WorldWideScience

Sample records for falling particle receiver

  1. Experiment study of a quartz tube falling particle receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianjian WANG; Fengwu BAI; Shunzhou CHU; Xiliang ZHANG; Zhifeng WANG

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental evaluation of a specially designed falling particle receiver.A quartz tube was used in the design,with which the particles would not be blown away by wind.Concentrated solar radiation was absorbed and converted into thermal energy by the solid particles flowed inside the quartz tube.Several experiments were conducted to test the dynamic thermal performance of the receiver on solar furnace system.During the experiments,the maximum particle temperature rise is 212℃,with an efficiency of 61.2%,which shows a good thermal performance with a falling distance of 0.2 m in a small scale particle receiver.The average outlet particle temperature is affected by direct normal irradiance (DNI) and other factors such as wind speed.The solid particles obtain a larger viscosity with a higher temperature while smaller solid particles are easier to get stuck in the helix quartz tube.The heat capacity of the silicon carbide gets larger with the rise of particle temperature,because as the temperature of solid particles increases,the temperature rise of the silicon carbide decreases.

  2. High Temperature Falling Particle Receiver (2012 - 2016) - Final DOE Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The objective of this work was to advance falling particle receiver designs for concentrating solar power applications that will enable higher temperatures (>700 °C) and greater power-cycle efficiencies (≥50% thermal-to-electric). Modeling, design, and testing of components in Phases 1 and 2 led to the successful on-sun demonstration in Phase 3 of the world’s first continuously recirculating high-temperature 1 MWt falling particle receiver that achieved >700 °C particle outlet temperatures at mass flow rates ranging from 1 – 7 kg/s.

  3. Monte-Carlo RAY tracing simulation of a falling particle receiver in connection with a central receiver field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alxneit, I [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The program RAY was developed to perform Monte-Carlo simulations of the flux distribution in solar reactors in connection with an arbitrary heliostat field. The code accounts for the shading of the incoming rays from the sun due to the reactor supporting tower as well as for full blocking and shading of the heliostats among themselves. A simplified falling particle reactor (FPR) was evaluated. A central receiver field was used with a total area of 311 m{sup 2} composed of 176 round, focusing heliostats. No attempt was undertaken to optimise either the geometry of the heliostat field nor the aiming strategy of the heliostats. The FPR was evaluated at two different geographic latitudes (-8.23W/47.542N; PSI and -8.23W/20.0N) and during the course of a day (May 30{sup th}). The incident power passing through the reactor aperture and the flux density distribution within the FPR was calculated. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  4. Proposal of a novel gravity-fed, particle-filled solar receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Evan; Baker, Derek; Tari, Ilker

    2017-06-01

    Solar Thermal Electricity power plants utilizing solid particles as heat transfer and storage media have been proposed by several research groups, with studies citing benefits of increased thermal efficiency and lower cost. Several types of solid particle receivers have been proposed, with leading designs consisting of particles falling or suspended in air. A new solid particle receiver is proposed here, consisting of a receiver fully packed with particles flowing downward with gravity. Particle flow rate is regulated with an outlet valve. This Particle-Filled receiver concept is compared to other receiver designs, and initial cold and hot experiments are conducted. Mass flux values of up to 379 kg m-2 s-1 are demonstrated, and heat transfer coefficients between 136 and 251 W m-2 K-1 are found.

  5. Radionuclide composition in the surface layer of particles in the troposphere and stratosphere falls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokof'ev, O.N.

    1977-01-01

    Radionuclide content in troposphere and stratosphere fall-outs as well as radionuclide washing-off from fall-out particle; are important to determine internal irradiation doses received by separate critical organs of human body. In surface-contaminated products (floury products of grain contaminated while in ears, vegetables, fruits, berries, noncovered or insufficiently covered products during fall-outs) radionuclides initially (in an initial state) are connected with fall-out particles. Radionuclides in biologically contaminated products (milk, meat etc.) are not connected with the particles and have the assimilable form. However, the degree of radionuclide transition from forage (grasses, hay etc.) surface-contaminated as a results of fall-outs into animal produce (milk, meat etc.) also depends on radionuclide washing-off from fall-out particles, which in the latter results from the formation nature and a kind of particles of the main substance. Radionuclide washing-off degree (and, consequently, biological availability) by glazed silicate particles is caused by radionuclide distribution between particle volume and surface in an appropriate sample. According to Israel Yu.A. method calculated were the shares of surface-bound atoms for all the particle totality in an explosion cloud for mass chains, which composition includes biologically important radionuclides. Particle solidification time is taken to equal 7 and 40s. Independent yields of chain radionuclides and its total yield are taken for 228 U fission under 14 MeV neutron effect. The calculation results are presented in the tables

  6. On free fall of a relativistic particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, N.A.; Paramonova, N.N.; Shavokhina, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    The free fall of a relativistic particle is considered: the well-known fact of the light velocity constancy is taken into account in the Galilean problem about the movement of a particle from nongravitational forces and its fall onto the ground. The velocity hodograph and the world line of the particle are found

  7. Free fall characteristics of particle clusters in a vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, K; Johno, Y; Shigematsu, T

    2009-01-01

    When powder forms a weak interaction particle cluster in a gas-solid flow, the rate of fall of the cluster exceeds the terminal velocity of the individual particles (Slack, 1963; Marzocchella et al., 1991). However, the relationship between the unsteady characteristics of the free-fall of the particle cluster and the geometric condition of the experiment is not clear. We performed a simple experiment in which powder of a certain mass falls in a vertical pipe. When the powder falls in the vertical pipe, the distribution length of the powder expands, and the particle volume fraction is dense in the lower part, and is thin in the upper part. The fall velocity of the lower edge of the powder cluster and the flow rate of air generated by the powder fall were measured. We obtained the following results. The relative velocity of free-fall of the particle cluster has no relation to the individual particle diameters. The characteristic of a particle cluster exists unless the cluster has very high void fraction.

  8. Examining Fall Recurrence Risk of Homebound Hispanic Older Adults Receiving Home Care Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Guillermina R; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2017-03-01

    Unintentional falls and injuries is a major problem among older adults and the fourth cause of death in the United States. A previous fall event doubles the risk of recurrence and lessens the person's quality of life. Hispanic older adults have higher rates of disability and lower independent functioning due to poor medical health and risk for fall recurrence. Most fall studies focus on fall risk with few studies on fall recurrence in older adults receiving home health care services unrelated to fall incident. A descriptive pilot study of 30 homebound Hispanic older adults receiving home care services who reported a fall within 3 months was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to evaluate risk of fall recurrence. A heightened risk for fall recurrence was identified with high number of chronic illnesses, high intake of medications, vision problems, and prevalence of urinary incontinence. Findings highlight significant number of intrinsic factors for fall risk recurrence and injuries in a Hispanic older adults population that is homebound and receiving home care services. A multidisciplinary evaluation and culturally appropriate interventions to lessen the risk of fall recurrence are recommended.

  9. Falls in nursing home residents receiving pharmacotherapy for anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gregory Reardon,1 Naushira Pandya,2 Robert A Bailey31Informagenics, LLC and The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Geriatrics, Nova Southeastern University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ft Lauderdale, FL, USA; 3Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Horsham, PA, USAPurpose: Falls are common among nursing home residents and have potentially severe consequences, including fracture and other trauma. Recent evidence suggests anemia may be independently related to these falls. This study explores the relationship between the use of anemia-related pharmacotherapies and falls among nursing home residents.Methods: Forty nursing homes in the United States provided data for analysis. All incidents of falls over the 6-month post-index follow-up period were used to identify the outcomes of falls (≥1 fall and recurrent falls (>1 fall. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between falls and recurrent falls with each of the anemia pharmacotherapies after adjusting for potential confounders.Results: A total of 632 residents were eligible for analysis. More than half (57% of residents were identified as anemic (hemoglobin < 12 g/dL females, or <13 g/dL males. Of anemic residents, 50% had been treated with one or more therapies (14% used vitamin B12, 10% folic acid, 38% iron, 0.3% darbepoetin alfa [DARB], and 1.3% epoetin alfa [EPO]. Rates of falls/recurrent falls were 33%/18% for those receiving vitamin B12, 40%/16% for folic acid, 27%/14% for iron, 38%/8% for DARB, 18%/2% for EPO, and 22%/11% for those receiving no therapy. In the adjusted models, use of EPO or DARB was associated with significantly lower odds of recurrent falls (odds ratio = 0.06; P = 0.001. Other significant covariates included psychoactive medication use, age 75–84 years, age 85+ years, worsened balance score, and chronic kidney disease (P < 0.05 for all.Conclusion: Only half of the anemic residents were found to be using anemia

  10. Performance assessment of adding Cu-ultrafine particles into falling film desiccant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mulla Ali, A.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of dehumidification between air and liquid desiccant for the improvement of the efficiency of heating and cooling fluids in industrial applications was discussed. The use of solid/liquid desiccants has received much attention in recent years because liquid desiccants can take moisture from surrounding air at low temperature and then release the moisture at high temperature to provide a continuous process of dehumidification of air and regeneration of liquid desiccant. This process can be used with conventional vapor compression cycles. This paper presented a comparative numerical study between parallel and counter flow configurations that examined the effects of various parameters on heat and mass transfer for the dehumidification and cooling processes of air and regeneration rate of liquid desiccant. Ultrafine particles were added to the falling film desiccant to investigate heat and mass transfer enhancement for both parallel and counter flow channels. The Cu-volume fraction in the falling film desiccant and dispersion effect were the important parameters. A mathematical model was therefore developed to account for the addition of Cu-ultrafine particles into the film desiccant. The dehumidification and cooling rate processes were found to improve with an increase in the Cu-ultrafine particles and dispersion effect. The new hybrid AC system was shown to improve indoor air quality, reduce energy consumption, and be environmentally safe. It was concluded that although the volume fraction and dispersion factor improve the dehumidification and cooling processes of the air, the improvements are not significant due to the small thickness of the falling-film desiccant. The regeneration process did not improve for either controlling parameter because of the small thickness of the film desiccant. 14 refs., 10 figs

  11. Fear of Falling among Community-dwelling Elderly Women Receiving Visiting Nursing Services in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takai, Kiyako; Honda, Sumihisa; Ye, Zhaojia; Abe, Yasuyo; Takamura, Noboru; Osaki, Makoto; Kusano, Yosuke; Takemoto, Tai-Ichiro; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Although fear of falling is a common and serious problem among elderly people, little is known about the risk factors associated with fear of falling among frail elderly persons in Japan. To assess the fear of falling and investigate related factors, we conducted a study among 167 Japanese women aged 59 or older, who were receiving visiting nursing services. Fear of falling was measured by asking subjects about being afraid of falling (yes/no) and completing the Japanese version of Falls Effi...

  12. Incidence and seasonality of falls amongst old people receiving home help services in a municipality in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikman, Irene; Nordlund, Anders; Näslund, Annika; Nyberg, Lars

    2011-04-01

    Falls among old people is a well-documented phenomenon; however, falls among people living in the community and receiving home help services have been under-researched. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, including possible seasonal variation, circumstances and injuries related to falls among community living home help receivers, and to investigate whether fall incidence is associated with the type and amount of home help services received. Prospective cohort study. All 614 persons aged 65 and over who were living in a particular northern Swedish community and receiving municipality home help were included. Data on age, sex and home help service use were collected from home help service records, and falls were reported by staff on report forms specifically designed for the study. Results. A total number of 264 falls were recorded among 122 participants. The overall fall incidence was 626 per 1,000 PY, and incidence rate ratios were significantly correlated to the total amount of services used (pfalls reported as resulting in injury was 33%. The monthly fall incidence was significantly associated to daylight photoperiod, however it was not associated to temperature. Fall incidence among home help receivers aged 65 and over seems correlated to the amount of services they receive. This is probably explained by the fact that impairments connected to ADL limitations and home help needs also are connected to an increased risk of falls. This implies that fall prevention should be considered when planning home help care for old people with ADL limitations. Further research on the connection between daylight photoperiod and fall incidence in populations at different latitudes is needed.

  13. A falls prevention programme to improve quality of life, physical function and falls efficacy in older people receiving home help services: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerk, Maria; Brovold, Therese; Skelton, Dawn A; Bergland, Astrid

    2017-08-14

    Falls and fall-related injuries in older adults are associated with great burdens, both for the individuals, the health care system and the society. Previous research has shown evidence for the efficiency of exercise as falls prevention. An understudied group are older adults receiving home help services, and the effect of a falls prevention programme on health-related quality of life is unclear. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to examine the effect of a falls prevention programme on quality of life, physical function and falls efficacy in older adults receiving home help services. A secondary aim is to explore the mediating factors between falls prevention and health-related quality of life. The study is a single-blinded randomised controlled trial. Participants are older adults, aged 67 or older, receiving home help services, who are able to walk with or without walking aids, who have experienced at least one fall during the last 12 months and who have a Mini Mental State Examination of 23 or above. The intervention group receives a programme, based on the Otago Exercise Programme, lasting 12 weeks including home visits and motivational telephone calls. The control group receives usual care. The primary outcome is health-related quality of life (SF-36). Secondary outcomes are leg strength, balance, walking speed, walking habits, activities of daily living, nutritional status and falls efficacy. All measurements are performed at baseline, following intervention at 3 months and at 6 months' follow-up. Sample size, based on the primary outcome, is set to 150 participants randomised into the two arms, including an estimated 15-20% drop out. Participants are recruited from six municipalities in Norway. This trial will generate new knowledge on the effects of an exercise falls prevention programme among older fallers receiving home help services. This knowledge will be useful for clinicians, for health managers in the primary health care service

  14. Fall risk factors in community-dwelling elderly who receive Medicaid-supported home- and community-based care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takashi; Jeon, Haesang; Bailer, A John; Nelson, Ian M; Mehdizadeh, Shahla

    2011-06-01

    This study identifies fall risk factors in an understudied population of older people who receive community-based care services. Data were collected from enrollees of Ohio's Medicaid home- and community-based waiver program (preadmission screening system providing options and resources today [PASSPORT]). A total of 23,182 participants receiving PASSPORT services in 2005/2006 was classified as fallers and nonfallers, and a variety of risk factors for falling was analyzed using logistic regressions. The following factors were identified as risk factors for falling: previous fall history, older age, White race, incontinence, higher number of medications, fewer numbers of activity of daily living limitations, unsteady gait, tremor, grasping strength, and absence of supervision. Identifying risk factors for the participants of a Medicaid home- and community-based waiver program are useful for a fall risk assessment, but it would be most helpful if the community-based care service programs incorporate measurements of known fall risk factors into their regular data collection, if not already included.

  15. Study of airborne particle generated by free falling powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquelin, M.

    2007-10-01

    This study comes within the general framework of industrial facilities' safety research. Indeed, industrial processes, notably in the nuclear field, handle hazardous materials in powder form and can produce large quantities of fugitive dust. The study of the particles resuspension from powders is of interest of first order in order to estimate the consequences of this source term of contamination on the operator, the neighbouring installations and, if necessary, the environment. Up to now, there are very few reliable data in the scientific literature on the particulate emission in case of a scenario with an accidental free fall spill of powder. The powder dustiness evaluation is carried out using coefficients obtained in experiments, or using empirical correlations. The objective of the present work is to study the influence of some parameters involved in the airborne particles production by a free fall of powder. For that purpose, experiments are carried out in order to study the influence of parameters such as the type of discharge, the powder nature, the type of surface on which occurs the powder impaction, the system diameter used for discharge, and the falling mass. The results of mass fractions and number concentrations obtained highlighted the dominating parameters according to the type of discharge employed. Thereafter, the comparisons between our results and the empirical correlations available in the literature showed that those led to an undervaluation of the powder dustiness. This thus led us to develop, starting from the whole of experimental data, empirical correlations taking into account the various parameters studied as well as the interactions. (author)

  16. Near-Blackbody Enclosed Particle-Receiver Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sakadjian, Bartev [Babcock and Wilcox Research Center, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This 3-year project develops a technology using gas/solid, two-phase flow as a heat-transfer fluid and separated, stable, solid particles as a thermal energy storage (TES) medium for a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, to address the temperature, efficiency, and cost barriers associated with current molten-salt CSP systems. This project focused on developing a near-blackbody particle receiver and an integrated fluidized-bed heat exchanger with auxiliary components to achieve greater than 20% cost reduction over current CSP plants, and to provide the ability to drive high-efficiency power cycles.

  17. Mean motion and trajectories of heavy particles falling through a boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, J.E.; Arya, S.P. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    As particles fall through a turbulent boundary layer they experience a rather complex and unique time series of aerodynamic forces and, thus, each individual particle follows a rather complex and unique trajectory to the surface. For sufficiently large and heavy particles, the turbulence induced particle motion can be thought of as a small perturbation superimposed on the mean trajectory. By ignoring the turbulent contribution to particle motion it is possible to calculate the trajectory of a particle due to the mean flow alone. The mean trajectory provides an estimate of the ensemble-averaged path of a set of particles released from a given point in the atmosphere. The effect of turbulence on individual particle trajectories, the distribution of particle displacements from the mean trajectory, and their deposition patterns on the surface will be investigated in a separate study, using a random walk model.

  18. Incidence and seasonality of falls amongst old people receiving home help services in a municipality in northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Vikman, Irene; Nordlund, Anders; Näslund, Annika; Nyberg, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Artikkelen omhandler en studie hvor hensikten var å undersøke forekomst, inkludert variasjoner ad sesonger, omstendigheter og skader relatert til fall hos eldre som bor hjemme og mottar hjemmesykepleie, samt undersøke om det er en sammenheng mellom fall og type/omfang hjelp fra hjemmesykepleien. Objectives: falls among old people is a well-documented phenomenon; however, falls among people living in the community and receiving home help services have been under-researched. The aim of this ...

  19. Equivalence principle for quantum systems: dephasing and phase shift of free-falling particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastopoulos, C.; Hu, B. L.

    2018-02-01

    We ask the question of how the (weak) equivalence principle established in classical gravitational physics should be reformulated and interpreted for massive quantum objects that may also have internal degrees of freedom (dof). This inquiry is necessary because even elementary concepts like a classical trajectory are not well defined in quantum physics—trajectories originating from quantum histories become viable entities only under stringent decoherence conditions. From this investigation we posit two logically and operationally distinct statements of the equivalence principle for quantum systems. Version A: the probability distribution of position for a free-falling particle is the same as the probability distribution of a free particle, modulo a mass-independent shift of its mean. Version B: any two particles with the same velocity wave-function behave identically in free fall, irrespective of their masses. Both statements apply to all quantum states, including those without a classical correspondence, and also for composite particles with quantum internal dof. We also investigate the consequences of the interaction between internal and external dof induced by free fall. For a class of initial states, we find dephasing occurs for the translational dof, namely, the suppression of the off-diagonal terms of the density matrix, in the position basis. We also find a gravitational phase shift in the reduced density matrix of the internal dof that does not depend on the particle’s mass. For classical states, the phase shift has a natural classical interpretation in terms of gravitational red-shift and special relativistic time-dilation.

  20. The Impact of Fear of Falling on Functional Independence Among Older Adults Receiving Home Health Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Lawson OTR, LMSSW, PhD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are the fifth leading cause of death for adults aged 65 years and older. Several intrinsic and extrinsic fall risk factors have been identified, butthere is less understanding of the impact of a fear of falling on falls. Seventy percent of recent fallers and 40% percent of non-fallers report a fear of falling. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between a fear of falling and a history of falls, as well as the impact on the functional independence of community-dwelling older adults receiving home health services. Methods: The participants completed the Falls Efficacy Scale, the Modified Timed Up and Go Test, self- reported fear of falling, and the KATZ ADL-staircase. The participants were primarily Hispanic females. Results: There was not a significant correlation between a fear of falling and a history of falls. Only participants' age, gender, and the number of medical diagnoses were predictive of past falls. There was a moderate correlation between impaired functional mobility and dependence with activities of daily living (ADL. Additionally, a fear of falling was associated with dependence to perform ADLs as measured objectively. Conclusion: Future studies need to examine the effectiveness of interventions that include dual-task challenges during therapeutic interventions and ADL retraining to reduce fall risk among older adults.

  1. Lower urinary tract symptoms and falls risk among older women receiving home support: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kathleen F; Voaklander, Donald; Hsu, Zoe Y; Moore, Katherine N

    2013-05-15

    Although lower urinary tract symptoms have been associated with falls, few studies have been undertaken to understand this relationship in vulnerable community dwelling older adults. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship over time of falls risk and lower urinary tract symptoms among community based older women receiving home support services. A prospective cohort study which took place in an urban setting in western Canada. Participants were 100 older women receiving home care or residing in assisted living with home support services and were followed for six months. Demographic characteristics were collected at baseline, with the Timed Up and Go (TUG), International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS), and self-report of falls collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic data. Differences between the three visits were analyzed using the Friedman test with post hoc analysis and associations between variables by the Spearman Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient. One hundred women initially enrolled; 88 and 75 remained at three months and six months. Mean age = 84.3 years; 91% reported at least one urinary symptom at baseline and 35% reported falling in the six months prior to enrollment; 15.9% reported falling between the baseline and three months and 14.6% between three and six months. Mean TUG scores at each time point indicated falls risk (27.21, 29.18 and 27.76 seconds). Significant correlations between TUG and ICIQ-FLUTS (r = 0.33, p falls risk in this group of vulnerable community dwelling older women at baseline and three months has potential clinical relevance. Lack of correlation at six months may be due loss of less robust participants, illuminating the difficulty in following frailer groups over time. Further studies are needed to understand the contribution of urinary symptoms to falls risk, and clinicians should

  2. Measurement of the ion drag force on falling dust particles and its relation to the void formation in complex (dusty) plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafiu, C.; Melzer, A.; Piel, A.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments on the quantitative determination of the weaker forces (ion drag, thermophoresis, and electric field force) on free-falling dust particles in a rf discharge tube are presented. The strongest force, gravity, is balanced by gas friction and the weaker forces are investigated in the radial (horizontal) plane. Under most discharge conditions, the particles are found to be expelled from the central plasma region. A transition to a situation where the falling particles are focused into the plasma center is observed at low gas pressures using small particles. These investigations allow a quantitative understanding of the mechanism of unwanted dust-free areas (so-called voids) in dusty plasmas under microgravity. Good quantitative agreement with standard models of the ion drag is found

  3. The influence of swarm deformation on the velocity behavior of falling swarms of particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. A.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.; Nitsche, L.

    2017-12-01

    Cohesive particle swarms have been shown to exhibit enhanced sedimentation in fractures for an optimal range of fracture apertures. Within this range, swarms travel farther and faster than a disperse (particulate) solution. This study aims to uncover the physics underlying the enhanced sedimentation. Swarm behavior at low Reynolds number in a quiescent unbounded fluid and between smooth rigid planar boundaries is investigated numerically using direct-summation, particle-mesh (PM) and particle-particle particle-mesh (P3M) methods - based upon mutually interacting viscous point forces (Stokeslet fields). Wall effects are treated with a least-squares boundary singularity method. Sub-structural effects beyond pseudo-liquid behavior (i.e., particle-scale interactions) are approximated by the P3M method much more efficiently than with direct summation. The model parameters are selected from particle swarm experiments to enable comparison. From the simulations, if the initial swarm geometry at release is unaffected by the fracture aperture, no enhanced transport occurs. The swarm velocity as a function of apertures increases monotonically until it asymptotes to the swarm velocity in an open tank. However, if the fracture aperture affects the initial swarm geometry, the swarm velocity no longer exhibits a monotonic behavior. When swarms are released between two parallel smooth walls with very small apertures, the swarm is forced to reorganize and quickly deform, which results in dramatically reduced swarm velocities. At large apertures, the swarm evolution is similar to that of a swarm in open tank and quickly flattens into a slow speed torus. In the optimal aperture range, the swarm maintains a cohesive unit behaving similarly to a falling sphere. Swarms falling in apertures less than or greater than the optimal aperture range, experience a level of anisotropy that considerably decreases velocities. Unraveling the physics that drives swarm behavior in fractured porous

  4. Analysis of solid particles falling down and interacting in a channel with sedimentation using fictitious boundary method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, K.; Walayat, K.; Mahmood, R.; Kousar, N.

    2018-06-01

    We have examined the behavior of solid particles in particulate flows. The interaction of particles with each other and with the fluid is analyzed. Solid particles can move freely through a fixed computational mesh using an Eulerian approach. Fictitious boundary method (FBM) is used for treating the interaction between particles and the fluid. Hydrodynamic forces acting on the particle's surface are calculated using an explicit volume integral approach. A collision model proposed by Glowinski, Singh, Joseph and coauthors is used to handle particle-wall and particle-particle interactions. The particulate flow is computed using multigrid finite element solver FEATFLOW. Numerical experiments are performed considering two particles falling and colliding and sedimentation of many particles while interacting with each other. Results for these experiments are presented and compared with the reference values. Effects of the particle-particle interaction on the motion of the particles and on the physical behavior of the fluid-particle system has been analyzed.

  5. CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPs) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS.UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, LC Walsh, PS Gilmour, MI Gilmour, WP Watkinson, JP Nolan, JH Richards, D Andrews, DL Costa. US EPA...

  6. Comparison of Walking, Muscle Strength, Balance, and Fear of Falling Between Repeated Fall Group, One-time Fall Group, and Nonfall Group of the Elderly Receiving Home Care Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, MiYang; Gu, Mee Ock; Yim, JongEun

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide information to develop a program to prevent repeated falls by analyzing the difference in gait, muscle strength, balance, and fear of falling according to their fall experience. The study subjects were 110 elderly individuals aged over 60 years who agreed to their participation in this research. The study participants were categorized into a repeated fall group (n = 40), a one-time fall group (n = 15), and a nonfall group (n = 46) of the elderly. Measurements of gait, muscle strength, balance, and fear of falling were taken in each group. With regard to gait, there were significant differences among three groups in gait cycle (F = 3.50, p = .034), speed (F = 13.06, p balance, the nonfall group had significantly greater results than the one-time fall group and repeated fall group in dynamic balance (F = 10.80, p balance (F = 8.20, p = .001). In the case of the fear of falling, the repeated fall group had significantly higher score than other two groups (F = 20.62, p fall risk factors to enhance gait and balance and lower body muscle strength and reduce the fear of falling to prevent repeated incidences of falls in this population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Fault detection and isolation in GPS receiver autonomous integrity monitoring based on chaos particle swarm optimization-particle filter algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ershen; Jia, Chaoying; Tong, Gang; Qu, Pingping; Lan, Xiaoyu; Pang, Tao

    2018-03-01

    The receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) is one of the most important parts in an avionic navigation system. Two problems need to be addressed to improve this system, namely, the degeneracy phenomenon and lack of samples for the standard particle filter (PF). However, the number of samples cannot adequately express the real distribution of the probability density function (i.e., sample impoverishment). This study presents a GPS receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) method based on a chaos particle swarm optimization particle filter (CPSO-PF) algorithm with a log likelihood ratio. The chaos sequence generates a set of chaotic variables, which are mapped to the interval of optimization variables to improve particle quality. This chaos perturbation overcomes the potential for the search to become trapped in a local optimum in the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Test statistics are configured based on a likelihood ratio, and satellite fault detection is then conducted by checking the consistency between the state estimate of the main PF and those of the auxiliary PFs. Based on GPS data, the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively detect and isolate satellite faults under conditions of non-Gaussian measurement noise. Moreover, the performance of the proposed novel method is better than that of RAIM based on the PF or PSO-PF algorithm.

  8. An analytical investigation on unsteady motion of vertically falling spherical particles in non-Newtonian fluid by Collocation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahimi-Gorji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An analytical investigation is applied for unsteady motion of a rigid spherical particle in a quiescent shear-thinning power-law fluid. The results were compared with those obtained from Collocation Method (CM and the established Numerical Method (Fourth order Runge–Kutta scheme. It was shown that CM gave accurate results. Collocation Method (CM and Numerical Method are used to solve the present problem. We obtained that the CM which was used to solve such nonlinear differential equation with fractional power is simpler and more accurate than series method such as HPM which was used in some previous works by others but the new method named Akbari-Ganji’s Method (AGM is an accurate and simple method which is slower than CM for solving such problems. The terminal settling velocity—that is the velocity at which the net forces on a falling particle eliminate—for three different spherical particles (made of plastic, glass and steel and three flow behavior index n, in three sets of power-law non-Newtonian fluids was investigated, based on polynomial solution (CM. Analytical results obtained indicated that the time of reaching the terminal velocity in a falling procedure is significantly increased with growing of the particle size that validated with Numerical Method. Further, with approaching flow behavior to Newtonian behavior from shear-thinning properties of flow (n → 1, the transient time to achieving the terminal settling velocity is decreased.

  9. Effects of a multifactorial fall prevention program on fall incidence and physical function in community-dwelling older adults with risk of falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsuei-Chen; Chang, Ku-Chou; Tsauo, Jau-Yih; Hung, Jen-Wen; Huang, Yu-Ching; Lin, Sang-I

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate effects of a multifactorial fall prevention program on fall incidence and physical function in community-dwelling older adults. Multicenter randomized controlled trial. Three medical centers and adjacent community health centers. Community-dwelling older adults (N=616) who have fallen in the previous year or are at risk of falling. After baseline assessment, eligible subjects were randomly allocated into the intervention group (IG) or the control group (CG), stratified by the Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA) fall risk level. The IG received a 3-month multifactorial intervention program including 8 weeks of exercise training, health education, home hazards evaluation/modification, along with medication review and ophthalmology/other specialty consults. The CG received health education brochures, referrals, and recommendations without direct exercise intervention. Primary outcome was fall incidence within 1 year. Secondary outcomes were PPA battery (overall fall risk index, vision, muscular strength, reaction time, balance, and proprioception), Timed Up & Go (TUG) test, Taiwan version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, EuroQol-5D, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the Falls Efficacy Scale-International at 3 months after randomization. Participants were 76±7 years old and included low risk 25.6%, moderate risk 25.6%, and marked risk 48.7%. The cumulative 1-year fall incidence was 25.2% in the IG and 27.6% in the CG (hazard ratio=.90; 95% confidence interval, .66-1.23). The IG improved more favorably than the CG on overall PPA fall risk index, reaction time, postural sway with eyes open, TUG test, and GDS, especially for those with marked fall risk. The multifactorial fall prevention program with exercise intervention improved functional performance at 3 months for community-dwelling older adults with risk of falls, but did not reduce falls at 1-year follow-up. Fall incidence might have been decreased simultaneously in both

  10. Falling Down on the Job: Evaluation and Treatment of Fall Risk Among Older Adults With Upper Extremity Fragility Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Christine M; Colla, Carrie H; Carmichael, Donald; Tosteson, Anna N A; Tosteson, Tor D; Bell, John-Erik; Cantu, Robert V; Lurie, Jonathan D; Bynum, Julie P W

    2017-03-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend fall risk assessment and intervention for older adults who sustain a fall-related injury to prevent future injury and mobility decline. The aim of this study was to describe how often Medicare beneficiaries with upper extremity fracture receive evaluation and treatment for fall risk. Observational cohort. Participants were fee-for-service beneficiaries age 66 to 99 treated as outpatients for proximal humerus or distal radius/ulna ("wrist") fragility fractures. -Participants were studied using Carrier and Outpatient Hospital files. The proportion of patients evaluated or treated for fall risk up to 6 months after proximal humerus or wrist fracture from 2007-2009 was examined based on evaluation, treatment, and diagnosis codes. Time to evaluation and number of treatment sessions were calculated. Logistic regression was used to analyze patient characteristics that predicted receiving evaluation or treatment. Narrow (gait training) and broad (gait training or therapeutic exercise) definitions of service were used. There were 309,947 beneficiaries who sustained proximal humerus (32%) or wrist fracture (68%); 10.7% received evaluation or treatment for fall risk or gait issues (humerus: 14.2%; wrist: 9.0%). Using the broader definition, the percentage increased to 18.5% (humerus: 23.4%; wrist: 16.3%). Factors associated with higher likelihood of services after fracture were: evaluation or treatment for falls or gait prior to fracture, more comorbidities, prior nursing home stay, older age, humerus fracture (vs wrist), female sex, and white race. Claims analysis may underestimate physician and physical therapist fall assessments, but it is not likely to qualitatively change the results. A small proportion of older adults with upper extremity fracture received fall risk assessment and treatment. Providers and health systems must advance efforts to provide timely evidence-based management of fall risk in this population. © 2017

  11. Falls in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Patricia N; Shumway-Cook, Anne; Bamer, Alyssa M; Johnson, Shana L; Amtmann, Dagmar; Kraft, George H

    2011-07-01

    To examine incidence, associated factors, and health care provider (HCP) response to falls in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cross-sectional retrospective design. Community setting. Four hundred seventy-four persons with MS. Mailed survey questionnaire examined incidence, risk factors, and HCP response to falls in persons with MS who were dwelling in the community. Univariate and multiple ordinal regression analysis identified variables associated with single and multiple falls. Falls, causes and perceived reasons for falls, and HCP response. A total of 265 participants (58.2%) reported one or more falls in the previous 6 months, and 58.5% of falls were medically injurious. Trips/slips while walking accounted for 48% of falls. Factors associated with falls included use of a cane or walker (odds ratio [OR] 2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-4.14), income falls; recommended strategies included safety strategies (53.2%), use of gait assistive devices (42.1%), exercise/balance training (22.2%), and home modifications (16.6%). Factors associated with falls in persons with MS are similar to those in other populations with neurologic diseases. Despite the high incidence of falls, fewer than 50% of people with MS receive information about prevention of falls from an HCP. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fall-Prone Older People's Attitudes towards the Use of Virtual Reality Technology for Fall Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockx, Kim; Alcock, Lisa; Bekkers, Esther; Ginis, Pieter; Reelick, Miriam; Pelosin, Elisa; Lagravinese, Giovanna; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Mirelman, Anat; Rochester, Lynn; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology is a relatively new rehabilitation tool that can deliver a combination of cognitive and motor training for fall prevention. The attitudes of older people to such training are currently unclear. This study aimed to investigate: (1) the attitudes of fall-prone older people towards fall prevention exercise with and without VR; (2) attitudinal changes after intervention with and without VR; and (3) user satisfaction following fall prevention exercise with and without VR. A total of 281 fall-prone older people were randomly assigned to an experimental group receiving treadmill training augmented by VR (TT+VR, n = 144) or a control group receiving treadmill training alone (TT, n = 137). Two questionnaires were used to measure (1) attitudes towards fall prevention exercise with and without VR (AQ); and (2) user satisfaction (USQ). AQ was evaluated at baseline and after intervention. USQ was measured after intervention only. The AQ revealed that most participants had positive attitudes towards fall prevention exercise at baseline (82.2%) and after intervention (80.6%; p = 0.144). In contrast, only 53.6% were enthusiastic about fall prevention exercise with VR at baseline. These attitudes positively changed after intervention (83.1%; p < 0.001), and 99.2% indicated that they enjoyed TT+VR. Correlation analyses showed that postintervention attitudes were strongly related to user satisfaction (USQ: r = 0.503; p < 0.001). Older people's attitudes towards fall prevention exercise with VR were positively influenced by their experience. From the perspective of the user, VR is an attractive training mode, and thus improving service provision for older people is important. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The Relationship between Falls Efficacy and Improvement in Fall Risk Factors Following an Exercise Plus Educational Intervention for Older Adults with Hip Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, C M; Faulkner, R A; Gyurcsik, N C

    2011-01-01

    Older adults with decreased confidence in their ability to prevent a fall may benefit from an exercise programme that includes self-efficacy-enhancing education. The objectives of this study were to explore differences in fall-risk outcomes in older adults with higher vs. lower levels of falls efficacy and to evaluate the relationship between baseline falls-efficacy status and changes in fall risk factors following two interventions. Fifty-four older adults with hip osteoarthritis and at least one risk factor for falls received aquatic exercise twice weekly plus education once weekly (EE) or aquatic exercise only, twice weekly (EO), for 11 weeks. EE participants with low baseline falls efficacy demonstrated significantly (pfalls efficacy compared to EE participants with high baseline falls efficacy. In the EE group only, baseline falls-efficacy status (low vs. high median split on the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale) was significantly (pfalls-efficacy change scores (Spearman rank r=0.45 and 0.63 respectively). Individuals with one or more fall-risk factors and low falls efficacy may benefit from receiving an intervention that combines exercise with self-efficacy-enhancing education. Falls-efficacy screening may be important for decisions regarding referral to fall-prevention programmes.

