidence for previously unrecognized cancer susceptibility conditions. We performed a systematic clustering of 878,593 patients in FCR based on family name at birth, municipality of birth, and tumor type, diagnosed between years 1952 and 2011. We also estimated the familial occurrence of the tumor types using cluster score that reflects the proportion of patients belonging to the most significant clusters compared to all patients in Finland. The clustering effort identified 25,910 birth name-municipality based clusters representing 183 different tumor types characterized by topography and morphology. We produced information about familial occurrence of hundreds of tumor types, and many of the tumor types with high cluster score represented known cancer syndromes. Unexpectedly, Kaposi sarcoma (KS) also produced a very high score (cluster score 1.91, p-value <0.0001). We verified from population records that many of the KS patients forming the clusters were indeed close relatives, and identified one family with five affected individuals in two generations and several families with two first degree relatives. Our approach is unique in enabling systematic examination of a national epidemiological database to derive evidence of aberrant familial aggregation of all tumor types, both common and rare. It allowed effortless identification of families displaying features of both known as well as potentially novel cancer predisposition conditions, including striking familial aggregation of KS. Further work with high-throughput methods should elucidate the molecular basis of the potentially novel predisposition conditions found in this

  6. Stanniocalcin 2 promotes cell proliferation and cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuxia; Gao, Ying; Cheng, Hairong; Yang, Guichun [Department of Gynecology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150081 (China); Tan, Wenhua, E-mail: tanwenhua1962@163.com [Department of Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150086 (China)

    2015-10-23

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common carcinomas in the female reproductive system. Treatment of cervical cancer involves surgical removal and chemotherapy. Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy drugs including cisplatin has increasingly become an important problem in the treatment of cervical cancer patients. We found in this study that stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) expression was upregulated in both cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. The levels of STC2 expression in cervical cancer cell lines were positively correlated with the rate of cell proliferation. Furthermore, in cisplatin resistant cervical cancer cells, the levels of STC2 expression were significantly elevated. Modulation of STC2 expression by siRNA or overexpression in cisplatin resistant cells resulted in altered cell survival, apoptosis, and cisplatin resistance. Finally, we found that there was significant difference in the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway between cisplatin sensitive and resistant cervical cancer cells, and that STC2 could regulate the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway. - Highlights: • STC2 was upregulated in cervical cancer and promoted cervical cancer cell proliferation. • Cisplatin resistant cells had elevated STC2 levels and enhanced proliferation. • STC2 regulated cisplatin chemosensitivity in cervical cancer cells. • STC2 regulated the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway.

  7. Stanniocalcin 2 promotes cell proliferation and cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuxia; Gao, Ying; Cheng, Hairong; Yang, Guichun; Tan, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common carcinomas in the female reproductive system. Treatment of cervical cancer involves surgical removal and chemotherapy. Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy drugs including cisplatin has increasingly become an important problem in the treatment of cervical cancer patients. We found in this study that stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) expression was upregulated in both cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. The levels of STC2 expression in cervical cancer cell lines were positively correlated with the rate of cell proliferation. Furthermore, in cisplatin resistant cervical cancer cells, the levels of STC2 expression were significantly elevated. Modulation of STC2 expression by siRNA or overexpression in cisplatin resistant cells resulted in altered cell survival, apoptosis, and cisplatin resistance. Finally, we found that there was significant difference in the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway between cisplatin sensitive and resistant cervical cancer cells, and that STC2 could regulate the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway. - Highlights: • STC2 was upregulated in cervical cancer and promoted cervical cancer cell proliferation. • Cisplatin resistant cells had elevated STC2 levels and enhanced proliferation. • STC2 regulated cisplatin chemosensitivity in cervical cancer cells. • STC2 regulated the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway.

