WorldWideScience

Sample records for fallout annual progress

  1. Carbon-14 activity of fallout in Araucaria angustifolia annual growth rings, from Arapoti, Parana State, Brazil; Atividade de {sup 14} C do 'fallout' em aneis anuais de crescimento de Araucaria angustifolia, de Arapoti - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisi, Claudio Sergio; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de 14 C; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Florestais. Lab. de Dendrocronologia

    2000-07-01

    During the period of nuclear tests between 1950 and 1960, an input of artificial {sup 14} C (fallout effect) occurred in the natural reservoirs. {sup 14} C determinations in the Northern Hemisphere showed values of {delta}{sup 14} C up to 960 in the year of 1964. To determine the fallout {sup 14} C activity in Brazil, wood samples from Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze, Araucariaceae, were collected in Arapoti-PR (24 deg 11{sup S}, 49 deg 58{sup O}). The annual tree rings were selected by dendrochronology. The cellulose was extracted and its {sup 14} C activity determined by liquid scintillation method. The results showed a significant increase of the {delta} {sup 14} C up to 590 in 1965, about 60% higher than the natural activity, gradually decreasing after the end of nuclear tests. These results were correlated with those obtained in the Northen Hemisphere and will be used in the studies of CO{sub 2} mechanisms distribuition to the atmosphere and other natural reservoirs. (author)

  2. Annual Progress report - General Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnousky, S.G.

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks.

  3. Radioactive fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.S.; Harvey, T.F.; Peterson, K.R.

    1985-12-01

    Potential radiation doses from several scenarios involving nuclear attack on an unsheltered United States population are calculated for local, intermediate time scale and long-term fallout. Dose estimates are made for both a normal atmosphere and an atmosphere perturbed by smoke produced by massive fires. A separate section discusses the additional doses from nuclear fuel facilities, were they to be targeted in an attack. Finally, in an appendix the direct effects of fallout on humans are considered. These include effects of sheltering and biological repair of damage from chronic doses. 21 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Yakima Hatchery Experimental Design : Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busack, Craig; Knudsen, Curtis; Marshall, Anne

    1991-08-01

    This progress report details the results and status of Washington Department of Fisheries' (WDF) pre-facility monitoring, research, and evaluation efforts, through May 1991, designed to support the development of an Experimental Design Plan (EDP) for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP), previously termed the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP or Y/KPP). This pre- facility work has been guided by planning efforts of various research and quality control teams of the project that are annually captured as revisions to the experimental design and pre-facility work plans. The current objective are as follows: to develop genetic monitoring and evaluation approach for the Y/KPP; to evaluate stock identification monitoring tools, approaches, and opportunities available to meet specific objectives of the experimental plan; and to evaluate adult and juvenile enumeration and sampling/collection capabilities in the Y/KPP necessary to measure experimental response variables.

  5. 14 CFR 91.875 - Annual progress reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual progress reports. 91.875 Section 91.875 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED....875 Annual progress reports. (a) Each operator subject to § 91.865 or § 91.867 of this chapter...

  6. FY2011 Annual Progress Report for Propulsion Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Patrick B. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Schutte, Carol L. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Gibbs, Jerry L. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Annual Progress Report for Propulsion Materials focusing on enabling and innovative materials technologies that are critical in improving the efficiency of advanced engines by providing enabling materials support for combustion, hybrid, and power electronics development.

  7. Workforce Training and Economic Development Fund: 2015 Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Education, Division of Community Colleges, will annually provide the State Board of Education with The Workforce Training and Economic Development (WTED) Fund Annual Progress Report. Administration and oversight responsibility for the fund was transferred from the Iowa Economic Development Authority to the Iowa Department of…

  8. Annual Program Progress Report under DOE/PHRI Cooperative Agreement: (July 1, 2001-June 30, 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palafox, Neal A., MD, MPH

    2002-07-31

    OAK B188 DOE/PHRI Special Medical Care Program in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI)Annual Program Progress Report. The DOE Marshall Islands Medical Program continued, in this it's 48th year, to provide medical surveillance for the exposed population from Rongelap and Utrik and the additional DOE patients. The program was inaugurated in 1954 by the Atomic Energy Commission following the exposure of Marshallese to fallout from a nuclear test (Castle Bravo) at Bikini Atoll. This year marks the fourth year in which the program has been carried out by PHRI under a cooperative agreement with DOE. The DOERHRI Special Medical Care Program, awarded the cooperative agreement on August 28, 1998, commenced its health care program on January 15, 1999, on Kwajalein and January 22, 1999, on Majuro. This report details the program for the July 1, 2001, through the June 30, 2002, period. The program provides year-round, on-site medical care to the DOE patient population residing in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and annual examinations to those patients living in Hawaii and on the Continental U.S.

  9. Annual Research Progress Report. Fiscal Year 1984,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    treated hypothyroidism secondary to 131, treatment for Graves’ disease X 2. She has congenital macular degeneration OS. In November 1983 the patient...visual rehabilitation . 5. To eventually establish this as a routine procedure in the military medical armamentarium of ophthalmic care. PROGRESS (82 10

  10. Annual Progress Report Fiscal Year 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-30

    Measurement of Serum, Zinc, Magnesium, Copper, Lead, Lithium and Arsenic During Pregnancy ........................... 155 * Work Unit No. 81/44 (FY81,O...studied before and during therapy, as v,-I ,j ojrl:.- progression of disease. b. Patients with protein-losing nephropathies and those undergoing...Thomason General Hospital. (2) To establish normal mean levels of zinc, magnesium, copper, lead, lithium , and arsenic at various stages of pregnancy. (3) To

  11. Annual Progress Report - Fiscal Year 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    Vaccine development; (U) Dengue virus 23. TECNICO O8JECTIV E. 24 APPROACH. 2. PROGRESS (PIRVMA I AdmA.f I N .14,s INIP i4FI NIId Or .. ’ P FIS A .0 JI...accomplished by manual methods alone. Of the purified bacterial toxic proteins which are readily available and of potential BW importance, the...interesting result in that these phospholipases hindered aggregation by other agents, such as collagen and arachidonic acid. Platelet Counts. Manual

  12. Annual Progress Report - Fiscal Year 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    explore possible modes of intervention in the disease progression; both for strains yielding pulmonic "legionellosis and those considered to cause the...non- pulmonic (Pontiac Fever) disease. "Finally, Dr. Knudson, Captains Mikesell and Dreier directed the detection and characterization of plasmids and...with chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment and resolve within a few days. Negotiations are currently under way with the National Cancer Institute of

  13. 2010 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  14. 1999 annual progress report -- Energy conservation team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalk, S. (EERE OTT Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies Energy Conversion Team Leader)

    1999-10-19

    This report highlights progress achieved during FY 1999 under the Light-duty Fuels Utilization R and D Program. The program is comprised of two elements: the Advanced Petroleum-Based APB Fuels Program which focused on developing and testing advanced fuels for use with compression-ignition direct-injection (CIDI) engines and fuel cells and the Alternative Fuels Program which focused on Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels. The report contains 17 summaries of industry and National Laboratory projects. Fuel efficient vehicles with very low emissions are essential to meet the challenges of climate change, energy security, and improved air quality. The authors anticipate cooperative efforts with the auto and energy industries to develop new and innovative technologies that will be used to make advanced transportation vehicles that are fuel efficient, clean, and safe.

  15. Studies in developmental immunogenetics. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, R D

    1976-05-26

    Progress is reported on studies of genetic regulation, mainly in complex organisms, and with an emphasis on the immune system as a model for developmental analysis and as a tool for following the development of other systems, especially the brain. Results are reported from studies of biochemical genetics, primarily from a developmental viewpoint and with particular regard to defense mechanisms; cellular aspects of the immune system; the area of cancer immunology and cell specificities as related to tumor systems, primarily from an immunogenetic viewpoint and with particular reference to leukemias in the mouse; and the disruptions of genetic control mechanisms in tumor development, especially as approached through the reappearance of fetal antigens associated with tumor development.

  16. Annual progress report on nuclear data 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, H.H. [ed.

    1993-06-01

    This is the 1992 annual report on nuclear data from the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel (Belgium). Work on standard neutron cross sections included {sup 235}U(n,f)/H(n,n) with Frisch gridded ionization chambers and using octacosanol samples. Mass, energy, and angular distribution of fission fragments for {sup 237}Np(n,f) from 0.5 to 5.5 MeV neutron energy. Alpha decay probabilities of {sup 239}Pu. In the area of nuclear data for fission technology, a measurement on the normalization of the {sup 239}Pu fission cross sections was performed. Parameters for 384 resonances in {sup 58}Ni and 350 resonances in {sup 60}Ni have been analyzed up to 1 MeV and 800 KeV, respectively. In the field of nuclear data for fusion technology, double differential neutron emission cross sections for {sup 9}Be(n,2n) for incident neutron energies between 0. 6 and 11.1 MeV have been reported. Extensive measurements of the neutron decay cross sections of {sup 207}Pb have been made. In the radionuclide metrology subproject contributions were made by the preparation of low energy x-ray standard sources, measurements of K- shell fluorescence yields, standardization of a {sup 152}Eu solution, evaluation of the second EUROMET intercomparison of {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources, and low level measurements on volcanic rock, archeological ceramics, soil and river sediments. Work was also reported in neutron metrology, major facilities upgrades, radiation physics, and support for a number of PhD projects.

  17. FY2014 Fuel & Lubricant Technologies Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stork, Kevin [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Annual progress report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies. The Fuel & Lubricant Technologies Program supports fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle manufacturers and users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement.

  18. 2015 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-23

    The 2015 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2015 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production; hydrogen delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; systems analysis; and market transformation.

  19. 2013 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2013 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  20. 2011 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, Sunita [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2011 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  1. 2014 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2014 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  2. Federal Facility Agreement Annual Progress Report for FY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.

    1999-08-04

    This FFA Annual Progress Report has been developed to summarize the information for activities performed during the Fiscal Year 1998 (October 1, 1997, to September 30, 1998) and activities planned for Fiscal Year 1999 by U.S. EPA, SCDHEC, and SRS at those units and areas identified for remediation in the Agreement.

  3. The Gambia; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Annual Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    This Annual Progress Report focuses on The Gambia’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). It provides information and analysis regarding the achievements and shortfalls experienced between July 2002 and December 2003 with respect to the poverty targets, priority public actions, and the monitoring and evaluation systems put in place for the PRSP/Strategy for poverty alleviation II (SPA II). The report highlights important changes necessary in the strategy as appropriate in light of implem...

  4. 21 CFR 601.70 - Annual progress reports of postmarketing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... provide useful information. Each annual progress report shall be accompanied by a completed transmittal... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual progress reports of postmarketing studies... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Postmarketing Studies § 601.70 Annual progress reports...

  5. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 2000 Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2001-05-01

    This is the FY00 Annual Progress report for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It gives an overview of the LDRD Program, summarizes progress on each project conducted during FY00, characterizes the projects according to their relevance to major funding sources, and provides an index to principal investigators. Project summaries are grouped by LDRD component: Directed Research and Exploratory Research. Within each component, they are further grouped into the ten technical categories: (1) atomic, molecular, optical, and plasma physics, fluids, and beams, (2) bioscience, (3) chemistry, (4) computer science and software engineering, (5) engineering science, (6) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (7) instrumentation and diagnostics, (8) materials science, (9) mathematics, simulation, and modeling, and (10) nuclear and particle physics.

  6. Radioelement studies in the oceans. Progress report, January 1, 1977--December 31, 1977. [Transport of fallout radionuclides in Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and Mediterranean Sea during 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1978-04-01

    Data are reported on the content of various fallout radionuclides in samples of seawater and sediments collected during 1977 in the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and Pacific Ocean. Methods used for the preparation of samples for radiometric analysis are described briefly. Radionuclides found included /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, /sup 242/Cm, /sup 244/Cm, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am. A list is included of publications during the time period covered by this report.

  7. Neutron scattering. Annual progress report 1997; Neutronenstreuung. Annual progress report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenspach, P.; Boeni, B.; Fischer, P.; Furrer, A. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Lab. fuer Neutronenstreuung

    1998-02-01

    The present progress report describes the scientific and technical activities obtained by LNS staff members in 1997. It also includes the work performed by external groups at our CRG instruments D1A and IN3 at the ILL Grenoble. Due to the outstanding properties of neutrons and x-rays the research work covered many areas of science and materials research. The highlight of the year 1997 was certainly the production of neutrons at the new spallation neutron source SINQ. From July to November, SINQ was operating for typically two days/week and allowed the commissioning of four instruments at the neutron guide system: - the triple-axis spectrometer Druechal, - the powder diffractometer DMC, - the double-axis diffractometer TOPSI, the polarised triple-axis spectrometer TASP. These instruments are now fully operational and have already been used for condensed matter studies, partly in cooperation with external groups. Five further instruments are in an advanced state, and their commissioning is expected to occur between June and October 1998: - the high-resolution powder diffractometer HRPT, - the single-crystal diffractometer TriCS, - the time-of-flight spectrometer FOCUS, - the reflectometer AMOR, - the neutron optical bench NOB. Together with the small angle neutron scattering facility SANS operated by the spallation source department, all these instruments will be made available to external user groups in the future. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  8. Radioactive fallout from Chinese nuclear weapons test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.W.; Soldat, J.K.; Silker, W.B.; Perkins, R.W.

    1976-09-26

    Radioactive fallout from this Chinese nuclear test resulted in measurable deposition of short-lived debris over much of the United States. The fallout levels varied by more than 1000-fold and showed significant temporary or spatial fractionation with higher levels of deposition being associated with rain. The particle size with which the airborne debris was associated decreased continuously with time following detonation and a substantial fraction of the {sup 131}I was associated with inorganic and organic gases. The potential radiation dose to an infant consuming milk produced at the location of the highest concentration of {sup 131}I measured on grass was estimated to be {approximately}l rem. This dose is about 50 times the annual dose received in the vicinity of a power reactor operating under the existing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission design guides. The potential upper limit thyroid dose for the population of 17 eastern seaboard states from this single test was estimated to be about 2.4 {times} 10{sup 6} man-thyroid-rem under the assumption that all dairy cows remained on fresh pasture throughout the month following the initial decomposition of fallout debris. This dose is about 200 times the estimated dose from currently operating nuclear power reactors and about 50 times the annual US population thyroid dose that would be received from 500 GWe of nuclear power reactors in the year 2000.

  9. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Gerald W.

    1980-06-01

    The Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is the key element in the national effort to establish solar thermal conversion technologies within the major sectors of the national energy market. It provides for the development of concentrating mirror/lens heat collection and conversion technologies for both central and dispersed receiver applications to produce electricity, provide heat at its point of use in industrial processes, provide heat and electricity in combination for industrial, commercial, and residential needs, and ultimately, drive processes for production of liquid and gaseous fuels. This report is the second Annual Technical Progress Report for the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program and is structured according to the organization of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program on September 30, 1979. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program, a brief history, the significant achievements and real progress during FY 1979, also future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements are forecast. (WHK)

  10. FY2014 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-03-01

    The Energy Storage research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush. This report describes the progress made on the research and development projects funded by the Energy Storage subprogram in 2014. You can download individual sections at the following website, http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/downloads/vehicle-technologies-office-2014-energy-storage-rd-annual-report.

  11. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Report summarizes the waste generation and pollution prevention activities of the major operational sites in the Department of Energy (DOE). We are witnessing progress in waste reduction from routine operations that are the focus of Department-wide reduction goals set by the Secretary on May 3,1996. The goals require that by the end of 1999, we reduce, recycle, reuse, and otherwise avoid waste generation to achieve a 50 percent reduction over 1993 levels. This Report provides the first measure of our progress in waste reduction and recycling against our 1993 waste generation baseline. While we see progress in reducing waste from our normal operations, we must begin to focus attention on waste generated by cleanup and facilities stabilization activities that are the major functions of the Office of Environmental Management. Reducing the generation of waste is one of the seven principles that I have established for the Office of Environmental Management Ten Year Plan. As part of our vision to complete a major portion of the environmental cleanup at DOE sites over the next ten years, we must utilize the potential of the pollution prevention program to reduce the cost of our cleanup program. We have included the Secretarial goals as part of the performance measures for the Ten Year Plan, and we are committed to implementing pollution prevention ideas. Through the efforts of both Federal and contractor employees, our pollution prevention program has reduced waste and the cost of our operations. I applaud their efforts and look forward to reporting further waste reduction progress in the next annual update of this Report.

  12. The UK fuel poverty strategy: Fourth annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-02

    This is the fourth annual progress report on the UK Fuel Poverty Strategy. It presents positive news over figures and funding, growing evidence of increased engagement in tackling fuel poverty and a snapshot of the UK-wide situation. All of this appears alongside a realistic assessment of the impact of energy price rises and the outlook for the future, both in the medium and long-term. The report provides an update on the actions taken over the last twelve months. The report offers the first opportunity to look at the new phase of the Warm Front Scheme in England, and to explore what the additional funding will mean for the future. Progress and developments in the Schemes across the devolved nations are also considered. The fuel poverty figures for 2004 are presented. The number of vulnerable households in fuel poverty in England in 2004 remained at 1.0 million. This figure is down from four million in 1996.The overall number of households in fuel poverty in England also remained at a similar level of 1.2 million. The UK-wide figures remained broadly the same, with two million households in fuel poverty overall and one and a half million of those in the vulnerable category. The results of detailed modelling work to determine what the implications of recent energy price rises will be for the 2010 target in England are given. Finally, this report is accompanied by a series of internet-based annexes which provide more detail on the progress made in tackling fuel poverty by both Government and industry. These include more in-depth statistics on the demographic, geographic and socio-economic breakdowns of fuel poverty and a broader outline of the actions taken in this area by energy suppliers across the UK. (UK)

  13. 1993 annual final progress report: July 1992 through June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, A.; Crotty, G.; Chen, Z.; Sana, P.; Salami, J.; Doolittle, A.; Pang, A.; Pham, T. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-11-01

    This is the first annual report since the Inauguration of the University Center of Excellence for Photovoltaics Research and Development (UCEP) at Georgia Tech. The essential objective of the Center is to improve the fundamental understanding of the science and technology of advanced PV devices and materials, to provide training and enrich the educational experience of students in the field, and to increase US competitiveness by providing guidelines to industry and DOE for achieving cost-effective and high efficiency PV devices. These objectives are to be accomplished through a combination of research and education. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments, including modeling, processing, and characterization of cast multicrystalline silicon solar cells; use of modeling and PCD measurements to develop a road map for progressing toward 20% multicrystalline and 25% single crystalline cells; the development of a novel PECVD SiN/SiO{sub 2} AR coating that also provides good surface passivation; PECVD deposited SiO{sub 2} films with record low S and D{sub it} at the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface; and educational activities and accomplishments.

  14. 1993 annual final progress report: July 1992 through June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, A.; Crotty, G.; Chen, Z.; Sana, P.; Salami, J.; Doolittle, A.; Pang, A.; Pham, T. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-11-01

    This is the first annual report since the Inauguration of the University Center of Excellence for Photovoltaics Research and Development (UCEP) at Georgia Tech. The essential objective of the Center is to improve the fundamental understanding of the science and technology of advanced PV devices and materials, to provide training and enrich the educational experience of students in the field, and to increase US competitiveness by providing guidelines to industry and DOE for achieving cost-effective and high efficiency PV devices. These objectives are to be accomplished through a combination of research and education. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments, including modeling, processing, and characterization of cast multicrystalline silicon solar cells; use of modeling and PCD measurements to develop a road map for progressing toward 20% multicrystalline and 25% single crystalline cells; the development of a novel PECVD SiN/SiO{sub 2} AR coating that also provides good surface passivation; PECVD deposited SiO{sub 2} films with record low S and D{sub it} at the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface; and educational activities and accomplishments.

  15. FY13 Annual Progress Report for SECA Core Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Koeppel, Brian J.

    2014-01-31

    This progress report covers technical work performed during fiscal year 2013 at PNNL under Field Work Proposal (FWP) 40552. The report highlights and documents technical progress in tasks related to advanced cell and stack component materials development and computational design and simulation. Primary areas of emphasis for the materials development work were metallic interconnects and coatings, cathode and anode stability/degradation, glass seals, and advanced testing under realistic stack conditions: Metallic interconnects and coatings • Effects of surface modifications to AISI 441 (prior to application of protective spinel coatings) on oxide scale growth and adhesion were evaluated as a function of temperature and time. Cathode stability/degradation • Effects of cathode air humidity on performance and stability of SOFC cathodes were investigated by testing anode-supported cells as a function of time and temperature. • In-situ high temperature XRD measurements were used to correlate changes in cathode lattice structure and composition with performance of anode-supported button cells. Anode stability/degradation • Effects of high fuel steam content on Ni/YSZ anodes were investigated over a range of time and temperature. • Vapor infiltration and particulate additions were evaluated as a potential means of improving tolerance of Ni/YSZ anodes to sulfur-bearing fuel species. Glass seals • A candidate compliant glass-based seal materials were evaluated in terms of microstructural evolution and seal performance as a function of time and temperature. Stack fixture testing • The SECA CTP stack test fixture was used for intermediate and long-term evaluation of candidate materials and processes. Primary areas of emphasis for the computational modeling work were coarse methodology, degradation of stack components, and electrochemical modeling: Coarse methodology • Improvements were made to both the SOFC-MP and SOFC ROM simulation tools. Degradation of stack

  16. GSA committees: Progress through service the Annual Program Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    The GSA's Annual Program Committee (APC) is directly responsible for the GSA's meeting and other responsibilities especially before the main event. It decides on the locations, the number and content of the technical sessions, annual membership surveys, hospitality for the guests, field trips and more. In addition, it pays significant attention to creative thinking about geoscience discoveries and directions as well as identify new and emerging areas of earth science. APC is also looking for new ideas, approaches and directions.

  17. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal Year 1994 Annual Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Progress Report was prepared in partial fulfillment of the Cooperative Agreement for Conservation and Management of Fish and Wildlife Resources at the...

  18. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal Year 1997 Annual Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Progress Report was prepared in partial fulfillment of the Cooperative Agreement for Conservation and Management of Fish and Wildlife Resources at the...

  19. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal Year 1999 Annual Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Progress Report was prepared in partial fulfillment of the Cooperative Agreement for Conservation and Management of Fish and Wildlife Resources at the...

  20. Rocky Mountain Arsenal field office : Fiscal Year 1990 Annual Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Progress Report was prepared in partial fulfillment of the Cooperative Agreement for Conservation and Management of Fish and Wildlife Resources at the...

  1. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal Year 1996 Annual Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Progress Report was prepared in partial fulfillment of the Cooperative Agreement for Conservation and Management of Fish and Wildlife Resources at the...

  2. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    A technical progress report on the DOE Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is given. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the prior to FY 1978 is given; the significant achievements and real progress of each project during FY 1978 are described; and future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements for each project are forecast. (WHK)

  3. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    This Annual Report summarizes and highlights waste generation, waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost avoidance for 44 U.S. Department of Energy reporting sites for Calendar Year 1999. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1999 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments.

  4. Annual progress report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Research progress is reported for the year 1979-1980. The report is divided into sections dealing individually with the divisions of Biomolecular and Cellular Science, Environmental Biology, and Nuclear Medicine. The sections have been individually entered into EDB. (ACR)

  5. Characterization of annual disease progression of multiple sclerosis patients: A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freilich, Jonatan; Manouchehrinia, Ali; Trusheim, Mark

    2017-01-01

    the milestone. To characterize clinical factors influencing MS disease progression as annual transitions from each Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The annual progression of 11,964 patients from the Swedish MS Registry was analysed with 10 multinomial logistic regressions, that is, one for transition......Previous research characterizing factors influencing multiple sclerosis (MS) disease progression has typically been based on time to disease milestones (Kaplan-Meier, Cox hazard regression, etc.). A limitation of these methods is the handling of the often large groups of patients not reaching...

  6. Annual Research Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1983,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    for small computers. Internatl J Radia Oncol, Biol Phys, Apr 83. Huggins, T. Cystitis glandularis - an unusual cause of ureteral obstruction. -’ Urol...Camp Bullis , TX. Salasche, S.J. Gems and pearls for the dermatologic surgeon. 8th Annual Uniformed Services Dermatology Seminar, 19 May 83, Colorado...Board, R.J. Vertical strabismus and restrictive strabismus . Visiting Lecturer, UTHSCA, 30 Nov 82, San Antonio, TX. 25 7 - ; w 7 Zervas, J.P. Permanent

  7. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This fourth Annual Report presents and analyzes 1995 DOE complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 40 reporting sites in 25 States, and trends DOE waste generation from 1991 through 1995. DOE has established a 50% reduction goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, due by December 31, 1999. Routine operations waste generation decreased 37% from 1994 to 1995, and 43% overall from 1993--1995.

  8. Integral Fast Reactor Program annual progress report, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes highlights of the technical progress made in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program in FY 1991. Technical accomplishments are presented in the following areas of the IFR technology development activities: (1) metal fuel performance, (2) pyroprocess development, (3) safety experiments and analyses, (4) core design development, (5) fuel cycle demonstration, and (6) LMR technology R&D.

  9. Integral Fast Reactor Program annual progress report, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes highlights of the technical progress made in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program in FY 1991. Technical accomplishments are presented in the following areas of the IFR technology development activities: (1) metal fuel performance, (2) pyroprocess development, (3) safety experiments and analyses, (4) core design development, (5) fuel cycle demonstration, and (6) LMR technology R D.

  10. Integral Fast Reactor Program annual progress report, FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.I.; Walters, L.C.; Laidler, J.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Wade, D.C.; Lineberry, J.J.

    1994-12-01

    This report summarizes highlights of the technical progress made in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program in FY 1994. Technical accomplishments are presented in the following areas of the IFR technology development activities: metal fuel performance; pyroprocess development; safety experiments and analyses; core design development; fuel cycle demonstration; and LMR technology R&D.

  11. Integral Fast Reactor Program. Annual progress report, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.I.; Walters, L.C.; Laidler, J.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Wade, D.C.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes highlights of the technical progress made in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program in FY 1992. Technical accomplishments are presented in the following areas of the IFR technology development activities: (1) metal fuel performance, (2) pyroprocess development, (3) safety experiments and analyses, (4) core design development, (5) fuel cycle demonstration, and (6) LMR technology R&D.

  12. Integral Fast Reactor Program. Annual progress report, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.I.; Walters, L.C.; Laidler, J.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Wade, D.C.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes highlights of the technical progress made in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program in FY 1993. Technical accomplishments are presented in the following areas of the IFR technology development activities: (1) metal fuel performance, (2) pyroprocess development, (3) safety experiments and analyses, (4) core design development, (5) fuel cycle demonstration, and (6) LMR technology R and D.

  13. Benin; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper-Annual Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    The Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) on Benin analyzes poverty trends and economic policies. The gap between the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) poverty line and trends recorded in Benin is still considerable, especially in terms of the depth and gravity of poverty. Progress on good governance and institutional capacity building was uneven. To achieve the overall and sectoral targets set by the PRSP, additional funds must be mobilized for implementing the final phase. It will als...

  14. FY 2005 Annual Progress Report for the DOE Hydrogen Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-10-01

    In cooperation with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies, the Department of Energy's Hydrogen Program is advancing the state of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in support of the President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. The initiative seeks to develop hydrogen, fuel cell, and infrastructure technologies needed to make it practical and cost-effective for Americans to choose to use fuel cell vehicles by 2020. Significant progress was made in fiscal year 2005 toward that goal.

  15. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 2000 [USDOE] [9th edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-06-01

    This ninth edition of the Annual Report of Waste Generation and Pollution Prevention Progress highlights waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost savings/avoidance for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pollution Prevention Program for Fiscal Year 2000. This edition marks the first time that progress toward meeting the 2005 Pollution Prevention Goals, issued by the Secretary of Energy in November 1999, is being reported. In addition, the Annual Report has a new format, and now contains information on a fiscal year basis, which is consistent with other DOE reports.

  16. 2015 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, Neil

    2015-12-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  17. 2012 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-12-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  18. 2016 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, Sunita [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  19. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  20. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This seventh Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 45 reporting sites from 1993 through 1998. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1998 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments. More detailed information follows this section in the body of the Report. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December31, 1999. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1998 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation decreased 67 percent overall from 1993 to 1998. However, for the first time since 1994, the total amount of materials recycled by the Complex decreased from 109,600 metric tons in 1997 to 92,800 metric tons in 1998. This decrease is attributed to the fact that in 1997, several large ''one-time only'' recycling projects were conducted throughout the Complex. In order to demonstrate commitment to DOE's Complex-wide recycling goal, it is important for sites to identify all potential large-scale recycling/reuse opportunities.

  1. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This sixth Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 36 reporting sites from 1993 through 1997. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December 31, 1999. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation increased three percent from 1996 to 1997, and decreased 61 percent overall from 1993 to 1997. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1997 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. However, it is important to note that increases in low-level radioactive and low-level mixed waste generation could reverse this achievement. From 1996 to 1997, low-level radioactive waste generation increased 10 percent, and low-level mixed waste generation increased slightly. It is critical that DOE sites continue to reduce routine operations waste generation for all waste types, to ensure that DOE`s Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals are achieved by December 31, 1999.

  2. Fallout: Its Characteristics and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    uranium, plutonium , and tritium (from the lithium in the lithium deuteride ). These isotopes remain and contribute to the problem of long-term fallout...unspent uranium or plutonium fuel, activated bomb components) and any neutron-induced material from the surrounding explosion environment. General... plutonium ). The opposite is true of a dirty weapon. The radioactive yield of a weapon can be intentionally increased through "salting," a process whereby

  3. Hungry Horse Mitigation : Flathead Lake : Annual Progress Report 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les [Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    2008-12-22

    . Monitoring, for example, includes a spring gillnetting series conducted annually in Flathead Lake and builds on an existing data set initiated in 1981. Monitoring of the experimental kokanee reintroduction was a primary activity of this project between 1992 and 1997. Lake trout, whose high densities have precluded successful mitigation of losses of other species in Flathead Lake, have been monitored since 1996 to measure several biological parameters. Results of this work have utility in determining the population status of this key predator in Flathead Lake. The project has also defined the baseline condition of the Flathead Lake fishery in 1992-1993 and has conducted annual lakewide surveys since 1998. The restoration component of the project has addressed several stream channel, riparian, and fish passage problems, and suppression of non-native fish. The research component of the project began in FY 2000 and measured trophic linkages between M. relicta and other species to assist in predicting the results of our efforts to suppress lake trout. Only Work Element A in the Statement of Work is funded entirely by Hungry Horse Mitigation funds. Additional funds are drawn from other sources to assist in completion of all remaining Work Elements.

  4. Hungry Horse Mitigation : Flathead Lake : Annual Progress Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les [Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    2009-08-06

    . Monitoring, for example, includes a spring gillnetting series conducted annually in Flathead Lake and builds on an existing data set initiated in 1981. Monitoring of the experimental kokanee reintroduction was a primary activity of this project between 1992 and 1997. Lake trout, whose high densities have precluded successful mitigation of losses of other species in Flathead Lake, have been monitored since 1996 to measure several biological parameters. Results of this work have utility in determining the population status of this key predator in Flathead Lake. The project has also defined the baseline condition of the Flathead Lake fishery in 1992-1993 and has conducted annual lakewide surveys since 1998. The restoration component of the project has addressed several stream channel, riparian, and fish passage problems, and suppression of non-native fish. The research component of the project began in FY 2000 and measured trophic linkages between M. relicta and other species to assist in predicting the results of our efforts to suppress lake trout. Only Work Element A in the Statement of Work is funded entirely by Hungry Horse Mitigation funds. Additional funds are drawn from other sources to assist in completion of all remaining Work Elements.

  5. Republic of Madagascar; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Annual Progress Report: Joint Staff Advisory Note

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Progress Report (APR) candidly indicates that the macroeconomic objectives for 2005, notably pertaining to growth and revenue objectives, could not be achieved. Looking forward, the preparation of the Madagascar Action Plan (MAP) will provide a useful opportunity to revisit and improve the country’s poverty reduction strategy in light of recent developments and experience. Reasonable progress on the public sector governance agenda was triggered by substantial investments in train...

  6. Physical mapping of human chromosome 16. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, G.R.

    1993-08-01

    We aim to isolate cDNAs mapping to human chromosome 16 and localise such cDNAs on the high resolution physical map. In collaboration with LANL, PCR primers will be synthesised from cDNA sequences mapped to chromosome 16 and used as ESTs in the generation of mega-YAC contigs for this chromosome. Probing of high density cosmid grids will enable integration of the ESTs into cosmid contigs and location of the cosmid contigs on the YAC contig. A hn-cDNA library has been constructed from the hybrid CY18 which contains chromosome 16 as the only human chromosome. A modified screening protocol has been successfully developed and 15 hn-cDNA clones have been sequenced and localised on the hybrid map. Sequence analysis of four of these revealed that they were known cDNAs, which are now mapped to chromosome 16. Development of techniques to allow the isolation of longer cDNAs from the identified exons is in progress. This will depend on PCR amplification of cDNAs from a total human CDNA library.

  7. UCSD geothermal chemistry program; Annual progress report, FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weare, J.H.

    1989-10-01

    The development of a geothermal resource requires a considerable financial commitment. As in other energy extraction ventures, the security of this investment can be jeopardized by the uncertain behavior of the resource under operating conditions. Many of the most significant problems limiting the development of geothermal power are related to the chemical properties of the high temperature and highly pressured formation fluids from which the energy is extracted. When the pressure and temperature conditions on these fluids are changed either during the production phase (pressure changes) or during the extraction phase (temperature changes) of the operation, the fluids which were originally in equilibrium under the new conditions by precipitation of solid materials (scales) or release of dissolved gases (some toxic) in the formation and well bores or in the plant equipment. Unfortunately, predicting the behavior of the production fluids is difficult, because it is a function of many variables. In order to address these problems the Department of Energy is developing a computer model describing the chemistry of geothermal fluids. The model under development at UCSD is based on recent progress in the physical chemistry of concentrated aqueous solutions, and is covered in this report.

  8. Energy Storage Annual Progress Report for FY15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ban, Chunmei [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cao, Lei [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kim, Gi-Heon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shi, Ying [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Kandler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tenent, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Chuanbo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Chao [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Energy Storage research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in support of the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge. PEVs could have a significant impact on the nation's goal of reducing dependence on imported oil and gaseous pollutant emissions. The Energy Storage program targets overcoming technical barriers to enable market success, including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost; (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability); (3) reducing battery weight and volume; and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports the VTO's Energy Storage program by evaluating the thermal performance of cells and packs, developing electrochemical-thermal models to accelerate the design cycle for developing batteries, investigating the behavior of lithium-ion batteries under abuse conditions such as crush, enhancing the durability of electrodes by coatings such as atomic layer deposition, synthesis of materials for higher energy density batteries, and conducting techno-economic analysis of batteries in various electric-drive vehicles. This report describes the progress made by NREL on the research and development projects funded by the DOE VTO Energy Storage subprogram in FY15.

  9. Arizona Measure of Academic Progress: Third Annual Look at Growth in Arizona Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aportela, Anabel

    The 2001 results of Arizonas Measure of Academic Progress (MAP) mark the third annual release of this important school accountability tool. The 2001 MAP results are slightly different from the results of previous years in that they show the percent of students who achieve One Years Growth (OYG) and present results in a more accessible format. The…

  10. FY2011 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-12-01

    Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram supporting the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  11. Western Kansas Migrant Health Project: 11th Annual Progress Report, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas State Dept. of Health, Topeka.

    Information about the Western Kansas Migrant Health Project for 1974 is presented in this annual progress report. The Project provides: (1) migrant education programs; (2) health education; (3) nursing services; (4) medical and dental services; (5) hospital services; and (6) supplemental food programs. Since August 1974, the western Kansas VISTA…

  12. The domestic natural gas and oil initiatve. First annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This document is the first of a series of annual progress reports designed to inform the industry and the public of the accomplishments of the Domestic Natural Gas and Oil Initiative (the Initiative) and the benefits realized. Undertaking of the Initiative was first announced by Hazel O`Leary, Secretary of the Department of Energy (Department or DOE), in April 1993.

  13. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report period ending December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1987-10-01

    This annual report on fusion energy discusses the progress on work in the following main topics: toroidal confinement experiments; atomic physics and plasma diagnostics development; plasma theory and computing; plasma-materials interactions; plasma technology; superconducting magnet development; fusion engineering design center; materials research and development; and neutron transport. (LSP)

  14. US Army Institute of Surgical Research Annual Research Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    Cellulitis diagnosed by clinical criteria and treated with penicillin will not be grounds for exclusion from the study. Patient pairs will be excluded... mitochondrial studies. In US Army Institute of Surgical Research Annual Research Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1983. San Antonio: US Government Printing

  15. Characterization of annual disease progression of multiple sclerosis patients: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freilich, Jonatan; Manouchehrinia, Ali; Trusheim, Mark; Baird, Lynn G; Desbiens, Sophie; Berndt, Ernst; Hillert, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Previous research characterizing factors influencing multiple sclerosis (MS) disease progression has typically been based on time to disease milestones (Kaplan-Meier, Cox hazard regression, etc.). A limitation of these methods is the handling of the often large groups of patients not reaching the milestone. To characterize clinical factors influencing MS disease progression as annual transitions from each Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The annual progression of 11,964 patients from the Swedish MS Registry was analysed with 10 multinomial logistic regressions, that is, one for transition from each full EDSS with explanatory variables age, sex, age at onset, time in current EDSS, highest prior EDSS, MS course and treatment. All factors (except sex) investigated had statistically significant impacts on transitions from at least one EDSS. However, significance and size of the effect are dependent on the EDSS state of the patient. Greater age, longer time in a state, highest prior EDSS, having progressive MS and treatment had significant impacts, whereas age at onset had minor impact. Our study confirms that established factors associated with MS disease worsening in time to disease milestones also have impacts on annual progression. This approach adds granularity to what EDSS these factors have an influence.

  16. Semi-annual progress report for the period ending December 31, 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1958-01-01

    Studies were continued on radiation-induced reactions of nitrophenols and ferriprotoporphyrins. No changes in serum glycoproteins or seromucoids were detected in embryo chickens and young chicks as a result of irradiation. Progress is reported in studies on: the radiosensitivity of bacteriophages; the influence of x irradiation on thiamine transport in rat intestine; the histologic changes in bone, marrow, blood, and other body tissues due to localized ..beta.. irradiation; the effects of irradiation on nervous responses in cats; studies of fatty acid metabolism in rats; electrophoretic studies of abnormal plasma proteins; the specificity of thyroxin inhibition of acyl phosphatase; the pharmacological properties of Mellaril; the local toxicity of organic moderators for intact and abraded skin; the effects of oral quinoxaline on radiation mortality in mice; the development of leukemia and other neoplasms in mice receiving cell-free tissue extracts from a high-leukemia strain; the development of liver function tests using iodine-131-Rose Bengal; development of techniques and equipment of renograms using iodine-131 Miokon; the development of sensitive tests for the diagnosis of liver and kidney diseases; tracer studies of bone metabolism; the development of radiation detection instruments and chemical dosimeters; an underwater spark pulser, an improved illuminating system for the electron microscope; and techniques for electron microscopic studies of tissues and the spectrographic analysis of plant ash; studies on the fate and persistence of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in various locations and biological materials collected in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site; and aerial surveying for evaluation of fall-out patterns.

  17. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) research progress in 1988: Proceedings from the ninth annual EPRI NDE information meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avioli, M.J. Jr.; Dau, G.J.; Liu, S.N.; Stein, J.; Welty, C.S.

    1989-05-01

    The increasing cost of equipment for power generating plants and the potential increases in productivity and safety analysis through rapidly developing Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology led EPRI to initiate a Nondestructive Evaluation Program in 1974. To date, the major focus has been on light water reactor inspection problems; however, increased application to other systems is now underway. This report presents a comprehensive review of the EPRI effort in the NDE area. Most of the report consists of contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. An organizational plan of the program is presented in overview. In addition, organization from several viewpoints is presented, e.g., in-service inspection operators, R and D personnel, and utility representatives. As the tenth in a planned series of annual progress reports of EPRI-funded NDE activities, this report also serves as the proceedings of the Ninth Annual EPRI NDE Information Meeting held in Charlotte, North Carolina, on November 15--16, 1988. It summarizes significant progress made since the previous EPRI Special Report NP-5490-SR was issued in June 1988. Section 1 contains information about the program organization, and the sections that follow contain contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. The progress reports are grouped by plant components -- pipe, pressure vessel, and steam generator and boiler tubes. In addition, Part 5 is devoted to discussions of technology transfer.

  18. Nondestructive evaluation research progress in 1989: Proceedings from the tenth annual EPRI NDE information meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avioli, M.J. Jr.; Behravesh, M.M.; Gehl, S.M.; Liu, S.N.; Stein, J.; Welty, C.S. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The increasing cost of equipment for power generating plants and the potential increases in productivity and safety available through rapidity developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology led EPRI to initiate a Nondestructive Evaluation Program in 1974. To date, the major focus has been on light water reactor (LWR) inspection problems; however, increased application to other systems is now under way. This report presents a comprehensive review of the EPRI effort in the NDE area. Most of the report consists of contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. An organizational plan of the program is presented in overview. In addition, organization from several viewpoints is presented, e.g., in-service inspection operators, R D personnel, and utility representatives. As the eleventh in a planned series of annual progress reports of EPRI-funded NDE activities, this report also serves as the proceedings of the Tenth Annual EPRI NDE Information Meeting held in Palo Alto, California, on November 14-15, 1989. It summarizes significant progress made since the previous EPRI Special Report NP-6075-SR was issued in May 1989. Section 1 contains information about the program organization, and the sections that follow contain contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. The progress reports are grouped by plant components -- pipe and nozzle, pressure vessel, and boilers and steam generators. In addition, Part 5 is devoted to discussions of technology transfer. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  19. Republic of Congo; Joint Advisory Note on the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Annual Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This Joint Staff Advisory Note reviews the first annual progress report (APR) on implementation of the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) in the Republic of Congo. The adoption of Congo’s first full Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper was an important step toward consolidating macroeconomic stability and improved political and economic governance. The APR takes stock of the first year of PRS monitoring and implementation, and provides an update on the poverty diagnosis, and elaborates on the cen...

  20. Annual Reports Regarding Progress in Developing a Dredged Material Management Plan for the Long Island Sound Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    The site designation for the Western and Central Long Island Sound disposal sites requires the completion of a Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP) and EPA to conduct an annual review of progress toward completion of the DMMP.

  1. Radioactive fallout and neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Akar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible link between radioactivity and the occurrence of neural tube defects is a long lasting debate since the Chernobyl nuclear fallout in 1986. A recent report on the incidence of neural defects in the west coast of USA, following Fukushima disaster, brought another evidence for effect of radioactive fallout on the occurrence of NTD’s. Here a literature review was performed focusing on this special subject.

  2. Post-Chernobyl fallout in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osvath, I.; Dovlete, C. [Inst. of Environmental Research and Engineering, Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Bucharest (Romania)

    1992-07-01

    As part of the Romanian environmental radioactivity monitoring programme, fallout samples have been systematically collected and analyzed for gamma emitters. Chernobyl fallout space-time patterns. radionuclide concentration ratios and deposition velocities have been determined. The resuspension process has been studied, environmental half-lives for {sup 137}Cs and resuspension factors have been evaluated. Hot particles have been identified in some of the deposition samples. (author)

  3. Building Protection Against External Ionizing Fallout Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steven G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing external radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and indoor individuals. This protection is not well captured in current fallout risk assessment models and so the US Department of Defense is implementing the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology to improve the ability of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) model to account for building protection. This report supports the HPAC improvement effort by identifying a set of building attributes (next page) that, when collectively specified, are sufficient to calculate reasonably accurate, i.e., within a factor of 2, fallout shelter quality estimates for many individual buildings. The set of building attributes were determined by first identifying the key physics controlling building protection from fallout radiation and then assessing which building attributes are relevant to the identified physics. This approach was evaluated by developing a screening model (PFscreen) based on the identified physics and comparing the screening model results against the set of existing independent experimental, theoretical, and modeled building protection estimates. In the interests of transparency, we have developed a benchmark dataset containing (a) most of the relevant primary experimental data published by prior generations of fallout protection scientists as well as (b) the screening model results.

  4. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-12-01

    Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the VTP program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  5. Fuel performance improvement program. Quarterly/annual progress report, October 1977--September 1978. [BWR; PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouthamel, C.E. (comp.)

    1978-10-01

    This quarterly/annual report reviews and summarizes the activities performed in support of the Fuel Performance Improvement Program (FPIP) during Fiscal Year 1978 with emphasis on those activities that transpired during the quarter ending September 30, 1978. Significant progress has been made in achieving the primary objectives of the program, i.e., to demonstrate commercially viable fuel concepts with improved fuel - cladding interaction (FCI) behavior. This includes out-of-reactor experiments to support the fuel concepts being evaluated, initiation of instrumented test rod experiments in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR), and fabrication of the first series of demonstration rods for irradiation in the Big Rock Point Reactor (BRPR).

  6. Research in theoretical elementary particle physics at the University of Florida: Task A. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.; Thorn, C.B.