  14. Fall Risk, Supports and Services, and Falls Following a Nursing Home Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureldin, Marwa; Hass, Zachary; Abrahamson, Kathleen; Arling, Greg

    2017-09-04

    Falls are a major source of morbidity and mortality among older adults; however, little is known regarding fall occurrence during a nursing home (NH) to community transition. This study sought to examine whether the presence of supports and services impacts the relationship between fall-related risk factors and fall occurrence post NH discharge. Participants in the Minnesota Return to Community Initiative who were assisted in achieving a community discharge (N = 1459) comprised the study sample. The main outcome was fall occurrence within 30 days of discharge. Factor analyses were used to estimate latent models from variables of interest. A structural equation model (SEM) was estimated to determine the relationship between the emerging latent variables and falls. Fifteen percent of participants fell within 30 days of NH discharge. Factor analysis of fall-related risk factors produced three latent variables: fall concerns/history; activities of daily living impairments; and use of high-risk medications. A supports/services latent variable also emerged that included caregiver support frequency, medication management assistance, durable medical equipment use, discharge location, and receipt of home health or skilled nursing services. In the SEM model, high-risk medications use and fall concerns/history had direct positive effects on falling. Receiving supports/services did not affect falling directly; however, it reduced the effect of high-risk medication use on falling (p risk of falling post NH discharge. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Relationship between Falls Efficacy and Improvement in Fall Risk Factors Following an Exercise Plus Educational Intervention for Older Adults with Hip Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, R.A.; Gyurcsik, N.C.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Older adults with decreased confidence in their ability to prevent a fall may benefit from an exercise programme that includes self-efficacy-enhancing education. The objectives of this study were to explore differences in fall-risk outcomes in older adults with higher vs. lower levels of falls efficacy and to evaluate the relationship between baseline falls-efficacy status and changes in fall risk factors following two interventions. Method: Fifty-four older adults with hip osteoarthritis and at least one risk factor for falls received aquatic exercise twice weekly plus education once weekly (EE) or aquatic exercise only, twice weekly (EO), for 11 weeks. Results: EE participants with low baseline falls efficacy demonstrated significantly (pbalance and falls efficacy compared to EE participants with high baseline falls efficacy. In the EE group only, baseline falls-efficacy status (low vs. high median split on the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale) was significantly (pbalance and falls-efficacy change scores (Spearman rank r=0.45 and 0.63 respectively). Conclusions: Individuals with one or more fall-risk factors and low falls efficacy may benefit from receiving an intervention that combines exercise with self-efficacy-enhancing education. Falls-efficacy screening may be important for decisions regarding referral to fall-prevention programmes. PMID:22942514

  16. Effect of a Multidisciplinary Fall Risk Assessment on Falls Among Neurology Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunderfund, Andrea N. Leep; Sweeney, Cynthia M.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Johnson, LeAnn M.; Britton, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the addition of a physician assessment of patient fall risk at admission would reduce inpatient falls on a tertiary hospital neurology inpatient unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A physician fall risk assessment was added to the existing risk assessment process (clinical nurse evaluation and Hendrich II Fall Risk Model score with specific fall prevention measures for patients at risk). An order to select either “Patient is” or “Patient is not at high risk of falls by physician assessment” was added to the physician electronic admission order set. Nurses and physicians were instructed to reach consensus when assessments differed. Full implementation occurred in second-quarter 2008. Preimplementation (January 1, 2006, to March 31, 2008) and postimplementation (April 1, 2008, to December 31, 2009) rates of falls were compared on the neurology inpatient unit and on 6 other medical units that did not receive intervention. RESULTS: The rate of falls during the 7 quarters after full implementation was significantly lower than that during the 9 preceding quarters (4.12 vs 5.69 falls per 1000 patient-days; P=.04), whereas the rate of falls on other medical units did not significantly change (2.99 vs 3.33 falls per 1000 patient-days; P=.24, Poisson test). The consensus risk assessment at admission correctly identified patients at risk for falls (14/325 at-risk patients fell vs 0/147 low-risk patients; P=.01, χ2 test), but the Hendrich II Fall Risk Model score, nurse, and physician assessments individually did not. CONCLUSION: A multidisciplinary approach to fall risk assessment is feasible, correctly identifies patients at risk, and was associated with a reduction in inpatient falls. PMID:21193651

  17. Power and Efficiency Analysis of a Solar Central Receiver Combined Cycle Plant with a Small Particle Heat Exchanger Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgen, Matthew Miguel

    Two significant goals in solar plant operation are lower cost and higher efficiencies. To achieve those goals, a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) system, which uses the hot gas turbine exhaust to produce superheated steam for a bottoming Rankine cycle by way of a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), is investigated in this work. Building off of a previous gas turbine model created at the Combustion and Solar Energy Laboratory at SDSU, here are added the HRSG and steam turbine model, which had to handle significant change in the mass flow and temperature of air exiting the gas turbine due to varying solar input. A wide range of cases were run to explore options for maximizing both power and efficiency from the proposed CSP CCGT plant. Variable guide vanes (VGVs) were found in the earlier model to be an effective tool in providing operational flexibility to address the variable nature of solar input. Combined cycle efficiencies in the range of 50% were found to result from this plant configuration. However, a combustor inlet temperature (CIT) limit leads to two distinct Modes of operation, with a sharp drop in both plant efficiency and power occurring when the air flow through the receiver exceeded the CIT limit. This drawback can be partially addressed through strategic use of the VGVs. Since system response is fully established for the relevant range of solar input and variable guide vane angles, the System Advisor Model (SAM) from NREL can be used to find what the actual expected solar input would be over the course of the day, and plan accordingly. While the SAM software is not yet equipped to model a Brayton cycle cavity receiver, appropriate approximations were made in order to produce a suitable heliostat field to fit this system. Since the SPHER uses carbon nano-particles as the solar absorbers, questions of particle longevity and how the particles might affect the flame behavior in the combustor were addressed using the chemical kinetics software Chemkin

  18. Predicting Falls in People with Multiple Sclerosis: Fall History Is as Accurate as More Complex Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle H. Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many people with MS fall, but the best method for identifying those at increased fall risk is not known. Objective. To compare how accurately fall history, questionnaires, and physical tests predict future falls and injurious falls in people with MS. Methods. 52 people with MS were asked if they had fallen in the past 2 months and the past year. Subjects were also assessed with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence, Falls Efficacy Scale-International, and Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 questionnaires, the Expanded Disability Status Scale, Timed 25-Foot Walk, and computerized dynamic posturography and recorded their falls daily for the following 6 months with calendars. The ability of baseline assessments to predict future falls was compared using receiver operator curves and logistic regression. Results. All tests individually provided similar fall prediction (area under the curve (AUC 0.60–0.75. A fall in the past year was the best predictor of falls (AUC 0.75, sensitivity 0.89, specificity 0.56 or injurious falls (AUC 0.69, sensitivity 0.96, specificity 0.41 in the following 6 months. Conclusion. Simply asking people with MS if they have fallen in the past year predicts future falls and injurious falls as well as more complex, expensive, or time-consuming approaches.

  19. Falling into a black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Samir D.

    2007-01-01

    String theory tells us that quantum gravity has a dual description as a field theory (without gravity). We use the field theory dual to ask what happens to an object as it falls into the simplest black hole: the 2-charge extremal hole. In the field theory description the wavefunction of a particle is spread over a large number of `loops', and the particle has a well-defined position in space only if it has the same `position' on each loop. For the infalling particle we find one definition of ...

  20. Fall speed measurement and high-resolution multi-angle photography of hydrometeors in free fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Garrett

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a new instrument for imaging hydrometeors in free fall. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC captures high-resolution photographs of hydrometeors from three angles while simultaneously measuring their fall speed. Based on the stereoscopic photographs captured over the two months of continuous measurements obtained at a high altitude location within the Wasatch Front in Utah, we derive statistics for fall speed, hydrometeor size, shape, orientation and aspect ratio. From a selection of the photographed hydrometeors, an illustration is provided for how the instrument might be used for making improved microwave scattering calculations. Complex, aggregated snowflake shapes appear to be more strongly forward scattering, at the expense of reduced back-scatter, than heavily rimed graupel particles of similar size.

  1. SIMULATION OF TRANSLATIONAL - ROTATIONAL MOTION OF WOOD PARTICLES DURING THE PROCESS OF PARTICLE ORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey PLOTNIKOV

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The simulation from the motion of flat particle revealed that the fall depends on the height of the drop, the thickness and density of the particles and does not depend on its length and width. The drop in air is about 20% longer than in vacuum. During orientation from angular particles the velocity of rotating particles with a length of 150mm is reduced by 18%, for particles with a length of 75mm by 12%. This reduction increases linearly with decreasing density of particles. A velocity field acting on the particle in the fall and rotation was presented. The results of the study prove the possibility to reduce the scatter of the particles during the mat's formation, that in turns can increase the board’s bending strength.

  2. Radiation of a relativistic particle falling into a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymnikova, I.G.

    1980-01-01

    The gravitational and electromagnetic radiation emitted by a relativistic test body falling into a black hole at a velocity that is not small compared with the velocity of light is studied. For ω 3 γ 0 /(GM), the spectra of the electromagnetic and gravitational radiation do not depend on the frequency, but for ω > c 3 γ 0 (GM) they fall off exponentially. The total radiated power is proportional to γ 0 1n γ 0 and γ 3 0 , respectively, for the electromagnetic and gravitational radiation

  3. Evaluation of an inpatient fall risk screening tool to identify the most critical fall risk factors in inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Kang, Chun-Mei; Ho, Mu-Hsing; Kuo, Jessie Ming-Chuan; Chen, Hsiao-Lien; Chang, Wen-Yin

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the inpatient fall risk screening tool and to identify the most critical fall risk factors in inpatients. Variations exist in several screening tools applied in acute care hospitals for examining risk factors for falls and identifying high-risk inpatients. Secondary data analysis. A subset of inpatient data for the period from June 2011-June 2014 was extracted from the nursing information system and adverse event reporting system of an 818-bed teaching medical centre in Taipei. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and logistic regression analysis. During the study period, 205 fallers and 37,232 nonfallers were identified. The results revealed that the inpatient fall risk screening tool (cut-off point of ≥3) had a low sensitivity level (60%), satisfactory specificity (87%), a positive predictive value of 2·0% and a negative predictive value of 99%. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0·805 (sensitivity, 71·8%; specificity, 78%). To increase the sensitivity values, the Youden index suggests at least 1·5 points to be the most suitable cut-off point for the inpatient fall risk screening tool. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a considerably increased fall risk in patients with impaired balance and impaired elimination. The fall risk factor was also significantly associated with days of hospital stay and with admission to surgical wards. The findings can raise awareness about the two most critical risk factors for falls among future clinical nurses and other healthcare professionals and thus facilitate the development of fall prevention interventions. This study highlights the needs for redefining the cut-off points of the inpatient fall risk screening tool to effectively identify inpatients at a high risk of falls. Furthermore, inpatients with impaired balance and impaired elimination should be closely

  4. Atomic Particle Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1970-01-01

    This booklet tells how scientists observe the particles and electromagnetic radiation that emerges from an atomic nucleus. The equipment used falls into two general categories: counters which count each particle as it passes by, and track detectors, which make a photographic record of the particle's track.

  5. Water jacket for solid particle solar receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasyluk, David T.

    2018-03-20

    A solar receiver includes: water jacket panels each having a light-receiving side and a back side with a watertight sealed plenum defined in-between; light apertures passing through the watertight sealed plenums to receive light from the light-receiving sides of the water jacket panels; a heat transfer medium gap defined between the back sides of the water jacket panels and a cylindrical back plate; and light channeling tubes optically coupled with the light apertures and extending into the heat transfer medium gap. In some embodiments ends of the light apertures at the light receiving side of the water jacket panel are welded together to define at least a portion of the light-receiving side. A cylindrical solar receiver may be constructed using a plurality of such water jacket panels arranged with their light-receiving sides facing outward.

  6. Disability is an Independent Predictor of Falls and Recurrent Falls in People with Parkinson's Disease Without a History of Falls: A One-Year Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Lorena R S; Sherrington, Catherine; Allen, Natalie E; Paul, Serene S; Valenca, Guilherme T; Oliveira-Filho, Jamary; Canning, Colleen G

    2015-01-01

    Predictors of falls in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) who have not previously fallen are yet to be identified. We aimed to identify predictors of all falls and recurrent falls in people with PD who had not fallen in the previous year and to explore the timing of falls in a 12-month follow-up period. Participants with PD (n = 130) were assessed by disease-specific, self-report and balance measures. Falls were recorded prospectively for 12 months. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to investigate time to falling. Forty participants (31%) had ≥1 fall during follow-up and 21 (16%) had ≥2 falls. Disability, reduced balance confidence and greater concern about falling were associated with ≥1 fall in univariate analyses. Additionally, PD duration and severity, freezing of gait and impaired balance were associated with ≥2 falls (p Disability (Schwab and England scale, Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.56 per 10 points increase; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.80; p = 0.002) was associated with ≥1 fall in the final multivariate model (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.65; 95% CI 0.55-0.76; p = 0.005). Disability (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale activities of daily living, OR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.07-1.34; p = 0.001) and levodopa equivalent dose (OR = 1.11 per 100 mg increase; 95% CI 0.95-1.30; p = 0.19) were associated with ≥2 falls in the final multivariate model (AUC = 0.72; 95% CI 0.60-0.84; p = 0.001). Recurrent fallers experienced their first fall earlier than single fallers (p disability was the strongest single predictor of all falls and recurrent falls.

  7. Falls prevention in community care: 10 years on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton E

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Elissa Burton,1 Gill Lewin,2 Hilary O’Connell,3 Keith D Hill1 1School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, 2School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Curtin University, 3Independent Living Centre WA, Perth, WA, Australia Background: A million older people living in Australia receive community care services each year due to experiencing functional or mental health difficulties. This group may be at greater risk of falling than similar-aged people not receiving services. However, there is limited falls prevention research for this population.Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the falls prevalence rates of older people from 10 Australian community care organizations and compare current falls prevention data to a study 10 years prior that utilized the same 10 organizations. This study also identified factors associated with falling for this population.Patients and methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study, in which 5,338 questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of community care recipients aged ≥65 years. Results: A total of 1,991 questionnaires were returned (37.3%, with 47.7% of respondents having fallen in the previous year, and 32.7% in the month prior to completing the questionnaire, similar to 10 years prior. Community care clients had a 50% higher falls rate than that reported for similar-aged people not receiving services, and this remained unchanged over the last 10 years. Eighty-six per cent of fallers had fallen once or twice, and 60% reported being injured. Thirty-six per cent of respondents reported not being able to get up independently, and only 27.4% of fallers were referred to a falls prevention program (significantly fewer than 10 years ago; 95% CI: 0.821–6.366, p=0.01. Balance issues (odds ratio [OR]: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.288–3.290, p=0.003 and perceived risk of falling in the future being “definite” (OR: 6.42, 95% CI: 1.890–21.808, p=0.003 or “unsure” (OR: 3

  8. Fall-risk prediction in older adults with cancer: an unmet need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildes, Tanya M; Depp, Brittany; Colditz, Graham; Stark, Susan

    2016-09-01

    Falls in older adults with cancer are more common than in noncancer controls, yet no fall-risk screening tool has been validated in this population. We undertook a cross-sectional pilot study of the Falls Risk Questionnaire (FRQ) in 21 adults aged ≥65 receiving systemic cancer therapy. Participants completed the FRQ, geriatric assessment measures, and a measure of fear-of-falling. The recruitment rate was 87.5 %, with 95.2 % completion of the FRQ and additional geriatric assessment and quality of life measures. The FRQ correlated significantly with the Timed Up and Go test (Pearson r 0.479, p = 0.028). In addition, the FRQ score correlated directly with fear-of-falling and inversely with QOL, particularly physical health and neurotoxicity subscales. In conclusion, the FRQ was feasible in older adults receiving cancer therapy and correlates with measures of physical performance, functional status, and fear-of-falling. The FRQ may prove to be a valuable fall-risk screening tool to implement fall-prevention interventions in this vulnerable population of older adults with cancer.

  9. Exploring the relationship between fall risk-increasing drugs and fall-related fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, Sabrina; Vanwynsberghe, Sarah; Foulon, Veerle; Dejaeger, Eddy; Flamaing, Johan; Sermon, An; Van der Linden, Lorenz; Spriet, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Hospital admissions due to fall-related fractures are a major problem in the aging population. Several risk factors have been identified, including drug use. Most studies often retrieved prescription-only drugs from national databases. These are associated with some limitations as they do not always reliably reproduce the complete patient's active drug list. To evaluate the association between the number of FRIDs intake identified by a standardised medication reconciliation process and a fall-related fracture leading to a hospital admission in older adults. The first cohort has been recruited from one traumatology ward of a tertiary teaching hospital in Belgium and the second cohort has been recruited from 11 community pharmacies in Belgium. A prospective study with two individually matched cohorts was performed. Adult patients (≥75 years) admitted with an injury due to a fall were included in the first cohort (faller group). The second cohort consisted of patients who did not suffer from a fall within the last 6 months (non-faller group). Matching was performed for age, gender, place of residence and use of a walking aid. In both groups, clinical pharmacists and undergraduate pharmacy students obtained the medication history, using a standardised approach. A list of drugs considered to increase the risk of falling was created. It included cardiovascular drugs and drugs acting on the nervous system. A linear mixed model was used to compare the number of fall risk-increasing drugs between fallers and non-fallers. The number of fall risk-increasing drugs in a faller versus a non-faller group. Sixty-one patients were matched with 121 non-fallers. Patients received on average 3.1 ± 2.1 and 3.2 ± 1.8 fall risk-increasing drugs in the faller and in the non-faller group, respectively. The mean number of fall risk-increasing drugs was comparable in both groups (p = 0.844), even after adjusting for alcohol consumption, fear of falling, vision and foot problems (p = 0

  10. More Efficient Solar Thermal-Energy Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal stresses and reradiation reduced. Improved design for solar thermal-energy receiver overcomes three major deficiencies of solar dynamic receivers described in literature. Concentrator and receiver part of solar-thermal-energy system. Receiver divided into radiation section and storage section. Concentrated solar radiation falls on boiling ends of heat pipes, which transmit heat to thermal-energy-storage medium. Receiver used in number of applications to produce thermal energy directly for use or to store thermal energy for subsequent use in heat engine.

  11. Pre-Procedural Patient Education Reduces Fall Risk in an Outpatient Endoscopy Suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilscher, Moira B; Niesen, Cynthia R; Tynsky, Desiree A; Kane, Sunanda V

    The purpose of this article was to determine whether scripted pre-procedural fall risk patient education and nurses' intention to assist patients after receiving sedation improves receptiveness of nursing assistance during recovery and decreases fall risk in an outpatient endoscopy suite. We prospectively identified high fall risk patients using the following criteria: (1) use of an assistive device, (2) fallen two or more times within the last year, (3) sustained an injury in a fall within a year, (4) age greater than 85 years, or (5) nursing judgment of high fall risk. Using a scripted dialogue, nurses educated high-risk patients of their fall risk and the nurses' intent to assist them to and in the bathroom. Documentation of patient education, script use, and assistance was monitored. Over 24 weeks, 892 endoscopy patients were identified as high fall risk; 790 (88.5%) accepted post-procedural assistance. Documentation of assistance significantly increased from 33% to 100%. Patients receiving education and postprocedural assistance increased from 27.9% to 100% at week 24. No patient falls occurred 12 months following implementation among patients identified as high fall risk. Scripted pre-procedural fall risk education increases patient awareness and receptiveness to assistance and can lead to decreased fall rates.

  12. Study of the motion of a vertically falling sphere in a viscous fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, A A; Caramelo, L; Andrade, M A P M

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to a better understanding of the motion of spherical particles in viscous fluids. The classical problem of spheres falling through viscous fluids for small Reynolds numbers was solved taking into account the effects of added mass. The analytical solution for the motion of a falling sphere, from the beginning to the end of the fall, was combined with an iterative numerical method to determine the fluid viscosity coefficient, diameter of the sphere and terminal velocity. The proposed solution was validated with experimental literature data. The study presented may also help understanding the fluid-particle interactions from both theoretical and educational standpoints. (paper)

  13. Velocity of a single gas plug rising through a particle-gas-liquid three-phase flow (In the case that particles updrift in a stagnant liquid column)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yasuo; Shimada, Jun; Ohtake, Hiroyasu

    1999-01-01

    The velocity of a single air plug rising through a stagnant water column in a pipe with updrifting particles has been examined at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The particles used were polymer balls with a diameter of 3.18 mm and a density of 0.835 x 10 -3 kg/m 3 . The water velocity in a film around the plug and a wake region behind the plug was measured by a laser Doppler velocimeter. The thickness of the film was also measured with a dye-fluoresce-method by a laser ray. When the updrifting particles were introduced, the rising velocity of the plug became fast a little. However, the velocity was considerably slower than that in the falling particle case and independent on the particle introduction rate. The film around the plug was thicker a little than that in the no particle case, however considerably thinner than that in the falling particle case. The water velocity in the film around the plug was slower a little than that in the no particle case, and not dependent on the particle introduction rate contrary to that in the falling particle case. The vortex size behind the plug was almost the same as that in the no particle case although the vortex region was spread downward in the falling particle case. (author)

  14. Fall Velocities of Hydrometeors in the Atmosphere: Refinements to a Continuous Analytical Power Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvorostyanov, Vitaly I.; Curry, Judith A.

    2005-12-01

    This paper extends the previous research of the authors on the unified representation of fall velocities for both liquid and crystalline particles as a power law over the entire size range of hydrometeors observed in the atmosphere. The power-law coefficients are determined as continuous analytical functions of the Best or Reynolds number or of the particle size. Here, analytical expressions are formulated for the turbulent corrections to the Reynolds number and to the power-law coefficients that describe the continuous transition from the laminar to the turbulent flow around a falling particle. A simple analytical expression is found for the correction of fall velocities for temperature and pressure. These expressions and the resulting fall velocities are compared with observations and other calculations for a range of ice crystal habits and sizes. This approach provides a continuous analytical power-law description of the terminal velocities of liquid and crystalline hydrometeors with sufficiently high accuracy and can be directly used in bin-resolving models or incorporated into parameterizations for cloud- and large-scale models and remote sensing techniques.

  15. An interdisciplinary intervention to prevent falls in community-dwelling elderly persons: protocol of a cluster-randomized trial [PreFalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuster Tibor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of falls in the elderly is a public health target in many countries around the world. While a large number of trials have investigated the effectiveness of fall prevention programs, few focussed on interventions embedded in the general practice setting and its related network. In the Prevent Falls (PreFalls trial we aim to investigate the effectiveness of a pre-tested multi-modal intervention compared to usual care in this setting. Methods/Design PreFalls is a controlled multicenter prospective study with cluster-randomized allocation of about 40 general practices to an experimental or a control group. We aim to include 382 community dwelling persons aged 65 and older with an increased risk of falling. All participating general practitioners are trained to systematically assess the risk of falls using a set of validated tests. Patients from intervention practices are invited to participate in a 16-weeks exercise program with focus on fall prevention delivered by specifically trained local physiotherapists. Patients from practices allocated to the control group receive usual care. Main outcome measure is the number of falls per individual in the first 12 months (analysis by negative binomial regression. Secondary outcomes include falls in the second year, the proportion of participants falling in the first and the second year, falls associated with injury, risk of falls, fear of falling, physical activity and quality of life. Discussion Reducing falls in the elderly remains a major challenge. We believe that with its strong focus on a both systematic and realistic fall prevention strategy adapted to primary care setting PreFalls will be a valuable addition to the scientific literature in the field. Trial registration NCT01032252

  16. Particle swarm genetic algorithm and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengxiang; Yan Changxiang; Wang Jianjun; Liu Zhenhai

    2012-01-01

    To solve the problems of slow convergence speed and tendency to fall into the local optimum of the standard particle swarm optimization while dealing with nonlinear constraint optimization problem, a particle swarm genetic algorithm is designed. The proposed algorithm adopts feasibility principle handles constraint conditions and avoids the difficulty of penalty function method in selecting punishment factor, generates initial feasible group randomly, which accelerates particle swarm convergence speed, and introduces genetic algorithm crossover and mutation strategy to avoid particle swarm falls into the local optimum Through the optimization calculation of the typical test functions, the results show that particle swarm genetic algorithm has better optimized performance. The algorithm is applied in nuclear power plant optimization, and the optimization results are significantly. (authors)

  17. Exercise and fall prevention self-management to reduce mobility-related disability and falls after fall-related lower limb fracture in older people: protocol for the RESTORE (Recovery Exercises and STepping On afteR fracturE) randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrington, Catherine; Fairhall, Nicola; Kirkham, Catherine; Clemson, Lindy; Howard, Kirsten; Vogler, Constance; Close, Jacqueline C T; Moseley, Anne M; Cameron, Ian D; Mak, Jenson; Sonnabend, David; Lord, Stephen R

    2016-02-02

    Lasting disability and further falls are common and costly problems in older people following fall-related lower limb and pelvic fractures. Exercise interventions can improve mobility after fracture and reduce falls in older people, however the optimal approach to rehabilitation after fall-related lower limb and pelvic fracture is unclear. This randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effects of an exercise and fall prevention self-management intervention on mobility-related disability and falls in older people following fall-related lower limb or pelvic fracture. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention will also be investigated. A randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding for physical performance tests and intention-to-treat analysis will be conducted. Three hundred and fifty people aged 60 years and over with a fall-related lower limb or pelvic fracture, who are living at home or in a low care residential aged care facility and have completed active rehabilitation, will be recruited. Participants will be randomised to receive a 12-month intervention or usual care. The intervention group will receive ten home visits from a physiotherapist to prescribe an individualised exercise program with motivational interviewing, plus fall prevention education through individualised advice from the physiotherapist or attendance at the group based "Stepping On" program (seven two-hour group sessions). Participants will be followed for a 12-month period. Primary outcome measures will be mobility-related disability and falls. Secondary outcomes will include measures of balance and mobility, falls risk, physical activity, walking aid use, frailty, pain, nutrition, falls efficacy, mood, positive and negative affect, quality of life, assistance required, hospital readmission, and health-system and community-service contact. This study will determine the effect and cost-effectiveness of this exercise self management intervention on mobility

  18. Committee's report on ruthenium fall-out incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, C.J.; Crawford, J.H.; Livingston, R.; Ritchie, R.H.; Rupp, A.F.; Taylor, E.H.

    1983-07-01

    Investigations of the fall-out incident of November 11 and 12, 1959, by responsible parties (Health Physics Division and Operations Division personnel) established beyond reasonable doubt that the incident had its origin in the expulsion of particles, heavily contaminated with ruthenium, which had been detached from the walls of the electric fan housing and ducts in the off-gas system associated with the brick stack. All available evidence indicates that the particles were loosened during maintenance work on the exhaust damper and the bearings of the electric fan and were carried up the stack in two bursts as particulate fall-out when this fan was put back into service. Radiographic and chemical analysis showed the activity to be almost entirely ruthenium (Ru 106 ) and its daughter rhodium (Rh 106 ) with very little, if any, strontium being present. This report summarizes the findings and sets forth the conclusions and recommendations of the Committee asked to investigate the incident

  19. Feasibility of interdisciplinary community-based fall risk screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sharon J; Ivanescu, Andrada; Leland, Natalie E; Fogo, Jennifer; Painter, Jane A; Trujillo, Leonard G

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility of (1) conducting interdisciplinary fall risk screens at a communitywide adult fall prevention event and (2) collecting preliminary follow-up data from people screened at the event about balance confidence and home and activity modifications made after receiving educational information at the event. We conducted a pilot study with pre- and posttesting (4-mo follow-up) with 35 community-dwelling adults ≥55 yr old. Approximately half the participants were at risk for falls. Most participants who anticipated making environmental or activity changes to reduce fall risk initiated changes (n = 8/11; 72.7%) during the 4-mo follow-up period. We found no significant difference in participants' balance confidence between baseline (median = 62.81) and follow-up (median = 64.06) as measured by the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. Conducting interdisciplinary fall risk screens at an adult fall prevention event is feasible and can facilitate environmental and behavior changes to reduce fall risk. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  20. Predicting Use of Outdoor Fall Prevention Strategies: Considerations for Prevention Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippendale, Tracy

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor falls are just as common as indoor falls, but have received less attention in research and practice. Behavioral strategies play an important role in outdoor fall prevention. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of strategy use. Backward stepwise regression was used to study factors associated with use of outdoor fall prevention strategies among a random sample ( N = 120) of community-dwelling seniors. Significant negative predictors of strategy use included higher education levels ( p outdoor fallers and nonfallers in the use of three different types of strategies ( ps outdoor fall prevention strategies. Further study of additional factors is warranted.

  1. Heat receiving plates in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kazunori.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a heat receiving plate structure capable of withstanding sputtering wear and retaining the thermal deformation and residual stress low upon junction and available at a reduced cost. Constitution: Junction structures between heat sinks and armours are the same as usual, whereas high melting armour (for example, made of tungsten) are used at the portion on a heat receiving plate where the thermal load and particle load are higher while materials having a heat expansion coefficient similar to that of the heat sink (stainless steel) are used at the portion where the thermal load and particle load are lower on a heat receiving plate depending on the thermal load and particle load distribution. This can reduce the thermal deformation for the entire divertor heat receiving plate to obtain a heat receiving plate of a good surface dimensional accuracy. (Takahashi, M.)

  2. FALL3D: A computational model for transport and deposition of volcanic ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, A.; Costa, A.; Macedonio, G.

    2009-06-01

    FALL3D is a 3-D time-dependent Eulerian model for the transport and deposition of volcanic ashes and lapilli. The model solves the advection-diffusion-sedimentation (ADS) equation on a structured terrain-following grid using a second-order finite differences (FD) explicit scheme. Different parameterizations for the eddy diffusivity tensor and for the particle terminal settling velocities can be used. The code, written in FORTRAN 90, is available in both serial and parallel versions for Windows and Unix/Linux/Mac X operating systems (OS). A series of pre- and post-process utility programs and OS-dependent scripts to launch them are also included in the FALL3D distribution package. Although the model has been designed to forecast volcanic ash concentration in the atmosphere and ash loading at ground, it can also be used to model the transport of any kind of airborne solid particles. The model inputs are meteorological data, topography, grain-size distribution, shape and density of particles, and mass rate of particle injected into the atmosphere. Optionally, FALL3D can be coupled with the output of the meteorological processor CALMET, a diagnostic model which generates 3-D time-dependent zero-divergence wind fields from mesoscale forecasts incorporating local terrain effects. The FALL3D model can be a tool for short-term ash deposition forecasting and for volcanic fallout hazard assessment. As an example, an application to the 22 July 1998 Etna eruption is also presented.

  3. Theory for Deducing Volcanic Activity From Size Distributions in Plinian Pyroclastic Fall Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Yu; Toramaru, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Tetsuo

    2018-03-01

    Stratigraphic variation in the grain size distribution (GSD) of plinian pyroclastic fall deposits reflects volcanic activity. To extract information on volcanic activity from the analyses of deposits, we propose a one-dimensional theory that provides a formula connecting the sediment GSD to the source GSD. As the simplest case, we develop a constant-source model (CS model), in which the source GSD and the source height are constant during the duration of release of particles. We assume power laws of particle radii for the terminal fall velocity and the source GSD. The CS model can describe an overall (i.e., entire vertically variable) feature of the GSD structure of the sediment. It is shown that the GSD structure is characterized by three parameters, that is, the duration of supply of particles to the source scaled by the fall time of the largest particle, ts/tM, and the power indices of the terminal fall velocity p and of the source GSD q. We apply the CS model to samples of the Worzel D ash layer and compare the sediment GSD structure calculated by using the CS model to the observed structure. The results show that the CS model reproduces the overall structure of the observed GSD. We estimate the duration of the eruption and the q value of the source GSD. Furthermore, a careful comparison of the observed and calculated GSDs reveals new interpretation of the original sediment GSD structure of the Worzel D ash layer.

  4. Considerations on comprehensive risk assessment and mitigation planning of volcanic ash-fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshida, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Volcanic ash-fall is inevitable hazard throughout Japan, and causes wide range of effects due to its physical and chemical properties. Nuclear power plants in Japan face the necessity to assess the risk from volcanic ash-fall. Risk assessment of the volcanic ash-fall should include engineering solution and mitigation planning as well as the ash-fall hazard. This report points out the characteristics for reducing the various effects of volcanic ash-fall as follows. Large-scale eruptions produce prominent volcanic ash-falls that can approach power plants at a great distance. Aftermath hazards of ash-fall events, such as remobilization of fine ash particles and generation of lahars, require further assessments. The kind and extent of damages becomes greater whenever ash is wet. Wet ash requires separate assessments in contrast to dry ash. The mitigation and recovery measures at power plants involve quick cleanup operations of volcanic ash. Those operations should be prepared through comprehensive risk assessment, and by cooperation with authorities, during pre-eruption repose period. The comprehensive assessment for volcanic ash-fall hazards, however, has yet to be conducted. Development of risk communication method may result in increased implementation mitigation planning. Numerical analysis of the ash-fall hazards provides quantitative data on particle motions that can be used in the risk assessment. In order to implement the quantitative assessment method, the verification on the effect of ambient air condition to the altitude of volcanic ash cloud is necessary. We need to develop a three-dimensional model of volcanic ash cloud, and calculate motions of ash clouds under multiple conditions of ambient air. (author)

  5. An Occupational Therapy Fall Reduction Home Visit Program for Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Hong Kong After an Emergency Department Visit for a Fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Mary Man-Lai; Fong, Kenneth Nai-Kuen; Lit, Albert Chau-Hung; Rainer, Timothy Hudson; Cheng, Stella Wai-Chee; Au, Frederick Lap-Yan; Fung, Henry Kwok-Kwong; Wong, Chit-Ming; Tong, Hon-Kuan

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effects of an occupational therapy fall reduction home visit program for older adults admitted to the emergency department (ED) for a fall and discharged directly home. Single-blind, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. EDs in three acute care hospitals in Hong Kong. Individuals aged 65 and older who had fallen (N = 311). After screening for eligibility, 204 consenting individuals were randomly assigned to an intervention group (IG) and received a single home visit from an occupational therapist (OT) within 2 weeks after discharge from the hospital or a control group (CG) and received a well-wishing visit from a research assistant not trained in fall prevention. Both groups were followed for 12 months through telephone calls made every 2 weeks by blinded assessors with a focus on the frequency of falls. Another blinded assessor followed up on their status with telephone calls 4, 8, and 12 months after ED discharge. Prospective fall records on hospital admissions were retrieved from electronic databases; 198 individuals were followed for 1 year on an intention-to-treat basis. The percentage of fallers over 1 year was 13.7% in the IG (n = 95) and 20.4% in the CG (n = 103). There were significant differences in the number of fallers (P = .03) and the number of falls (P = .02) between the two groups over 6 months. Significant differences were found in survival analysis for first fall at 6 months (log-rank test 5.052, P = .02) but not 9 or 12 months. One OT visit after a fall was more effective than a well-wishing visit at reducing future falls at 6 months. A booster OT visit at 6 months is suggested. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Reducing falls after hospital discharge: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial evaluating an individualised multimodal falls education programme for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Anne-Marie; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; McPhail, Steven M; Morris, Meg E; Flicker, Leon; Shorr, Ronald; Bulsara, Max; Lee, Den-Ching; Francis-Coad, Jacqueline; Waldron, Nicholas; Boudville, Amanda; Haines, Terry

    2017-02-02

    Older adults frequently fall after discharge from hospital. Older people may have low self-perceived risk of falls and poor knowledge about falls prevention. The primary aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of providing tailored falls prevention education in addition to usual care on falls rates in older people after discharge from hospital compared to providing a social intervention in addition to usual care. The 'Back to My Best' study is a multisite, single blind, parallel-group randomised controlled trial with blinded outcome assessment and intention-to-treat analysis, adhering to CONSORT guidelines. Patients (n=390) (aged 60 years or older; score more than 7/10 on the Abbreviated Mental Test Score; discharged to community settings) from aged care rehabilitation wards in three hospitals will be recruited and randomly assigned to one of two groups. Participants allocated to the control group shall receive usual care plus a social visit. Participants allocated to the experimental group shall receive usual care and a falls prevention programme incorporating a video, workbook and individualised follow-up from an expert health professional to foster capability and motivation to engage in falls prevention strategies. The primary outcome is falls rates in the first 6 months after discharge, analysed using negative binomial regression with adjustment for participant's length of observation in the study. Secondary outcomes are injurious falls rates, the proportion of people who become fallers, functional status and health-related quality of life. Healthcare resource use will be captured from four sources for 6 months after discharge. The study is powered to detect a 30% relative reduction in the rate of falls (negative binomial incidence ratio 0.70) for a control rate of 0.80 falls per person over 6 months. Results will be presented in peer-reviewed journals and at conferences worldwide. This study is approved by hospital and university Human Research

  7. Statistical examination of particle in a turbulent, non-dilute particle suspension flow experimental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, R.C.; Jones, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study of particles suspended in fully developed turbulent water flow in a vertical pipe was done. Three series of experiments were conducted to investigate the statistical behaviour of particles in nondilute turbulent suspension flow, for two particle densities and particle sizes, and for several particle volume loadings ranging from 0 to 1 percent. The mean free fall velocity of the particles was determined at these various particle volume loadings, and the phenomenon of cluster formation was observed. The precise volume loading which gives the maximum relative settling velocity was observed to depend on particle density and size. (E.G.) [pt

  8. Falling balls and simple shearing strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, J L; Pacheco, A F

    2006-01-01

    The problem of particles falling under gravity allows us to relate Hamiltonian mechanics to such different subjects as elasticity and fluid mechanics. It is with this in mind that mechanics gives us the opportunity of introducing, in a rather simple and unusual form, some concepts such as vorticity, the incompressibility condition or simple shear strain to physics students at the undergraduate level

  9. Concern with falls in elderly people attended in an Integral Attention Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandro Correia de Araújo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Falls are concerning factors in elderly people, because they cause diverse complications. The objective of this study was to identify the level of concern with falls, associating them with self-reported diseases and history of falls of elderly attended in an Integral Attention Center. This was a descriptive study with 80 elderly. The results demonstrated an extreme concern regarding the possibility of falling for most female, married, of 60-79 years and receiving low monthly income; there is also extreme concern for those with hypertension and arthrosis. Nursing should establish integral actions to map elderly with risk of falling and, that promote awareness for these elderly and their family members regarding fall prevention measures, to prevent falls and to reduce the fear of falling.

  10. Adoption of Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Practices in Primary Care for Older Adults with a History of Falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Phelan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A multifactorial approach to assess and manage modifiable risk factors is recommended for older adults with a history of falls. Limited research suggests that this approach does not routinely occur in clinical practice, but most related studies are based on provider self-report, with the last chart audit of United States practice published over a decade ago. We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the extent to which patients aged 65+ with a history of repeated falls or fall-related healthcare use received multifactorial risk assessment and interventions. The setting was an academic primary care clinic in the Pacific Northwest. Among the 116 patients meeting our inclusion criteria, 48% had some type of documented assessment. Their mean age was 79±8 years; 68% were female, and 10% were non-white. They averaged 6 primary care visits over a 12-month period subsequent to their index fall. Frequency of assessment of fall risk factors varied from 24% (for home safety to 78% (for vitamin D. An evidence-based intervention was recommended for identified risk factors 73% of the time, on average. Two risk factors were addressed infrequently: medications (21% and home safety (24%. Use of a structured visit note template independently predicted assessment of fall risk factors (P=0.003. Geriatrics specialists were more likely to use a structured note template (p=.04 and perform more fall risk factor assessments (4.6 vs. 3.6, p=.007 than general internists. These results suggest opportunities for improving multifactorial fall risk assessment and management of older adults at high fall risk in primary care. A structured visit note template facilitates assessment. Given that high-risk medications have been found to be independent risk factors for falls, increasing attention to medications should become a key focus of both public health educational efforts and fall prevention in primary care practice.

  11. Hawking, fiducial, and free-fall temperature of black hole on gravity's rainbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    On gravity's rainbow, the energy of test particles deforms the geometry of a black hole in such a way that the corresponding Hawking temperature is expected to be modified. It means that the fiducial and free-fall temperatures on the black hole background should also be modified according to deformation of the geometry. In this work, the probing energy of test particles is assumed as the average energy of the Hawking particle in order to study the particle back reaction of the geometry by using the advantage of gravity's rainbow. We shall obtain the modified fiducial and free-fall temperatures, respectively. The behaviors of these two temperatures on the horizon tell us that black hole complementarity is still well defined on gravity's rainbow. (orig.)