  8. Copy-number variants in patients with a strong family history of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucito, Robert; Suresh, Shubha; Walter, Kimberly; Pandey, Akhilesh; Lakshmi, B; Krasnitz, Alex; Sebat, Jonathan; Wigler, Michael; Klein, Alison P; Brune, Kieran; Palmisano, Emily; Maitra, Anirban; Goggins, Michael; Hruban, Ralph H

    2007-10-01

    Copy-number variants such as germ-line deletions and amplifications are associated with inherited genetic disorders including familial cancer. The gene or genes responsible for the majority of familial clustering of pancreatic cancer have not been identified. We used representational oligonucleotide microarray analysis (ROMA) to characterize germ-line copy number variants in 60 cancer patients from 57 familial pancreatic cancer kindreds. Fifty-seven of the 60 patients had pancreatic cancer and three had nonpancreatic cancers (breast, ovary, ovary). A familial pancreatic cancer kindred was defined as a kindred in which at least two first-degree relatives have been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Copy-number variants identified in 607 individuals without pancreatic cancer were excluded from further analysis. A total of 56 unique genomic regions with copy-number variants not present in controls were identified, including 31 amplifications and 25 deletions. Two deleted regions were observed in two different patients, and one in three patients. The germ-line amplifications had a mean size of 662 Kb, a median size of 379 Kb (range 8.2 Kb to 2.5 Mb) and included 425 known genes. Examples of genes included in the germ-line amplifications include the MAFK, JunD and BIRC6 genes. The germ-line deletions had a mean size of 375Kb, a median size 151 Kb (range 0.4 Kb to 2.3 Mb) and included 81 known genes. In multivariate analysis controlling for region size, deletions were 90% less likely to involve a gene than were duplications (p time PCR, including a germ-line amplification on chromosome 19. These genetic copy-number variants define potential candidate loci for the familial pancreatic cancer gene.

  9. Measuring family needs of people living with cancer. Portuguese validation and descriptive studies of the Family Inventory of Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areia, Neide P; Major, Sofia; Relvas, Ana P

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Portuguese version of the Family Inventory of Needs (FIN). The FIN aims to measure important family needs and their fulfilment by a healthcare team. This cross-sectional study involved a sample of 364 family members of cancer patients, recruited from three medical institutions and through online recruitment. Three instruments were used: a socio-demographic questionnaire, the FIN and the Brief Symptom Inventory - 18 (BSI-18). Construct validity and reliability were considered regarding the FIN's psychometric properties. The method used to determine construct validity was factor structure analysis (confirmatory factor analysis), inter-factor correlations (Spearman's rank correlation) and convergent validity (Spearman's rank correlation). To assess scale reliability, the FIN's internal consistency was evaluated (Cronbach's alpha coefficient). Descriptive and frequency statistics and tests to compare means were used to assess important needs and to what extent they were met. The four-factor structure of the FIN was confirmed. Thus, the FIN has four domains: Basic Information, Information on treatment and care, Support and Patient Comfort. Convergent validity with the BSI-18 was verified. Both subscales of the FIN and each domain exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.70. Family members also reported important needs that were not adequately met by healthcare professionals. The Portuguese version of the FIN seems to be a reliable and valid tool for identifying cancer patients' important family needs and to what extent these are met. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Coping with colorectal cancer: a qualitative exploration with patients and their family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiedu, Gladys B; Eustace, Rosemary W; Eton, David T; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen

    2014-10-01

    Extensive family coping research has been conducted among breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma with lesser emphasis on the coping experiences of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and their family members. To examine ways in which patients and their family members cope with the diagnosis of CRC. A total of 73 participants (21 patients, 52 family members) from 23 families described their experiences during and after a CRC diagnosis, including their coping experiences with the diagnosis. Data from semi-structured interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed utilizing content analysis with inductive coding methods. Eight major themes were identified: positive reframing, holding on to a sense of normalcy, religion and spirituality, joining a group, creating awareness of CRC, lifestyle change, seeking information and alternative treatments. Maintaining an emotional sense of normalcy through positive thinking, engaging in activities to take one's mind off the diagnosis and believing that there is a higher authority which has control over the diagnosis and life were vital for the patients and their family members. Patients and family members used similar coping strategies. Findings from this study have implications for understanding how families blend emotion-based and problem-focused coping strategies in the face of a CRC diagnosis. Further developing evidence-based interventions that target coping and well-being in cancer patients and extending them to family members is necessary and holds great promise for providers who care for patients with familial cancers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The majority of 22 Dutch high-risk breast cancer families are due to either BRCA1 or BRCA2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, T.; Cornelis, R. S.; van Vliet, M.; Petrij-Bosch, A.; Cleton-Jansen, A. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Klijn, J. G.; Vasen, H. F.; Cornelisse, C. J.; Devilee, P.