    1994-12-01

    This is the Annual Progress Report of the theoretical particle theory group at the University of Florida under DOE Grant DE-FG05-86ER40272. At present our group consists of four Full Professors (Field, Ramond, Thorn, Sikivie), one Associate Professor (Woodard), and two Assistant Professors (Qiu, Kennedy). In addition, we have four postdoctoral research associates and seven graduate students. The research of our group covers a broad range of topics in theoretical high energy physics including both theory and phenomenology. Included in this report is a summary of the last several years, an outline of our current research program.

  7. Health physics division annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    This annual progress report follows, as in the past, the organizational structure of the Health Physics Division. Each part is a report of work done by a section of the division: Assessment and Technology Section (Part I), headed by H.W. Dickson; Biological and Radiation Physics Section (Part II), H.A. Wright; Chemical Physics and Spectroscopy Section (Part III), W.R. Garrett; Emergency Technology Section (Part IV), C.V. Chester, Medical Physics and Internal Dosimetry Section (Part V), K.E. Cowser; and the Analytic Dosimetry and Education Group (Part VI), J.E. Turner.

  8. Nonlinear and Nonideal MHD. Final annual progress report, January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callen, James D

    2003-04-30

    This is the third and final annual progress report on the current 3-year ''Nonlinear and Nonideal MHD'' DoE grand DE-FG02-86ER53218 for the six months since the November 2002 progress report. During this grant year the funding level was $309k. The participating personnel and their approximate degree of funded involvement in this research project this grant year has been as follows: Professor J. D. Callen (PI, 1.8 months during academic year, 2.2 summer months); Professor C.C. Hegna (Co-PI: 2.3 months during academic year, 1.5 summer months); postdoc Dr. S. Gupta (100%); and graduate students A.L. Garcia-Perciante (50% RA) and X. Liu (50% RA).

  9. The UK fuel poverty strategy: 5th annual progress report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    This fifth annual progress report details government progress in 2007 in tackling fuel poverty and movement towards targets. The United Kingdom were the first country in the world to recognise the issue of fuel poverty and to put in place measures to tackle the issue, including spending 20 billion pounds sterling on benefits and programmes since the year 2000. The report covers progress to date, schemes and initiatives to tackle fuel poverty, the energy market and looks ahead to the future. Progress and development of the schemes across the devolved nations are also considered. This report is the first to publish the Government's proposals for the Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT) priority group, which were laid before Parliament on 5th December 2007. This report is the first to present the fuel poverty figures for 2005, and shows the effects of rising energy prices. The Government continues to take action to ensure that the energy market is working properly, and to encourage reform in the EU on energy market liberalisation - this should reduce pressure on prices. Those in fuel poverty have much to gain by switching supplier and this report outlines the action taken by Ofgem and Energywatch to encourage this.

  10. Prediction of the Long Term Stability of Polyester-Based Recording Media. First Annual Report, June 1982; Second Annual Report, August 1983; Progress Report, December 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel W.; And Others

    This document comprises three progress reports for a 5-year environmental aging study aimed at establishing the lifetimes of magnetic tapes and the poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) base of photographic and electronic film under archival storage conditions. The first annual report (1982) introduces the rationale for the project, provides…

  11. Fallout radiation effects analysis methodology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-31

    Fallout radiation is viewed by the weapons effects community as a potentially serious impediment to maintaining or restoring critical National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) telecommunication capabilities in a nuclear environment. The OMNCS' Electromagnetic Pulse Mitigation Program is designed, in part, to identify the survival probability (survivability) of the nation's NSEP telecommunications infrastructure against fallout radiation effects. The OMNCS (Office of the Manager National Communications System) is developing a balanced approach consisting of fallout radiation stress tests on the electronic piece-parts and the use of estimated performance measures of telecommunication network elements in network simulation models to predict user connectivity levels. It is concluded that, given limited available data, the proposed method can predict fallout radiation effects on network telecommunication equipment. The effects of fallout radiation are small at low dosage levels (bin 1 and bin 2). More pronounced variations in equipment performance were exhibited for radiation dosage in the 1k-5k Rads(Si) bin. Finally, the results indicate that by increasing the sample size to approximately 200 samples, the statistical quality of survivability predictions can be significantly improved.

  12. Ecological behavior and effects of energy related pollutants. Progress report, June 1976--August 1977. [SO2 impact on survival and stability of plant species; fallout /sup 137/Cs transfer processes in Southeastern Coastal Plain ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, R.B.; Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.; Shure, D.J.

    1977-10-25

    The impact of SO/sub 2/ on the survival and stability of plant populations and communities was studied. The results to date have an important bearing on the adequacy of current permissible ambient air levels for SO/sub 2/. Atmospheric SO/sub 2/ concentrations at near permissible levels had a significant adverse effect on sexual reproduction processes, which results in a reduced number of viable seeds, in all 8 populations tested. Implications for both natural and agricultural plant species and possible significant losses of fruit production are discussed. An ecological implication of the invisible effect of fruit and seed mortality is postulated since the life cycle of many insects and the trophic relations of numerous animals depend, at least in part, on fruit production by trees and shrubs. Hence, there is a potential for disruptive effects on ecosystem level processes. Results are also reported from four systems-oriented studies within the Lower Three Runs Creek Watershed, Savannah River Plant, to examine fallout /sup 137/Cs transfer processes in ecological systems characteristic of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. These studies were carried out within the stream and its floodplains, within floodplains along the stream gradient, in upland aquatic systems (Carolina Bays), and in the upland scrub-oak forest system. Results are discussed.

  13. Task A: Research in theoretical elementary particle physics at the University of Florida; Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.; Thorn, C.B.

    1993-11-01

    This is the Annual Progress Report of the theoretical particle theory group at the University of Florida under DoE Grant DE-FG05-86ER40272. At present our group consists of four Full Professors (Field, Ramond, Thorn, Sikivie) and three Assistant Professors (Qiu, Woodard, Kennedy). Dallas Kennedy recently joined our group increasing the Particle Theory faculty to seven. In addition, we have three postdoctoral research associates, an SSC fellow, and eight graduate students. The research of our group covers a broad range of topics in theoretical high energy physics with balance between theory and phenomenology. Included in this report is a summary of the last several years of operation of the group and an outline of our current research program.

  14. Development and application of the electrochemical etching technique. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This annual progress report documents further advances in the development and application of electrochemical etching of polycarbonate foils (ECEPF) for fast, intermediate, and thermal neutron dosimetry as well as alpha particle dosimetry. The fast (> 1.1 MeV) and thermal neutron dosimetry techniques were applied to a thorough investigation of the neutron contamination inherent in and about the primary x-ray beam of several medical therapy electron accelerators. Because of the small size of ECEPF dosimeters in comparison to other neutron meters, they have an unusually low perturbation of the radiation field under measurement. Due to this small size and the increased sensitivity of the ECEPF dosimeter over current techniques of measuring neutrons in a high photon field, the fast neutron contamination in the primary x-ray beam of all the investigated accelerators was measured with precision and found to be greater than that suggested by the other, more common, neutron dosimetry methods.

  15. Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

    2004-12-02

    This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

  16. Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, 1991--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report is DOE`s first annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress. Data presented in this report were collected from all DOE sites which met minimum threshold criteria established for this report. The fifty-seven site submittals contained herein represent data from over 100 reporting sites within 25 states. Radioactive, hazardous and sanitary waste quantities and the efforts to minimize these wastes are highlighted within the fifty-seven site submittals. In general, sites have made progress in moving beyond the planning phase of their waste minimization programs. This is evident by the overall 28 percent increase in the total amount of materials recycled from 1991 to 1992, as well as individual site initiatives. During 1991 and 1992, DOE generated a total of 279,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste and 243,000 metric tons of non-radioactive waste. These waste amounts include significant portions of process wastewater required to be reported to regulatory agencies in the state of Texas and the state of Tennessee. Specifically, the Pantex Plant in Texas treats an industrial wastewater that is considered by the Texas Water Commission to be a hazardous waste. In 1992, State regulated wastewater from the Pantex Plant represented 3,620 metric tons, 10 percent of the total hazardous waste generated by DOE. Similarly, mixed low-level wastewater from the TSCA Incinerator Facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in Tennessee represented 55 percent of the total radioactive waste generated by DOE in 1992.

  17. Radioactive Fallout From Nuclear Weapons Testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Detonating nuclear weapons above ground sends radioactive materials into the atmosphere from the ground level up to very high elevations. Overtime, these materials settle out of the atmosphere and fall to the ground. Fallout typically contains hundreds of different radionuclides. Since the end of aboveground nuclear weapons testing, radionuclides have largely decayed away.

  18. Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, E.D. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Abelin, T.; Egger, M. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)) (and others)

    1994-11-12

    Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK).

  19. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1982. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 2090. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 12 of the 14 sections of the Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report. The other 2 sections deal with educational activities. The programs discussed deal with advanced fuel energy, toxic substances, environmental impacts of various energy technologies, biomass, low-level radioactive waste management, the global carbon cycle, and aquatic and terrestrial ecology. (KRM)

  20. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.N. [ed.

    1992-04-01

    The Energy Division is one of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge Laboratory. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this annual progress report for FY 1991. The division`s total expenditures in FY 1991 were $39.1 million. The work is supported by the US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 124 technical staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The Energy Division`s programmatic activities focus on three major areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities cover energy and resource analysis, the preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, analysis of emergency preparedness for natural and technological disasters, analysis of the energy and environmental needs of developing countries, technology transfer, and analysis of civilian transportation. Energy conservation technologies include electric power systems, building equipment (thermally activated heat pumps, advanced refrigeration systems, novel cycles), building envelopes (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), and technical issues for improving energy efficiency in existing buildings. Military transportation systems concentrate on research for sponsors within the US military on improving the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination.

  1. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.N. (ed.)

    1992-04-01

    The Energy Division is one of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge Laboratory. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this annual progress report for FY 1991. The division's total expenditures in FY 1991 were $39.1 million. The work is supported by the US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 124 technical staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The Energy Division's programmatic activities focus on three major areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities cover energy and resource analysis, the preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, analysis of emergency preparedness for natural and technological disasters, analysis of the energy and environmental needs of developing countries, technology transfer, and analysis of civilian transportation. Energy conservation technologies include electric power systems, building equipment (thermally activated heat pumps, advanced refrigeration systems, novel cycles), building envelopes (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), and technical issues for improving energy efficiency in existing buildings. Military transportation systems concentrate on research for sponsors within the US military on improving the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination.

  2. Fusion Energy Division: Annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1988-11-01

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, carries out research in nearly all areas of magnetic fusion. Collaboration among staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the United States and abroad, is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source. This report documents the program's achievements during 1987. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, it also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. Highlights from program activities are included in this report. 126 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1988: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    The goals and accomplishments of the Energy Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory are described in this annual progress report for Fiscal Year (FY) 1988. The Energy Division is a multidisciplinary research organization committed to (1) increasing the knowledge and understanding of the way society makes choices in energy use and energy-using technologies, (2) improving society's understanding of the environmental implications of changes in energy technology, and (3) improving and developing new energy-efficient technologies. The Energy Division's programmatic activities focus on four major areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) transportation and decision systems research, (3) technology research and development for improving the efficiency of energy and end-use technologies, and (4) electric power systems. The Division's total expenditures in FY 1988 were $44.3 million. The work is supported by the US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 139 staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics.

  4. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1988 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1989-02-01

    The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka rehabilitation program for Lake Pend Oreille continued to show progress during 1988. Estimated kokanee abundance in early September was 10.2 million fish. This estimate is 70% higher than 1987 and 140% higher than the populations's low point in 1986. Increased population size over the past two years is the result of two consecutive strong year classes produced from high recruitment of hatchery and wild fry. High recruitment of wild fry in 1988 resulted from good parental escapement (strong year class) in 1987 and relatively high fry survival. Hatchery fry made up 51% of total fry recruitment (73% of total fry biomass), which is the largest contribution since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. High hatchery fry abundance resulted from a large release (13 million fry) from Cabinet Gorge Hatchery and excellent fry survival (29%) during their first summer in Lake Pend Oreille. Improved fry release strategies enhanced survival, which doubled from 1987 to 1988 and was ten times higher than survival in 1986. Our research goal is to maintain 30% survival so we are very optimistic, but need to replicate additional years to address annual variability. 27 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1991-07-01

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) carries out research in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US fusion program and the international fusion community. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, this report also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are carried out by other ORNL organizations (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program and discussed in this report include the following: Experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, development and testing of materials for fusion devices, and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas. Highlights from program activities are included in this report.

  6. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selden, R.H. (ed.)

    1991-06-01

    The Energy Division is one of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goals and accomplishments of the Energy Division are described in this annual progress report for FY 1990. The Energy Division is a multidisciplinary research organization committed to (1) increasing the knowledge and understanding of how societies make choices in energy use; (2) improving society's understanding of the environmental, social, and economic implications of technological change; (3) developing and transferring energy efficient technologies; and (4) developing improved transportation planning and policy. Disciplines of the 129 staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The Energy Division's programmatic activities focus on three major areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities cover energy and resource analysis, the preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, analysis of emergency preparedness for natural and technological disasters, analysis of the energy and environmental needs of developing countries, technology transfer, and analysis of civilian transportation. Energy conservation technologies include building equipment (thermally activated heat pumps, chemical heat pumps, refrigeration systems, novel cycles), building enveloped (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), retrofits for existing buildings, and electric power systems. Military transportation systems concentrate on research for sponsors within the US military on improving the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination. 48 refs., 34 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. FALLOUT RADIATION: EFFECTS ON THE SKIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R. A.; Cronkite, E. P.; Bond, V. P.

    1963-02-06

    Until recently it has been generally assumed that injury to the skin from ionizing radiation was not a serious hazard associated with the detonation of nuclear dcvices. However, in 1954 the importance of this hazard became apparent when widespread lesions of the skin developed in a large group of people accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in the Marshall Islands following the experimental detonation of a large nuclear device. The accident in the Marshall Islands affords an example of large numbers of lesions of the skin in human beings from the fallout. Studies have been documented and will be referred to frequently in this chapter. The possibility of such accidents must be considered seriously in view of the increasingly widespread use of radioisotopes.

  8. Carborne fallout mapping - STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Aarnio, P.; Nikkinen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    During the summer 1995 altogether 8,625 spectrometric and 3,108 dose-rate measurements were performed in Padasjoki Auttoinen village using carborne measuring devices. As a result {sup 137}Cs fallout and dose-rate maps were produced. The highest measured values in the test area II were 160 kBq m{sup -2} for fallout and 0.22 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} for dose-rate. One hot spot was found beside the test area (dose rate 0.31 {mu}Sv h{sup -1}). On the cultivated areas the measured count rates in {sup 137}Cs-window are three to four times lower than in the forest areas in average, indicating an altered depth profile of caesium. (au).

  9. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Counce, D.M.; Wolff, P.P. [eds.

    1993-04-01

    Energy Division`s mission is to provide innovative solutions to energy and related Issues of national and global importance through interdisciplinary research and development. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this annual progress report for FY 1992. Energy Division`s total expenditures in FY 1992 were $42.8 million. The work is supported by the US Department of Energy, the US Department of Defense, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 116.5 technical staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The division`s programmatic activities cover three main areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities involve energy and resource analysis, preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, technology transfer, analysis of energy and environmental needs in developing countries, and civilian transportation analysis. Energy conservation technologies focus on electric power systems, building envelopes (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), and methods to improve energy efficiency in existing buildings. Military transportation systems conduct research for sponsors within the US military to improve the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination. Much of Energy Division`s research is valuable to other organizations as well as to sponsors. This information is disseminated by the staff`s involvement in professional and trade organizations and workshops; joint research with universities and private-sector firms; collaboration with state and local governments; presentation of work at conferences; and publication of research results in journals, reports, and conference proceedings.

  10. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, P.P. [ed.

    1994-07-01

    One of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Energy Division`s mission is to provide innovative solutions to energy and related issues of national and global importance through interdisciplinary research and development. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this annual progress report for FY1993. Energy Division is committed to (1) understanding the mechanisms by which societies make choices in energy use; (2) improving society`s understanding of the environmental, social, and economic implications of technological change; (3) developing and transferring energy-efficient technologies; (4) improving transportation policy and planning; (5) enhancing basic knowledge in the social sciences as related to energy and associated issues. Energy Division`s expenditures in FY1993 totaled $42 million. The work was supported by the US DOE, DOD, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 126.5 technical staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and computer sciences and data systems. The division`s programmatic activities cover three main areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy use and delivery technologies, and (3) transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities involve energy and resource analysis, preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on emergency preparedness, transportation analysis, and analysis of energy and environmental needs in developing countries. Energy use and delivery technologies focus on electric power systems, building equipment, building envelopes (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), and methods to improve energy efficiency in existing buildings. Transportation systems research is conducted both to improve the quality of civilian transportation and for sponsors within the US military to improve the efficiency of deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination.

  11. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinga, K.R. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  12. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidently exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical Team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Noteworthy has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  13. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  14. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  15. Idaho Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation : Annual Progress Report February 1, 2007 - January 31, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Timothy; Johnson, June; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    River stocks of steelhead and spring/summer Chinook salmon still have significant natural reproduction and thus are the focal species for this project's investigations. The overall goal is to monitor the abundance, productivity, distribution, and stock-specific life history characteristics of naturally produced steelhead trout and Chinook salmon in Idaho (IDFG 2007). We have grouped project tasks into three objectives, as defined in our latest project proposal and most recent statement of work. The purpose of each objective involves enumerating or describing individuals within the various life stages of Snake River anadromous salmonids. By understanding the transitions between life stages and associated controlling factors, we hope to achieve a mechanistic understanding of stock-specific population dynamics. This understanding will improve mitigation and recovery efforts. Objective 1. Measure 2007 adult escapement and describe the age structure of the spawning run of naturally produced spring/summer Chinook salmon passing Lower Granite Dam. Objective 2. Monitor the juvenile production of Chinook salmon and steelhead trout for the major population groups (MPGs) within the Clearwater and Salmon subbasins. Objective 3. Evaluate life cycle survival and the freshwater productivity/production of Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon. There are two components: update/refine a stock-recruit model and estimate aggregate smolt-to-adult survival. In this annual progress report, we present technical results for work done during 2007. Part 2 contains detailed results of INPMEP aging research and estimation of smolt-to-adult return rates for wild and naturally produced Chinook salmon (Objectives 1 and 3). Part 3 is a report on the ongoing development of a stock-recruit model for the freshwater phase of spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin (Objective 3). Part 4 is a summary of the parr density data (Objective 2) collected in 2007 using the new site selection

  16. Radioactive Fallout from Terrorist Nuclear Detonations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrs, R E

    2007-05-03

    Responding correctly during the first hour after a terrorist nuclear detonation is the key to reducing casualties from a low-yield surface burst, and a correct response requires an understanding of the rapidly changing dose rate from fallout. This report provides an empirical formula for dose rate as a function of time and location that can guide the response to an unexpected nuclear detonation. At least one post-detonation radiation measurement is required if the yield and other characteristics of the detonation are unknown.

  17. FY2013 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    FY 2013 annual report focuses on the following areas: vehicle modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluations, laboratory and field evaluations, codes and standards, industry projects, and vehicle systems optimization.

  18. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area : Fiscal year 1992 annual progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1992 fiscal year. The report begins with a...

  19. Rocky Mountain Arsenal field office : Fiscal year 1989 annual progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1989 fiscal year. The report begins with a...

  20. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal year 1995 annual progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 fiscal year. The report begins with...

  1. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal year 1993 annual progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1993 fiscal year. The report begins with a...

  2. Impact of annual dosing with ivermectin on progression of onchocercal visual field loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cousens, S N; Cassels-Brown, A; Murdoch, I; Babalola, O E; Jatau, D; Alexander, N D; Evans, J E; Danboyi, P; Abiose, A; Jones, B R

    1997-01-01

    Reported are the results of a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial of annual ivermectin dosing in 34 rural communities, Kaduna State, northern Nigeria, where guinea savanna onchocerciasis is mesoendemic...

  3. Annual Progress Report of the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge and the International Wildlife Refuge Alliance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 2005 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  4. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Field Office : Fiscal year 1991 annual progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1991 fiscal year. The report begins with a...

  5. REPORTING PUPIL PROGRESS IN A CONTINUOUS PROGRESS SCHOOL. COMMITTEE REPORT, ANNUAL SUMMER WORKSHOP (VAIL, COLORADO, JUNE 7-11, 1964).

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIMNIGHT, GLEN; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT DESCRIBES THE RATIONALE OF A CONTINUOUS PROGRESS GRADING AND REPORTING SYSTEM, AND PRESENTS EXAMPLES OF THE PROPOSED REPORTING FOR A NONGRADED SYSTEM, BOTH INDIVIDUAL REPORT FORMS AND CUMULATIVE RECORD FORMS, WITH INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO USE THEM, ARE PRESENTED. (JH)

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in air and fallouts from an e-waste polluted region in southeast China: insight into levels, compositional profiles, and seasonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Junxia; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lili; Lin, Kuangfei

    2015-12-01

    Air and fallout samples were collected seasonally in an e-waste polluted region in southeast of China in 2013-2014. The annual polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) concentrations in air and fallout samples were 200 ± 162 pg m(-3) and 320 ± 255 ng g(-1), respectively. The deposition flux calculated from the fallout concentration was 110 ± 77.3 ng m(-2) day(-1). The PBDE levels and deposition fluxes of the samples deployed within the e-waste central area were three to four times higher than those in the surrounding area. The congener profiles in the air samples could be commonly found in commercial penta-BDE mixtures. BDE209 was the most dominant congener in fallout samples. Debromination processes were confirmed to occur both in the air and fallouts due to the minor amounts or inexistence of some congeners in technical PBDE products. The highest gaseous PBDE concentration was found during the summer while lowest during the autumn. PBDE concentration in fallouts turned up higher in the cold months while lower in the warm months. The similarity of deposition fluxes at sites in the e-waste central area indicated a steady PBDE emission source, whereas the significant relationship between deposition fluxes and particle weights at sites in the e-waste surrounding area suggested the scavenging of PBDEs in this area was largely associated with particles.

  7. Chernobyl fallout and cancer incidence in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Anssi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Kurttio, Päivi; Patama, Toni; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Verkasalo, Pia; Hakulinen, Timo

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since the Chernobyl accident, but its health consequences remain to be well established. Finland was one of the most heavily affected countries by the radioactive fallout outside the former Soviet Union. We analyzed the relation of the estimated external radiation exposure from the fallout to cancer incidence in Finland in 1988-2007. The study cohort comprised all ∼ 3.8 million Finns who had lived in the same dwelling for 12 months following the accident (May 1986-April 1987). Radiation exposure was estimated using data from an extensive mobile dose rate survey. Cancer incidence data were obtained for the cohort divided into four exposure categories (the lowest with the first-year committed dose effect was observed for men, or other cancer sites. Our analysis of a large cohort over two decades did not reveal an increase in cancer incidence following the Chernobyl accident, with the possible exception of colon cancer among women. The largely null findings are consistent with extrapolation from previous studies suggesting that the effect is likely to remain too small to be empirically detectable and of little public health impact.

  8. Estimation of the Adriatic sea water turnover time using fallout 90Sr as a radioactive tracer

    CERN Document Server

    Franic, Z

    2004-01-01

    Systematic, long term measurements, starting in 1963, of 90Sr activity concentrations in sea water have been performed at four locations (cities of Rovinj, Rijeka, Split and Dubrovnik) along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic sea. In addition, fallout samples were collected in the city of Zadar. 90Sr activity concentrations are in good correlation with the fallout activity, the coefficient of correlation being 0.72. After the nuclear moratorium on atmospheric nuclear bomb tests in 1960s, 90Sr activity concentrations in sea water exponentially dropped from 14.8 +/- 2.4 Bq/m3 in 1963 to 2.0 +/- 0.3 Bq/m3 in 2003. In the same period, the total annual 90Sr land surface deposit in Zadar fell by three orders of magnitude, from 713.3 Bq/m2 in 1963 to 0.4 Bq/m2 in 2003. Using strontium sea water and fallout data, a mathematical model was developed to describe the rate of change of 90Sr activity concentrations in the Adriatic sea water and estimate its mean residence time in the Adriatic. By fitting the experimental d...

  9. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shults, W.D.; Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1980-05-01

    The progress is reported in the following sections: analytical methodology, mass and emission spectrometry, technical support, bio-organic analysis, nuclear and radiochemical analysis, and quality assurance. (DLC)

  10. Idaho Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation : Annual Progress Report February 1, 2007 - January 31, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Timothy; Johnson, June; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    River stocks of steelhead and spring/summer Chinook salmon still have significant natural reproduction and thus are the focal species for this project's investigations. The overall goal is to monitor the abundance, productivity, distribution, and stock-specific life history characteristics of naturally produced steelhead trout and Chinook salmon in Idaho (IDFG 2007). We have grouped project tasks into three objectives, as defined in our latest project proposal and most recent statement of work. The purpose of each objective involves enumerating or describing individuals within the various life stages of Snake River anadromous salmonids. By understanding the transitions between life stages and associated controlling factors, we hope to achieve a mechanistic understanding of stock-specific population dynamics. This understanding will improve mitigation and recovery efforts. Objective 1. Measure 2007 adult escapement and describe the age structure of the spawning run of naturally produced spring/summer Chinook salmon passing Lower Granite Dam. Objective 2. Monitor the juvenile production of Chinook salmon and steelhead trout for the major population groups (MPGs) within the Clearwater and Salmon subbasins. Objective 3. Evaluate life cycle survival and the freshwater productivity/production of Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon. There are two components: update/refine a stock-recruit model and estimate aggregate smolt-to-adult survival. In this annual progress report, we present technical results for work done during 2007. Part 2 contains detailed results of INPMEP aging research and estimation of smolt-to-adult return rates for wild and naturally produced Chinook salmon (Objectives 1 and 3). Part 3 is a report on the ongoing development of a stock-recruit model for the freshwater phase of spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin (Objective 3). Part 4 is a summary of the parr density data (Objective 2) collected in 2007 using the new site selection

  11. Dust fallout in Kuwait city: deposition and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadhi, Jasem M; Alshuaibi, Arafat A

    2013-09-01

    Dust fallouts in Kuwait city was monitored on monthly basis during the period from March 2011 to February 2012 at 10 locations. The results of this study reveal that: (1) monthly dust deposition rates ranged from 0.002 to 0.32 kg/m(2) with average deposition rate of 0.053 kg/m(2) and annual average deposition rate of 0.59 kg/m(2), ranking the first out of 56 dust deposition rates observed throughout the world; (2) on average, about 55.9% of the settled dust have fine to very fine sand fraction sizes, while silt and clay comprise an average of 37.4 and 1.4% of the total sample, respectively; (3) the concentrations for Zn and Mo out of 15 other elements analyzed from the dust were up to 11 times higher than their soil background values in Kuwait, while Pb and Ni were about seven times higher; (4) Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn show maximum enrichment relative to the upper continental crustal component (Mn); (5) Sr, Zr and Zn show highest concretions among all collected samples; and (6) quartz and calcite were the dominant minerals in the dust samples. The distribution of the heavy metals in dust seems to be controlled mainly by the land uses and the volume of traffic emissions.

  12. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-04-01

    This annual report summarizes activities in the Aquatic Ecology, Earth Sciences, Environmental Analyses, and Terrestrial Ecology sections, as well as in the Fossil Energy, Biomass, Low-Level Waste Research and Management, and Global Carbon Cycle Programs. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each section. (ACR)

  13. Florida "State" Migrant Health Project. Third Annual Progress Report, 1965-1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Board of Health, Jacksonville.

    The Third Annual Report on the Florida Migrant Health Project covered migrant health activities engaged in by 14 counties for the period May 1, 1965, through April 30, 1966. The project was designed to develop a basic statewide program of health services for migrant farm workers and their dependents in Florida. Three of the 12 objectives included…

  14. ORNL nuclear waste programs annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    Research progress is reported in 20 activities under the headings: spent fuels, defense waste management, commercial waste management, remedial action, and conventional reactors. Separate entries were prepared for each activity.

  15. University of Florida, University research program in robotics. Annual technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, C.D. III; Tulenko, J.S.

    1994-05-01

    Progress is reported in the areas of environmental hardening, database, world modeling, vision, man-machine interface, advanced liquid metal reactor inspection robot, and articulated transporter/manipulator system (ATMS) development.

  16. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    The US DOE funded this grant to the Medical University of South Carolina for a cancer and birth defects registry for an initial three year period which was completed as of April 29, 1994. While this Technical Progress Report is prepared principally to document the activities of year 03, it also summarizes the accomplishments of the first two years in order to put into perspective the energy and progress of the program over the entire three year funding cycle.

  17. Linus Pauling and the scientific debate over fallout hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, J Christopher

    2002-12-01

    From 1954 to 1963, numerous scientists engaged in a public debate over the possible hazards from radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Nobel laureate Linus Pauling, a California Institute of Technology chemist, was one of the most prominent. His scientific papers relating to the fallout debate reveal many of the scientific, social and political issues involved in the controversy. Although the public controversy ended after the signing of the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty, many of the scientific questions about the possible hazards of low-level radiation remain under debate within the scientific community. Moreover, the fallout debate was a prototype of current controversies over environmental and public-health hazards.

  18. Annual Continuation And Progress Report For Nuclear Theory At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormand, W. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Quaglioni, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schunck, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vogt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vranas, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Nuclear Theory research under the auspices of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) is conducted within several funding sources and projects. These include base funding, and early career award, and a collaborative SciDAC-­3 award that is jointly funded by DOE/NP and the Advanced Simulations and Computations (ASC) effort within the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Therefore, this annual report is organized within the three primary sections covering these projects.

  19. Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, A. [ed.; Benner, W.H.; DePaolo, D.J.; Faybishenko, B.; Majer, E.L.; Pallavicini, M.; Russo, R.E.; Shultz, P.G.; Wan, J.

    1997-10-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was awarded eight Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This report summarizes the progress of each grant in addressing significant DOE site cleanup issues after completion of the first year of research. The technical progress made to date in each of the research projects is described in greater detail in individual progress reports. The focus of the research projects covers a diversity of areas relevant to site cleanup, including bioremediation, health effects, characterization, and mixed waste. Some of the projects cut across a number of focus areas. Three of the projects are directed toward characterization and monitoring at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, as a test case for application to other sites.

  20. Mechanism involved in trichloroethylene-induced liver cancer: Importance to environmental cleanup. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, R.J.

    1997-06-01

    'The Pacific Northwest National Lab. was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This section gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas-Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.'

  1. [Regulation of terpene metabolism]. Annual progress report, March 15, 1988--March 14, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1989-12-31

    Progress in understanding of the metabolism of monoterpenes by peppermint and spearmint is recorded including the actions of two key enzymes, geranyl pyrophosphate:limonene cyclase and a UDP-glucose dependent glucosyl transferase; concerning the ultrastructure of oil gland senescence; enzyme subcellular localization; regulation of metabolism; and tissue culture systems.

  2. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1984-05-01

    Progress and activities are reported in: analytical methodology, mass and emission spectrometry, radioactive materials analysis, bio/organic analysis, general and environmental analysis, and quality assurance and safety. Supplementary activities are also discussed, and a bibliography of publications is also included. (DLC)

  3. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory annual technical progress report of ecological research, period ending July 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaitkus, M.R.; Wein, G.R. [eds.; Johnson, G.

    1993-11-01

    This progress report gives an overview of research programs at the Savannah River Site. Topics include; environmental operations support, wood stork foraging and breeding, defense waste processing, environmental stresses, alterations in the environment due to pollutants, wetland ecology, biodiversity, pond drawdown studies, and environmental toxicology.

  4. Comparative study of radiation, chemical, and aging effects on viral transformation. Annual progress report, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggin, J.H. Jr.

    1976-03-31

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: evaluation of isotopic antiglobulin test (IAT) to detect tumor associated antigens using antisera induced by x-irradiated tumor cells; development of cytotoxic antibody for embryonic antigens (EA); acrylamide gel cell culture assay for transformation; and evaluation of 3-MCA induced sarcomas for TSTA and cross-reacting antigens. (HLW)

  5. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1985-04-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following sections: analytical methodology; mass and emission spectroscopy; radioactive materials analysis; bio/organic analysis; and general and environmental analysis; quality assurance, safety, and tabulation analyses. In addition a list of publications and oral presentations and supplemental activities are included.

  6. [Molecular cloning and structural characteristics of the R complex of maize]. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    Studies on the R complex in Maize continued Progress is discussed in the following areas: Establishing identity of R components and cloning of R components; CO allele origin; molecular organization of R-r complex; NCO allele origin; genetic analysis of R-r complex; studies of the Sn locus and reverse paramutation.

  7. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending January 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    Progress is reported in the following fields: coal chemistry, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures, geochemistry, high-temperature chemistry and thermodynamics of structural materials, chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds, separations chemistry, elecrochemistry, catalysis, chemical physics, theoretical chemistry, nuclear waste chemistry, chemistry of hazardous chemicals, and thermal energy storage.

  8. Fallout from atmospheric bomb tests and releases from nuclear installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkle, H.; Murith, C.; Surbeck, H.

    This work presents the radioactivity monitoring programme in Switzerland. Environmental radioactivity measurements for atomic bomb test fallout are discussed together with the radiation doses to the public caused by fallout. In the second part the monitoring programme around nuclear power stations is presented. The radioactivity releases to the environment, the results of the monitoring programme and the radiation doses to the public in the vicinity of the plants are discussed.

  9. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  10. Advanced MHD Algorithm for Solar and Space Science: lst Year Semi Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Dalton D.; Lionello, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    We report progress for the development of MH4D for the first and second quarters of FY2004, December 29, 2002 - June 6, 2003. The present version of MH4D can now solve the full viscous and resistive MHD equations using either an explicit or a semi-implicit time advancement algorithm. In this report we describe progress in the following areas. During the two last quarters we have presented poster at the EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly in Nice, France, April 6-11, 2003, and a poster at the 2003 International Sherwood Theory Conference in Corpus Christi, Texas, April 28-30 2003. In the area of code development, we have implemented the MHD equations and the semi-implicit algorithm. The new features have been tested.

  11. Instrumentation and Controls Division annual progress report for period ending September 1, 1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, G.S. (comp.)

    1976-08-01

    Research progress is described under the following topics: (1) pulse counting and analysis; (2) support for the thermonuclear division ORMAK project; (3) miscellaneous electronics development; (4) detectors of ionizing particles and radiation; (5) radiation monitoring; (6) support for the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator; (7) automatic control and data acquisition; (8) process instrumentation and control; (9) reactor instrumentation and controls; (10) instrumentation for reactor division experiments and test loops; (11) maintenance and service; and (12) ecological science studies. (WHK)

  12. Research in theoretical physics. Annual progress report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domokos, G.; Kovesi-Domokos, S.

    1992-12-01

    Progress made in the following areas is summarized: simulation of extensive air showers induced by interactions existing beyond the currently accepted ``Standard Model`` of elementary particle interactions; search for physics beyond the ``Standard Model`` in gluonic inclusive decays of heavy quarks; obtaining limits on the applicability of the special theory of relativity; an improved method of obtaining upper limits on the masses of primaries of extensive air showers associated with point sources in the sky. 8 figs., 1 tab., 73 refs.

  13. Geothermal drilling ad completion technology development program. Semi-annual progress report, April-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnado, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-05-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, and completion technology. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1982 and by 50% by 1986.

  14. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, W.D.

    1986-05-01

    Progress reports are presented for the four major sections of the division: analytical spectroscopy, radioactive materials laboratories, inorganic chemistry, and organic chemistry. A brief discussion of the division's role in the Laboratory's Environmental Restoration and Facilities Upgrade is given. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited.

  15. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases Annual Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    APPROACH 25. PROGRESS (Precede text of each with Security Cl"aufication Code) 23. (U) To study the basic mechanisms of action and the physiological ...neural cell system, the PC-12 rat pheochromocytoma cell, was adopted, its culture requirements were established, and assays for catecholamine uptake...M.D. BACKGROUND Small molecular weight endogenous peptides, such as neuropeptides and monokines, have major effects on the physiological control of

  16. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Annual progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnado, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-11-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

  17. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hook, R. I.; Hildebrand, S. G.; Gehrs, C. W.; Sharples, F. E.; Shriner, D. S.; Stow, S. H.; Cushman, J. H.; Kanciruk, P.

    1993-04-01

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory during fiscal year (FY) 1992, which which extended from October 1, 1991, through September 30, 1992. This report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the division`s major organizational units. Section activities are described in the Earth and Atmospheric sciences, ecosystem studies, Environmental analysis, environmental biotechnology, and division operations.

  18. Biomedical engineering support. Annual progress report, August 15, 1975--August 14, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolff, W.J.; Smith, L.M.; Sandquist, G.

    1976-12-01

    The basic goal of the ERDA Artificial Heart Program is to develop and fabricate an Artificial Heart System for animal experiments. These future experiments and studies would be directed at developing and evaluating a satisfactory radioisotope-powered system for total heart replacement in humans. Research progress is reported on the program including 11 total heart replacement experiments performed in calves using the ERDA blood pump powered by an electric motor implanted in the abdomen. (TFD)

  19. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hook, R. I.; Hildebrand, S. G.; Gehrs, C. W.; Sharples, F. E.; Shriner, D. S.; Stow, S. H.; Cushman, J. H.; Kanciruk, P.

    1993-04-01

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory during fiscal year (FY) 1992, which which extended from October 1, 1991, through September 30, 1992. This report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the division's major organizational units. Section activities are described in the Earth and Atmospheric sciences, ecosystem studies, Environmental analysis, environmental biotechnology, and division operations.

  20. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1997 through March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    This report covers progress made on research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of fossil energy technologies, covering the areas of coal, clean coal technology, gas, petroleum, and support to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; bioprocessing research; fossil fuels supplies modeling and research; and oil and gas production.

  1. 1989 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress during 1989 of states and compacts in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1989 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to Section 7(b) of Title I of Public Law 99--240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Active layer hydrology for Imnavait Creek, Toolik, Alaska. Annual progress report, July 1984--January 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, D.L.

    1986-12-31

    In the annual hydrologic cycle, snowmelt is the most significant event at Imnavait Creek located near Toolik Lake, Alaska. Precipitation that has accumulated for more than 6 months on the surface melts in a relatively short period of 7 to 10 days once sustained melting occurs. During the ablation period, runoff dominates the hydrologic cycle. Some meltwater goes to rewetting the organic soils in the active layer. The remainder is lost primarily because of evaporation, since transpiration is not a very active process at this time. Following the snowmelt period, evapotranspiration becomes the dominate process, with base flow contributing the other watershed losses. It is important to note that the water initally lost by evapotranspiration entered the organic layer during melt. This water from the snowpack ensures that each year the various plant communities will have sufficient water to start a new summer of growth.

  3. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    This eighth annual report of the Division covers work done during FY 1981 (October 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981). As with these documents in the past, the format follows approximately the organizational structure of the Energy Division. Chapters 2 through 6 summarize the activities of the sections of the Division: Environmental Impact Section, headed by H.E. Zittel; Regional and Urban Studies Section, R.M. Davis; Economic Analysis Section, R.B. Shelton; Data and Analysis Section, A.S. Loebl; and Efficiency and Renewables Research Section, J.W. Michel. In addition, work on a variety of projects which cut across section lines is reported in Chapter 7, Integrated Programs. These activities are under the supervision of T.J. Wilbanks, Associate Director for the Division. Separate abstracts are included for individual projects.

  4. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    This technical report presents the age-adjusted total, and race and sex specific geographic patterns of cancer mortality for South Carolina (SC) counties utilizing the 1953--1987 average annual age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs). The mortality information was obtained from the State Cancer Control Map and Data Program produced by the National Cancer Institute , Centers for Disease Control and the American Cancer Society. The AAMRs for selected primary sites are classified as significantly different or not significantly different from the corresponding United States and SC mortality rates. Categories for classification of the rates are determined using 95% confidence intervals. Geographic patterns of significantly high county AAMRs are identified and discussed. Individual county rates are not emphasized. The terminology, mortality rates used throughout this report pertains to the 1953--1987 AAMRS.

  5. Tracing the Iodine-129 fallout in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Niello, Jorge; Negri, Agustin; Arazi, Andres [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. TANDAR; Wallner, Anton [The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Niello, Jorge Fernandez [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Campus Miguelete, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Long-lived {sup 129}I (half-life=15.6 Ma) is produced naturally by irradiation of atmospheric xenon by cosmic neutrons and in the sub-surface by spontaneous fission of {sup 238}U, from which the natural inventory of {sup 129}I has been estimated to be around 50,000 kg, only 140 kg of them corresponds to the hydrospheric inventory. Nuclear tests and accidents have added between 45-130 kg. Apart from a global atmospheric fallout component, {sup 129}I has been released from several nuclear fuel reprocessing plants located in the Northern Hemisphere (ca. 6000 kg) which serve as localized sources in oceanographic-tracer experiments. In this presentation, we report results from a study exploring the presence of {sup 129}I in the Southern Hemisphere by determining {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I isotopic ratios in water samples (rivers, lakes and shallow sea-water) taken at different latitudes in Argentina including Antarctica. The iodine-127 and iodine-129 concentrations were measured via ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), respectively. Distribution of both isotopes can be understood considering tropospheric circulation patterns, possible sources and regional precipitation patterns. Natural and anthropogenic sources for the Southern Hemisphere and their inventories are discussed. Similar contribution came from natural sources and nuclear tests. Contribution from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants placed in the Northern hemisphere can be neglected. (author)

  6. Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, H.L.; Anderson, A.D.

    1977-12-01

    This is the first annual report issued under a project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in-situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. Briefly, the goals of the project are to: evaluate the toxicity of process water effluents on aquatic biota; recommend maximum exposure concentrations for process water constituents; and assist DOE in using project data and recommendations to design control technologies and to assess environmental impacts. The project objectives for Year 1 were pursued through the following five tasks: a literature review on process water constituents; toxicity studies on the effect of process waters and six process water constituents on aquatic biota; degradation rate studies on four to six process water constituents; bioaccumulation studies on four to six process water constituents; and recommendations on maximum exposure concentrations for process water constituents based on data from the project and from the literature. Progress toward completion of these goals is presented.

  7. Fallout Radionuclides as Tracers in Southern Alps Sediment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, A. E.; Karanovic, Z.; Dibb, J. E.

    2005-12-01

    The primary geologic processes shaping the landscape are physical and chemical weathering and the transport of solids by erosion. As part of our studies on the coupling between physical erosion and chemical weathering, we have determined depositional and erosional processes in New Zealand's tectonically active, rapidly uplifting Southern Alps, specifically focusing on the Hokitika River watershed. The South Island watersheds we are studying are subject to extreme orographic precipitation (as high as 7-12 m annually) and high landslide frequency, but have modest topography due to the rapid erosion. In concert with our studies of chemical weathering and physical erosion, we have used the atmospherically-delivered radionuclides of 7Be, 137Cs and 210Pbexcess to determine the relative magnitude of particle residence time in the high elevation Cropp and Whitcombe subwatersheds and the rates of sedimentation. One- and two-box modeling with 7Be and 210Pbexcess was used to determine soil and sediment residence times. Residence time of fine suspended particles is short and particles can travel the length of the river during a single storm, probably due to the short duration, high-intensity rainfalls which produce rapidly moving, steep flood waves. The readily detected peak of 137Cs activity in Cropp terrace and Hokitika gorge soils yielded sedimentation rates of 0.06-0.12 cm yr-1. At the Cropp terrace, inventory models of 210Pbexcess yield soil accumulation rates significantly less than those determined using the 137Cs activity peak. We attribute the differences to overestimation of 210Pbexcess in surface soils and to contrasting fallout fluxes, geochemical behavior and radionuclide contents of sedimenting materials. Total inventories of 210Pbexcess in soils greatly exceed the expected direct atmospheric deposition, suggesting that lateral transport of this nuclide occurs within the watershed. At the Hokitika gorge, all nuclides studied yielded similar sedimentation rates

  8. Long-Term Consequences of Radioactive Fallout From Conflicts Involving Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S. L.; Bouville, A.

    2006-12-01

    This presentation will summarize past exposures of the public to radioactive fallout from nuclear testing and extrapolate to the possible fallout-related consequences from detonation of multiple warheads that might accompany international conflicts. Long-term consequences could be of three distinct types: (1) the abandonment of living areas that might be heavily contaminated; (2) the necessity to curtail use of particular agricultural products and foods, and (3) life-shortening due to increased rates of cancer and possibly some non-cancer diseases among the exposed populations. While the actual health and economic impact on the surviving public after such conflicts could vary tremendously depending on the number and sizes of explosions (fission yields), height of detonations, and the public's proximity to explosion sites, it is clear that multiple detonations would disperse radioactive products over large geographic areas. Our understanding of radioactive fallout is based on studies carried out for more than five decades on weapons testing fallout that originated from sites worldwide including Nevada, the Soviet Union, four locations in the Pacific, and elsewhere. Those studies have led to an understanding of the composition of radioactive fallout, of its radioactive qualities, and of its capacity to contaminate ground and agricultural products, as well as dwellings and workplaces located from a few km to tens of thousands of km from the explosion site. Though the most severe individual health consequences from exposure to fallout would most likely develop relatively close to the detonation sites (within a few hundred km), wide geographic distribution of fallout, well beyond the borders of the nations involved in the conflict, would affect much larger populations and would likely cause elevated cancer rates and cancer-related deaths among them for many decades following. While acute radiation symptoms (and even death) can result from very high short-term exposures

  9. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. Theresearch in physics is concentrated on neutron...... and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small...