  12. Underreporting of Fall Injuries of Older Adults: Implications for Wellness Visit Fall Risk Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J; Ha, Jinkyung; Alexander, Neil B; Langa, Kenneth M; Tinetti, Mary; Min, Lillian C

    2018-04-17

    To compare the accuracy of and factors affecting the accuracy of self-reported fall-related injuries (SFRIs) with those of administratively obtained FRIs (AFRIs). Retrospective observational study SETTING: United States PARTICIPANTS: Fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older (N=47,215). We used 24-month self-report recall data from 2000-2012 Health and Retirement Study data to identify SFRIs and linked inpatient, outpatient, and ambulatory Medicare data to identify AFRIs. Sensitivity and specificity were assessed, with AFRIs defined using the University of California at Los Angeles/RAND algorithm as the criterion standard. Logistic regression models were used to identify sociodemographic and health predictors of sensitivity. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 28% and 92%. Sensitivity was greater for the oldest adults (38%), women (34%), those with more functional limitations (47%), and those with a prior fall (38%). In adjusted results, several participant factors (being female, being white, poor functional status, depression, prior falls) were modestly associated with better sensitivity and specificity. Injury severity (requiring hospital care) most substantively improved SFRI sensitivity (73%). An overwhelming 72% of individuals who received Medicare-reimbursed health care for FRIs failed to report a fall injury when asked. Future efforts to address underreporting in primary care of nonwhite and healthier older adults are critical to improve preventive efforts. Redesigned questions-for example, that address stigma of attributing injury to falling-may improve sensitivity. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Two Thermal Energy Storage Tank Design Concepts for Use with a Solid Particle Receiver-Based Solar Power Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman El-Leathy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an extensive study of two thermal energy storage (TES systems. The goal of the research is to make solar energy cost-competitive with other forms of electricity. A small-scale TES system was first built. The inner to outer layers were made of firebrick (FB, autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC and reinforced concrete brick (CB. The experiments were conducted at temperatures of up to 1000 °C for sustained periods of time. AAC was found to be prone to cracking at temperatures exceeding 900 °C; as a result, AAC was eliminated from the second TES system. The second, larger-scale TES system was subsequently built of multiple layers of readily available materials, namely, insulating firebrick (IFB, perlite concrete (PC, expansion joint (EJ, and CB. All of the surfaces were instrumented with thermocouples to estimate the heat loss from the system. The temperature was maintained at approximately 800 °C to approximate steady state conditions closely. The steady state heat loss was determined to be approximately 4.4% for a day. The results indicate that high-temperature TES systems can be constructed of readily available materials while meeting the heat loss requirements for a falling particle receiver system, thereby contributing to reducing the overall cost of concentrating solar power systems.

  14. Circumstances of falls and falls-related injuries in a cohort of older patients following hospital discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill AM

    2013-06-01

    requiring assistance with activities of daily living (adjusted odds ratio 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.57–5.60, P = 0.001 and falling in hospital prior to discharge (adjusted odds ratio 2.32, 95% CI 1.21–4.45, P = 0.01. Fallers requiring assistance with activities of daily living were significantly less likely to fall outside (adjusted odds ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.12–0.69, P = 0.005.Conclusion: Older patients who have been recently discharged from hospital and receive assistance with activities of daily living are at high risk of injurious falls indoors, most often in the bedroom. These data suggest that targeted interventions may be needed to reduce falls in this population.Keywords: falls, patient discharge, environment, activities of daily living, accident prevention

  15. Indoor exposure to particles emitted by biomass-burning heating systems and evaluation of dose and lung cancer risk received by population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, L; Buonanno, G; Avino, P; Frattolillo, A; Guerriero, E

    2018-04-01

    Homes represent a critical microenvironment in terms of air quality due to the proximity to main particle sources and the lack of proper ventilation systems. Biomass-fed heating systems are still extensively used worldwide, then likely emitting a significant amount of particles in indoor environments. Nonetheless, research on biomass emissions are limited to their effects on outdoor air quality then not properly investigating the emission in indoor environments. To this purpose, the present paper aims to evaluate the exposure to different airborne particle metrics (including both sub- and super-micron particles) and attached carcinogenic compounds in dwellings where three different heating systems were used: open fireplaces, closed fireplaces and pellet stoves. Measurements in terms of particle number, lung-deposited surface area, and PM fraction concentrations were measured during the biomass combustion activities, moreover, PM 10 samples were collected and chemically analyzed to obtain mass fractions of carcinogenic compounds attached onto particles. Airborne particle doses received by people exposed in such environments were evaluated as well as their excess lung cancer risk. Most probable surface area extra-doses received by people exposed to open fireplaces on hourly basis (56 mm 2  h -1 ) resulted one order of magnitude larger than those experienced for exposure to closed fireplaces and pellet stoves. Lifetime extra risk of Italian people exposed to the heating systems under investigation were larger than the acceptable lifetime risk (10 -5 ): in particular, the risk due to the open fireplace (8.8 × 10 -3 ) was non-negligible when compared to the overall lung cancer risk of typical Italian population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Frequency and circumstances of falls in people with inclusion body myositis: a questionnaire survey to explore falls management and physiotherapy provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, A; Dewar, L; Parton, M; Machado, P; Hanna, M; Ramdharry, G

    2014-03-01

    To survey the incidence and circumstances of falls for people with inclusion body myositis (IBM) in the UK, and to investigate the provision of physiotherapy and falls management. Postal questionnaire survey. Participants completed questionnaires at home. Ninety-four people diagnosed with IBM were screened against the inclusion criteria. Seventy-two potential participants were sent a questionnaire, and 62 were completed and returned. Invited participants were sent an adapted Falls Event Questionnaire pertaining to falls, perceived causes of falls and the provision of physiotherapy. Questionnaires were returned anonymously. The proportions of respondents who reported a fall or a near fall, along with the frequencies of falls and near falls were calculated. Descriptive data of falls were collected pertaining to location and cause. Data analysis was performed to investigate provision of physiotherapy services. The response rate was 86% [62/72, mean (standard deviation) age 68 (8) years]. Falls were reported by 98% (61/62) of respondents, with 60% (37/62) falling frequently. In this study, age was not found to be an indicator of falls risk or frequency. Twenty-one percent (13/62) of respondents had not seen a physiotherapist in relation to their IBM symptoms, and of those that had, 31% (15/49) had not seen a physiotherapist until more than 12 months after IBM was diagnosed. Only 18% (11/61) of fallers reported that they had received falls management input. Falls are a common occurrence for people with IBM, independent of age and years since symptoms first presented, and are poorly addressed by appropriate physiotherapy management. National falls guidelines are not being followed, and referral rates to physiotherapy need to improve. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Do Canes or Walkers Make Any Difference? NonUse and Fall Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Clare; Bush, Tamara; Shen, Xiaoxi

    2017-04-01

    Examine patterns of cane and walker use as related to falls and fall injuries. Among people who fall at home, most do not have an assistive device with them when they fall. Nonusers who fall sustain more severe injuries. This was a cross-sectional study using a self-administered written survey completed by 262 people aged 60 and older who were community dwelling, cognitively intact, and current cane/walker users with a history of falls. They were recruited through clinical practice sites, churches, and senior housing in central Michigan. Outcomes of interest included patterns of device use, reasons for nonuse, device use at time of fall, and fall-related injuries. Seventy-five percent of respondents who fell were not using their device at the time of fall despite stating that canes help prevent falls. Reasons for nonuse included believing it was not needed, forgetfulness, the device made them feel old, and inaccessibility. Perceived risk was not high enough to engage in self-protective behavior. However, nonuse led to a significantly higher proportion of falls resulting in surgery than among device users. Among respondents requiring surgery, 100% were nonusers. Most respondents never received a home safety evaluation (68%) and only 50% received training on proper device use. Providers must place increased emphasis on the importance of cane/walker use for injury prevention through patient education to promote personal relevance, proper fitting, and training. New strategies are needed to improve device acceptability and accessibility. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Falls In Care Home study: a feasibility randomized controlled trial of the use of a risk assessment and decision support tool to prevent falls in care homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gemma M; Armstrong, Sarah; Gordon, Adam L; Gladman, John; Robertson, Kate; Ward, Marie; Conroy, Simon; Arnold, Gail; Darby, Janet; Frowd, Nadia; Williams, Wynne; Knowles, Sue; Logan, Pip A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of implementing and evaluating the Guide to Action Care Home fall prevention intervention. Design: Two-centre, cluster feasibility randomized controlled trial and process evaluation. Setting: Purposive sample of six diverse old age/learning disability, long stay care homes in Nottinghamshire, UK. Subjects: Residents aged over 50 years, who had fallen at least once in the past year, not bed-bound, hoist-dependent or terminally ill. Interventions: Intervention homes (n = 3) received Guide to Action Care Home fall prevention intervention training and support. Control homes (n = 3) received usual care. Outcomes: Recruitment, attrition, baseline and six-month outcome completion, contamination and intervention fidelity, compliance, tolerability, acceptance and impact. Results: A total of 81 of 145 (56%) care homes expressed participatory interest. Six of 22 letter respondent homes (27%) participated. The expected resident recruitment target was achieved by 76% (52/68). Ten (19%) residents did not complete follow-up (seven died, three moved). In intervention homes 36/114 (32%) staff attended training. Two of three (75%) care homes received protocol compliant training. Staff valued the training, but advised greater management involvement to improve intervention implementation. Fall risks were assessed, actioned and recorded in care records. Of 115 recorded falls, 533/570 (93%) of details were complete. Six-month resident fall rates were 1.9 and 4.0 per year for intervention and control homes, respectively. Conclusions: The Guide to Action Care Home is implementable under trial conditions. Recruitment and follow-up rates indicate that a definitive trial can be completed. Falls (primary outcome) can be ascertained reliably from care records. PMID:26385358

  19. Distribution, Determinants, and Prevention of Falls Among the Elderly in the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zijian; Baccaglini, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Falls in the geriatric population are a major public health issue. With the anticipated aging of the population, falls are expected to increase nationally and globally. We estimated the prevalence and determinants of falls in adults aged ≥65 years and calculated the proportion of elderly who fell and made lifestyle changes as a result of professional recommendations. We included adults aged ≥65 years from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) and categorized them into two groups based on whether or not they had had at least two falls in the previous 12 months. We performed logistic regression analysis adjusted for the complex survey design to determine risk factors for falls and compare the odds of receiving professional recommendations among elderly with vs. without falls. Of an estimated 4.3 million eligible elderly participants in the CHIS (2011-2012), an estimated 527,340 (12.2%) fell multiple times in the previous 12 months. Of those, 204,890 (38.9%) were told how to avoid falls by a physician and 211,355 (40.1%) received medical treatment, although fewer than 41.0% had made related preventive changes to avoid future falls. Falls were associated with older age, less walking, and poorer physical or mental health. Non-Asians had higher odds of falling compared with Asians (adjusted odds ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.16, 2.45). Most participants reported changing medications, home, or daily routines on their own initiative rather than after professional recommendations. Patients with a history of falls did not consistently receive professional recommendations on fall prevention-related lifestyle or living condition changes. Given the high likelihood of a serious fall, future interventions should focus on involving primary care physicians in active preventive efforts before a fall occurs.

  20. Adoption of Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Practices in Primary Care for Older Adults with a History of Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Aerts, Sally; Dowler, David; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Casey, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    A multifactorial approach to assess and manage modifiable risk factors is recommended for older adults with a history of falls. Limited research suggests that this approach does not routinely occur in clinical practice, but most related studies are based on provider self-report, with the last chart audit of United States practice published over a decade ago. We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the extent to which patients aged 65+ years with a history of repeated falls or fall-related health-care use received multifactorial risk assessment and interventions. The setting was an academic primary care clinic in the Pacific Northwest. Among the 116 patients meeting our inclusion criteria, 48% had some type of documented assessment. Their mean age was 79 ± 8 years; 68% were female, and 10% were non-white. They averaged six primary care visits over a 12-month period subsequent to their index fall. Frequency of assessment of fall-risk factors varied from 24% (for home safety) to 78% (for vitamin D). An evidence-based intervention was recommended for identified risk factors 73% of the time, on average. Two risk factors were addressed infrequently: medications (21%) and home safety (24%). Use of a structured visit note template independently predicted assessment of fall-risk factors (p = 0.003). Geriatrics specialists were more likely to use a structured note template (p = 0.04) and perform more fall-risk factor assessments (4.6 vs. 3.6, p = 0.007) than general internists. These results suggest opportunities for improving multifactorial fall-risk assessment and management of older adults at high fall risk in primary care. A structured visit note template facilitates assessment. Given that high-risk medications have been found to be independent risk factors for falls, increasing attention to medications should become a key focus of both public health educational efforts and fall prevention in primary care practice. PMID:27660753

  1. Adoption of Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Practices in Primary Care for Older Adults with a History of Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Elizabeth A; Aerts, Sally; Dowler, David; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Casey, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    A multifactorial approach to assess and manage modifiable risk factors is recommended for older adults with a history of falls. Limited research suggests that this approach does not routinely occur in clinical practice, but most related studies are based on provider self-report, with the last chart audit of United States practice published over a decade ago. We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the extent to which patients aged 65+ years with a history of repeated falls or fall-related health-care use received multifactorial risk assessment and interventions. The setting was an academic primary care clinic in the Pacific Northwest. Among the 116 patients meeting our inclusion criteria, 48% had some type of documented assessment. Their mean age was 79 ± 8 years; 68% were female, and 10% were non-white. They averaged six primary care visits over a 12-month period subsequent to their index fall. Frequency of assessment of fall-risk factors varied from 24% (for home safety) to 78% (for vitamin D). An evidence-based intervention was recommended for identified risk factors 73% of the time, on average. Two risk factors were addressed infrequently: medications (21%) and home safety (24%). Use of a structured visit note template independently predicted assessment of fall-risk factors (p = 0.003). Geriatrics specialists were more likely to use a structured note template (p = 0.04) and perform more fall-risk factor assessments (4.6 vs. 3.6, p = 0.007) than general internists. These results suggest opportunities for improving multifactorial fall-risk assessment and management of older adults at high fall risk in primary care. A structured visit note template facilitates assessment. Given that high-risk medications have been found to be independent risk factors for falls, increasing attention to medications should become a key focus of both public health educational efforts and fall prevention in primary care practice.

  2. Falls following discharge after an in-hospital fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Lori A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are among the most common adverse events reported in hospitalized patients. While there is a growing body of literature on fall prevention in the hospital, the data examining the fall rate and risk factors for falls in the immediate post-hospitalization period has not been well described. The objectives of the present study were to determine the fall rate of in-hospital fallers at home and to explore the risk factors for falls during the immediate post-hospitalization period. Methods We identified patients who sustained a fall on one of 16 medical/surgical nursing units during an inpatient admission to an urban community teaching hospital. After discharge, falls were ascertained using weekly telephone surveillance for 4 weeks post-discharge. Patients were followed until death, loss to follow up or end of study (four weeks. Time spent rehospitalized or institutionalized was censored in rate calculations. Results Of 95 hospitalized patients who fell during recruitment, 65 (68% met inclusion criteria and agreed to participate. These subjects contributed 1498 person-days to the study (mean duration of follow-up = 23 days. Seventy-five percent were African-American and 43% were women. Sixteen patients (25% had multiple falls during hospitalization and 23 patients (35% suffered a fall-related injury during hospitalization. Nineteen patients (29% experienced 38 falls at their homes, yielding a fall rate of 25.4/1,000 person-days (95% CI: 17.3-33.4. Twenty-three patients (35% were readmitted and 3(5% died. One patient experienced a hip fracture. In exploratory univariate analysis, persons who were likely to fall at home were those who sustained multiple falls in the hospital (p = 0.008. Conclusion Patients who fall during hospitalization, especially on more than one occasion, are at high risk for falling at home following hospital discharge. Interventions to reduce falls would be appropriate to test in this high-risk population.

  3. Women's perspectives on falls and fall prevention during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Dorothy; Naninni, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injury in women. During pregnancy, even a minor fall can result in adverse consequences. Evidence to inform effective and developmentally appropriate pregnancy fall prevention programs is lacking. Early research on pregnancy fall prevention suggests that exercise may reduce falls. However, acceptability and effectiveness of pregnancy fall prevention programs are untested. To better understand postpartum women's perspective and preferences on fall prevention strategies during pregnancy to formulate an intervention. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 31 postpartum women using descriptive qualitative methodology. Discussion of falls during pregnancy and fall prevention strategies was guided by a focus group protocol and enhanced by 1- to 3-minute videos on proposed interventions. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo 10 software. Emerging themes were environmental circumstances and physical changes of pregnancy leading to a fall, prevention strategies, barriers, safety concerns, and marketing a fall prevention program. Wet surfaces and inappropriate footwear commonly contributed to falls. Women preferred direct provider counseling and programs including yoga and Pilates. Fall prevention strategies tailored to pregnant women are needed. Perspectives of postpartum women support fall prevention through provider counseling and individual or supervised exercise programs.

  4. Cesium levels in foodstuffs fall slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    1994-01-01

    Since spring 1986, radioactive decay has reduced the total amount of radioactive cesium 137 in the Finnish environment, originating in Chernobyl, by 17 per cent. The cesium content in fish keeps falling at a diminishing rate, depending on the species of fish and environmental factors. The use of fish from lakes need not be restricted anymore. The cesium contents of game, mushrooms and wild berries have remained steady for some years now. The same is true for agricultural produce. The contents in milk and meat still keep falling slowly. Most of the cesium ingested by finns comes from fish, then from game, reindeer and gathered foods; the lowest amounts are received from agricultural products. (orig.)

  5. Receipt of Caregiving and Fall Risk in US Community-dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J; Hays, Ron D; Wallace, Steven P; Shapiro, Martin F; Yakusheva, Olga; Ettner, Susan L

    2017-04-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries (FRI) are common and costly occurrences among older adults living in the community, with increased risk for those with physical and cognitive limitations. Caregivers provide support for older adults with physical functioning limitations, which are associated with fall risk. Using the 2004-2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, we examined whether receipt of low (0-13 weekly hours) and high levels (≥14 weekly hours) of informal care or any formal care is associated with lower risk of falls and FRIs among community-dwelling older adults. We additionally tested whether serious physical functioning (≥3 activities of daily living) or cognitive limitations moderated this relationship. Caregiving receipt categories were jointly significant in predicting noninjurious falls (P=0.03) but not FRIs (P=0.30). High levels of informal care category (P=0.001) and formal care (Pfall risk relative to low levels of informal care. Among individuals with ≥3 activities of daily living, fall risks were reduced by 21% for those receiving high levels of informal care; additionally, FRIs were reduced by 42% and 58% for those receiving high levels of informal care and any formal care. High levels of informal care receipt were also associated with a 54% FRI risk reduction among the cognitively impaired. Fall risk reductions among older adults occurred predominantly among those with significant physical and cognitive limitations. Accordingly, policy efforts involving fall prevention should target populations with increased physical functioning and cognitive limitations. They should also reduce financial barriers to informal and formal caregiving.

  6. Factors associated with recognition and prioritization for falling, and the effect on fall incidence in community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sofie; Schoe, Jolanda; van Rijn, Marjon; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Moll van Charante, Eric P; van der Velde, Nathalie; de Rooij, Sophia E

    2015-12-17

    Recent trials have shown that multifactorial fall interventions vary in effectiveness, possibly due to lack of adherence to the interventions. The aim of this study was to examine what proportion of older adults recognize their falls risk and prioritize for fall-preventive care, and which factors are associated with this prioritization. Observational study within the intervention arm of a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the effect of preventive interventions for geriatric problems in older community-dwellers at risk of functional decline.  general practices in the Netherlands. Participants were community dwellers (70+) in whom falling was identified as a condition. A comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) was performed by a registered community care nurse. Participants were asked which of the identified conditions they recognized and prioritized for in a preventive care plan, and subsequent interventions were started. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify which factors were associated with this prioritization. Fall-incidence was measured during one-year follow-up. The RCT included 6668 participants, 3430 were in the intervention arm. Of those, 1209 were at risk of functional decline, of whom 936 underwent CGA. In 380 participants (41 %), falling was identified as a condition; 62 (16 %) recognized this and 37 (10 %) prioritized for it. Factors associated with prioritization for falls-prevention were: recurrent falls in the past year (OR 2.2 [95 % CI 1.1-4.4]), severe fear-of-falling (OR 2.7 [1.2-6.0]) and use of a walking aid (2.3 [1.1-5.0]). Sixty participants received a preventive intervention for falling; 29 had prioritized for falling. Incidence of falls was higher in the priority group than the non-priority group (67 % vs. 37 % respectively) during first six months of follow-up, but similar between groups after 12 months (40.7 % vs. 44.4 %). The proportion of community-dwellers at risk of falls that recognizes this

  7. The effects of eyeball exercise on balance ability and falls efficacy of the elderly who have experienced a fall: A single-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Hyuck

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of eyeball exercise on balance and fall efficacy of the elderly who have experienced a fall. Subjects were randomly assigned to the eyeball exercise group (n=30) or functional exercise group (n=31). All subjects received 30 sessions for 10 weeks. To identify the effects on balance, static and dynamic balance were measured using the center of pressure (CoP) measurement equipment and Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) respectively. Fall efficacy was evaluated using the modified efficacy scale (MFES). The outcome measurements were performed before and after the 10 weeks training period. After 10 weeks, static balance, dynamic balance, and fall efficacy were significantly improved in both groups. Also, there were significant differences in the outcome measures between both groups (peyeball exercise is beneficial to improve the fall efficacy as well as the balance of the elderly compared with functional exercise. Eyeball exercise would be useful to improve balance and fall efficacy of the elderly who have experienced a fall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Polypharmacy as a risk for fall occurrence in geriatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Taro; Akishita, Masahiro; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Nomura, Kazushi; Ogawa, Sumito; Iijima, Katsuya; Eto, Masato; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the predictors of falls, such as comorbidity and medication, in geriatric outpatients in a longitudinal observational study. A total of 172 outpatients (45 men and 126 women, mean age 76.9 ± 7.0 years) were evaluated. Physical examination, clinical history and medication profile were obtained from each patient at baseline. These patients were followed for up to 2 years and falls were self-reported to their physicians. The factors associated with falls were analyzed statistically. A total of 32 patients experienced falls within 2 years. On univariate analysis, older age, osteoporosis, number of comorbid conditions and number of drugs were significantly associated with falls within 2 years. On multiple logistic regression analysis, the number of drugs was associated with falls, independent of age, sex, number of comorbid conditions and other factors that were significantly associated in univariate analysis. A receiver-operator curve evaluating the optimal cut-off value for the number of drugs showed that taking five or more drugs was a significant risk. In geriatric outpatients, polypharmacy is associated with falls. Intervention studies are needed to clarify the causal relationship between polypharmacy, comorbidity and falls. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Distribution, Determinants, and Prevention of Falls Among the Elderly in the 2011–2012 California Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaglini, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Falls in the geriatric population are a major public health issue. With the anticipated aging of the population, falls are expected to increase nationally and globally. We estimated the prevalence and determinants of falls in adults aged ≥65 years and calculated the proportion of elderly who fell and made lifestyle changes as a result of professional recommendations. Methods We included adults aged ≥65 years from the 2011–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) and categorized them into two groups based on whether or not they had had at least two falls in the previous 12 months. We performed logistic regression analysis adjusted for the complex survey design to determine risk factors for falls and compare the odds of receiving professional recommendations among elderly with vs. without falls. Results Of an estimated 4.3 million eligible elderly participants in the CHIS (2011–2012), an estimated 527,340 (12.2%) fell multiple times in the previous 12 months. Of those, 204,890 (38.9%) were told how to avoid falls by a physician and 211,355 (40.1%) received medical treatment, although fewer than 41.0% had made related preventive changes to avoid future falls. Falls were associated with older age, less walking, and poorer physical or mental health. Non-Asians had higher odds of falling compared with Asians (adjusted odds ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.16, 2.45). Most participants reported changing medications, home, or daily routines on their own initiative rather than after professional recommendations. Conclusion Patients with a history of falls did not consistently receive professional recommendations on fall prevention-related lifestyle or living condition changes. Given the high likelihood of a serious fall, future interventions should focus on involving primary care physicians in active preventive efforts before a fall occurs. PMID:26957668

  10. Relationship between subjective fall risk assessment and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzukawa, Megumi; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Kumiko; Kim, Hunkyung; Suzuki, Takao

    2011-08-12

    Objective measurements can be used to identify people with risks of falls, but many frail elderly adults cannot complete physical performance tests. The study examined the relationship between a subjective risk rating of specific tasks (SRRST) to screen for fall risks and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people. The SRRST was investigated in 5,062 individuals aged 65 years or older who were utilized day-care services. The SRRST comprised 7 dichotomous questions to screen for fall risks during movements and behaviours such as walking, transferring, and wandering. The history of falls and fall-related fractures during the previous year was reported by participants or determined from an interview with the participant's family and care staff. All SRRST items showed significant differences between the participants with and without falls and fall-related fractures. In multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, diseases, and behavioural variables, the SRRST score was independently associated with history of falls and fractures. Odds ratios for those in the high-risk SRRST group (≥ 5 points) compared with the no risk SRRST group (0 point) were 6.15 (p fall, 15.04 (p falls, and 5.05 (p fall-related fractures. The results remained essentially unchanged in subgroup analysis accounting for locomotion status. These results suggest that subjective ratings by care staff can be utilized to determine the risks of falls and fall-related fractures in the frail elderly, however, these preliminary results require confirmation in further prospective research.

  11. Fall prevention in acute care hospitals: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Patricia C; Carroll, Diane L; Hurley, Ann; Lipsitz, Stuart; Benoit, Angela; Chang, Frank; Meltzer, Seth; Tsurikova, Ruslana; Zuyov, Lyubov; Middleton, Blackford

    2010-11-03

    Falls cause injury and death for persons of all ages, but risk of falls increases markedly with age. Hospitalization further increases risk, yet no evidence exists to support short-stay hospital-based fall prevention strategies to reduce patient falls. To investigate whether a fall prevention tool kit (FPTK) using health information technology (HIT) decreases patient falls in hospitals. Cluster randomized study conducted January 1, 2009, through June 30, 2009, comparing patient fall rates in 4 urban US hospitals in units that received usual care (4 units and 5104 patients) or the intervention (4 units and 5160 patients). The FPTK integrated existing communication and workflow patterns into the HIT application. Based on a valid fall risk assessment scale completed by a nurse, the FPTK software tailored fall prevention interventions to address patients' specific determinants of fall risk. The FPTK produced bed posters composed of brief text with an accompanying icon, patient education handouts, and plans of care, all communicating patient-specific alerts to key stakeholders. The primary outcome was patient falls per 1000 patient-days adjusted for site and patient care unit. A secondary outcome was fall-related injuries. During the 6-month intervention period, the number of patients with falls differed between control (n = 87) and intervention (n = 67) units (P=.02). Site-adjusted fall rates were significantly higher in control units (4.18 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.45-5.06] per 1000 patient-days) than in intervention units (3.15 [95% CI, 2.54-3.90] per 1000 patient-days; P = .04). The FPTK was found to be particularly effective with patients aged 65 years or older (adjusted rate difference, 2.08 [95% CI, 0.61-3.56] per 1000 patient-days; P = .003). No significant effect was noted in fall-related injuries. The use of a fall prevention tool kit in hospital units compared with usual care significantly reduced rate of falls. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT

  12. Comparison of Simple Versus Performance-Based Fall Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar K. Gadkaree BS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the predictive ability of standard falls prediction models based on physical performance assessments with more parsimonious prediction models based on self-reported data. Design: We developed a series of fall prediction models progressing in complexity and compared area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC across models. Setting: National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, which surveyed a nationally representative sample of Medicare enrollees (age ≥65 at baseline (Round 1: 2011-2012 and 1-year follow-up (Round 2: 2012-2013. Participants: In all, 6,056 community-dwelling individuals participated in Rounds 1 and 2 of NHATS. Measurements: Primary outcomes were 1-year incidence of “ any fall ” and “ recurrent falls .” Prediction models were compared and validated in development and validation sets, respectively. Results: A prediction model that included demographic information, self-reported problems with balance and coordination, and previous fall history was the most parsimonious model that optimized AUC for both any fall (AUC = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.67, 0.71] and recurrent falls (AUC = 0.77, 95% CI = [0.74, 0.79] in the development set. Physical performance testing provided a marginal additional predictive value. Conclusion: A simple clinical prediction model that does not include physical performance testing could facilitate routine, widespread falls risk screening in the ambulatory care setting.

  13. Plasma antioxidant capacity, sexual and thyroid hormones levels, sperm quantity and quality parameters in stressed male rats received nano-particle of selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaeian-Tabrizi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of nano-particle of selenium (nSe on plasma antioxidant capacity, sexual and thyroid hormones and spermatogenesis in male rats exposed to oxidative stress.Methods: Forty rats were randomly divided into four treatments with ten replicates. Treatment groups were: C, the control group received normal saline as gavage and injection (i.p.; OS, received tert-butyl hydroperoxide (0.2 mmol/kg body weight for inducing oxidative stress; nSe, received nSe (0.3 mg/kg body weight as gavage, and OS+nSe, received tert-butyl hydroperoxide and nSe. All groups were treated for 28 d and administrations were done each 48 h.Results: Oxidative stress decreased and gavage of nSe to stressed rats increased the antioxidant capacity and activities (P0.05 between rats exposed to oxidative stress and those in the control group for sperm quantity and quality. Gavage of nSe to stressed rats had no effect (P>0.05 on the sperm parameters, except increased viability and progressive percentages.Conclusions: Nano-particle of Selenium administration in stressed rats could ameliorate the negative effects of oxidative stress on the antioxidant capacity and activities, but not on the quantity and quality parameters of sperm.

  14. Test-particle motion in the nonsymmetric gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    A derivation of the motion of test particles in the nonsymmetric gravitational theory (NGT) is given using the field equations in the presence of matter. The motion of the particle is governed by the Christoffel symbols, which are formed from the symmetric part of the fundamental tensor g/sub μ//sub ν/, as well as by a tensorial piece determined by the skew part of the contracted curvature tensor R/sub μ//sub ν/. Given the energy-momentum tensor for a perfect fluid and the definition of a test particle in the NGT, the equations of motion follow from the conservation laws. The tensorial piece in the equations of motion describes a new force in nature that acts on the conserved charge in a body. Particles that carry this new charge do not follow geodesic world lines in the NGT, whereas photons do satisfy geodesic equations of motion and the equivalence principle of general relativity. Astronomical predictions, based on the exact static, spherically symmetric solution of the field equations in a vacuum and the test-particle equations of motion, are derived in detail. The maximally extended coordinates that remove the event-horizon singularities in the static, spherically symmetric solution are presented. It is shown how an inward radially falling test particle can be prevented from forming an event horizon for a value greater than a specified critical value of the source charge. If a test particle does fall through an event horizon, then it must continue to fall until it reaches the singularity at r = 0

  15. Test-particle motion in the nonsymmetric gravitation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, J. W.

    1987-06-01

    A derivation of the motion of test particles in the nonsymmetric gravitational theory (NGT) is given using the field equations in the presence of matter. The motion of the particle is governed by the Christoffel symbols, which are formed from the symmetric part of the fundamental tensor gμν, as well as by a tensorial piece determined by the skew part of the contracted curvature tensor Rμν. Given the energy-momentum tensor for a perfect fluid and the definition of a test particle in the NGT, the equations of motion follow from the conservation laws. The tensorial piece in the equations of motion describes a new force in nature that acts on the conserved charge in a body. Particles that carry this new charge do not follow geodesic world lines in the NGT, whereas photons do satisfy geodesic equations of motion and the equivalence principle of general relativity. Astronomical predictions, based on the exact static, spherically symmetric solution of the field equations in a vacuum and the test-particle equations of motion, are derived in detail. The maximally extended coordinates that remove the event-horizon singularities in the static, spherically symmetric solution are presented. It is shown how an inward radially falling test particle can be prevented from forming an event horizon for a value greater than a specified critical value of the source charge. If a test particle does fall through an event horizon, then it must continue to fall until it reaches the singularity at r=0.

  16. Continuous equilibrium scores: factoring in the time before a fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J; Reschke, Millard F; Owen Black, F

    2012-07-01

    The equilibrium (EQ) score commonly used in computerized dynamic posturography is normalized between 0 and 100, with falls assigned a score of 0. The resulting mixed discrete-continuous distribution limits certain statistical analyses and treats all trials with falls equally. We propose a simple modification of the formula in which peak-to-peak sway data from trials with falls is scaled according the percent of the trial completed to derive a continuous equilibrium (cEQ) score. The cEQ scores for trials without falls remain unchanged from the original methodology. The cEQ factors in the time before a fall and results in a continuous variable retaining the central tendencies of the original EQ distribution. A random set of 5315 Sensory Organization Test trials were pooled that included 81 falls. A comparison of the original and cEQ distributions and their rank ordering demonstrated that trials with falls continue to constitute the lower range of scores with the cEQ methodology. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.997) demonstrates that the cEQ retained near-perfect discrimination between trials with and without falls. We conclude that the cEQ score provides the ability to discriminate between ballistic falls from falls that occur later in the trial. This approach of incorporating time and sway magnitude can be easily extended to enhance other balance tests that include fall data or incomplete trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Telephone Care Management of Fall Risk:: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Elizabeth A; Pence, Maureen; Williams, Barbara; MacCornack, Frederick A

    2017-03-01

    Care management has been found to be more effective than usual care for some chronic conditions, but few studies have tested care management for prevention of elder falls. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of telephone care management of older adults presenting for medical attention due to a fall. The setting was an independent practice association in western Washington serving 1,300 Medicare Advantage-insured patients. Patients aged ≥65 years treated for a fall in an emergency department or their primary care provider's office were contacted via telephone by a care manager within 48 hours of their fall-related visit and invited to participate in a telephone-administered interview to identify modifiable fall risk factors and receive recommendations and follow-up to address identified risk factors. Data from care manager records, patient medical records, and healthcare claims for the first 6 months (November 2009-April 2010) of program implementation were analyzed in 2011. The feasibility of screening and management of fall risk factors over the telephone and the effect on medically attended falls were assessed. Twenty-two patients eligible for fall care management were reached and administered the protocol. Administration took 15-20 minutes and integrated easily with the care manager's other responsibilities. Follow-through on recommendations varied, from 45% for those for whom exercise participation was recommended to 100% for other recommendations. No medically attended falls occurred over 6 months of follow-up. Telephone care management of fall risk appears feasible and may reduce falls requiring medical attention. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ICT-based system to predict and prevent falls (iStoppFalls): results from an international multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Yves J; Eichberg, Sabine; Ejupi, Andreas; de Rosario, Helios; Kroll, Michael; Marston, Hannah R; Drobics, Mario; Annegarn, Janneke; Wieching, Rainer; Lord, Stephen R; Aal, Konstantin; Vaziri, Daryoush; Woodbury, Ashley; Fink, Dennis; Delbaere, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are a serious public health issue. Exercise programs can effectively reduce fall risk in older people. The iStoppFalls project developed an Information and Communication Technology-based system to deliver an unsupervised exercise program in older people's homes. The primary aims of the iStoppFalls randomized controlled trial were to assess the feasibility (exercise adherence, acceptability and safety) of the intervention program and its effectiveness on common fall risk factors. A total of 153 community-dwelling people aged 65+ years took part in this international, multicentre, randomized controlled trial. Intervention group participants conducted the exercise program for 16 weeks, with a recommended duration of 120 min/week for balance exergames and 60 min/week for strength exercises. All intervention and control participants received educational material including advice on a healthy lifestyle and fall prevention. Assessments included physical and cognitive tests, and questionnaires for health, fear of falling, number of falls, quality of life and psychosocial outcomes. The median total exercise duration was 11.7 h (IQR = 22.0) over the 16-week intervention period. There were no adverse events. Physiological fall risk (Physiological Profile Assessment, PPA) reduced significantly more in the intervention group compared to the control group (F1,127 = 4.54, p = 0.035). There was a significant three-way interaction for fall risk assessed by the PPA between the high-adherence (>90 min/week; n = 18, 25.4 %), low-adherence (<90 min/week; n = 53, 74.6 %) and control group (F2,125 = 3.12, n = 75, p = 0.044). Post hoc analysis revealed a significantly larger effect in favour of the high-adherence group compared to the control group for fall risk (p = 0.031), postural sway (p = 0.046), stepping reaction time (p = 0.041), executive functioning (p = 0.044), and quality of life (p for

  19. Relationship between subjective fall risk assessment and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimada Hiroyuki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective measurements can be used to identify people with risks of falls, but many frail elderly adults cannot complete physical performance tests. The study examined the relationship between a subjective risk rating of specific tasks (SRRST to screen for fall risks and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people. Methods The SRRST was investigated in 5,062 individuals aged 65 years or older who were utilized day-care services. The SRRST comprised 7 dichotomous questions to screen for fall risks during movements and behaviours such as walking, transferring, and wandering. The history of falls and fall-related fractures during the previous year was reported by participants or determined from an interview with the participant's family and care staff. Results All SRRST items showed significant differences between the participants with and without falls and fall-related fractures. In multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, diseases, and behavioural variables, the SRRST score was independently associated with history of falls and fractures. Odds ratios for those in the high-risk SRRST group (≥ 5 points compared with the no risk SRRST group (0 point were 6.15 (p Conclusion These results suggest that subjective ratings by care staff can be utilized to determine the risks of falls and fall-related fractures in the frail elderly, however, these preliminary results require confirmation in further prospective research.