    1996-01-01

    We have analyzed, by a combination of mutation and linkage analysis, the genetic basis of 22 breast cancer families in which at least 4 cases of either breast cancer diagnosed under the age of 60 or ovarian cancer had occurred. Chain-terminating mutations in BRCA1 were evidenced in 6 families, and

  12. Breaking Bad News: Patient Preferences and the Role of Family Members when Delivering a Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Abha; Ekstrand, Maria; Heylen, Elsa; Raju, Girish; Shet, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Western physicians tend to favour complete disclosure of a cancer diagnosis to the patient, while non-Western physicians tend to limit disclosure and include families in the process; the latter approach is prevalent in clinical oncology practice in India. Few studies, however, have examined patient preferences with respect to disclosure or the role of family members in the process. Structured interviews were conducted with patients (N=127) in the medical oncology clinic of a tertiary referral hospital in Bangalore, India. Patients ranged in age from 18-88 (M=52) and were mostly male (59%). Most patients (72%) wanted disclosure of the diagnosis cancer, a preference significantly associated with higher education and English proficiency. A majority wanted their families to be involved in the process. Patients who had wanted and not wanted disclosure differed with respect to their preferences regarding the particulars of disclosure (timing, approach, individuals involved, role of family members). Almost all patients wanted more information concerning their condition, about immediate medical issues such as treatments or side effects, rather than long-term or non-medical issues. While most cancer patients wanted disclosure of their disease, a smaller group wished that their cancer diagnosis had not been disclosed to them. Regardless of this difference in desire for disclosure, both groups sought similar specific information regarding their cancer and largely favoured involvement of close family in decision making. Additional studies evaluating the influence of factors such as disease stage or family relationships could help guide physicians when breaking bad news.

  13. Family history of cancer in benign brain tumor subtypes versus gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn eOstrom

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Family history is associated with gliomas, but this association has not ben established for benign brain tumors. Using information from newly diagnosed primary brain tumor patients, we describe patterns of family cancer histories in patients with benign brain tumors and compare those to patients with gliomas. Methods: Newly diagnosed primary brain tumor patients were identified as part of the Ohio Brain Tumor Study (OBTS. Each patient was asked to participate in a telephone interview about personal medical history, family history of cancer, and other exposures. Information was available from 33 acoustic neuroma (65%, 78 meningioma (65%, 49 pituitary adenoma (73.1% and 152 glioma patients (58.2%. The association between family history of cancer and each subtype was compared with gliomas using unconditional logistic regression models generating odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results: There was no significant difference in family history of cancer between patients with glioma and benign subtypes. Conclusions: The results suggest that benign brain tumor may have an association with family history of cancer. More studies are warranted to disentangle the potential genetic and/or environmental causes for these diseases.

  14. Family History of Cancer in Benign Brain Tumor Subtypes Versus Gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrom, Quinn T.; McCulloh, Christopher; Chen, Yanwen; Devine, Karen; Wolinsky, Yingli

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Family history is associated with gliomas, but this association has not been established for benign brain tumors. Using information from newly diagnosed primary brain tumor patients, we describe patterns of family cancer histories in patients with benign brain tumors and compare those to patients with gliomas. Methods: Newly diagnosed primary brain tumor patients were identified as part of the Ohio Brain Tumor Study. Each patient was asked to participate in a telephone interview about personal medical history, family history of cancer, and other exposures. Information was available from 33 acoustic neuroma (65%), 78 meningioma (65%), 49 pituitary adenoma (73.1%), and 152 glioma patients (58.2%). The association between family history of cancer and each subtype was compared with gliomas using unconditional logistic regression models generating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. Results: There was no significant difference in family history of cancer between patients with glioma and benign subtypes. Conclusion: The results suggest that benign brain tumor may have an association with family history of cancer. More studies are warranted to disentangle the potential genetic and/or environmental causes for these diseases.