  10. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 2000 are presented in this progress report. Theresearch in physics is concentrated on neutron...... and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures.The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small...

  11. Geothermal Energy R&D Program Annual Progress Report Fiscal Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-04-01

    In this report, the DOE Geothermal Program activities were split between Core Research and Industrial Development. The technical areas covered are: Exploration Technology, Drilling Technology, Reservoir Technology (including Hot Dry Rock Research and The Geyser Cooperation), and Conversion Technology (power plants, materials, and direct use/direct heat). Work to design the Lake County effluent pipeline to help recharge The Geysers shows up here for the first time. This Progress Report is another of the documents that are reasonable starting points in understanding many of the details of the DOE Geothermal Program. (DJE 2005)

  12. 2011 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  13. Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT): Semi-Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D N

    2012-02-29

    This report summarizes work carried out by the Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) Team for the period of July 1, 2011 through December 31, 2011. It discusses highlights, overall progress, period goals, and collaborations and lists papers and presentations. The UV-CDAT team is positioned to address the following high-level visualization requirements: (1) Alternative parallel streaming statistics and analysis pipelines - Data parallelism, Task parallelism, Visualization parallelism; (2) Optimized parallel input/output (I/O); (3) Remote interactive execution; (4) Advanced intercomparison visualization; (5) Data provenance processing and capture; and (6) Interfaces for scientists - Workflow data analysis and visualization construction tools, Visualization interfaces.

  14. FY 2014 Annual Progress Report - Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  15. Compilation of 1986 annual reports of the Navy ELF (extremely low frequency) communications system ecological-monitoring program. Volume 1. Tabs A-C. Annual progress report, January-December 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-07-01

    This is the fifth compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. This report documents the progress of the following studies: Herbaceous Plant Cover and Tree Studies; Litter Decomposition and Microflora; and The Effects of Exposing the Slime Mold Physarum Polycephalum to Electromagnetic Fields.

  16. Pu isotopes in soils collected downwind from Lop Nor: regional fallout vs. global fallout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Ni, Youyi; Guo, Qiuju; Zheng, Jian; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-07-01

    For the first time, soil core samples from the Jiuquan region have been analyzed for Pu isotopes for radioactive source identification and radiological assessment. The Jiuquan region is in downwind from the Lop Nor Chinese nuclear test (CNT) site. The high Pu inventories (13 to 546 Bq/m2) in most of the sampling locations revealed that this region was heterogeneously contaminated by the regional fallout Pu from the CNTs. The contributions of the CNTs to the total Pu in soils were estimated to be more than 40% in most cases. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the soils ranged from 0.059 to 0.186 with an inventory-weighted average of 0.158, slightly lower than that of global fallout. This atom ratio could be considered as a mixed fingerprint of Pu from the CNTs. In addition, Pu in soils of Jiuquan region had a faster downward migration rate compared with other investigated places in China.

  17. Pu isotopes in soils collected downwind from Lop Nor: regional fallout vs. global fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Ni, Youyi; Guo, Qiuju; Zheng, Jian; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-07-17

    For the first time, soil core samples from the Jiuquan region have been analyzed for Pu isotopes for radioactive source identification and radiological assessment. The Jiuquan region is in downwind from the Lop Nor Chinese nuclear test (CNT) site. The high Pu inventories (13 to 546 Bq/m(2)) in most of the sampling locations revealed that this region was heterogeneously contaminated by the regional fallout Pu from the CNTs. The contributions of the CNTs to the total Pu in soils were estimated to be more than 40% in most cases. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the soils ranged from 0.059 to 0.186 with an inventory-weighted average of 0.158, slightly lower than that of global fallout. This atom ratio could be considered as a mixed fingerprint of Pu from the CNTs. In addition, Pu in soils of Jiuquan region had a faster downward migration rate compared with other investigated places in China.

  18. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research. Annual progress report, September 1, 1991--September 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    Progress in the various components of the UCLA High-Energy Physics Research program is summarized, including some representative figures and lists of resulting presentations and published papers. Principal efforts were directed at the following: (I) UCLA hadronization model, PEP4/9 e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} analysis, {bar P} decay; (II) ICARUS and astroparticle physics (physics goals, technical progress on electronics, data acquisition, and detector performance, long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to the Gran Sasso and ICARUS, future ICARUS program, and WIMP experiment with xenon), B physics with hadron beams and colliders, high-energy collider physics, and the {phi} factory project; (III) theoretical high-energy physics; (IV) H dibaryon search, search for K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {pi}{sup 0}{nu}{bar {nu}}, and detector design and construction for the FNAL-KTeV project; (V) UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab; and (VI) VLPC/scintillating fiber R & D.

  19. Magnetics and superconductivity section annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, M. S.; Dresner, L.

    1977-06-01

    The Magnetics and Superconductivity Section has the responsibility for developing superconducting magnet systems for tokamak fusion machines. This is being accomplished by carrying out those research and development needs which will provide the physics understanding and engineering data necessary to design, fabricate, and test large toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) coils. This information, in addition, supports the Large Coil Program (LCP). A number of design projects have been performed, some in support of other programs and some of a continuing nature. These efforts support the goals and requirements for both the TF and PF magnet systems. Examples are the magnet designs for the EPR, Demo, EBTR, EBT-II, and preliminary scoping for the INS project. The principal effort was expended on the iteration of the EPR Reference Design. Three features of the original reference design--the honeycomb coil structure, the oval coil shape, and the forced-flow cooling of the conductor by supercritical helium--remain as key features of the TF coils. Considerable progress has been made in the theoretical understanding of forced-flow-cooled conductors, and optimized designs with maximum stability margin can be designed to meet specific applications. Experiments which will test the theory are in progress.

  20. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory during the period October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. The report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the division`s major organizational units. Following the sections describing the organizational units is a section devoted to lists of information necessary to convey the scope of the work in the division. The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts environmental research and analyses associated with both energy technology development and the interactions between people and the environment. The division engages in basic and applied research for a diverse list of sponsors. While the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the primary sponsor ESD staff also perform research for other federal agencies, state agencies, and private industry. The division works collaboratively with federal agencies, universities, and private organizations in achieving its research objectives and hosts a large number of visiting investigators from these organizations. Given the diverse interdisciplinary specialization of its staff, ESD provides technical expertise on complex environmental problems and renders technical leadership for major environmental issues of national and local concern. This progress report highlights many of ESD`s accomplishment in these and other areas in FY 1991.

  1. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory during the period October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. The report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the division's major organizational units. Following the sections describing the organizational units is a section devoted to lists of information necessary to convey the scope of the work in the division. The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts environmental research and analyses associated with both energy technology development and the interactions between people and the environment. The division engages in basic and applied research for a diverse list of sponsors. While the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the primary sponsor ESD staff also perform research for other federal agencies, state agencies, and private industry. The division works collaboratively with federal agencies, universities, and private organizations in achieving its research objectives and hosts a large number of visiting investigators from these organizations. Given the diverse interdisciplinary specialization of its staff, ESD provides technical expertise on complex environmental problems and renders technical leadership for major environmental issues of national and local concern. This progress report highlights many of ESD's accomplishment in these and other areas in FY 1991.

  2. Terrestrial photovoltaic power systems with sunlight concentration. Annual progress report, January 1, 1975--December 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, C.E.

    1976-01-31

    This annual report is for the second year of a program to investigate the characteristics of the components and the total system using sunlight concentrated onto solar cells. The second year was primarily to experimentally investigate the conclusions of the first year of analytical studies. Cells have been fabricated that are designed for different intensities. Typically the efficiency of a cell will increase from its 11 percent at AM1 peak to efficiency at the designed concentration level and return to its initial efficiency at about 3 times its designed concentration level. The developed cells have been tested under high intensity simulators and in concentrated sunlight and have shown to have the predicted response. The experimental testing of passive cooling limitations for cooling cells with just finned arrangements in the back of the cell has been completed in the controlled environment of a wind tunnel. These experiments have confirmed the heat transfer coefficients that had been used in the analytical studies. Testing was done to collect heat transfer coefficients for actual wind conditions and these data show good agreement with the controlled wind tunnel data. Four photovoltaic/concentrator system experiments have been started with CR of about 3, 10, 25, and 100. System analysis has indicated that photovoltaic concentration systems may be attractive in low solar irradiation areas such as Cleveland.

  3. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual technical progress report of ecological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.H.

    1996-07-31

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA). The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Significant accomplishments were made during the past year in the areas of research, education and service. The Laboratory`s research mission was fulfilled with the publication of two books and 143 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical and students, and visiting scientists. An additional three books and about 80 journal articles currently are in press. Faculty, technician and students presented 193 lectures, scientific presentations, and posters to colleges and universities, including minority institutions. Dr. J Vaun McArthur organized and conducted the Third Annual SREL Symposium on the Environment: New Concepts in Strewn Ecology: An Integrative Approach. Dr. Michael Newman conducted a 5-day course titled Quantitative Methods in Ecotoxicology, and Dr. Brian Teppen of The Advanced Analytical Center for Environmental Sciences (AACES) taught a 3-day short course titled Introduction to Molecular Modeling of Environmental Systems. Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin co-hosted a meeting of the Crocodile Special Interest Group. Dr. Rebecca Sharitz attended four symposia in Japan during May and June 1996 and conducted meetings of the Executive Committee and Board of the International Association for Ecology (ENTECOL).

  4. National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems 2012 Annual Report: A Year of Progress and Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Doreswamy, Rajiv; Fry, Emma Kiele

    2013-01-01

    The National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems (NIRPS) maintains and advances U.S. leadership in all aspects of rocket propulsion for defense, civil, and commercial uses. The Institute's creation is in response to widely acknowledged concerns about the U.S. rocket propulsion base dating back more than a decade. U.S. leadership in rocket and missile propulsion is threatened by long-term industry downsizing, a shortage of new solid and liquid propulsion programs, limited ability to attract and retain fresh talent, and discretionary federal budget pressures. Numerous trade and independent studies cite erosion of this capability as a threat to national security and the U.S. economy resulting in a loss of global competitiveness for the U.S. propulsion industry. This report covers the period between May 2011 and December 2012, which includes the creation and transition to operations of NIRPS. All subsequent reports will be annual. The year 2012 has been an eventful one for NIRPS. In its first full year, the new team overcame many obstacles and explored opportunities to ensure the institute has a firm foundation for the future. NIRPS is now an active organization making contributions to the development, sustainment, and strategy of the rocket propulsion industry in the United States. This report describes the actions taken by the NIRPS team to determine the strategy, organizational structure, and goals of the Institute. It also highlights key accomplishments, collaborations with other organizations, and the strategic framework for the Institute.

  5. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigation : Stock Status of Burbot : Project Progress Report 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Valughn L.; Laude Dorothy C.

    2008-12-26

    Objectives of this investigation were to (1) monitor the population status and recruitment of burbot Lota lota in the Kootenai River, Idaho and British Columbia, Canada during the winter of 2006-2007; (2) evaluate the selective withdrawal system in place at Libby Dam to maintain the river temperature near Bonners Ferry between 1-4 C (November-December) to improve burbot migration and spawning activity; and (3) determine if a hatching success of 10% of eyed burbot embryos could be achieved through extensive rearing and produce fingerlings averaging 9.8 cm in six months. Water temperature did not fall below the upper limit (4 C) until mid-January but was usually maintained between 1-4 C January through February and was acceptable. Snowpack was characterized by a 101% of normal January runoff forecast. Adult burbot were sampled with hoop nets and slat traps. Only three burbot were captured in hoop nets, all at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.5). No burbot were caught in either slat traps or juvenile sampling gear, indicating the population is nearly extirpated. Burbot catch per unit effort in hoop nets was 0.003 fish/net d. Extensive rearing was moved to a smaller private pond and will be reported in the 2008-2009 annual report.

  6. Solar thermal hydrogen production process. Annual technical progress report, January-December, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    Westinghouse is currently under contract to DOE for technology development of the Sulfur Cycle, a hybrid thermochemical-electrochemical process for the production of hydrogen and oxygen from water. Operational studies have been conducted and have resulted in definitions of operating modes for solar/hydrogen plants and in assessments of the day/night and annual variations in performance that will influence the operating modes and the sizing of plant subsystems. Conceptual design studies have been conducted for process components that interface with the solar receiver. From related trade-off studies, a preferred configuration emerged that involves an intermediate working fluid (e.g., hot gas) between the solar receiver and the sulfuric acid decomposition reactor. The design of the reactor has been based on a shell and tube type heat exchanger configuration with catalyst placement on the shell side. A number of candidate materials for structural use in the acid decomposition reactor also have been evaluated experimentally. Screening tests and endurance tests with potential catalysts (to accelerate the rate of sulfur trioxide cracking) have been conducted with encouraging results. Approximately three dozen candidate materials for use in constructing the acid vaporizer have been tested for corrosion resistance to the expected environment. Detailed discussions of the results obtained during 1979 are presented.

  7. Code development incorporating environmental, safety and economic aspects of fusion reactors; Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T.K.; Greenspan, E.; Holdren, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    This document is a proposal to continue the authors work on the Environmental, Safety and Economic (ESE) aspects of fusion reactors under DOE contract DE-FR03-89ER52514. The grant objectives continue those from the previous grant: (1) completion of first-generation Environmental, Safety and Economic (ESE) computer modules suitable as integral components of tokamak systems codes. (2) continuation of work on special topics, in support of the above and in response to OFE requests. The proposal also highlights progress on the contract in the twelve months since April, 1992. This has included work with the ARIES and ITER design teams, work on tritium management, studies on materials activation, and calculation of radioactive inventories in fusion reactors.

  8. Analytical Chemistry Division. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W. S. [ed.

    1982-04-01

    The functions of the Analytical Chemistry Division fall into three general categories: (1) analytical research, development, and implementation; (2) programmatic research, development and utilization; (3) technical support. The Division is organized into five major sections each of which may carry out any type of work falling into the thre categories mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 5 of this report highlight progress within the five sections which are: analytical methodology; mass and emission spectrometry; analytical technical support; bio/organic analysis section; and nuclear and radiochemical analysis. A short summary introduces each chapter to indicate work scope. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Chapter 7 covers supplementary activities. Chapter 8 is on presentation of research results (publications, articles reviewed or referred for periodicals). Approximately 56 articles, 31 proceedings publications and 33 reports have been published, and 119 oral presentations given during this reporting period.

  9. Air pollution effects on food quality. 2nd annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pell, E.J.

    1979-02-01

    Progress is reported in studies to determine the effect of acute, toxic exposures of ozone to alfalfa, potato, and soybean plants. The objective has been to correlate the foliar response with alterations in quality of the edible portion of the plant viz. the leaf, tuber and seed of alfalfa, potato and soybean, respectively. In 1977 we (1) modified our fumigation facilities, (2) developed protocol for studies with alfalfa and potato, and (3) conducted studies on flavonoid status of alfalfa and a series of parameters of potato tubers. In 1978 we (1) conducted more indepth studies with alfalfa, (2) repeated the potato study, (3) began to develop protocol for measuring additional parameters of alfalfa and potato quality, and (4) developed protocol for cultivating and exposing soybean plants.

  10. Annual progress report of the Department of Solid State Physics 1 January -31 December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, M.; Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans`l, R.; Johannsen, I.

    1997-01-01

    Research in the department is concerned with `Materials with Distinct Physical and Chemical Properties`. The principal activities of the department in the period from 1 January to 31 December, 1996, are presented in this Progress Report. Neutron and x-ray diffraction techniques are used to study a wide variety of problems in condensed matter physics and include: two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering, heavy fermions, high T{sub c} superconductivity, phase transitions in model systems, precipitation phenomena, and nano-scale structures in various materials. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Related to these problems there is work going on in theory, Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au) 6 tabs., 144 ills., 197 refs.

  11. MHD air heater technology development. Annual technical progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    Progress on the technology development of the directly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) for MHD power plants is described in detail. The objective of task 1 is to continue development of ceramic materials technology for the directly-fired HTAH. The objectives of task 2 are to demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating a directly-fired HTAH (including both the heater matrix and valves), to continue obtaining information on life and corrosion resistance of HTAH materials, and to obtain design information for full-scale studies and future design work. The objectives of task 3 are to begin the identification of HTAH control requirements and control system needs, and to continue full-scale study efforts incorporating updated materials and design information in order to identify development needs for the HTAH development program. (WHK)

  12. Hydrogen storage and production in utility systems. Second annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzano, F.J. (ed.)

    1975-08-01

    Progress in the following three areas is reported: engineering analysis and design; hydrogen production and auxiliaries; and hydrogen storage development. Process designs for the 26-MW electric storage facility were completed. Work to determine the allowed break-even capital cost of ''black box'' electric storage devices is completed. Studies of the performance and temperature dependence of power consumption versus current density were completed for the Solid Polymer Electrolyte and KOH small multi-cell modules. Test Bed A-1, for long-term attrition studies, was operated for 1200 hydride-dehydride cycles. About 60 percent of the starting FeTi alloy suffered a factor of ten size reduction, but the ability to absorb hydrogen showed no decrease. (LK)

  13. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans`l, R.; Johannsen, I. [eds.

    1998-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1997 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics in concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems in undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au). 129 ills., 213 refs.

  14. Annual progress report of the Department of Solid State Physics 1 January - 31 December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, M.; Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans`l, R.; Johannsen, I. [eds.

    1996-01-01

    Research in the department is concerned with `Materials with Distinct Physical and Chemical Properties`. The principal activities of the department in the period from 1 January to 31 December, 1995, are presented in this Progress Report. Neutron and x-ray diffraction techniques are used to study a wide variety of problems in condensed matter physics and include: two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering, heavy fermions, high T{sub c} superconductivity, phase transitions in model systems, precipitation phenomena, and nano-scale structures in various materials. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Related to these problems there is work going on in theory, Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au) 5 tabs., 135 ills., 163 refs.

  15. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory during fiscal year (FY) 1993, which extended from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1993. The report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the division`s major organizational units. Following the sections describing the organizational units are sections highlighting ESD Scientific, Technical, and Administrative Achievement awards and listing information necessary to convey the scope of the work in the division. An organizational chart of staff and long-term guests who were in ESD and the end of FY 1993 is located in the final section of the report.

  16. Nuclear powered satellite studies. Annual progress report, July 1, 1976--June 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M.H.

    1977-06-01

    Progress achieved during the period July 1, 1976 to June 30, 1977 is reported. Discussions of several pertinent aspects are included, e.g., schedule, personnel, technology developments, and plans. The reporting period is the first year of activities of a project which is designed to provide continuing support to the Nuclear Research and Applications Division of ERDA. Thus, a significant effort has been made to establish appropriate staff positions and liaison ties with government and industry. Technology developments were achieved and communicated to the scientific community via publications and presentations. Project personnel also participated in design reviews and provided support to ERDA on a real-time basis. The report is intended to summarize activities over the past year and provides a basis for continued project support by ERDA.

  17. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1994 through March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1994, through March 31, 1995, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, and DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Bartlesville Project Office, and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The following research areas are covered in this report: Materials research and development; Environmental analysis support; Bioprocessing research; Coal combustion research; and Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science an Technology database.

  18. Instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants. Annual technical progress report, October 1976--September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeSage, L. G.; O' Fallon, N. M.

    1977-10-01

    Progress on Instrumentation and Process Control for Fossil Demonstration Plants (FDP) is reported. Work has been performed on updating the study of the state-of-the-art of instrumentation for FDP, development of mass-flow and other on-line instruments for FDP, process control analysis for FDP, and organization of a symposium on instrumentation and control for FDP. A Solids/Gas Flow Test Facility (S/GFTF) under construction for instrument development, testing, evaluation, and calibration is described. The development work for several mass-flow and other on-line instruments is described: acoustic flowmeter, capacitive density flowmeter, neutron activation flowmeter, gamma ray correlation flowmeter, optical flowmeter, composition analysis system, and capacitive liquid interface level meter.

  19. Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides information on the progress of activities during fiscal year 1993 in the Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). As a new program, efforts are just getting underway toward addressing major issues related to the fuel and waste stored at the ICPP. The SF&WMTDP has the following principal objectives: Investigate direct dispositioning of spent fuel, striving for one acceptable waste form; determine the best treatment process(es) for liquid and calcine wastes to minimize the volume of high level radioactive waste (HLW) and low level waste (LLW); demonstrate the integrated operability and maintainability of selected treatment and immobilization processes; and assure that implementation of the selected waste treatment process is environmentally acceptable, ensures public and worker safety, and is economically feasible.

  20. Fossil Energy Program Annual Progress Report for the Period April 1, 2000 through March 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, RR

    2001-06-14

    This report covers progress made at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of fossil energy technologies. Projects on the ORNL Fossil Energy Program are supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program, the DOE National Petroleum Technology Office, and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The ORNL Fossil Energy Program research and development activities cover the areas of coal, clean coal technology, gas, petroleum, and support to the SPR. An important part of the Fossil Energy Program is technical management of all activities on the DOE Fossil Energy Advanced Research (AR) Materials Program. The AR Materials Program involves research at other DOE and government laboratories, at universities, and at industrial organizations.

  1. Metals and Ceramics Division materials science annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHargue, C.J. (comp.)

    1977-09-01

    Progress is reported for research programs in the metals and ceramics division of ORNL. In structure of materials, theoretical research, x-ray diffraction studies, studies of erosion of ceramics, preparation and synthesis of high temperature and special service materials, and studies of stabilities of microphases in high-temperature structural materials. Research into deformation and mechanical properties included physical metallurgy, and grain boundary segregation and embrittlement. Physical properties and transport phenomena were studied and included mechanisms of surface and solid state reactions, and properties of superconducting materials. The radiation effects program, directed at understanding the effects of composition and microstructure on the structure and properties of materials irradiated at elevated temperatures, is also described. (GHT)

  2. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1993 through March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1993, through March 31, 1994, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Bartlesville Project Office, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. The five areas of research covered in this report are: Materials research and development; Environmental analysis and support; Bioprocessing; Coal combustion; and Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department. 1 January - 31 December 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebech, B. [ed.

    2000-02-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scalestructures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  4. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans`l, R.; Johannsen, I. [eds.

    1999-04-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1998 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au) 2 tabs., 142 ills., 169 refs.

  5. Spray forming -- Aluminum: Third annual report (Phase 2). Technical progress -- Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozarek, R.L.

    1998-04-20

    Commercial production of aluminum sheet and plate by spray atomization and deposition is a potentially attractive manufacturing alternative to conventional ingot metallurgy/hot-milling and to continuous casting processes because of reduced energy requirements and reduced cost. To realize the full potential of the technology, the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa), under contract by the US Department of Energy, is investigating currently available state-of-the-art atomization devices to develop nozzle design concepts whose spray characteristics are tailored for continuous sheet production. This third technical progress report will summarize research and development work conducted during the period 1997 October through 1998 March. Included are the latest optimization work on the Alcoa III nozzle, results of spray forming runs with 6111 aluminum alloy and preliminary rolling trials of 6111 deposits.

  6. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory during fiscal year (FY) 1994, which extended from October 1, 1993, through September 30, 1994. The report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the division`s major organizational units. Following the sections describing the organizational units are sections highlighting ESD Scientific, Technical, and Administrative Achievement awards and listing information necessary to covey the scope of the work in the division. An organizational chart of staff and long-term guests who wee in ESD at the end of FY 1994 is located in the final section of the report.

  7. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department. 1 January - 31 December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebech, B. [ed.

    2001-03-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 2000 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  8. ELDOR investigations of radiation processes. Annual progress report, 1980-1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Progress reports for this period are in the following areas of study: relaxation processes; and crystal field variation. Even though it is difficult to obtain accurate relaxation times from electrospin resonance (EPR) spectra they are needed for numerous experiments. Currently one of the best ways to obtain good T/sub 1//sub e/, T/sub 2//sub e/ and T/sub n/ values is from spin echo measurements. This past year, electron spin echo (ESE) measurements were again carried out at Argonne National Labs to deduce T/sub 1//sub e/, T/sub 2//sub e/ and spin exchange rates as a function of temperatures for several model compounds. More exact and complete data due to better data handling systems were obtained from two protons undergoing hopping rotation (CH/sub 2/COO/sup -/ in zinc acetate), for two methyl groups undergoing rotational exchange ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/CCOOH in ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid) and for two fluorine nuclei undergoing librational motion. So far, the temperature dependence of the ESE derived relaxation times show excellent agreement with the temperature dependence deduced from ELDOR measurements. Experiments involving the effect of variable wavelength uv light on the stability and reactivity of radicals in irradiated crystals has resulted in the identification of one photo induced process and the free radicals involved. However, the progress has been slow due to difficulties with the construction of key components of the equipment required. The effort to understand solid-state polymerization in considerable detail was expanded to the study of free radical induced solid-state polymerization by diffusing gaseous electron acceptors such as AsF/sub 5/, SbF/sub 5/ or SO/sub 3/ into various crystals/powders. The free radicals intermediates in thermally polymerized phenylacetylene were identified in an effort to examine thermally produced free radicals.

  9. Studies of carbon--isotope fractionation. Annual progress report, December 1, 1974--November 30, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, T.

    1975-12-01

    The vapor pressure isotope effect of /sup 13/C//sup 12/C-substitution in CClF/sub 3/ was measured at temperatures between 169/sup 0/ and 206/sup 0/K by means of cryogenic distillation. The /sup 13/C//sup 12/C-vapor pressure isotope effect in CHF/sub 3/ was also studied at temperatures between 161/sup 0/ and 205/sup 0/K by a similar method. The construction of a cryostat has progressed as scheduled. The investigation of carbon isotope exchange equilibria between carbon dioxide and various carbamates dissolved in various organic solvents has continued. The five-stage system of Taylor-Ghate design was improved to shorten the transient time. A single stage apparatus was designed, built, and tested. These systems are used to measure the equilibrium constants and various phase equilibria involved in the carbon dioxide--carbamate system. The investigation of the explicit method of total isotope effect has made progress. A satisfactory approximation was found for the classical partition function of a Morse oscillator. The method gives a reasonable result at rho identical with /sup 1///sub 2/..sqrt..(u/sub e//x/sub e/) greater than 1.5. The medium cluster approach was applied to isotopic methanes to investigate the effects of intermolecular distance and mutual orientations of molecules in the liquid upon vapor pressure isotope effect. It was found that all geometrical effects studied tend to vanish as the size of clusters is increased. Isotope effect in the zero-point energy shifts on condensation was calculated on the basis of London dispersion forces in liquid and a semi-empirical molecular orbital theory, and was favorably compared with experimental results. (auth)

  10. The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2008 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contor, Craig R.; Harris, Robin; King, Marty [Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

    2009-06-10

    The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPMEP) is funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P.L.96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). The UBNPMEP is coordinated with two Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) research projects that also monitor and evaluate the success of the Umatilla Fisheries Restoration Plan. This project deals with the natural production component of the plan, and the ODFW projects evaluate hatchery operations (project No. 1990-005-00, Umatilla Hatchery M & E) and smolt outmigration (project No. 1989-024-01, Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River). Collectively these three projects monitor and evaluate natural and hatchery salmonid production in the Umatilla River Basin. The need for natural production monitoring has been identified in multiple planning documents including Wy-Kan-Ush-Mi Wa-Kish-Wit Volume I, 5b-13 (CRITFC 1996), the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 1990), the Umatilla Basin Annual Operation Plan, the Umatilla Subbasin Summary (CTUIR & ODFW 2001), the Subbasin Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 2004), and the Comprehensive Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 2006). Natural production monitoring and evaluation is also consistent with Section III, Basinwide Provisions, Strategy 9 of the 2000 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, NPCC 2004). The Umatilla Basin M&E plan developed along with efforts to restore natural populations of spring and fall Chinook salmon, (Oncorhynchus tshawytsha), coho

  11. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout (236)U and (239)Pu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Steier, P; Wallner, G; Fifield, L K

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic (236)U and (239)Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954-1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA(®). The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations, the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high (236)U/(238)U ratios of the order of 10(-6) were observed. These measured ratios, where the (236)U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the (236)U/(238)U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment.

  12. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Five of the 18 redds spawned by captive-reared parents were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from four of these, and survival to this stage ranged from 0%-89%. Expanding these results to the remaining redds produced an estimate of 15,000 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish.

  13. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a large and diversified organization. As such, it serves a multitude of functions for a clientele that exists both in and outside of ORNL. These functions fall into the following general categories: Analytical Research, Development and Implementation; Programmatic Research, Development, and Utilization; and Technical Support. The Analytical Chemistry Division is organized into four major sections, each which may carry out any of the three types of work mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 4 of this report highlight progress within the four sections during the period January 1 to December 31, 1989. A brief discussion of the division's role in an especially important environmental program is given in Chapter 5. Information about quality assurance, safety, and training programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited in Chapters 7 and 8. Approximately 69 articles, 41 proceedings, and 31 reports were published, and 151 oral presentations were given during this reporting period. Some 308,981 determinations were performed.

  14. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P.; Park, Y.; Vaidya, R.U.; Hollis, K.J.; Kung, H.H.

    1999-03-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the US processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive US processing industries. The program presently has a number of developing industrial connections, including a CRADA with Johns Manville Corporation targeted at the area of MoSi{sub 2}-based high temperature materials and components for fiberglass melting and processing applications. The authors are also developing an interaction with the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop silicides for high temperature radiant gas burner applications, for the glass and other industries. With Combustion Technology Inc., they are developing silicide-based periscope sight tubes for the direct observation of glass melts. With Accutru International Corporation, they are developing silicide-based protective sheaths for self-verifying temperature sensors which may be used in glass furnaces and other industrial applications. The progress made on the program in this period is summarized.

  15. Survey of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation 1995 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail, E.R.; Mitchell, J.M.; Webb, J.W.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

    1995-11-01

    This progress report discusses surveys of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) from October 1994 through September 1995. These surveys are important to help avoid or minimize potential impacts of projects on the ORR to species listed as threatened, endangered, or in need of management by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency. Currently, there are 69 species of federally or state-listed terrestrial vertebrates that may occur in Tennessee. Not all of these are expected to occur on the ORR, nor do resources permit comprehensive sampling for all of them over the entire ORR. To effectively organize sampling efforts, listed animal species that might be present were targeted using a prioritization system based on historical and recent sightings, species distributions, literature reviews, and personal communications. Sampling was conducted during the time of the year when each targeted species would most likely be encountered. Several trapping and surveying methods were used, including pitfall traps, Sherman traps, seining, artificial covers, and cave and avian surveys.

  16. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles]. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinder, S.H.

    1994-02-01

    Acetate is the precursor of approximately two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors and many other methanogenic habitats. Besides their intrinsic interest, thermophilic acetotrophic methanogenic cultures usually grow at least twice as fast as their mesophilic counterparts, making them more amenable to study. In recent years, attention has been mainly focused on the thermophilic acetate utilizing methanogen Methanothrix strain CALS-1. Methanothrix, also called Methanosaeta, is one of only two methanogenic genera known to convert acetate to methane, the other being Methanosarcina. The faster-growing more versatile Methanosarcina has been better studied. However, when one examines anaerobic digestor contents, Methanothrix is often the dominant acetate-utilizing methanogen. As described in previous progress reports, the authors have achieved methanogenesis from acetate in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strain CALS-1 grown in a pH auxostat. Using these cell extracts, specific activities for methanogenesis from acetate and ATP of 100--300 nmol/min were routinely obtained, levels comparable to the rate in whole cells, which is not usually the case in methanogenic extracts. Recently obtained results are given and discussed for the following: Methanogenesis in crude extracts; Role of the cell membrane in methanogenesis from acetate; Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase; Novel thermophilic cultures converting acetate to methane; and Methanol-utilizing methanogen.

  17. Determining significant endpoints for ecological risk analyses. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, T.G.; Congdon, J.; Rowe, C.; Scott, D. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (US). Savannah River Ecology Lab.; Bedford, J.; Whicker, F.W. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (US)

    1997-11-01

    'This report summarizes the first year''s progress of research funded under the Department of Energy''s Environmental Management Science Program. The research was initiated to better determine ecological risks from toxic and radioactive contaminants. More precisely, the research is designed to determine the relevancy of sublethal cellular damage to the performance of individuals and to identify characteristics of non-human populations exposed to chronic, low-level radiation, as is typically found on many DOE sites. The authors propose to establish a protocol to assess risks to non-human species at higher levels of biological organization by relating molecular damage to more relevant responses that reflect population health. They think that they can achieve this by coupling changes in metabolic rates and energy allocation patterns to meaningful population response variables, and by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative dose/effects experiments. They believe that a scientifically defensible endpoint for measuring ecological risks can only be determined once its understood the extent to which molecular damage from contaminant exposure is detrimental at the individual and population levels of biological organization.'

  18. DOE/EPSCoR Traineeship Program: Progress report, academic year 1992--93. Annual report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, D.; Steadman, J.

    1993-12-31

    This progress report reviews the University of Wyoming`s approach to implementing the DOE Traineeship Program, and briefly describes the research performed by the DOE/EPSCoR Trainees during the academic year, 1992--1993. These brief descriptions of individual research projects demonstrate the wide scope of energy-related research that the DOE-EPSCoR Traineeships have initiated in Wyoming. The availability of this funding has encouraged many talented students to continue their education in fields of interest to DOE. These additional bright, energetic graduate students have improved the educational atmosphere for everyone. The visibility of the DOE program has sharpened the focus of the science and engineering departments on the energy-related research of importance to Wyoming and DOE. The impact of the DOE Traineeships in Wyoming has been substantial and very positive. It has not only increased the number of students studying in energy-related disciplines, but has also increased the quality of their graduate research. The program has also increased the visibility of DOE in Wyoming and has helped focus attention on the energy and environmental graduate education which is so essential to the University and the State.

  19. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a large and diversified organization. As such, it serves a multitude of functions for a clientele that exists both in and outside of ORNL. These functions fall into the following general categories: (1) Analytical Research, Development, and Implementation. The division maintains a program to conceptualize, investigate, develop, assess, improve, and implement advanced technology for chemical and physicochemical measurements. Emphasis is on problems and needs identified with ORNL and Department of Energy (DOE) programs; however, attention is also given to advancing the analytical sciences themselves. (2) Programmatic Research, Development, and Utilization. The division carries out a wide variety of chemical work that typically involves analytical research and/or development plus the utilization of analytical capabilities to expedite programmatic interests. (3) Technical Support. The division performs chemical and physicochemical analyses of virtually all types. The Analytical Chemistry Division is organized into four major sections, each of which may carry out any of the three types of work mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 4 of this report highlight progress within the four sections during the period January 1 to December 31, 1988. A brief discussion of the division's role in an especially important environmental program is given in Chapter 5. Information about quality assurance, safety, and training programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited in Chapters 7 and 8.

  20. Large area silicon sheet by EFG. Annual progress report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wald, F.V.

    1979-02-16

    Progress in EFG ribbon growth was made in a number of areas as follows: (1) Multiple growth for ribbons 5 cm in width was demonstrated in two runs of 12 and 20 hours' duration. (2) A new single cartridge crystal growth station, designated Machine 17, was built. It has vastly expanded observational capacity by virture of an anamorphic optical-video system which allows close observation of the meniscus over 7.5 cm in width, as well as video taping of the ribbon growth process for further analysis. Also, a number of mechanical advances were incorporated into this equipment. (3) Growth Station No. 1 achieved reproducible and reliable growth of 7.5 cm wide ribbon at speeds up to 4 cm/min. (4) A major advance in cartridge design, the mini cold shoe, was introduced. (5) Interface shaping using the displaced die concept led to significant increases in cell efficiency. Large area cells (2.5 by 7.5 cm/sup 2/, 2.5 x 10 cm/sup 2/, and 7.5 by 7.5 cm/sup 2/), which achieve efficiencies over 9%, have been made in significant numbers. (6) The role of gaseous impurities in cartridge furnaces has been clarified and their destabilizing influence on growth has been brought under control. Details of most of these developments are discussed.

  1. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Imaging Neural Activity in the Human Brain: The Annual Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is recently developed and applied to measure the hemodynamic response related to neural activity. The fMRI can not only noninvasively record brain signals without risks of ionising radiation inherent in other scanning methods, such as CT or PET scans, but also record signal from all regions of the brain, unlike EEG/MEG which are biased towards the cortical surface. This paper introduces the fundamental principles and summarizes the research progress of the last year for imaging neural activity in the human brain. Aims of functional analysis of neural activity from fMRI include biological findings, functional connectivity, vision and hearing research, emotional research, neurosurgical planning, pain management, and many others. Besides formulations and basic processing methods, models and strategies of processing technology are introduced, including general linear model, nonlinear model, generative model, spatial pattern analysis, statistical analysis, correlation analysis, and multimodal combination. This paper provides readers the most recent representative contributions in the area.

  2. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1983-05-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Dvision of Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) serves a multitude of functions for a clientele that exists both in and outside ORNL. These functions fall into the following general categories: (1) analytical research, development, and implementation; (2) programmatic research, development, and utilization; and (3) technical support. The Division is organized into five major sections, each of which may carry out any type of work falling in the three categories mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 5 of this report highlight progress within the five sections (analytical methodology, mass and emission spectrometry, radioactive materials, bio/organic analysis, and general and environmental analysis) during the period January 1, 1982 to December 31, 1982. A short summary introduces each chapter to indicate work scope. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited in Chapters 7 and 8. Approximately 61 articles, 32 proceedings publications and 37 reports have been published, and 107 oral presentations were given during this reporting period.

  3. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts research on the environmental aspects of existing and emerging energy systems and applies this information to ensure that technology development and energy use are consistent with national environmental health and safety goals. Offering an interdisciplinary resource of staff and facilities to address complex environmental problems, the division is currently providing technical leadership for major environmental issues of national concern: (1) acidic deposition and related environmental effects, (2) effects of increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and the resulting climatic changes to ecosystems and natural and physical resources, (3) hazardous chemical and radioactive waste disposal and remediation research and development, and (4) development of commercial biomass energy production systems. This progress report outlines ESD's accomplishments in these and other areas in FY 1990. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases in the following areas: ecosystem studies; environmental analyses; environmental toxicology; geosciences; technical and administrative support; biofuels feedstock development program; carbon dioxide information analysis and research program; and environmental waste program.

  4. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The following sentences highlight some of the technical activities carried out during 1991. They illustrate the diversity of programs and technical work performed within the Analytical Chemistry Division. Our neutron activation analysis laboratory at HFIR was placed into operation during 1991. We have combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with a preparation procedure developed at the Argonne National Laboratory to measure ultra-trace levels of U, Pu, Np, and Am in body fluids, primarily urine. Much progress has been made over the last year in the interfacing of an rf-powered glow discharge source to a double-focusing mass spectrometer. Preliminary experiments using electrospray ionization combined with ion trap mass spectrometry show much promise for the analysis of metals in solution. A secondary ion microprobe has been constructed that permits determination of the distribution of organic compounds less than a monolayer thick on samples as large as 1 cm diameter. Fourier transform mass spectrometry has been demonstrated to be a highly effective tool for the detailed characterization of biopolymers, especially normal and modified oligonucleotides. Much has been accomplished in understanding the fundamentals of quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. Work with ITMS instrumentation has led to the development of rapid methods for the detection of trace organics in environmental and physiological samples. A new type of time-of-flight mass spectrometer was designed for use with our positron ionization experiments. Fundamental research on chromatography at high concentrations and on gas-solid adsorption has continued. The preparation of a monograph on the chemistry of environmental tobacco smoke was completed this year.

  5. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, J.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

  6. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

  7. Lake Roosevelt White Sturgeon Recovery Project : Annual Progress Report, January 2003 – March 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Matthew D.; McLellan, Jason G. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-07-15

    This report summarizes catch data collected from white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in Lake Roosevelt during limited setlining and gill netting activities in the fall of 2003, and documents progress toward development of a U.S. white sturgeon conservation aquaculture program for Lake Roosevelt. From 27-30 October, 42 overnight small mesh gill net sets were made between Marcus and Northport, WA for a total catch of 15 juvenile white sturgeon (275-488 mm FL). All sturgeon captured were of Canadian hatchery origin. These fish had been previously released as sub-yearlings into the Canadian portion (Keenleyside Reach) of the Transboundary Reach of the Columbia River during 2002 and 2003. Most sturgeon (n=14) were caught in the most upstream area sampled (Northport) in low velocity eddy areas. Five fish exhibited pectoral fin deformities (curled or stunted). Growth rates were less than for juvenile sturgeon captured in the Keenleyside Reach but condition factor was similar. Condition factor was also similar to that observed in juvenile sturgeon (ages 1-8) captured in the unimpounded Columbia River below Bonneville Dam between 1987-92. From 10-14 November, 28 overnight setline sets were made in the Roosevelt Reach between the confluence of the Spokane River and Marcus Island for a total catch of 17 white sturgeon (94-213 cm FL). Catch was greatest in the most upstream areas sampled, a distribution similar to that observed during a WDFW setline survey in Lake Roosevelt in 1998. The mean W{sub r} index of 110% for fish captured this year was higher than the mean W{sub r} of 91% for fish captured in 1998. Excellent fish condition hindered surgical examination of gonads as lipid deposits made the ventral body wall very thick and difficult to penetrate with available otoscope specula. Acoustic tags (Vemco model V16 coded pingers, 69 kHz, 48-month life expectancy) were internally applied to 15 fish for subsequent telemetry investigations of seasonal and reproductively

  8. Molecular genetics of metal detoxification: Prospects for phytoremediation. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ow, D.W.

    1997-10-15

    'The authors proposed to characterize a number of fission yeast mutants that are hypersensitivity to cadmium and deficient in the production of metal-peptide complexes. For each of the mutants the authors sought to clone the gene responsible for the mutant phenotype and more importantly to define the gene function. They summarize the progress made thus far for each of the mutants. Mutants that hypoproduce phytochelatins are: (1) DS12--The gene has been cloned, but a full length cDNA remains to be isolated. They believe the longest clone is short at the 5 feet end by less than 100 bp. This gene encodes sulfite reductase and its function is needed for Pb-induced sulfide production, but not Cd-induced sulfide production. Since this enzyme acts upstream of cysteine biosynthesis, the likely reason that this mutant hypoproduces phytochelatins is that it fails to produce sufficient cysteine during Cd stress. (2) JS563--The gene has been cloned and found to encode a sulfide dehydrogenase. In vitro, the authors found that the protein binds FAD, converts S{sup 2-} to S{sup 0} while reducing quinone. The protein is membrane associated and has been localized to the mitochondria. Its likely function is to detoxify sulfide in the mitochondria resulting from cadmium-induced sulfide production. The sulfide electrons are likely used for the electron transport chain. Cells that have a defect in this enzyme cannot oxidize mitochondrial S{sup 2-} resulting in high toxic levels of S{sup 2-} during Cd stress. In addition, the high S{sup 2-} level precipitates Cd{sup 2-} to form CdS, and the lack of free Cd{sup 2+} fails to induce phytochelatin synthase activity to produce phytochelatin peptides. (3) JS282--The genomic clone that restores Cd tolerance to JS282 has been isolated. Surprisingly, this genomic clone when present in a multicopy vector in a wild type background causes hypersensitivity to Cd and selenium. The cDNA corresponding to the genomic clone has been isolated and its

  9. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul M. Bertsch, (Director)

    2002-06-30

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of The University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory's research mission during the 2002 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of 76 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 50 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members, staff, and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section titled Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 51. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, stable isotopes, sandhills ecology, and phytoremediation: (1) A collaborative study between Dr. Tom Hinton at SREL and scientists at SRTC demonstrated the feasibility of using illite clay to sequester 137Cs in sediments along the P and R reactor cooling canal system, where approximately 3,000 acres of land are contaminated. Overall, the study showed significant decreases in cesium concentrations and bioavailability following the addition of illite with no sign of harm to the ecosystem. While the cesium remains sequestered from the biosphere, its radioactivity decays and the process progresses from contaminant immobilization to remediation. (2) SREL's stable isotope laboratory is now fully functional. Stable isotope distributions in nature can provide important insights into many historical and current environmental processes. Dr. Christopher Romanek is leading SREL's research

  10. How to Make the 20-cent Fallout Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Serena R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alvarez, Luis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-17

    Nobel Prize winner Luis Alvarez published an article on how to build a homemade fallout meter in the November 12, 1961, issue of the Sunday supplement This Week Magazine. A yellowed copy of the article was recently found in the files of the Radiochemistry Group, C-NR, and is reproduced below in its original form.

  11. Annual Research Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-30

    I. ASIMC I9 3. SAYS OF APORT mOWIRO arms"C RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY WORK UNT SUMARY D E60 91 1D-REA)3 7A8 66 7 10 01 TERMNATON NAAR) 14 01 30 40COlS...morphine anesthesia on myocardial function and metabolism during cyanosis in swine. Surg Forum 30: 221-223, 1979 79-072 WATSON , L.C., and R. GOMEZ

  12. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J. B.