  20. Patient centered fall risk awareness perspectives: clinical correlates and fall risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Background While objective measures to assess risk of falls in older adults have been established; the value of patient self-reports in the context of falls is not known. Objectives To identify clinical correlates of patient centered fall risk awareness, and their validity for predicting falls. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting and Participants 316 non-demented and ambulatory community-dwelling older adults (mean age 78 years, 55% women). Measurements Fall risk awareness was assessed with a two-item questionnaire, which asked participants about overall likelihood and personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. Incident falls were recorded over study follow-up. Results Fifty-three participants (16.8%) responded positively to the first fall risk awareness question about being likely to have a fall in the next 12 months, and 100 (31.6%) reported being at personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. There was only fair correlation (kappa 0.370) between responses on the two questions. Prior falls and depressive symptoms were associated with positive responses on both fall risk awareness questions. Age and other established fall risk factors were not associated with responses on both fall risk awareness questions. The fall risk awareness questionnaire did not predict incident falls or injurious falls. Conclusion Fall risk awareness is low in older adults. While patient centered fall risk awareness is not predictive of falls, subjective risk perceptions should be considered when designing fall preventive strategies as they may influence participation and behaviors. PMID:27801936

  1. Fall-related activity avoidance in relation to a history of falls or near falls, fear of falling and disease severity in people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Manzur; Iwarsson, Susanne; Odin, Per; Nilsson, Maria H

    2016-06-02

    There is limited knowledge concerning fall-related activity avoidance in people with Parkinson's disease (PD); such knowledge would be of importance for the development of more efficient PD-care and rehabilitation. This study aimed to examine how fall-related activity avoidance relates to a history of self-reported falls/near falls and fear of falling (FOF) as well as to disease severity in people with PD. Data were collected from 251 (61 % men) participants with PD; their median (min-max) age and PD duration were 70 (45-93) and 8 (1-43) years, respectively. A self-administered postal survey preceded a home visit which included observations, clinical tests and interview-administered questionnaires. Fall-related activity avoidance was assessed using the modified Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly (mSAFFE) as well as by using a dichotomous (Yes/No) question. Further dichotomous questions concerned: the presence of FOF and the history (past 6 months) of falls or near falls, followed by stating the number of incidents. Disease severity was assessed according to the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) stages. In the total sample (n = 251), 41 % of the participants reported fall-related activity avoidance; the median mSAFFE score was 22. In relation to a history of fall, the proportions of participants (p fall-related activity avoidance were: non-fallers (30 %), single fallers (50 %) and recurrent fallers, i.e. ≥ 2 falls (57 %). Among those that reported near falls (but no falls), 51 % (26 out of 51) reported fall-related activity avoidance. Of those that reported FOF, 70 % reported fall-related activity avoidance. Fall-related activity avoidance ranged from 24 % in the early PD-stage (HY I) to 74 % in the most severe stages (HY IV-V). Results indicate that fall-related activity avoidance may be related to a history of self-reported falls/near falls, FOF and disease severity in people with PD. Importantly, fall-related activity avoidance is

  2. Mitigating fall risk: A community fall reduction program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, Humberto; McCaffrey, Ruth G; Taylor, David W M

    One fourth of all American's over 65 years of age fall each year. Falls are a common and often devastating event that can pose a serious health risk for older adults. Healthcare providers are often unable to spend the time required to assist older adults with fall risk issues. Without a team approach to fall prevention the system remains focused on fragmented levels of health promotion and risk prevention. The specific aim of this project was to engage older adults from the community in a fall risk assessment program, using the Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths & Injuries (STEADI) program, and provide feedback on individual participants' risks that participants could share with their primary care physician. Older adults who attended the risk screening were taking medications that are known to increase falls. They mentioned that their health care providers do not screen for falls and appreciated a community based screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulation on electrical field distribution and fiber falls in melt electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Chi; An, Ying; He, Xuetao; Yang, Weimin

    2013-07-01

    Electrospinning is now a typical way of direct and consecutive producing nanofibers. In order to comprehensively understand the change of fiber chains in falling process of electrospinning, the article import dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) mesoscale simulation method into electrospinning study. In current work, an electrical force formula is proposed after simulation of the distribution of electrostatic field in electrospinning using Finite Element Method. Then, various electrostatic force, temperature and viscosity in electrospinning system are qualitatively simulated by DPD simulation. Results showed that the falling velocity of fiber increased with the increase of electrostatic force. It was found that the lower the polymer viscosity, the quicker the fiber falls. And the diameter of fiber significantly increased with augment of viscosity. Both of above are agree with experimental results. We also found that the falling velocity of fiber is in contrast with length of polymer chains, which has not been found in experiments.

  4. Person-Centered Fall Risk Awareness Perspectives: Clinical Correlates and Fall Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Joe

    2016-12-01

    To identify clinical correlates of person-centered fall risk awareness and their validity for predicting falls. Prospective cohort study. Community. Ambulatory community-dwelling older adults without dementia (N = 316; mean age 78, 55% female). Fall risk awareness was assessed using a two-item questionnaire that asked participants about overall likelihood of someone in their age group having a fall and their own personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. Incident falls were recorded over study follow-up. Fifty-three participants (16.8%) responded positively to the first fall risk awareness question about being likely to have a fall in the next 12 months, and 100 (31.6%) reported being at personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. There was only fair correlation (κ = 0.370) between responses on the two questions. Prior falls and depressive symptoms were associated with positive responses on both fall risk awareness questions. Age and other established fall risk factors were not associated with responses on either fall risk awareness question. The fall risk awareness questionnaire did not predict incident falls or injurious falls. Fall risk awareness is low in older adults. Although person-centered fall risk awareness is not predictive of falls, subjective risk perceptions should be considered when designing fall preventive strategies because they may influence participation and behaviors. © 2016, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. How Do People with Intellectual Disability Describe the Experience of Falling in Love?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Jenni; Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina

    2017-01-01

    The phenomenon of falling in love among people with intellectual disability has not received much attention in research. In this study, seven Finnish young adults (5 women and 2 men) with mild intellectual disability (ID) were asked about their experiences of falling in love. They were interviewed with a qualitative themed interview method. The…

  6. Student Time Usage during Fall Reading Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ken; Pschibul, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the time usage and levels of perceived stress, academic workload, and recreation time for 177 students at the University of Windsor before, during, and after Fall Reading Week (FRW). Over a three-week span (at various times of the day), students received a message to their smartphone to complete a 20-second survey…

  7. Falls and Fear of Falling After Stroke: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Hui-Ting; Nadarajah, Mohanasuntharaam; Hamzah, Norhamizan Binti; Varadan, Parimalaganthi; Tan, Maw Pin

    2016-12-01

    Falls are common after stroke, with potentially serious consequences. Few investigations have included age-matched control participants to directly compare fall characteristics between older adults with and without stroke. Further, fear of falling, a significant psychological consequence of falls, has only been examined to a limited degree as a risk factor for future falls in a stroke population. To compare the fall history between older adults with and without a previous stroke and to identify the determinants of falls and fear of falling in older stroke survivors. Case-control observational study. Primary teaching hospital. Seventy-five patients with stroke (mean age ± standard deviation, 66 ± 7 years) and 50 age-matched control participants with no previous stroke were tested. Fall history, fear of falling, and physical, cognitive, and psychological function were assessed. A χ 2 test was performed to compare characteristics between groups, and logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors for falls and fear of falling. Fall events in the past 12 months, Fall Efficacy Scale-International, Berg Balance Scale, Functional Ambulation Category, Fatigue Severity Scale, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Patient Healthy Questionnaire-9 were measured for all participants. Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment was used to quantify severity of stroke motor impairments. Twenty-three patients and 13 control participants reported at least one fall in the past 12 months (P = .58). Nine participants with stroke had recurrent falls (≥2 falls) compared with none of the control participants (P falling than did nonstroke control participants (P falls in the nonstroke group, whereas falls in the stroke group were not significantly associated with any measured outcomes. Fear of falling in the stroke group was associated with functional ambulation level and balance. Functional ambulation level alone explained 22% of variance in fear of falling in the stroke group

  8. Determining Whether a Dosage-Specific and Individualized Home Exercise Program With Consults Reduces Fall Risk and Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Difficulty Walking: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Estelle; Stelmach, Maria; Frigeri, Fernanda; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    The development and implementation of effective interventions to prevent falls in older adults is a public health priority. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a new practice model, incorporating Shubert's evidence-based fall prevention recommendations, with the usual ambulatory physical therapy (PT) at Rusk Rehabilitation, to decrease fall risk among older adults living in the community. The hypotheses were (1) the proposed program would decrease participants' fall risk, (2) it would be more effective than our usual PT, and (3) the addition of 4 consults after discharge would improve compliance with a home exercise program. This was a randomized controlled trial. Sixty-nine participants who were independent community dwellers, were 65 years or older, had difficulty walking or complaints of instability, and had 1 or more risk of falls were randomly assigned into a usual care group (UCG, n = 43) or an experimental group (EG, n = 26). Both groups received PT 2 times per week for 30 minutes for 10 to 32 visits. The UCG received the usual PT delivered at Rusk. The EG was instructed in a moderate- to high-intensity home exercise program designed after completing the mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test to assist with exercise prescription. The EG was educated on performing a recommended dosage of exercise over 6 months using a diary. The EG received 4 additional 30-minute consults every 2 to 4 weeks postdischarge to reinforce compliance. Self-report of number of falls, number of minutes of exercise per week, and performance on outcome measures (Timed Up and Go, 5-times sit-to-stand, Berg Balance Scale, and Activity Balance Confidence Scale) were monitored at evaluation, 2, 4, and 6 months. Thirty-five participants completed the study (UCG n = 22; EG n = 13). Both groups were similar at baseline on outcome measures and number of visits. Random effect model analyses demonstrated that both groups made significant reductions in fall risk over 6 months

  9. Analysis of Android Device-Based Solutions for Fall Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Casilari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Falls are a major cause of health and psychological problems as well as hospitalization costs among older adults. Thus, the investigation on automatic Fall Detection Systems (FDSs has received special attention from the research community during the last decade. In this area, the widespread popularity, decreasing price, computing capabilities, built-in sensors and multiplicity of wireless interfaces of Android-based devices (especially smartphones have fostered the adoption of this technology to deploy wearable and inexpensive architectures for fall detection. This paper presents a critical and thorough analysis of those existing fall detection systems that are based on Android devices. The review systematically classifies and compares the proposals of the literature taking into account different criteria such as the system architecture, the employed sensors, the detection algorithm or the response in case of a fall alarms. The study emphasizes the analysis of the evaluation methods that are employed to assess the effectiveness of the detection process. The review reveals the complete lack of a reference framework to validate and compare the proposals. In addition, the study also shows that most research works do not evaluate the actual applicability of the Android devices (with limited battery and computing resources to fall detection solutions.

  10. Analysis of Android Device-Based Solutions for Fall Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casilari, Eduardo; Luque, Rafael; Morón, María-José

    2015-07-23

    Falls are a major cause of health and psychological problems as well as hospitalization costs among older adults. Thus, the investigation on automatic Fall Detection Systems (FDSs) has received special attention from the research community during the last decade. In this area, the widespread popularity, decreasing price, computing capabilities, built-in sensors and multiplicity of wireless interfaces of Android-based devices (especially smartphones) have fostered the adoption of this technology to deploy wearable and inexpensive architectures for fall detection. This paper presents a critical and thorough analysis of those existing fall detection systems that are based on Android devices. The review systematically classifies and compares the proposals of the literature taking into account different criteria such as the system architecture, the employed sensors, the detection algorithm or the response in case of a fall alarms. The study emphasizes the analysis of the evaluation methods that are employed to assess the effectiveness of the detection process. The review reveals the complete lack of a reference framework to validate and compare the proposals. In addition, the study also shows that most research works do not evaluate the actual applicability of the Android devices (with limited battery and computing resources) to fall detection solutions.

  11. Analysis of Android Device-Based Solutions for Fall Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casilari, Eduardo; Luque, Rafael; Morón, María-José

    2015-01-01

    Falls are a major cause of health and psychological problems as well as hospitalization costs among older adults. Thus, the investigation on automatic Fall Detection Systems (FDSs) has received special attention from the research community during the last decade. In this area, the widespread popularity, decreasing price, computing capabilities, built-in sensors and multiplicity of wireless interfaces of Android-based devices (especially smartphones) have fostered the adoption of this technology to deploy wearable and inexpensive architectures for fall detection. This paper presents a critical and thorough analysis of those existing fall detection systems that are based on Android devices. The review systematically classifies and compares the proposals of the literature taking into account different criteria such as the system architecture, the employed sensors, the detection algorithm or the response in case of a fall alarms. The study emphasizes the analysis of the evaluation methods that are employed to assess the effectiveness of the detection process. The review reveals the complete lack of a reference framework to validate and compare the proposals. In addition, the study also shows that most research works do not evaluate the actual applicability of the Android devices (with limited battery and computing resources) to fall detection solutions. PMID:26213928

  12. Fear of falling as seen in the Multidisciplinary falls consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxatte, C; Nguyen, T; Chourabi, F; Salleron, J; Pardessus, V; Delabrière, I; Thévenon, A; Puisieux, F

    2011-06-01

    Fear of falling may be as debilitating as the fall itself, leading to a restriction in activities and even a loss of autonomy. The main objective was to evaluate the prevalence of the fear of falling among elderly fallers. The secondary objectives were to determine the factors associated with the fear of falling and evaluate the impact of this fear on the activity "getting out of the house". Prospective study conducted between 1995 and 2006 in which fallers and patients at high risk for falling were seen at baseline by the multidisciplinary falls consultation team (including a geriatrician, a neurologist and a physical medicine and rehabilitation physician) and then, again 6 month later, by the same geriatrician. The fear of falling was evaluated with a yes/no question: "are you afraid of falling?". Out of 635 patients with a mean age of 80.6 years, 502 patients (78%) expressed a fear of falling. Patients with fear of falling were not older than those who did not report this fear, but the former were mostly women (Pfear of falling were not going out alone as much as the fearless group (31% vs 53%, Pfearful group admitted to avoiding going out because they were afraid of falling. The strong prevalence of the fear of falling observed in this population and its consequences in terms of restricted activities justifies systematically screening for it in fallers or patients at risk for falling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The fallacy of the cognitive free fall in communication metaphor - a semiotic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellefsen, Martin Muderspach; Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    This article is a theoretical analysis of the cognitive free fall metaphor, used within the cognitive view, as model for explaining the communication process between a generator and receiver of a message. The aim is to demonstrate that the idea of a cognitive free fall taking place within...... as a complex interrelation of emotion, information and cognition....

  14. High fall incidence and fracture rate in elderly dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinder-Bos, H A; Emmelot-Vonk, M H; Gansevoort, R T; Diepenbroek, A; Gaillard, C A J M

    2014-12-01

    Although it is recognised that the dialysis population is ageing rapidly, geriatric complications such as falls are poorly appreciated, despite the many risk factors for falls in this population. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, complications and risk factors for falls in an elderly dialysis population. A one-year observational study of chronic dialysis patients aged ≥ 70 years. At baseline, patient characteristics were noted and during follow-up the vital parameters and laboratory values were recorded. Patients were questioned weekly about falls, fall circumstances and consequences by trained nurses. 49 patients were included with a median age of 79.3 years (70-89 years). During follow-up 40 fall accidents occurred in 27 (55%) patients. Falls resulted in fractures in 15% of cases and in hospital admissions in 15%. In haemodialysis (HD) patients, the mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) before HD was lower in fallers compared with non-fallers (130 vs. 143 mmHg). Several patients in the lower blood pressure category received antihypertensive medication. For every 5 mmHg lower SBP (before HD) the fall risk increased by 30% (hazard ratio (HR) 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.65, p = 0.03). Furthermore, fall risk increased by 22% for every 10 pmol/l rise of parathyroid hormone (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.39, p = 0.004). Elderly dialysis patients have a high incidence of falls accompanied by a high fracture rate. Given the high complication rate, elderly patients at risk of falling should be identified and managed. Reduction of blood pressure-lowering medication might be a treatment strategy to reduce falls.

  15. Compact particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2017-08-29

    A compact particle accelerator having an input portion configured to receive power to produce particles for acceleration, where the input portion includes a switch, is provided. In a general embodiment, a vacuum tube receives particles produced from the input portion at a first end, and a plurality of wafer stacks are positioned serially along the vacuum tube. Each of the plurality of wafer stacks include a dielectric and metal-oxide pair, wherein each of the plurality of wafer stacks further accelerate the particles in the vacuum tube. A beam shaper coupled to a second end of the vacuum tube shapes the particles accelerated by the plurality of wafer stacks into a beam and an output portion outputs the beam.

  16. Falling and fall risk in adult patients with severe haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Hanna; Schmolders, Jan; Koob, Sebastian; Bornemann, Rahel; Goldmann, Georg; Oldenburg, Johannes; Pennekamp, Peter; Strauss, Andreas C

    2017-05-10

    The objective of this study was to define fall rates and to identify possible fall risk factors in adult patients with severe haemophilia. 147 patients with severe haemophilia A and B were evaluated using a standardized test battery consisting of demographic, medical and clinical variables and fall evaluation. 41 (27.9 %) patients reported a fall in the past 12 months, 22 (53.7 %) of them more than once. Young age, subjective gait insecurity and a higher number of artificial joints seem to be risk factors for falling. Falls seem to be a common phenomenon in patients with severe haemophilia. Fall risk screening and fall prevention should be implemented into daily practice.

  17. Falling through the black hole horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the fate of a small classical object, a “stick”, as it falls through the horizon of a large black hole (BH). Classically, the equivalence principle dictates that the stick is affected by small tidal forces, and Hawking’s quantum-mechanical model of BH evaporation makes essentially the same prediction. If, on the other hand, the BH horizon is surrounded by a “firewall”, the stick will be consumed as it falls through. We have recently extended Hawking’s model by taking into account the quantum fluctuations of the geometry and the classical back-reaction of the emitted particles. Here, we calculate the strain exerted on the falling stick for our model. The strain depends on the near-horizon state of the Hawking pairs. We find that, after the Page time when the state of the pairs deviates significantly from maximal entanglement (as required by unitarity), the induced strain in our semiclassical model is still parametrically small. This is because the number of the disentangled pairs is parametrically smaller than the BH entropy. A firewall does, however, appear if the number of disentangled pairs near the horizon is of order of the BH entropy, as implicitly assumed in previous discussions in the literature.

  18. Effectiveness of a fall-risk reduction programme for inpatient rehabilitation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goljar, Nika; Globokar, Daniel; Puzić, Nataša; Kopitar, Natalija; Vrabič, Maja; Ivanovski, Matic; Vidmar, Gaj

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate effectiveness of fall-risk-assessment-based fall prevention for stroke rehabilitation inpatients. A consecutive series of 232 patients admitted for the first time to a subacute stroke-rehabilitation ward during 2010-2011 was studied in detail. The Assessment Sheet for Fall Prediction in Stroke Inpatients (ASFPSI by Nakagawa et al.) was used to assess fall-risk upon admission. Association of ASFPSI score and patient characteristics with actual falls was statistically tested. Yearly incidence of falls per 1000 hospital days (HD) was retrospectively audited for the 2006-2014 period to evaluate effectiveness of fall-risk reduction measures. The observed incidence of falls over the detailed-study-period was 3.0/1000 HD; 39% of the fallers fell during the first week after admission. ASFPSI score was not significantly associated with falls. Longer hospital stay, left body-side affected and non-extreme FIM score (55-101) were associated with higher odds of fall. Introduction of fall-risk reduction measures followed by compulsory fall-risk assessment lead to incidence of falls dropping from 7.1/1000 HD in 2006 to 2.8/1000 HD in 2011 and remaining at that level until 2014. The fall-risk-assessment-based measures appear to have led to decreasing falls risk among post-stroke rehabilitation inpatients classified as being at high risk of falls. The fall prevention programme as a whole was successful. Patients with non-extreme level of functional independence should receive enhanced fall prevention. Implications for Rehabilitation Recognising the fall risk upon the patient's admission is essential for preventing falls in rehabilitation wards. Assessing the fall risk is a team tasks and combines information from various sources. Assessing fall risk in stroke patients using the assessment sheet by Nakagawa et al. immediately upon admission systematically draws attention to the risk of falls in each individual patient.

  19. The prevention of falls in later life. A report of the Kellogg International Work Group on the Prevention of Falls by the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    Although falls among the elderly carry high costs to individuals and society, the prevention of falls in later life has not received adequate attention from health care professionals. The prevalence of falls appears to involve roughly one-third of persons aged 65 and over, and the risk of falling and suffering serious injury increases substantially up to the eighth decade of life. The proportion of falls which result in fracture is low, but the absolute number of older people who suffer fractures is high and places heavy demands on health care systems. Even falls which result in no physical injury often have serious social and psychological consequences for the elderly, including loss of confidence and restrictions in mobility, and high proportions of older people report fears of falling. There is a need to provide accurate information about the causes and prevention of falls in later life. Falls are not part of the normal aging process. Rather, they are due to underlying physical illnesses, medications, and environmental hazards, often in interaction. This report provides an overview of the elderly population at risk of falling and suffering serious injury, some of the reasons older people fall, and the methods to prevent falls which have been developed in both community and institutional settings. In addition, it suggests some of the practical steps which can be taken by health and social care professionals and by older people and their families in order to prevent falls. Empirical knowledge about the causes of falls by the elderly and the most effective methods of prevention remains limited. Major barriers to research have been the lack of a clear definition of a fall and the fact that falls are not included in medical diagnostic indices. It is recommended that falls be recorded as a disease entity in Index Medicus and in the International Classification of Diseases Xth Revision. To facilitate future comparisons of research findings on falls, a definition of a

  20. Υ(1S)→γ+noninteracting particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balest, R.; Cho, K.; Ford, T.; Johnson, D.R.; Lingel, K.; Lohner, M.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.P.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Bloom, K.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cho, H.A.; Coffman, D.M.; Crowcroft, D.S.; Drell, P.S.; Dumas, D.; Ehrlich, R.; Gaidarev, P.; Galik, R.S.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Geiser, B.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Henderson, S.; Jones, C.D.; Jones, S.L.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P.C.; Kreinick, D.L.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Salman, S.; Sapper, M.; Wuerthwein, F.; Urish, M.M.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Yang, S.; Yelton, J.; Cinabro, D.; Liu, T.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Bergfeld, T.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Gollin, G.; Ong, B.; Palmer, M.; Selen, M.; Thaler, J.J.; Edwards, K.W.; Ogg, M.; Bellerive, A.; Britton, D.I.; Hyatt, E.R.F.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Patel, P.M.; Spaan, B.; Sadoff, A.J.; Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Besson, D.; Coppage, D.; Copty, N.; Davis, R.; Hancock, N.; Kelly, M.; Kotov, S.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Momayezi, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Patton, S.; Poling, R.; Savinov, V.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Ling, Z.; Mahmood, A.H.; O'Neill, J.J.; Severini, H.; Sun, C.R.; Wappler, F.; Crawford, G.; Daubenmier, C.M.; Fulton, R.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Sung, M.; White, C.; Zoeller, M.M.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Nemati, B.; Ross, W.R.; Skubic, P.; Wood, M.; Bishai, M.; Fast, J.; Gerndt, E.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miao, T.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Payne, D.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Wang, P.N.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Gibbons, L.; Kwon, Y.; Roberts, S.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.H.; Dominick, J.; Lambrecht, M.; Sanghera, S.; Shelkov, V.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stroynowski, R.; Volobouev, I.; Wei, G.; Zadorozhny, P.; Artuso, M.; Gao, M.; Goldberg, M.; He, D.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the decay of Υ(1S) particles produced at CESR into a photon which is observed by the CLEO detector plus particles which are not seen. These could be real particles which fall outside of our acceptance, or particles which are noninteracting. We report the results of our search fo the process Υ(1S)→γ+''unseen'' for photon energies >1 GeV, obtaining limits for the case where ''unseen'' is either a single particle or a particle-antiparticle pair. Our upper limits represent the highest sensitivity measurements for such decays to date

  1. Tailored education for older patients to facilitate engagement in falls prevention strategies after hospital discharge--a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Hill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aims of the study were to evaluate the effect of providing tailored falls prevention education in hospital on: i engagement in targeted falls prevention behaviors in the month after discharge: ii patients' self-perceived risk and knowledge about falls and falls prevention strategies after receiving the education. METHODS: A pilot randomized controlled trial (n = 50: baseline and outcome assessments conducted by blinded researchers. PARTICIPANTS: hospital inpatients 60 years or older, discharged to the community. Participants were randomized into two groups. The intervention was a tailored education package consisting of multimedia falls prevention information with trained health professional follow-up, delivered in addition to usual care. Outcome measures were engagement in falls prevention behaviors in the month after discharge measured at one month after discharge with a structured survey, and participants' knowledge, confidence and motivation levels before and after receiving the education. The feasibility of providing the intervention was examined and falls outcomes (falls, fall-related injuries were also collected. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients (98% provided follow-up data. The complete package was provided to 21 (84% intervention group participants. Participants in the intervention group were significantly more likely to plan how to safely restart functional activities [Adjusted odds ratio 3.80, 95% CI (1.07, 13.52, p = 0.04] and more likely to complete other targeted behaviors such as completing their own home exercise program [Adjusted odds ratio 2.76, 95% CI (0.72, 10.50, p = 0.14] than the control group. The intervention group was significantly more knowledgeable, confident and motivated to engage in falls prevention strategies after receiving the education than the control group. There were 23 falls (n = 5 intervention; n = 18 control and falls rates were 5.4/1000 patient days (intervention; 18.7/1000 patient days

  2. A low noise 665 GHz SIS quasi-particle waveguide receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, J. W.; Walker, C. K.; Leduc, H. G.; Hunter, T. R.; Benford, D. J.; Phillips, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    Recent results on a 565-690 GHz SIS heterodyne receiver employing a 0.36 micron(sup 2) Nb/AlOx/Nb SIS tunnel junction with high quality circular non-contacting back short and E-plane tuners in a full height wave guide mount are reported. No resonant tuning structures were incorporated in the junction design at this time, even though such structures are expected to help the performance of the receiver. The receiver operates to at least the gap frequency of Niobium, approximately 680 GHz. Typical receiver noise temperatures from 565-690 GHz range from 160K to 230K with a best value of 185K DSB at 648 GHz. With the mixer cooled from 4.3K to 2K the measured receiver noise temperatures decreased by approximately 15 percent, giving roughly 180K DSB from 660 to 680 GHz. The receiver has a full 1 GHz IF pass band and was successfully installed at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory in Hawaii.

  3. [Cost] effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs versus conservative treatment in older fallers: design of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (IMPROveFALL-study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartholt, Klaas A; Boyé, Nicole D A; Van der Velde, Nathalie; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; Polinder, Suzanne; De Vries, Oscar J; Kerver, Albert J H; Ziere, Gijsbertus; Bruijninckx, Milko M M; De Vries, Mark R; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Uitterlinden, André G; Van Beeck, Ed F; Lips, Paul; Patka, Peter; Van der Cammen, Tischa J M

    2011-08-21

    Fall incidents represent an increasing public health problem in aging societies worldwide. A major risk factor for falls is the use of fall-risk increasing drugs. The primary aim of the study is to compare the effect of a structured medication assessment including the withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs on the number of new falls versus 'care as usual' in older adults presenting at the Emergency Department after a fall. A prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled trial will be conducted in hospitals in the Netherlands. Persons aged ≥65 years who visit the Emergency Department due to a fall are invited to participate in this trial. All patients receive a full geriatric assessment at the research outpatient clinic. Patients are randomized between a structured medication assessment including withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs and 'care as usual'. A 3-monthly falls calendar is used for assessing the number of falls, fallers and associated injuries over a one-year follow-up period. Measurements will be at three, six, nine, and twelve months and include functional outcome, healthcare consumption, socio-demographic characteristics, and clinical information. After twelve months a second visit to the research outpatient clinic will be performed, and adherence to the new medication regimen in the intervention group will be measured. The primary outcome will be the incidence of new falls. Secondary outcome measurements are possible health effects of medication withdrawal, health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 and EuroQol-5D), costs, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Data will be analyzed using an intention-to-treat analysis. The successful completion of this trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs in older patients as a method for falls reduction. The trial is registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1593).

  4. [Cost]effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs versus conservative treatment in older fallers: design of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (IMPROveFALL-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattace-Raso Francesco US

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Fall incidents represent an increasing public health problem in aging societies worldwide. A major risk factor for falls is the use of fall-risk increasing drugs. The primary aim of the study is to compare the effect of a structured medication assessment including the withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs on the number of new falls versus 'care as usual' in older adults presenting at the Emergency Department after a fall. Methods/Design A prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled trial will be conducted in hospitals in the Netherlands. Persons aged ≥65 years who visit the Emergency Department due to a fall are invited to participate in this trial. All patients receive a full geriatric assessment at the research outpatient clinic. Patients are randomized between a structured medication assessment including withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs and 'care as usual'. A 3-monthly falls calendar is used for assessing the number of falls, fallers and associated injuries over a one-year follow-up period. Measurements will be at three, six, nine, and twelve months and include functional outcome, healthcare consumption, socio-demographic characteristics, and clinical information. After twelve months a second visit to the research outpatient clinic will be performed, and adherence to the new medication regimen in the intervention group will be measured. The primary outcome will be the incidence of new falls. Secondary outcome measurements are possible health effects of medication withdrawal, health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 and EuroQol-5D, costs, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Data will be analyzed using an intention-to-treat analysis. Discussion The successful completion of this trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs in older patients as a method for falls reduction. Trial Registration The trial is registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1593

  5. Effluent dispersion in natural water receivers (tracer examination)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpilowski, S.; Owczarczyk, A.; Chmielewski, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    Tracer methods constitute very convenient means for observation and examination of effluent dispersion and dilution processes in natural water receivers. In the report there are presented methods developed and used by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT) to measure mixing parameters in natural streams to determine distances of complete transverse mixing as well as to assess and predict dispersion of sewage in large water reservoirs. There are also presented the methods of predicting initial stage of dispersion of sewage discharged into large water reservoirs through underwater out falls and the method for determining the decomposition rates of effluent entering a natural water receiver. The methods presented can be used in analysis of pollution in a given water region, in selection of optimal sewage out fall locations as well as in prediction of effluent dilution intensity at different hydro- and meteorological conditions. (author). 27 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs

  6. The falls and the fear of falling among elderly institutionalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study it is intended to characterize the history of falls and to evaluate the fear to fall in aged institutionalized. The sample is composed for 113 institutionalized aged people, 32 men and 81 women with a average 82,96 ± 7,03 age of years. The data had been collected by means of a questionnaire and statistical analyzed (descriptive statistics, parametric tests - Test T and Anova - Test U-Mann Whitney, and Test of Kruskal-Wallis – and the Test of Tukey. The results point in the direction of that the women present a bigger number of falls (24.8% and greater fear to fall (Med=55. The falls had occurred in its majority in the context of the room of the institutions. It was verified that people who had at least a fall experience present greater fear to fall comparatively (Med=55 with that they had not the same had no incident of fall in period of time (Med=77. Our results come to strengthen the hypothesis of the changeable sex to be able to be considered a factor of fall risk. Aged that they present a history of falls seems to be more vulnerable to develop the fear to fall.

  7. Falls efficacy, postural balance, and risk for falls in older adults with falls-related emergency department visits: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Yong-Hao; Ong, Peck-Hoon; Clark, Ross Allan; Matcher, David B; Lim, Edwin Choon-Wyn

    2017-12-21

    Risk for falls in older adults has been associated with falls efficacy (self-perceived confidence in performing daily physical activities) and postural balance, but available evidence is limited and mixed. We examined the interaction between falls efficacy and postural balance and its association with future falls. We also investigated the association between falls efficacy and gait decline. Falls efficacy, measured by the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES), and standing postural balance, measured using computerized posturography on a balance board, were obtained from 247 older adults with a falls-related emergency department visit. Six-month prospective fall rate and habitual gait speed at 6 months post baseline assessment were also measured. In multivariable proportional odds analyses adjusted for potential confounders, falls efficacy modified the association between postural balance and fall risk (interaction P = 0.014): increasing falls efficacy accentuated the increased fall risk related to poor postural balance. Low baseline falls efficacy was strongly predictive of worse gait speed (0.11 m/s [0.06 to 0.16] slower gait speed per IQR decrease in MFES; P falls efficacy but poor postural balance were at greater risk for falls than those with low falls efficacy; however, low baseline falls efficacy was strongly associated with worse gait function at follow-up. Further research into these subgroups of older adults is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01713543 .

  8. Concept of a utility scale dispatch able solar thermal electricity plant with an indirect particle receiver in a single tower layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karl; Haider, Markus; Haemmerle, Martin; Steiner, Peter; Obermaier, Michael-Dario

    2016-05-01

    Flexible dispatch able solar thermal electricity plants applying state of the art power cycles have the potential of playing a vital role in modern electricity systems and even participating in the ancillary market. By replacing molten salt via particles, operation temperatures can be increased and plant efficiencies of over 45 % can be reached. In this work the concept for a utility scale plant using corundum as storage/heat transfer material is thermodynamically modeled and its key performance data are cited. A novel indirect fluidized bed particle receiver concept is presented, profiting from a near black body behavior being able to heat up large particle flows by realizing temperature cycles over 500°C. Specialized fluidized bed steam-generators are applied with negligible auxiliary power demand. The performance of the key components is discussed and a rough sketch of the plant is provided.

  9. Falls prevention and balance rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis: a bi-centre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Davide; Rasova, Kamila; Gervasoni, Elisa; Dobrovodská, Gabriela; Montesano, Angelo; Jonsdottir, Johanna

    2018-03-01

    People with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS) have a high incidence of accidental falls that have a potentially detrimental effect on their daily life participation. The effect of balance specific rehabilitation on clinical balance measures and frequency of falls in PwMS was studied. A bi-centre randomised rater-blinded controlled trial. Participants in both groups received 20 treatment sessions. Participants in the intervention group received treatment aimed at improving balance and mobility. Participants in the control group received treatments to reduce limitations at activity and body function level. Primary measures were frequency of fallers (>1 fall in two months) and responders (>3 points improvement) at the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Data was analysed according to an intention to treat approach. One hundred and nineteen participants were randomised. Following treatment frequency of fallers was 22% in the intervention group and 23% in the control group, odds ratio (OR) and (confidence limits): 1.05 (0.41 to 2.77). Responders on the BBS were 28% in the intervention group and 33% in the control group, OR = 0.75 (0.30 to 1.91). At follow up ORs for fallers and responders at BBS were 0.98 (0.48 to 2.01) and 0.79 (0.26 to 2.42), respectively. Twenty sessions 2-3 times/week of balance specific rehabilitation did not reduce fall frequency nor improve balance suggesting the need for more frequent and challenging interventions. Implications for Rehabilitation Programs for balance rehabilitation can improve balance but their effects in fall prevention are unclear. Twenty treatments sessions 2/3 times per week did not reduced frequency of falls in MS. The comparison with similar studies suggests that higher intensity of practice of highly challenging balance activities appears to be critical to maximizing effectiveness.

  10. Falls Assessment Clinical Trial (FACT: design, interventions, recruitment strategies and participant characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawton Beverley

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines recommend multifactorial intervention programmes to prevent falls in older adults but there are few randomised controlled trials in a real life health care setting. We describe the rationale, intervention, study design, recruitment strategies and baseline characteristics of participants in a randomised controlled trial of a multifactorial falls prevention programme in primary health care. Methods Participants are patients from 19 primary care practices in Hutt Valley, New Zealand aged 75 years and over who have fallen in the past year and live independently. Two recruitment strategies were used – waiting room screening and practice mail-out. Intervention participants receive a community based nurse assessment of falls and fracture risk factors, home hazards, referral to appropriate community interventions, and strength and balance exercise programme. Control participants receive usual care and social visits. Outcome measures include number of falls and injuries over 12 months, balance, strength, falls efficacy, activities of daily living, quality of life, and physical activity levels. Results 312 participants were recruited (69% women. Of those who had fallen, 58% of people screened in the practice waiting rooms and 40% when screened by practice letter were willing to participate. Characteristics of participants recruited using the two methods are similar (p > 0.05. Mean age of all participants was 81 years (SD 5. On average participants have 7 medical conditions, take 5.5 medications (29% on psychotropics with a median of 2 falls (interquartile range 1, 3 in the previous year. Conclusion The two recruitment strategies and the community based intervention delivery were feasible and successful, identifying a high risk group with multiple falls. Recruitment in the waiting room gave higher response rates but was less efficient than practice mail-out. Testing the effectiveness of an evidence based intervention in a

  11. A piece of paper falling faster than free fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, F; Rivera, R

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls with acceleration g. To test if the paper falls behind the book in a nearly free fall motion or if it is dragged by the book, we designed a version of this experiment that includes a ball and a piece of paper over a book that is forced to fall using elastic cords. We recorded a video of our experiment using a high-speed video camera at 300 frames per second that shows that the book and the paper fall faster than the ball, which falls well behind the book with an acceleration approximately equal to g. Our experiment shows that the piece of paper is dragged behind the book and therefore the paper and book demonstration should not be used to show that all objects fall with acceleration g independently of their mass.

  12. A piece of paper falling faster than free fall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, F; Rivera, R, E-mail: fvera@ucv.cl [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de ValparaIso, Av. Universidad 330, Curauma, ValparaIso (Chile)

    2011-09-15

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls with acceleration g. To test if the paper falls behind the book in a nearly free fall motion or if it is dragged by the book, we designed a version of this experiment that includes a ball and a piece of paper over a book that is forced to fall using elastic cords. We recorded a video of our experiment using a high-speed video camera at 300 frames per second that shows that the book and the paper fall faster than the ball, which falls well behind the book with an acceleration approximately equal to g. Our experiment shows that the piece of paper is dragged behind the book and therefore the paper and book demonstration should not be used to show that all objects fall with acceleration g independently of their mass.

  13. Falling in the elderly: Do statistical models matter for performance criteria of fall prediction? Results from two large population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeshova, Anastasiia; Launay, Cyrille P; Gromov, Vasilii A; Fantino, Bruno; Levinoff, Elise J; Allali, Gilles; Beauchet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    To compare performance criteria (i.e., sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, area under receiver operating characteristic curve and accuracy) of linear and non-linear statistical models for fall risk in older community-dwellers. Participants were recruited in two large population-based studies, "Prévention des Chutes, Réseau 4" (PCR4, n=1760, cross-sectional design, retrospective collection of falls) and "Prévention des Chutes Personnes Agées" (PCPA, n=1765, cohort design, prospective collection of falls). Six linear statistical models (i.e., logistic regression, discriminant analysis, Bayes network algorithm, decision tree, random forest, boosted trees), three non-linear statistical models corresponding to artificial neural networks (multilayer perceptron, genetic algorithm and neuroevolution of augmenting topologies [NEAT]) and the adaptive neuro fuzzy interference system (ANFIS) were used. Falls ≥1 characterizing fallers and falls ≥2 characterizing recurrent fallers were used as outcomes. Data of studies were analyzed separately and together. NEAT and ANFIS had better performance criteria compared to other models. The highest performance criteria were reported with NEAT when using PCR4 database and falls ≥1, and with both NEAT and ANFIS when pooling data together and using falls ≥2. However, sensitivity and specificity were unbalanced. Sensitivity was higher than specificity when identifying fallers, whereas the converse was found when predicting recurrent fallers. Our results showed that NEAT and ANFIS were non-linear statistical models with the best performance criteria for the prediction of falls but their sensitivity and specificity were unbalanced, underscoring that models should be used respectively for the screening of fallers and the diagnosis of recurrent fallers. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Temporal Patterns of In-Hospital Falls of Elderly Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soto, Pablo J; Smolensky, Michael H; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda L; De Giorgi, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Borrego, María A; Manfredini, Roberto; Pelati, Cristiano; Fabbian, Fabio

    A potentially important factor yet to receive adequate study is the time when hospital falls occur. A prior study conducted before the system-wide introduction of preventive measures revealed a biphasic 24-hour pattern of hospital falls with major peak in the morning. The purpose was to identify the temporal patterning of falls among elderly patients in hospitals with comprehensive fall prevention programs in place. A 4-year observational study was conducted by the local health authority in the five nonteaching public hospitals located in the province of Ferrara, Italy. Fall records involving patients of ages ≥65 years hospitalized in the general medical departments were used. Single- and multiple-component cosinor (time series) analyses were used to explore 24-hour, weekly, and annual patterns of falls. A total of 763 falls were experienced by 709 different elderly hospitalized patients. Falls typically took place in the patient's hospital room (72%) and bathroom (23%). Major causes were patient instability (32%) and accident (13%), and most occurred when not wearing footwear (45%) or wearing inappropriate sling-back open-toe shoes (39%). Falls happened while standing (39%), while seated (21%), and while getting into, out of, or laying in bed (32%)-either with the bed rails raised or lowered. Fall outcome usually involved no injury (58%) or slight injury (35%), but some (7%) were disabling. Fall occurrence was higher during the night (46%) compared to either the morning (30%) or afternoon (24%) shift. Patterns across 24 hours were characterized by a single major and one or more minor peaks that seemed to be associated with a variety of scheduled patient, hospital, and nursing activities. Multiple-component cosinor analysis identified significant (p footwear. Falls were more frequent, but not significantly so, on Fridays, Sundays, and Mondays compared with Tuesdays, and were more frequent in winter and spring (p = .003). Documentation by cause and circumstance of

  15. Valencia 93: The summary of particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1994-07-01

    The International School on Cosmological Dark Matter held in Valencia in the fall of 1993 was devoted to the interplay of cosmology and particle physics, with the obvious emphasis on the Dark Matter issue. Here I present the expanded version of my summary talk regarding the particle physics theory part of the School. (author). 13 refs

  16. [Development of a portable fall risk index for elderly people living in the community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Kenji; Okochi, Jiro; Takahashi, Tai; Matsubayashi, Kozo; Nishinaga, Masanori; Yamada, Shizuru; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Nishijima, Reiko; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Machida, Ayako; Akishita, Masahiro; Sasaki, Hidetada

    2005-05-01

    To develop a portable risk index for falls. Risk factors were chosen from previously established factors then we added several environmental factors to the risk index; previous falls in the last 12 month, trippig or stumbling, inability to ascend or descend stairs without help, decreased walking speed, inability to cross a road within the green signal interval, inability to walk 1km without a break, inability to stand on one leg for 5 seconds (eyes open), using a cane, inability to wring out a towel, dizziness or faintness, stooped or rounded back, knee joint pain, visual disturbance, hearing disturbance, cognitive decline, fear of falling, receiving 5 or more prescribed drugs, sensation of darkness at home, obstacles inside, barrier on the carpet or floor, using steps daily at home, steep slopes around home. The questionnaire sheet was completed by 2,439 community-dwelling elderly subjects (76.3 +/- 7.4 years old). The frequency of each items of fall risk index was compared between fallers (history of fall within one year) and non-fallers. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for previous falls. Except barrier, step use and steep slope around home, all items in the fall risk index were more frequent in fallers. Multivariate analysis revealed that tripping or stumbling, inability to cross a road within the green signal interval, dizziness or faintness, obstacles inside, inability to wring out a towel, cane use and knee joint pain were independent risk factors for previous falls. These 7 selected items were further analyzed as predictors. The maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity was reached at the cut-off point of 2/3 (sensitivity 0.65, specificity 0.72) by receiver operating curve. Portable fall risk index is useful for clinical settings to identify high-risk subjects.