  15. Association between RASSF1A promoter methylation and prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincheng Pan

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa remains as one of the most common cause of cancer related death among men in the US. The widely used prostate specific antigen (PSA screening is limited by low specificity. The diagnostic value of other biomarkers such as RAS association domain family protein 1 A (RASSF1A promoter methylation in prostate cancer and the relationship between RASSF1A methylation and pathological features or tumor stage remains to be established. Therefore, a meta-analysis of published studies was performed to understand the association between RASSF1A methylation and prostate cancer. In total, 16 studies involving 1431 cases and 565 controls were pooled with a random effect model in this investigation. The odds ratio (OR of RASSF1A methylation in PCa case, compared to controls, was 14.73 with 95% CI = 7.58-28.61. Stratified analyses consistently showed a similar risk across different sample types and, methylation detection methods. In addition, RASSF1A methylation was associated with high Gleason score OR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.56-3.53. Furthermore, the pooled specificity for all included studies was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.72-0.94, and the pooled sensitivity was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.55-0.89. The specificity in each subgroup stratified by sample type remained above 0.84 and the sensitivity also remained above 0.60. These results suggested that RASSF1A promoter methylation would be a potential biomarker in PCa diagnosis and therapy.

  16. Risk of second breast cancer according to estrogen receptor status and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchardy, Christine; Benhamou, Simone; Fioretta, Gérald; Verkooijen, Helena M; Chappuis, Pierre O; Neyroud-Caspar, Isabelle; Castiglione, Monica; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Vlastos, Georges; Rapiti, Elisabetta

    2011-05-01

    A recent study reported an increased risk of contralateral estrogen-negative breast cancer after a first primary estrogen-negative breast cancer. Our study aims to confirm this result and to evaluate how the risk of second breast cancer occurrence is affected by family history of breast cancer and anti-estrogen treatment. We included all 4,152 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 2007, using data from the population-based Geneva Cancer Registry. We compared the incidence of second breast cancer among patients according to estrogen receptor (ER) status with that expected in the general population by age-period Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs). Among the cohort, 63 women developed second breast cancer. Patients with ER-positive first tumors had a decreased risk of second breast cancer occurrence (SIR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.48-0.90), whereas patients with ER-negative primary tumors had an increased risk (SIR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.19-3.09) limited to ER-negative second tumors (SIR: 7.94, 95% CI: 3.81-14.60). Patients with positive family history had a tenfold (SIR: 9.74, 95% CI: 3.57-21.12) higher risk of ER-negative second tumor which increased to nearly 50-fold (SIR: 46.18, 95% CI: 12.58-118.22) when the first tumor was ER-negative. Treatment with anti-estrogen decreased the risk of second ER-positive tumors but not ER-negative tumors. The risk of second ER-negative breast cancer is very high after a first ER-negative tumor, in particular among women with strong family history. Surveillance and prevention of second cancer occurrence should consider both ER status of the first tumor and family history.

  17. Considerations for comprehensive assessment of genetic predisposition in familial breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Henry; Synder, Carrie; Wang, San Ming

    2015-01-01

    About 10-15% of breast cancer cases are family related, classified as familial breast cancer. The disease was first reported in 1866 and determined to be an autosomal dominant genetic disease in 1971. Germline mutations in BRCA1 were discovered and deemed as the first genetic predisposition for the disease in 1994. By now, genetic predispositions for about 40% of familial breast cancer families have been identified. New molecular genetic approaches currently under development should accelerate the process to identify the full spectrum of genetic predispositions for the disease, thereby enabling a better understanding of the genetic basis of the disease and therein providing benefit to high-risk patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Oregon Model of Behavior Family Therapy: From Intervention Design to Promoting Large-Scale System Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas; Forgatch, Marion; Chamberlain, Patricia; Pelham, William E