    1981-06-01

    Emphasis during the past year has been on studies of the effects of potential promoting agents on radiation transformation, and of transformation by internal radionuclides emitting high LET radiation. We have also carried out a detailed investigation of the dosimetry of our alpha radiation source. Preliminary studies on the mechanisms of radiation transformation have been initiated as described in the previous proposal. Studies on promotion have focused on the effects of: (1) the endogenous steroid hormone 17-..beta..-estradiol; (2) the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent indomethacin; (3) the endogenous growth factor called Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF); and (4) Melittin, a stimulator of prostaglandins synthesis.

  13. Annual Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-16

    34 IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. AC-28, June 1983, to appear. ,:-[5] H. V. Poor, ’ inimax Linear Smoothing for Capacities," Annals of...Second-Order Statistics," IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. AC-28, 1983, to appear. [11] S. Verdd and H. V. Poor, "On Minimax Robustness: A

  14. Dynamic Monitoring of Cleanroom Fallout Using an Air Particle Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Radford

    2011-01-01

    The particle fallout limitations and periodic allocations for the James Webb Space Telescope are very stringent. Standard prediction methods are complicated by non-linearity and monitoring methods that are insufficiently responsive. A method for dynamically predicting the particle fallout in a cleanroom using air particle counter data was determined by numerical correlation. This method provides a simple linear correlation to both time and air quality, which can be monitored in real time. The summation of effects provides the program better understanding of the cleanliness and assists in the planning of future activities. Definition of fallout rates within a cleanroom during assembly and integration of contamination-sensitive hardware, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, is essential for budgeting purposes. Balancing the activity levels for assembly and test with the particle accumulation rate is paramount. The current approach to predicting particle fallout in a cleanroom assumes a constant air quality based on the rated class of a cleanroom, with adjustments for projected work or exposure times. Actual cleanroom class can also depend on the number of personnel present and the type of activities. A linear correlation of air quality and normalized particle fallout was determined numerically. An air particle counter (standard cleanroom equipment) can be used to monitor the air quality on a real-time basis and determine the "class" of the cleanroom (per FED-STD-209 or ISO-14644). The correlation function provides an area coverage coefficient per class-hour of exposure. The prediction of particle accumulations provides scheduling inputs for activity levels and cleanroom class requirements.

  15. Topographic Effects on Ambient Dose Equivalent Rates from Radiocesium Fallout

    CERN Document Server

    Malins, Alex; Machida, Masahiko; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    Land topography can affect air radiation dose rates by locating radiation sources closer to, or further, from detector locations when compared to perfectly flat terrain. Hills and slopes can also shield against the propagation of gamma rays. To understand the possible magnitude of topographic effects on air dose rates, this study presents calculations for ambient dose equivalent rates at a range of heights above the ground for varying land topographies. The geometries considered were angled ground at the intersection of two planar surfaces, which is a model for slopes neighboring flat land, and a simple conical geometry, representing settings from hilltops to valley bottoms. In each case the radiation source was radioactive cesium fallout, and the slope angle was varied systematically to determine the effect of topography on the air dose rate. Under the assumption of homogeneous fallout across the land surface, and for these geometries and detector locations, the dose rates at high altitudes are more strongly...

  16. Radioecological indexes of fallout measurements from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolopoulou, Metaxia; Stoulos, Stylianos; Ioannidou, Alexandra; Vagena, Eleni

    2014-05-01

    Fallout from the Fukushima nuclear accident has been monitored for about 1 month in Thessaloniki, Northern Greece. Three different radionuclides, one short-lived, one relatively long-lived and one long- lived fission product were identified in air, grass and milk samples. The 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs activity concentrations in air reached 497, 145 and 126 μBqm-3, respectively on 4 April, 2011. These radionuclides are of particular concern regarding their transfer from the environment to population through the ingestion pathways for the assessment of the Fukushima accident consequences. Radioecological indexes (eco-indexes) of fallout measurements in the air-grass-cow-milk-man pathway for 131I were determined, as they are related to radiological impact of the Fukushima derived radionuclides on the public and environment.

  17. In-situ measurements of the radioactive fallout deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korun, M.; Martinčič, R.; Pucelj, B.

    1991-02-01

    An improved method to determine radionuclide concentrations in soil and the radioactive fallout deposit is presented. The approach is based on in-situ gamma-ray spectrometric measurements performed with a portable high resolution gamma spectrometer and on calculations of the depth distribution based on the energy dependence of the attenuation of gamma rays in soil. The results are compared with laboratory analysis of collected soil samples.

  18. Distribution, Characteristics, and Biotic Availability of Fallout, Operation Plumbbob

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-10-01

    also equipped with gummed paper collectors (GPC). In addition, on Shot Boltzmann, resin coated plates (RCP), the LASL Model, were added "to twenty...samples at the same location while resin- coated plates yielded values considerably lower than the GC. • • 81V( , * .....- I • ’ r sr" ’ ,, i -rvi.. • •’Y...mixture of paraffin and beeswax . This step 242 immobilized fallout material on the pelt and minimized contamination from the fur during further

  19. DETECTION AND QUANTITATION OF FALLOUT PARTICLES IN A HUMAN LUNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEGST, A V; PELLETIER, C A; WHIPPLE, G H

    1964-02-28

    Portions of an adult human lung were studied by autoradiography in order to detect the presence of fallout particles. The radioactivity in the remainder of the tissue was determined with a gamma-ray spectrometer. Four particles were found and their activities were determined. From the measurement for total-fission-product activity in the lung tissue it was calculated that there were approximately 264 particles in the right lung at the time of death.

  20. Mapping Nuclear Fallout Using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    difficulty of making accurate fallout predictions. 2.2.1 Fireball In the first few instants following a nuclear explosion, fireball temperatures can...exceed 107 K, and the resulting gradient between the atmospheric and the fireball temperatures will cause the fireball to rise [2]. The temperature...will decrease initially through radiative cooling, but as toroidal motion of the fireball begins to dominate, entrainment of cold air will result in

  1. Source Normalization Constants for Ground Distributed Fallout Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    normalization constant ( SNC ). The effects of time on the SNC are also examined by the ORIGEN Fallout Analysis Tool in order to determine if a separate time...25% increase to the first order model SNC . The effects of non- uniform activity density are found to be insignificant; however, the effects of time...on the SNC are found to warrant an additional time correction factor. In summarizing Herte’s results, terrain roughness is shown to produce between

  2. Annual Progress Report of the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge and the International Wildlife Refuge Alliance 2009 Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 2009 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  3. Annual Progress Report of the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge and the International Wildlife Refuge Alliance 2007 Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 2007 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  4. Annual Progress Report of the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge and the International Wildlife Refuge Alliance 2008 Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 2008 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  5. Annual Progress Report of the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge and the International Wildlife Refuge Alliance 2010 Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 2010 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  6. Annual Progress Report of the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge and the International Wildlife Refuge Alliance 2006 Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 2006 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  7. Web-Enabled Optoelectronic Particle-Fallout Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineberger, Lewis P.

    2008-01-01

    A Web-enabled optoelectronic particle- fallout monitor has been developed as a prototype of future such instruments that (l) would be installed in multiple locations for which assurance of cleanliness is required and (2) could be interrogated and controlled in nearly real time by multiple remote users. Like prior particle-fallout monitors, this instrument provides a measure of particles that accumulate on a surface as an indication of the quantity of airborne particulate contaminants. The design of this instrument reflects requirements to: Reduce the cost and complexity of its optoelectronic sensory subsystem relative to those of prior optoelectronic particle fallout monitors while maintaining or improving capabilities; Use existing network and office computers for distributed display and control; Derive electric power for the instrument from a computer network, a wall outlet, or a battery; Provide for Web-based retrieval and analysis of measurement data and of a file containing such ancillary data as a log of command attempts at remote units; and Use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) for maximum performance and minimal network overhead.

  8. Estimating Cs-137 fallout inventories in Iceland from precipitation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S.E.; Sigurgeirsson, M.A.; Gudnason, K. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst., Reykjavik (Iceland); Arnalds, O. [Agricultural Research Inst., Reykjavik (Iceland); Howard, B.J.; Wright, S.M. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Merlewood, Cumbria, (United Kingdom); Palsdottir, I. [Iceland Meteorological Office, Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2002-12-01

    Iceland was identified in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) as one of the Arctic areas which received the most global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, due to relatively high precipitation rates compared with much of the Arctic and sub arctic. Cs-137 in the Icelandic terrestrial ecosystem almost entirely originates from the nuclear weapons tests carried out in the atmosphere until the early sixties. Fallout was greatest in mid nineteen sixties. Additional fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was relatively small. The study gave preliminary information on the spatial variation in {sup 137} Cs deposition in Iceland, especially in areas used for agriculture. The objectives of the study were (1) to measure the spatial variation of radiocaesium inventories in soils in Iceland and (2) to compare the results with different approaches to predicting {sup 137} Cs contents in soil. This quantification is a necessary first step in an evaluation of vulnerability to radiocaesium deposition in Iceland. It is anticipated that Icelandic soils could be highly vulnerable to radiocaesium due to their volcanic nature and consequent lack of illitic minerals, as has been suggested by initial chemical studies on the properties of soils in the Nordic countries. (ln)

  9. Cs-137 fallout in Iceland, model predictions and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S.E.; Sigurgeirsson, M.A.; Gudnason, K. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst. (Iceland); Arnalds, O.; Karlsdottir, I.A. [Agricultural Research Inst. (Iceland); Palsdottir, P. [Icelandic Meteorological Office (Iceland)

    2002-04-01

    Basically all the fallout Cs-137 in Iceland came from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the late fifties and early sixties, the addition from the accident in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was relatively very small. Measurements of fallout from nuclear weapons tests started in Iceland over 40 years ago and samples of soil, vegetation and agricultural products have been collected from various places and measured during this period. Considerable variability has been seen in the results, even between places close to each other. This is understandable due to the mountainous terrain, changing strong winds and high levels of precipitation. This variability has been especially noticeable in the case of soil samples. The important role of uncultivated rangelands in Icelandic agriculture (e.g. for sheep farming) makes it necessary to estimate deposition for many remote areas. It has thus proven difficult to get a good overview of the distribution of the deposition and its subsequent transfer into agricultural products. Over a year ago an attempt was made to assess the distribution of Cs-137 fallout in Iceland. The approach is based on a model predicting deposition using precipitation data, in a similar manner as that used previously within the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). 1999). One station close to Reykjavik has a time series of Cs-137 deposition data and precipitation data from 1960 onwards. The AMAP deposition model was calibrated for Iceland by using deposition and precipitation data from this station. (au)

  10. Compilation of 1985 annual reports of the Navy elf (extremely low frequency) communications system ecological monitoring program. Volume 1. Tabs A-C. Annual progress report, January-December 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.; Bruhn, J.; Cattelino, P.; Fuller, L.; Jurgensen, M.

    1986-07-01

    This is the fourth compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. The reports document the progress of ten studies performed during 1985 at the Wisconsin and Michigan Transmitting Facilities. The purpose of the monitoring is to determine whether electromagnetic fields produced by the ELF Communications System will affect resident biota or their ecological relationships. This volume consists of three reports: Herbaceous Plant Cover and Tree Studies; Litter Decomposition and Microflora; and The Effects of Exposing the Slime MOld Physarum polycephalum to Electromagnetic Fields.

  11. Annual report on reactor safety research projects sponsored by the Ministry of Economics and Labour of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reporting period 2004. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technology (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index' of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.)

  12. 1993 Annual progress report for subsidiary agreement No. 2 (1991--1996) between AECL and US/DOE for a radioactive waste management technical co-operative program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    A coordinated research program on radioactive waste disposal is being carried out by the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the US Department of Energy. This annual report describes progress in the following eight studies: Fundamental materials investigations; In-situ stress determination; Development of a spent fuel dissolution model; Large block tracer test--Experimental testing of retardation models; Laboratory and field tests of in-situ hydrochemical tools; Cigar Lake--Analogue study, actinide and fission product geochemistry; Performance assessment technology exchange; and Development of multiple-well hydraulic test and field tracer test methods.

  13. Characterizing fallout material using Cs and Pu atom ratios in environmental samples from the FDNPP fallout zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David; Dunne, James; Martin, Peter; Scott, Tom; Yamashiki, Yosuke; Coath, Chris; Chen, Hart

    2017-04-01

    Here we report the use of combined of Cs and Pu isotope measurements to investigate the extensive plumes of radioactive fallout from the disaster at Fukishima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNDPP) in March 2011. Among the aims of our study are improved assessment of the physico-chemical nature and changing distribution of land-based fallout. 135Cs/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs atom ratios are indicative of conditions that relate to the nuclear fission reactions responsible for producing the respective radiocaesium isotopes, and offer much more in terms of forensic and chronological analysis than monitoring 137Cs alone. We briefly present methods to quantify the atom ratios of Cs and Pu isotopes in soil, lichen and moss samples from FDNPP catchment using mass spectrometry (ThermoTRITON for Cs and ThermoNEPTUNE for Pu). High precision data from Fukushima are presented (e.g decay corrected 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio = 0.384 ± 0.001 (n = 5) for roadside dust from Iitate region), and these are in agreement with prelimary estimates by others. We also confirm results for IAEA-330, a spinach sample collected from Polesskoe, Ukraine and subject to contamination from the Chernobyl accident. In addition to Cs isotopes, we adopt Pu isotopes to add a further dimension to the forensic analysis. We discuss the corrections required for background levels prior to the disaster, possibility for multiple components of fallout and complicating factors associated with remobilisation during the clean-up operation. In parallel with this work on digests and leaches from bulk environmental samples, we are refining methods for particle identification, isolation and characterisation using a complementary sequence of cutting-edge materials and manipulation techniques, including combined electron microscopy, focused ion beam techniques (Dualbeam), nano/micro manipulators and nano-scale imaging x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NanoESCA) and microCT.

  14. A Community Facilities Center with Fallout Shelter as Dual Purpose Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    A presentation is made of five award-winning designs for a fireproof community recreation facility, on a selected site in New York City, incorporating a fallout shelter as a dual-purpose space. Graphic illustrations are given of the award winning designs, each of which used one of the following solutions--(1) the fallout structure above grade with…

  15. COMIDA: a radionuclide food chain model for acute fallout deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M L; Rood, A S

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic food chain model and computer code, named "COMIDA," has been developed to estimate radionuclide concentrations in agricultural food products following an acute fallout event. COMIDA estimates yearly harvest concentrations for five human crop types (Bq kg-1 crop per Bq m-2 deposited) and integrated concentrations for four animal products (Bq d kg-1 animal product per Bq m-2) for a unit deposition that occurs on any user-specified day of the year. COMIDA is structurally very similar to the PATHWAY model and includes the same seasonal transport processes and discrete events for soil and vegetation compartments. Animal product assimilation is modeled using simpler equilibrium models. Differential transport and ingrowth of up to three radioactive progeny are also evaluated. Benchmark results between COMIDA and PATHWAY for monthly fallout events show very similar seasonal agreement for integrated concentrations in milk and beef. Benchmark results between COMIDA and four international steady-state models show good agreement for deposition events that occur during the middle of the growing season. COMIDA will be implemented in the new Department of Energy version of the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System for evaluation of accidental releases from nuclear power plants.

  16. Chernobyl fallout in a Swedish spruce forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, E.J.; Synnott, H.J.; Johanson, K.J.; Fawaris, B.H.; Nielsen, S.P.; Horrill, A.D.; Kennedy, V.H.; Barbayiannis, N.; Veresoglou, D.S.; Dawson, D.E.; Colgan, P.A.; McGarry, A.T

    2000-03-01

    An assessment of the distribution of Chernobyl fallout in a Swedish forest was carried out and showed more than 95% of the {sup 137}Cs in the system to be of Chernobyl origin. The data show that approximately 87% of total fallout is found in soils, 6% in the bryophyte layer and 7% in standing biomass of trees. The mean deposition of {sup 137}Cs in the system (including soils, bryophytes, understorey vegetation, fungi, trees, moose and roe deer) was 54 kBq m{sup -2}. Fungi, understorey vegetation and ruminant populations collectively contained approximately 1% of total radiocaesium in the system. However, actual concentrations in these sample types were higher than in any other category, mostly exceeding the limit of 1500 Bq kg{sup -1} for consumption of wild produce in Sweden. These categories represent the principal foodstuffs responsible for radiation transfer to man from the system and though negligible in total biomass there is potential for significant dose transfer to individuals who are regular consumers of wild forest produce.

  17. Pollen fall-out from a tropical vegetation mosaic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker; Sun

    2000-07-01

    Pollen fall-out into 60 Oldfield traps set in 11 localities and a variety of vegetational contexts on an upland in tropical northeast Australia, range from 0.5k to 20k (mean 3.5k)grcm(-2)a(-1). The ranges attributable to the four major vegetation types in which the traps were situated overlap to such an extent as would make it virtually impossible to allocate an 'unknown' pollen count to a vegetation type on the basis of total pollen influx alone. Nevertheless, the composition of the pollen clearly differs according to the vegetation in which it is trapped and the amounts of other vegetation types within at least 100m. Substantial variations in catches from closely placed traps suggest the influence of very local site, including meteorological, conditions on the results. Pollen is carried between vegetation types, much less far from rainforest than from sclerophyll forest and woodland, regrowth scrub or herbaceous vegetation, but there is no numerically significant ubiquitous 'background' fall-out in the region. The data impose some constraints on the interpretation of fossil pollen spectra but also potentially permit a greater precision in some aspects of such applications.

  18. Estimating Fallout Building Attributes from Architectural Features and Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Building Descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Staci R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands (or more) of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing fallout radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and individuals indoors. Prior efforts have determined an initial set of building attributes suitable to reasonably assess a given building’s protection against fallout radiation. The current work provides methods to determine the quantitative values for these attributes from (a) common architectural features and data and (b) buildings described using the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) taxonomy. These methods will be used to improve estimates of fallout protection for operational US Department of Defense (DoD) and US Department of Energy (DOE) consequence assessment models.

  19. Silicon ribbon growth by a capillary action shaping technique. Annual report (Quarterly technical progress report No. 9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwuttke, G.H.; Ciszek, T.F.; Kran, A.

    1977-10-01

    Progress on the technological and economical assessment of ribbon growth of silicon by a capillary action shaping technique is reported. Progress in scale-up of the process from 50 mm to 100 mm ribbon widths is presented, the use of vitreous carbon as a crucible material is analyzed, and preliminary tests of CVD Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ as a potential die material are reported. Diffusion length measurements by SEM, equipment and procedure for defect display under MOS structure in silicon ribbon for lifetime interpretation, and an assessment of ribbon technology are discussed. (WHK)

  20. Silicon ribbon growth by a capillary action shaping technique. Annual report (Quarterly technical progress report No. 9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwuttke, G.H.; Ciszek, T.F.; Kran, A.

    1977-10-01

    Progress on the technological and economical assessment of ribbon growth of silicon by a capillary action shaping technique is reported. Progress in scale-up of the process from 50 mm to 100 mm ribbon widths is presented, the use of vitreous carbon as a crucible material is analyzed, and preliminary tests of CVD Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ as a potential die material are reported. Diffusion length measurements by SEM, equipment and procedure for defect display under MOS structure in silicon ribbon for lifetime interpretation, and an assessment of ribbon technology are discussed. (WHK)

  1. Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics (6th), Held in Monterey, California on March 19-22, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    creating an integrated, intelligent Boston : Academic Press, 1989. 6 [6) Riesbeck, C.K. and R.C. Schank, Inside Case-Based Reasoning, Hillsdale, NJ...34, presented at IEEE/Ninth Annual con- ference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Boston , Ma., Nov. 13-16 1987, pp.40-41. 10. Beckmann...34Foundations of the Mathematical Theory of Electromagnetic Waves Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1960. [9] Golub,G.H. and Van Loan,C.F., " Matriz Computations ", The

  2. Electronics Research Laboratory, Plasma Theory and Simulation Group annual progress report, January 1, 1989--December 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdsall, C.K.

    1989-12-31

    This is a brief progress report, covering our research in general plasma theory and simulation, plasma-wall physics theory and simulation, and code development. Reports written in this period are included with this mailing. A publications list plus abstracts for two major meetings are included.

  3. National flow cytometry and sorting research resource. Annual progress report, July, 1, 1994--June 30, 1995, Year 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jett, J.H.

    1995-04-27

    Research progress utilizing flow cytometry is described. Topics include: rapid kinetics flow cytometry; characterization of size determinations for small DNA fragments; statistical analysis; energy transfer measurements of molecular confirmation in micelles; and enrichment of Mus spretus chromosomes by dual parameter flow sorting and identification of sorted fractions by fluorescence in-situ hybridization onto G-banded mouse metaphase spreads.

  4. High temperature turbine technology program. Phase II. Technology test and support studies. Annual technical progress report, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Work performed on the High Temperature Turbine Technology Program, Phase II - Technology Test and Support Studies during the period from January 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979 is summarized. Objectives of the program elements as well as technical progress and problems encountered during this Phase II annual reporting period are presented. Progress on design, fabrication and checkout of test facilities and test rigs is described. LP turbine cascade tests were concluded. 350 hours of testing were conducted on the LP rig engine first with clean distillate fuel and then with fly ash particulates injected into the hot gas stream. Design and fabrication of the turbine spool technology rig components are described. TSTR 60/sup 0/ sector combustor rig fabrication and testing are reviewed. Progress in the design and fabrication of TSTR cascade rig components for operation on both distillate fuel and low Btu gas is described. The new coal-derived gaseous fuel synthesizing facility is reviewed. Results and future plans for the supporting metallurgical programs are discussed.

  5. The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2001-11-20

    The KFM is a homemade fallout meter that can be made using only materials, tools, and skills found in millions of American homes. It is an accurate and dependable electroscope-capacitor. The KFM, in conjunction with its attached table and a watch, is designed for use as a rate meter. Its attached table relates observed differences in the separations of its two leaves (before and after exposures at the listed time intervals) to the dose rates during exposures of these time intervals. In this manner dose rates from 30 mR/hr up to 43 R/hr can be determined with an accuracy of {+-}25%. A KFM can be charged with any one of the three expedient electrostatic charging devices described. Due to the use of anhydrite (made by heating gypsum from wallboard) inside a KFM and the expedient ''dry-bucket'' in which it can be charged when the air is very humid, this instrument always can be charged and used to obtain accurate measurements of gamma radiation no matter how high the relative humidity. The heart of this report is the step-by-step illustrated instructions for making and using a KFM. These instructions have been improved after each successive field test. The majority of the untrained test families, adequately motivated by cash bonuses offered for success and guided only by these written instructions, have succeeded in making and using a KFM. NOTE: ''The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter'', was published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory report in1979. Some of the materials originally suggested for suspending the leaves of the Kearny Fallout Meter (KFM) are no longer available. Because of changes in the manufacturing process, other materials (e.g., sewing thread, unwaxed dental floss) may not have the insulating capability to work properly. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has not tested any of the suggestions provided in the preface of the report, but they have been used by other groups. When using these

  6. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is the 1991 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. In April 1992, Snake River fall chinook salmon were listed as ``threatened`` under the Endangered Species Act. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon can not be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  7. Clinical Cancer Advances 2017: Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer From the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Harold J; Krilov, Lada; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B; Baxter, Nancy N; Chiorean, E Gabriela; Chow, Warren Allen; De Groot, John Frederick; Devine, Steven Michael; DuBois, Steven G; El-Deiry, Wafik S; Epstein, Andrew S; Heymach, John; Jones, Joshua Adam; Mayer, Deborah K; Miksad, Rebecca A; Pennell, Nathan A; Sabel, Michael S; Schilsky, Richard L; Schuchter, Lynn Mara; Tung, Nadine; Winkfield, Karen Marie; Wirth, Lori J; Dizon, Don S

    2017-02-01

    A MESSAGE FROM ASCO'S PRESIDENT I am pleased to present Clinical Cancer Advances 2017, which highlights the most promising advances in patient-oriented cancer research over the past year. The report gives us an opportunity to reflect on what an exciting time it is for cancer research and how swiftly our understanding of cancer has improved. One year ago, the White House announced the national Cancer Moonshot program to accelerate progress against cancer. This shared vision of progress has reinvigorated the research community, identified new areas of scientific collaboration, and raised our ambitions regarding what may be possible beyond the progress we have already made. When I entered the field 35 years ago, I could not have imagined where we would be today. We can now detect cancer earlier, target treatments more effectively, and manage adverse effects more effectively to enable patients to live better, more fulfilling lives. Today, two of three people with cancer live at least 5 years after diagnosis, up from roughly one of two in the 1970s. This progress has resulted from decades of incremental advances that have collectively expanded our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of cancer. There is no better current example of this than ASCO's 2017 Advance of the Year: Immunotherapy 2.0. Over the last year, there has been a wave of new successes with immunotherapy. Research has proven this approach can be effective against a wide range of hard-to-treat advanced cancers previously considered intractable. Researchers are now working to identify biologic markers that can help increase the effectiveness of treatment and determine who is most likely to benefit from immunotherapy. This knowledge will enable oncologists to make evidence-based decisions so as many patients as possible might benefit from this new type of treatment. Each successive advance builds on the previous hard work of generations of basic, translational, and clinical cancer researchers

  8. External doses from radioactive fallout. Dosimetry and levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehni, T.

    1995-12-31

    The design, manufacture and calibration of a TL-based dosemeter for measurement of low level external photon radiation are presented. The dosemeter is based on CaF{sub 2} with 2 mm brass filter for energy compensation. It is able to resolve a 8% dose increase relative to natural background radiation. With this dosemeter external dose measurements were made in 6 villages in a heavily contaminated region in Russia (Chernobyl fallout), in order to assess external doses to the population. The results were analyzed in the light of additional existing information on radioactive deposition, social habits, decontamination measures and other influencing technical and physical factors. The observed dose values were lower than theoretical estimates of external doses based on published values for external dose levels relative to the level of contamination. 84 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.E.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.; Adams, W.H.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year, medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma.

  10. Assessment of spatial distribution of fallout radionuclides through geostatistics concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabit, L; Bernard, C

    2007-01-01

    After introducing geostatistics concept and its utility in environmental science and especially in Fallout Radionuclide (FRN) spatialisation, a case study for cesium-137 ((137)Cs) redistribution at the field scale using geostatistics is presented. On a Canadian agricultural field, geostatistics coupled with a Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to test three different techniques of interpolation [Ordinary Kriging (OK), Inverse Distance Weighting power one (IDW1) and two (IDW2)] to create a (137)Cs map and to establish a radioisotope budget. Following the optimization of variographic parameters, an experimental semivariogram was developed to determine the spatial dependence of (137)Cs. It was adjusted to a spherical isotropic model with a range of 30 m and a very small nugget effect. This (137)Cs semivariogram showed a good autocorrelation (R(2)=0.91) and was well structured ('nugget-to-sill' ratio of 4%). It also revealed that the sampling strategy was adequate to reveal the spatial correlation of (137)Cs. The spatial redistribution of (137)Cs was estimated by Ordinary Kriging and IDW to produce contour maps. A radioisotope budget was established for the 2.16 ha agricultural field under investigation. It was estimated that around 2 x 10(7)Bq of (137)Cs were missing (around 30% of the total initial fallout) and were exported by physical processes (runoff and erosion processes) from the area under investigation. The cross-validation analysis showed that in the case of spatially structured data, OK is a better interpolation method than IDW1 or IDW2 for the assessment of potential radioactive contamination and/or pollution.

  11. Integrative studies of thermoregulation in ectothermic vertebrates in aquatic habitats. Annual progress report, 1 October 1980-30 September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotila, J R

    1981-05-01

    Field experiments are underway to determine the behavioral mechanisms by which largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, respond to rapid temperature changes in their natural environment. Laboratory experiments are clarifying the relationship between basking behavior of the turtle, Pseudemys scripta and its nutritional state. Important progress has been made in the development and miniaturization of a multichannel, temperature sensing, radio transmitter for fish. Theoretical analysis and mathematical modeling have defined the realized and fundamental climate space of P. scripta and allows the prediction of the behavior of this turtle.

  12. Superconductivity program for electric systems, Superconductivity Technology Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, annual progress report for fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, J.O.; Newnam, B.E. [eds.; Peterson, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    Development of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) has undergone tremendous progress during the past year. Kilometer tape lengths and associated magnets based on BSCCO materials are now commercially available from several industrial partners. Superconducting properties in the exciting YBCO coated conductors continue to be improved over longer lengths. The Superconducting Partnership Initiative (SPI) projects to develop HTS fault current limiters and transmission cables have demonstrated that HTS prototype applications can be produced successfully with properties appropriate for commercial applications. Research and development activities at LANL related to the HTS program for Fiscal Year 1997 are collected in this report. LANL continues to support further development of Bi2223 and Bi2212 tapes in collaboration with American Superconductor Corporation (ASC) and Oxford Superconductivity Technology, Inc. (OSTI), respectively. The tape processing studies involving novel thermal treatments and microstructural characterization have assisted these companies in commercializing these materials. The research on second-generation YBCO-coated conductors produced by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) over buffer template layers produced by ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) continues to lead the world. The applied physics studies of magnetic flux pinning by proton and heavy ion bombardment of BSCCO and YBCO tapes have provided many insights into improving the behavior of these materials in magnetic fields. Sections 4 to 7 of this report contain a list of 29 referred publications and 15 conference abstracts, a list of patent and license activities, and a comprehensive list of collaborative agreements in progress and completed.

  13. Microsensors for in-situ chemical, physical, and radiological characterization of mixed waste. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thundat, T.G.; Warmack, R.J.; Dabestani, R.; Britt, P.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Brown, G.M.

    1998-06-01

    'A widespread need exists for portable, real-time, in-situ chemical, physical, and radiological sensors for characterization of mixed wastes, groundwater, contaminated solids, and process streams. None of the currently available technologies offer a clear path to the development of sensors that are miniature, cost-effective, selective, highly sensitive with a wide dynamic range, and have the ability to work in air or liquid while providing chemical, physical, and radiological information. The objective of this research program is to conduct the fundamental research necessary to develop microcantilever-based micromechanical sensors for in-situ characterization of groundwater, sediments, and mixed wastes. Chemical selectivity will be achieved by coupling surface modification chemistry with molecular recognition agents. Physical measurements of adsorption (absorption) induced deflection (bending) and resonance frequency variation of microcantilevers can be achieved with extreme precision resulting in ppb-ppt sensitivity. Good progress has been made in the first nine months of this project. Progress has been made in three focus areas: radiation detection, detection of heavy metals in water, modification of microcantilever surfaces for chemical selectivity, and pH measurement.'

  14. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1985 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1986-07-01

    Mid-water trawling techniques were used during September to estimate kokanee population abundance, structure and survival. Abundance in 1985 was estimated at 4.5 million fish (198 per hectare), down from over 12 million kokanee in 1974 when the population was first monitored. Hatchery fry production (<6 million annually) has stabilized kokanee abundance since its initial decline in the late 1960s. Wild fry recruitment has remained relatively stable at 1.8 million since 1978; whereas recruitment of hatchery-reared fry has ranged from 0.09 to 1.98 million. The 1985 creel survey indicated that kokanee harvest rates remain low, with approximately one kokanee harvested per hour of effort from April to August. Catch rates were as high as 3.5 fish per hour during the mid-1960s. The zooplankton community was monitored with periodic plankton tows. Zooplankton composition in 1985 was similar to previous years and appears to have stabilized following the introduction of mysids, with peak cladoceran production occurring several weeks after peak kokanee emergence. Delayed release of hatchery fry resulted in higher survival of hatchery (7.3%) than wild (0.43%) kokanee fry. Other release strategies will be tested as more fry become available.

  15. Fiscal year 1996 progress in implementing Section 120 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Tenth annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Public Law 96-510), commonly known as Superfund, in 1980. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) (Public Law 99-499), which amended CERCLA in 1986, added Section 120 regarding the cleanup of contaminated sites at Federal facilities. Under Section 120(e)(5) of CERCLA, each department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal government responsible for compliance with Section 120 must submit an annual report to Congress concerning its progress in implementing the requirements of Section 120. The report must include information on the progress in reaching Interagency Agreements (IAGs), conducting remedial investigation and feasibility studies (RI/FSs), and performing remedial actions. Federal agencies that own or operate facilities on the National Priorities List (NPL) are required to begin an RI/FS for these facilities within 6 months after being placed on the NPL. Remediation of these facilities is addressed in an IAG between the Federal agency, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and in some instances the state within which the facility is located.

  16. Global transport processes and interactions with trace constituents. Annual progress report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, R. E.

    1979-06-18

    Technical progress made in the period 1 October 1976 to 15 June 1978 is summarized. It was found that tropical Pacific sea temperature can be used to predict tropical air temperature several months ahead. Either Indian Ocean sea temperatures or volcanic aerosol may be used as a second predictor. Atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration also depends on tropical Pacific sea temperature, although whether the relationship occurs through the solubility effect or through the influence of the oceanic biosphere is not shown. A simple model for the temperature change accompanying a CO/sub 2/ doubling yields a temperature rise of less than 0.25/sup 0/C, which is not in accord with other models.

  17. Fallout spatial variability of {sup 137}Cs between reference sites. I. Piracicaba, Nova Odessa and Campinas cities, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Variabilidade espacial do 'fallout' de {sup 137}Cs entre areas de referencia. I. Municipios de Piracicaba, Nova Odessa e Campinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correchel, Vladia; Bacchi, Osny Oliveira Santos [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Maria, Isabella Clerici de [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sparovek, Gerd [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz

    2002-07-01

    The {sup 137} Cs fallout redistribution analysis has been widely used in the last twenty years to investigate the rates of soil erosion and sediment deposition. In this kind of application the knowledge of the local total {sup 137} Cs fallout is of great importance. Usually, this value is evaluated by the analysis of {sup 137} Cs activity in soil profiles from flat non-eroded sites called reference sites. This paper reports preliminary results obtained from an investigation of the spatial variability of {sup 137} Cs inventories at four reference sites located in three places located around Piracicaba Brazil. Higher variability was found in large scale, when compared to the total average from the three places. The so called 'random spatial variability' or small scale variability, in all selected reference site, can be considered small. Considering that the total annual precipitation at the three places are very similar, we concluded that the high variability detected in this scale is an indication that other important factors than precipitation affected the total {sup 137} Cs fallout. The results give also an indication that erosion studies should use reference sites located close to the study area. (author)

  18. Clinical cancer advances 2011: Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer from the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Benowitz, Steven I; Adams, Sylvia; Aghajanian, Carol; Chang, Susan Marina; Dreyer, Zoann Eckert; Janne, Pasi A; Ko, Andrew H; Masters, Greg A; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Patel, Jyoti D; Roth, Bruce J; Samlowski, Wolfram E; Seidman, Andrew D; Tap, William D; Temel, Jennifer S; Von Roenn, Jamie H; Kris, Mark G

    2012-01-01

    A message from ASCO'S President. It has been forty years since President Richard Nixon signed the National Cancer Act of 1971, which many view as the nation's declaration of the "War on Cancer." The bill has led to major investments in cancer research and significant increases in cancer survival. Today, two-thirds of patients survive at least five years after being diagnosed with cancer compared with just half of all diagnosed patients surviving five years after diagnosis in 1975. The research advances detailed in this year's Clinical Cancer Advances demonstrate that improvements in cancer screening, treatment, and prevention save and improve lives. But although much progress has been made, cancer remains one of the world's most serious health problems. In the United States, the disease is expected to become the nation's leading cause of death in the years ahead as our population ages. I believe we can accelerate the pace of progress, provided that everyone involved in cancer care works together to achieve this goal. It is this viewpoint that has shaped the theme for my presidential term: Collaborating to Conquer Cancer. In practice, this means that physicians and researchers must learn from every patient's experience, ensure greater collaboration between members of a patient's medical team, and involve more patients in the search for cures through clinical trials. Cancer advocates, insurers, and government agencies also have important roles to play. Today, we have an incredible opportunity to improve the quality of cancer care by drawing lessons from the real-world experiences of patients. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is taking the lead in this area, in part through innovative use of health information technology. In addition to our existing quality initiatives, ASCO is working with partners to develop a comprehensive rapid-learning system for cancer care. When complete, this system will provide physicians with personalized, real

  19. Determination of Volatility and Element Fractionation in Glassy Fallout Debris by SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Todd L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tenner, Travis Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bonamici, Chloe Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollington, Anthony Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The purpose of this report is to characterize glassy fallout debris using the Trinity Test and then characterize the U-isotopes of U3O8 reference materials that contain weaponized debris.

  20. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, G M; Schneider, R C; Colin, P L; Buddemeier, R W; Suchanek, T H

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. Studies of the burial of fallout radionuclides have been conducted on the islands and in several of the large craters, but studies of their vertical distribution have been limited to about the upper 20 cm of the lagoon sediments. We have found elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon.

  1. Influence of radioactive fallout on water supply and sewerage in Finland; Radioaktiivisen laskeuman vaikutukset vesihuoltoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Saxen, R.; Puhakainen, M. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Hatva, T.; Ahosilta, P.; Tenhunen, J. [National Board of Waters and the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    The report reviews the practices and organization of water supply and sewerage in Finland and is related to their response to radioactive fallout situations. The contribution of drinking water to the internal radiation dose caused by radioactive fallout has earlier been small in Finland. However, in a wide-scale fallout situation, the decreasing of collective dose received from water may be justified, if the dose can be reduced at a reasonable cost, for instance by a temporary change of the raw water source. Efficient exchange of information between radiation protection and water supply experts is important for successful dose reduction measures. In Finland waterworks deliver tap water to 4.2 million people. Half of the water is ground water, and generally very well protected against fallout radioactivity. The other half is treated surface water. (6 figs., 5 tabs.).

  2. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research. Annual grant progress report (FDP), January 15, 1993--January 14, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, D.B.

    1993-10-01

    Progress on seven tasks is reported. (I)UCLA hadronization model, antiproton decay, PEP4/9 e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} analysis: In addition to these topics, work on CP and CPT phenomenology at a {phi} factory and letters of support on the hadronization project are included. (II)ICARUS detector and rare B decays with hadron beams and colliders: Developments are summarized and some typcial events as shown; in addition, the RD5 collaboration at CERN and the asymmetric {phi} factory project are sketched. (III)Theoretical physics: Feynman diagram calculations in gauge theory; supersymmetric standard model; effects of quantum gravity in breaking of global symmetries; models of quark and lepton substructure; renormalized field theory; large-scale structure in the universe and particle-astrophysics/early universe cosmology. (IV)H dibaryon search at BNL, kaon experiments (E799/KTeV) at Fermilab: Project design and some scatterplots are given. (V)UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab. (VI)Detectors for hadron physics at ultrahigh energy colliders: Scintillating fiber and visible light photon counter research. (VII)Administrative support and conference organization.

  3. Professional technical support services for the Mining Equipment Test Facility. First annual technical progress report, April 14-September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garson, R C

    1981-10-01

    The Department of Energy recently began the operation of its Mining Equipment Test Facility. One component at that facility is the highly sophisticated Mine Roof Simulator (MRS) for research and development of roof support equipment. Because of its previous experience, the University of Pittsburgh was contracted to assist the Facilities Manager by providing professional technical support services, principally for the MRS. This technical progress report briefly describes the services provided during the reporting period and planned for the next period. No significant technical disclosures of interest to those not associated with the MRS are contained herein. One of the four units of the US government-owned METF is the Mine Roof Simulator. This unique $10 million test facility was designed to simulate underground mine roof loads and motions. The MRS is a hybrid, analog-digital, computer-controlled, closed-loop, electro-hydraulic, research device capable of applying either loads or displacements in the vertical and one horizontal axis. Its vertical capacity of 3,000,000 pounds can be applied over its 20 by 20 foot active test area. The horizontal load capacity is 1,600,000 pounds. It can simulate coal seam heights of up to 16 feet. Automatic data acquisition and real time display are provided. The most modern, sophisticated technology was used in its design and construction.

  4. Advanced light water reactor plants System 80+{trademark} design certification program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+{trademark} during the US government`s 1995 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design covers an essentially complete plant. It is based on EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) improvements to the Standardized System 80 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2, and 3. The NSSS is a traditional two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs, each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard design houses the NSSS in a spherical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual barrier to radioactivity release. Other major features include an all-digital, human-factors-engineered control room, an alternate electrical AC power source, an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST), and plant arrangements providing complete separation of redundant trains in safety systems.

  5. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1989 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelscher, Brian

    1990-04-01

    The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka rehabilitation program for Lake Pend Oreille continued to show progress during 1989. Estimated kokanee abundance in late August was 7.71 million fish. Decreased population size is the result of lower hatchery and wild fry recruitment and low age 1+ survival. Lower recruitment of wild fry in 1989 resulted from a smaller parental escapement in 1988 and lower wild fry survival. Six fry release strategies were evaluated in 1989. Two groups were released in Clark Fork River to help improve a spawning run to Cabinet Gorge Hatchery. Survival from the mid-summer release, which was barged down Clark Fork River to avoid low flow problems, was not significantly different from the early release. The final assessment of these release strategies will be evaluated when adults return to Cabinet gorge Hatchery in 1992 and 1993. Fry released to support the Sullivan Springs Creek spawning run also survived will in 1989. Two open-water releases were made during early and mid-summer. 30 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Fallout Deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak Nuclear Weapons Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Harold L.; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E.; Simon, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m-2) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for all the 31 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands an...

  7. The Science and Engineering of Durable Ultralow PGM Catalysts- 2012 DOE-EERE-FCT annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, Fernando H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-16

    Minimizing the quantity of Pt group metals used in polymer membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is one of the remaining grand challenges for fuel cell commercialization. Tremendous progress has been achieved over the last two decades in decreasing the Pt loading required for efficient fuel cell performance. Unfortunately, the fluctuations in the price of Pt represent a substantial barrier to the economics of widespread fuel cell use. Durability and impurity tolerance are also challenges that are tightly coupled to fuel cell Pt electrode loading. Traditional approaches to decreasing the amount of Pt required for good performance include: (1) Increasing mass activity by decreasing Pt particle size by supporting on carbon; (2) Alloy formulation Pt-Co, Pt-Cr alloys to improve mass activity; (3) Increasing Pt utilization by optimization of electronic and ionic contact of the Pt particles; (4) Improving conductivity of the electronic and ionic conducting constituents of the membrane electrode assembly; and (5) Improving reactant to and product mass transport away from the electroactive sites. Recent novel approaches include the nanoengineering of core shell catalysts and Pt particles of unusual geometries such as nanowires/whiskers. The success of the aforementioned approaches has been great; however further advances using such approaches have been hampered by a lack of underlining scientific understanding of the catalyst activity, particle growth mechanisms, and optimization strategies for designing composite electrodes The objectives of this report are: (1) Development of durable, high mass activity Platinum Group Metal (PGM) cathode catalysts-enabling lower cost fuel cells; (2) Elucidation of the fundamental relationships between PGM catalyst shape, particle size and activity to help design better catalysts; (3) Optimization of the cathode electrode layer to maximize the performance of PGM catalysts-improving fuel cell performance and lowering cost; (4) Understanding the

  8. A high resolution record of chlorine-36 nuclear-weapons-tests fallout from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J.R.; Cecil, L.D.; Synal, H.-A.; Santos, J.; Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Inilchek Glacier, located in the Tien Shan Mountains, central Asia, is unique among mid-latitude glaciers because of its relatively large average annual accumulation. In July 2000, two ice cores of 162 and 167 meters (m) in length were collected from the Inilchek Glacier for (chlorine-36) 36Cl analysis a part of a collaborative international effort to study the environmental changes archived in mid-latitude glaciers worldwide. The average annual precipitation at the collection site was calculated to be 1.6 m. In contrast, the reported average annual accumulations at the high-latitude Dye-3 glacial site, Greenland, the mid-latitude Guliya Ice Cap, China, and the mid-latitude Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, USA, were 0.52, 0.16 and 0.76 m, respectively. The resolution of the 36Cl record in one of the Inilchek ice cores was from 2 to 10 times higher than the resolution of the records at these other sites and could provide an opportunity for detailed study of environmental changes that have occurred over the past 150 years. Despite the differences in accumulation among these various glacial sites, the 36Cl profile and peak concentrations for the Inilchek ice core were remarkably similar in shape and magnitude to those for ice cores from these other sites. The 36Cl peak concentration from 1958, the year during the mid-1900s nuclear-weapons-tests period when 36Cl fallout was largest, was preserved in the Inilchek core at a depth of 90.56 m below the surface of the glacier (74.14-m-depth water equivalent) at a concentration of 7.7 ?? 105 atoms of 36Cl/gram (g) of ice. Peak 36Cl concentrations from Dye-3, Guliya and the Upper Fremont glacial sites were 7.1 ?? 105, 5.4 ?? 105 and 0.7 ?? 105 atoms of 36Cl/g of ice, respectively. Measurements of 36Cl preserved in ice cores improve estimates of historical worldwide atmospheric deposition of this isotope and allow the sources of 36Cl in ground water to be better identified. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Novel ceramic-polymer composite membranes for the separation of hazardous liquid waste. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Y.