  17. Influence of a falling edge on high power microwave pulse combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiawei; Huang, Wenhua; Zhu, Qi; Xiao, Renzhen; Shao, Hao

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an explanation of the influence of a microwave falling edge on high-power microwave pulse combination. Through particle-in-cell simulations, we discover that the falling edge is the driving factor that limits the output power of the combined pulses. We demonstrate that the space charge field, which accumulates to become comparable to the E-field at the falling edge of the former pulse, will trap the electrons in the gas layer and decrease its energy to attain a high ionization rate. Hence, avalanche discharge, caused by trapped electrons, makes the plasma density to approach the critical density and cuts off the latter microwave pulse. An X-band combination experiment is conducted with different pulse intervals. This experiment confirms that the high density plasma induced by the falling edge can cut off the latter pulse, and that the time required for plasma recombination in the transmission channel is several microseconds. To ensure a high output power for combined pulses, the latter pulse should be moved ahead of the falling edge of the former one, and consequently, a beat wave with high peak power becomes the output by adding two pulses with normal amplitudes.

  18. Fall detection using supervised machine learning algorithms: A comparative study

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil; Harrou, Fouzi; Houacine, Amrane; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Fall incidents are considered as the leading cause of disability and even mortality among older adults. To address this problem, fall detection and prevention fields receive a lot of intention over the past years and attracted many researcher efforts. We present in the current study an overall performance comparison between fall detection systems using the most popular machine learning approaches which are: Naïve Bayes, K nearest neighbor, neural network, and support vector machine. The analysis of the classification power associated to these most widely utilized algorithms is conducted on two fall detection databases namely FDD and URFD. Since the performance of the classification algorithm is inherently dependent on the features, we extracted and used the same features for all classifiers. The classification evaluation is conducted using different state of the art statistical measures such as the overall accuracy, the F-measure coefficient, and the area under ROC curve (AUC) value.

  19. Fall detection using supervised machine learning algorithms: A comparative study

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil

    2017-01-05

    Fall incidents are considered as the leading cause of disability and even mortality among older adults. To address this problem, fall detection and prevention fields receive a lot of intention over the past years and attracted many researcher efforts. We present in the current study an overall performance comparison between fall detection systems using the most popular machine learning approaches which are: Naïve Bayes, K nearest neighbor, neural network, and support vector machine. The analysis of the classification power associated to these most widely utilized algorithms is conducted on two fall detection databases namely FDD and URFD. Since the performance of the classification algorithm is inherently dependent on the features, we extracted and used the same features for all classifiers. The classification evaluation is conducted using different state of the art statistical measures such as the overall accuracy, the F-measure coefficient, and the area under ROC curve (AUC) value.

  20. Preliminary results of a novel hay-hole fall prevention initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Erich K; Gross, Brian W; Jammula, Shreya; Bradburn, Eric H; Baier, Ronald D; Reihart, Michael J; Murphy, Dennis; Moyer, Kay; Hess, Joseph; Lackmann, Susan; Miller, Jo Ann; Rogers, Frederick B

    2018-02-01

    Hay-hole falls are a prevalent source of trauma among Anabaptists-particularly Anabaptist youth. We sought to decrease hay-hole falls in South Central Pennsylvania through the development and distribution of all-weather hay-hole covers to members of the at-risk Anabaptist community. Following the creation of a rural trauma prevention syndicate, hay-hole cover prototypes co-designed and endorsed by the Pennsylvania Amish Safety Committee were developed and distributed throughout South Central Pennsylvania. Preintervention and postintervention surveys were distributed to recipients to gain an understanding of the hay-hole fall problem in this population, to provide insight into the acceptance of the cover within the community, and to determine the efficacy of the cover in preventing falls. A total of 231 hay-hole covers were distributed throughout eight rural trauma-prone counties in Pennsylvania. According to preintervention survey data, 52% of cover recipients reported at least one hay-hole fall on their property, with 46% reporting multiple falls (median fall rate, 1.00 [1.00-2.00] hay-hole falls per respondent). The median self-reported distance from hay-hole to ground floor was 10.0 (8.00-12.0) feet, and the median number of hay-holes present on-property was 3.00 (2.00-4.00) per respondent. Postintervention survey data found 98% compliance with hay-hole cover installation and no subsequent reported hay-hole falls. With the support of the Pennsylvania Amish Safety Committee, we developed a well-received hay-hole cover which could effectively reduce fall trauma across other rural communities in the United States. Epidemiological study, Level III.

  1. A variational technique to estimate snowfall rate from coincident radar, snowflake, and fall-speed observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Steven J.; Wood, Norman B.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.

    2017-07-01

    Estimates of snowfall rate as derived from radar reflectivities alone are non-unique. Different combinations of snowflake microphysical properties and particle fall speeds can conspire to produce nearly identical snowfall rates for given radar reflectivity signatures. Such ambiguities can result in retrieval uncertainties on the order of 100-200 % for individual events. Here, we use observations of particle size distribution (PSD), fall speed, and snowflake habit from the Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) to constrain estimates of snowfall derived from Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR) measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope Alaska (NSA) Climate Research Facility site at Barrow. MASC measurements of microphysical properties with uncertainties are introduced into a modified form of the optimal-estimation CloudSat snowfall algorithm (2C-SNOW-PROFILE) via the a priori guess and variance terms. Use of the MASC fall speed, MASC PSD, and CloudSat snow particle model as base assumptions resulted in retrieved total accumulations with a -18 % difference relative to nearby National Weather Service (NWS) observations over five snow events. The average error was 36 % for the individual events. Use of different but reasonable combinations of retrieval assumptions resulted in estimated snowfall accumulations with differences ranging from -64 to +122 % for the same storm events. Retrieved snowfall rates were particularly sensitive to assumed fall speed and habit, suggesting that in situ measurements can help to constrain key snowfall retrieval uncertainties. More accurate knowledge of these properties dependent upon location and meteorological conditions should help refine and improve ground- and space-based radar estimates of snowfall.

  2. Optimal fall indicators for slip induced falls on a cross-slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domone, Sarah; Lawrence, Daniel; Heller, Ben; Hendra, Tim; Mawson, Sue; Wheat, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Slip-induced falls are among the most common cause of major occupational injuries in the UK as well as being a major public health concern in the elderly population. This study aimed to determine the optimal fall indicators for fall detection models which could be used to reduce the detrimental consequences of falls. A total of 264 kinematic variables covering three-dimensional full body model translation and rotational measures were analysed during normal walking, successful recovery from slips and falls on a cross-slope. Large effect sizes were found for three kinematic variables which were able to distinguish falls from normal walking and successful recovery. Further work should consider other types of daily living activities as results show that the optimal kinematic fall indicators can vary considerably between movement types. Practitioner Summary: Fall detection models are used to minimise the adverse consequences of slip-induced falls, a major public health concern. Optimal fall indicators were derived from a comprehensive set of kinematic variables for slips on a cross-slope. Results suggest robust detection of falls is possible on a cross-slope but may be more difficult than level walking.

  3. Falling chains

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is inco...

  4. Increasing fall risk awareness using wearables: A fall risk awareness protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Asbjørn; Olofsen, Hans; Bremdal, Bernt Arild

    2016-10-01

    Each year about a third of elderly aged 65 or older experience a fall. Many of these falls may have been avoided if fall risk assessment and prevention tools where available in a daily living situation. We identify what kind of information is relevant for doing fall risk assessment and prevention using wearable sensors in a daily living environment by investigating current research, distinguishing between prospective and context-aware fall risk assessment and prevention. Based on our findings, we propose a fall risk awareness protocol as a fall prevention tool integrating both wearables and ambient sensing technology into a single platform. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Relationship between subjective fall risk assessment and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzukawa, Megumi; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Kumiko; Kim, Hunkyung; Suzuki, Takao

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Objective measurements can be used to identify people with risks of falls, but many frail elderly adults cannot complete physical performance tests. The study examined the relationship between a subjective risk rating of specific tasks (SRRST) to screen for fall risks and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people. Methods The SRRST was investigated in 5,062 individuals aged 65 years or older who were utilized day-care services. The SRRST comprised 7 dichotom...

  6. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  7. The clinical practice guideline for falls and fall risk

    OpenAIRE

    Vance, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Falling is a significant cause of injury and death in frail older adults. Residents in long-term care (LTC) facilities fall for a variety of reasons and are more likely to endure injuries after a fall than those in the community The American Medical Directors Association (AMDA) Clinical Practice Guideline is written to give LTC staff an understanding of risk factors for falls and provide guidance for a systematic approach to patient assessment and selection of appropriate interventions. It is...

  8. Effect of Modified Otago Exercises on Postural Balance, Fear of Falling, and Fall Risk in Older Fallers With Knee Osteoarthritis and Impaired Gait and Balance: A Secondary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Sumaiyah; Ng, Chin Teck; Tan, Pey June; Ramli, Norlisah; Fadzli, Farhana; Rozalli, Faizatul Izza; Mazlan, Mazlina; Hill, Keith D; Tan, Maw Pin

    2018-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is considered an established risk factor for falls. Published studies evaluating secondary falls prevention strategies among individuals with OA are limited. To evaluate the effect of a personalized home-based exercise program to improve postural balance, fear of falling, and falls risk in older fallers with knee OA and gait and balance problems. Randomized controlled trial. University of Malaya Medical Centre. Fallers who had both radiological OA and a Timed Up and Go (TUG) score of over 13.5 seconds. Postural sway (composite sway) was quantified with the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance (mCTSIB) under 4 different sensory conditions: eyes open on firm surface, eyes closed on firm surface, eyes open on unstable foam surface, and eyes closed on unstable foam surface. Participants were asked to stand upright and to attempt to hold their position for 10 seconds for each test condition. The average reading for all conditions were calculated. Participants randomized to the intervention arm received a home-based modified Otago Exercise Program (OEP) as part of a multifactorial intervention, whereas control participants received general health advice and conventional treatment. This was a secondary subgroup analysis from an original randomized controlled trial, the Malaysian Falls Assessment and Intervention Trial (MyFAIT) (trial registration number: ISRCTN11674947). Posturography using a long force plate balance platform (Balancemaster, NeuroCom, USA), the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the short-form Falls Efficacy Scale-International (short FES-I) were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Results of 41 fallers with radiological evidence of OA and impaired TUG (intervention, 17; control, 24) were available for the final analysis. Between-group analysis revealed significant improvements in the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance (mCTSIB), Limits of Stability (LOS), and short FES

  9. Temporal association between hospitalization and rate of falls after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, J E; Palta, M; Johnson, J; Jalaluddin, M; Gray, S; Park, S; Sager, M

    2000-10-09

    Evidence suggests that acute illness and hospitalization may increase the risk for falls. To evaluate the rate of falls, and associated risk factors, for 90 days following hospital discharge. We consecutively enrolled 311 patients, aged 65 years and older, discharged from the hospital after an acute medical illness and receiving home-nursing services. Patients were assessed within 5 days of discharge for prehospital and current functioning by self-report, and balance, vision, cognition, and delirium by objective measures. Patients were followed up weekly for 13 weeks for falls, injuries, and health care use. The rate of falls was significantly higher in the first 2 weeks after hospitalization (8.0 per 1000 person-days) compared with 3 months later (1.7 per 1000 person-days) (P =.002). Fall-related injuries accounted for 15% of all hospitalizations in the first month after discharge. Independent prehospital risk factors significantly associated with falls included dependency in activities of daily living, use of a standard walker, 2 or more falls, and more hospitalizations in the year prior. Posthospital risk factors included use of a tertiary amine tricyclic antidepressant, probable delirium, and poorer balance, while use of a cane was protective. The rate of falls is substantially increased in the first month after medical hospitalization, and is an important cause of injury and morbidity. Posthospital risk factors may be potentially modifiable. Efforts to assess and modify risk factors should be integral to the hospital and posthospital care of older adults (those aged >/=65 years).

  10. Prediction of falls and/or near falls in people with mild Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Lindholm

    Full Text Available To determine factors associated with future falls and/or near falls in people with mild PD.The study included 141 participants with PD. Mean (SD age and PD-duration were 68 (9.7 and 4 years (3.9, respectively. Their median (q1-q3 UPDRS III score was 13 (8-18. Those >80 years of age, requiring support in standing or unable to understand instructions were excluded. Self-administered questionnaires targeted freezing of gait, turning hesitations, walking difficulties in daily life, fatigue, fear of falling, independence in activities of daily living, dyskinesia, demographics, falls/near falls history, balance problems while dual tasking and pain. Clinical assessments addressed functional balance performance, retropulsion, comfortable gait speed, motor symptoms and cognition. All falls and near falls were subsequently registered in a diary during a six-month period. Risk factors for prospective falls and/or near falls were determined using logistic regression.Sixty-three participants (45% experienced ≥ 1 fall and/or near fall. Three factors were independent predictors of falls and/or near falls: fear of falling (OR = 1.032, p<0.001 history of near falls (OR = 3.475, p = 0.009 and retropulsion (OR = 2.813, p = 0.035. The strongest contributing factor was fear of falling, followed by a history of near falls and retropulsion.Fear of falling seems to be an important issue to address already in mild PD as well as asking about prior near falls.

  11. Risk of falling in patients with a recent fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willems Gittie

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with a history of a fracture have an increased risk for future fractures, even in short term. The aim of this study was to assess the number of patients with falls and to identify fall risk factors that predict the risk of falling in the first three months after a clinical fracture. Methods Prospective observational study with 3 months of follow-up in a large European academic and regional hospital. In 277 consenting women and men aged ≥ 50 years and with no dementia and not receiving treatment for osteoporosis who presented to hospital with a clinical fracture, fall risk factors were assessed according to the guidelines on fall prevention in the Netherlands. Follow-up information on falls and fractures was collected by monthly telephone interview. Incidence of falls and odds ratio's (OR, with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results 512 consecutive patients with a fracture were regarded for analysis, 87 were not eligible for inclusion and 137 patients were excluded. No follow-up data were available for 11 patients. Therefore full analysis was possible in 277 patients. A new fall incident was reported by 42 patients (15%, of whom five had a fracture. Of the 42 fallers, 32 had one new fall and 10 had two or more. Multivariate analysis in the total group with sex, age, ADL difficulties, urine incontinence and polypharmacy showed that sex and ADL were significant fall risk factors. Women had an OR of 3.02 (95% CI 1.13–8.06 and patients with ADL-difficulties had an OR of 2.50 (95% CI 1.27–4.93. Multivariate analysis in the female group with age, ADL difficulties, polypharmacy and presence of orthostatic hypotension indicated that polypharmacy was the predominant risk factor (OR 2.51; 95% CI: 1.19 – 5.28. The incidence of falls was 35% in women with low ADL score and polypharmacy compared to 15% in women without these risk factors (OR 3.56: CI 1.47 – 8.67. Conclusion 15% of patients reported a new fall

  12. Unexplained Falls Are Frequent in Patients with Fall-Related Injury Admitted to Orthopaedic Wards: The UFO Study (Unexplained Falls in Older Patients).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Mussi; Gianluigi, Galizia; Pasquale, Abete; Alessandro, Morrione; Alice, Maraviglia; Gabriele, Noro; Paolo, Cavagnaro; Loredana, Ghirelli; Giovanni, Tava; Franco, Rengo; Giulio, Masotti; Gianfranco, Salvioli; Niccolò, Marchionni; Andrea, Ungar

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of unexplained falls in elderly patients affected by fall-related fractures admitted to orthopaedic wards, we recruited 246 consecutive patients older than 65 (mean age 82 ± 7 years, range 65-101). Falls were defined "accidental" (fall explained by a definite accidental cause), "medical" (fall caused directly by a specific medical disease), "dementia-related" (fall in patients affected by moderate-severe dementia), and "unexplained" (nonaccidental falls, not related to a clear medical or drug-induced cause or with no apparent cause). According to the anamnestic features of the event, older patients had a lower tendency to remember the fall. Patients with accidental fall remember more often the event. Unexplained falls were frequent in both groups of age. Accidental falls were more frequent in younger patients, while dementia-related falls were more common in the older ones. Patients with unexplained falls showed a higher number of depressive symptoms. In a multivariate analysis a higher GDS and syncopal spells were independent predictors of unexplained falls. In conclusion, more than one third of all falls in patients hospitalized in orthopaedic wards were unexplained, particularly in patients with depressive symptoms and syncopal spells. The identification of fall causes must be evaluated in older patients with a fall-related injury.

  13. Falls and fear of falling predict future falls and related injuries in ambulatory individuals with spinal cord injury: a longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Vivien; Butler Forslund, Emelie; Opheim, Arve; Franzén, Erika; Wahman, Kerstin; Hultling, Claes; Seiger, Åke; Ståhle, Agneta; Stanghelle, Johan K; Roaldsen, Kirsti S

    2017-04-01

    What is the 1-year incidence of falls and injurious falls in a representative cohort of community-dwelling ambulatory individuals with chronic spinal cord injury? What are the predictors of recurrent falls (more than two/year) and injurious falls in this population? One-year longitudinal observational multi-centre study. A representative sample of 68 (of 73 included) community-dwelling ambulatory individuals with traumatic SCI attending regular follow-up programs at rehabilitation centres. Primary outcome measures were incidence and predictors of recurrent falls (more than two/year) and injurious falls reported every 2 weeks for 1year. A total of 48% of participants reported recurrent falls. Of the 272 reported falls, 41% were injurious. Serious injuries were experienced by 4% of participants, all of whom were women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that recurrent falls in the previous year (OR=111, 95% CI=8.6 to 1425), fear of falling (OR=6.1, 95% CI=1.43 to 26) and longer time taken to walk 10m (OR=1.3, 95% CI=1.0 to 1.7) were predictors of recurrent falls. Fear of falling (OR=4.3, 95% CI=1.3 to 14) and recurrent falls in the previous year (OR=4.2, 95% CI=1.2 to 14) were predictors of injurious falls. Ambulatory individuals have a high risk of falling and of fall-related injuries. Fall history, fear of falling and walking speed could predict recurrent falls and injurious falls. Further studies with larger samples are needed to validate these findings. [Jørgensen V, Butler Forslund E, Opheim A, Franzén E, Wahman K, Hultling C, Seiger Å, Ståhle A, Stanghelle JK, Roaldsen KS (2017) Falls and fear of falling predict future falls and related injuries in ambulatory individuals with spinal cord injury: a longitudinal observational study. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 108-113]. Copyright © 2017 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Unexplained Falls Are Frequent in Patients with Fall-Related Injury Admitted to Orthopaedic Wards: The UFO Study (Unexplained Falls in Older Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussi Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the incidence of unexplained falls in elderly patients affected by fall-related fractures admitted to orthopaedic wards, we recruited 246 consecutive patients older than 65 (mean age 82±7 years, range 65–101. Falls were defined “accidental” (fall explained by a definite accidental cause, “medical” (fall caused directly by a specific medical disease, “dementia-related” (fall in patients affected by moderate-severe dementia, and “unexplained” (nonaccidental falls, not related to a clear medical or drug-induced cause or with no apparent cause. According to the anamnestic features of the event, older patients had a lower tendency to remember the fall. Patients with accidental fall remember more often the event. Unexplained falls were frequent in both groups of age. Accidental falls were more frequent in younger patients, while dementia-related falls were more common in the older ones. Patients with unexplained falls showed a higher number of depressive symptoms. In a multivariate analysis a higher GDS and syncopal spells were independent predictors of unexplained falls. In conclusion, more than one third of all falls in patients hospitalized in orthopaedic wards were unexplained, particularly in patients with depressive symptoms and syncopal spells. The identification of fall causes must be evaluated in older patients with a fall-related injury.

  15. Fall detection in the elderly by head-tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Miao; Naqvi, Syed Mohsen; Chambers, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In the paper, we propose a fall detection method based on head tracking within a smart home environment equipped with video cameras. A motion history image and code-book background subtraction are combined to determine whether large movement occurs within the scene. Based on the magnitude of the movement information, particle filters with different state models are used to track the head. The head tracking procedure is performed in two video streams taken bytwoseparatecamerasandthree-dimension...

  16. Monosodium titanate particle characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, G.T.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    A characterization study was performed on monosodium titanate (MST) particles to determine the effect of high shear forces expected from the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process pumps on the particle size distribution. The particles were characterized using particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No significant changes in particle size distributions were observed between as-received MST and after 2--4 hours of shearing. Both as-received and sheared MST particles contained a large percentage of porosity with pore sizes on the order of 500 to 2,000 Angstroms. Because of the large percentage of porosity, the overall surface area of the MST is dominated by the internal surfaces. The uranium and plutonium species present in the waste solution will have access to both interior and exterior surfaces. Therefore, uranium and plutonium loading should not be a strong function of MST particle size

  17. Performance of the Falling Snow Retrieval Algorithms for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Munchak, Stephen J.; Ringerud, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Retrievals of falling snow from space represent an important data set for understanding the Earth's atmospheric, hydrological, and energy cycles, especially during climate change. Estimates of falling snow must be captured to obtain the true global precipitation water cycle, snowfall accumulations are required for hydrological studies, and without knowledge of the frozen particles in clouds one cannot adequately understand the energy and radiation budgets. While satellite-based remote sensing provides global coverage of falling snow events, the science is relatively new and retrievals are still undergoing development with challenges remaining). This work reports on the development and testing of retrieval algorithms for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Core Satellite, launched February 2014.

  18. Medication use and associated risk of falling in a geriatric outpatient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Kathryn N; Thompson, Amy N; Zhao, Yumin; Leal, Julie E; Mauldin, Patrick D; Moran, William P

    2012-09-01

    Studies have shown that approximately one third of community-dwelling people aged 65 years and older will experience a fall each year. Many studies indicate that use of multiple medications may put patients at an increased risk of falling, but few studies have been conducted to correlate the number of medications with the risk of falls. To determine the medications most frequently used in patients aged 65 years or older who have experienced a fall within the past year, with particular attention to type or number of medications most commonly associated with multiple falls or a fall with injury. We conducted a chart review in an outpatient internal medicine clinic over a 13-month period. A total of 118 patients 65 years of age or older who were taking 4 or more medications and had experienced at least 1 fall in the previous 12 months were included. Data relating to sex, age, race, diagnoses, medications, and number and type of falls were obtained during the chart review. The primary end point of the study was number and type of medications most commonly used in patients experiencing a fall. A total of 116 patients were examined for trends in fall risk. A logistic regression model and receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated significant fall risk with the addition of medications, with patients experiencing a 14% increase in fall risk with the addition of each medication beyond a 4-medication regimen (OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.27; p = 0.027). The addition of medications is associated with a significant increase in risk of falls in elderly patients, regardless of drug class. Further studies are needed to assess the possible increased risk of falls with increasing number of medications.

  19. Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjerve, Eystein [Dept. of Food Hygiene, Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine (Norway)

    1986-07-01

    During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected.

  20. Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerve, Eystein

    1986-01-01

    During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

  1. Associated Factors for Falls, Recurrent Falls, and Injurious Falls in Aged Men Living in Taiwan Veterans Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Chiou Ku

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the advanced age, depression status, stroke, gouty arthritis, and cataract are independent variables for predicting falls; depression is the only clinical factor capable of predicting the recurrent falls. These variables were potential targets for effective prevention of falls.

  2. Falls and fear of falling predict future falls and related injuries in ambulatory individuals with spinal cord injury: a longitudinal observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Jørgensen

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Ambulatory individuals have a high risk of falling and of fall-related injuries. Fall history, fear of falling and walking speed could predict recurrent falls and injurious falls. Further studies with larger samples are needed to validate these findings. [Jørgensen V, Butler Forslund E, Opheim A, Franzén E, Wahman K, Hultling C, Seiger Å, Ståhle A, Stanghelle JK, Roaldsen KS (2017 Falls and fear of falling predict future falls and related injuries in ambulatory individuals with spinal cord injury: a longitudinal observational study. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 108–113

  3. Impact of Fall Prevention on Nurses and Care of Fall Risk Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Barbara; Pecanac, Kristen; Krupp, Anna; Liebzeit, Daniel; Mahoney, Jane

    2018-03-19

    Falls are common events for hospitalized older adults, resulting in negative outcomes both for patients and hospitals. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) has placed pressure on hospital administrators by identifying falls as a "never event", resulting in a zero falls goal for many hospitals. Staff nurses are responsible for providing direct care to patients and for meeting the hospital no falls goal. Little is known about the impact of "zero falls" on nurses, patients and the organization. A qualitative study, using Grounded Dimensional Analysis (GDA) was conducted to explore nurses' experiences with fall prevention in hospital settings and the impact of those experiences on how nurses provide care to fall risk patients. Twenty-seven registered nurses and certified nursing assistants participated in in-depth interviews. Open, axial and selective coding was used to analyze data. A conceptual model which illustrates the impact of intense messaging from nursing administration to prevent patient falls on nurses, actions nurses take to address the message and the consequences to nurses, older adult patients and to the organization was developed. Intense messaging from hospital administration to achieve zero falls resulted in nurses developing a fear of falls, protecting self and unit, and restricting fall risk patients as a way to stop messages and meet the hospital goal. Results of this study identify unintended consequences of fall prevention message on nurses and older adult patients. Further research is needed understand how nurse care for fall risk patients.

  4. Falls and falls efficacy: the role of sustained attention in older adults

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Halloran, Aisling M

    2011-12-19

    Abstract Background Previous evidence indicates that older people allocate more of their attentional resources toward their gait and that the attention-related changes that occur during aging increase the risk of falls. The aim of this study was to investigate whether performance and variability in sustained attention is associated with falls and falls efficacy in older adults. Methods 458 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 years underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Mean and variability of reaction time (RT), commission errors and omission errors were recorded during a fixed version of the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). RT variability was decomposed using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) procedure, to help characterise variability associated with the arousal and vigilance aspects of sustained attention. The number of self-reported falls in the previous twelve months, and falls efficacy (Modified Falls Efficacy Scale) were also recorded. Results Significant increases in the mean and variability of reaction time on the SART were significantly associated with both falls (p < 0.01) and reduced falls efficacy (p < 0.05) in older adults. An increase in omission errors was also associated with falls (p < 0.01) and reduced falls efficacy (p < 0.05). Upon controlling for age and gender affects, logistic regression modelling revealed that increasing variability associated with the vigilance (top-down) aspect of sustained attention was a retrospective predictor of falling (p < 0.01, OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03 - 1.26) in the previous year and was weakly correlated with reduced falls efficacy in non-fallers (p = 0.07). Conclusions Greater variability in sustained attention is strongly correlated with retrospective falls and to a lesser degree with reduced falls efficacy. This cognitive measure may provide a novel and valuable biomarker for falls in older adults, potentially allowing for early detection and the implementation of preventative intervention

  5. Balance confidence and falls in nondemented essential tremor patients: the role of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ashwini K; Gilman, Arthur; Louis, Elan D

    2014-10-01

    To examine (1) the effect of cognitive ability on balance confidence and falls, (2) the relationship of balance confidence and falls with quantitative measures of gait, and (3) measures that predict falls, in people with essential tremor (ET). Cross-sectional study. General community. People with ET (n=132) and control subjects (n=48). People with ET were divided into 2 groups based on the median score on the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination: those with lower cognitive test scores (ET-LCS) and those with higher cognitive test scores (ET-HCS). Not applicable. Six-item Activities of Balance Confidence (ABC-6) Scale and falls in the previous year. Participants with ET-LCS had lower ABC-6 scores and a greater number of falls than those with ET-HCS (Pcontrol subjects (Pfalls. Gait speed (Pfalls. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that gait speed balance confidence and a higher number of falls than their counterparts (ET-HCS) and than control subjects. We have identified assessments that are easily administered (gait speed, ABC-6 Scale) and are associated with falls in ET. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Stroke Assessment of Fall Risk (SAFR): predictive validity in inpatient stroke rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breisinger, Terry P; Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Niyonkuru, Christian; Terhorst, Lauren; Campbell, Grace B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate relative accuracy of a newly developed Stroke Assessment of Fall Risk (SAFR) for classifying fallers and non-fallers, compared with a health system fall risk screening tool, the Fall Harm Risk Screen. Design and setting Prospective quality improvement study conducted at an inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit at a large urban university hospital. Participants Patients admitted for inpatient stroke rehabilitation (N = 419) with imaging or clinical evidence of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, between 1 August 2009 and 31 July 2010. Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measure(s) Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve for Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves of both scales’ classifications, based on fall risk score completed upon admission to inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Results A total of 68 (16%) participants fell at least once. The SAFR was significantly more accurate than the Fall Harm Risk Screen (p stroke rehabilitation patients. While the SAFR improves upon the accuracy of a general assessment tool, additional refinement may be warranted. PMID:24849795

  7. How do people with intellectual disability describe the experience of falling in love?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Mattila

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of falling in love among people with intellectual disability has not received much attention in research. In this study, seven Finnish young adults (5 women and 2 men with mild intellectual disability (ID were asked about their experiences of falling in love. They were interviewed with a qualitative themed interview method. The data were analyzed with content analysis by searching the participants‘ descriptions of partner selection, the event of falling in love, and how falling in love has changed their lives. The study showed that that young adults with ID were familiar with and able to describe falling in love concretely and in a very positive manner. Love was seen as an important part of well-being. The findings suggest that people who live or work with young adults with ID should be prepared to support them in various phases of love in a way that enhances their cognitive love skills and self-determination in intimate relationships.

  8. Influence of haze pollution on water-soluble chemical species in PM2.5 and size-resolved particles at an urban site during fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Geun-Hye; Zhang, Yan; Cho, Sung-Yong; Park, Seungshik

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the influence of haze on the chemical composition and formation processes of ambient aerosol particles, PM 2.5 and size-segregated aerosol particles were collected daily during fall at an urban site of Gwangju, Korea. During the study period, the total concentration of secondary ionic species (SIS) contributed an average of 43.9% to the PM 2.5 , whereas the contribution of SIS to the PM 2.5 during the haze period was 62.3%. The NO 3 - and SO 4 2- concentrations in PM 2.5 during the haze period were highly elevated, being 13.4 and 5.0 times higher than those during non-haze period, respectively. The PM, NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , oxalate, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and humic-like substances (HULIS) had tri-modal size distributions peaks at 0.32, 1.0, and 5.2μm during the non-haze and haze periods. However, during the non-haze period they exhibited dominant size distributions at the condensation mode peaking at 0.32μm, while on October 21 when the heaviest haze event occurred, they had predominant droplet mode size distributions peaking at 1.00μm. Moreover, strong correlations of WSOC and HULIS with SO 4 2- , oxalate, and K + at particle sizes of <1.8μm indicate that secondary processes and emissions from biomass burning could be responsible for WSOC and HULIS formations. It was found that the factors affecting haze formation could be the local stable synoptic conditions, including the weak surface winds and high surface pressures, the long-range transportation of haze from eastern China and upwind regions of the Korean peninsula, as well as the locally emitted and produced aerosol particles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effect of balance training on postural balance control and risk of fall in children with diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shamy, Shamekh Mohamed; Abd El Kafy, Ehab Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of balance training on postural control and fall risk in children with diplegic cerebral palsy. Thirty spastic diplegic cerebral palsied children (10-12 years) were included in this study. Children were randomly assigned into two equal-sized groups: control and study groups. Participants in both groups received a traditional physical therapy exercise program. The study group additionally received balance training on the Biodex balance system. Treatment was provided 30 min/d, 3 d/week for 3 successive months. To evaluate the limit of stability and fall risk, participated children received baseline and post-treatment assessments using the Biodex balance system. Overall directional control, total time to complete the test, overall stability index of the fall risk test and total score of the pediatric balance scale were measured. Children in both groups showed significant improvements in the mean values of all measured variables post-treatment (p control group (p postural balance control in children with diplegic cerebral palsy.

  10. Falls and Fall-Related Injuries among Community-Dwelling Adults in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K Verma

    Full Text Available Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injuries in the U.S.; however, national estimates for all community-dwelling adults are lacking. This study estimated the national incidence of falls and fall-related injuries among community-dwelling U.S. adults by age and gender and the trends in fall-related injuries across the adult life span.Nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS 2008 Balance and Dizziness supplement was used to develop national estimates of falls, and pooled data from the NHIS was used to calculate estimates of fall-related injuries in the U.S. and related trends from 2004-2013. Costs of unintentional fall-related injuries were extracted from the CDC's Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System.Twelve percent of community-dwelling U.S. adults reported falling in the previous year for a total estimate of 80 million falls at a rate of 37.2 falls per 100 person-years. On average, 9.9 million fall-related injuries occurred each year with a rate of 4.38 fall-related injuries per 100 person-years. In the previous three months, 2.0% of older adults (65+, 1.1% of middle-aged adults (45-64 and 0.7% of young adults (18-44 reported a fall-related injury. Of all fall-related injuries among community-dwelling adults, 32.3% occurred among older adults, 35.3% among middle-aged adults and 32.3% among younger adults. The age-adjusted rate of fall-related injuries increased 4% per year among older women (95% CI 1%-7% from 2004 to 2013. Among U.S. adults, the total lifetime cost of annual unintentional fall-related injuries that resulted in a fatality, hospitalization or treatment in an emergency department was 111 billion U.S. dollars in 2010.Falls and fall-related injuries represent a significant health and safety problem for adults of all ages. The findings suggest that adult fall prevention efforts should consider the entire adult lifespan to ensure a greater public health benefit.

  11. Effects of Antigravity Treadmill Training on Gait, Balance, and Fall Risk in Children With Diplegic Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shamy, Shamekh Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of antigravity treadmill training on gait, balance, and fall risk in children with diplegic cerebral palsy. Thirty children with diplegic cerebral palsy were selected for this randomized controlled study. They were randomly assigned to (1) an experimental group that received antigravity treadmill training (20 mins/d, 3 d/wk) together with traditional physical therapy for 3 successive mos and (2) a control group that received only traditional physical therapy program for the same period. Outcomes included selected gait parameters, postural stability, and fall risk. Outcomes were measured at baseline and after 3 mos of intervention. Children in both groups showed significant improvements in the mean values of all measured variables (P balance, and fall risk in children with diplegic cerebral palsy.

  12. The Stroke Assessment of Fall Risk (SAFR): predictive validity in inpatient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breisinger, Terry P; Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Niyonkuru, Christian; Terhorst, Lauren; Campbell, Grace B

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate relative accuracy of a newly developed Stroke Assessment of Fall Risk (SAFR) for classifying fallers and non-fallers, compared with a health system fall risk screening tool, the Fall Harm Risk Screen. Prospective quality improvement study conducted at an inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit at a large urban university hospital. Patients admitted for inpatient stroke rehabilitation (N = 419) with imaging or clinical evidence of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, between 1 August 2009 and 31 July 2010. Not applicable. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve for Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves of both scales' classifications, based on fall risk score completed upon admission to inpatient stroke rehabilitation. A total of 68 (16%) participants fell at least once. The SAFR was significantly more accurate than the Fall Harm Risk Screen (p Fall Harm Risk Screen, area under the curve was 0.56, positive predictive value was 0.19, and negative predictive value was 0.86. Sensitivity and specificity of the SAFR (0.78 and 0.63, respectively) was higher than the Fall Harm Risk Screen (0.57 and 0.48, respectively). An evidence-derived, population-specific fall risk assessment may more accurately predict fallers than a general fall risk screen for stroke rehabilitation patients. While the SAFR improves upon the accuracy of a general assessment tool, additional refinement may be warranted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. The Association Between Fall Frequency, Injury Risk, and Characteristics of Falls in Older Residents of Long-Term Care: Do Recurrent Fallers Fall More Safely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schooten, Kimberley S; Yang, Yijian; Feldman, Fabio; Leung, Ming; McKay, Heather; Sims-Gould, Joanie; Robinovitch, Stephen N

    2018-05-09

    Although a fall is a necessary prerequisite to a fall-related injury, previous studies suggest that frequent fallers are at lower injury risk for a given fall. We tested the hypotheses that differences in protective responses or the circumstances of falls underlie differences in injury risk with fall frequency. We analyzed video footage of 897 falls experienced by 220 long-term care residents (mean age 82 ± 9 years) to identify the cause of imbalance, activity leading to falling, direction of fall initiation, balance recovery and fall protective responses, and occurrence of impact to the head or hip. We further obtained injury information from the facilities' fall registration. We used generalized estimating equation models to examine the association between quartiles of fall frequency, injury risk, and fall characteristics. Residents with the highest fall frequency group (Q4; ≥5.6 falls/year) were less likely to sustain an injury per fall. They were less likely to fall during walking and more likely to fall during stand-to-sit transfers. Residents in the lowest fall frequency group (Q1; falls/year) were more likely to fall during walking, and walking was associated with an increased risk for injury. When compared to less frequent fallers, more frequent fallers had a lower risk for injury per fall. This appeared to be explained by differences in the circumstances of falls, and not by protective responses. Injury prevention strategies in long-term care should target both frequent and infrequent fallers, as the latter are more mobile and apt to sustain injury.