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of the Oregon model of family behavior therapy over the past four decades. Inspired by basic research on family interaction and innovation in behavior change theory, a set of intervention strategies were developed that were effective for reducing multiple forms of problem behavior in children (e.g., Patterson, Chamberlain, & Reid, 1982). Over the ensuing decades, the behavior family therapy principles were applied and adapted to promote children's adjustment to address family formation and adaptation (Family Check-Up model), family disruption and maladaptation (Parent Management Training-Oregon model), and family attenuation and dissolution (Treatment Foster Care-Oregon model). We provide a brief overview of each intervention model and summarize randomized trials of intervention effectiveness. We review evidence on the viability of effective implementation, as well as barriers and solutions to adopting these evidence-based practices. We conclude by proposing an integrated family support system for the three models applied to the goal of reducing the prevalence of severe problem behavior, addiction, and mental problems for children and families, as well as reducing the need for costly and largely ineffective residential placements. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Tumor Tension Induces Persistent Inflammation and Promotes Breast Cancer Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    HLNL and DHLNL (Suppl. Figure 2). These data not only demonstrated a direct positive relationship between changes in stromal Lox expression, collagen...Force Microscopy (AFM). (Months 11-15 for Task 1B and 15-19 for Task 1C) Task 1G. Immunofluorescence analyses will be done using marker for...role for STAT3 activity in tumor-initiating cells (TICs) is well-known in mouse models of breast cancer; and 3) we have evidence that there is a direct

  20. Good Health, Strong Families, and Positive Early Learning Experiences: Promoting Better Public Policies for America's Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, J. Ronald; Lurie-Hurvitz, Erica; Cohen, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The ZERO TO THREE Policy Center has three areas of focus: good health, strong families, and positive early learning experiences. Effective policies must promote healthy functioning in all domains, including cognitive, physical, and social and emotional development. Comprehensive services are essential to meeting the needs of very young children…

  1. Stigmatization and Promotive Factors in Relation to Psychological Health and Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Planned Lesbian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, Loes; Gartrell, Nanette N.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether stigmatization was associated with psychological adjustment in adolescents from planned lesbian families and, if so, to examine whether individual and interpersonal promotive factors influenced this association. Seventy-eight adolescents (39 girls, 39 boys; mean age = 17.05 years) completed an…

  2. Effects of Healthy Families New York on the Promotion of Maternal Parenting Competencies and the Prevention of Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M. L.; Dumont, K.; Mitchell-Herzfeld, S. D.; Walden, N. J.; Greene, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the effectiveness of the Healthy Families New York (HFNY) home visiting program in promoting parenting competencies and preventing maladaptive parenting behaviors in mothers at risk for child abuse and neglect. Methods: The study used microlevel observational assessments of mother-child interactions in the third…

  3. Promoting Gynecologic Cancer Awareness at a Critical Juncture—Where Women and Providers Meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Rodriguez, Juan; Hawkins, Nikki A

    2015-01-01

    Given the absence of effective population-based screening tests for ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar cancers, early detection can depend on women and health care providers recognizing the potential significance of symptoms. In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Inside Knowledge campaign began distributing consumer education materials promoting awareness of gynecologic cancer symptoms. We investigated providers’ in-office use of CDC gynecologic cancer materials and their recognition of the symptoms highlighted in the materials. We analyzed data from a national 2012 survey of US primary care physicians, nurse practitioners, and gynecologists (N = 1,380). Less than a quarter of providers (19.4 %) reported using CDC gynecologic cancer education materials in their offices. The provider characteristics associated with the use of CDC materials were not consistent across specialties. However, recognition of symptoms associated with gynecologic cancers was consistently higher among providers who reported using CDC materials. The possibility that providers were educated about gynecologic cancer symptoms through the dissemination of materials intended for their patients is intriguing and warrants further investigation. Distributing consumer education materials in health care provider offices remains a priority for the Inside Knowledge campaign, as the setting where women and health care providers interact is one of the most crucial venues to promote awareness of gynecologic cancer symptoms. PMID:24214840