    1998-06-01

    'This report summarizes the work progress over the last 1.75 years of a 3 year project. The objectives of the project have been to develop a new class of ceramic-supported polymeric membranes that could be tailored-designed for a wide-range of applications in remediation and pollution prevention. To date, a new class of chemically-modified ceramic membranes was developed for the treatment of oil-in-water emulsions and for the pervaporation removal of volatile organics from aqueous systems. These new ceramic-supported polymer (CSP) membranes are fabricated by modifying the pore surface of a ceramic membrane support by a graft polymerization process (Chaimberg and Cohen, 1994). The graft polymerization process consists of activating the membrane surface with alkoxy vinyl silanes onto which vinyl monomers are added via free-radical graft polymerization resulting in a thin surface layer of terminally anchored polymer chains. Reaction conditions are selected based on knowledge of the graft polymerization kinetics for the specific polymer/substrate system. The resultant ceramic-supported polymer (CSP) membrane is a composite structure in which mechanical strength is provided by the ceramic support and the selectivity is determined by the covalently bonded polymer brush layer. Thus, one of the unique attributes of the CSP membrane is that it can be used in environments where the polymer layer is swollen (or even completely miscible) in the mixture to be separated (Castro et al., 1993). It is important to note that the above modification process is carried out under mild conditions (e.g., temperature of about 70 C) and is well suited for large scale commercial application. In a series of studies, the applicability of a polyvinylpyrrolidone CSP membrane was demonstrated for the treatment of oil-in-water emulsion under a variety of flow conditions (Castro et al.,1996). Improved membrane performance was achieved due to minimization of surface adsorption of the oil

  10. Modelling (137)Cs concentrations in moose (1986-2012) from areas highly contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert N; Sundell-Bergman, Synnöve; Sonesten, Lars; Wikenros, Camilla; Rosén, Klas

    2016-08-01

    Data from long term annual monitoring of (137)Cs concentrations in harvested moose (Alces alces) were empirically modelled by applying multivariate data analysis that is able to from relatively raw datasets show how the many various impact variables are related (Principal component analysis, PCA). In the later stage regression modelling (Partial least squares, PLS) was applied to analyse which environmental and physiological factors were significant (i.e. of predictive value) based on the measured (X) activity concentrations in moose meat. The data sets originate from two different forest dominated areas in Sweden. One area is located inland (Heby municipality) and the other borders to the Baltic Sea (Gävle municipality). In inland with 20% farmland, GIS-software was used to calculate the proportion of different habitat types and (137)Cs deposition around individual killing spots. This model reveals that the proportions of farmland and forest around the killing spot were significant parameters, second to deposition and years since fallout. Significance was also obtained for the proportions of mire and water bodies, the amount of rain in summer and the age of the moose. In the other model based on data from the coastal area with only about 4% farmland, the coordinates of the moose killing spots were not recorded in the data sets. In the resulting model the temperature in July was the most important parameter, second to years since fallout. Significance was also found for the following parameters: temperature and rainfall in several summer months, the approximate north- and eastward location of the killing spot and to which age category (adult/calf) the harvested moose belonged.

  11. Dispersal and fallout simulations for urban consequences management (u)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinstein, Fernando F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wachtor, Adam J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Matt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Randy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patnik, Gopal [US NAVAL RESEARCH LAB.

    2010-01-01

    Hazardous chemical, biological, or radioactive releases from leaks, spills, fires, or blasts, may occur (intentionally or accidentally) in urban environments during warfare or as part of terrorist attacks on military bases or other facilities. The associated contaminant dispersion is complex and semi-chaotic. Urban predictive simulation capabilities can have direct impact in many threat-reduction areas of interest, including, urban sensor placement and threat analysis, contaminant transport (CT) effects on surrounding civilian population (dosages, evacuation, shelter-in-place), education and training of rescue teams and services. Detailed simulations for the various processes involved are in principle possible, but generally not fast. Predicting urban airflow accompanied by CT presents extremely challenging requirements. Crucial technical issues include, simulating turbulent fluid and particulate transport, initial and boundary condition modeling incorporating a consistent stratified urban boundary layer with realistic wind fluctuations, and post-processing of the simulation results for practical consequences management. Relevant fluid dynamic processes to be simulated include, detailed energetic and contaminant sources, complex building vortex shedding and flows in recirculation zones, and modeling of particle distributions, including particulate fallout, as well as deposition, re-suspension and evaporation. Other issues include, modeling building damage effects due to eventual blasts, addressing appropriate regional and atmospheric data reduction.

  12. Beyond eruptive scenarios: assessing tephra fallout hazard from Neapolitan volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Folch, Arnau; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of volcanic hazards is necessary for risk mitigation. Typically, hazard assessment is based on one or a few, subjectively chosen representative eruptive scenarios, which use a specific combination of eruptive sizes and intensities to represent a particular size class of eruption. While such eruptive scenarios use a range of representative members to capture a range of eruptive sizes and intensities in order to reflect a wider size class, a scenario approach neglects to account for the intrinsic variability of volcanic eruptions, and implicitly assumes that inter-class size variability (i.e. size difference between different eruptive size classes) dominates over intra-class size variability (i.e. size difference within an eruptive size class), the latter of which is treated as negligible. So far, no quantitative study has been undertaken to verify such an assumption. Here, we adopt a novel Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) strategy, which accounts for intrinsic eruptive variabilities, to quantify the tephra fallout hazard in the Campania area. We compare the results of the new probabilistic approach with the classical scenario approach. The results allow for determining whether a simplified scenario approach can be considered valid, and for quantifying the bias which arises when full variability is not accounted for.

  13. Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, D.; Lelieveld, J.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurrence of major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a core melt of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90 % of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50 % beyond 1000 km distance. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human deposition exposure are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in southern Asia where a core melt can subject 55 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  14. Beyond eruptive scenarios: assessing tephra fallout hazard from Neapolitan volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Folch, Arnau; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Assessment of volcanic hazards is necessary for risk mitigation. Typically, hazard assessment is based on one or a few, subjectively chosen representative eruptive scenarios, which use a specific combination of eruptive sizes and intensities to represent a particular size class of eruption. While such eruptive scenarios use a range of representative members to capture a range of eruptive sizes and intensities in order to reflect a wider size class, a scenario approach neglects to account for the intrinsic variability of volcanic eruptions, and implicitly assumes that inter-class size variability (i.e. size difference between different eruptive size classes) dominates over intra-class size variability (i.e. size difference within an eruptive size class), the latter of which is treated as negligible. So far, no quantitative study has been undertaken to verify such an assumption. Here, we adopt a novel Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) strategy, which accounts for intrinsic eruptive variabilities, to quantify the tephra fallout hazard in the Campania area. We compare the results of the new probabilistic approach with the classical scenario approach. The results allow for determining whether a simplified scenario approach can be considered valid, and for quantifying the bias which arises when full variability is not accounted for.

  15. The validity of the Annual Review of Competence Progression: a qualitative interview study of the perceptions of junior doctors and their trainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Antonia; Needleman, Sarah; Griffin, Ann; Woolf, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate trainee doctors’ and trainers’ perceptions of the validity of the Annual Review of Competence Progression (ARCP) using Messick’s conceptualisation of construct validity. Design Qualitative semi-structured focus groups and interviews with trainees and trainers. Setting Postgraduate medical training in London, Kent Surrey and Sussex, Yorkshire and Humber, and Wales in November/December 2015. Part of a larger study about the fairness of postgraduate medical training. Participants Ninety-six trainees and 41 trainers, comprising UK and international medical graduates from Foundation, General Practice, Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Psychiatry, Radiology, and Surgery, at all levels of training. Main outcome measures Trainee and trainer perceptions of the validity of the ARCP as an assessment tool. Results Participants recognised the need for assessment, but were generally dissatisfied with ARCPs, especially UK graduate trainees. Participants criticised the perceived tick-box nature of ARCPs as measuring clerical rather than clinical ability, and which they found detrimental to learning. Trainees described being able to populate their e-portfolios with just positive feedback; they also experienced difficulty getting assessments signed off by supervisors. ARCPs were perceived as poor at identifying struggling trainees and/or as discouraging excellence by focussing on minimal competency. Positive experiences of ARCPs arose when trainees could discuss their progress with interested supervisors. Conclusions Trainee and trainer criticisms of ARCPs can be conceptualised as evidence that ARCPs lack validity as an assessment tool. Ongoing reforms to workplace-based assessments could address negative perceptions of the ‘tick-box’ elements, encourage constructive input from seniors and allow trainees to demonstrate excellence as well as minimal competency, while keeping patients safe. PMID:28116956

  16. The validity of the Annual Review of Competence Progression: a qualitative interview study of the perceptions of junior doctors and their trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viney, Rowena; Rich, Antonia; Needleman, Sarah; Griffin, Ann; Woolf, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Objective To investigate trainee doctors' and trainers' perceptions of the validity of the Annual Review of Competence Progression (ARCP) using Messick's conceptualisation of construct validity. Design Qualitative semi-structured focus groups and interviews with trainees and trainers. Setting Postgraduate medical training in London, Kent Surrey and Sussex, Yorkshire and Humber, and Wales in November/December 2015. Part of a larger study about the fairness of postgraduate medical training. Participants Ninety-six trainees and 41 trainers, comprising UK and international medical graduates from Foundation, General Practice, Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Psychiatry, Radiology, and Surgery, at all levels of training. Main outcome measures Trainee and trainer perceptions of the validity of the ARCP as an assessment tool. Results Participants recognised the need for assessment, but were generally dissatisfied with ARCPs, especially UK graduate trainees. Participants criticised the perceived tick-box nature of ARCPs as measuring clerical rather than clinical ability, and which they found detrimental to learning. Trainees described being able to populate their e-portfolios with just positive feedback; they also experienced difficulty getting assessments signed off by supervisors. ARCPs were perceived as poor at identifying struggling trainees and/or as discouraging excellence by focussing on minimal competency. Positive experiences of ARCPs arose when trainees could discuss their progress with interested supervisors. Conclusions Trainee and trainer criticisms of ARCPs can be conceptualised as evidence that ARCPs lack validity as an assessment tool. Ongoing reforms to workplace-based assessments could address negative perceptions of the 'tick-box' elements, encourage constructive input from seniors and allow trainees to demonstrate excellence as well as minimal competency, while keeping patients safe.

  17. A Comparison in the Accuracy of Mapping Nuclear Fallout Patterns Using HPAC, HYSPLIT, DELFIC FPT and an AFIT FORTRAN95 Fallout Deposition ode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    constant support, suggestions and love and our unborn son who did not make me to nauseous to continue my journey. I am deeply grateful to my dogs Herbie...radioactive hazard that could potentially lead to injury and possibly death to living systems. The base knowledge of fallout deposition and residual

  18. Distribution of some chemical elements between dissolved and particulate phases in the ocean. Research period: August 1, 1975--July 31, 1976. [Fallout /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb diffusion in oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies on the distributions of fallout /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po in dissolved and particulate states in the Gulf of Maine and a transect of the equatorial North Atlantic Ocean. The ratio of /sup 210/Pb//sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Po//sup 210/Pb in seawater and suspended particulate matter in samples collected from 10 stations in the tropical and eastern North Atlantic and two stations in the Pacific was also determined. (CH)

  19. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  20. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  1. Annual Report of Progress Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-02

    inical preventive denti or other treatment may be instituted to elImInate or treat these III effects. ) APProACH •. Epidemiological surveys of...Study effects cif FIlM patro I on parot i d sa I i vary components. Standa zed collection of parotid saliva and evaluation of physiological correlates...on parotid HC03 when fine requirements of flow rate control are met. Dental calculus .formatlon rete and composition found to be uneffected by an

  2. Has fallout from the Chernobyl accident caused childhood leukaemia in Europe? An update on epidemiologic evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, W. [Bremen Inst. for Prevention Research and Social Medicine (BIPS), Bremen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Background: According to radiation risk estimates uniformly adopted by various official organizations, exposure to Chernobyl fallout is unlikely to have caused any measurable health risk in central Europe. Methods and Results: A reevaluation of ECLIS (European Childhood Leukaemia and Lymphoma Incidence Study), a large IARC-coordinated project revealed a slightly higher leukaemia incidence in the most contaminated European regions, and an increasing trend with estimated cumulative excess radiation dose. The excess corresponds to 20 cases of childhood leukaemia in the study area until 1991. Recent evidence from Greece and Germany indicate significantly higher risks in the cohort of children in utero at the time of the initial fallout. In Greece, a positive trend was observed over three regions of increasing average fallout contamination (p=0.005). Conclusion: Chernobyl fallout could well have caused a small, but significant excess of childhood leukaemia cases in Europe. The etiologic mechanism might include an induction of chromosome aberrations in early pregnancy. Increased risks in the birth cohort exposed in utero correspond to 11 excess cases in Greece and another 11.4 excess cases in Germany alone. Exposure misclassification and underascertainment of incident cases render post-Chernobyl risk estimates probably too low. If indeed Chernobyl fallout has caused childhood leukaemia cases in Europe, we would also expect an increased incidence for other childhood cancers and excess malignancies in adults as well as non-malignant diseases of all ages. Neither of these endpoints have as yet been systematically studied. (orig.)

  3. Reconstruction and analysis of cesium-137 fallout deposition patterns in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Robert Cleckley, Jr.

    Estimates of 137Cs deposition due to fallout originating from nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands have been made for several locations in the Marshall Islands. These retrospective estimates were based primarily on historical exposure rate and gummed film measurements. The methods used to reconstruct these deposition estimates are specific for six of the Pacific tests. These methods are also similar to those used in the National Cancer Institute study for reconstructing 131I deposition from the Nevada Test Site. Reconstructed cumulative deposition estimates are validated against contemporary measurements of 137Cs concentration in soil. This validation work also includes an accounting for estimated global fallout contributions. These validations show that the overall geometric bias in predicted-to-observed (P/O) ratios is 1.0 (indicating excellent agreement). The 5th and 95th percentile range of this distribution is 0.35--2.95. The P/O ratios for estimates using historical gummed film measurements tend to slightly over-predict more than estimates using exposure rate measurements. The methods produce reasonable estimates of deposition confirming that radioactive fallout occurred at atolls further south of the four northern atolls recognized by the Department of Energy as being affected by fallout. The deposition estimate methods, supported by the very good agreement between estimates and measurements, suggest that these methods can be used for other weapons testing fallout radionuclides with confidence.

  4. Integrated approach towards the application of horizontal wells to improve waterflooding performance. Annual progress report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.; Liner, C.; Kerr, D.

    1997-01-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the fourth year of the project on {open_quotes}Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance{close_quotes}. The project involves using an integrated approach to characterize the reservoir followed by proposing an appropriate reservoir management strategy to improve the field performance. In the first stage of the project, the type of data we integrated include cross borehole seismic surveys, geological interpretation based on the logs and the cores, and the engineering information. In contrast, during the second stage of the project, we intend to use only conventional data to construct the reservoir description. This report covers the results of the implementation from the first stage of the project. It also discusses the work accomplished so far for the second stage of the project. The production from the Self Unit (location of Stage 1) has sustained an increase of 30 bbls/day over a year with an additional increase anticipated with further implementation. We have collected available core, log and production data from Section 16 in the Berryhill Glenn Unit and have finished the geological description. Based on the geological description and the associated petrophysical properties, we have developed a new indexing procedure for identifying the areas with the most potential. We are also investigating an adjoining tract formerly operated by Chevron where successful miceller-polymer flood was conducted. This will help us in evaluating the reasons for the success of the flood. Armed with this information, we will conduct a detailed geostatistical and flow simulation study and recommend the best reservoir management plan to improve the recovery of the field.

  5. Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems. Annual progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, H.L.

    1980-01-04

    This is the third annual progress report for a continuing EPA-DOE jointly funded project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil-fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. The project is organized into four project tasks: (1) literature review; (2) process water screening; (3) methods development; and (4) recommendations. Our Bibliography of aquatic ecosystem effects, analytical methods and treatment technologies for organic compounds in advanced fossil-fuel processing effluents was submitted to the EPA for publication. The bibliography contains 1314 citations indexed by chemicals, keywords, taxa and authors. We estimate that the second bibliography volume will contain approximately 1500 citations and be completed in February. We compiled results from several laboratories of inorganic characterizations of 19 process waters: 55 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters; and Hanna-3, Hanna-4B 01W and Lawrence Livermore Hoe Creek underground coal gasification condenser waters. These process waters were then compared to a published summary of the analyses from 18 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters. We completed this year 96-h flow-through toxicity bioassays with fathead minnows and rainbow trout and 48-h flow-through bioassays with Daphnia pulicaria exposed to 5 oil-shale process waters, 1 tar-sand process water, 2 underground coal gasification condenser waters, 1 post-gasification backflood condenser water, as well as 2 bioassays with fossil-fuel process water constituents. The LC/sub 50/ toxicity values for these respective species when exposed to these waters are given in detail. (LTN)

  6. A dynamic approach to monitoring particle fallout in a cleanroom environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Radford L., III

    2010-08-01

    Previous studies have correlated the particle fallout rates within cleanrooms to MIL-STD-1246 cleanliness levels. Unfortunately "cleanliness levels" are not linear and do not lead to easily understood increases with respect to either cleanroom class or time. Additionally, cleanroom "class" is rarely static but varies throughout the processing flow in accordance with the activity levels. A numerical evaluation of the particle fallout normalized to area coverage demonstrates a correlation that is directly proportional to both cleanroom class and exposure time, yielding a simple Class-Hour formulation. Application of this formulation allows for dynamic monitoring of the projected fallout rates using a standard air particle counter. The theoretical results compare favorably with historical data and recent studies.

  7. Plutonium and americium inventories in atmospheric fallout and sediment cores from Blelham Tarn, Cumbria (UK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, H. E-mail: herve.michel@unice.fr; Barci-Funel, G.; Dalmasso, J.; Ardisson, G.; Appleby, P.G.; Haworth, E.; El-Daoushy, F

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to report on the results of a study of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am inventories onto Blelham Tarn in Cumbria (UK). The atmospheric fallout inventory was obtained by analysing soil cores and the results are in good agreement with the literature: 101 Bq m{sup -2} for {sup 239+240}Pu; 4.5 Bq m{sup -2} for {sup 238}Pu and 37 Bq m{sup -2} for {sup 241}Am. The sediment core inventory for the whole lake is compared to the atmospheric fallout inventory. The sediment activity is 60-80% higher than the estimated fallout activity, showing a catchment area contribution and in particular the stream input.

  8. Plutonium and americium inventories in atmospheric fallout and sediment cores from Blelham Tarn, Cumbria (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, H; Barci-Funel, G; Dalmasso, J; Ardisson, G; Appleby, P G; Haworth, E; El-Daoushy, F

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report on the results of a study of 238Pu, 239 + 240Pu and 241Am inventories onto Blelham Tarn in Cumbria (UK). The atmospheric fallout inventory was obtained by analysing soil cores and the results are in good agreement with the literature: 101 Bq m(-2) for 239 + 240Pu; 4.5 Bq m(-2) for 238Pu and 37 Bq m(-2) for 241Am. The sediment core inventory for the whole lake is compared to the atmospheric fallout inventory. The sediment activity is 60-80% higher than the estimated fallout activity, showing a catchment area contribution and in particular the stream input.

  9. Relevance of Fukushima Nuclear Accident to India: Nuclear Radiation Risk and Interventions to Mitigate Adverse Fallout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Kapil, Varshney Neha, Aslesh OP, Karmakar MG, Pandav Chandrakant S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental radiation release from Fukushima nuclear power following tsunami in Japan has once again highlighted the omnipotent risk of radiation injury in the today’s world. India is at a real risk from radiation fallout both due to nuclear power plant accidents and nuclear warfare threat. The risk from nuclear radiation accident in India is further increased by the region being endemic for iodine deficiency as adverse effects following nuclear radiation fallout like thyroid cancer is significantly higher in iodine deficient populations .There is need to institute disaster preparedness measures to mitigate the damage in case of a nuclear accident. Interventions to control adverse fallout of nuclear radiation include evacuation, sheltering and food controls as well as iodine prophylaxis

  10. Radiological survey and evaluation of the fallout area from the Trinity test: Chupadera Mesa and White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, W.R.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1985-06-01

    Current radiological conditions were evaluated for the site of the first nuclear weapons test, the Trinity test, and the associated fallout zone. The test, located on White Sands Missile Range, was conducted as part of the research with nuclear materials for the World War II Manhattan Engineer District atomic bomb project. Some residual radioactivity attributable to the test was found in the soils of Ground Zero on White Sands Missile Range and the areas that received fallout from the test. The study considered relevant information including historical records, environmental data extending back to the 1940s, and new data acquired by field sampling and measurements. Potential exposures to radiation were evaluated for current land uses. Maximum estimated doses on Chupadera Mesa and other uncontrolled areas are less than 3% of the DOE Radiation Protection Standards (RPSs). Radiation exposures during visits to the US Army-controlled Ground Zero area are less than 1 mrem per annual visit or less than 0.2% of the RPS for a member of the public. Detailed data and interpretations are provided in appendixes. 14 figs., 45 tabs.

  11. Fallout Deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak Nuclear Weapons Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Harold L.; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E.; Simon, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m-2) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for all the 31 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands and to estimate fallout deposition density. Our analysis suggested that only 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in substantial fallout deposition on any of the 25 inhabited atolls. This analysis was confirmed by the fact that the sum of our estimates of 137Cs deposition from these 20 tests at each atoll is in good agreement with the total 137Cs deposited as estimated from contemporary soil sample analyses. The monitoring data and meteorological analyses were used to quantitatively estimate the deposition density of 63 activation and fission products for each nuclear test, plus the cumulative deposition of 239+240Pu at each atoll. Estimates of the degree of fractionation of fallout from each test at each atoll, as well as of the fallout transit times from the test sites to the atolls were used in this analysis. The estimates of radionuclide deposition density, fractionation, and transit times reported here are the most complete available anywhere and are suitable for estimations of both external and internal dose to representative persons as described in companion papers. PMID:20622548

  12. Fallout deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Harold L; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands and to estimate fallout deposition density. Our analysis suggested that only 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in substantial fallout deposition on any of the 23 inhabited atolls. This analysis was confirmed by the fact that the sum of our estimates of 137Cs deposition from these 20 tests at each atoll is in good agreement with the total 137Cs deposited as estimated from contemporary soil sample analyses. The monitoring data and meteorological analyses were used to quantitatively estimate the deposition density of 63 activation and fission products for each nuclear test, plus the cumulative deposition of 239+240Pu at each atoll. Estimates of the degree of fractionation of fallout from each test at each atoll, as well as of the fallout transit times from the test sites to the atolls were used in this analysis. The estimates of radionuclide deposition density, fractionation, and transit times reported here are the most complete available anywhere and are suitable for estimations of both external and internal dose to representative persons as described in companion papers.

  13. Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernette, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

  14. Local fallout from nuclear test detonations. Volume 2. Compilation of fallout patterns and related test data. Supplement. Foreign nuclear tests. Sanitized

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenthau, M.; Showers, R.L.

    1964-10-01

    The available fallout patterns and related test data for nuclear weapon tests conducted by the United Kingdom, the Republic of France, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, are included in this supplement to NDL-TR-34. The related test data for the British and French tests include: date and time of detonation, location of test site, total yield, fission yield, type of burst and placement, height of burst, cloud-top and -bottom heights, crater data, and wind information up to nuclear cloud-top height. No fallout patterns are available for any of the Soviet detonations. The list of Soviet detonations, which is as comprehensive as possible, contains the chronological order of the detonations, date, yield, type of burst and location of test site.

  15. SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Semi-Annual Progress Report for the Period April 1, 2009 through September 30, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, I. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Middleton, D. E. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-10-15

    This report summarizes work carried out by the ESG-CET during the period April 1, 2009 through September 30, 2009. It includes discussion of highlights, overall progress, period goals, collaborations, papers, and presentations. To learn more about our project, and to find previous reports, please visit the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) website. This report will be forwarded to the DOE SciDAC program management, the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) program management, national and international collaborators and stakeholders (e.g., the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), the Climate Science Computational End Station (CCES), the SciDAC II: A Scalable and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Science, the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), and other wide-ranging climate model evaluation activities). During this semi-annual reporting period, the ESG-CET team continued its efforts to complete software components needed for the ESG Gateway and Data Node. These components include: Data Versioning, Data Replication, DataMover-Lite (DML) and Bulk Data Mover (BDM), Metrics, Product Services, and Security, all joining together to form ESG-CET's first beta release. The launch of the beta release is scheduled for late October with the installation of ESG Gateways at NCAR and LLNL/PCMDI. Using the developed ESG Data Publisher, the ESG II CMIP3 (IPCC AR4) data holdings - approximately 35 TB - will be among the first datasets to be published into the new ESG enterprise system. In addition, the NCAR's ESG II data holdings will also be published into the new system - approximately 200 TB. This period also saw the testing of the ESG Data Node at various collaboration sites, including: the British Atmospheric Data Center (BADC), the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, the University of Tokyo

  16. Upscaling the Use of Fallout Radionuclides in Soil Erosion and Sediment Budget Investigations: Addressing the Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E. Walling

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of fallout radionuclides in soil erosion investigations and related sediment budget studies has provided a widely used tool for improving understanding of soil erosion and sediment transfer processes. However, most studies using fallout radionuclides undertaken to date have focussed on small areas. This focus on small areas reflects both the issues addressed and practical constraints associated with sample collection and analysis. Increasing acceptance of the important role of fine sediment in degrading aquatic habitats and in the transfer and fate of nutrients and contaminants within terrestrial and fluvial systems has emphasised the need to consider larger areas and the catchment or regional scale. The need to upscale existing approaches to the use of fallout radionuclides to larger areas represents an important challenge. This contribution provides a brief review of existing and potential approaches to upscaling the use of fallout radionuclides and presents two examples where such approaches have been successfully applied. These involve a national scale assessment of soil erosion rates in England and Wales based on 137Cs measurements and an investigation of the sediment budgets of three small/intermediate-size catchments in southern Italy.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  18. Evaluation of Spalling Fallout on Excavation Disturbed Zone under Deep Hard Rock Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azit, Romziah; Ashraf Mohamaed Ismail, Mohd; You Jiang, Thang

    2017-08-01

    The prediction of compressive stress-induced failures is of concern when designing and constructing facilities in rock for deep underground excavation. The purpose of this study is to model compressive stress-induced failure and fallouts with appropriate material models and strength parameters for deep hard rock tunnel excavation. Three method of numerical modelling are used, which are Generalised Hoek-Brown; Mohr-Coulomb; and Mohr-Coulomb with Cohesion Softening Friction Hardening (CSFH) material models for capturing the observed rock behaviour. A parametric study was also carried out to verify that the peak friction angle of 10° used in CSFH model. The results show that numerical models used only Generalised Hoek-Brown and Mohr Coulomb strength parameters does not show a good agreement with the observed fallout. The comparison revealed that the numerical models using the Mohr-Coulomb with CSFH provides most realistic to the observation fallout length. This model is valid for prediction of failure and fallouts in hard rock masses with high quality (GSI >65 MPa; intact rock compressive strength >70MPa).

  19. MX MPS deployment, an on-site fallout evaluation. Final report 12 Jul-29 Dec 78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craver, R.H.; McGahan, J.T.; Muller, E.

    1978-12-29

    This report addresses the probable extent and severity of the fallout hazard associated with a massive hypothetical attack against an MPS Deployment of the MX missile in the Nevada Model Area. It contains descriptions of attack scenarios, site modeling, methodology for calculating and depicting the distribution of fallout, and quantitative estimates of the severity of the hazard. Forty separate wind samples taken over a twelve-month period are used to assess the variability of the distribution of fallout resulting from an attack of several thousand surface burst weapons at the Nevada site. Fallout intensities are determined at 177 monitor points throughout the potential deployment area; time histories of dose rate buildup and decay are presented and discussed with respect to operational implications. Key factors are parameterized to permit comparison of a range of design factors and logistical considerations. Key findings are presented in condensed form including several illustrative examples chosen to quantify the practical aspects of operating in a radiation environment and to assist in the development of a balanced system design.

  20. Lead-210 and Beryllium-7 fallout rates on the southeastern coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Christian J., E-mail: zinosanders@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Fluminense (UFF), Departamento de Geoquimica, Outeiro de Sao Joao Baptista s/n, Morro do Valonguinho Centro, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Smoak, Joseph M. [University of South Florida (USF), Environmental Science, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Cable, Peter H. [Tulane University, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, New Orleans, LA (United States); Patchineelam, Sambasiva R. [Universidade Federal de Fluminense (UFF), Departamento de Geoquimica, Outeiro de Sao Joao Baptista s/n, Morro do Valonguinho Centro, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Sanders, Luciana M. [Istituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro 22780 (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Total {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be fallout rates were measured on the coastal region of Niteroi, Brazil. The monthly depositional flux of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be varied by a factor of 26, from 1.7 to 43.3 mBq cm{sup -2} year{sup -1} and {approx}27, from 7.5 to 203.5 mBq cm{sup -2} year{sup -1}, respectively. The relatively large oscillations in the depositional flux of {sup 210}Pb at this study site were likely due to variations in air mass sources, while the {sup 7}Be fluctuations may be driven by a combination of weather conditions. Local geology could support the periodic high fluxes of {sup 210}Pb from continental air masses, as shifting oceanic wind sources were affirmed by the uncorrelated {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be fallout activities and {sup 7}Be/{sup 210}Pb ratios. The {sup 210}Pb atmospheric deposition was found to be in agreement with local sediment inventories, an important consideration in geochemical studies that estimate sedimentation processes. - Highlights: > Fallout rates of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be indicate depositional flux during a 12-month period. > Oscillations in {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be fallout are driven by geology ({sup 210}Pb) and weather. > Regional trends in {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb fluxes used in geochemical processes.

  1. THE CONSEQUENCES OF INGESTION BY MAN OF REAL AND SIMULATED FALLOUT,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ingested radioactivity was measured by whole body counting using the gamma-ray spectrometer at the Argonne Cancer Research Hospital. An average of 3 per...strontium, cesium and barium following ingestion of fallout, and retention of the radionuclides of these elements. (Author)

  2. New technologies to improve the monitoring of tephra fallouts from Etna: the collaborative system Tefranet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronico, Daniele; Ferrari, Ferruccio; Merenda, Riccardo; Reitano, Danilo; Scollo, Simona; Cristaldi, Antonio; Lodato, Luigi; Mangiagli, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    During early December 2015, Mt. Etna (Italy) produced 4 paroxysmal events from the Voragine crater in just 3 days. This activity caused ash and lapilli fallout over a wide area extending from the volcanic slopes up to ~100 km from the volcano, affecting numerous villages and the cities of Messina and Reggio Calabria. Monitoring this kind of volcanic activity in order to know the dispersal of tephra fallout in quasi-real time can prove challenging, especially when several paroxysmal events follow each other as during these latest eruptions in December. To tackle similar recurring periods of frequent activity, which have occurred a number of times at Etna over recent years, we devised a collaborative system named Tefranet. The system is easy to use but at the same time designed to rapidly retrieve useful georeferenced information on tephra fallouts from Etna's explosive activity. Tefranet includes a mobile application and a web site, with particular attention to an administration backend tool, making owners of smartphones or other mobile devices participants. The system aims to involve citizens living not only in eastern Sicily (i.e. the area most affected by fallout based on the prevailing winds blowing on Etna), but also those resident at some distance, in areas potentially covered by tephra (more than 60-80 km from the volcano) and that are difficult to reach before the original amounts of tephra on the ground may become altered by anthropic (e.g. car traffic) and atmospheric (wind and rain) factors. The Tefranet community will be informed by the INGV specialists via mobile device in case explosive activity resumes, with users able to visualize all the tephra signals on a map in real time. All kinds of information concerning start/end of the tephra fallout, estimation of the clast dimensions, thickness of the deposit, level of tephra cover on the ground, will be welcomed, especially if accompanied by photos of the deposit and of the eruption plume. Here, we

  3. Distribution of Np and Pu in Swedish lichen samples (Cladonia stellaris) contaminated by atmospheric fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, Patric E-mail: patric.lindahl@radfys.lu.se; Roos, Per; Eriksson, Mats; Holm, Elis

    2004-07-01

    The activity concentrations of {sup 237}Np and the two Pu isotopes, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu, were determined in lichen samples (Cladonia stellaris) contaminated by fallout from atmospheric nuclear test explosions and the Chernobyl accident. The samples were collected at 18 locations in Sweden, from north to south, between 1986 and 1988 and analysed with high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry. Data on the activity ratios {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs measured previously were also included in this study for comparison. The {sup 237}Np activity concentration ranged from 0.08{+-}0.01 to 2.08{+-}0.17 mBq kg{sup -1}, depending on the location of the sampling site and time of collection. The {sup 239+240}Pu activity concentration ranged from 0.09{+-}0.01 to 4.09{+-}0.15 Bq kg{sup -1}, with the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratio ranging between 0.16{+-}0.01 and 0.44{+-}0.03, the higher ratios indicating a combination of weapons test fallout and Chernobyl fallout. The {sup 237}Np/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratios ranged between 0.06{+-}0.01 and 0.42{+-}0.04, the lower ratios indicating combination of weapons test fallout and Chernobyl fallout. At a well-defined sampling site at Lake Rogen (62.32 deg. N, 12.38 deg. E), additional lichen samples were collected between 1987 and 1998 to study the distribution of Np and Pu in different layers. The concentrations of the two elements follow each other quite well in the profile.

  4. Quantifying Atmospheric Fallout of Fukushima-derived Radioactive Isotopes in the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Trista; Dulai, Henrietta

    2016-04-01

    On March 11, 2011, several reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered damage and released the radioisotopes iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137 into the atmosphere. A week later, these isotopes were detected in aerosols over the state of Hawaii and in milk samples analyzed from the Big Island. Because the detected levels were significantly below levels of health concern, the state did not attempt to quantify the deposition of these nuclides on the islands. This study estimated the magnitude of atmospheric fallout of cesium and iodine, and examined the patterns of cesium wet deposition with precipitation observed in March 2011. Mushroom and soil samples were collected along precipitation gradients on Oahu and the island of Hawaii and analyzed for cesium isotopes using gamma spectrometry. Fukushima-derived fallout was differentiated from historic nuclear weapons testing fallout by the presence of Cs-134, which has a shorter half-life of 2.06 years and the fact that Cs-134 and 137 were released from the severed power plant nearly in parity. We found that Fukushima-derived cesium was present in both mushrooms and soil and the soil inventories ranged 2.2-60.9 Bq/m2 for Cs-137 and 16.1-445.8 Bq/m2 for I-131. Additionally, we found that Fukushima-derived cesium inventories in soils were correlated with precipitation gradients. This research confirmed and quantified the presence of Fukushima-derived fallout in Hawaii, however the activities detected were orders of magnitude lower than fallout associated with the nuclear weapons testing in the Pacific.

  5. A geochemical approach to constraining the formation of glassy fallout debris from nuclear tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamici, Chloë E.; Kinman, William S.; Fournelle, John H.; Zimmer, Mindy M.; Pollington, Anthony D.; Rector, Kirk D.

    2017-01-01

    Glassy nuclear fallout debris from near-surface nuclear tests is fundamentally reprocessed earth material. A geochemical approach to analysis of glassy fallout is uniquely suited to determine the means of reprocessing and shed light on the mechanisms of fallout formation. An improved understanding of fallout formation is of interest both for its potential to guide post-detonation nuclear forensic investigations and in the context of possible affinities between glassy debris and other glasses generated by high-energy natural events, such as meteorite impacts and lightning strikes. This study presents a large major-element compositional dataset for glasses within aerodynamic fallout from the Trinity nuclear test ("trinitite") and a geochemically based analysis of the glass compositional trends. Silica-rich and alkali-rich trinitite glasses show compositions and textures consistent with formation through melting of individual mineral grains—quartz and alkali feldspar, respectively—from the test-site sediment. The volumetrically dominant glass phase—called the CaMgFe glass—shows extreme major-element compositional variability. Compositional trends in the CaMgFe glass are most consistent with formation through volatility-controlled condensation from compositionally heterogeneous plasma. Radioactivity occurs only in CaMgFe glass, indicating that co-condensation of evaporated bulk ground material and trace device material was the main mechanism of radioisotope incorporation into trinitite. CaMgFe trinitite glasses overlap compositionally with basalts, rhyolites, fulgurites, tektites, and microtektites but display greater compositional diversity than all of these naturally formed glasses. Indeed, the most refractory CaMgFe glasses compositionally resemble early solar system condensates—specifically, CAIs.

  6. Losses of Sr/sup 90/, Sr/sup 89/, and I/sup 131/ from fallout-contaminated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W.E.

    1964-11-01

    During the early period following local fallout, and during periods of maximal worldwide fallout, the entry of radionuclides into terrestrial food-chains is due primarily to the external contamination of plants and secondarily to the uptake of radionuclides from contaminated soil. Studies were undertaken to estimate the rates of radionuclide loss from fallout-contaminated vegetation and hence from the diets of herbivores living in a fallout field. On the fifth, fifteenth, thirtieth, and sixtieth days after an underground nuclear explosion (Operation Sedan) at the Nevada Test Site, plant samples were collected from twenty representative locations in the fallout field and analyzed to determined the concentrations (pc/g dry wt) of /sup 90/Sr, /sup 89/Sr, and /sup 131/I at the times of collections. While the radioactive half lives of /sup 90/Sr, /sup 89/Sr, and /sup 131/I are approximately 27.7 years, 53 days, and 8.04 days respectively, their average effective half-lives on fallout-contaminated plants, during the period from 5 to 30 days after the detonation, were 27.8 days, 17.8 days, and 5.0 days respectively. Losses of /sup 90/Sr were attributed to radioactive decay and to the removal of fallout particles and foliage by wind and/or other mechanical disturbances. Losses of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 89/Sr were attributed to radioactive decay and to the removal of fallout particles and foliage by wind and/or other mechanical disturbances. Losses of /sup 131/I were attributed to radioactive decay, to mechanical disturbance, and to the vaporization of /sup 131/I from the fallout particles retained on foliage.

  7. Gas-cooled reactor programs: High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Base-Technology Program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Progress in HTGR studies is reported in the following areas: HTGR chemistry; fueled graphite development; prestressed concrete pressure vessel development; structural materials; HTGR graphite studies; and evaluation of the pebble-bed HTR.

  8. Gas-cooled reactor programs: High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Base-Technology Program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, F.J.; Kasten, P.R.

    1979-06-01

    Progress in HTGR studies is reported in the following areas: fission product transport and coolant impurity effects, fueled graphite development, PCRV development, structural materials, characterization and standardization of graphite, and evaluation of the pebble-bed type HTGR.

  9. Gas-Cooled Reactor Programs. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Base-Technology Program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, F.J.; Kasten, P.R.

    1978-07-01

    Progress in HTGR studies is reported in the following areas: fission product technology and coolant impurity effects, fueled graphite development, PCRV development, structural materials, characterization and standardization of graphite, and evaluation of the pebble-bed type HTR.

  10. Gross β activity level of fallout in the environment around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ji-Da; CHEN Bin; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the measurement results of gross β activities in fallout samples collected from the environment around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) during 1993-2002. The gross β activity of 191 samples collected at five monitoring spots were (0.11~3.64) Bq · m-2 · d-1, with an average of (0.91 ±0.49) Bq · m-2 · d-1. This value was lower than (1.02±0.35) Bq·m-2·d-1 , the average of the samples collected at the reference spot in Hangzhou.It indicated that no obvious rise in the gross β activity level of fallout was observed in ambience of Qinshan NPP.

  11. RESUME95 Nordic field test of mobile equipment for nuclear fall-out monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, C.; Bresson, J.; Chiffot, T.; Guillot, L. [Centre d`Etudes de Valduc, Direction des Applications Militaires, Commissaiat a L`Energie Atomique, Tille (France)

    1997-12-31

    Nordic Safety Research (NKS) organised in August 1995 a field test of various techniques and instrumentation for monitoring radioactive fall-out. In an emergency situation, after a major release of radioactive material, many different measuring systems are going to be used, ranging from small hand hold intensitometer to complex spectrometer systems. In this test the following type of equipment were tested: Airborne spectrometers; Carborne spectrometers and dose rate meters; In situ spectrometers and intensitometers. Helinuc team was equipped of an airborne system and of a germanium device for in situ measurements. Different tasks were specified for each team: Mapping caesium fall-out and natural activity over two areas of 18 and 5 km{sup 2}; Research of hidden sources. For measurements and data processing the respect of time allowed was strictly controlled for testing the ability of each team. (au).

  12. Airborne fallout mapping of {sup 137}Cs - STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkinen, M.; Aarnio, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The task of the team was to create a fallout map of {sup 137}Cs on a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used AB-420 helicopter of the Finnish Frontier Guard. The team had two measuring systems: HPGe system (relative efficiency 18%) and NaI system (5`x5`). Both systems produced similar maps. The average {sup 137}Cs fallout within the area (lakes and ponds included) was 88 kBq m{sup -2,} the maximum value being 161 kBq m{sup -2}. In an emergency the HPGe is superior to NaI because of its better energy resolution, giving possibility to obtain nuclide-specific results. (au).

  13. Airborne fallout mapping of {sup 137}Cs Finnish defence forces team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, M.; Heininen, T. [Finnish Defence Forces Research Centre, Lakiala (Finland); Pulakka, M. [Finnish Air Force Depot, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The main task of the team was to create a fallout map of {sup 137}Cs in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used an MI-8 helicopter of the Finnish Air Force. The team had an HPGe system (relative efficiency 70%) to measure nuclide specific ground contamination level. For navigation the team took advantage of the DGPS service provided by Finnish Broadcasting company utilizing the RDS-channel to get position accuracy within 2 meters. The correction signal is reachable nationwide on the FM transmitter network. The system produced a distribution map for {sup 40}K and fallout maps for {sup 134,137}Cs using a Micro Station Program with TerraModeler application. The maximum measured {sup 137}Cs ground contamination exceeded 130-140 kBqm{sup -2}. (au).

  14. Effects of the Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1983 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, John J.

    1983-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. This annual report covers the 1982-1983 field season concerning the effects of Hungry Horse operations on kokanee abundance, migration, spawning, egg incubation and fry emergence in the Flathead River system. This report also addresses the expected recovery of the mainstem kokanee population under the flow regime recommended by the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks in 1982.

  15. Effects of the Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1983 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, John J.

    1983-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. This annual report covers the 1982-1983 field season concerning the effects of Hungry Horse operations on kokanee abundance, migration, spawning, egg incubation and fry emergence in the Flathead River system. This report also addresses the expected recovery of the mainstem kokanee population under the flow regime recommended by the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks in 1982.

  16. (239)Pu fallout across continental Australia: Implications on (239)Pu use as a soil tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, R; Fifield, L K; Tims, S G; Wasson, R J

    2017-09-19

    At present there is a need for the development of new radioisotopes for soil erosion and sediment tracing especially as fallout (137)Cs levels become depleted. Recent studies have shown that (239)Pu can be a useful new soil erosion and sediment radioisotope tracer. (239)Pu was released in the major atmospheric nuclear weapons tests of 1950's and 1960's. However (239)Pu has a half-life of 24110 years and more than 99% of this isotope is still present in the environment today. In contrast (137)Cs with a half-life of 30.07 year has decayed to atom ratios range from 0.045 to 0.197, with averages of 0.139(0.017), 0.111(0.052) and 0.160(0.027) in the 10-20°S, 20-30°S and 30-40°S latitude bands respectively. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in Central Australia (0.069) likely represent fallout from the Australian tests which also have low (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios i.e., Maralinga (0.113) and Montebello (0.045). The average ratios in the 20-30°S and 30-40° bands are closer to the global average (0.139 and 0.177 respectively when not including the close-in fallout data from the nuclear test sites) if the Australian test sites and Central Australian sites are neglected as they clearly represent the effects of close in fallout. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunological effects of low dose radiation. Absent or minor effects of Chernobyl fallout in Norway?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitan, J.B.; Bergan, T.D.; Strand, P. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Melbye, O.J. [Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway)

    1998-01-01

    In this pilot study of those Norwegian individuals most heavily exposed to the Chernobyl Fallout, immunological parameters generally stayed within normal limits. However, some parameter, apparently within the assumed normal range did, in fact correlate to the estimated individual dose as assessed by wholebody counting of radiocaesium content. The small possible effects revealed in this study may represent real biological effects, but do not necessarily represent a health detriment. 43 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Observations of fallout from the Fukushima reactor accident in San Francisco Bay area rainwater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B Norman

    Full Text Available We have observed fallout from the recent Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accident in samples of rainwater collected in the San Francisco Bay area. Gamma ray spectra measured from these samples show clear evidence of fission products--(131,132I, (132Te, and (134,137Cs. The activity levels we have measured for these isotopes are very low and pose no health risk to the public.

  19. The spatial distribution of caesium-137 over Northern Ireland from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlins, B. G.; Scheib, C.; Tyler, A.N.; Jones, D.; Webster, R; Young, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of caesium-137 (137Cs) across the land is of much interest because it can tell us about the redistribution of the radionuclide as a result of soil erosion, differential migration through the soil—or its complement, differential retention in the soil. Any such inferences from survey measurements depend on the assumption of a broadly even distribution from weapons testing fallout, and the substantial deposition of 137Cs in rain following the Chernobyl accide...

  20. Observations of Fallout from the Fukushima Reactor Accident in San Francisco Bay Area Rainwater

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Eric B; Chodash, Perry A

    2011-01-01

    We have observed fallout from the recent Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accident in samples of rainwater collected in the San Francisco Bay area. Gamma ray spectra measured from these samples show clear evidence of fission products - 131,132I, 132Te, and 134,137Cs. The activity levels we have measured for these isotopes are very low and pose no health risk to the public.