  14. Are triage questions sufficient to assign fall risk precautions in the ED?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerland, Lauren T; Slattery, Lauren; Rosenthal, Joseph A; Kegelmeyer, Deborah; Kloos, Anne

    2017-02-01

    The American College of Emergency Physicians Geriatric Emergency Department (ED) Guidelines and the Center for Disease Control recommend that older adults be assessed for risk of falls. The standard ED assessment is a verbal query of fall risk factors, which may be inadequate. We hypothesized that the addition of a functional balance test endorsed by the Center for Disease Control Stop Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries Falls Prevention Guidelines, the 4-Stage Balance Test (4SBT), would improve the detection of patients at risk for falls. Prospective pilot study of a convenience sample of ambulatory adults 65 years and older in the ED. All participants received the standard nursing triage fall risk assessment. After patients were stabilized in their ED room, the 4SBT was administered. The 58 participants had an average age of 74.1 years (range, 65-94), 40.0% were women, and 98% were community dwelling. Five (8.6%) presented to the ED for a fall-related chief complaint. The nursing triage screen identified 39.7% (n=23) as at risk for falls, whereas the 4SBT identified 43% (n=25). Combining triage questions with the 4SBT identified 60.3% (n=35) as at high risk for falls, as compared with 39.7% (n=23) with triage questions alone (Ppatients at high risk by 4SBT and missed by triage questions were inpatients unaware that they were at risk for falls (new diagnoses). Incorporating a quick functional test of balance into the ED assessment for fall risk is feasible and significantly increases the detection of older adults at risk for falls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring Older Adult ED Fall Patients' Understanding of Their Fall: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Kalpana N; Taylor, Devon; Rizzo, Caroline T; Liu, Shan W

    2017-12-01

    We sought to understand older patients' perspectives about their fall, fall risk factors, and attitude toward emergency department (ED) fall-prevention interventions. We conducted semistructured interviews between July 2015 and January 2016 of community-dwelling, nondemented patients in the ED, who presented with a fall to an urban, teaching hospital. Interviews were halted once we achieve thematic saturation with the data coded and categorized into themes. Of the 63 patients interviewed, patients blamed falls on the environment, accidents, a medical condition, or themselves. Three major themes were generated: (1) patients blamed falls on a multitude of things but never acknowledged a possible multifactorial rationale, (2) patients have variable level of concerns regarding their current fall and future fall risk, and (3) patients demonstrated a range of receptiveness to ED interventions aimed at preventing falls but provided little input as to what those interventions should be. Many older patients who fall do not understand their fall risk. However, based on the responses provided, older adults tend to be more receptive to intervention and more concerned about their future fall risk, making the ED an appropriate setting for intervention.

  16. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory Falling Snow Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skofronick Jackson, G.; Kulie, M.; Milani, L.; Munchak, S. J.; Wood, N.; Levizzani, V.

    2017-12-01

    Retrievals of falling snow from space represent an important data set for understanding and linking the Earth's atmospheric, hydrological, and energy cycles. Estimates of falling snow must be captured to obtain the true global precipitation water cycle, snowfall accumulations are required for hydrological studies, and without knowledge of the frozen particles in clouds one cannot adequately understand the energy and radiation budgets. This work focuses on comparing the first stable falling snow retrieval products (released May 2017) for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory (GPM-CO), which was launched February 2014, and carries both an active dual frequency (Ku- and Ka-band) precipitation radar (DPR) and a passive microwave radiometer (GPM Microwave Imager-GMI). Five separate GPM-CO falling snow retrieval algorithm products are analyzed including those from DPR Matched (Ka+Ku) Scan, DPR Normal Scan (Ku), DPR High Sensitivity Scan (Ka), combined DPR+GMI, and GMI. While satellite-based remote sensing provides global coverage of falling snow events, the science is relatively new, the different on-orbit instruments don't capture all snow rates equally, and retrieval algorithms differ. Thus a detailed comparison among the GPM-CO products elucidates advantages and disadvantages of the retrievals. GPM and CloudSat global snowfall evaluation exercises are natural investigative pathways to explore, but caution must be undertaken when analyzing these datasets for comparative purposes. This work includes outlining the challenges associated with comparing GPM-CO to CloudSat satellite snow estimates due to the different sampling, algorithms, and instrument capabilities. We will highlight some factors and assumptions that can be altered or statistically normalized and applied in an effort to make comparisons between GPM and CloudSat global satellite falling snow products as equitable as possible.

  17. Medication use and fall-risk assessment for falls in an acute care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming-Huang; Lee, Hsin-Dai; Hwang, Hei-Fen; Wang, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Mau-Roung

    2015-07-01

    A nested case-control study was carried out to examine relationships of a fall-risk score and the use of single medications and polypharmacy with falls among hospitalized patients aged 50 years and older in Taiwan. There were 83 patients who experienced a fall during hospitalization in an acute-care hospital. Matched by age and sex, five control patients for each case were randomly selected from all other inpatients who had not experienced any fall at the time of the index fall. Patients who took tricyclic antidepressants, diuretics, and narcotics were 3.36-, 1.83- and 2.09-fold, respectively, more likely to experience a fall than their counterparts. Conversely, patients who took beta-blockers were 0.34-fold more likely than those who did not take them to experience a fall. Patients taking ≥6 medications were 3.08-fold more likely than those taking fewer medications to experience a fall, whereas those with anxiety were 4.72-fold more likely to experience a fall than those without. A high fall-risk score was not significantly associated with the occurrence of falls. Among older hospitalized patients, tricyclic antidepressants, diuretics, narcotics, and polypharmacy should be mindfully prescribed and reviewed on a regular basis. A fall-risk scale developed from community-dwelling older people might not accurately predict falls in hospitalized patients. Further research to validate the negative effect of beta-blocker use on falls is required. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Falling and fall risk factors in adults with haemophilia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammels, M; Vandesande, J; Vlaeyen, E; Peerlinck, K; Milisen, K

    2014-11-01

    Falls are a particular risk in persons with haemophilia (PWH) because of damaged joints, high risk of bleeding, possible impact on the musculoskeletal system and functioning and costs associated with treatment for these fall-related injuries. In addition, fall risk increases with age and PWH are increasingly entering the over 65 age group. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of falls during the past year and to explore which fall risk factors are present in community-dwelling PWH. Dutch speaking community-dwelling adults were included from the age of 40 years with severe or moderate haemophilia A or B, independent in their mobility and registered at the University Hospitals Leuven. They were asked to come to the haemophilia centre; otherwise a telephone survey was conducted. Demographic and social variables, medical variables, fall evaluation and clinical variables were queried. From the 89 PWH, 74 (83.1%) participated in the study. Twenty-four (32.4%) fell in the past year, and 10 of them (41.7%) more than once with an average of four falls. Living conditions, physical activity, avoidance of winter sports due to fear of falling, orthopaedic status, urinary incontinence and mobility impairments are potential fall risk factors in adult PWH. This exploratory study indicates that PWH are attentive to falling since they are at higher risk for falls and because of the serious consequences it might have. Screening and fall prevention should be stimulated in the daily practice of haemophilia care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Which Fall Ascertainment Method Captures Most Falls in Pre-Frail and Frail Seniors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teister, Corina J; Chocano-Bedoya, Patricia O; Orav, Endel J; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Meyer, Ursina; Meyer, Otto W; Freystaetter, Gregor; Gagesch, Michael; Rizzoli, Rene; Egli, Andreas; Theiler, Robert; Kanis, John A; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A

    2018-06-15

    There is no consensus on most reliable falls ascertainment method. Therefore, we investigated which method captures most falls among pre-frail and frail seniors from two randomized controlled trials conducted in Zurich, Switzerland, a 18-month trial (2009-2010) including 200 community-dwelling pre-frail seniors with a prior fall and a 12-month trial (2005-2008) including 173 frail seniors with acute hip fracture. Both included the same fall ascertainment methods: monthly active-asking, daily self-report diary, and a call-in hotline. We compared number of falls reported and estimated overall and positive percent agreement between methods. Pre-frail seniors reported 499 falls (rate = 2.5/year) and frail seniors reported 205 falls (rate = 1.4/year). Most falls were reported by active-asking: 81% of falls in pre-frail, and 78% in frail seniors. Among pre-frail seniors, diaries captured additional 19% falls, while hotline added none. Among frail seniors, hotline added 16% falls, while diaries added 6%. The positive percent agreement between active-asking and diary was 100% among pre-frail and 88% among frail seniors. While monthly active-asking captures most falls in both groups, this method alone missed 19% of falls in pre-frail and 22% in frail seniors. Thus, a combination of active-asking and diaries for pre-frail, and active-asking and the hotline for frail seniors is warranted.

  20. Falls and Fall-Related Injuries among Community-Dwelling Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh K.; Willetts, Joanna L.; Corns, Helen L.; Marucci-Wellman, Helen R.; Lombardi, David A.; Courtney, Theodore K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injuries in the U.S.; however, national estimates for all community-dwelling adults are lacking. This study estimated the national incidence of falls and fall-related injuries among community-dwelling U.S. adults by age and gender and the trends in fall-related injuries across the adult life span. Methods Nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2008 Balance and Dizziness supplement was used to develop national estimates of falls, and pooled data from the NHIS was used to calculate estimates of fall-related injuries in the U.S. and related trends from 2004–2013. Costs of unintentional fall-related injuries were extracted from the CDC’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Results Twelve percent of community-dwelling U.S. adults reported falling in the previous year for a total estimate of 80 million falls at a rate of 37.2 falls per 100 person-years. On average, 9.9 million fall-related injuries occurred each year with a rate of 4.38 fall-related injuries per 100 person-years. In the previous three months, 2.0% of older adults (65+), 1.1% of middle-aged adults (45–64) and 0.7% of young adults (18–44) reported a fall-related injury. Of all fall-related injuries among community-dwelling adults, 32.3% occurred among older adults, 35.3% among middle-aged adults and 32.3% among younger adults. The age-adjusted rate of fall-related injuries increased 4% per year among older women (95% CI 1%–7%) from 2004 to 2013. Among U.S. adults, the total lifetime cost of annual unintentional fall-related injuries that resulted in a fatality, hospitalization or treatment in an emergency department was 111 billion U.S. dollars in 2010. Conclusions Falls and fall-related injuries represent a significant health and safety problem for adults of all ages. The findings suggest that adult fall prevention efforts should consider the entire adult lifespan to ensure a

  1. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  2. Probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary three-particle state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xiu; Li Hong-Cai

    2005-01-01

    A scheme for teleporting an arbitrary and unknown three-particle state from a sender to either one of two receivers is proposed. The quantum channel is composed of a two-particle non-maximally entangled state and two three-particle non-maximally entangled W states. An arbitrary three-particle state can be perfectly teleported probabilistically if the sender performs three generalized Bell-state measurements and sends to the two receivers the classical result of these measurements, and either one of the two receivers adopts an appropriate unitary transformation conditioned on the suitable measurement outcomes of the other receiver. All kinds of unitary transformations are given in detail.

  3. Near-falls in people with Parkinson's disease: Circumstances, contributing factors and association with falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Kisic Tepavcevic, Darija; Svetel, Marina; Tomic, Aleksandra; Stankovic, Iva; Kostic, Vladimir S; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2017-10-01

    To describe circumstances of near-falls among persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), assess factors associated with near-falling and assess whether near-falls in the first 6 months are associated with falling in the latter 6 months over one year of follow-up. In the period August 2011-December 2012, 120 consecutive persons with PD, who denied having fallen in the past 6 months, were recruited at Clinical center of Serbia in Belgrade. Occurrence of falling and near-falls was followed for one year. A total of 31 persons with PD (25.8%) experienced near-falls, but did not fall. Of 42 fallers, 32 (76.2%) experienced near-falls. Tripping was the most common cause of near-falls among fallers, whereas postural instability was the most common in non-fallers. Regardless of falling experience, the most common manner to avoid fall was holding onto furniture or wall. After adjustment for multiple motor and non-motor PD features, more severe freezing of gait was associated with occurrence of near-falls over one year of follow-up (odds ratio [OR]=1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.16; p=0.043). Adjusted regression analysis did not show associations between near-falling in the first 6 months and falling in the latter 6 months of follow-up. Near-falls commonly occur in persons with PD. More severe freezing of gait appears to predispose near-falling. Fall prevention programs focusing on balance maintenance when experiencing freezing of gait could potentially be useful in reduction of near-falls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stratifying Risk of Falls in Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults Through a Simple Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schettino Ludmila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Falls are among the main disabling events for elderly adults and the identification of old people prone to falls enables the development of preventive and rehabilitative strategies. This study aimed to develop a simple tool, based on easily obtained variables (anthropometric measurements, motor performance tests and sociodemographic characteristics, to early identify community-dwelling old people prone to falls. Methods. The population-based household study was conducted among 316 elders (≥ 60 years old of both sexes, living in the urban area of Lafaiete Coutinho in Brazil. History of falls in the previous 12 months (dependent variable, sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements and motor performance tests results (explanatory variables were recorded, and a multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the association between the explanatory variables and the history of falls. Fall probability for each elderly adult was calculated from the logistic regression parameters, and the predictive power of the final model and the cutoff for higher propensity to fall were evaluated on the basis of the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results. The prevalence of falls was 25.8% and the final model was influenced by the variables of sex (female and poor performance in the balance test. The estimated probability model predicted approximately 66.5% (95% CI, 61-72% of the falls. The sensitivity and specificity were 58 and 70%, respectively. Conclusions. We conclude that there is a high prevalence of falls among the studied elderly individuals, and the proposed method allowed to construct a simple tool for screening old adults prone to fall.

  5. Geriatric fall-related injuries.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The majority of geriatric fall-related injuries were due to fall from the same level at home. Assessment of risk fac- tors for falls including home hazards is essential for prevention of geriatric fall-related injuries. Keywords: Accidental fall, geriatrics, injury, trauma registry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v16i2.24.

  6. An Effective Community?Academic Partnership to Extend the Reach of Screenings for Fall Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Schrodt, Lori A.; Garbe, Kathie C.; Chaplin, Rebecca; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Shubert, Tiffany E.

    2013-01-01

    Older adults should be screened for fall risk annually. Community providers (people without formal medical training who work with older adults in senior centers or aging services) may be a viable group to expand the reach of screenings. Our community–academic partnership developed a program to increase and assess fall risk screenings by community providers. Community sites hosted training workshops and screening events. Community screenings were well attended and received by providers and old...

  7. The national clinical audit of falls and bone health-secondary prevention of falls and fractures: a physiotherapy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Victoria; Martin, Finbarr C; Husk, Janet; Lowe, Derek; Grant, Robert; Potter, Jonathan

    2010-03-01

    To establish current physiotherapy practice in the secondary management of falls and fragility fractures compared with national guidance. Web-based national clinical audit. Acute trusts (n=157) and primary care trusts (n=146) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Data were collected on 5642 patients with non-hip fragility fractures and 3184 patients with a hip fracture. Those patients who were bedbound or who declined assessment or rehabilitation were excluded from the analysis. Results indicate that of those with non-hip fractures, 28% received a gait and balance assessment, 22% participated in an exercise programme, and 3% were shown how to get up from the floor. For those with a hip fracture, the results were 68%, 44% and 7%, respectively. Physiotherapists have a significant role to play in the secondary prevention of falls and fractures. However, along with managers and professional bodies, more must be done to ensure that clinical practice reflects the evidence base and professional standards.

  8. Prevalence and cost of imaging in inpatient falls: the rising cost of falling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fields J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jessica Fields,1 Tahani Alturkistani,2 Neal Kumar,3 Arjun Kanuri,3 Deeb N Salem,1 Samson Munn,2 Deborah Blazey-Martin1 1Department of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Radiology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 3Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Objective: To quantify the type, prevalence, and cost of imaging following inpatient falls, identify factors associated with post-fall imaging, and determine correlates of positive versus negative imaging. Design: Single-center retrospective cohort study of inpatient falls. Data were collected from the hospital's adverse event reporting system, DrQuality. Age, sex, date, time, and location of fall, clinical service, Morse Fall Scale/fall protocol, admitting diagnosis, and fall-related imaging studies were reviewed. Cost included professional and facilities fees for each study. Setting: Four hundred and fifteen bed urban academic hospital over 3 years (2008–2010. Patients: All adult inpatient falls during the study period were included. Falls experienced by patients aged <18 years, outpatient and emergency patients, visitors to the hospital, and staff were excluded. Measurements and main results: Five hundred and thirty inpatient falls occurred during the study period, average patient age 60.7 years (range 20–98. More than half of falls were men (55% and patients considered at risk of falls (56%. Falls were evenly distributed across morning (33%, evening (34%, and night (33% shifts. Of 530 falls, 178 (34% patients were imaged with 262 studies. Twenty percent of patients imaged had at least one positive imaging study attributed to the fall and 82% of studies were negative. Total cost of imaging was $160,897, 63% ($100,700 from head computed tomography (CT. Conclusion: Inpatient falls affect patients of both sexes, all ages, occur at any time of day and lead to expensive imaging, mainly from head CTs. Further study should be targeted toward

  9. Risk of Fall-Related Injury due to Adverse Weather Events, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevitz, Kathryn; Madera, Robbie; Newbern, Claire; Lojo, José; Johnson, Caroline C

    Following a surge in fall-related visits to local hospital emergency departments (EDs) after a severe ice storm, the Philadelphia Department of Public Health examined the association between inclement winter weather events and fall-related ED visits during a 5-year period. Using a standardized set of keywords, we identified fall-related injuries in ED chief complaint logs submitted as part of Philadelphia Department of Public Health's syndromic surveillance from December 2006 through March 2011. We compared days when falls exceeded the winter fall threshold (ie, "high-fall days") with control days within the same winter season. We then conducted matched case-control analysis to identify weather and patient characteristics related to increased fall-related ED visits. Fifteen high-fall days occurred during winter months in the 5-year period. In multivariable analysis, 18- to 64-year-olds were twice as likely to receive ED care for fall-related injuries on high-fall days than on control days. The crude odds of ED visits occurring from 7:00 am to 10:59 am were 70% higher on high-fall days vs control days. Snow was a predictor of a high-fall day: the adjusted odds of snow before a high-fall day as compared with snow before a control day was 13.4. The association between the number of fall-related ED visits and weather-related fall injuries, age, and timing suggests that many events occurred en route to work in the morning. Promoting work closures or delaying openings after severe winter weather would allow time for better snow or ice removal, and including "fall risk" in winter weather advisories might effectively warn morning commuters. Both strategies could help reduce the number of weather-related fall injuries.

  10. Validation of the Saskatoon Falls Prevention Consortium's Falls Screening and Referral Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Sara Nicole; Zaluski, Neal; Petrie, Amanda; Arnold, Cathy; Basran, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the concurrent validity of the Saskatoon Falls Prevention Consortium's Falls Screening and Referral Algorithm (FSRA). Method: A total of 29 older adults (mean age 77.7 [SD 4.0] y) residing in an independent-living senior's complex who met inclusion criteria completed a demographic questionnaire and the components of the FSRA and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). The FSRA consists of the Elderly Fall Screening Test (EFST) and the Multi-factor Falls Questionnaire (MFQ); it is designed to categorize individuals into low, moderate, or high fall-risk categories to determine appropriate management pathways. A predictive model for probability of fall risk, based on previous research, was used to determine concurrent validity of the FSRI. Results: The FSRA placed 79% of participants into the low-risk category, whereas the predictive model found the probability of fall risk to range from 0.04 to 0.74, with a mean of 0.35 (SD 0.25). No statistically significant correlation was found between the FSRA and the predictive model for probability of fall risk (Spearman's ρ=0.35, p=0.06). Conclusion: The FSRA lacks concurrent validity relative to to a previously established model of fall risk and appears to over-categorize individuals into the low-risk group. Further research on the FSRA as an adequate tool to screen community-dwelling older adults for fall risk is recommended. PMID:24381379

  11. Compressible Flow Phenomena at Inception of Lateral Density Currents Fed by Collapsing Gas-Particle Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Greg A.; Sweeney, Matthew R.

    2018-02-01

    Many geological flows are sourced by falling gas-particle mixtures, such as during collapse of lava domes, and impulsive eruptive jets, and sustained columns, and rock falls. The transition from vertical to lateral flow is complex due to the range of coupling between particles of different sizes and densities and the carrier gas, and due to the potential for compressible flow phenomena. We use multiphase modeling to explore these dynamics. In mixtures with small particles, and with subsonic speeds, particles follow the gas such that outgoing lateral flows have similar particle concentration and speed as the vertical flows. Large particles concentrate immediately upon impact and move laterally away as granular flows overridden by a high-speed jet of expelled gas. When a falling flow is supersonic, a bow shock develops above the impact zone, and this produces a zone of high pressure from which lateral flows emerge as overpressured wall jets. The jets form complex structures as the mixtures expand and accelerate and then recompress through a recompression zone that mimics a Mach disk shock in ideal gas jets. In mixtures with moderate to high ratios of fine to coarse particles, the latter tend to follow fine particles through the expansion-recompression flow fields because of particle-particle drag. Expansion within the flow fields can lead to locally reduced gas pressure that could enhance substrate erosion in natural flows. The recompression zones form at distances, and have peak pressures, that are roughly proportional to the Mach numbers of impacting flows.

  12. Nurses' Perceptions of Implementing Fall Prevention Interventions to Mitigate Patient-Specific Fall Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deleise S; Montie, Mary; Conlon, Paul; Reynolds, Margaret; Ripley, Robert; Titler, Marita G

    2016-08-01

    Evidence-based (EB) fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors are readily available but not routinely used in practice. Few studies have examined nurses' perceptions about both the use of these EB interventions and implementation strategies designed to promote their adoption. This article reports qualitative findings of nurses' perceptions about use of EB fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks, and implementation strategies to promote use of these interventions. The findings revealed five major themes: before-study fall prevention practices, use of EB fall prevention interventions tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors, beneficial implementation strategies, overall impact on approach to fall prevention, and challenges These findings are useful to guide nurses' engagement and use of EB fall prevention practices tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Följsamhet till en kvalitetsnorm för fall- och fallprevention inom geriatrisk slutenvård : En studie baserad på journalgranskning

    OpenAIRE

    Dannäs, Lotta; Krylén, Ida

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study has been to investigate the documentation process following the guiding principles of the Quality Norms for Fall Prevention concerning fall risk assessment, risk identification, fall preventive measures, information and the making of an individual care plan. Method This study is a quantitative, descriptive and retrospective journal review study. There were 100 journals examine the existing documentation concerning fall risk assessment of patients who received...

  14. Meteorite falls in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiri, Fouad; Ibhi, Abderrahmane; Saint-Gerant, Thierry; Medjkane, Mohand; Ouknine, Lahcen

    2017-10-01

    The study of meteorites provides insight into the earliest history of our solar system. From 1800, about the year meteorites were first recognized as objects falling from the sky, until December 2014, 158 observed meteorite falls were recorded in Africa. Their collected mass ranges from 1.4 g to 175 kg with the 1-10 kg cases predominant. The average rate of African falls is low with only one fall recovery per 1.35-year time interval (or 0.023 per year per million km2). This African collection is dominated by ordinary chondrites (78%) just like in the worldwide falls. The seventeen achondrites include three Martian meteorite falls (Nakhla of Egypt, Tissint of Morocco and Zagami of Nigeria). Observed Iron meteorite falls are relatively rare and represent only 5%. The falls' rate in Africa is variable in time and in space. The number of falls continues to grow since 1860, 80% of which were recovered during the period between 1910 and 2014. Most of these documented meteorite falls have been recovered from North-Western Africa, Eastern Africa and Southern Africa. They are concentrated in countries which have a large surface area and a large population with a uniform distribution. Other factors are also favorable for observing and collecting meteorite falls across the African territory, such as: a genuine meteorite education, a semi-arid to arid climate (clear sky throughout the year most of the time), croplands or sparse grasslands and possible access to the fall location with a low percentage of forest cover and dense road network.

  15. Preventing falls and fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfarsson, J; Robinson, B E

    1994-11-01

    One of four persons over age 65 in the community falls; those over age 75 in institutions fall more frequently. Falls, a complex phenomena suggesting present disease and predicting future disability, are caused by interactions between the environment and dynamic balance which is determined by the quality of sensory input, central processing, and motor responses. Clinical factors which predispose to falling often produce observable disturbances in gait and balance, making observation critical in assessment. Acute illness and drug therapy produce particularly preventable falls. Therapeutic exercise and environmental modification for safety are the clinical interventions most likely to successfully prevent fall-related injury.

  16. A Successful ED Fall Risk Program Using the KINDER 1 Fall RiskAssessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Ann B; Valle-Ortiz, Marisol; Sansweet, Tracy

    2016-11-01

    Emergency nurses did not perform falls risk assessments routinely on our ED patients; the instrument used was aimed at inpatients. We identified a need to revise fall assessment practices specific to our emergency department. The purpose of the performance improvement project was to reduce ED falls and evaluate the use of an ED-specific fall risk tool, the KINDER 1 Fall Risk Assessment. The plan was to establish fall risk assessment practices at point of ED entry and to decrease total falls. We retrospectively reviewed ED fall data for each quarter of 2013, which included risk assessments scores, the total number of falls, and the circumstances of each fall. Using Kotter's framework to guide a successful change process, we implemented the KINDER 1 to assess fall risk. During the first 4 weeks of the project, 937 patients (27%) were identified as high risk for falls using the KINDER 1. During the subsequent 3 quarters, the total number of falls decreased; reported falls without injuries dropped from 0.21 to 0.07 per 1000 patients, and falls with injuries were reduced from 0.21 to 0.0 per 1000 patients. The results of this project represented a valuable step toward achieving our goal to keep ED patients safe from injuries as a result of falls. The findings add to the body of nursing knowledge on the application of clinical-based performance improvement projects to improve patient outcomes and to provide data on the use of the KINDER 1 tool, which has not been extensively tested. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictive value of stabilometry and fear of falling on falls in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hita-Contreras, F; Martínez-Amat, A; Lomas-Vega, R; Álvarez, P; Aránega, A; Martínez-López, E; Mendoza, N

    2013-10-01

    Falls are one of the leading causes of fractures and impaired quality of life in the elderly, and they are related to balance deficit and to fear of falls. The purpose of our study is to evaluate predictors of falls in the 50-65-year-old postmenopausal population. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 96 postmenopausal women. Fear of falling and postural stability were assessed by using the FES-I (Falls Efficacy Scale-International) and a force platform, respectively. Fall frequency was determined in the 12-month follow-up study period. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictive factors of falls. Fear of falls, the FES-I scale and four stabilometric parameters, specifically under eyes-closed condition, were significantly higher in the group of fallers. The root mean square amplitude in the medial-lateral direction with eyes closed (RMSXec) (odds ratio 5.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-15.5, p = 0.004) and FES-I (odds ratio 3.4, 95% CI 1.1-10.5, p = 0.026) were the best independent predictive factors of the risk of falling. RMSXec > 0.133 was the best predictive factor for falls in our group of 50-65-year-old postmenopausal women studied, and a FES-I score > 20 could predict falls in this population.

  18. iFall: an Android application for fall monitoring and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposaro, Frank; Tyson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Injuries due to falls are among the leading causes of hospitalization in elderly persons, often resulting in a rapid decline in quality of life or death. Rapid response can improve the patients outcome, but this is often lacking when the injured person lives alone and the nature of the injury complicates calling for help. This paper presents an alert system for fall detection using common commercially available electronic devices to both detect the fall and alert authorities. We use an Android-based smart phone with an integrated tri-axial accelerometer. Data from the accelerometer is evaluated with several threshold based algorithms and position data to determine a fall. The threshold is adaptive based on user provided parameters such as: height, weight, and level of activity. The algorithm adapts to unique movements that a phone experiences as opposed to similar systems which require users to mount accelerometers to their chest or trunk. If a fall is suspected a notification is raised requiring the user's response. If the user does not respond, the system alerts pre-specified social contacts with an informational message via SMS. If a contact responds the system commits an audible notification, automatically connects, and enables the speakerphone. If a social contact confirms a fall, an appropriate emergency service is alerted. Our system provides a realizable, cost effective solution to fall detection using a simple graphical interface while not overwhelming the user with uncomfortable sensors.

  19. Simple fall criteria for MEMS sensors: Data analysis and sensor concept

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Alwathiqbellah; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new and simple fall detection concept based on detailed experimental data of human falling and the activities of daily living (ADLs). Establishing appropriate fall algorithms compatible with MEMS sensors requires detailed data on falls and ADLs that indicate clearly the variations of the kinematics at the possible sensor node location on the human body, such as hip, head, and chest. Currently, there is a lack of data on the exact direction and magnitude of each acceleration component associated with these node locations. This is crucial for MEMS structures, which have inertia elements very close to the substrate and are capacitively biased, and hence, are very sensitive to the direction of motion whether it is toward or away from the substrate. This work presents detailed data of the acceleration components on various locations on the human body during various kinds of falls and ADLs. A two-degree-of-freedom model is used to help interpret the experimental data. An algorithm for fall detection based on MEMS switches is then established. A new sensing concept based on the algorithm is proposed. The concept is based on employing several inertia sensors, which are triggered simultaneously, as electrical switches connected in series, upon receiving a true fall signal. In the case of everyday life activities, some or no switches will be triggered resulting in an open circuit configuration, thereby preventing false positive. Lumped-parameter model is presented for the device and preliminary simulation results are presented illustrating the new device concept. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  20. Simple fall criteria for MEMS sensors: Data analysis and sensor concept

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Alwathiqbellah

    2014-07-08

    This paper presents a new and simple fall detection concept based on detailed experimental data of human falling and the activities of daily living (ADLs). Establishing appropriate fall algorithms compatible with MEMS sensors requires detailed data on falls and ADLs that indicate clearly the variations of the kinematics at the possible sensor node location on the human body, such as hip, head, and chest. Currently, there is a lack of data on the exact direction and magnitude of each acceleration component associated with these node locations. This is crucial for MEMS structures, which have inertia elements very close to the substrate and are capacitively biased, and hence, are very sensitive to the direction of motion whether it is toward or away from the substrate. This work presents detailed data of the acceleration components on various locations on the human body during various kinds of falls and ADLs. A two-degree-of-freedom model is used to help interpret the experimental data. An algorithm for fall detection based on MEMS switches is then established. A new sensing concept based on the algorithm is proposed. The concept is based on employing several inertia sensors, which are triggered simultaneously, as electrical switches connected in series, upon receiving a true fall signal. In the case of everyday life activities, some or no switches will be triggered resulting in an open circuit configuration, thereby preventing false positive. Lumped-parameter model is presented for the device and preliminary simulation results are presented illustrating the new device concept. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  1. Falls in institutions for older adults: characterization of fall occurrences and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rosa Soares Lavareda Baixinho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Falls are the main accident for older adults, with consequences on functionality. Older adults impose restrictions or have restrictions imposed on their activities for fear of new falls. This prospective longitudinal study was conducted with 104 institutionalized older adults during six months with the following goals: to determine the prevalence of falls, to characterize the falls according to place, time, resulting injuries, supervision of the older adult, action performed at the time of the fall, and to relate the occurrence of the fall to the risk of falling, medical diagnoses, number of medications in use, type of medication, degree of dependency, age, and gender. The prevalence of falls was 37.5%, and they happened mostly in the bedroom, while walking after getting up from the bed. Those under risk in the Morse Fall Scale (p=0.034 and on sedatives (p=0.007 face a higher prevalence of falls. This study enables the possibility of making suggestions for practice, training and investigation.

  2. The Neighborhood Environment: Perceived Fall Risk, Resources, and Strategies for Fall Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippendale, Tracy; Boltz, Marie

    2015-08-01

    To explore the experience of older adults in their neighborhood in relation to perceived fall risk, fear of falling (FOF), and resources/strategies for fall prevention. Fourteen older adults, 65 years of age and older from 3 urban senior centers, participated in this qualitative study. The semistructured interview guidelines and background questionnaire were developed by the researchers based on the literature and an existing measure of walkability. Both tools were refined based on pilot interviews with seniors. Collaizzi's phenomenological method was used for data analysis. Five themes emerged from the data: (a) The built environment contributes to perceived fall risk and FOF, (b) personal strategies used to adapt to perceived neighborhood fall risks-behavioral approaches, (c) resources for physical activity and safety, (d) barriers to physical activity and exercise, and (e) neighborhood features as a motivator. Urban-dwelling seniors perceive that neighborhood features contribute to or mitigate fall risk and FOF. Behavioral strategies are used by seniors to prevent outdoor falls. The findings can help clinicians develop targeted fall prevention interventions for well elders and help urban planners to design and retrofit urban environments to reduce fall risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Evaluation of the effect of patient education on rates of falls in older hospital patients: Description of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Tammy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental falls by older patients in hospital are one of the most commonly reported adverse events. Falls after discharge are also common. These falls have enormous physical, psychological and social consequences for older patients, including serious physical injury and reduced quality of life, and are also a source of substantial cost to health systems worldwide. There have been a limited number of randomised controlled trials, mainly using multifactorial interventions, aiming to prevent older people falling whilst inpatients. Trials to date have produced conflicting results and recent meta-analyses highlight that there is still insufficient evidence to clearly identify which interventions may reduce the rate of falls, and falls related injuries, in this population. Methods and design A prospective randomised controlled trial (n = 1206 is being conducted at two hospitals in Australia. Patients are eligible to be included in the trial if they are over 60 years of age and they, or their family or guardian, give written consent. Participants are randomised into three groups. The control group continues to receive usual care. Both intervention groups receive a specifically designed patient education intervention on minimising falls in addition to usual care. The education is delivered by Digital Video Disc (DVD and written workbook and aims to promote falls prevention activities by participants. One of the intervention groups also receives follow up education training visits by a health professional. Blinded assessors conduct baseline and discharge assessments and follow up participants for 6 months after discharge. The primary outcome measure is falls by participants in hospital. Secondary outcome measures include falls at home after discharge, knowledge of falls prevention strategies and motivation to engage in falls prevention activities after discharge. All analyses will be based on intention to treat principle. Discussion

  4. Characteristics and fall experiences of older adults with and without fear of falling outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippendale, Tracy; Lee, Chang Dae

    2018-06-01

    Using a theoretical model that combines an ecological perspective and Bandura's theory of self-efficacy as a guide, we sought to compare experiences and characteristics of community dwelling older adults with and without concern about falling outdoors. A survey of randomly selected community dwelling older adults across NYC (N = 120) was conducted using the outdoor falls questionnaire. Descriptive quantitative analyses of participant characteristics were conducted for all participants and for those with and without concern about falling outside. Conventional content analysis using two coders was employed to examine outdoor fall experiences for each group. A mixed methods matrix was used to integrate qualitative and quantitative findings. Some participant characteristics were more common among those with a concern about falling outside such as decreased functional status, female gender, and number of prior outdoor falls. As per descriptions of outdoor fall experiences, participants with concern were more likely to report a fall while climbing stairs or stepping up a curb, describe an intrinsic factor as a cause of their fall, use an injury prevention strategy during the fall, sustain a moderate to severe injury, seek medical attention, have had an ambulance called, require help to get up, and describe implementation of a behavioral change after the fall. Differences exist in participant characteristics and outdoor fall experiences of those with and without concern about falling outside. The proposed model can be used to understand fear of falling outdoors and can help to inform the target population and content of intervention programs.

  5. Associated factors for falls among the community-dwelling older people assessed by annual geriatric health examinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hao Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Falls are very common among the older people. Nearly one-third older people living in a community fall each year. However, few studies have examined factors associated with falls in a community-dwelling population of older Taiwanese adults. OBJECTIVES: To identify the associated factors for falls during the previous 12 months among the community-dwelling Taiwanese older people receiving annual geriatric health examinations. PARTICIPANTS: People aged sixty-five years or older, living in the community, assessed by annual geriatric health examinations METHODS: 1377 community-dwellers aged ≥65 years who received annual geriatric health examinations at one hospital in northern Taiwan between March and November of 2008. They were asked about their history of falls during the year prior to their most recent health examination. RESULTS: The average age of the 1377 participants was 74.9±6.8 years, 48.9% of which were women. Three-hundred and thirteen of the participants (22.7% had at least one fall during the previous year. Multivariate analysis showed that odds ratio for the risk of falling was 1.94 (95% CI 1.36-2.76 when the female gender group is compared with the male gender group. The adjusted odds ratios of age and waist circumference were 1.03 (95% CI 1.00-1.06 and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.05 respectively. The adjusted odds ratios of visual acuity, Karnofsky scale, and serum albumin level were 0.34 (95% CI 0.15-0.76, 0.94 (95% CI 0.89-0.98, and 0.37 (95% CI 0.18-0.76 respectively. Larger waist circumference, older age, female gender, poorer visual acuity, lower score on the Karnofsky Performance Scale, and lower serum albumin level were the independent associated factors for falls. CONCLUSION: In addition to other associated factors, waist circumference should be included as a novel risk factor for falls.

  6. A study of particle motion in rotary dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Lisboa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the performance of a rotary dryer in relation to number of flights. In this work an equationing was proposed to calculate the area used by the solids in two-segment flights of with any angle between the segments. From this area, the flight holdup and the length of fall of the particles were calculated for different angle positions and the results obtained were compared to experimental values. The results show an increase in dryer efficiency with the increase in number of flights up to a limit value, for ideal operational conditions. The experimental data on average residence time were compared to results obtained by calculations using equations proposed in the literature. The equation proposed for predicting flight holdup and length of fall of particles generated very accurate estimations.

  7. How Do Community-Dwelling Persons with Alzheimer Disease Fall Falls in the FINALEX Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko M. Perttila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: People with dementia are at high risk for falls. However, little is known of the features causing falls in Alzheimer disease (AD. Our aim was to investigate how participants with AD fall. Methods: In the FINALEX (Finnish Alzheimer Disease Exercise Trial study, participants’ (n = 194 falls were followed up for 1 year by diaries kept by their spouses. Results: The most common reason for falls (n = 355 was stumbling (n = 61. Of the falls, 123 led to injuries, 50 to emergency department visits, and 13 to fractures. The participants without falls (n = 103 were younger and had milder dementia than those with 1 (n = 34 or ≥2 falls (n = 57. Participants with a Mini Mental State Examination score of around 10 points were most prone to fall. In adjusted regression models, good nutritional status, good physical functioning, and use of antihypertensive medication (incident rate ratio [IRR] 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54–0.85 protected against falls, whereas fall history (IRR 2.71, 95% CI 2.13–3.44, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, higher number of drugs, drugs with anticholinergic properties, psychotropics, and opioids (IRR 4.27, 95% CI 2.92–6.24 were risk factors for falls. Conclusions: Our study provides a detailed account on how and why people with AD fall, suggesting several risk and protective factors.