  4. Promoting gynecologic cancer awareness at a critical juncture--where women and providers meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Rodriguez, Juan; Hawkins, Nikki A

    2014-06-01

    Given the absence of effective population-based screening tests for ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar cancers, early detection can depend on women and health care providers recognizing the potential significance of symptoms. In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Inside Knowledge campaign began distributing consumer education materials promoting awareness of gynecologic cancer symptoms. We investigated providers' in-office use of CDC gynecologic cancer materials and their recognition of the symptoms highlighted in the materials. We analyzed data from a national 2012 survey of US primary care physicians, nurse practitioners, and gynecologists (N = 1,380). Less than a quarter of providers (19.4%) reported using CDC gynecologic cancer education materials in their offices. The provider characteristics associated with the use of CDC materials were not consistent across specialties. However, recognition of symptoms associated with gynecologic cancers was consistently higher among providers who reported using CDC materials. The possibility that providers were educated about gynecologic cancer symptoms through the dissemination of materials intended for their patients is intriguing and warrants further investigation. Distributing consumer education materials in health care provider offices remains a priority for the Inside Knowledge campaign, as the setting where women and health care providers interact is one of the most crucial venues to promote awareness of gynecologic cancer symptoms.

  5. The T-LAK Cell-originated Protein Kinase Signal Pathway Promotes Colorectal Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Zykova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 90% of all cancer deaths arise from the metastatic dissemination of primary tumors. Metastasis is the most lethal attribute of colorectal cancer. New data regarding the molecules contributing to the metastatic phenotype, the pathways they control and the genes they regulate are very important for understanding the processes of metastasis prognosis and prevention in the clinic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK in the promotion of colorectal cancer metastasis. TOPK is highly expressed in human metastatic colorectal cancer tissue compared with malignant adenocarcinoma. We identified p53-related protein kinase (PRPK as a new substrate of TOPK. TOPK binds with and phosphorylates PRPK at Ser250 in vitro and ex vivo. This site plays a critical role in the function of PRPK. Cell lines stably expressing mutant PRPK (S250A, knockdown TOPK, knockdown PRPK or knockdown of both TOPK and PRPK significantly inhibited liver metastasis of human HCT116 colon cancer cells in a xenograft mouse model. Therefore, we conclude that TOPK directly promotes metastasis of colorectal cancer by modulating PRPK. Thus, these findings may assist in the prediction of prognosis or development of new therapeutic strategies against colon cancer.

  6. Inhibition of autophagy promotes metastasis and glycolysis by inducing ROS in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wenjie; Li, Chao; Zheng, Wen; Guo, Qingqu; Zhang, Yuefeng; Kang, Muxing; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Bin; Li, Baozhong; Yang, Haijun; Wu, Yulian

    2015-11-24

    Autophagy defect has been shown to be correlated with malignant phenotype and poor prognosis of human cancers, however, the detailed mechanisms remain obscure. In this study, we investigated the biological changes induced by autophagy inhibition in gastric cancer. We showed that inhibition of autophagy in gastric cancer cells promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis, alters metabolic phenotype from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis and converts cell phenotype toward malignant, which maybe further contribute to chemoresistance and poor prognosis of gastric cancer. We also identified that the EMT and metabolism alterations induced by autophagy inhibition were dependent on ROS-NF-κB-HIF-1α pathway. More importantly, scavenging of ROS by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) attenuated activation of NF-κB and HIF-1α in autophagy-deficient gastric cancer cells, and autophagy inhibition induced metastasis and glycolysis were also diminished by NAC in vivo. Taken together, our findings suggested that autophagy defect promotes metastasis and glycolysis of gastric cancer, and antioxidants could be used to improve disease outcome for gastric cancer patients with autophagy defect.