  1. ACUTE AND CHRONIC INTAKES OF FALLOUT RADIONUCLIDES BY MARSHALLESE FROM NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTING AT BIKINI AND ENEWETAK AND RELATED INTERNAL RADIATION DOSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L.; Weinstock, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  2. Synthetic fibers in atmospheric fallout: A source of microplastics in the environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dris, Rachid; Gasperi, Johnny; Saad, Mohamed; Mirande, Cécile; Tassin, Bruno

    2016-03-15

    Sources, pathways and reservoirs of microplastics, plastic particles smaller than 5mm, remain poorly documented in an urban context. While some studies pointed out wastewater treatment plants as a potential pathway of microplastics, none have focused on the atmospheric compartment. In this work, the atmospheric fallout of microplastics was investigated in two different urban and sub-urban sites. Microplastics were collected continuously with a stainless steel funnel. Samples were then filtered and observed with a stereomicroscope. Fibers accounted for almost all the microplastics collected. An atmospheric fallout between 2 and 355 particles/m(2)/day was highlighted. Registered fluxes were systematically higher at the urban than at the sub-urban site. Chemical characterization allowed to estimate at 29% the proportion of these fibers being all synthetic (made with petrochemicals), or a mixture of natural and synthetic material. Extrapolation using weight and volume estimates of the collected fibers, allowed a rough estimation showing that between 3 and 10 tons of fibers are deposited by atmospheric fallout at the scale of the Parisian agglomeration every year (2500 km(2)). These results could serve the scientific community working on the different sources of microplastic in both continental and marine environments.

  3. Mapping of caesium fallout from the Chernobyl accident in the Jotunheimen area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranwal, Vikas C.; Ofstad, Frode; Roenning, Jan S.; Watson, Robin J.

    2011-07-01

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, several areas in Norway received radioactive fallout. One of these areas is the eastern part of Jotunheimen in central Norway. Immediately after the accident in 1986, the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) performed airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy in central Norway. At that time, it was not possible to calculate reliable radionuclide concentrations, and the data were presented as total counts per second. Several man-made radionuclides were present in the initial fallout, but due to short half-lives, most of these have now disintegrated into stable isotopes. 137Cs, with a half-life of 11.000 days ({approx} 30 years) is still present in the environment in significant quantities, leading to high radioactivity levels in meat from reindeer and sheep. To obtain a detailed map of the caesium fallout concentration in Jotunheimen, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (AGRS) survey was carried out, focussing on reindeer grazing areas. This project was a cooperation between Reindeer Husbandry Administration, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Geological Survey of Norway. (auth)

  4. Ash fallout scenarios at Vesuvius: Numerical simulations and implications for hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonio, G.; Costa, A.; Folch, A.

    2008-12-01

    Volcanic ash fallout subsequent to a possible renewal of the Vesuvius activity represents a serious threat to the highly urbanized area around the volcano. In order to assess the relative hazard we consider three different possible scenarios such as those following Plinian, Sub-Plinian, and violent Strombolian eruptions. Reference eruptions for each scenario are similar to the 79 AD (Pompeii), the 1631 AD (or 472 AD) and the 1944 AD Vesuvius events, respectively. Fallout deposits for the first two scenarios are modeled using HAZMAP, a model based on a semi-analytical solution of the 2D advection-diffusion-sedimentation equation. In contrast, fallout following a violent Strombolian event is modeled by means of FALL3D, a numerical model based on the solution of the full 3D advection-diffusion-sedimentation equation which is valid also within the atmospheric boundary layer. Inputs for models are total erupted mass, eruption column height, bulk grain-size, bulk component distribution, and a statistical set of wind profiles obtained by the NCEP/NCAR re-analysis. We computed ground load probability maps for different ash loadings. In the case of a Sub-Plinian scenario, the most representative tephra loading maps in 16 cardinal directions were also calculated. The probability maps obtained for the different scenarios are aimed to give support to the risk mitigation strategies.

  5. Scoria Fallout Modeling and the 3 March 2015 VEI-2 Eruption of Villarica Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Johnson, J. B.; Bowman, D. C.; Ronan, T.; Brand, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    In March 2015, Villarrica volcano erupted a spectacular 1.5 km lava fountain and 6-8 km plume, depositing a thin (several mm or cm) layer of scoria tens of km toward the east and southeast. We show results of numeric models (the advection-diffusion equation solver Tephra2, and particle-tracking models) informed by NOMADS atmospheric data used to model this fallout. Models show strong winds (up to 25 m/s) toward the east and southeast concentrating the narrow deposit in those directions, and the vertical variation of wind direction predicts particle sorting along the wind-transverse direction. Both of these were observed in the field. We discuss the challenges faced by fallout models of scoria: because of its irregular shapes, high and variable porosity, and propensity to break apart on impact, aerodynamic properties are difficult to assess by physical observations. This introduces ambiguity when comparing models to observations. Finally, we demonstrate how short-term hazard predictions can benefit from the integration of fallout models with weather forecasts up to several days in advance, and how hazard communication to the public can benefit from snapshots and animations showing zones subject to tephra fall and time delays from eruption to impact.

  6. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-09-29

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University has been successfully managing the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by Penn State, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. Base funding for the selected projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. At the annual funding meeting held in October 2003, ten projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten 2004 projects were completed during the previous annual reporting period and their final reports were submitted with the previous annual report (i.e., 10/01/04-09/30/05). The final report for the remaining project, which was submitted during this reporting

  7. Use of fallout radionuclides ((7)Be, (210)Pb) to estimate resuspension of Escherichia coli from streambed sediments during floods in a tropical montane catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribolzi, Olivier; Evrard, Olivier; Huon, Sylvain; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Henri-des-Tureaux, Thierry; Silvera, Norbert; Thammahacksac, Chanthamousone; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth

    2016-02-01

    Consumption of water polluted by faecal contaminants is responsible for 2 million deaths annually, most of which occur in developing countries without adequate sanitation. In tropical aquatic systems, streambeds can be reservoirs of persistent pathogenic bacteria and high rainfall can lead to contaminated soils entering streams and to the resuspension of sediment-bound microbes in the streambed. Here, we present a novel method using fallout radionuclides ((7)Be and (210)Pbxs) to estimate the proportions of Escherichia coli, an indicator of faecal contamination, associated with recently eroded soil particles and with the resuspension of streambed sediments. We show that using these radionuclides and hydrograph separations we are able to characterize the proportion of particles originating from highly contaminated soils and that from the resuspension of particle-attached bacteria within the streambed. We also found that although overland flow represented just over one tenth of the total flood volume, it was responsible for more than two thirds of the downstream transfer of E. coli. We propose that data obtained using this method can be used to understand the dynamics of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in streams thereby providing information for adapted management plans that reduce the health risks to local populations. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract showing (1) the main water flow processes (i.e. overland flow, groundwater return flow, blue arrows) and sediment flow components (i.e. resuspension and soil erosion, black arrows) during floods in the Houay Pano catchment; (2) the general principle of the method using fallout radionuclide markers (i.e. (7)Be and (210)Pbxs) to estimate E. coli load from the two main sources (i.e. streambed resuspension vs soil surface washoff); and 3) the main results obtained during the 15 May 2012 storm event (i.e. relative percentage contribution of each process to the total streamflow, values in parentheses).

  8. Ten years of elemental atmospheric metal fallout and Pb isotopic composition monitoring using lichens in north-eastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloquet, Christophe; Estrade, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    We report on the chemical and Pb isotopic compositions of epiphytic lichens collected from small tree branches in the urban area of the city of Metz (NE France). Lichens were collected in five different years between 2001 and 2009. The data are first compared year to year in order to document any temporal changes and trends in metal atmospheric fallout. The area studied was then subdivided into different zones on the basis of land-use (urban, suburban, rural and industrial) in order to determine potential spatial gradients. The median concentrations and enrichment factors (EF, normalized to Al) of Pb and other metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, Hg, Fe) in lichens from the urban, suburban, and rural zones show no systematic variation between 2001 and 2008. However, the metal EFs show spatial variation and are generally highest in the urban area and lowest in the rural area. Lichens within the industrial zone (collected in 2009), which is dominated by steel industries, are richest in Al, Fe, Cr, Pb, and Zn. Although the Al concentration is high in these lichens, the EFs for the cited metals are several times higher than those measured in lichens from the other three zones. No significant differences were noted for Hg, Cd, Cu and or Ni. Lead isotopic compositions measured in lichens may be highly variable from year to year and from zone to zone. The variation is primarily interpreted to result from mixing between: (i) Pb added to gasoline (and recycled through re-emission of road dust in the atmosphere); (ii) regional industrial Pb from long-range transportation and/or mixed with urban Pb; and (iii) local industrial Pb. The median isotopic compositions of individual zones are distinct, suggesting variable mixing of these three sources. The annual variations show that 2001 was most affected by gasoline Pb, whereas 2003 and 2006 were more affected by the local steel industry.

  9. Ten years of elemental atmospheric metal fallout and Pb isotopic composition monitoring using lichens in northeastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloquet, Christophe; Estrade, Nicolas; Carignan, Jean

    2015-09-01

    We report on the chemical and Pb isotopic compositions of epiphytic lichens collected from small tree branches in the urban area of the city of Metz (NE France). Lichens were collected in five different years between 2001 and 2009. The data are first compared year to year in order to document any temporal change and trend in metal atmospheric fallout. The area studied was then subdivided into different zones on the basis of land use (urban, suburban, rural and industrial) in order to determine potential spatial gradients. The median concentrations and enrichment factors (EF, normalized to Al) of Pb and other metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, Hg, Fe) in lichens from the urban, suburban, and rural zones show no systematic variation between 2001 and 2008. However, the metal EFs show spatial variation and are generally highest in the urban area and lowest in the rural area. Lichens within the industrial zone (collected in 2009), which is dominated by steel industries, are richest in Al, Fe, Cr, Pb, and Zn. Although the Al concentration is high in these lichens, the EFs for the cited metals are several times higher than those measured in lichens from the other three zones. No significant differences were noted for Hg, Cd, Cu and or Ni. Pb isotopic compositions measured in lichens may be highly variable from year to year and from zone to zone. The variation is primarily interpreted to result from mixing between: (i) Pb added to gasoline (and recycled through re-emission of road dust in the atmosphere); (ii) regional industrial Pb from long-range transportation and/or mixed with urban Pb; and (iii) local industrial Pb. The median isotopic compositions of individual zones are distinct, suggesting variable mixing of these three sources. The annual variations show that 2001 was most affected by gasoline Pb, whereas 2003 and 2006 were more affected by the local steel industry.

  10. Association of Postbreakfast Triglyceride and Visit-to-Visit Annual Variation of Fasting Plasma Glucose with Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kitaoka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR was measured at baseline and after a median follow-up of 6.0 years in 161 patients with type 2 diabetes. Intrapersonal means and SD of HbA1c, systolic BP, fasting, and postmeal plasma glucose (FPG and PMPG, resp. and serum triglycerides (FTG and PMTG, resp. were calculated in each patient during the first 12 months after enrollment. Associations of these variables with nephropathy progression (15 patients with progression of albuminuric stages and 5 with ACR doubling within the microalbuminuric range were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis providing odds ratio with 95% confidential interval. Patients with nephropathy progression, compared with those without nephropathy progression, had higher HbA1c (p<0.01. They also had higher means and SD of FPG (both p<0.05, FTG (both p<0.05, and PMTG (p=0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that SD-FPG (1.036, 1.001–1.073, p=0.04 and PMTG (1.013, 1.008–1.040, p=0.001 were significant predictors of progression of nephropathy even after adjustment for mean FPG and SD-FTG, age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, diabetes duration and therapy, means and SDs of HbA1c, PPG, FTG and systolic BP, baseline ACR, smoking status, and uses of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications. Consistency of glycemic control and management of postmeal TG may be important to prevent nephropathy progression in type 2 diabetic patients.

  11. PROJECTED LIFETIME CANCER RISKS FROM EXPOSURE TO REGIONAL RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT IN THE MARSHALL ISLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Charles E.; Bouville, Andre; Apostoaei, Iulian; Simon, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive fallout from nuclear test detonations during 1946–1958 at Bikini and Enewetak atolls in the Marshall Islands (MI) exposed populations living elsewhere in the archipelago. A comprehensive analysis, presented in seven companion papers, has produced estimates of tissue-specific radiation absorbed dose to MI residents at all historically inhabited atolls from internal (ingested) and external radioactive components of fallout, by calendar year, and by age of the population at time of exposure. The present report deals, for the first time, with the implications of these doses on cancer risk among exposed members of the MI population. Radiation doses differed by geographic location and year of birth, and radiation-related cancer risk depends upon age at exposure and age at observation for risk. Using dose-response models based on committee reports published by the National Research Council and the National Institutes of Health, we project that, during the lifetimes of members of the MI population potentially exposed to ionizing radiation from weapons test fallout deposited during the testing period (1948–1958) and from residual radioactive sources during the subsequent 12 years (1959–1970), perhaps 1.6% (with 90% uncertainty range 0.4% and 3.4%) of all cancers might be attributable to fallout-related radiation exposures. The projected proportion of cancers attributable to radiation from fallout from all nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands is 55% (28%–69%) among 82 persons exposed in 1954 on Rongelap and Ailinginae, 10% (2%–22%) for 157 persons exposed on Utrik, and 2% (0.5%–5%) and 1% (0.2%–2%), respectively, for the much larger populations exposed in mid-latitude locations including Kwajalein and in southern locations including Majuro. By cancer type, point estimates of attributable risk varied by location, between 12% and 95% for thyroid cancer, between 2% and 78% for leukemia, and between 1% and 55% for all cancers combined. The

  12. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 1 April 1996--29 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-20

    This technical progress report discusses work on the Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities for the Cassini spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft is expected to launch in October 1997, and will explore Saturn and its moons. This progress report discusses issues in: spacecraft integration and liason, engineering support, safety, qualified unicouple fabrication, ETG fabrication and testing, ground support equipment, RTG shipping and launch support, designs, reviews and mission application. Safety analysis of the RTGs during reentry and launch accidents are covered. This report covers the period of April 1 to September 29, 1996.

  13. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini RTG Program. Semi annual technical progress report, September 26, 1994--April 2, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-20

    The technical progress achieved during the period 26 September 1994 through 2 April 1995 on Contract DE-AC03-91SF18852 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Ancillary Activities is described herein. Monthly technical activity for the period 27 February 1995 through 2 April 1995 is included in this progress report. The report addresses tasks, including: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple production; ETG Fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment; RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance, reliability, contract changes, CAGO acquisition (operating funds), and CAGO maintenance and repair; and CAGO acquisition (capital funds).

  14. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam, Annual Progress Report April 2004 - March 2005. Report C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, M.J.; Kofoot, P.

    2006-01-01

    River discharge and water temperatures that occurred during April through July 2004 provided conditions suitable for spawning by white sturgeon downstream from Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary dams. Optimal spawning temperatures in the four tailraces occurred for 3-4 weeks and coincided with the peak of the river hydrograph. However, the peak of the hydrograph was relatively low compared to past years, which is reflected in the relatively low monthly and annual indices of suitable spawning habitat. Bottom-trawl sampling in the Bonneville Reservoir revealed the presence of young-of-theyear (YOY) white sturgeon.

  15. RETROSPECTIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF INTEGRAL IODINE-131 FALLOUT FOR THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE BRYANSK REGION OF RUSSIA ON THE BASIS OF RESULTS OF IODINE-129 CONTENT IN THE SOIL DETERMINATION IN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Gavrilin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly describes the procedure of reconstruction of integral iodine-131 fallouts using fragmentary data on iodine-131 fallouts in May-June 1986, as well as results of determination (in the late period after the accident of iodine-129 concentration in the soil and values of integral fallouts of cesium-137 in the settlements of the Bryansk region of Russia. Results of estimation of integral iodine-131 fallouts (in the area of 32 soil sampling points are presented in the table form. Regularities of ratio (131I/137CsII change in the integral radionuclide fallouts are being determined and values of integral iodine-131 fallouts are being estimatedfor the other settlements of the region with the known values of integral cesium-137 fallouts. It is shown that variability of the average for settlements values of integral iodine-131 fallouts is 70 times less then variability of corresponding integral cesium-137 fallouts.

  16. Design, engineering, and evaluation of refractory liners for slagging gasifiers. Second annual technical progress report, 1 October 1979-30 September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, G.; Firestone, R. F.; Greaves, M. J.; Hales, C.; Lamoureux, J. P.; Ledford, R. R.

    1980-10-01

    The program has been making steady progress to completion. The refractory liner test system is a much more complex design than originally proposed, but it is also safer and better able to simulate the actual coal gasification environment to which refractories will be exposed. Consequently, the data from the tests will be more reliable and the final handbook more useful for refractory liner design.

  17. Design, engineering, and evaluation of refractory liners for slagging gasifiers. Second annual technical progress report, 1 October 1979-30 September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, G.; Firestone, R. F.; Greaves, M. J.; Hales, C.; Lamoureux, J. P.; Ledford, R. R.

    1980-10-01

    The program has been making steady progress to completion. The refractory liner test system is a much more complex design than originally proposed, but it is also safer and better able to simulate the actual coal gasification environment to which refractories will be exposed. Consequently, the data from the tests will be more reliable and the final handbook more useful for refractory liner design.

  18. Risø annual report 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    In this annual report, we present a small selection of Risø’s achievements in 2001. A more detailed review of Risø’s projects can be found in the Risø Annual Accounts for 2001 as well as in the annual progress reports prepared by the individual researchdepartments....

  19. 23 CFR 1200.33 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual report. 1200.33 Section 1200.33 Highways NATIONAL... § 1200.33 Annual report. Within 90 days after the end of the fiscal year, each State shall submit an Annual Report. This report shall describe: (a) The State's progress in meeting its highway safety...

  20. Radioecology of natural systems in Colordao. Fourteenth annual progress report, May 1, 1975--July 31, 1976. [Pu diffusion in terrestrial ecosystems at Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1976-08-01

    This report summarizes project activities during the period May 1, 1975 through July 31, 1976. The major study on the distribution and levels of Pu in major components of the terrestrial ecosystem at Rocky Flats was completed. Supportive studies on the ecology and pathology of small mammals and their role in Pu transport were essentially completed as well. Detailed studies on mule deer food habits, population dynamics, and movements at Rocky Flats are progressing. These studies are designed to measure the potential of mule deer in transporting Pu to uncontrolled areas. Alpha autoradiographic studies designed to measure Pu particle size and distribution and spatial patterns in soil were initiated. Field and greenhouse transport pathways from soil to vegetation are in progress and some early results reported. The status of studies on seasonal kinetics of Cs in a montane lake and stable lead geochemistry in an alpine lake watershed are also reported.

  1. Experimental investigations of electron capture from atomic hydrogen and deuterium by alpha particles. Annual progress report, 15 September 1991--14 September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, T.J.; Park, J.T.

    1992-11-01

    We report progress made during the period 15 September 1991--14 September 1992 on the project ``Experimental Investigations of Electron Capture from Atomic Hydrogen and Deuterium by Alpha Particles``. In the past year we have developed reliable, narrow energy spread, high-current sources of He{sup ++} based on direct-current magentron and electron-cyclotron resonance discharges. These sources have been proven on our test bench accelerator which has been upgraded to also allow us to test atomic hydrogen effusive targets. We have thus made substantial progress toward our goal of studying single electron capture from atomic hydrogen by doubly-ionized helium. A research plan for the upcoming year is also presented.

  2. Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Volume 1. Executive Summary and Task Reports. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumaker, R.C.; de Wys, J.N.; Dixon, J.M.

    1978-10-01

    The first portion of the report, from the Executive Summary (page 1) through the Schedule of Milestones (page 10), gives a general overview which highlights our progress and problems for the second year. The Task report portion of the text, written by individual task investigators, is designed primarily for scientists interested in technical details of the second year's work. The second portion of the report consists of appendices of data compiled by the principal investigators.

  3. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 28 March 1994--25 September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-20

    The progress on the radioisotope generators and ancillary activities is described. This report is organized by program task as follows: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple fabrication; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment; RTG shipping and launch support; design, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance and reliability, contract changes, non-capital CAGO acquisition, and CAGO maintenance; contractor acquired government owned property (CAGO) acquisition.

  4. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam, Annual Progress Report April 2006 - March 2007. Report C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, M.J.; Kofoot, P.

    2008-01-01

    Describe reproduction and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River between Bonneville and Priest Rapids dams. Define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available in the Columbia River between Bonneville and Priest Rapids dams. Progress updates on young-of-the-year recruitment in Bonneville Reservoir and indices of white sturgeon spawning habitat for 2006 for McNary, John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville dam tailrace spawning areas.

  5. 1992 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress; Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    This report summarizes the progress States and compact regions made during 1992 in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1992 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to section 7 (b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act.

  6. 1987 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress: Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    In response to Section 7(b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-240), this report summarizes the progress of states and low-level radioactive waste compacts in 1987 in establishing new low-level waste disposal facilities. It also reports the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1987 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities.

  7. New Progress in Modern Research on Chinese Herbal Medicines Published in Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs in 2010: Annual Highlights and Comments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Chun-nian; LIU Yan-ze; XIAO Pei-gen

    2011-01-01

    As a series of and continuous publication,the papers published on Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs in 2010 were selectively and briefly highlighted to reflect the new progress on modern research of Chinese herbal medicines.Within 617 articles,chemical constituents (127),pharmaceutics and technology (149),pharmacological studies and clinical observation,and medicinal materials are still major categories.Some comments have also been personally provided.

  8. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam, Annual Progress Report April 2005 - March 2006. Report C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, M.J.; Kofoot, P.

    2007-01-01

    River discharge and water temperatures that occurred during April through July 2005 provided conditions suitable for spawning by white sturgeon downstream from Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary dams. Optimal spawning temperatures in the four tailraces occurred for 3-4 weeks and coincided with the peak of the river hydrograph. However, the peak of the hydrograph occurred in mid May and discharges dropped quickly and water temperature rose during June, which is reflected in the monthly and annual indices of suitable spawning habitat. Indices of available spawning habitat for the month of June 2005 were less than one-half of the average of the period from 1985-2004. Bottom-trawl sampling in the Bonneville Reservoir revealed the presence of young-of-the-year (YOY) white sturgeon but the proportion of positive tows was quite low at 0.06.

  9. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Monitoring and Evaluation Project and Hood River Fish Habitat Project : Annual Progress Report 1999-2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Michael B.; McCanna, Joseph P.; Jennings, Mick

    2001-02-01

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin. This annual report summarizes work for two consecutive contract periods: the fiscal year (FY) 1999 contract period was 1 October, 1998 through 30 September, 1999 and 1 October, 1999 through 30 September, 2000 for FY 2000. Work implemented during FY 1999 and FY 2000 included (1) acclimation of hatchery spring chinook salmon and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts, (2) spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys on the West Fork Hood River (3) genetic analysis of steelhead and cutthroat [contractual service with the ODFW], (4) Hood River water temperature studies, (5) Oak Springs Hatchery (OSH) and Round Butte Hatchery (RBH) coded-wire tagging and clipping evaluation, (6) preparation of the Hood River Watershed Assessment (Coccoli et al., December 1999) and the Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan (Coccoli et al., February 2000), (7) project implementation of early action habitat protection and restoration projects, (8) Pelton Ladder evaluation studies, (9) management oversight and guidance to BPA and ODFW engineering on HRPP facilities, and (10) preparation of an annual report summarizing project objectives for FY 1999 and FY 2000.

  10. Detection of fallout 241Am in U.S. Atlantic salt marsh soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, B. M.; Sommerfield, C. K.

    2017-09-01

    We report the presence of the fallout radionuclide 241Am (t1/2 = 433 years) in salt marsh soils from two U.S. Atlantic estuaries and discuss its utility as a particle tracer and geochronometer. This work is motivated by the knowledge that 137Cs, the most widely used geochronometer in environmental studies, will decay to extinction during the next century. At the same time, levels of 241Am, produced by radioactive decay of fallout 241Pu, will continue to increase on Earth's surface as they have since the height of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the 1960s. Measurements of 241Am in soils at eighteen salt marsh locations were made by non-destructive gamma spectrometry and compared to activities of 137Cs in the same samples. Results indicate that decay of fallout 241Pu can explain the presence of 241Am in the soils, and that the activities are sufficiently high to provide meaningful chronological information with acceptable confidence limits. We achieved a detection limit of 0.28-1.47 Bq kg-1 using low-energy, planar germanium detectors and 11-55 g powderized samples. Activities of 241Am (0.08-6.44 Bq kg-1) were similar in mineral- and organic-rich marsh soils indicating that soil composition does not appear to influence the initial capture of 241Pu and retention of its 241Am progeny. Given its high affinity for fine particles, long half-life, and ease of measurement by non-destructive gamma spectrometry, 241Am has potential to serve as an alternative to 137Cs geochronometry in salt marshes and perhaps other estuarine and coastal environments.

  11. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 2 October 1995--31 March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-20

    The technical progress achieved during the period 2 October 1995 through 31 March 1996 on Contract No. DE-AC03-91SF18852, Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities is described herein. This report is organized by the program task structure as follows: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple fabrication; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment (GSE); RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance and reliability, contract changes, non-capital CAGO acquisition, and CAGO maintenance; contract acquired government-owned property (CAGO) acquisition; and program calendars.

  12. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected ten projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten projects have been completed and the final reports for these 2004 projects are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2004 and the council

  13. Local fall-out and the animal food chain; Retombees locales et chaine alimentaire animale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, G.; Mercier, F.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The local consequences of fresh fall-out, especially in the case of atmospheric nuclear explosions, are reviewed from the point of view of the internal contamination of the consumer of foodstuffs of animal origin. The edibility of foodstuffs derived from animals having grazed in the presence of fall-out is evaluated both from the wholesome and radio-toxicological points of view. The contamination level of these foodstuffs is calculated as a function of the ground fall-out, and of agronomical and ecological parameters for each radio-nuclide of the animal food chain. The internal exposure of the human consumer is calculated from this level as a function of the diet and of various parameters especially temporal. The equivalent dose to each critical organ, including the digestive tract is deduced from the burdens of each organ. From this a nutritional hygiene in the areas affected by fall-out is obtained, in relationship to the action levels fixed by the responsible authorities in exceptional circumstances. Criteria for these action levels are given as function of the food rations. (authors) [French] Les consequences locales des retombees fraiches, notamment dans le cas d'explosions nucleaires atmospheriques, sont passees en revue en ce qui concerne les problemes de contamination interne du consommateur de denrees d'origine animale. La comestibilite des aliments provenant de betes de boucherie ayant pature sous les retombees est evaluee au double point de vue de la salubrite et de la radiotoxicologie. Le niveau de contamination de ces denrees est calcule en fonction de la retombee au sol, des parametres agronomiques et ecologiques pour chaque radioelement de la chaine alimentaire animale. La contamination interne du consommateur humain est calculee a partir de ce niveau en fonction des modalites d'ingestion et de divers parametres, notamment temporels. L'equivalent de dose au niveau de chaque organe critique, y compris le tube digestif, est deduit

  14. Appendix to health and safety laboratory environmental quarterly. [Tabulated data on fallout radioactivity in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    Data are tabulated on: the content of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 89/Sr in monthly deposition at monitoring sites in the USA and other locations throughout the world; the content of /sup 90/Sr in milk samples collected in New York City; the content of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr in samples of drinking water collected in New York City; and the content of fallout radionuclides and lead in samples of surface air collected at various world sites during 1976. (CH)

  15. Toxoplasma antibodies and retinochoroiditis in the Marshall Islands and their association with exposure to radioactive fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.H.; Kindermann, W.R.; Walls, K.W.; Heotis, P.M.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly universal serologic evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection was found to have occurred by adulthood in 517 Marshallese tested in 1981-1982. The prevalence and incidence of retinal lesions compatible with toxoplasmosis were 3.9% and 273 cases/year/100,000 seropositive persons, respectively, thus indicating a significant public health problem. Seronegativity was significantly more common in a subgroup of Marshallese that had received 110-190 rads of total-body gamma radiation as a consequence of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. Despite this finding there was no evidence of an increase in clinically significant lesions in exposed persons.

  16. The use of dielectric and NMR measurements to determine the pore-scale location of organic contaminants. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.; Bryar, T.; Caputi, M.

    1997-07-15

    'The objective of the three-year research project is to investigate the effect of adsorbed organics on the dielectric and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) response of porous geological materials. This will allow us to assess the use of dielectric and NMR measurements at a site to determine whether organic contaminants are present in the central volume of the pore space (in a water-wet system) or are adsorbed to the solid surface. In addition, the authors propose to use laboratory dielectric and NMR measurements to study the kinetics of the adsorption and desorption of organics by conducting experiments where the authors control temperature and vary fluid chemistry. This project can be divided into three parts: sample preparation, NMR studies, dielectric studies. Over the past nine months the authors have made significant progress in sample preparation and NMR studies. As the plan is to conduct the NMR and dielectric measurements on the same set of samples, the authors delayed the start of the dielectric measurements until the first stage of NMR measurements were complete. Below the authors summarize the progress in sample preparation and NMR measurements, first briefly introducing the method used for the NMR measurements.'

  17. NSLS annual report 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaffky, R.; Thomlinson, W. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    The first comprehensive Annual Report of the National Synchrotron Light Source comes at a time of great activity and forward motion for the facility. In the following pages we outline the management changes that have taken place in the past year, the progress that has been made in the commissioning of the x-ray ring and in the enhanced utilization of the uv ring, together with an extensive discussion of the interesting scientific experiments that have been carried out.

  18. SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Semi-Annual Progress Report for the Period October 1, 2009 through March 31, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, I. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Middleton, D. E. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Ananthakrishnan, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Siebenlist, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sim, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bell, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Drach, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ahrens, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jones, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Chastang, J. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Cinquini, L. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Fox, P. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Harper, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Hook, N. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Nienhouse, E. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Strand, G. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); West, P. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Wilcox, H. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Wilhelmi, N. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Zednik, S. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Hankin, S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Schweitzer, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Bernholdt, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chen, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shipman, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bharathi, S. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina Del Rey, CA (United States). Information Sciences Institute; Chervenak, A. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina Del Rey, CA (United States). Information Sciences Institute; Schuler, R. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina Del Rey, CA (United States). Information Sciences Institute; Su, M. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina Del Rey, CA (United States). Information Sciences Institute

    2010-04-21

    This report summarizes work carried out by the ESG-CET during the period October 1, 2009 through March 31, 2009. It includes discussion of highlights, overall progress, period goals, collaborations, papers, and presentations. To learn more about our project, and to find previous reports, please visit the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) website. This report will be forwarded to the DOE SciDAC program management, the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) program management, national and international collaborators and stakeholders (e.g., the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), the Climate Science Computational End Station (CCES), the SciDAC II: A Scalable and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Science, the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), and other wide-ranging climate model evaluation activities).

  19. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; Annual Progress Report, April 2007 - March 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallette, Christine [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-07-28

    We report on our progress from April 2007 through March 2008 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report C), and Montana State University (MSU; Report D). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  20. Analytical chemical system for the determination of heavy metals and organic compounds. Annual progress report, December 1, 1978-November 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siggia, S.; Barnes, R.M.

    1979-10-24

    Progress has been made in the synthesis and characterization of new resins for sequestering inorganic and organic compounds. The capabilities of the poly(dithiocarbamate) resin have been extended, a new poly(acrylamidoxime) resin prepared and characterized, and a series of resins for organic compounds prepared and tested. Limited actual sample analyses have been performed with these resins. A new inductively coupled plasma source, spectrometer, and computer system have been received and they are undergoing tests and installation. With this system in place, the multielement analysis of metals during the forthcoming period will insure the application of sequestering resins to practical analysis of energy-related materials. An automated sample handling and data system has been designed, some components purchased, and construction is scheduled for 1980.

  1. Theoretical innovation and technical progress will usher in a production period of gas fields with an annual capacity of ten billion cubic meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Gan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenged by the increasing complexity of targets and the tense situation of turning losses into profits during the 12th Five-Year Plan, by virtue of technological innovation, Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company proposed the theories of gas exploration in continental clastic rock and marine carbonate rock, and developed the development technologies for reef, channel sandstone and tight sandstone reservoirs. Moreover, it innovatively formed a series of engineering technologies, including intelligent sliding sleeve staged fracturing, blasting–packing–fracturing stimulation, impulse fracturing, and drilling, completion and production technologies for ultra-deep horizontal wells with high sulfur contents. With these innovated theories and improved technologies, great discoveries have been made in the continental clastic rocks and marine carbonate rocks in West Sichuan Basin, the marine shale in South Sichuan Basin, and the marine carbonate rocks in Yuanba area of NE Sichuan Basin, and three 100 billion-m3 class commercial gas reserves zones were discovered. Moreover, two medium- and large-sized gas fields were proved, and three medium- and large-sized gas fields were completely constructed. Both reserves and production reached a new record in history. During the 13th Five-Year Plan, Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company will focus on the exploration and development of deep marine carbonate reservoirs, commercial development of deep shale gas, safe development of gas fields with high sulfur, and enhancement of recovery in mature gas fields. By the end of the 13th Five-Year Plan, it is expected that the annual gas production of (10–12 × 109 m3 will be achieved.

  2. Strobe Light Testing and Kokanee Population Monitoring : Dworshak Dam Impacts Assessment and Fisheries Investigation Project, 87-99 : Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Harryman, Bill; Ament, Willaim J.

    1999-11-01

    We tested the response of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka to strobe lights. Testing was conducted on wild, free-ranging fish in their natural environment (i.e., the pelagic region of two large Idaho lakes). Split-beam hydroacoustics were used to record the distance kokanee moved away from the lights, as well as the density of kokanee in the area near the lights. In control tests, where strobe lights were lowered into the lake but kept turned off, kokanee remained within a few meters of the lights. Once the lights began flashing, kokanee quickly moved away from the light source. Kokanee moved 20 to 40 m away from the lights in waters with Secchi transparencies from 3 to 5 m. Kokanee densities near the lights were significantly lower (p=0.07 to p=0.00) when the lights were turned on than in control samples with no lights flashing. Flash rates of 300, 360, and 450 flashes/min elicited strong avoidance responses from the fish. Kokanee remained at least 24 m from the lights during our longest test that lasted for 5 h 50 min. We also continued annual monitoring of the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir. Spawner counts in four tributary streams that were used as an index of the adult population reached a record low of 144 spawners. No age-1 or age-2 kokanee were caught in 15 trawl hauls used to make population estimates. The population estimate of fry was 65,000 fish, {+-} 76% (90% C.I.). Flooding during the spring of 1996 was responsible for the low kokanee population.

  3. Designing Shelter in New Buildings. A Manual for Architects on the Preliminary Designing of Shielding from Fallout Gamma Radiation in Normally Functioning Spaces in New Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Albert

    Analysis of radiation fallout prevention factors in new construction is presented with emphasis on architectural shielding principles. Numerous diagrams and charts illustrate--(1) radiation and fallout properties, (2) building protection principles, (3) details and planning suggestions, and (4) tabular data interpretation. A series of charts is…

  4. Vertical distribution and migration of global fallout Pu in forest soils in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-10-01

    Soil samples collected in southwestern China were analyzed for Pu isotopes. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were around 0.18, which indicated the dominant source of global fallout. Consistent sub-surface maximums followed by exponential decline of (239+240)Pu activities in the soil cores were observed. Most of the Pu has still remained in the 0-10 cm layers since its deposition. Convection velocities and dispersion coefficients for Pu migration in the soils were estimated by the convection-dispersion equation (CDE) model. The effective convection velocities and effective dispersion coefficients ranged from 0.05 to 0.11 cm/y and from 0.06 to 0.29 cm(2)/y, respectively. Other factors that control the vertical migration of Pu in soil besides precipitation, soil particle size distribution and organic matter were suggested. Long-term migration behaviors of Pu in the soils were simulated. The results provide the Pu background baseline for further environmental monitoring and source identification of non-global fallout Pu inputs in the future.

  5. ESR dosimetry study for the residents of Kazakhstan exposed to radioactive fallout on 24, August 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, K., E-mail: kassym@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Ivannikov, A. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk 249036 (Russian Federation); Zharlyganova, D. [Astana Medical University, 51a, Beibitshilik str., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Zhumadilov, Zh. [Nazarbayev University, Life Sciences Center, D. Kunayev str., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Stepanenko, V. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk 249036 (Russian Federation); Abralina, Sh.; Sadvokasova, L. [Semey State Medical Academy, Semey 071400, Abay str. 103 (Kazakhstan); Zhumadilova, A. [Astana Medical University, 51a, Beibitshilik str., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Toyoda, S. [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Okayama University of Science, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Endo, S. [Department of Quantum Energy Applications, Graduated School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Okamoto, T. [Department of Molecular Oral Medicine and Maxillofacial Surgery, Division of Frontier Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    The method of electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry has been applied to human tooth enamel in order to obtain individual absorbed doses from the population of settlements within the vicinity of the central axis of the radioactive fallout trace from the contaminating nuclear surface test of 24, August 1956. Most of the settlements (Glubokoe, Tavriya, and Gagarino) are located near Ust-Kamenogorsk city, in Kazakhstan (about 400 km to the east from the epicenter of the explosion at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS)). It was found that the excess doses obtained after the subtraction of natural background radiation ranged up to about 120 mGy for the residents of Ust-Kamenogorsk city, whose tooth enamel was formed before 1956. For the residents of Gagarino, excess doses do not exceed 47 mGy for all ages. For the residents of Tavriya, the maximum of excess dose was determined as 54 mGy and for the residents of Glubokoe, the maximum excess dose was about 83 mGy. For the population of the Shemonaikha settlements (about 70 km from the centerline of the radioactive fallout trace) the highest excess dose is 110 mGy. Also for this study, Znamenka village (about 130 km from the epicenter) was included. The Kokpekty settlement was chosen as a control and not subjected to any radioactive contamination and is located 400 km to the Southeast from SNTS.

  6. A simple model to estimate deposition based on a statistical reassessment of global fallout data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palsson, S.E.; Howard, B.J.; Bergan, T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons began in 1945 and largely ceased in 1963. Monitoring of the resulting global fallout was carried out globally by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory and the UK Atomic Energy Research Establishment as well as at national level by some countries. A corre......, allowing comparison with time series of activity concentrations for different environmental compartments, which is important for model validation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons began in 1945 and largely ceased in 1963. Monitoring of the resulting global fallout was carried out globally by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory and the UK Atomic Energy Research Establishment as well as at national level by some countries...... relationship has been the outcome of some studies linking wash-out and rain-out coefficients with rain intensity. Our results showed that the precipitation rate was an important parameter, not just the total amount. The simple model presented here allows the recreation of the deposition history at a site...

  7. Human metabolism and ecological transfer of radioactive caesium: Comparative studies of Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout, in Southern Sweden and in Bryansk, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaf, Christopher Leopold

    The whole-body content of radiocaesium was measured in a South-Swedish urban group of people residing in the city of Lund (55.7°N, 13.2°E) between 1960 and 1994. The results from the survey have been analysed in order to estimate the ecological half-time, Teff,eco, of fallout radiocaesium and the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man in the region. After 1987, the biological half-times, Ts, of 137Cs and 40K in man were also determined in the reference group through whole-body content measurements in combination with 24-hour urine sampling. Relationships between 24-hour urinary excretion and body burden of 137Cs in the group together with data from the literature were then applied to urine samples collected in 1994 and 1995 from adult subjects living in the highly contaminated region of Bryansk, Russia, in order to estimate their average body burden of 137Cs. The equivalent biological half-time for 137Cs in females of the Lund reference group was, on average (+/-1 WSE), 66 +/- 3 d, which agrees with other findings, whereas the value for the males, 81 +/- 4 d, was, on average, significantly lower than what is found in the literature. This is partly explained by the elevated mean age and relatively low mean body muscle mass of the males investigated in the group during the post-Chernobyl study period. The effective ecological half-time for 137Cs from Chernobyl was found to be 1.8 +/- 0.2 y. The aggregate transfer of 137Cs from deposition to mean activity concentration in man was estimated to be 1.7 Bq kg-1/kBq m-2. These vales may be compared with an effective ecological half-time of 1.3 years found in the reference group in the 1960s, and an aggregate transfer factor of 9.8 Bq kg-1/kBq m-2. The average committed effective dose from ingested 137Cs Chernobyl fallout in the study group was estimated to be 0.02 mSv and from the nuclear weapons fallout to 0.20 mSv. The estimates of whole-body content of 137Cs in the Russian subjects obtained through

  8. Jarvis Fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuen, John T.; Hoffland, Ginger

    1978-01-01

    With the passage of Proposition 13, California's community colleges lost an estimated two-thirds of their local revenues. As the largest such system, the Los Angeles Community College District is preparing for the hardest impact. Retrenchment, loss of local control, and legal difficulties are problems it faces. (JMD)

  9. YUCCA Mountain Project - Argonne National Laboratory, Annual Progress Report, FY 1997 for activity WP 1221 unsaturated drip condition testing of spent fuel and unsaturated dissolution tests of glass.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J. K.; Buck, E. C.; Emery, J. W.; Finch, R. J.; Finn, P. A.; Fortner, J.; Hoh, J. C.; Mertz, C.; Neimark, L. A.; Wolf, S. F.; Wronkiewicz, D. J.

    1998-09-18

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Management Section of the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory in the period of October 1996 through September 1997. Studies have been performed to evaluate the behavior of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel samples under the unsaturated conditions (low-volume water contact) that are likely to exist in the Yucca Mountain environment being considered as a potential site for a high-level waste repository. Tests with actinide-doped waste glasses, in progress for over 11 years, indicate that the transuranic element release is dominated by colloids that continuously form and span from the glass surface. The nature of the colloids that form in the glass and spent fuel testing programs is being investigated by dynamic light scattering to determine the size distribution, by autoradiography to determine the chemistry, and by zeta potential to measure the electrical properties of the colloids. Tests with UO{sub 2} have been ongoing for 12 years. They show that the oxidation of UO{sub 2} occurs rapidly, and the resulting paragenetic sequence of secondary phases forming on the sample surface is similar to that observed for uranium found in natural oxidizing environments. The reaction of spent fuel samples in conditions similar to those used with UO{sub 2} have been in progress for over six years, and the results suggest that spent fuel forms many of the same alteration products as UO{sub 2}. With spent fuel, the bulk of the reaction occurs via a through-grain reaction process, although grain boundary attack is sufficient to have reacted all of the grain boundary regions in the samples. New test methods are under development to evaluate the behavior of spent fuel samples with intact cladding: the rate at which alteration and radionuclide release occurs when water penetrates fuel sections and whether the reaction causes the cladding to split. Alteration phases have been formed on fine grains of UO

  10. Chemical speciation of strontium, americium, and curium in high level waste: Predictive modeling of phase partitioning during tank processing. Annual progress report, October 1996--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmy, A.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (US); Choppin, G. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (US)

    1997-12-31

    'The program at Florida State University was funded to collaborate with Dr. A. Felmy (PNNL) on speciation in high level wastes and with Dr. D. Rai (PNNL) on redox of Pu under high level waste conditions. The funding provided support for 3 research associates (postdoctoral researchers) under Professor G. R. Choppin as P.I. Dr. Kath Morris from U. Manchester (Great Britain), Dr. Dean Peterman and Dr. Amy Irwin (both from U. Cincinnati) joined the laboratory in the latter part of 1996. After an initial training period to become familiar with basic actinide chemistry and radiochemical techniques, they began their research. Dr. Peterman was assigned the task of measuring Th-EDTA complexation prior to measuring Pu(IV)-EDTA complexation. These studies are associated with the speciation program with Dr. Felmy. Drs. Morris and Irwin initiated research on redox of plutonium with agents present in the Hanford Tanks as a result of radiolysis or from use in separations. The preliminary results obtained thus far are described in this report. It is expected that the rate of progress will continue to increase significantly as the researchers gain more experience with plutonium chemistry.'

  11. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator. Annual progress report, January 1991--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, Hojoon; Moelhman, M.; Saliceti, L.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1991-12-01

    During 1991, considerable progress was made on the waste utilization project. Two small Wisconsin companies have expressed an interest in promoting and developing the ICRS technology. Pilot plant sites at (1) Hopkinton, IA, for a sweet whey plant, and Beaver Dam WI, for an acid whey site have been under development siting ICRS operations. The Hopkinton, IA site is owned and operated by Permeate Refining Inc., who have built a batch ethanol plant across the street from Swiss Valley Farms cheddar cheese operations. Permeate from Swiss Valley is piped across to PRI. PRI has signed a contract to site a 300--500,000 gallon/yr to ICRS pilot plant. They feel that the lower labor, lower energy, continuous process offered by the ICRS will substantially improve their profitability. Catalytics, Inc, is involved with converting whey from a Kraft cream cheese operation to ethanol and yeast. A complete project including whey concentration, sterilization, and yeast growth has been designed for this site. Process design improvements with the ICRS focussed on ethanol recovery techniques during this year`s project. A solvent absorption/extractive distillation (SAED) process has been developed which offers the capability of obtaining an anhydrous ethanol product from vapors off 3 to 9% ethanol solutions using very little energy for distillation. Work on products from waste streams was also performed. a. Diacetyl as a high value flavor compound was very successfully produced in a Stirred Tank Reactor w/Separation. b. Yeast production from secondary carbohydrates in the whey, lactic acid, and glycerol was studied. c. Lactic acid production from cellulose and lactose studies continued. d. Production of anti-fungal reagents by immobilized plant cells; Gossypol has antifungal properties and is produced by G. arboretum.