  8. Validation of Fall Risk Assessment Specific to the Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dan; Pavic, Andrea; Bisaccia, Erin; Grotts, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the Morse Fall Scale (MFS) and the Casa Colina Fall Risk Assessment Scale (CCFRA) for identification of patients at risk for falling in an acute inpatient rehabilitation facility. The primary objective of this study was to perform a retrospective validation study of the CCFRAS, specifically for use in the inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) setting. Retrospective validation study. The study was approved under expedited review by the local Institutional Review Board. Data were collected on all patients admitted to Cottage Rehabiliation Hospital (CRH), a 38-bed acute inpatient rehabilitation hospital, from March 2012 to August 2013. Patients were excluded from the study if they had a length of stay less than 3 days or age less than 18. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the diagnostic odds ratio were used to examine the differences between the MFS and CCFRAS. AUC between fall scales was compared using the DeLong Test. There were 931 patients included in the study with 62 (6.7%) patient falls. The average age of the population was 68.8 with 503 males (51.2%). The AUC was 0.595 and 0.713 for the MFS and CCFRAS, respectively (0.006). The diagnostic odds ratio of the MFS was 2.0 and 3.6 for the CCFRAS using the recommended cutoffs of 45 for the MFS and 80 for the CCFRAS. The CCFRAS appears to be a better tool in detecting fallers vs. nonfallers specific to the IRF setting. The assessment and identification of patients at high risk for falling is important to implement specific precautions and care for these patients to reduce their risk of falling. The CCFRAS is more clinically relevant in identifying patients at high risk for falling in the IRF setting compared to other fall risk assessments. Implementation of this scale may lead to a reduction in fall rate and injuries from falls as it more appropriately identifies patients at high risk for falling. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  9. Predicting falls using two instruments (the Hendrich Fall Risk Model and the Morse Fall Scale) in an acute care setting in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Nada; Helou, Nancy; Madi, Chantal

    2014-06-01

    To assess the predictive value of two instruments (the Morse Fall Scale (MFS) and the Heindrich II Fall Risk Model (HFRM)] in a Middle Eastern country (Lebanon) and to evaluate the factors that are related to falls. A prospective observational cross-sectional design was used. Falls and fall-related injuries in the acute care settings contribute a substantial health and economic burden on patients and organisations. Preventing falls is a priority for most healthcare organisations. While the risk of falling cannot be eliminated, it can be significantly reduced through accurate assessment of patients' risk of falling. Data from 1815 inpatients at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC) in Lebanon were evaluated using two instruments to predict falls: the MFS and the HFRM. The incidence of falls was 2·7% in one year. The results indicate that while the instruments were significantly correlated, the HFRM was more sensitive in predicting falls than the MFS. The internal consistency of both scales was moderate, but inter-rater reliability was high. Patients using antiepileptic drugs and assistance devises had higher odds of falling. Although both instruments were easy to use in a Middle Eastern country, the HFRM rather than the MFS is recommended for inpatients in an acute care setting as it had higher sensitivity and specificity. It is recommended that while the HFRM had adequate sensitivity, it is not seamless, and as such, nurses should not rely entirely on it. Rather, nurses should use their expert clinical judgement, their ethical obligations and cultural considerations to implement a safer environment of care for the patient. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Fall Enrollment Report. 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes fall enrollment in Iowa's community colleges. Each year, Iowa's 15 community colleges submit data on enrollment on the 10th business day of the fall semester. Some highlights from this report include: (1) Fall 2014 enrollment was 93,772 students--a decline of 0.49 percent from last fall; (2) Enrollment continues…

  11. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig

  12. Fall Risk Assessment Tools for Elderly Living in the Community: Can We Do Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Pierpaolo; Palmerini, Luca; Bandinelli, Stefania; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Falls are a common, serious threat to the health and self-confidence of the elderly. Assessment of fall risk is an important aspect of effective fall prevention programs. In order to test whether it is possible to outperform current prognostic tools for falls, we analyzed 1010 variables pertaining to mobility collected from 976 elderly subjects (InCHIANTI study). We trained and validated a data-driven model that issues probabilistic predictions about future falls. We benchmarked the model against other fall risk indicators: history of falls, gait speed, Short Physical Performance Battery (Guralnik et al. 1994), and the literature-based fall risk assessment tool FRAT-up (Cattelani et al. 2015). Parsimony in the number of variables included in a tool is often considered a proxy for ease of administration. We studied how constraints on the number of variables affect predictive accuracy. The proposed model and FRAT-up both attained the same discriminative ability; the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for multiple falls was 0.71. They outperformed the other risk scores, which reported AUCs for multiple falls between 0.64 and 0.65. Thus, it appears that both data-driven and literature-based approaches are better at estimating fall risk than commonly used fall risk indicators. The accuracy-parsimony analysis revealed that tools with a small number of predictors (~1-5) were suboptimal. Increasing the number of variables improved the predictive accuracy, reaching a plateau at ~20-30, which we can consider as the best trade-off between accuracy and parsimony. Obtaining the values of these ~20-30 variables does not compromise usability, since they are usually available in comprehensive geriatric assessments.

  13. Fall Risk Assessment Tools for Elderly Living in the Community: Can We Do Better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Palumbo

    Full Text Available Falls are a common, serious threat to the health and self-confidence of the elderly. Assessment of fall risk is an important aspect of effective fall prevention programs.In order to test whether it is possible to outperform current prognostic tools for falls, we analyzed 1010 variables pertaining to mobility collected from 976 elderly subjects (InCHIANTI study. We trained and validated a data-driven model that issues probabilistic predictions about future falls. We benchmarked the model against other fall risk indicators: history of falls, gait speed, Short Physical Performance Battery (Guralnik et al. 1994, and the literature-based fall risk assessment tool FRAT-up (Cattelani et al. 2015. Parsimony in the number of variables included in a tool is often considered a proxy for ease of administration. We studied how constraints on the number of variables affect predictive accuracy.The proposed model and FRAT-up both attained the same discriminative ability; the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve (AUC for multiple falls was 0.71. They outperformed the other risk scores, which reported AUCs for multiple falls between 0.64 and 0.65. Thus, it appears that both data-driven and literature-based approaches are better at estimating fall risk than commonly used fall risk indicators. The accuracy-parsimony analysis revealed that tools with a small number of predictors (~1-5 were suboptimal. Increasing the number of variables improved the predictive accuracy, reaching a plateau at ~20-30, which we can consider as the best trade-off between accuracy and parsimony. Obtaining the values of these ~20-30 variables does not compromise usability, since they are usually available in comprehensive geriatric assessments.

  14. Students fall for Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Kara

    2012-02-01

    From Boston to Beijing, thousands of students traveled to San Francisco for the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting. Of those who participated, 183 students were able to attend thanks to AGU's student travel grant program, which assists students with travel costs and seeks to enrich the meeting through ethnic and gender diversity. Students at Fall Meeting enjoyed a variety of programs and activities designed to help them better network with their peers, learn about new fields, and disseminate their research to the interested public. More than 800 students attended AGU's first annual student mixer, sharing drinks and ideas with fellow student members and future colleagues as well as forging new friendships and intellectual relationships.

  15. Falls and Fall Prevention in Older Adults With Early-Stage Dementia: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Helen W; Harrison, Barbara E; Phongphanngam, Sutthida

    2017-05-01

    Older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early-stage dementia have an increased risk of falling, with risks to their health and quality of life. The purpose of the current integrative review was to evaluate evidence on fall risk and fall prevention in this population. Studies were included if they examined falls or fall risk factors in older adults with MCI or early-stage dementia, or reported interventions in this population; 40 studies met criteria. Evidence supports the increased risk of falls in individuals even in the early stages of dementia or MCI, and changes in gait, balance, and fear of falling that may be related to this increased fall risk. Interventions included exercise and multifactorial interventions that demonstrated some potential to reduce falls in this population. Few studies had strong designs to provide evidence for recommendations. Further study in this area is warranted. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(03):139-148.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. High energy particles with negative and positive energies in the vicinity of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grib, A. A.; Pavlov, Yu. V.

    2014-07-01

    It is shown that the energy in the centre of mass frame of two colliding particles in free fall at any point of the ergosphere of the rotating black hole can grow without limit for fixed energy values of particles on infinity. The effect takes place for large negative values of the angular momentum of one of the particles. It occurs that the geodesics with negative energy in equatorial plane of rotating black holes cannot originate or terminate inside the ergosphere. Their length is always finite and this leads to conclusion that they must originate and terminate inside the gravitational radius of the ergosphere. The energy in the centre of mass frame of one particle falling into the gravitational radius and the other arriving from the area inside it is growing without limit on the horizon.

  17. Particle Settling in Low Energy Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rachel; MacVean, Lissa; Tse, Ian; Mazzaro, Laura; Stacey, Mark; Variano, Evan

    2014-11-01

    Particle settling velocities can be altered by turbulence. In turbulence, dense particles may get trapped in convergent flow regions, and falling particles may be swept towards the downward side of turbulent eddies, resulting in enhanced settling velocities. The degree of velocity enhancement may depend on the Stokes number, the Rouse number, and the turbulent Reynolds number. In a homogeneous, isotropic turbulence tank, we tested the effects of particle size and type, suspended sediment concentration, and level of turbulence on the settling velocities of particles typically found in muddy estuaries. Two Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs), separated vertically, measured turbulent velocities and suspended sediment concentrations, which yield condition dependent settling velocities, via ∂/á C ñ ∂ t = -∂/∂ z (ws á C ñ + á w ' C ' ñ) . These results are pertinent to fine sediment transport in estuaries, where high concentrations of suspended material are transported and impacted by low energy turbulence.

  18. Falls incidence underestimates the risk of fall-related injuries in older age groups : a comparison with the FARE (Falls risk by Exposure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, Astrid; Wijlhuizen, Gert Jan; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Chorus, Astrid; Hopman-Rock, Marijke

    Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE ( Falls risk by Exposure) is a

  19. Falls incidence underestimates the risk of fall-related injuries in older age groups: a comparison with the FARE (Falls risk by Exposure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, A.; Wijlhuizen, G.J.; van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE (Falls risk by Exposure) is a

  20. Falls incidence underestimates the risk of fall-related injuries in older age groups: A comparison with the FARE (Falls risk by exposure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, A.; Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Heuvelen, M.J.G. van; Chorus, A.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE (Falls risk by Exposure) is a

  1. Hayes Receives 2012 Ronald Greeley Early Career Award in Planetary Science: Citation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshin, Laurie A.

    2013-10-01

    Alexander G. Hayes Jr. received the 2012 Ronald Greeley Early Career Award in Planetary Science at the 2012 AGU Fall Meeting, held 3-7 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes significant early-career contributions to planetary science.

  2. Comparison of seven fall risk assessment tools in community-dwelling Korean older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taekyoung; Xiong, Shuping

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to compare seven widely used fall risk assessment tools in terms of validity and practicality, and to provide a guideline for choosing appropriate fall risk assessment tools for elderly Koreans. Sixty community-dwelling Korean older women (30 fallers and 30 matched non-fallers) were evaluated. Performance measures of all tools were compared between the faller and non-faller groups through two sample t-tests. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were generated with odds ratios for discriminant analysis. Results showed that four tools had significant discriminative power, and the shortened version of Falls Efficacy Scale (SFES) showed excellent discriminant validity, followed by Berg Balance Scale (BBS) with acceptable discriminant validity. The Mini Balance Evaluation System Test and Timed Up and Go, however, had limited discriminant validities. In terms of practicality, SFES was also excellent. These findings suggest that SFES is the most suitable tool for assessing the fall risks of community-dwelling Korean older women, followed by BBS. Practitioner Summary: There is no general guideline on which fall risk assessment tools are suitable for community-dwelling Korean older women. This study compared seven widely used assessment tools in terms of validity and practicality. Results suggested that the short Falls Efficacy Scale is the most suitable tool, followed by Berg Balance Scale.

  3. The fall of charged particles under gravity: a study of experimental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, T.W.; Rossi, F.; Moorhead, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    There are currently several proposals to study the motion of antiprotons, negative hydrogen ions, positrons and electrons under gravity. The motions of such charged particles are affected by residual gas, radiation, electric and magnetic fields, as well as gravity. The electric fields are particularly sensitive to the state of the 'shielding' container. In this paper the physics of these extraneous influences on the motion of charged particles under gravity is reviewed. The effects considered include: residual gas scattering, wall potentials due to patches, stress, thermal gradients, contamination states, and image-charge induced dissipation. 51 refs., 6 figs

  4. Falls, a fear of falling and related factors in older adults with complex chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuHee; Choi, MoonKi; Kim, Chang Oh

    2017-12-01

    To identify factors influencing falls and the fear of falling among older adults with chronic diseases in Korea. The fear of falling and falls in older adults are significant health problems towards which healthcare providers should direct their attention. Further investigation is needed to improve nursing practice specifically decreasing risk of falls and the fear of falling in Korea. Descriptive, cross-sectional survey. A convenience sample of 108 patients was recruited at the geriatric outpatient department of a tertiary hospital in Seoul, Korea. Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, medication use, fall history, level of physical activity, activities of daily living, mobility, muscle strength, and a fear of falling were investigated. Student's t tests, chi-square tests and multiple linear regressions were used in statistical analysis. Thirty-six participants (33.3%) among 108 subjects reported experiencing ≥1 falls in the past year. Marital status and the use of antipsychotics were associated with falls, while other factors were not significantly related to falls. Only benign prostatic hypertrophy and polypharmacy were significantly related to the fear of falling in the analysis of the relationships between chronic disease, medication use and fear of falling. In the regression model, the number of comorbidities, level of physical activity, activities of daily living and mobility were predictors of a fear of falling. Medication use was marginally significant, in the model. Increasing physical activity, functional fitness and physical independence is important to decrease the fear of falling, and to encourage active and healthy lives in older adults. The findings from this study provide evidence for the development of nursing interventions for older adults. We recommend early screening for a fear of falling and nursing interventions to decrease the fear of falling through enhancing physical activity level and function. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Increased care demand and medical costs after falls in nursing homes: A Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterke, Carolyn Shanty; Panneman, Martien J; Erasmus, Vicki; Polinder, Suzanne; van Beeck, Ed F

    2018-04-21

    To estimate the increased care demand and medical costs caused by falls in nursing homes. There is compelling evidence that falls in nursing homes are preventable. However, proper implementation of evidence-based guidelines to prevent falls is often hindered by insufficient management support, staff time and funding. A three-round Delphi study. A panel of 41 experts, all working in nursing homes in the Netherlands, received three online questionnaires to estimate the extra hours of care needed during the first year after the fall. This was estimated for ten falls categories with different levels of injury severity, in three scenarios, that is a best-case, a typical-case and a worst-case scenario. We calculated the costs of falls by multiplying the mean amount of extra hours that the participants spent on the care for a resident after a fall with their hourly wages. In case of a noninjurious fall, the extra time spent on the faller is on average almost 5 hr, expressed in euros that add to € 193. The extra staff time and costs of falls increased with increasing severity of injury. In the case of a fracture of the lower limb, the extra staff time increased to 132 hr, expressed in euros that is € 4,604. In the worst-case scenario of a fracture of the lower limb, the extra staff time increased to 284 hr, expressed in euros that is € 10,170. Falls in nursing homes result in a great deal of extra staff time spent on care, with extra costs varying between € 193 for a noninjurious fall and € 10,170 for serious falls. This study could aid decision-making on investing in appropriate implementation of falls prevention interventions in nursing homes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Gravitational radiation emitted when a mass falls onto a compact star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, A.

    1997-03-01

    The authors study the energy spectrum related to the axial perturbations of a compact star when a particle falls spiralling onto it. They find that both slowly-damped quasi-normal modes and strongly damped w-modes are excited, and that a part of the energy in the process is associated to these w-modes. A substantial difference between the energy spectra of compact stars and black holes is shown.

  7. Association between obesity, risk of falls and fear of falling in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n4p450   The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between obesity, risk of falls and fear of falling in older women. Two hundred and twenty-six volunteers (68.05 ± 6.22 years, 68.06 ± 11.79 kg, 1.56 ± 0.06 m were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese, according to the body mass index. Risk of falls and fear of falling were evaluated using QuickScreen Clinical Falls Risk Assessment and Falls Efficiency Scale – International (FES-I, respectively. Comparisons between groups were conducted using Chi-square and ANOVA One-way tests. The significance level was set at p< 0.05. Obesity was associated with greater probability of falls (p< 0.001, which may be partly explained by decreased muscle strength (p< 0.001 and reaction time (p< 0.001. In addition, significant differences between groups was observed in FES-I score (p< 0.01, with obese women showing more pronounced fear of falling (30.10 ± 8.4 than normal weigh (25. 33 ± 7.11, p< 0.01 and overweight subjects (26.97 ± 7.05, p< 0.05. These findings corroborate previous evidence pointing obesity as a major risk factor for falls. Therefore, health professionals dealing with fall prevention should consider the effects of overweight.

  8. Effectiveness of individualized fall prevention program in geriatric rehabilitation hospital setting: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, Efraim; Lutsyk, Galina; Wainer, Lea; Carmeli, Sarit

    2015-10-01

    There is no conclusive evidence that hospital fall prevention programs can reduce the number of falls. We aimed to investigate the effect of a targeted individualized falls prevention program in a geriatric rehabilitation hospital. This was a two-stage cluster-controlled trial carried out in five geriatric rehabilitation wards. Participants were 752 patients with mean age 83.2 years. The intervention was a two-phase targeted intervention falls prevention program. The intervention included an assessment of patient's risk by a risk assessment tool and an individual management that includes medical, behavioral, cognitive and environmental modifications. Patients with moderate risk received additionally orientation guidance, and mobility restriction. Patients determined as high risk were additionally placed under permanent personal supervision. Outcome measures were falls during hospital stay. In both stages of the trial, intervention and control wards were almost similar at baseline for individual patient characteristics. Overall, 37 falls occurred during the study. No significant difference was found in fall rates during follow-up between intervention and control wards: 1.306 falls per 1000 bed days in the intervention groups and 1.763-1.826 falls per 1000 bed days in the control groups. The adjusted hazard ratio for falls in the intervention groups was 1.36 (95 % confidence interval 0.89-1.77) (P = 0.08) in the first stage and 1.27 (95 % confidence interval 0.92-1.67) (P = 0.12) in the second stage. These results suggest that in a geriatric rehabilitation hospital a targeted individualized intervention falls prevention program is not effective in reducing falls.

  9. Product Characterization and Kinetics of Biomass Pyrolysis in a Three-Zone Free-Fall Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthaya Punsuwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of biomass including palm shell, palm kernel, and cassava pulp residue was studied in a laboratory free-fall reactor with three separated hot zones. The effects of pyrolysis temperature (250–1050°C and particle size (0.18–1.55 mm on the distribution and properties of pyrolysis products were investigated. A higher pyrolysis temperature and smaller particle size increased the gas yield but decreased the char yield. Cassava pulp residue gave more volatiles and less char than those of palm kernel and palm shell. The derived solid product (char gave a high calorific value of 29.87 MJ/kg and a reasonably high BET surface area of 200 m2/g. The biooil from palm shell is less attractive to use as a direct fuel, due to its high water contents, low calorific value, and high acidity. On gas composition, carbon monoxide was the dominant component in the gas product. A pyrolysis model for biomass pyrolysis in the free-fall reactor was developed, based on solving the proposed two-parallel reactions kinetic model and equations of particle motion, which gave excellent prediction of char yields for all biomass precursors under all pyrolysis conditions studied.

  10. Retention at Olympic College: A Statistical Report, Fall 1986-Winter 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaker, Jolene

    A study was conducted at Olympic College (OC) in the State of Washington, to investigate the personal and academic characteristics of student dropouts and their reasons for leaving the college. Questionnaires were sent to 500 fall 1986 students who completely withdrew from OC during the term or received all F's, W's, or other unproductive grades…

  11. Direct numerical simulation of 3D particle motion in an evaporating liquid film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ho Chan; Son, Gi Hun

    2016-01-01

    A direct numerical simulation method is developed for 3D particle motion in liquid film evaporation. The liquid-gas and fluid-solid interfaces are tracked by a sharp-interface Level-set (LS) method, which includes the effects of evaporation, contact line and solid particles. The LS method is validated through simulation of the interaction between two particles falling in a single-phase fluid. The LS based DNS method is applied to computation of the particle motion in liquid film evaporation to investigate the particle-interface and particle-particle interactions

  12. Examination of sustainability indicators for fall prevention strategies in three states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Durrett, Nicholas K; Schneider, Ellen C; Byers, Imani N; Shubert, Tiffany E; Wilson, Ashley D; Towne, Samuel D; Ory, Marcia G

    2018-06-01

    With 1-in-4 older adults suffering a fall each year, fall prevention efforts have emerged as a public health priority. Multi-level, evidence-based fall prevention programs have been promoted by the CDC and other government agencies. To ensure participants and communities receive programs' intended benefits, organizations must repeatedly deliver the programs over time and plan for program sustainability as part of 'scaling up' the initiative. The State Falls Prevention Project (SFPP) began in 2011 when the CDC provided 5 years of funding to State Departments of Health in Colorado, New York, and Oregon to simultaneously implement four fall prevention strategies: 1) Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance; 2) Stepping On; 3) Otago Exercise Program; and 4) STEADI (STopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries) toolkit. Surveys were performed to examine systems change and perceptions about sustainability across states. The purposes of this study were to: 1) examine how funding influenced the capacity for program implementation and sustainability within the SFPP; and 2) assess reported Program Sustainability Assessment Tool (PSAT) scores to learn about how best to sustain fall preventing efforts after funding ends. Data showed that more organizations offered evidence-based fall prevention programs in participants' service areas with funding, and the importance of programming implementation, evaluation, and reporting efforts were likely to diminish once funding concluded. Participants' reported PSAT scores about perceived sustainability capacity did not directly align with previously reported perceptions about PSAT domain importance or modifiability. Findings suggest the importance of grantees to identify potential barriers and enablers influencing program sustainability during the planning phase of the programs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. New horizons in fall prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Stephen R; Close, Jacqueline C T

    2018-04-25

    Falls pose a major threat to the well-being and quality of life of older people. Falls can result in fractures and other injuries, disability and fear and can trigger a decline in physical function and loss of autonomy. This article synthesises recent published findings on fall risk and mobility assessments and fall prevention interventions and considers how this field of research may evolve in the future. Fall risk topics include the utility of remote monitoring using wearable sensors and recent work investigating brain activation and gait adaptability. New approaches for exercise for fall prevention including dual-task training, cognitive-motor training with exergames and reactive step training are discussed. Additional fall prevention strategies considered include the prevention of falls in older people with dementia and Parkinson's disease, drugs for fall prevention and safe flooring for preventing fall-related injuries. The review discusses how these new initiatives and technologies have potential for effective fall prevention and improved quality of life. It concludes by emphasising the need for a continued focus on translation of evidence into practice including robust effectiveness evaluations of so that resources can be appropriately targeted into the future.

  14. Cathode fall model and current-voltage characteristics of field emission driven direct current microplasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy [Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2013-11-15

    The post-breakdown characteristics of field emission driven microplasma are studied theoretically and numerically. A cathode fall model assuming a linearly varying electric field is used to obtain equations governing the operation of steady state field emission driven microplasmas. The results obtained from the model by solving these equations are compared with particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulation results for parameters including the plasma potential, cathode fall thickness, ion number density in the cathode fall, and current density vs voltage curves. The model shows good overall agreement with the simulations but results in slightly overpredicted values for the plasma potential and the cathode fall thickness attributed to the assumed electric field profile. The current density vs voltage curves obtained show an arc region characterized by negative slope as well as an abnormal glow discharge characterized by a positive slope in gaps as small as 10 μm operating at atmospheric pressure. The model also retrieves the traditional macroscale current vs voltage theory in the absence of field emission.

  15. Cathode fall model and current-voltage characteristics of field emission driven direct current microplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2013-01-01

    The post-breakdown characteristics of field emission driven microplasma are studied theoretically and numerically. A cathode fall model assuming a linearly varying electric field is used to obtain equations governing the operation of steady state field emission driven microplasmas. The results obtained from the model by solving these equations are compared with particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulation results for parameters including the plasma potential, cathode fall thickness, ion number density in the cathode fall, and current density vs voltage curves. The model shows good overall agreement with the simulations but results in slightly overpredicted values for the plasma potential and the cathode fall thickness attributed to the assumed electric field profile. The current density vs voltage curves obtained show an arc region characterized by negative slope as well as an abnormal glow discharge characterized by a positive slope in gaps as small as 10 μm operating at atmospheric pressure. The model also retrieves the traditional macroscale current vs voltage theory in the absence of field emission

  16. Masculinity and preventing falls: insights from the fall experiences of men aged 70 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, J L M; Lovarini, Meryl; Clemson, Lindy M; Jang, Haeyoung; Lord, Stephen R; Sherrington, Catherine; Willis, Karen

    2018-01-11

    To explore men's fall experiences through the lens of masculine identities so as to assist health professionals better engage men in fall prevention programs. Twenty-five men, aged 70-93 years who had experienced a recent fall, participated in a qualitative semi-structured interview. Men's willingness to engage in fall prevention programs taking account of individual contexts and expressions of masculinity, were conceptualised using constant comparative methods. Men's willingness to engage in fall prevention programs was related to their perceptions of the preventability of falls; personal relevance of falls; and age, health, and capability as well as problem-solving styles to prevent falls. Fall prevention advice was rarely given when men accessed the health system at the time of a fall. Contrary to dominant expectations about masculine identity, many men acknowledged fall vulnerability indicating they would attend or consider attending, a fall prevention program. Health professionals can better engage men by providing consistent messages that falls can be prevented; tailoring advice, understanding men are at different stages in their awareness of fall risk and preferences for action; and by being aware of their own assumptions that can act as barriers to speaking with men about fall prevention. Implications for rehabilitation Men accessing the health system at the time of the fall, and during rehabilitation following a fall represent prime opportunities for health professionals to speak with men about preventing falls and make appropriate referrals to community programs. Tailored advice will take account of individual men's perceptions of preventability; personal relevance; perceptions of age, health and capability; and problem-solving styles.

  17. The history of falls and the association of the timed up and go test to falls and near-falls in older adults with hip osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulkner Robert A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falling accounts for a significant number of hospital and long-term care admissions in older adults. Many adults with the combination of advancing age and functional decline associated with lower extremity osteoarthritis (OA, are at an even greater risk. The purpose of this study was to describe fall and near-fall history, location, circumstances and injuries from falls in a community-dwelling population of adults over aged 65 with hip OA and to determine the ability of the timed up and go test (TUG to classify fallers and near-fallers. Method A retrospective observational study of 106 older men and women with hip pain for six months or longer, meeting a clinical criteria for the presence of hip OA at one or both hips. An interview for fall and near-fall history and administration of the TUG were administered on one occasion. Results Forty-five percent of the sample had at least one fall in the past year, seventy-seven percent reported occasional or frequent near-falls. The majority of falls occurred during ambulation and ascending or descending steps. Forty percent experienced an injury from the fall. The TUG was not associated with history of falls, but was associated with near-falls. Higher TUG scores occurred for those who were older, less mobile, and with greater number of co-morbidities. Conclusion A high percentage of older adults with hip OA experience falls and near-falls which may be attributed to gait impairments related to hip OA. The TUG could be a useful screening instrument to predict those who have frequent near-falls, and thus might be useful in predicting risk of future falls in this population.

  18. Diagnosis and Tests: Evaluating a Fall or Risk of Falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a physical therapist, who can evaluate your fall risk. If your healthcare provider concludes that you are ... to check for things that can impact your fall risk, such as electrolyte balance and the possibility of ...

  19. Risk of falls after withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Nathalie; Stricker, Bruno H. Ch; Pols, Huib A. P.; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Falling in older persons is a frequent and serious clinical problem. Several drugs have been associated with increased fall risk. The objective of this study was to identify differences in the incidence of falls after withdrawal (discontinuation or dose reduction) of fall-risk-increasing drugs

  20. The design and development of a complex multifactorial falls assessment intervention for falls prevention: The Prevention of Falls Injury Trial (PreFIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Julie; Ralhan, Shvaita; Sheridan, Ray; Westacott, Katharine; Withers, Emma; Finnegan, Susanne; Davison, John; Martin, Finbarr C; Lamb, Sarah E

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a complex multifactorial falls prevention (MFFP) intervention for implementation and testing within the framework of a large UK-based falls prevention randomised controlled trial (RCT). A complex intervention was developed for inclusion within the Prevention of Falls Injury Trial (PreFIT), a multicentre pragmatic RCT. PreFIT aims to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of three alternative primary care falls prevention interventions (advice, exercise and MFFP), on outcomes of fractures and falls. Community-dwelling adults, aged 70 years and older, were recruited from primary care in the National Health Service (NHS), England. Development of the PreFIT MFFP intervention was informed by the existing evidence base and clinical guidelines for the assessment and management of falls in older adults. After piloting and modification, the final MFFP intervention includes seven falls risk factors: a detailed falls history interview with consideration of 'red flags'; assessment of balance and gait; vision; medication screen; cardiac screen; feet and footwear screen and home environment assessment. This complex intervention has been fully manualised with clear, documented assessment and treatment pathways for each risk factor. Each risk factor is assessed in every trial participant referred for MFFP. Referral for assessment is based upon a screening survey to identify those with a history of falling or balance problems. Intervention delivery can be adapted to the local setting. This complex falls prevention intervention is currently being tested within the framework of a large clinical trial. This paper adheres to TIDieR and CONSORT recommendations for the comprehensive and explicit reporting of trial interventions. Results from the PreFIT study will be published in due course. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the PreFIT MFFP intervention, compared to advice and exercise, on the prevention of falls and

  1. Relationship Between Perceived Risk of Falling and Adoption of Precautions to Reduce Fall Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, Susan J; Gildner, Paula L; Jones, Jennifer L; Bowling, James M; Casteel, Carri H

    2016-06-01

    To better understand the relationship between perceived risk of falling and awareness and adoption of four specific precautions that older adults have taken to reduce this risk. Cross-sectional. Data were collected in in-person interviews conducted in the homes of study participants. Interviews conducted between March 2011 and September 2013 and lasted an average of 60-90 minutes. A stratified sampling strategy designed to enroll an equal number of homebound and nonhomebound participants was used. All participants (N = 164) were recruited from central North Carolina. Participants were asked about 1-year fall history, perceived risk of falling, restriction of activities because of fear of falling, awareness of four recommended fall prevention behaviors (exercise, annual medication review, bathroom grab bars, safe footwear), and current practice of these behaviors. In bivariate analyses, individuals who were aware of two behaviors recommended to reduce the risk of falling (exercise, use of safe footwear) and had adopted these behaviors perceived their risk of falling as lower than individuals who were aware of the recommended behaviors but had not adopted them. Moreover, in multivariate analyses, individuals who did not know that exercise is recommended to reduce the risk of falling perceived their risk of falling as lower than those who were aware of this recommendation and had adopted it. Individuals were least likely to be aware that medication reviews and exercise are recommended to reduce fall risk. Awareness of behaviors recommended to reduce fall risk appears necessary for adoption of these behaviors to reduce perceived risk. Fall-prevention campaigns should emphasize behaviors where awareness is low. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Falls in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, Y.A.M.; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the latest insights into the clinical significance, assessment, pathophysiology and treatment of falls in Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that falls are common in Parkinson's disease, even when compared with other fall-prone

  3. The interplay between gait, falls and cognition: can cognitive therapy reduce fall risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev-Jacubovski, Orit; Herman, Talia; Yogev-Seligmann, Galit; Mirelman, Anat; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we briefly summarize the incidence and significant consequences of falls among older adults, the insufficient effectiveness of commonly used multifactorial interventions and the evidence linking falls and cognitive function. Recent pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic studies that evaluated the effects of cognitive therapy on fall risk are reviewed. The results of this article illustrate the potential utility of multiple, diverse forms of cognitive therapy for reducing fall risk. The article also indicates that large-scale, randomized controlled trials are warranted and that additional research is needed to better understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the interplay between human mobility, fall risk and cognitive function. Nonetheless, we suggest that multimodality interventions that combine motor and cognitive therapy should, eventually, be incorporated into clinical practice to enable older adults and patients to move safer and with a reduced fall risk. PMID:21721921

  4. Wavelength-independent fringe spacing in rainbows from falling neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, M.V.

    1982-01-01

    For particles with speed upsilon and mass m emitted isotropically from a point source and falling under gravity g, the quantal probability density is dominated by a paraboloidal caustic decorated with paraboloidal interference fringes. Near the caustic, the fringes have a spacing independent of upsilon and hence of wavelength, given by ΔR=3.53897x(h 2 /m 2 g)sup(1/3) for the first two (brightest) fringes at the level of the source. For neutrons in the Earth's field, ΔR=0.02617mm. The effect might be difficult to detect. (author)

  5. The radiological significance of beta emitting hot particles released from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Martonen, T.B.

    1988-01-01

    In order to assess radiological hazards associated with inhalation of beta emitting hot particles detected in fall-out from the Chernobyl incident, radiation doses and lung cancer risk are calculated for a hot particle composed entirely of 103 Ru. Lung cancer risk estimates are based upon an initiation-promotion model of carcinogenesis. In the immediate vicinity of a hot particle, calculations indicate that doses may be extremely high, so that all cells are killed and no tumour will arise. At intermediate distances, however, the probability for lung cancer induction exhibits a distinct maximum. Risk enhancement factors, computed relative to a uniform radionuclide distribution of equal activity, are highest for intermediate activities and hot particles moving in the lung. While the risk from inhalation of 103 Ru hot particles might, indeed, exceed that from all other exposure pathways of the Chernobyl fall-out, it still lies within normal fluctuations of radon progeny induced lung cancer risk. (author)

  6. [Evaluation of a simple screening tool for ambulant fall prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, M; Rasche, P; Rentemeister, L; Bliemel, C; Bücking, B; Bollheimer, L C; Pape, H-C

    2018-02-02

    An individual's risk of falling is generally difficult to detect and it is likely to be underestimated. Thus, preventive measures are challenging and they demand sufficient integration and implementation into aftercare and outpatient management. The Aachen Falls Prevention Scale (AFPS) is a quick and easy tool for patient-driven fall risk assessment. Older adults' risk of falling is identified in a suitable manner and they then have the opportunity to independently assess and monitor their risk of falling. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the AFPS as a simple screening tool in geriatric trauma patients via the identification of influencing factors, e.g. objective or subjective fall risk, fear of falling (FOF) and demographic data. In this context, we investigated older adults' willingness to take part in special activities concerning fall prevention. Retrospectively, all patients over 70 years of age who received in-hospital fracture treatment between July 2014 and April 2016 were analyzed at a level I trauma center. After identification of 884 patients, participants completed a short questionnaire (47 questions, yes/no, Likert scale) comprising the AFPS. A history of falls in the past year was considered an indicator of a balance disorder. In addition, ambulant patients were invited to participate between July and August 2016. In total, 201 patients (mean 80.4 years, range 63-97 years) performed a self-assessment based on the AFPS. After steps 1 and 2 of the AFPS had been completed, 95 (47%) participants rated their subjective risk of falling as high (more than 5 points). Of the participants 84 (42%) were objectively classified as "fallers" with significant effects on their AFPS evaluation and rating of their subjective risk of falling. Furthermore, 67% of the participants identified a general practitioner as their main contact person, and 43% of the respondents viewed the AFPS as a beneficial screening tool in fall risk evaluation (8

  7. Meanings of Falls and Prevention of Falls According to Rehabilitation Nurses: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Amy; Pierce, Linda L; Gies, Cheryl; Steiner, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Guided by Friedemann's theoretical framework, this survey explored the meaning of a fall of an institutionalized older adult or fall prevention to rehabilitation registered nurses and whether the experience changed the nurse's practice. Qualitative, descriptive survey. A convenience sample of 742 rehabilitation nurses was asked to describe these experiences and the impact on their practice. Themes discovered related to the meaning of a fall include negative feelings (incongruence) and positive feelings (congruence). Themes related to the meaning of preventing a fall include positive feelings (congruence). Practice change themes emerged from both the experience of a fall and fall prevention. Practice change themes were drawn to Friedemann's (1995) process dimensions. Nurses' experiences and meanings of falls uncovered negative and positive feelings about these falls. New findings of this study were the positive feelings expressed by nurses, when there was no injury or when a fall was prevented. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  8. The FIM instrument to identify patients at risk of falling in geriatric wards: a 10-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitpierre, Nicolas Julien; Trombetti, Andrea; Carroll, Iain; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Herrmann, François Richard

    2010-05-01

    the main objective was to evaluate if the admission functional independence measure (FIM) score could be used to predict the risk of falls in geriatric inpatients. a 10-year retrospective study was performed. the study was conducted in a 298-bed geriatric teaching hospital in Geneva, Switzerland. all patients discharged from the hospital from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2006 were selected. measures used were FIM scores at admission using the FIM instrument and number of falls extracted from the institution's fall report forms. during the study period, there were 23,966 hospital stays. A total of 8,254 falls occurred. Of these, 7,995 falls were linked to 4,651 stays. Falls were recorded in 19.4% of hospital stays, with a mean incidence of 7.84 falls per 1,000 patients-days. Although there was a statistically significant relationship between total FIM score, its subscales, and the risk of falling, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value obtained with receiver operating characteristic curves were insufficient to permit fall prediction. This might be due in part to a non-linear relationship between FIM score and fall risk. in this study, the FIM instrument was found to be unable to predict risk of falls in general geriatric wards.