  12. RADIATION DOSES AND CANCER RISKS IN THE MARSHALL ISLANDS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT FROM BIKINI AND ENEWETAK NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTS: SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, André; Land, Charles E.; Beck, Harold L.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear weapons testing conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls during 1946–1958 resulted in exposures of the resident population of the present-day Republic of the Marshall Islands to radioactive fallout. This paper summarizes the results of a thorough and systematic reconstruction of radiation doses to that population, by year, age at exposure, and atoll of residence, and the related cancer risks. Detailed methods and results are presented in a series of companion papers in this volume. From our analysis, we concluded that 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in measurable fallout deposition on one or more of the inhabited atolls of the Marshall Islands. In this work, we estimated deposition densities (kBq m−2) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides at each of the 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Quantitative deposition estimates were made for 63 radionuclides from each test at each atoll. Those estimates along with reported measurements of exposure rates at various times after fallout were used to estimate radiation absorbed doses to the red bone marrow, thyroid gland, stomach wall, and colon wall of atoll residents from both external and internal exposure. Annual doses were estimated for six age groups ranging from newborns to adults. We found that the total deposition of 137Cs, external dose, internal organ doses, and cancer risks followed the same geographic pattern with the large population of the southern atolls receiving the lowest doses. Permanent residents of the southern atolls who were of adult age at the beginning of the testing period received external doses ranging from 5 to 12 mGy on average; the external doses to adults at the mid-latitude atolls ranged from 22 to 59 mGy on average, while the residents of the northern atolls received external doses in the hundreds to over 1,000 mGy. Internal doses varied significantly by age at exposure, location, and organ. Except

  13. Radiation doses and cancer risks in the Marshall Islands associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests: summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Land, Charles E; Beck, Harold L

    2010-08-01

    Nuclear weapons testing conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls during 1946-1958 resulted in exposures of the resident population of the present-day Republic of the Marshall Islands to radioactive fallout. This paper summarizes the results of a thorough and systematic reconstruction of radiation doses to that population, by year, age at exposure, and atoll of residence, and the related cancer risks. Detailed methods and results are presented in a series of companion papers in this volume. From our analysis, we concluded that 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in measurable fallout deposition on one or more of the inhabited atolls of the Marshall Islands. In this work, we estimated deposition densities (kBq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides at each of the 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Quantitative deposition estimates were made for 63 radionuclides from each test at each atoll. Those estimates along with reported measurements of exposure rates at various times after fallout were used to estimate radiation absorbed doses to the red bone marrow, thyroid gland, stomach wall, and colon wall of atoll residents from both external and internal exposure. Annual doses were estimated for six age groups ranging from newborns to adults. We found that the total deposition of 137Cs, external dose, internal organ doses, and cancer risks followed the same geographic pattern with the large population of the southern atolls receiving the lowest doses. Permanent residents of the southern atolls who were of adult age at the beginning of the testing period received external doses ranging from 5 to 12 mGy on average; the external doses to adults at the mid-latitude atolls ranged from 22 to 59 mGy on average, while the residents of the northern atolls received external doses in the hundreds to over 1,000 mGy. Internal doses varied significantly by age at exposure, location, and organ. Except

  14. Isotopes. Veritas in vino. [Vintage wines produced useful data of nuclear fallout and levels of natural tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, B. Th. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Nuclear Physics Research Unit); Nichola, A.

    1982-07-01

    Vintage wines, provide useful dated samples of atmospheric water from which the history of nuclear fallout and the levels of natural tritium before the nuclear test period can be reconstructed. As a result of the study, there is now a much improved estimate of the pre-bomb tritium level which is of importance for hydrological studies and estimating the cosmic ray production rate.

  15. Fallout volume and litter type affect (137)Cs concentration difference in litter between forest and stream environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Negishi, Junjiro N

    2016-11-01

    It is important to understand the changes in the (137)Cs concentration in litter through leaching when considering that (137)Cs is transferred from basal food resources to animals in forested streams. We found that the difference of (137)Cs activity concentration in litter between forest and stream was associated with both litter type and (137)Cs fallout volume around Fukushima, Japan. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in the litter of evergreen conifers tended to be greater than those in the litter of broad-leaved deciduous trees because of the absence of deciduous leaves during the fallout period in March 2011. Moreover, (137)Cs activity concentrations in forest litter were greater with respect to the (137)Cs fallout volume. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in stream litter were much lower than those in forest litter when those in forest litter were higher. The (137)Cs leaching patterns indicated that the differences in (137)Cs activity concentration between forest and stream litter could change with changes in both fallout volume and litter type. Because litter is an important basal food resource in the food webs of both forests and streams, the (137)Cs concentration gradient reflects to possible (137)Cs transfer from lower to higher trophic animals. Our findings will improve our understanding of the spatial heterogeneity and variability of (137)Cs concentrations in animals resident to the contaminated landscape.

  16. Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly. Final tabulation of monthly /sup 90/Sr fallout data: 1954--1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    This report presents the monthly /sup 90/Sr deposition data derived from a global network of stations started in 1954. This program was carried out to assess the distribution patterns and inventory the amount of fallout of radionuclies from atmospheric nuclear tests. In 1976, monthly deposition rates had diminished to the point where measurable levels of /sup 90/Sr were rarely observed.

  18. Appendix to Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly, June 1, 1976--September 1, 1976. [Fallout radionuclides and Pb in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1976-10-01

    Tabulated data are presented on the content of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 89/Sr in fallout deposited at various world land sites; /sup 90/Sr in milk and drinking water samples from various locations; and the content of Pb in samples of surface air. (CH)

  19. Photographs and Pamphlet about Nuclear Fallout. The Constitution Community: Postwar United States (1945 to Early 1970s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, John M., Jr.

    In August 1945, the United States unleashed an atomic weapon against the Japanese at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and brought an end to World War II. These bombs killed in two ways -- by the blast's magnitude and resulting firestorm, and by nuclear fallout. After the Soviet Union exploded its first atom bomb in 1949, the Cold War waged between the two…

  20. Orphan Sources and Fresh Fallout: Virtual Exercise in Mobile Measurement (ORPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdall, M. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, OEsteraas (Norway)); Smethurst, M.A. (Univ. of Exeter and Avalonia Geophysics, Cornwall Campus, Penryn (United Kingdom)); Andersson, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Aage, H.K. (Danish Emergency Management Agency, Birkeroed (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute, Reykjavik (Iceland))

    2011-10-15

    In recent years carborne gamma spectrometry has expanded from its role as a geological survey platform to serving as a useful asset in the field of emergency response to radiological and nuclear situations. Its two main applications are searching for orphan sources and for surveying in the aftermath of an accident involving the release of radioactive materials. Despite this expansion, the opportunities for gaining practical experience in the field are limited by cost considerations and practicability. These limitations are exacerbated by the fact that data generated and displayed in the field differ significantly from gamma spectral data generated in a laboratory environment. As a means of exercising existing emergency measuring/surveying capability and introducing carborne measurements to a larger group, a virtual exercise was devised. The exercise ORPEX (Orphan Sources and Fresh Fallout Virtual Exercise in Mobile Measurement) featured two typical emergency scenarios in which carborne measuring systems might be deployed: firstly a search for multiple orphan sources and secondly surveying to delineate patchy fallout from a local release point. In the first scenario, synthetic spectral data were generated for imaginary point sources and inserted into genuine carborne measurements from in the Trondheim area of Norway. Participants were presented with a typical software tool and data in a range of typical formats and asked to report the source locations and isotopes within a time limit. In the second scenario, synthetic spectral data representing fallout from a local fire involving radioactive material were added to real carborne data from the Trondheim area. Participants were asked to produce maps that identify and characterise the regions of contamination within the same time limit. Fourteen individual organisations from seven different countries supplied results. Results from participants indicate that for strong sources of isotopes with simple spectra featuring

  1. Effects of fluvial processes in different order river valleys on redistribution and storage of particle-bound radioactive caesium-137 in area of significant Chernobyl fallout and impact on linked rivers with lower contamination levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Golosov, Valentin; Shamshurina, Evgeniya; Ivanov, Maxim; Ivanova, Nadezhda; Bezukhov, Dmitry; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Evrard, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Detailed investigations of the post-fallout fate of radionuclide contamination represent an important task in terms of environmental quality assessment. In addition, particle-bound radionuclides such as the most widespread anthropogenic isotope caesium-137 can be used as tracers for quantitative assessment of different sediment redistribution processes. In landscapes of humid plains with agriculture-dominated land use the post-fallout redistribution of caesium-137 is primarily associated with fluvial activity of various scales in cascade systems starting from soil erosion on cultivated hillslopes through gully and small dry valley network into different order perennial streams and rivers. Our investigations in the so-called Plavsk hotspot (area of very high Chernobyl caesium-137 contamination within the Plava River basin, Tula Region, Central European Russia) has been continuing for more than 15 years by now, while the time passed since the Chernobyl disaster and associated radioactive fallout (1986) is almost 29 years. Detailed information on the fluvial sediment and associated caesium-137 redistribution has been obtained for case study sites of different size from individual cultivated slopes and small catchments of different size (2-180 km2) to the entire Plava River basin scale (1856 km2). It has been shown that most of the contaminated sediment over the time passed since the fallout has remained stored within the small dry valleys of the 1-4 Hortonian order and local reservoirs (>70%), while only about 5% reached the 5-6 order valleys (main tributaries of the Plava River) and storage of the Plava floodplain itself represents as low as 0.3% of the basin-scale total sediment production from eroded cultivated hillslopes. Nevertheless, it has been shown that contaminated sediment yield from the Plava River basin exerts significant influence on less polluted downstream-linked river system. Recent progress of the investigations involved sampling of 7 detailed depth

  2. Comparison of the bioavailability of elemental waste laden soils using in vivo and in vitro analytical methodology and refinement of exposure/dose models. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lioy, P.J.; Gallo, M.; Georgopoulos, P. [Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (US). Exposure Measurement and Assessment Div.; Tate, R.; Buckley, B. [Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (US)

    1998-06-01

    'The authors hypotheses are: (1) the more closely the synthetic, in vitro, extractant mimics the extraction properties of the human digestive bio-fluids, the more accurate will be the estimate of an internal dose; (2) performance can be evaluated by in vivo studies with a rat model and quantitative examination of a mass balance, calculation and dose estimates from model simulations for the in vitro and in vivo system; and (3) the concentration of the elements Pb, Cd, Cr and selected Radionuclides present in the bioavailable fraction obtained with a synthetic extraction system will be a better indicator of contaminant ingestion from a contaminated soil because it represents the portion of the mass which can yield exposure, uptake and then the internal dose to an individual. As of April 15, 1998, they have made significant progress in the development of a unified approach to the examination of bioavailability and bioaccessibility of elemental contamination of soils for the ingestion route of exposure. This includes the initial characterization of the soil, in vitro measurements of bioaccessibility, and in vivo measurements of bioavailability. They have identified the basic chemical and microbiological characteristics of waste laden soils. These have been used to prioritize the soils for potential mobility of the trace elements present in the soil. Subsequently they have employed a mass balance technique, which for the first time tracked the movement and distribution of elements through an in vitro or in vivo experimental protocol to define the bioaccessible and the bioavailable fractions of digested soil. The basic mass balance equation for the in vitro system is: MT = MSGJ + MIJ + MR. where MT is the total mass extractable by a specific method, MSGJ, is the mass extracted by the saliva and the gastric juices, MIJ is the mass extracted by the intestinal fluid, and MR is the unextractable portion of the initial mass. The above is based upon the use of a synthetic

  3. Comparison of the bioavailability of elemental waste laden soils using in vivo and in vitro analytical methodology and refinement of exposure/dose model. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gailo, M.; Georgopoulos, P.; Lioy, P.J.; Roy, A.

    1997-01-01

    'The bioavailability study has made significant progress in developing in vitro methodology, and the authors have completed the time course in vivo studies. The in vitro studies have been conducted to establish the major digestive variables of concern and the values to be used in application of both the saliva/gastric juice and intestinal fluid components of a synthetic digestive extraction. In vitro and in vivo experiments have been conducted on the 575 urn particle fraction of a soil sample collected in a Jersey City State Park. Five Jersey City soil samples were first characterized for physical and chemical characteristics. Based upon the composition of the five soils, one was selected for use in the first series of experiments. The second set of in vivo studies are to be conducted on a standard NIST Montana soil. It has already been examined for bioaccessibility and availability with the in vitro methodology. A sample has been collected in Bayonne to obtain an urban background soil. Surficial soil samples have been acquired from the Savannah River Site of the DOE. These are not radioactive but are contaminated with heavy metals, e.g. arsenic, and are being analyzed by both the in vivo and in vitro methodology. During this past summer a second set of soil samples were collected at Savannah River Site. These contain levels of both heavy metals and radionuclides. Recently, a special extraction laboratory has been constructed at EOHSI, with resources made available from the organization. It will handle the extraction and measurement of the radio activity of the soil, and extracts obtained by the in vivo techniques. It is anticipated that the SRS samples collected this summer will be available for analysis in both the in vivo and in vitro systems this fall. The initial characterization will be for soil, physical and chemical content, and microbial characteristics. The samples will be analyzed for the 5 75 urn particle size fraction, and the total mass 5 250 urn

  4. Development of the town data base: Estimates of exposure rates and times of fallout arrival near the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.B.; McArthur, R.D. [Univ. and Community College System of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Hutchinson, S.W. [Mead Johnson Nutritional Group, Evansville, IN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project, the time of fallout arrival and the H+12 exposure rate were estimated for populated locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah that were affected by fallout from one or more nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of exposure rate were derived from measured values recorded before and after each test by fallout monitors in the field. The estimate for a given location was obtained by retrieving from a data base all measurements made in the vicinity, decay-correcting them to H+12, and calculating an average. Estimates were also derived from maps produced after most events that show isopleths of exposure rate and time of fallout arrival. Both sets of isopleths on these maps were digitized, and kriging was used to interpolate values at the nodes of a 10-km grid covering the pattern. The values at any location within the grid were then estimated from the values at the surrounding grid nodes. Estimates of dispersion (standard deviation) were also calculated. The Town Data Base contains the estimates for all combinations of location and nuclear event for which the estimated mean H+12 exposure rate was greater than three times background. A listing of the data base is included as an appendix. The information was used by other project task groups to estimate the radiation dose that off-site populations and individuals may have received as a result of exposure to fallout from Nevada nuclear tests.

  5. Neogene fallout tuffs from the Yellowstone hotspot in the Columbia Plateau region, Oregon, Washington and Idaho, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P Nash

    Full Text Available Sedimentary sequences in the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest ranging in age from 16-4 Ma contain fallout tuffs whose origins lie in volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in northwestern Nevada, eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Silicic volcanism began in the region contemporaneously with early eruptions of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG, and the abundance of widespread fallout tuffs provides the opportunity to establish a tephrostratigrahic framework for the region. Sedimentary basins with volcaniclastic deposits also contain diverse assemblages of fauna and flora that were preserved during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, including Sucker Creek, Mascall, Latah, Virgin Valley and Trout Creek. Correlation of ashfall units establish that the lower Bully Creek Formation in eastern Oregon is contemporaneous with the Virgin Valley Formation, the Sucker Creek Formation, Oregon and Idaho, Trout Creek Formation, Oregon, and the Latah Formation in the Clearwater Embayment in Washington and Idaho. In addition, it can be established that the Trout Creek flora are younger than the Mascall and Latah flora. A tentative correlation of a fallout tuff from the Clarkia fossil beds, Idaho, with a pumice bed in the Bully Creek Formation places the remarkably well preserved Clarkia flora assemblage between the Mascall and Trout Creek flora. Large-volume supereruptions that originated between 11.8 and 10.1 Ma from the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in the central Snake River Plain deposited voluminous fallout tuffs in the Ellensberg Formation which forms sedimentary interbeds in the CRBG. These occurrences extend the known distribution of these fallout tuffs 500 km to the northwest of their source in the Snake River Plain. Heretofore, the distal products of these large eruptions had only been recognized to the east of their sources in the High Plains of Nebraska and Kansas.

  6. Neogene fallout tuffs from the Yellowstone hotspot in the Columbia Plateau region, Oregon, Washington and Idaho, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Barbara P; Perkins, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentary sequences in the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest ranging in age from 16-4 Ma contain fallout tuffs whose origins lie in volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in northwestern Nevada, eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Silicic volcanism began in the region contemporaneously with early eruptions of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), and the abundance of widespread fallout tuffs provides the opportunity to establish a tephrostratigrahic framework for the region. Sedimentary basins with volcaniclastic deposits also contain diverse assemblages of fauna and flora that were preserved during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, including Sucker Creek, Mascall, Latah, Virgin Valley and Trout Creek. Correlation of ashfall units establish that the lower Bully Creek Formation in eastern Oregon is contemporaneous with the Virgin Valley Formation, the Sucker Creek Formation, Oregon and Idaho, Trout Creek Formation, Oregon, and the Latah Formation in the Clearwater Embayment in Washington and Idaho. In addition, it can be established that the Trout Creek flora are younger than the Mascall and Latah flora. A tentative correlation of a fallout tuff from the Clarkia fossil beds, Idaho, with a pumice bed in the Bully Creek Formation places the remarkably well preserved Clarkia flora assemblage between the Mascall and Trout Creek flora. Large-volume supereruptions that originated between 11.8 and 10.1 Ma from the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in the central Snake River Plain deposited voluminous fallout tuffs in the Ellensberg Formation which forms sedimentary interbeds in the CRBG. These occurrences extend the known distribution of these fallout tuffs 500 km to the northwest of their source in the Snake River Plain. Heretofore, the distal products of these large eruptions had only been recognized to the east of their sources in the High Plains of Nebraska and Kansas.

  7. Early detection of radioactive fall-out by gamma-spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, K.

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive fallout should be detected as early as possible. A new and efficient method for detection of low-level irradiation from manmade radioactivity is developed. Radiation abnormalities are detectable down to air kerma rate, of 0.5 to 1.0 nGy h(-1) for Cs-137 and even lower for I-131...... For multi-gamma energy radioactivity the detection level is 2.6-3.5 nGy h(-1). A standard NaI detector and a 512-channel analyser are used together with noise adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD). Statistical noise is removed and the measured spectra are reproduced using spectral components...... radioactive sources need to be detected....

  8. The influence of forest shelterbelts on 137Cs fallout in Chernobyl affected areas (Tula region, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Maxim; Shamshurina, Eugeniya; Tatyana, Paramonova; Vladimir, Belyaev; Angelina, Gavruchenkova; Nikolai, Lugovoy; Konstantinov, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    The radioactive fallout after Chernobyl accident caused serious contamination by 137Cs along extensive area of East-European plain.Cs137 fall down on earth surface in two ways: gravitational - "dry" and rainfall - "wet" way. "Dry" fallout is a result of direct deposition of radionuclides from atmosphere with average speed of about 0.1-1 mm/sec. The fate of "dry fall"is far less than rainfall mechanism. Erupted water steam of reactor zone full of radioactive material enriched precipitation with 137Cs. Therefore, the derived spatial structure of contamination was under control of rainfall pattern in May-June 1986. On the areas affected by rainfall fallout was the Southern part of Tula region in Middle Russia. It got name as "Plava hot spot" by the town in the center of this area. Tula is a traditional rural region, the vast areas covered by chernozem soils are cultivated for centuries. During cultivation forest cover was reduced that urged growth of wind erosion and loss of soil fertility. Hence, in the middle of 20 the century large arrangements for creation of forest shelterbelts were conducted. High efficiency of shelterbelts made them a widely provided part of new human-transformed landscape. Usually shelterbelts are set as a regular network across main direction of winds in particular region. Such organization help to reduce speed of air steam in the lowest 20-30 m layer of atmosphere. In addition, shelterbelts are very good collectors of snow in winter time which increase total moisture of soil and its fertility. Represented investigation is conducted to find out any correlation between shelterbelts and fallout of radionuclides. If such correlation is significant, it has to be taken into account for further environmental surveys. Two shelterbelts on the interfluve positions were chosen for detailed examination. Both selected objects emerged before 1986 but have different width, floristic composition, orientation and type of construction. One of shelterbelts is

  9. New simple deposition model based on reassessment of global fallout data 1954 – 1976

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálsson, Sigurður Emil; Bergan, Tone D.; Howard, Brenda J.;

    by not assuming the traditional proportional relationship, but instead a non-linear power function. The predictions obtained using this new model may not be significantly different from those obtained using the traditional model, when using a limited data set such as from one country as a test in this report...... showed. But for larger data sets and understanding of underlying processes the new model should be an improvement....... such as (a) over how large area can it be assumed that the concentration in precipitation is the same at any given time; (b) how does this agree with the observed latitude dependency of deposition density and (c) are the any other parameters that could be of use in a simple model describing global fallout...

  10. Spatiotemporal Variation of Particulate Fallout Instances in Sfax City, Southern Tunisia: Influence of Sources and Meteorology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moez Bahloul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Particles deposition in the main industrial zone of Sfax City (southern Tunisia was studied by weekly monitoring particulate fallout instances at twenty sites from November 11, 2012, to April 15, 2013. Very high fluctuation in those particle fluxes, ranging from 0.376 to 9.915 g/m2, was clearly observed. Spatiotemporal distribution of the deposited particulate fluxes and the exposure of each site to the main industrial plumes (i.e., phosphate treatment plant “SIAPE,” soap industry “SIOS-ZITEX,” and lead secondary melting industry “FP Sfax Sud” indicated the concomitant effects of surrounding industrial sources. In addition, the highest particulate deposition seemed to be associated with predominant strong cyclonic situations. Those deposition rates exceeded the levels recorded in the case of strong stabilities, considered as responsible for pollutant accumulation.

  11. Anthropogenic 236U in Danish Seawater: Global Fallout versus Reprocessing Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Steier, Peter; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    concentrations in Danish seawater are distributed within a relatively narrow range of (3.6-8.2) × 107 atom/L and, to a certain extent, independent of salinity. 236U/238U atomic ratios in Danish seawater are more than 4 times higher than the estimated global fallout value of 1× 10-9. The levels of 236U/238U...... seawater. However, unexpectedly high 236U/238U ratios as well as high 236U concentrations were observed at low-salinity locations of the Baltic Sea. While this feature might be interpreted as a clue for another significant 236U input in the Baltic Sea, it may also be caused by the complexity of water...

  12. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Dose assessment for sheep exposed to fallout from nuclear test Nancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L.B.; Soldat, J.K.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Murphy, D.W.

    1982-10-01

    Radiation doses were estimated for sheep wintering on Nevada ranges during the testing at the Nevada Test Site of the nuclear weapon Nancy on March 24, 1953. Exposure pathways considered were inhalation of radionuclides from both cloud passage and resuspension, external exposure of the total body and skin, and ingestion of contaminated forage and soil. Physiological, metabolic, and dosimetric data needed for these calculations were obtained from data appropriate for the sheep. Dose rate and radionuclide deposition values for shot Nancy were used. Radionuclide deposition and retention on the desert vegetation were obtained from data collected during several nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Existing dosimetric computer programs, whose libraries were modified to include the sheep data, and specially developed models were used to estimate the dose commitment for the sheep. The total-body dose for reference sheep located within the 40-mR/hr (H+12) isopleth from all modes of exposure was estimated to be 2.6 rad. Ingestion of fallout on edible vegetation contributed the majority of the dose, whereas inhalation of radionuclides and consumption of contaminated soil from the ground contributed little to the internal doses. The dose to the thyroid of ewes from radioiodine and other radionuclides reaching the thyroid was approximately 400 rad. The calculated uniform dose to the reticulo-rumen was 4 rad; however, if fallout particles were assumed to concentrate in the ventral rumen, a localized dose of 200 rad could have been received by the rumen wall. Estimated dose to the bare skin of ewes was 120 rad. The dose to the fetal thyroid from radioiodine ingested by a pregnant ewe grazing at a location where the dose rate was 40 mR/hr (H+12) was estimated to be 700 rad, or approximately twice the dose to the maternal thyroid.

  14. Rainfall erosivity in catchments contaminated with fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceby, J. Patrick; Chartin, Caroline; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Cerdan, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 resulted in the fallout of significant quantities of radiocesium over the Fukushima region. After reaching the soil surface, radiocesium is quickly bound to fine soil particles. Thereafter, rainfall and snowmelt run-off events transfer particle-bound radiocesium downstream. Characterizing the precipitation regime of the fallout-impacted region is thus important for understanding post-deposition radiocesium dynamics. Accordingly, 10 min (1995-2015) and daily precipitation data (1977-2015) from 42 meteorological stations within a 100 km radius of the FDNPP were analyzed. Monthly rainfall erosivity maps were developed to depict the spatial heterogeneity of rainfall erosivity for catchments entirely contained within this radius. The mean average precipitation in the region surrounding the FDNPP is 1420 mm yr-1 (SD 235) with a mean rainfall erosivity of 3696 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1 (SD 1327). Tropical cyclones contribute 22 % of the precipitation (422 mm yr-1) and 40 % of the rainfall erosivity (1462 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1 (SD 637)). The majority of precipitation (60 %) and rainfall erosivity (82 %) occurs between June and October. At a regional scale, rainfall erosivity increases from the north to the south during July and August, the most erosive months. For the remainder of the year, this gradient occurs mostly from northwest to southeast. Relief features strongly influence the spatial distribution of rainfall erosivity at a smaller scale, with the coastal plains and coastal mountain range having greater rainfall erosivity than the inland Abukuma River valley. Understanding these patterns, particularly their spatial and temporal (both inter- and intraannual) variation, is important for contextualizing soil and particle-bound radiocesium transfers in the Fukushima region. Moreover, understanding the impact of tropical cyclones will be important for managing sediment and sediment-bound contaminant

  15. Indication of the radioactive fallout in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhomashi, N; Almasoud, Fahad I

    2016-02-01

    On March 2011, a severe damage has occurred to Fukushima Di-iachi nuclear reactor complex in Japan following the huge earthquake and the resulting Tsunami. Consequently, vast amounts of radioactive fallout were released into the atmosphere and contaminated the environment in Japan. Soon after the accident, traces of anthropogenic radionuclides were detected in environmental samples collected in many parts in the northern hemisphere even very far away from Japan creating a global concern. There is no information about radioactive contamination in the Arabian Peninsula caused by the Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident. The first evidence of Fukushima radioactive fallout in Riyadh (24° 43' N, 46° 38' E), Saudi Arabia has been confirmed in April 8, 2011. The airborne fission products (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were measured in air samples. The radionuclide concentrations were determined by identifying their characteristic gamma rays using a germanium detector. Their activity concentrations were studied as a function of time over a period of 20 days at the end of which they had mostly fallen below our limit of detection. The maximum activity concentration of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs in air of, respectively, 323.7 ± 18.5, 17.2 ± 1.0 and 26.0 ± 1.8 μBq m(-3) were observed on April 10-11, 2011. The (131)I/(137)Cs and (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio values in air were presented and discussed. Finally, the effective doses to the public of Riyadh city from inhalation of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs due to contribution from Fukushima incident was found far below levels of concern.

  16. Annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA makes annual reports of progress made on Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests. This database contains PDF and XML versions of reports from 1999 to the...

  17. Louisiana Believes: Annual Report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Louisiana Believes" is the state's comprehensive plan to ensure every student is on track to a professional career or a college degree. This annual report details Louisiana's progress toward that objective during the 2012-2013 school year, along with strategy for the coming school year. "Louisiana Believes" has three…

  18. Feasibility of using {sup 236}U to reconstruct close-in fallout deposition from the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, A., E-mail: ayaskgc@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8526 (Japan); Kawai, K. [Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, K-INET, Kanazawa University, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1224 (Japan); Steier, P. [VERA-Laboratory, Fakultaet fuer Physik - Isotopenforschung, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Str. 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Imanaka, T. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Endo, S. [Quantum Energy Applications, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Zhumadilov, K. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Yamamoto, M. [Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, K-INET, Kanazawa University, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1224 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    The first results on the feasibility of using {sup 236}U to reconstruct the level and spatial distribution of close-in fallout deposition from the Hiroshima A-bomb are reported, coupled with the use of global fallout {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu. The results for global fallout {sup 236}U in soil samples (0-30 cm) from Ishikawa prefecture showed that the deposition density of {sup 236}U from the global fallout can be accurately evaluated using AMS. All deposited {sup 236}U, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu appeared to have been recovered using 30-cm cores. It was also noted from the depth profiles for {sup 236}U/{sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 236}U/{sup 137}Cs ratios that the downward behavior of {sup 236}U in the soil was apparently similar to that of {sup 239+240}Pu, while the {sup 137}Cs was liable to be retained in upper layers compared with {sup 236}U and {sup 239+240}Pu. The accumulated levels were 1.78 x 10{sup 13} atoms m{sup -2} for {sup 236}U, 4340 Bq m{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs and 141 Bq m{sup -2} for {sup 239+240}Pu. The ratios of {sup 236}U/{sup 137}Cs and {sup 236}U/{sup 239+240}Pu were (4.10 {+-} 0.12) x 10{sup 9} and (1.26 {+-} 0.04) x 10{sup 11} atoms Bq{sup -1}, respectively. Results of {sup 236}U, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu measurements for the seven soil cores (0-30 cm) from Hiroshima were discussed on the basis of ratios of {sup 236}U/{sup 137}Cs and {sup 236}U/{sup 239+240}Pu by comparing with those from the background area in Ishikawa, indicating that the global fallout dominates the current level of {sup 236}U accumulation in soil in the Black-rain area around Hiroshima after the Hiroshima bomb, and the contribution of the close-in fallout {sup 236}U produced by the Hiroshima A-bomb seems difficult to observe.

  19. Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1979,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    and thorax segements , which were left intact and processed separately. Venom was then milked from the abdominal segment under direct vision, using a... geographical locations. Questioning if these low PCVs 44 76-5 Continued developed before or during training, 82 BCTs were randomly chosen from platoons and

  20. Clinical Investigation Program Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    Neonates (C) 9A89 Kueser, T. J. Pediatric Intubatlon Training 115 Utlizing the Feline Model (0) xiii Protocol Number Page 361187 Lehman, R. M...3,309. Periodic Review Date: Sep 89 Gifts: None Decision: Continue OBJECTIVE: The objective of this proposed study is to elucidate the ecology of...Sheet m Prot No: 9A89 . Status: Ongoing m TITLE: Pediatric Intubation Training Utillzing the Feline Model Principal Investigator: COL Richard A. tIanks

  1. Annual Progress Report (SEATO Medical Research Laboratory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    122 PARASITIC DISEASES OF MAN AND ANIMALS . ... .. . 123 Ecology of Bancroftlan Filarlasis . 125 Evaluation of Experimental Antimalarial...1974-31 March 1975 Number of Number Percent Species Specimens Positive Positive Canine 555 234 42.2 Feline 122 14 11.5 Human 2 2 100.0 Rodent 24 2 (a...test is underway. 122 PARASITIC DISEASES OF MAN AND ANIMALS Ecology of Bancroflian Filarlasis Principal Investigatorsg Charles L. Bailey, CPT, MSC

  2. EPSI 2013-2014. Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesthaven, Jan S. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Janhunen, Salomon [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Cazeaux, Paul [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-03-17

    Initially a separate orthogonal expansion for the low-k components and FEM for high-k components was considered, or a multi-scale FEM method, but a more attractive hybrid FDM/FEM model for parallel computations has been devised with minimal impact to formerly developed code. This system involves using Lagrange polynomials along magnetic field lines to establish a FDM discretization of the toroidal contributions to the perpendicular Laplacian, which is the operator of importance in gyrokinetic solution of the vector potential. The method was found analytically to be stable, due to some dissipation from varying field-line lengths. The accuracy of this method has been evaluated using the method of manufactured solutions (with Bei Wang of Princeton University), whereby we find that for a Poisson problem the maximum error roughly diminishes linearly as a function of the grid resolution (uniformly refined), whereas the L2 norm as square root of the resolution improvement. Most of the error appears to be contributed near boundaries and where the FEM grid has anisotropy, so we are trying to improve this analysis using improved tessellations obtained from Mark Shepard, and publish the results as soon as the problems with the grid have been eliminated.

  3. Annual Progress Report 2006-07

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdul wahid

    2012-08-02

    Aug 2, 2012 ... slide method for the presence of parasitic ova or larvae. Further identification .... management practices. ... relatively higher and lower under the arid conditions of .... Urquhart GM, Armour J, Duncan JL, Jennings FW (1996).

  4. Annual Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    the eight prototype jacket/liner combinations were done before and after three military launderings (cotton wash, tumble dry at 57°C (135 0 F...exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exercise 14(2): 127, 1982. LITERATURE CITED 1. Benson, H., T. Dryer , and L.H. Hartley. Decreased VO 2 consumption - during

  5. Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1982,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    34For as fast as I learn things I forget them again. So my mama says that * my intellect is not adapted for methodic science, and says that I must go...Davidson, H.: Von Recklinghausen’s Disease Associated with Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors . Accepted by Cancer, Apr 82. Sullivan, M.J., Hough, D.R... Tumors of the Lung. LTC Covelli (0) 1979 Conjunctival Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Sarcoidosis. 91 LTC Covelli (0) 1982 Evaluation of High Dose vs Low

  6. Annual Progress Report FY-82. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    preferences of first time fittings and fittings following extended use of monaural hear- ing aids. Results of auditory training exercises completed...PROJECT: A Six Week Dquble-Blind Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerance of Pirazolac B.I.D. Compared with Placebo in Patients with Ankylosing ... Spondylitis . Rp?.gc(?AL T,esucwArORs): Richard C. Welton, MAJ, MC; Michele Wineland, RN, M.S.N. ASSCIATE ImjvEsTiATOm(s):__________________ kwuMATo-a PEM

  7. Annual Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    incomplete Reiter’s syndrome. It occurs in 1-4 of patients with ankylosing spondylitis . The various manifestations of these syndromes present asynchronously...occur. There is a high association between HLA B21 tissue type and ankylosing spondylitis , psoriatic arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Reiter’s Syndrome...Metabolic Status of Sickle Cell Trait Individuals Following Vigorous Exercise ....................... 72 Work Unit No. 80/11 (FY80,O) Prospective Study of

  8. Systems Analysis department. Annual progress report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Olsson, Charlotte; Petersen, Kurt E.

    1998-03-01

    The report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1997. The department is undertaking research within Energy systems Analysis, Integrated Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, Industrial Safety and Reliability and Man/Machine Interaction. The report includes lists of publications lectures, committees and staff members. (au) 110 refs.

  9. Annual Research Progress Report, FY 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-30

    Powder. Ann Allergy 66:301-304, 1991. Larsen LV, Copeland TA, Weber RW, Vaughan TR: Allergen Extraction Methods: Effects of Time, Temperature, Buffer...Subretinal Hemorrhage: A Case Report. Ann Ophthalmol 22:259-262, 1990. Weston B, Enzenauer RW, Kraft SP, Gayowky GR: Stability of the Postoperative Alignment...Teresa Copeland , CPT, MC (11) Key Words: David L. Goodman, LTC, MC migraine food hypersensitivity mediators (12) Accumulative MEDCASE:* (13) Est Accum OMA

  10. Annual Progress Report Fiscal Year 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-25

    epithelial culture will be follolcd by 311 glucosamine and 35 S04 incorporation. The control in synthesis will be studies on transcriptional and... transcription anid niacin in R~NA aceiiiila tiii inl rai tracheal epithelial cells in cultures in response to various noxious agents, like tobacco smloke...at %lilliai Beaumnont Army Medical Center in El Paso, Texas at an altitude of 1270~m and mecan barometric prtsairc (of 656mmn 11g. Ten individuals with

  11. Energy Systems Group. Annual Progress Report 1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Larsen, Hans Hvidtfeldt; Villadsen, B.

    The report describes the work of the Energy Systems Group at Risø National Laboratory during 1984. The activities may be roughly classified as development and use of energy-economy models, energy systems analysis, energy technology assessment and energy planning. The report includes a list of staff...

  12. Annual Progress Report FY-92. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-21

    systemic lupus erythematosus having thyroid function abnormalities. Thyroid 1991;1:229-34. [1355-87] Brennan M, Duncan W, Wartofsky L, Butler V, Wray...Gastroesophageal 194 Reflux in Women with Heartburn in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy (9/91) 1450 Kikendall, James LTC MC. Adenomatous Colonic Polyps: A 195...215 Head and Neck Cancer, A Phase II Pilot Study (5/88) 1658-88 Alving, Barbara LTC MC. Verification of the Heterogeneity of 216 Lupus Anticoagulant

  13. Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1979,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    characterize the physicochemical properties of amplifier factor in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis, dermatopolymyositis...obtained from normal control volunteers and from patients with a variety of connective tissue diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid...Premature Labor with Terbutaline. (0) 90 C-8-78 Prolactin Levels in Hypertensive Pregnancies . (T) 91 C-39-78 A Comparison Study of Cesarean Section. (0

  14. Clinical Investigation Program. Annual Research Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-30

    Stereoscope 79/118 $6149.00 Ion Generator 78/116 $5000.00 Poultry Cages 79/301 $2929.00 Microtome/Cryostat 79/304 $5494.72 Tissue Embedder 79/300... Mycology : Assessment of bacteriologic and seroligic parameters of clinically-important mycoses normal and immunologic comprised host. Presented: American

  15. Systems Analysis Department. Annual progress report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H.; Olsson, C.; Petersen, K.E. [eds.

    1997-03-01

    The report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1996. The department is undertaking research within Simulation and Optimisation of Energy Systems, Energy and Environment in Developing Countries - UNEP Centre, Integrated Environmental and Risk Management and Man/Machine Interaction. The report includes lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au) 131 refs.

  16. (Medium energy particle physics): Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1985-10-01

    Investigations currently carried out by the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group can be arranged into four programs: Pion-Nucleon Scattering; Tests of Charge Symmetry and Isospin Invariance; Light Nuclei (Strong Form Factors of /sup 3/H, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He; Detailed Balance in pd /r reversible/ /gamma//sup 3/H; Interaction Dynamics); and Search for the Rare Decay /Mu//sup +/ /yields/ e/sup +/ + /gamma/ (MEGA). The general considerations which led to the choice of physics problems investigated by our group are given in the next section. We also outline the scope of the research being done which includes over a dozen experiments. The main body of this report details the research carried out in the past year, the status of various experiments, and new projects.

  17. FY2015 Vehicle Systems Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-31

    The Vehicle Systems research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.

  18. Systems Analysis Department annual progress report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Olsson, Charlotte; Loevborg, Leif [eds.

    1999-03-01

    The report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1998. The department undertakes research within Energy Systems Analysis, Integrated Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, Industrial Safety and Reliability, Man/Machine Interaction and Technology Scenarios. The report includes lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au) 111 refs.

  19. Clinical Investigation Program Annual Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-30

    Sarcoidosis Alveolitis I (12) Accumulative MEDCASE:’ (13) Est Accum OMA Cost:* *Refer to Unit Summary Sheet of this report. (14) a. Date, Latest HUC...182 alveolar gas ----------------------- 039 pressure ----------------------- 037 alveolitis -------------------------- 107 aminocaproic acid

  20. Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    sacrificed with the other testicle removed and assayed for androgen binding protein, testosterone, estradiol, and dihydrotestosterone as well as histology...E2 , and ABP will be measured in the testicle and androgen binding protein measured in the epididymus. Histology will be performed to include mean...mortality varies; and to determine whether glutathione deficiency is the cause of increased or decreased hepatotoxicitv when acetaminophen is acutely

  1. Clinical Investigation Program Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-30

    antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in a family with SLE. Arth Rheum, 36:528-533, 1993. Schaefer R, Enzenauer RJ, et al: Acute gonococcal flexor tenosynovitis... Syndrome in the Goat ............................ 253 91/205 C Holter Monitoring to Evaluate Possible Arrhythmias Following Epinephrine and Cocaine Use...prophylaxis Using Methotrexate vs Routine Surveillance in Management of High Risk Molar Pregnancy ................................. 349 91/357 0 GOG

  2. Wind Energy Department. Annual progress report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrumsager, B.; Larsen, S.; Hauge Madsen, P. (eds.)

    2002-10-01

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy Department at Risoe National Laboratory in 2001. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviate atmospheric aspects of environmental problems. The expertise of the department is utilised in commercial activities such as wind turbine testing and certification, training programmes, courses and consultancy services to industry, authorities and Danish and international organisations on wind energy and atmospheric environmental impact. A summary of the department's activities in 2001 is shown, including lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au)

  3. Clinical Investigation Program. Annual Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    Ethics of Newborn ICU. Presented: Chautauqua Colorado Nurses’ Association, Vail, CO, 11-12 July 1981. Ellis, C.: High Risk Pregnancy. Presented: Chautauqua...detail the anatomical development embryologically of the flexor tendon sheaths of the human fectus to 20 weeks of age and to correlate this development

  4. Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1980,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Benning, GA 1979 The Effect of Guaifenesin in the Treatment of Middle Ear Effusion: 64 A Double Blind Study. (0) 1980 Medical Screen and Functional...I III I I I I I , I I I I I . . Detail Summary Sheet Date: 15 October 1980 Prot No.: 79-25 Status: Ongoing 4:’le: The Effect of Guaifenesin in the...Objective: To determine whether guaifenesin , a mucolytic agent has a place in the management of middle ear effusion. Technical Approach: The study is a

  5. Wind Energy Department annual progress report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, B.D.; Riis, U. (eds.)

    2003-12-01

    Research and development activities of the Wind Energy Department range from boundary layer meteorology, fluid dynamics, and structural mechanics to power and control engineering as well as wind turbine loading and safety. The overall purpose of our work is to meet the needs for knowledge, methods and procedures from government, the scientific community, and the wind turbine industry in particular. Our assistance to the wind turbine manufacturers serve to pave the way for technological development and thus further the exploitation of wind energy worldwide. We do this by means of research and innovation, education, testing and consultancy. In providing services for the wind turbine industry, we are involved in technology development, design, testing, procedures for operation and maintenance, certification and international wind turbine projects s as well as the solution of problems encountered in the application of wind energy, e.g. grid connection. A major proportion of these activities are on a commercial basis, for instance consultancy, software development, accredited testing of wind turbines and blades as well as approval and certification in co-operation with Det Norske Veritas. The departments activities also include research into atmospheric physics and environmental issues related to the atmosphere. One example is the development of online warning systems for airborne bacteria and other harmful substances. The department is organized in programmes according to its main scientific and technical activities. Research programmes: 1) Aeroelastic Design, AED; 2) Atmospheric Phyrics, ATM; 3) Electrical DEsign and Control, EDS; 4) Wind Power Meteorology, VKM; 5) Wind Turbines, VIM; 6) Wind Turbine Diagnostics, VMD. Commercial programmes: 1) The Test Station for Large Wind Turbines, Hoevsoere, HOeV; 2) Risoe Wind Consult, INR; 3) Wind Turbine Testing; 4) Sparkaer Blade Test Centre.(au)

  6. Annual Progress Report FY-82. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Epithelium 591 (FY-8 | F) 9052B Application of Epstein-Barr Virus Markers 592 to Diagnosis and Prognosis of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Occult Tumors of...1551 NSTATUSi I TERI X Fim& STATIrj. DAre: 8/1/76 PATE OF CM-LETON: 9/29/80 KEY WOS: Acute Lvmahoctfc Leukeiia TITLE CF PROJECT: CALGE: # 7612 - ’Therapy...L-Pam C; -t; DATE: 10-02-82 ’. UIT NO.: 1559 STvrus: [1, TERI . _ Fi_ L x STARTTI.. DATE: 09-01-77 PATE OF CO;LETIO:M: 1980 KvY bc.s: Small. Cell

  7. Annual Progress Report Fiscal Year 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-30

    Unit No. 81/03 (FY81,O) Serial Measurement of Serum, Zinc, Magnesium, Copper, Lead, Lithium and Arsenic During Pregnancy...of disease. b. Patients with protein-losing nephropathies and those undergoing hemodialysis. Many patients on hemodialysis develop prctein...Lead, Lithium and Arsenic During Pregnancy. Start Date: Eat Comp Date: Principal Investigator: Facility: LTC R.W. Cotterill, MC Dept/Sec: Obstetrics

  8. Annual Progress Report--Fiscal Year 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    Anderson, Jr., J. H. and G. A. Merrill. 1978. Impairment of glucose tolerance by lithium chloride. Clin. Res. 26:773A. S.. . ..... . .. . .... 1 9 9 I...Nystrom, and D. C. Gajdusek. 1979. Epidemic nephropathy in Scandanavia is related to Korean haemorrhagic fever. Lancet 1:100. T I LA.G(ky Acc"C .0 I L i

  9. Clinical Investigation Program Annual Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-30

    The Acute Scrotum in Childhood: A Review. In press - World J Urol. Wilson, T.M.: Retroperitoneal Fibrosis in Association with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm...p2. .- I,-. -. % (C) Direct result of approved registered protocol. 󈧬, ~022 ;. Wilson, T.M.: Retroperitoneal Fibrosis in Association with Abdcminal...Michael Perry, COL, MC (9) Dept/Svc: Medicine/ Pulmonar (10) Assoc Investigators: (11) Key Words: Dead Space High Frequency Ventilation Carbon Dioxide (12

  10. Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Continuous Peritoneal Lavage in the Treatment 119 of Severe Acute Pancreatitis. (0) C-40-81 Anterior Vitrectomy for Aphakic Cystoid Macular Edema...Teeth Utilizing general Anesthesia. (0) Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Service C-i1-81 Teaching the Language and Learning Disabled Soldier. (0...Center, ,-’_ ~T TX, 10-i Apr 81. Satldin, W.M. Bietti’s Tapetoretinal Degeneration without Marginal Corneal ’ystreohv: Crystalline Retinopath. A ,amo

  11. Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1982,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    compromises. Chest 81:400-401, 1982. Zajtchuk, R., Nelson, W.P., Collins, G.J. Ischemic heart disease and coro - nary thrombosis. In "Vascular Occlusive...marginal corneal dystrophy). Am J Ophthal 92:640-646, 1981. Urology Service Bryant, K.R., Gangai, M.P., Maeso, E., Spence, C.R. Infantile retroperitoneal...Heart Association, Dallas, TX, Nov 1981. (C) Leverton, R.S. The effect of exercise on second heart sound splitting in coro - nary artery disease

  12. Wind Energy Department. Annual progress report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrumsager, B.; Larsen, S.; Hauge Madsen, P. (eds.)

    2002-10-01

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy Department at Risoe National Laboratory in 2001. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviate atmospheric aspects of environmental problems. The expertise of the department is utilised in commercial activities such as wind turbine testing and certification, training programmes, courses and consultancy services to industry, authorities and Danish and international organisations on wind energy and atmospheric environmental impact. A summary of the department's activities in 2001 is shown, including lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au)

  13. Annual Progress Report Fiscal Year 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-30

    93 Kossman, Marcia L.: 89/56 (Ongoing) Follow- up Support for Breastfeeding...subjects and in reaction media. Submitted Cross GM, Morgan C, Mooney A, Martin C, et al: Ten- year follow- up on alcoholism treatment. Alcoholism...center evaluation of Itraconazole for the treatment or systemic mycoses. All patients todate have had disseminated cocci. all have had favorable responses

  14. Wind Energy Department annual progress report 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrumsager, B.; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Madsen, Peter Hauge

    2002-01-01

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy Department at Risø National Laboratory in 2001. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviate atmospheric aspects ofenvironmental problems. The expertise of the department...... is utilised in commercial activities such as wind turbine testing and certification, training programmes, courses and consultancy services to industry, authorities and Danish and internationalorganisations on wind energy and atmospheric environmental impact. A summary of the department's activities in 2001...

  15. Studies in developmental immunogenetics. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, R D

    1977-06-29

    This contract provides the research support for a group concerned with a relatively large range of problems. The integrating thread that runs through it is that of an interest in development and its genetic regulation, mainly in complex organisms and with an emphasis on the immune system as a model for developmental analysis and as a tool for following the development of other systems, especially the brain. It includes studies of biochemical genetics, primarily from a developmental viewpoint and with particular regard to defense mechanisms, and cellular aspects of the immune system. It extends into the area of cancer immunology and cell specificities as related to tumor systems and to disruptions of genetic control mechanisms in tumor development, especially as approached through the reappearance of fetal antigens associated with tumor development. During the past year, our attention has turned increasingly to genetic factors predisposing to autoimmune disease, and to factors that have been claimed to transfer specific cellular immunity from immune to nonimmune animals.

  16. Clinical Investigation Program Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-20

    116 88/100 LCSG 861 Pilot Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Intrapleural Chemotherapy in the Mangement of Malignant Pleural...Syndrome Secondary to Penicillamine. Presented: ACP Meeting, Colorado Broadmoor Hotel , Colorado Springs, CO, January 1988. Prewitt KC, and Hasbargen...Title: LCSG 861 Pilot Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of ’Intrapleural Chemotherapy in the Mangement of Malignant-’I ’Ioual Effusions (5) re to 1(6

  17. Annual Progress Report FY-92. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    0 Previous FYs: $ 1,446 Total: $ 1,446 STUDY OBJECTIVE To examine the role of B-endorphine and other neuropeptides in the regulation of respiration ... respiration . TECHNICAL APPROACH Noninvasive assessments of respiratory function and the pattern of breathing during hypercapnic rebreathing will be performed in...190 REPORT DATE: 06/10/92 WORK UNIT # 1416 DETAIL SUMMARY SHEET TITLE: Association of Acromegaly and Intermediate Markers of Neoplasia KEYWORDS

  18. Clinical Investigation Program: Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-30

    in a patient with acromegaly . Ann Int Med (submitted) 1992. C LeMar HJ, Georgitis WJ, Mercill DB: Thyroid cell line derived from a papillary thyroid...91:549- 552, 1991. LeMar HJ: Symptomatic chiari-I malformation in a patient with acromegaly . Ann Int Med (submitted) 1992. C LeMar HJ, Georgitis WJ...spontaneous respirations . It will also validate or determine new cutoff values for the CROP score and f/Vt ratios.. (16) Technical Approach: Just prior

  19. Systems Analysis Department. Annual Progress Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Olsson, Charlotte; Loevborg, Leif [eds.

    2000-03-01

    This report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1999. The department is undertaking research within Energy Systems Analysis, Energy, Environment and Development Planning-UNEP Centre, Safety, Reliability and Human Factors, and Technology Scenarios. The report includes summary statistics and lists of publications, committees and staff members. (au)

  20. Annual Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-30

    BD, Yuille D, Telepak, RJ Lanbrecht R11, McAuley R: Radionuclide Marshmallow Swallow for Evaluation of Dysphagia . Presented at the SW Chapter...Swallow for Evaluation of Dysphagia . Presented at the William Beaumont Gastroenterology Symposium, El Paso, TX Mar 1980. Morrison RE: Spinal Cord Abscess...population in the absence of liver disease or severe nutritional deficiency. To determine the degree of intellectual impairment and presence of

  1. Clinical Investigation Program Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-30

    Aspen ( COMPRA ) Aspen, CO, July 1989. Carter BS, Anderson BA, Frank CG, Pierce JR: Military Neonatologists and Bioethical Decision Making. Presented...Conference on Military Perinatal Research at Aspen ( COMPRA ) Aspen, CO, July 1989. Frank CG: National Faculty/Course Instructor American Academy of...Membrane Disease. Presented: Conference on Military Perinatal Research at Aspen ( COMPRA ) Aspen, CO, July 1989. Kinsella JP: Cardiopulmonary Effects of

  2. Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1983,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    COL, MC Chief, Department of Clinical Investigation REFERENCES I. Asimov , Isaac : How It Happened. In: The Winds of Change and Other Stories...research endeavors. This brings to mind a story, "How It happened," by Isaac Asimov.l "In the beginning," he said, "exactly fifteen point two billion years

  3. USAARL Annual Progress Report Fiscal Year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    MEDEVAC) aircraft, 501(k) clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and acquisition benchmark Milestone-C status from the U.S. Army Medical...to Punishment and Antidepressant use Contribute to Decision-making Performance. Traumatology. Advance online publication. Dretsch, M. N., Thiel, K...Commanding General of Western Regional Medical Command and Senior Market Executive for TRICARE Puget Sound) Purpose: To receive an overview briefing and

  4. Project SQUID - Semi-Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-01-01

    scale attached to the front suppoit but, since preliminary c ale illations indicated it was not needed, no damping mil nanism was installed. (d) The...report obtainable from CAPO. DIVISION: Rower Plants . Jet and Turbine W) SECTION: gexXopmance {16> ’^ ’ ATI SHEET NO.: Central Air Docvmonta

  5. Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Comparing the Efficacy and 47 Safety of Amcinonide (0.1% Cream) with Betamethasone Valerate (0.1% Cream) in Patients with Psoriasis. (C) vi Project...Heinodynamic responses to supine exercise in children with left-sided cardiac disease. Amer. J. Cardiol. 45:1026-1032, �. Alpert, B.S., Bloom, K.R...Gilday, D., Olley, P.M. The comparison between non-invasive and invasive methods of stroke volume determination in children . Amer. Heart J. 98, 6:763

  6. Studies in development immunogenetics. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, R D

    1975-03-26

    This contract provides the research support for a group concerned with a relatively large range of problems. The integrating thread that runs through it is that of an interest in development and its genetic regulation, mainly in complex organisms and with an emphasis on the immune system as a model for developmental analysis and as a tool for following the development of other systems, especially the brain. It includes studies of biochemical genetics, primarily from a developmental viewpoint and with particular regard to defense mechanisms, and cellular aspects of the immune system. It extends into the area of cancer immunology and cell specificities as related to tumor systems, primarily from an immunogenetic viewpoint and with particular reference to leukemias in the mouse, and to disruptions of genetic control mechanisms in tumor development, especially as approached through the reappearance of fetal antigens associated with tumor development.

  7. Annual Research Progress Report, FY 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    personnel. J An Diet Assoc 76: 41-44, 1980 80-009 ASKEW, E.W., G.L. DOHM, P.C. WEISER, R.L. HUSTON, and W.H. DOUB, JR. Supplemental dietary carnitine ...separate runs and thus require iron supplementation (iron dextran) after each run. Ten batch passes can be done during 1 run with volume yields less than...synthetic diets that had been supplemented with vitamin E. In order to determine whether vitamin E and/or selenium deficiency caused these lesions, a

  8. Wind Energy Department annual progress report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanse, B.D.; Riis. U. (eds.)

    2004-12-01

    This report covers the scientific work of the Wind Energy Department in 2003. It comprises departmental programmes as well as brief summaries of all non-conficential projects and a review of the key issues of 2003. (au)

  9. Clinical Investigation Program. Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    has been leucopenia and, given the intensity of these programs, fatal toxicities have ranged from 2-3-1 with CHOP and ProMACE-CytaBOM to 5-6-1 with m... leucopenia . Longer follow up will be needed for data about the maintenance arms. I I I 213 U I I I Detail Summary Sheet U Prot No: SWOG 8642(87) Status...The only information available is that toxicity has been very tolerable with the only serious toxicity being transient leucopenia . I I I I 217 I I I I

  10. Annual Research Progress Report FY 92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-11

    Andrew P.: 92/62 (0) GOG #138, A Phase II Trial of Cisplatin and Cyclophosphamide in the Treatment of Extraovarian Peritoneal Serous Papillary...Training Utilizing the Feline Model ................................... 141 Jesse, Steven W.: 89/92 (0) The Effect of Breastfeeding on the Enteral... infectious disease morbidity Department of Nursing among United States military personnel. N Engi J Gaubatz C: Anesthetic considerations for the Med 325

  11. Annual Research Progress Report, 1 July 1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-07-01

    months post inoculation and involved mainly the lymphatic system; however other organs were also found to be infected. Because of difficulties of obtaining...can remain chronically infected for at least up to 16 months post inoculation . Certain animals were positive for R. tsutsuqanushi at all the time...rice, rubber, maize , tobacco, and fruit are the main income-producing commodities for these people. Logging companies are also at work within the area

  12. Burn Treatment: Annual Research Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-30

    positive for 127 a given species may be indicative of its importance in pathogenesis of pulmon - ary disease in burned patients. Table 6. Principal...pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is, of course, the conspicuous successful opportunist in burns, cancer wards, debilitated aged, newborns, and other

  13. Annual Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    and pulmonic blood pressures, cardiac output, ventilatory rates and volumes and expired gas compositions. These parameters will be measured at sea level...Collaboration and Prediction Modeling in Clinical • -. •2 Evaluations of Hyperthermia (Tre-42 C) at the National Cancer Institute Investigators Kent B. Pandolf... cancer patients have been evaluated during hyperthermic exposures at the National Cancer Institute (NC). Multiple hyperthermic exposures (6 or more

  14. Clinical Investigation Program Annual Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-30

    Compliance Utilizing Pulmon - ary Capillary Wedge Pressures.(T) ................ 046 79/107 The Effects of Fructose on Reactive Hypoglycemia. (C)(P...052 . 80/103 Etoposide (VP-16-213) Single Agent Chemotherapy in Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Refractory to First-line Chemotherapy. (T...Vincristine in the Treat- ment of Small Cell Lung Cancer .(O) ............... 054 80/108 Topical Cocaine for the Relief of Stomatitis in Patients with

  15. University of Maryland annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignerey, A.C.

    1995-02-01

    The two main areas of research of intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions and ultrarelativistic heavy-ion reactions are presented in this report. Among the intermediate energy research topics were {sup 129}Xe reactions, calibration of the plastic elements in the Maryland Forward Array, and a cluster recognition model for treating BUU-generated distributions. The ultrarelativistic energy research program included the LED system for the NMA (New Multiplicity Array) in E866 at BNL AGS, the E866 collaboration (antiprotons and NMA), and PHOBOS magnet work. {sup 139}La reactions were also studied.

  16. Dating of a sediment core from Lake Biel (Switzerland) and source characterization of fallout Pu; {sup 210}Pb- und {sup 137}Cs-Datierung eines Sedimentbohrkerns aus dem Bieler See (CH) und Ursprungsbestimmung von Pu-Fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregler, Anja

    2016-08-01

    A sediment core from Lake Biel was dated by means of the naturally occurring radioactive isotope {sup 210}Pb as well as by the anthropogenic isotope {sup 137}Cs. The latter one can be detected as radioactive fallout of certain events in the sediment layers and accordingly be correlated with a distinct date. A verification of the correlated events is accomplished by particular isotope ratios of the anthropogenic isotopes {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu as well as {sup 241}Am as a decay product of the short-lived {sup 241}Pu. Furthermore, the percentage of the total {sup 137}Cs fallout was calculated corresponding to the specific events.

  17. Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institute of Radiochemistry. Annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, G. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The Institute of Radiochemistry (IRC), one of the six Institutes of the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (FZR) performs basic and applied research in the fields of radiochemistry and radioecology. Motivation and background of our research are environmental processes relevant for the installation of nuclear waste repositories, for remediation of uranium mining and milling sites, and for radioactive contaminations caused by nuclear accidents and fallout. Because of their high radiotoxicity and long half-life the actinides are of special interest. The research is focused on a better understanding of the chemical behavior of actinides in the environment on a molecular level. We will increase our efforts to study both the speciation of actinides on bio-molecular interfaces and their transport in bio-systems. Current topics of our research work are: aquatic chemistry of actinides, actinides in bio-systems, interaction of actinides with solid phases, Reactive transport of actinides. About 60 scientists, technicians and PhD students are employed at the Institute of Radiochemistry. We accomplished many new scientific results in the past year, which are presented in this annual report. Among them only few can be highlighted in this preface. Further progress was achieved in understanding the formation and characterization of uranium containing colloids. The newly installed method of laser-induced breakdown detection was very helpful for the identification of uranium colloids under anoxic conditions. We were very successful in the determination of formation pathways and structure of various actinide complexes. These results contribute to a better understanding of actinide speciation in geo- and bio-systems, especially with respect to the chemical processes on the interfaces. The results achieved in the characterization of the properties, modification, and interaction of the S-layers of Bacillus sphaericus with uranium and some other heavy metals strengthen our hope to use this

  18. Renewal of explosive activity at Vesuvius: models for the expected tephra fallout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonio, Giovanni; Pareschi, M. Teresa; Santacroce, Roberto

    1990-06-01

    One of the major problems concerning the assessment of volcanic hazard at Vesuvius is to determine the type and size of the eruptive event that will characterize the volcano when it becomes active once again. During its history, Somma-Vesuvius has exhibited different types of activity, ranging from quiet lava emission to moderate strombolian activity, to catastrophic plinian eruptions. Available data support a behavior model characterized by the increasing size and explosiveness of the eruptions with increasing repose time, as a consequence of a roughly constant periodic supply of deep basic magma to a shallow magma chamber and differentiation and mixing in the chamber. After the A.D. 79 eruption, a homogeneous HK (high potassium) nature of erupted products was reflected by a magma alimentation rate roughly estimated at 1.5-2.0 millions of cubic meters per year. Assuming no major changes have occurred in the feeding system of the volcano after its last eruption in 1944, a volume of 40-70 × 10 6 m 3 magma could be considered presently available for a renewal of activity at Vesuvius. The emission of such a mass of magma during a single eruption would result into the largest event since the highly disruptive 1631 subplinian eruption. Presently, no possibility exists to forecast the eruptive character of such an eruption, and either a "ultrastrombolian" or a "subplinian" case appear equally possible. The latter possibility implies the highest potential hazard. This paper provides the numerical simulations of the main eruptive phenomenon that probably will occur during this "maximum expected event": the fallout of tephra from a high, sustained eruption column. After the initial explosive opening of the vent, the scenario consists of the formation of a high convective column with lee-side fallout of pumice and lithic fragments, accompanied and followed by column collapses generating pyroclastic flows and surges. The column behavior was numerically simulated by using the

  19. The new conversion model MODERN to derive erosion rates from inventories of fallout radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Frenkel, Elena; A'Campo-Neuen, Annette; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) has become one of the most commonly used methods to quantify soil erosion and depositional processes. FRNs include anthropogenic radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs, 239+240Pu) released into the atmosphere during nuclear bomb tests and power plant accidents (e.g Chernobyl, Fukushima-Daiichi), as well as natural radiotracers such as 210Pbex and 7Be. FRNs reach the land surface by dry and wet fallouts from the atmosphere. Once deposited, FRNs are tightly adsorbed by fine soil particles and their subsequent redistribution is mostly associated with soil erosion processes. FRNs methods are based on a qualitative comparison: the inventory (total radionuclide activity per unit area) at a given sampling site is compared to that of a so called reference site. The conversion of FRN inventories into soil erosion and deposition rates is done with a variety of models, which suitability is dependent on the selected FRN, soil cultivation (ploughed or unploughed) and movement (erosion or deposition). The authors propose a new conversion model, which can be easily and comprehensively used for different FRNs, land uses and soil redistribution processes. This new model i.e. MODERN (MOdelling Deposition and Erosion rates with RadioNuclides) considers the precise depth distribution of a given FRN at a reference site, and allows adapting it for any specific site conditions. MODERN adaptability and performance has been tested on two published case studies: (i) a 137Cs study in an alpine and unploughed area in the Aosta valley (Italy) and (ii) a 210Pbex study on a ploughed area located in Romania. The results show a good agreement and a significant correlation (r= 0.91, p<0.0001) between the results of MODERN and the published models currently used by the FRN scientific community (i.e. the Profile Distribution Model and the Mass Balance Model). The open access code and the cost free accessibility of MODERN will ensure the promotion of a wider

  20. Fallout and drinking water contamination by I-131 and Cs-134, 137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Miyashita, Erika; Kelecom, Patrick Vicent [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The earthquake followed by a tsunami in Japan, on last March 11, seriously damaged four of the six reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS). Radioactive smokes and highly contaminated water were released for weeks to the environment. Since March 12, when the plant operator TEPCO and Japan's nuclear agency (NISA) confirmed the presence of radionuclides near the NPS, a giant environmental monitoring operation was set up, covering the entire Japanese territory. Daily thousands measurements are realized. We here analyze data released during 60 days on I-131 and Cs-134,137 radioactive concentrations in drinking water and fallout for 45 prefectures. Miyagi and Fukushima, that requires a separate study, are not considered here. Drinking water contamination by I-131 was observed in 13 prefectures, including Tokyo. The most impacted one was Tochigi (maximum of 110 Bq/l, March 24). This value turned water not drinkable for infants and babies. Cs-137 was detected in drinking water in 8 prefectures, with a maximum level of 18 Bq/l in Ibaraki. These levels do not affect potability of tap water. I-131 was observed in fallout in 27 prefectures, with level reaching 93 kBq/m2 in Ibaraki and 36 kBq/m{sup 2} in Tokyo on March 21 and 23 respectively. Fallout of Cs-137 was observed in 19 prefectures. The maximum deposition occurred again in Ibaraki (13kBq/m{sup 2}, March 21) and in Tokyo (5.3 kBq/m2, March 22). Since mid April, only trace contamination has been observed for both radionuclides in drinking water. Sporadically medium levels of Cs-137 are still observed in fallout. (author)

  1. Retention of simulated fallout nuclides in agricultural crops. 2. Deposition of Cs and Sr on grain crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Aake; Rosen, K.; Haak, E

    1998-12-31

    Experiments with artificial wet depositions of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85}Sr at different times during the growth period were carried out. The studies are complementary to the experiences after the Chernobyl fallout and the results are compared with similar earlier Swedish works on nuclide retention in experiments and on fallout in agriculture. The aim has been to cover the nuclide transfer to grain crops after deposition at different times during the growing period. The initial interception capacity per kg d.w., TRd, seemed to depend on the surface/weight ratio of the plant parts considered. Changes in TRd-values were rapid during the early growth but slower in later stages. The reduction half-time was then often 2 weeks for vegetative parts. Considering the fraction of a deposition retained, FRd, the residence half-time had an average length of 3-4 weeks. During that time there were possibilities for cesium penetration into the plant and further transfer to ears and grain. Strontium did not seem to be transferred that way. There was no increase of cesium in the ears per unit d.w. after the initial interception. However, there was a steady increase in the total content, especially after deposition during the latter half of the growth period when about 5 % was retained of cesium, and 2 % of strontium. The retention of fallout caesium in 1964 was statistically estimated to be of about the same size in Swedish grains 12 refs, 19 figs, 19 tabs

  2. Airborne Measurement in the Ash Plume from Mount Sakurajima: Analysis of Gravitational Effects on Dispersion and Fallout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Eliasson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash concentrations in the plume from Sakurajima volcano in Japan are observed from airplanes equipped with optical particle counters and GPS tracking devices. The volcano emits several puffs a day. The puffs are also recorded by the Sakurajima Volcanological Observatory. High concentrations are observed in the puffs and fallout driven by vertical air current, called streak fallout. Puffs dispersion is analyzed by the classical diffusion-advection method and a new gravitational dispersion method. The fluid mechanic of the gravitational dispersion, streak fallout, and classical diffusion-advection theory is described in three separate appendices together with methods to find the time gravitational dispersion constant and the diffusion coefficient from satellite photos. The diffusion-advection equation may be used to scale volcanic eruptions so the same eruption plumes can be scaled to constant flux and wind conditions or two eruptions can be scaled to each other. The dispersion analyses show that dispersion of volcanic plumes does not follow either theories completely. It is most likely diffusion in the interface of the plume and the ambient air, together with gravitational flattening of the plumes core. This means larger boundary concentration gradients and smaller diffusion coefficients than state of the art methods can predict.

  3. Sources of fine-grained sediment to streams using fallout radionuclides in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, A.; Fuller, C. C.; Van Metre, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Fluvial sediment is a major factor in aquatic habitat degradation. Understanding the sources of this sediment is a necessary component of management plans and policies aimed at reducing sediment inputs. Because of the time intensive framework of most sediment-source studies, spatial interpretations are often limited to the study watershed. To address sediment sources on a larger scale, the U.S. Geological Survey- National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program as part of the Midwest Stream Quality Assessment, used fallout radioisotopes (excess lead-210, cesium-137, and beryllium-7) to determine the source ((upland (surface runoff) or channel derived)) of fine-grained (states in the Midwestern United States covering 648,239 km2 of the United States. Sampling occurred in July and August of 2013, in conjunction with water chemistry, aquatic-habitat and ecological community assessments. Ninety-nine watersheds were sampled, the majority of which were predominately agricultural, with contributing areas ranging between 6.7 to 5,893 km2. Using the ratio of beryllium-7 to excess lead-210, the percent of upland to channel-derived sediment was estimated. Results indicate that sediment sources vary among the 99 watersheds. Channel sediment is an important source presumably from bank erosion. Upland sediment was not the dominant source of sediment in many of these agricultural watersheds. Suspended-sediment samples collected over an 8-week period for 3 watersheds also show that the percent of upland versus channel sediment varies spatially and temporally.

  4. Concentration of fallout Cesium-137 in soils of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, F.C.A.; Lauria, D.C.; Silva, J.I.R., E-mail: fribeiro@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, E.S.A.; Amaral Sobrinho, N.M.B. do [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Perez, D.V. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (CNPS/EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of fallout {sup 137}Cs in soil samples of the Rio de Janeiro State was investigated. Two-hundred sixty-two samples of soil were analyzed for {sup 137}Cs by gamma spectrometry. A reference data set was built containing thirty-six detected values (14%) and two hundred twenty-six (86%) multiple detection limits of non-detected observations. Distribution pattern of the radionuclide, as well their controlling factors were evaluated based on statistical methods for censored data set (with non-detected observations). The mean of concentration values of thirty-six detected observations was 1.25 Bq.kg{sup -1}, while for the censored data sets the mean value was 0.51 Bq.kg{sup -1}. The references values for the Rio de Janeiro State were estimated as 1.44 Bq.kg{sup -1} (75{sup th}) and 1.78 Bq.kg{sup -1} (90{sup th}) (considering the year of 2015). {sup 137}Cs concentrations tend to be higher in soils with high levels of organic matter and clay and locations with high levels of these parameters would provide higher Cs fixation. No influence of the rainfall index and soil pH on the Cs content in soil was observed. The data and information gathered in this study provide valuable information for decision making purposes in case of soil contamination. (author)

  5. Radiocaesium partitioning in Japanese cedar forests following the “early” phase of Fukushima fallout redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Frederic; Hurtevent, Pierre; Loffredo, Nicolas; Simonucci, Caroline; Julien, Anthony; Gonze, Marc-Andre; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Thiry, Yves

    2016-11-01

    Our study focused on radiocaesium (137Cs) partitioning in forests, three vegetation periods after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. 137Cs distribution in forest components (organic and mineral soil layers as well as tree compartments: stem, bark, needles, branches and roots) was measured for two Japanese cedar stand ages (17 and 33 years old). The results showed that around 85% of the initial deposit was found in the forest floor and topsoil. For the youngest stand almost 70% of the deposit is present in the forest floor, whereas for the oldest stand 50% is present in the 0–3 cm mineral soil layer. For trees, old and perennial organs (including dead and living needles and branches, litter fall and outer bark) directly exposed to the fallout remained the most contaminated. The crown concentrated 61–69% of the total tree contamination. Surprisingly the dead organs concentrated 25 ± 9% (young cedars) to 36 ± 20% (mature cedar) of the trees’ residual activity, highlighting the importance of that specific compartment in the early post-accident phase for Japanese cedar forests. Although the stem (including bark) represents the highest biomass pool, it only concentrates 3.3% and 4.6% of the initial 137Cs deposit for mature and young cedars, respectively.

  6. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate fallout of Alexandria, Egypt: Sources and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboul-Kassim, T.A.T.; Simoneit, B.R.T. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Particulate fallout samples (PFS) were collected in Alexandria, and their aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compositions were determined both quantitatively and qualitatively to characterize the homologous and biomarker compounds in terms of their original sources. The results show that all samples contain aliphatic hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes, UCM, isoprenoids, tri- and tetracyclic terpanes, hopanes, and steranes/diasteranes. The main source of these compounds is from petrochemical contamination with trace input of terrestrial higher plant wax. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are considered to be combustion products from fossil fuels such as petroleum, are also widely distributed in all samples. Multivariate statistical analysis, including extended Q-mode factor analysis and linear programming technique, was performed in order to reduce the hydrocarbon data set into a meaningful number of end members (sources). This analysis indicates that there are two significant end members explaining 90% of the total variation among the samples and confirming petrochemical (79.6%), and thermogenic/pyrolytic (10.4%) sources in the PFS model. 65 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. SIMS Analyses of Aerodynamic Fallout from a Uranium-Fueled Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, L. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Knight, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Matzel, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Prussin, S. G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ryerson, F. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kinman, W. S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zimmer, M. M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hutcheon, I. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-09

    Five silicate fallout glass spherules produced in a uranium-fueled, near-surface nuclear test were characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometry, electron probe microanalysis, autoradiography, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x ray spectroscopy. Several samples display distinctive compositional heterogeneity suggestive of incomplete mixing, and exhibit heterogeneity in U isotopes with 0.02 < 235U/ 238U < 11.8 among all five samples and 0.02 < 235U/ 238U < 7.81 within a single sample. In two samples, the 235U/ 238U ratio is correlated with major element composition, consistent with the agglomeration of chemically and isotopically distinct molten precursors. Two samples are quasi-homogeneous with respect to composition and uranium isotopic composition, suggesting extensive mixing possibly due longer residence time in the fireball. Correlated variations between 234U, 235U, 236U and 238U abundances point to mixing of end-members corresponding to uranium derived from the device and natural U ( 238U/ 235U = 0.00725) found in soil.

  8. Genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl fallout to agricultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraskin, S.A. E-mail: riar@obninsk.org; Dikarev, V.G.; Zyablitskaya Ye.Ya.; Oudalova, A.A.; Spirin, Ye. V; Alexakhin, R.M

    2003-07-01

    The genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the fallout to agricultural crops after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 have been studied. In the first, acute, period of this accident, when the absorbed dose was primarily due to external {beta}- and {gamma}-irradiation, the radiation injury of agricultural crops, according to the basic cytogenetic tests resembled the effect produced by acute {gamma}-irradiation at comparable doses. The yield of cytogenetic damage in leaf meristem of plants grown in the 10-km zone of the ChNPP in 1987-1989 (the period of chronic, lower level radiation exposure) was shown to be enhanced and dependent on the level of radioactive contamination. The rate of decline with time in cytogenetic damage induced by chronic exposure lagged considerably behind that of the radiation exposure. Analysis of genetic variability in three sequentia generations of rye and wheat revealed increased cytogenetic damage in plants exposed to chronic irradiation during the 2nd and 3rd years.

  9. Processing of analogues of plume fallout in cold regions of Enceladus by energetic electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Bergantini, A; Nair, B G; Mason, N J; Fraser, H J

    2014-01-01

    Enceladus, a small icy moon of Saturn, is one of the most remarkable bodies in the solar system. This moon is a geologically active object, and despite the lower temperatures on most of its surface, the geothermally heated south polar region presents geysers that spouts a plume made of water (approximately ninety percent), carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, and methanol, among other molecules. Most of the upward-moving particles do not have the velocity to escape from the gravitational influence of the moon and fall back to the surface. The molecules in the ice are continuously exposed to ionizing radiation, such as UV and X-rays photons, cosmic rays, and electrons. Over time, the ionizing radiation promotes molecular bond rupture, destroying and also forming molecules, radicals, and fragments. We analyse the processing of an ice mixture analogue to the Enceladus fallout ice in cold resurfaced areas (north pole) by 1 keV electrons. The main goal is to search for complex species that have not yet been detected ...

  10. Total cancer incidence in relation to 137Cs fallout in the most contaminated counties in Sweden after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident: a register-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Wålinder, Robert; Vingård, Eva; Tondel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the total cancer incidence in relation to a 5-year exposure to caesium-137 (137Cs) from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Methods A closed cohort was defined as all individuals living in the three most contaminated counties in mid-Sweden in 1986. Fallout of 137Cs was retrieved as a digital map from the Geological Survey of Sweden, demographic data from Statistics Sweden, and cancer diagnosis from the National Board of Health and Welfare. Individuals were assigned an annual 137Cs exposure based on their place of residence (1986–1990), from which 5-year cumulative 137Cs exposures were calculated, accounting for the physical decay of 137Cs and changing residencies. HRs were adjusted for age, sex, rural/non-rural residence and pre-Chernobyl total cancer incidence. Results The 734 537 people identified were categorised by exposure: the first quartile was low exposure (0.0–45.4 kBq/m2), the second and third quartiles were intermediate exposure (45.41–118.8 kBq/m2), and the fourth quartile was the highest exposure (118.81–564.71 kBq/m2). Between 1991 and 2010, 82 495 cancer cases were registered in the 3 counties. Adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1.03 (1.01 to 1.05) for intermediate exposure and 1.05 (1.03 to 1.07) for the highest exposure compared to the reference exposure. Conclusions We found a small overall exposure–response pattern of the total cancer incidence related to 137Cs after adjustment for age, sex, rural residence and pre-Chernobyl cancer incidence. PMID:27998898

  11. Assessing the long-term probabilistic volcanic hazard for tephra fallout in Reykjavik, Iceland: a preliminary multi-source analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Roberto; Barsotti, Sara; Sandri, Laura; Tumi Guðmundsson, Magnús

    2015-04-01

    Icelandic volcanism is largely dominated by basaltic magma. Nevertheless the presence of glaciers over many Icelandic volcanic systems results in frequent phreatomagmatic eruptions and associated tephra production, making explosive eruptions the most common type of volcanic activity. Jökulhlaups are commonly considered as major volcanic hazard in Iceland for their high frequency and potentially very devastating local impact. Tephra fallout is also frequent and can impact larger areas. It is driven by the wind direction that can change with both altitude and season, making impossible to predict a priori where the tephra will be deposited during the next eruptions. Most of the volcanic activity in Iceland occurs in the central eastern part, over 100 km to the east of the main population centre around the capital Reykjavík. Therefore, the hazard from tephra fallout in Reykjavík is expected to be smaller than for communities settled near the main volcanic systems. However, within the framework of quantitative hazard and risk analyses, less frequent and/or less intense phenomena should not be neglected, since their risk evaluation depends on the effects suffered by the selected target. This is particularly true if the target is highly vulnerable, as large urban areas or important infrastructures. In this work we present the preliminary analysis aiming to perform a Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) for tephra fallout focused on the target area which includes the municipality of Reykjavík and the Keflavík international airport. This approach reverts the more common perspective where the hazard analysis is focused on the source (the volcanic system) and it follows a multi-source approach: indeed, the idea is to quantify, homogeneously, the hazard due to the main hazardous volcanoes that could pose a tephra fallout threat for the municipality of Reykjavík and the Keflavík airport. PVHA for each volcanic system is calculated independently and the results

  12. Using total beta-activity measurements in milk to derive thyroid doses from Chernobyl fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, V; Germenchuk, M; Bouville, A

    2006-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, more than 200 childhood thyroid cancer cases have been observed in Brest Oblast of Belarus in territories slightly contaminated with 137Cs, but with suspected relatively high 131I fallout. The most helpful measurements available that can be used to estimate thyroid doses for the population of Brest Oblast are the total beta-activity measurements in cow's milk performed using DP-100 device within a few weeks after the accident. The 131I concentrations in milk were derived from the total beta-activity measurements on the basis of (1) a radioecological model used to estimate the variation with time of the radionuclide composition in milk and (2) the determination of the calibration factors of the DP-100 device for the most important radionuclides present in milk. As a result, 131I concentrations in milk were reconstructed for territories with different levels of 137Cs deposition. A non-linear dependence of the 131I concentration in milk on the 137Cs deposition density was obtained; it was used to estimate the thyroid doses from the consumption of 131I-contaminated cow's milk by the population of Brest Oblast. The average individual thyroid doses have been estimated to be 0.15, 0.18, 0.12, 0.06, 0.04 and 0.03 Gy for newborn, children aged 1, 5, 10 and 15 y and adults, respectively. The collective thyroid dose for the entire population of Brest Oblast is estimated to be 64,500 man Gy, the contribution from the adult population being about one half of the total. The methodology that is described could be applied in the framework of epidemiological studies of the relationship between radiation exposure to the thyroid gland and thyroid cancer in areas where numerous total beta-activity measurements in cow's milk were performed within a few weeks after the accident.

  13. Distribution of global fallouts cesium-137 in taiga and tundra catenae at the Ob River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenkov, I. N.; Usacheva, A. A.; Miroshnikov, A. Yu.

    2015-03-01

    The classification of soil catenae at the Ob River basin is developed and applied. This classification reflects the diverse geochemical conditions that led to the formation of certain soil bodies, their combinations and the migration fields of chemical elements. The soil and geochemical diversity of the Ob River basin catenae was analyzed. The vertical and lateral distribution of global fallouts cesium-137 was studied using the example of the four most common catenae types in Western Siberia tundra and taiga. In landscapes of dwarf birches and dark coniferous forests on gleysols, cryosols, podzols, and cryic-stagnosols, the highest 137Cs activity density and specific activity are characteristic of the upper soil layer of over 30% ash, while the moss-grass-shrub cover is characterized by low 137Cs activity density and specific activity. In landscapes of dwarf birches and pine woods on podzols, the maximum specific activity of cesium-137 is typical for moss-grass-shrub cover, while the maximum reserves are concentrated in the upper soil layer of over 30% ash. Bog landscapes and moss-grass-shrub cover are characterized by a minimum activity of 137Cs, and its reserves in soil generally decrease exponentially with depth. The cesium-137 penetration depth increases in oligotrophic histosols from northern to middle taiga landscapes from 10-15 to 40 cm. 137Cs is accumulated in oligotrophic histosols for increases in pH from 3.3 to 4.0 and in concretionary interlayers of pisoplinthic-cryic-histic-stagnosols. Cryogenic movement, on the one hand, leads to burying organic layers enriched in 137Cs and, on the other hand, to deducing specific activity when mixed with low-active material from lower soil layers.

  14. Temporal trends in childhood leukaemia incidence following exposure to radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard; Darby, Sarah C; Murphy, Michael F G

    2010-05-01

    Notably raised rates of childhood leukaemia incidence have been found near some nuclear installations, in particular Sellafield and Dounreay in the United Kingdom, but risk assessments have concluded that the radiation doses estimated to have been received by children or in utero as a result of operations at these installations are much too small to account for the reported increases in incidence. This has led to speculation that the risk of childhood leukaemia arising from internal exposure to radiation following the intake of radioactive material released from nuclear facilities has been substantially underestimated. The radionuclides discharged from many nuclear installations are similar to those released into the global environment by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, which was at its height in the late-1950s and early-1960s. Measurements of anthropogenic radionuclides in members of the general public resident in the vicinity of Sellafield and Dounreay have found levels that do not differ greatly from those in persons living remote from nuclear installations that are due to ubiquitous exposure to the radioactive debris of nuclear weapons testing. Therefore, if the leukaemia risk to children resulting from deposition within the body of radioactive material discharged from nuclear facilities has been grossly underestimated, then a pronounced excess of childhood leukaemia would have been expected as a consequence of the short period of intense atmospheric weapons testing. We have examined childhood leukaemia incidence in 11 large-scale cancer registries in three continents for which data were available at least as early as 1962. We found no evidence of a wave of excess cases corresponding to the peak of radioactive fallout from atmospheric weapons testing. The absence of a discernible increase in the incidence of childhood leukaemia following the period of maximum exposure to the radioactive debris of this testing weighs heavily against the suggestion that

  15. Modeling the fallout from stabilized nuclear clouds using the HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolph, G D; Ngan, F; Draxler, R R

    2014-10-01

    The Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Air Resources Laboratory, has been configured to simulate the dispersion and deposition of nuclear materials from a surface-based nuclear detonation using publicly available information on nuclear explosions. Much of the information was obtained from "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons" by Glasstone and Dolan (1977). The model was evaluated against the measurements of nuclear fallout from six nuclear tests conducted between 1951 and 1957 at the Nevada Test Site using the global NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project (NNRP) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological data as input. The model was able to reproduce the general direction and deposition patterns using the coarse NNRP data with Figure of Merit in Space (FMS - the percent overlap between predicted and measured deposition patterns) scores in excess of 50% for four of six simulations for the smallest dose rate contour, with FMS scores declining for higher dose rate contours. When WRF meteorological data were used the FMS scores were 5-20% higher in five of the six simulations, especially at the higher dose rate contours. The one WRF simulation where the scores declined slightly (10-30%) was also the best scoring simulation when using the NNRP data. When compared with measurements of dose rate and time of arrival from the Town Data Base (Thompson et al., 1994), similar results were found with the WRF simulations providing better results for four of six simulations. The overall result was that the different plume simulations using WRF data had more consistent performance than the plume simulations using NNRP data fields.

  16. Processing of analogues of plume fallout in cold regions of Enceladus by energetic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergantini, A.; Pilling, S.; Nair, B. G.; Mason, N. J.; Fraser, H. J.

    2014-10-01

    Context. Enceladus, a small icy moon of Saturn, is one of the most remarkable bodies in the solar system. This moon is a geologically active object, and despite the lower temperatures on most of its surface, the geothermally heated south polar region presents geysers that spouts a plume made of water (~90%), carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, and methanol, among other molecules. Most of the upward-moving particles do not have the velocity to escape from the gravitational influence of the moon and fall back to the surface. The molecules in the ice are continuously exposed to ionizing radiation, such as UV and X-rays photons, cosmic rays, and electrons. Over time, the ionizing radiation promotes molecular bond rupture, destroying and also forming molecules, radicals, and fragments. Aims: We analyse the processing of an ice mixture analogue to the Enceladus fallout ice in cold resurfaced areas (north pole) by 1 keV electrons. The main goal is to search for complex species that have not yet been detected in this moon, and to determine relevant physico-chemical parameters, such as destruction and formation cross-sections and the half-life of the studied molecules in the ice. Methods: The experiment consisted of the electron irradiation of an Enceladus-like ice mixture (H2O:CO2:CH4:NH3:CH3OH) in an ultra-high vacuum chamber at 20 K. The analysis was made by infrared spectrometry in the mid-infrared region (4000-800 cm-1 or 2.5-12.5 μm). Results: The absolute dissociation cross-sections of the parent molecules, the formation cross-section of daughter species, and the half-life of the parental species in a simulated Enceladus irradiation scenario were determined. Among the produced species, CO (carbon monoxide), OCN- (cyanate anion), HCONH2 (formamide), and H2CO (formaldehyde) were tentatively detected.

  17. Human metabolism and ecological transfer of radioactive caesium. Comparative studies of Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout, in southern Sweden and in Bryansk, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C.L

    2000-05-01

    the 1960s, and in time-integrated aggregate transfer factor of 4.4 Bq/kg/kBq/m{sup 2}. The average committed effective dose from ingested {sup 137}Cs Chernobyl fallout in the study group was estimated to be 0.02 mSv and from the nuclear weapons fallout to 0.20 mSv. The estimates of whole-body content of {sup 137}Cs in the Russian subjects obtained through creatinine normalisation of the {sup 137}Cs content in urine were, on average, a factor of 2 higher than estimates obtained through a potassium normalisation procedure; 55{+-}8 kBq for creatinine and 29{+-}4 kBq for potassium normalisation in the year 1994. This was due to a significant difference in the relationship between the urinary potassium and creatinine concentration between the Swedish and Russian group. The elevated potassium concentration found in the rural Russian subjects indicated a higher dietary intake of potassium, which greatly influence the accuracy and applicability of the potassium normalization method when estimating body burden of {sup 137}Cs through urine assay. It is therefore recommended not to use the potassium normalisation procedure in cases where the daily intake of potassium is unknown. The estimated body burden of {sup 137}Cs in the Bryansk group in 1994 corresponds to a contribution to the estimated annual effective dose of 1.8 mSv/y, which is approximately 200 times greater than the average annual dose received from ingested {sup 137}Cs by the subjects of the Lund reference group during the period 1987-1994.

  18. CAES Annual Report FY 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortny Rolston

    2011-10-01

    The Center for Advanced Energy Studies was created to lead research programs important to the nation, attract students and faculty to the Idaho universities and act as a catalyst for technology-based economic development. CAES is striving to meet those goals by continuing to develop its infrastructure and equipment capabilities, expand its research portfolio and bolster Idaho's energy workforce. This Annual Report details the progress CAES made in FY 2011 toward fulfilling its research, education and economic development missions.

  19. Modeling the early-phase redistribution of radiocesium fallouts in an evergreen coniferous forest after Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmon, P.; Gonze, M.-A.; Mourlon, Ch.

    2015-10-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the scientific community gained numerous data on the transfer of radiocesium in European forest ecosystems, including information regarding the short-term redistribution of atmospheric fallout onto forest canopies. In the course of international programs, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) developed a forest model, named TREE4 (Transfer of Radionuclides and External Exposure in FORest systems), 15 years ago. Recently published papers on a Japanese evergreen coniferous forest contaminated by Fukushima radiocesium fallout provide interesting and quantitative data on radioactive mass fluxes measured within the forest in the months following the accident. The present study determined whether the approach adopted in the TREE4 model provides satisfactory results for Japanese forests or whether it requires adjustments. This study focused on the interception of airborne radiocesium by forest canopy, and the subsequent transfer to the forest floor through processes such as litterfall, throughfall, and stemflow, in the months following the accident. We demonstrated that TREE4 quite satisfactorily predicted the interception fraction (20%) and the canopy-to-soil transfer (70% of the total deposit in 5 months) in the Tochigi forest. This dynamics was similar to that observed in the Höglwald spruce forest. However, the unexpectedly high contribution of litterfall (31% in 5 months) in the Tochigi forest could not be reproduced in our simulations (2.5%). Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed; and sensitivity of the results to uncertainty in deposition conditions was analyzed. - Highlights: • Transfer of radiocesium atmospheric fallout in evergreen forests was modeled. • The model was tested using observations from Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. • Model predictions of canopy interception and depuration agree with measurements. • Unexpectedly high contribution of litterfall for the

  20. 7 CFR 3406.26 - Monitoring progress of funded projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... award. These reports are in addition to the annual Current Research Information System (CRIS) reports... RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING... Annual Performance Reports should include a summary of the overall progress toward project...