  9. Pulmonary Rehabilitation With Balance Training for Fall Reduction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Marla K; Brooks, Dina; Ellerton, Cindy; Lee, Annemarie; Alison, Jennifer; Camp, Pat G; Dechman, Gail; Haines, Kimberley; Harrison, Samantha L; Holland, Anne E; Marques, Alda; Moineddin, Rahim; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Spencer, Lissa; Stickland, Michael K; Xie, Feng; Goldstein, Roger S

    2017-11-20

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A growing body of evidence shows that individuals with COPD have important deficits in balance control that may be associated with an increased risk of falls. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is a key therapeutic intervention for individuals with COPD; however, current international guidelines do not include balance training and fall prevention strategies. The primary aim of this trial is to determine the effects of PR with balance training compared to PR with no balance training on the 12-month rate of falls in individuals with COPD. Secondary aims are to determine the effects of the intervention on balance, balance confidence, and functional lower body strength, and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the program. A total of 400 individuals from nine PR centers across Canada, Europe, and Australia will be recruited to participate in a randomized controlled trial. Individuals with COPD who have a self-reported decline in balance, a fall in the last 2 years, or recent near fall will be randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The intervention group will undergo tailored balance training in addition to PR and will receive a personalized home-based balance program. The control group will receive usual PR and a home program that does not include balance training. All participants will receive monthly phone calls to provide support and collect health care utilization and loss of productivity data. Both groups will receive home visits at 3, 6, and 9 months to ensure proper technique and progression of home exercise programs. The primary outcome will be incidence of falls at 12-month follow-up. Falls will be measured using a standardized definition and recorded using monthly self-report fall diary calendars. Participants will be asked to record falls and time spent performing their home exercise program on the fall diary calendars. Completed calendars will

  10. Unsupervised machine-learning method for improving the performance of ambulatory fall-detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwono Mitchell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls can cause trauma, disability and death among older people. Ambulatory accelerometer devices are currently capable of detecting falls in a controlled environment. However, research suggests that most current approaches can tend to have insufficient sensitivity and specificity in non-laboratory environments, in part because impacts can be experienced as part of ordinary daily living activities. Method We used a waist-worn wireless tri-axial accelerometer combined with digital signal processing, clustering and neural network classifiers. The method includes the application of Discrete Wavelet Transform, Regrouping Particle Swarm Optimization, Gaussian Distribution of Clustered Knowledge and an ensemble of classifiers including a multilayer perceptron and Augmented Radial Basis Function (ARBF neural networks. Results Preliminary testing with 8 healthy individuals in a home environment yields 98.6% sensitivity to falls and 99.6% specificity for routine Activities of Daily Living (ADL data. Single ARB and MLP classifiers were compared with a combined classifier. The combined classifier offers the greatest sensitivity, with a slight reduction in specificity for routine ADL and an increased specificity for exercise activities. In preliminary tests, the approach achieves 100% sensitivity on in-group falls, 97.65% on out-group falls, 99.33% specificity on routine ADL, and 96.59% specificity on exercise ADL. Conclusion The pre-processing and feature-extraction steps appear to simplify the signal while successfully extracting the essential features that are required to characterize a fall. The results suggest this combination of classifiers can perform better than MLP alone. Preliminary testing suggests these methods may be useful for researchers who are attempting to improve the performance of ambulatory fall-detection systems.

  11. [Risk factors for falls and survival after falling in elderly people in a community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryuichi; Takagi, Chika; Sakurai, Naoko; Hoshi, Tanji

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk factors associated with falls and to examine the effects of falls on survival of elderly people in a community. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 16,462 urban elderly dwellers aged 65 years or more in City A in September 2001. A follow-up survey was carried out in September 2004. We analyzed the data of 8,285 subjects who answered both questionnaires and had not relocated by August 2007. Baseline assessments of health and functioning were carried out in 2001. Falls experienced during the 1-year period before September 2004 were recorded, and the deaths were recorded until August 2007. Statistical analysis was performed using a logistic regression model and Cox's proportional hazards analysis. A total of 6,420 subjects (3,127 men and 3,293 women) who had provided complete answers about their falls were included in the analyses. Of these, 27.8% of women and 16.4% of men had experienced falls, while 6.2% of women and 2.1% of men had experienced falls that caused fractures. We found that the likelihood of fall, with or without fracture development, was greater in women than in men (P falls tended to increase with age in both women and men. Risk factors associated with falls, in addition to age and gender, were pain (odds ratio [OR], 1.75), lack of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL; OR, 1.45), poor self-rated health status (OR, 1.42), and presence of disease (OR, 1.35). Risk factors associated with falls that caused fracture were pain (OR, 1.85) and lack of IADL (OR, 1.61). Cox's proportional hazards analysis showed a significant increase in mortality in both men and women who had experienced falls than in those who had not (hazard ratio [HR], 1.94, 1.43). Aging, pain and disease, lack of IADL, and poor self-rated health status were all significant risk factors for falls in elderly people, and a fall was related to subsequent mortality.

  12. Geriatric fall-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefny, Ashraf F; Abbas, Alaa K; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2016-06-01

    Falls are the leading cause of geriatric injury. We aimed to study the anatomical distribution, severity, and outcome of geriatric fall-related injuries in order to give recommendations regarding their prevention. All injured patients with an age ≥ 60 years who were admitted to Al-Ain Hospital or died in the Emergency Department due to falls were prospectively studied over a four year period. We studied 92 patients. Fifty six of them (60.9%) were females. The mean (standard deviation) of age was 72.2 (9.6) years. Seventy three (89%) of all incidents occurred at home. Eighty three patients (90.2%) fell on the same level. The median (range) ISS was 4 (1-16) and the median GCS (range) was 15 (12-15). The lower limb was the most common injured body region (63%). There were no statistical significant differences between males and females regarding age, ISS, and hospital stay (p = 0.85, p = 0.57, and p = 0.35 respectively). The majority of geriatric fall-related injuries were due to fall from the same level at home. Assessment of risk factors for falls including home hazards is essential for prevention of geriatric fall-related injuries.

  13. Fall prevention walker during rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Kian Sek; E, Chun Zhi; Saim, Hashim; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Khialdin, Safinaz Binti Mohd; Isa, Hazlita; Awad, M. I.; Soon, Chin Fhong

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes on the design of a walker for the prevention of falling among elderlies or patients during rehabilitation whenever they use a walker to assist them. Fall happens due to impaired balance or gait problem. The assistive device is designed by applying stability concept and an accelerometric fall detection system is included. The accelerometric fall detection system acts as an alerting device that acquires body accelerometric data and detect fall. Recorded accelerometric data could be useful for further assessment. Structural strength of the walker was verified via iterations of simulation using finite element analysis, before being fabricated. Experiments were conducted to identify the fall patterns using accelerometric data. The design process and detection of fall pattern demonstrates the design of a walker that could support the user without fail and alerts the helper, thus salvaging the users from injuries due to fall and unattended situation.

  14. The REFORM study protocol: a cohort randomised controlled trial of a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockayne, Sarah; Adamson, Joy; Corbacho Martin, Belen; Fairhurst, Caroline; Hewitt, Catherine; Hicks, Kate; Hull, Robin; Keenan, Anne Maree; Lamb, Sarah E; Loughrey, Lorraine; McIntosh, Caroline; Menz, Hylton B; Redmond, Anthony C; Rodgers, Sara; Vernon, Wesley; Watson, Judith; Torgerson, David

    2014-12-17

    Falls and fall-related injuries are a serious cause of morbidity and cost to society. Foot problems and inappropriate footwear may increase the risk of falls; therefore podiatric interventions may play a role in reducing falls. Two Cochrane systematic reviews identified only one study of a podiatry intervention aimed to reduce falls, which was undertaken in Australia. The REFORM trial aims to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention in reducing falls in people aged 65 years and over in a UK and Irish setting. This multicentre, cohort randomised controlled trial will recruit 2600 participants from routine podiatry clinics in the UK and Ireland to the REFORM cohort. In order to detect a 10% point reduction in falls from 50% to 40%, with 80% power 890 participants will be randomised to receive routine podiatry care and a falls prevention leaflet or routine podiatry care, a falls prevention leaflet and a multifaceted podiatry intervention. The primary outcome is rate of falls (falls/person/time) over 12 months assessed by patient self-report falls diary. Secondary self-report outcome measures include: the proportion of single and multiple fallers and time to first fall over a 12-month period; Short Falls Efficacy Scale-International; fear of falling in the past 4 weeks; Frenchay Activities Index; fracture rate; Geriatric Depression Scale; EuroQoL-five dimensional scale 3-L; health service utilisation at 6 and 12 months. A qualitative study will examine the acceptability of the package of care to participants and podiatrists. The trial has received a favourable opinion from the East of England-Cambridge East Research Ethics Committee and Galway Research Ethics Committee. The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and at conference presentations. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68240461 assigned 01/07/2011. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial of Screening, Risk Modification, and Physical Therapy to Prevent Falls Among the Elderly Recently Discharged From the Emergency Department to the Community: The Steps to Avoid Falls in the Elderly Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchar, David B; Duncan, Pamela W; Lien, Christopher T; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Lee, Mina; Gao, Fei; Sim, Rita; Eom, Kirsten

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial, tailored program of physical therapy to reduce the occurrence of falls among a heterogeneous group of high-risk elderly Singaporeans recently discharged from the emergency department (ED). Randomized controlled trial. Communities. Adults (N=354) aged ≥65 years who were seen in the ED for a fall or fall-related injuries and discharged home. The intervention primarily consisted of a tailored program of physical therapy focused on progressive training in strength, balance, and gait for a period of 3 months. Participants in the intervention group also received screening and follow-up for vision, polypharmacy, and environmental hazards. Participants in the control group received usual care prescribed by a physician and educational materials on falls prevention. The primary outcome measure was experiencing at least 1 fall during the 9-month study period (a 3-mo active intervention phase and a 6-mo maintenance phase). Secondary outcome measures were the occurrence of at least 1 injurious fall during the study period and a change in the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score. Participants were assessed both after 3 and 9 months. During the 9-month study period, 37.8% of the control group and 30.5% of the intervention group fell at least once, which was not statistically significantly different (odds ratio [OR]=.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], .46-1.12; P=.146). The intervention group had statistically significantly fewer individuals with injurious falls (OR=.56; 95% CI, .32-.98; P=.041) and less deterioration in physical performance, reflected by a mean difference of 0.6 in SPPB scores (P=.029). Multivariate analyses indicated a strong interaction effect between the intervention and the presence of 2 or more major comorbidities; after accounting for this effect, the intervention program reduced the number of people experiencing at least 1 fall (OR=.34; 95% CI, .17-.67; P=.002). We observed that in this

  16. 6-PACK programme to decrease fall injuries in acute hospitals: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anna L; Morello, Renata T; Wolfe, Rory; Brand, Caroline A; Haines, Terry P; Hill, Keith D; Brauer, Sandra G; Botti, Mari; Cumming, Robert G; Livingston, Patricia M; Sherrington, Catherine; Zavarsek, Silva; Lindley, Richard I; Kamar, Jeannette

    2016-01-26

    To evaluate the effect of the 6-PACK programme on falls and fall injuries in acute wards. Cluster randomised controlled trial. Six Australian hospitals. All patients admitted to 24 acute wards during the trial period. Participating wards were randomly assigned to receive either the nurse led 6-PACK programme or usual care over 12 months. The 6-PACK programme included a fall risk tool and individualised use of one or more of six interventions: "falls alert" sign, supervision of patients in the bathroom, ensuring patients' walking aids are within reach, a toileting regimen, use of a low-low bed, and use of a bed/chair alarm. The co-primary outcomes were falls and fall injuries per 1000 occupied bed days. During the trial, 46 245 admissions to 16 medical and eight surgical wards occurred. As many people were admitted more than once, this represented 31 411 individual patients. Patients' characteristics and length of stay were similar for intervention and control wards. Use of 6-PACK programme components was higher on intervention wards than on control wards (incidence rate ratio 3.05, 95% confidence interval 2.14 to 4.34; Pcontrol wards. Positive changes in falls prevention practice occurred following the introduction of the 6-PACK programme. However, no difference was seen in falls or fall injuries between groups. High quality evidence showing the effectiveness of falls prevention interventions in acute wards remains absent. Novel solutions to the problem of in-hospital falls are urgently needed. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000332921. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Bifurcating Particle Swarms in Smooth-Walled Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.; Sun, H.

    2010-12-01

    Particle swarms can occur naturally or from industrial processes where small liquid drops containing thousands to millions of micron-size to colloidal-size particles are released over time from seepage or leaks into fractured rock. The behavior of these particle swarms as they fall under gravity are affected by particle interactions as well as interactions with the walls of the fractures. In this paper, we present experimental results on the effect of fractures on the cohesiveness of the swarm and the formation of bifurcation structures as they fall under gravity and interact with the fracture walls. A transparent cubic sample (100 mm x 100 mm x 100 mm) containing a synthetic fracture with uniform aperture distributions was optically imaged to quantify the effect of confinement within fractures on particle swarm formation, swarm velocity, and swarm geometry. A fracture with a uniform aperture distribution was fabricated from two polished rectangular prisms of acrylic. A series of experiments were performed to determine how swarm movement and geometry are affected as the walls of the fracture are brought closer together from 50 mm to 1 mm. During the experiments, the fracture was fully saturated with water. We created the swarms using two different particle sizes in dilute suspension (~ 1.0% by mass). The particles were 3 micron diameter fluorescent polymer beads and 25 micron diameter soda-lime glass beads. Experiments were performed using swarms that ranged in size from 5 µl to 60 µl. The swarm behavior was imaged using an optical fluorescent imaging system composed of a CCD camera illuminated by a 100 mW diode-pumped doubled YAG laser. As a swarm falls in an open-tank of water, it forms a torroidal shape that is stable as long as no ambient or background currents exist in the water tank. When a swarm is released into a fracture with an aperture less than 5 mm, the swarm forms the torroidal shape but it is distorted because of the presence of the walls. The

  18. Multimorbidity predicts falls differentially according to the type of fall in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrin, Nadia; Honkanen, Risto; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Lukkala, Pyry; Rikkonen, Toni; Sirola, Joonas; Williams, Lana J; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-09-01

    To ascertain whether the risk of falls of different types is related to morbidity (number of chronic medical conditions) among postmenopausal women. This cohort study uses data from a population-based prospective cohort study (OSTPRE). The study population consisted of 10,594 women aged 47-56 years living in Kuopio Province, Eastern Finland, in 1989, who responded to postal enquiries at both baseline and 5-year follow-up, in 1994. Morbidity (i.e. number of diagnosed chronic medical conditions) was reported in 1989 and falls in 1994. Falls were categorized as slip or nonslip, and 'frequent falls' was defined as two or more in a 12-month period. The risk (odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI) of a fall increased with the number of chronic medical conditions. The OR was 1.28 (1.17-1.40) for those with 1-2 conditions and 1.41 (1.24-1.60) for those with multimorbidity (≥3 conditions) compared with healthy respondents. Multimorbidity was associated with a greater risk of the woman experiencing frequent nonslip falls (OR=2.57; 2.01-3.29) than frequent slip falls (OR=1.46; 1.17-1.80). Adjusting with logistic regression for age, number of medications and smoking did not affect the risk estimates. Multimorbidity has a much smaller effect on slip than on nonslip falls in postmenopausal women. This should be taken into account when investigating the effects of multimorbidity on fall risk in varying weather conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Falls and fear of falling in vertigo and balance disorders: A controlled cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlick, Cornelia; Schniepp, Roman; Loidl, Verena; Wuehr, Max; Hesselbarth, Kristin; Jahn, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are among the most prevalent symptoms in neurologic disorders. Although many of these patients suffer from postural instability and gait disturbances, there is only limited data on their risk of falling. We conducted a controlled cross-sectional study at the tertiary care outpatient clinic of the German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders using a self-administered questionnaire to assess falls, fall-related injuries, and fear of falling. The recruitment period was 6 months. A total of 569 patients (mean age 59.6 ± 17.1 years, 55% females) and 100 healthy participants were included (response rate > 90%). Dizzy patients with central balance disorders (Parkinsonian, cerebellar, and brainstem oculomotor syndromes) had the highest fall rates (> 50% recurrent fallers, odds ratio > 10). The rate of recurrent fallers was 30% in bilateral vestibular failure and peripheral neuropathy (odds ratio > 5). Patients with functional dizziness (somatoform or phobic vertigo) were concerned about falling but did not fall more often than healthy controls (odds ratio 0.87). Falls are common in patients presenting to a dizziness unit. Those with central syndromes are at risk of recurrent and injurious falling. Fall rates and fear of falling should be assessed in balance disorders and used to guide the regimen of rehabilitation therapy. The identification of risk factors would help provide protective measures to these groups of patients.

  20. Risk of falling in a stroke unit after acute stroke: The Fall Study of Gothenburg (FallsGOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Carina U; Kjellberg, Sigvar; Lernfelt, Bodil; Westerlind, Ellen; Cruce, Malin; Hansson, Per-Olof

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate incidence of falls and different baseline variables and their association with falling during hospitalization in a stroke unit among patients with acute stroke. Prospective observational study. A stroke unit at a university hospital. A consecutive sample of stroke patients, out of which 504 were included, while 101 declined participation. The patients were assessed a mean of 1.7 days after admission and 3.8 days after stroke onset. The primary end-point was any fall, from admission to the stroke unit to discharge. Factors associated with falling were analysed using univariable and multivariable Cox hazard regression analyses. Independent variables were related to function, activity and participation, as well as personal and environmental factors. In total, 65 patients (13%) fell at least once. Factors statistically significantly associated with falling in the multivariable analysis were male sex (hazard ratio (HR): 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-3.14, P = 0.015), use of a walking aid (HR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.24-3.60, P = 0.006) and postural control as assessed with the modified version of the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (SwePASS). No association was found with age, cognition or stroke severity, the HR for low SwePASS scores (⩽24) was 9.33 (95% CI: 2.19-39.78, P = 0.003) and for medium SwePASS scores (25-30) was 6.34 (95% CI: 1.46-27.51, P = 0.014), compared with high SwePASS scores (⩾31). Postural control, male sex and use of a walking aid are associated with falling during hospitalization after acute stroke.

  1. Perceived Fall Risk and Functional Decline: Gender Differences in Patient's Willingness to Discuss Fall Risk, Fall History, or to Have a Home Safety Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marna Rayl; Moore, Elizabeth C; Nguyen, Michael C; Stello, Brian; Goldberg, Arnold; Barraco, Robert D; Porter, Bernadette G; Kurt, Anita; Dusza, Stephen W; Kane, Bryan G

    2016-06-01

    The CDC reports that among older adults, falls are the leading cause of injury-related death and rates of fall-related fractures among older women are twice those of men. We set out to 1) determine patient perceptions (analyzed by gender) about their perceived fall risk compared to their actual risk for functional decline and death and 2) to report their comfort level in discussing their fall history or a home safety plan with their provider. Elders who presented to the Emergency Department (ED†) were surveyed. The survey included demographics, the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES); both validated surveys measuring fall concern and functional decline. Females had higher FES scores (mean 12.3, SD 5.9) than males (mean 9.7, SD 5.9 p = .007) in the 146 surveys analyzed. Females were more likely to report an increased fear of falling, and almost three times more likely to have a VES score of 3 or greater than males (OR = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.17-7.00, p = .02). A strong correlation was observed between FES and VES scores (r = 0.80, p fall risk with a provider; there was no difference between genders (p = .57). In this study, irrespective of gender, there appears to be a high association between subjects' perceived fall risk and risk for functional decline and death. The majority of patients are likely willing to discuss their fall risk with their provider. These findings may suggest a meaningful opportunity for fall risk mitigation in this setting.

  2. Fear of Falling in Women with Fibromyalgia and Its Relation with Number of Falls and Balance Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mateo, D; Gallego-Diaz, J M; Adsuar, J C; Domínguez-Muñoz, F J; Olivares, P R; Gusi, N

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate fear of falling, number of falls, and balance performance in women with FM and to examine the relationship between these variables and others, such as balance performance, quality of life, age, pain, and impact of fibromyalgia. A total of 240 women participated in this cross-sectional study. Of these, 125 had fibromyalgia. Several variables were assessed: age, fear of falling from 0 to 100, number of falls, body composition, balance performance, lower limb strength, health-related quality of life, and impact of fibromyalgia. Women with fibromyalgia reported more falls and more fear of falling. Fear of falling was associated with number of falls in the last year, stiffness, perceived balance problems, impact of FM, and HRQoL whereas the number of falls was related to fear of falling, balance performance with eyes closed, pain, tenderness to touch level, anxiety, self-reported balance problems, impact of FM, and HRQoL. FM has an impact on fear of falling, balance performance, and number of falls. Perceived balance problems seem to be more closely associated with fear of falling than objective balance performance.

  3. Falls in older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieën, Jaap H.; Pijnappels, Mirjam

    Falls are common incidents, which can have major con-sequences. For example, falls and the interrelated category of accidents being struck by or against objects account for more than 40% of injuries and 30% of injury costs in the USA (Corso et al., 2006). Especially among older adults, falls occur

  4. Collision of a Small Rising Bubble with a Large Falling Particle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubička, M.; Basařová, P.; Vejražka, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 121, JUN 10 (2013), s. 21-30 ISSN 0301-7516 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/11/0806 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 21/2011 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : bubble-particle interaction * collision process * collision efficiency Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2013

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of Fall Risk Assessment Tools in People With Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Patricia S.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Kluding, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetic peripheral neuropathy affects nearly half of individuals with diabetes and leads to increased fall risk. Evidence addressing fall risk assessment for these individuals is lacking. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify which of 4 functional mobility fall risk assessment tools best discriminates, in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, between recurrent “fallers” and those who are not recurrent fallers. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted. Setting The study was conducted in a medical research university setting. Participants The participants were a convenience sample of 36 individuals between 40 and 65 years of age with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Measurements Fall history was assessed retrospectively and was the criterion standard. Fall risk was assessed using the Functional Reach Test, the Timed “Up & Go” Test, the Berg Balance Scale, and the Dynamic Gait Index. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and overall diagnostic accuracy were calculated for each fall risk assessment tool. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to estimate modified cutoff scores for each fall risk assessment tool; indexes then were recalculated. Results Ten of the 36 participants were classified as recurrent fallers. When traditional cutoff scores were used, the Dynamic Gait Index and Functional Reach Test demonstrated the highest sensitivity at only 30%; the Dynamic Gait Index also demonstrated the highest overall diagnostic accuracy. When modified cutoff scores were used, all tools demonstrated improved sensitivity (80% or 90%). Overall diagnostic accuracy improved for all tests except the Functional Reach Test; the Timed “Up & Go” Test demonstrated the highest diagnostic accuracy at 88.9%. Limitations The small sample size and retrospective fall history assessment were limitations of the study. Conclusions Modified cutoff scores improved diagnostic accuracy for 3 of 4 fall risk

  6. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miake-Lye, Isomi M; Amulis, Angel; Saliba, Debra; Shekelle, Paul G; Volkman, Linda K; Ganz, David A

    2011-05-23

    Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage patients to appropriate services. Here we report the formative evaluation of this project. To evaluate the intervention we: 1) interviewed patient and employee stakeholders, 2) reviewed participating patients' electronic health record data and 3) abstracted information from meeting minutes. We describe the implementation process, including whether the project was implemented according to plan; identify barriers and facilitators to implementation; and assess the incremental benefit to the quality of health care for fall prevention received by patients in the project. We also estimate the cost of developing the pilot project. The project underwent multiple changes over its life span, including the addition of an option to mail patients educational materials about falls. During the project's lifespan, 113 patients were considered for inclusion and 35 participated. Patient and employee interviews suggested support for the project, but revealed that transportation to medical care was a major barrier in following up on fall risks identified by nurse telephone triage. Medical record review showed that the project enhanced usual medical care with respect to home safety counseling. We discontinued the program after 18 months due to staffing limitations and competing priorities. We estimated a cost of $9194 for meeting time to develop the project. The project appeared feasible at its outset but could not be sustained past the first cycle of evaluation due to insufficient resources and a waning of local

  7. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliba Debra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage patients to appropriate services. Here we report the formative evaluation of this project. Methods To evaluate the intervention we: 1 interviewed patient and employee stakeholders, 2 reviewed participating patients' electronic health record data and 3 abstracted information from meeting minutes. We describe the implementation process, including whether the project was implemented according to plan; identify barriers and facilitators to implementation; and assess the incremental benefit to the quality of health care for fall prevention received by patients in the project. We also estimate the cost of developing the pilot project. Results The project underwent multiple changes over its life span, including the addition of an option to mail patients educational materials about falls. During the project's lifespan, 113 patients were considered for inclusion and 35 participated. Patient and employee interviews suggested support for the project, but revealed that transportation to medical care was a major barrier in following up on fall risks identified by nurse telephone triage. Medical record review showed that the project enhanced usual medical care with respect to home safety counseling. We discontinued the program after 18 months due to staffing limitations and competing priorities. We estimated a cost of $9194 for meeting time to develop the project. Conclusions The project appeared feasible at its outset but could not be sustained past the first cycle of

  8. [Fear of falling in a fall clinic for geriatric patients: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dautzenberg, P.LJ.; Buurman, B.H.; Loonen, A.J.; Wouters, C.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this pilot study we want to determine how often fear of falling occurs in geriatric patients visiting a fall clinic and to study the characteristics of fear of falling and its consequences. DESIGN: Retrospective study of patient's records. METHOD: A random sample of 100 medical records

  9. Issues in Geriatric Care: Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipesh; Ackermann, Richard J

    2018-05-01

    One in three older adults falls each year. There are approximately 2.5 million falls among older adults treated in emergency departments. Falls account for 87% of all fractures in this age group. The biggest risk factor for falling is a history of falls. Other risk factors include frailty, sedative and anticholinergic drugs, polypharmacy, and a variety of medical conditions. Current recommendations are that all patients age 65 years and older should be asked about falls each year. Patients also can be screened for fall risk with a variety of approaches including questionnaires and the Timed Up & Go test. For patients who have fallen or are at risk, care should focus on correcting reversible home environmental factors that predispose to falls, minimizing the use of drugs with sedating properties, addressing vision conditions, recommending physical exercise (including balance, strength, and gait training), and managing postural hypotension as well as foot conditions and footwear. In addition, vitamin D and calcium supplementation should be considered. For patients needing anticoagulation for medical reasons, an assessment must balance fall risk (and thus bleeding from a fall) versus the risk of discontinuing anticoagulation (eg, sustaining an embolic stroke from atrial fibrillation). Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  10. From pair correlations to the quasi-particle-phonon nuclear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    Modern state of the nucleus theory is discussed. The main attention is paid to pair correlation theory of superconducting type and quasiparticle - phonon nucleus model. Pair correlation account allowed one to describe in detail a series of nucleus properties which did not fall within the framework of earlier known models as, for example, double-quasi-particle states in even-even deformed nuclei. To describe the wave function low-quasi-particle components at low, mean and high excitation energies, the nucleus quasi-particle-phonon model is formulated. The strength function method is used in the model and fragmentation of mono-quasi-particle, mono-phonon states and quasi-particle phonon state by many nuclear levels is calculated

  11. A Hybrid Chaos-Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Hu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art heuristic algorithms to solve the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW usually present slow speeds during the early iterations and easily fall into local optimal solutions. Focusing on solving the above problems, this paper analyzes the particle encoding and decoding strategy of the particle swarm optimization algorithm, the construction of the vehicle route and the judgment of the local optimal solution. Based on these, a hybrid chaos-particle swarm optimization algorithm (HPSO is proposed to solve VRPTW. The chaos algorithm is employed to re-initialize the particle swarm. An efficient insertion heuristic algorithm is also proposed to build the valid vehicle route in the particle decoding process. A particle swarm premature convergence judgment mechanism is formulated and combined with the chaos algorithm and Gaussian mutation into HPSO when the particle swarm falls into the local convergence. Extensive experiments are carried out to test the parameter settings in the insertion heuristic algorithm and to evaluate that they are corresponding to the data’s real-distribution in the concrete problem. It is also revealed that the HPSO achieves a better performance than the other state-of-the-art algorithms on solving VRPTW.

  12. Falls self-efficacy and falls incidence in community-dwelling older people: the mediating role of coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Christine C; Jones, Fergal W; Kneebone, Ian I

    2017-11-08

    A cognitive behavioral model predicts that coping responses mediate the relationship between falls related psychological concerns and falls incidence, in community-dwelling older people. If empirical support could be found for this pathway then interventions could be developed to reduce falls risk by targeting coping strategies. Therefore, this study aimed to begin the process of testing whether coping responses mediate the association between falls self-efficacy (a principal element of falls related psychological concerns) and falls incidence, in community-dwelling older people. In a cross-sectional design, 160 community-dwelling older people (31 male, 129 female; mean age 83.47 years) completed the Falls Efficacy Scale-International, the Revised-Ways of Coping Questionnaire, the Turning to Religion subscale of the COPE, and a falls questionnaire. Data were analyzed via mediation analysis using a bootstrapping approach. Lower falls self-efficacy was associated with higher falls incidence, and more self-controlling coping was found to be a partial mediator of this association, with a confidence interval for the indirect effect of (0.003, 0.021) and an effect size of κ 2 = 0.035. The association was not mediated by the other measured coping responses; namely, turning to religion, distancing, seeking social support, accepting responsibility, escape-avoidance, planful problem-solving, and positive reappraisal. Self-controlling coping may mediate the association between falls self-efficacy and falling. If longitudinal studies confirm this finding then coping could be targeted in interventions to reduce falls.

  13. An absorbing phase transition from a structured active particle phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Cristobal [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Ramos, Francisco [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia and Instituto de Fisica Teorica y Computacional Carlos I, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Hernandez-GarcIa, Emilio [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2007-02-14

    In this work we study the absorbing state phase transition of a recently introduced model for interacting particles with neighbourhood-dependent reproduction rates. The novelty of the transition is that as soon as the active phase is reached by increasing a control parameter a periodically arranged structure of particle clusters appears. A numerical study in one and two dimensions shows that the system falls into the directed percolation universality class.

  14. The effects of a Pilates-based exercise rehabilitation program on functional outcome and fall risk reduction in an aging adult status-post traumatic hip fracture due to a fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivala, Adam; Hartley, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Currently, little information describing the relationship of Pilates-based strength and stability exercises with fall risk in the geriatric population exists. The purpose of this report was to examine the impact of a Pilates-based rehabilitation (PBR) program on reducing fall risk in an aging adult status postfall with resulting hip fracture and open reduction and internal fixation. The patient was an 84-year-old woman admitted to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) after a right hip fracture resulting from a fall at home. The patient's relevant medical history included frequent falls due to loss of balance, a previous left hip fracture with resultant arthroplasty, and a stroke roughly 20 years prior. The patient received physical therapy and occupational therapy 6 days per week for 26 days in an SNF. The physical therapy intervention consisted of gait and transfer training, neuromuscular reeducation, and an adjunct of specialized PBR exercises for the following impairments: decreased core strength and awareness and poor dynamic stabilization during functional activities. The patient demonstrated increases in lower extremity strength and active range of motion, ambulation distance and speed, and transfer ability. The patient was able to return home and live with her husband while requiring only incidental assistance with activities of daily living. She was able to independently ambulate around her home with her rolling walker. Her fall risk was also reduced from initial evaluation based on several fall risk assessments, including the Four Square Step Test, the Berg Balance Scale, and the Timed Up and Go. This case illustrates the benefit of integrating PBR exercises into a standard SNF rehabilitation program, which may contribute to decreased fall risk.

  15. Fear of Falling in Women with Fibromyalgia and Its Relation with Number of Falls and Balance Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Collado-Mateo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate fear of falling, number of falls, and balance performance in women with FM and to examine the relationship between these variables and others, such as balance performance, quality of life, age, pain, and impact of fibromyalgia. Methods. A total of 240 women participated in this cross-sectional study. Of these, 125 had fibromyalgia. Several variables were assessed: age, fear of falling from 0 to 100, number of falls, body composition, balance performance, lower limb strength, health-related quality of life, and impact of fibromyalgia. Results. Women with fibromyalgia reported more falls and more fear of falling. Fear of falling was associated with number of falls in the last year, stiffness, perceived balance problems, impact of FM, and HRQoL whereas the number of falls was related to fear of falling, balance performance with eyes closed, pain, tenderness to touch level, anxiety, self-reported balance problems, impact of FM, and HRQoL. Conclusion. FM has an impact on fear of falling, balance performance, and number of falls. Perceived balance problems seem to be more closely associated with fear of falling than objective balance performance.

  16. Constraining Diameters of Ash Particles in Io's Pele Plume by DSMC Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDoniel, William; Goldstein, D. B.; Varghese, P. L.; Trafton, L. M.

    2013-10-01

    The black “butterfly wings” seen at Pele are produced by silicate ash which is to some extent entrained in the gas flow from very low altitudes. These particles are key to understanding the volcanism at Pele. However, the Pele plume is not nearly as dusty as Prometheus, and these are not the only particles in the plume, as the SO2 in the plume will also condense as it cools. It is therefore difficult to estimate a size distribution for the ash particles by observation, and the drag on ash particles from the plume flow is significant enough that ballistic models are also of limited use. Using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo, we can simulate a gas plume at Pele which demonstrates very good agreement with observations. By extending this model down to nearly the surface of the lava lake, ash particles can be included in the simulation by assuming that they are initially entrained in the very dense (for Io) gas immediately above the magma. Particles are seen to fall to the ground to the east and west of the vent, agreeing with the orientation of the “butterfly wings”, and particles with larger diameters fall to the ground closer to the lava lake. We present a model for mapping simulated deposition density to the coloration of the surface and we use it to estimate the size distribution of ash particles in the plume.

  17. Fall risk assessment: retrospective analysis of Morse Fall Scale scores in Portuguese hospitalized adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardo, Pedro Miguel Garcez; Simões, Cláudia Sofia Oliveira; Alvarelhão, José Joaquim Marques; Simões, João Filipe Fernandes Lindo; Melo, Elsa Maria de Oliveira Pinheiro de

    2016-08-01

    The Morse Fall Scale is used in several care settings for fall risk assessment and supports the implementation of preventive nursing interventions. Our work aims to analyze the Morse Fall Scale scores of Portuguese hospitalized adult patients in association with their characteristics, diagnoses and length of stay. Retrospective cohort analysis of Morse Fall Scale scores of 8356 patients hospitalized during 2012. Data were associated to age, gender, type of admission, specialty units, length of stay, patient discharge, and ICD-9 diagnosis. Elderly patients, female, with emergency service admission, at medical units and/or with longer length of stays were more frequently included in the risk group for falls. ICD-9 diagnosis may also be an important risk factor. More than a half of hospitalized patients had "medium" to "high" risk of falling during the length of stay, which determines the implementation and maintenance of protocoled preventive nursing interventions throughout hospitalization. There are several fall risk factors not assessed by Morse Fall Scale. There were no statistical differences in Morse Fall Scale score between the first and the last assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to improve balance and prevent falls in older people: study protocol for a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Martin J; Menz, Hylton B; Lord, Stephen R

    2008-11-25

    Falls in older people are a major public health problem, with at least one in three people aged over 65 years falling each year. There is increasing evidence that foot problems and inappropriate footwear increase the risk of falls, however no studies have been undertaken to determine whether modifying these risk factors decreases the risk of falling. This article describes the design of a randomised trial to evaluate the efficacy of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to reduce foot pain, improve balance, and reduce falls in older people. Three hundred community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years and over with current foot pain and an increased risk of falling will be randomly allocated to a control or intervention group. The "usual cae" control group will receive routine podiatry (i.e. nail care and callus debridement). The intervention group will receive usual care plus a multifaceted podiatry intervention consisting of: (i) prefabricated insoles customised to accommodate plantar lesions; (ii) footwear advice and assistance with the purchase of new footwear if current footwear is inappropriate; (iii) a home-based exercise program to strengthen foot and ankle muscles; and (iv) a falls prevention education booklet. Primary outcome measures will be the number of fallers, number of multiple fallers and the falls rate recorded by a falls diary over a 12 month period. Secondary outcome measures assessed six months after baseline will include the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12 (SF-12), the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index, the Falls Efficacy Scale International, and a series of balance and functional tests. Data will be analysed using the intention to treat principle. This study is the first randomised trial to evaluate the efficacy of podiatry in improving balance and preventing falls. The trial has been pragmatically designed to ensure that the findings can be generalised to clinical practice. If found to be effective, the multifaceted podiatry

  19. Efficacy of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to improve balance and prevent falls in older people: study protocol for a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls in older people are a major public health problem, with at least one in three people aged over 65 years falling each year. There is increasing evidence that foot problems and inappropriate footwear increase the risk of falls, however no studies have been undertaken to determine whether modifying these risk factors decreases the risk of falling. This article describes the design of a randomised trial to evaluate the efficacy of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to reduce foot pain, improve balance, and reduce falls in older people. Methods Three hundred community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years and over with current foot pain and an increased risk of falling will be randomly allocated to a control or intervention group. The "usual cae" control group will receive routine podiatry (i.e. nail care and callus debridement. The intervention group will receive usual care plus a multifaceted podiatry intervention consisting of: (i prefabricated insoles customised to accommodate plantar lesions; (ii footwear advice and assistance with the purchase of new footwear if current footwear is inappropriate; (iii a home-based exercise program to strengthen foot and ankle muscles; and (iv a falls prevention education booklet. Primary outcome measures will be the number of fallers, number of multiple fallers and the falls rate recorded by a falls diary over a 12 month period. Secondary outcome measures assessed six months after baseline will include the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12 (SF-12, the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index, the Falls Efficacy Scale International, and a series of balance and functional tests. Data will be analysed using the intention to treat principle. Discussion This study is the first randomised trial to evaluate the efficacy of podiatry in improving balance and preventing falls. The trial has been pragmatically designed to ensure that the findings can be generalised to clinical practice. If

  20. Pro-Active Fall-Risk Management is Mandatory to Sustain in Hospital-Fall Prevention in Older Patients--Validation of the LUCAS Fall-Risk Screening in 2,337 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, V S; Neumann, L; Golgert, S; von Renteln-Kruse, W

    2015-12-01

    Prevention of in-hospital falls contributes to improvement of patient safety. However, the identification of high-risk patients remains a challenge despite knowledge of fall-risk factors. Hence, objective was to prospectively validate the performance of the LUCAS (Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study) fall-risk screening, based on routine data (fall history, mobility, mental status) and applied by nurses. Observational study comparing two groups of patients who underwent different fall-risk screenings; the LUCAS screening (2010 - 2011) and the STRATIFY (St. Thomas's Risk Assessment Tool In Falling Elderly Inpatients) (2004 - 2006). Urban teaching hospital. Consecutively hospitalized patients (≥ 65 years old) were screened on admission; LUCAS n = 2,337, STRATIFY n = 4,735. The proportions of fallers were compared between the STRATIFY and the LUCAS time periods. The number of fallers expected was compared to that observed in the LUCAS time period. Standardized fall-incidence recording included case-note checks for unreported falls. Plausibility checks of fall-risk factors and logistic regression analysis for variable fall-risk factors were performed. The proportions of fallers during the two time periods were LUCAS n = 291/2,337 (12.5%) vs. STRATIFY n = 508/4,735 (10.7%). After adjustment for risk-factor prevalence, the proportion of fallers expected was 14.5% (334/2,337), the proportion observed was 12.5% (291/2,337) (p = 0.038). In-hospital fall prevention including systematic use of the LUCAS fall-risk screening reduced the proportion of fallers compared to that expected from the patients' fall-risk profile. Raw proportions of fallers are not suitable to evaluate fall prevention in hospital because of variable prevalence of patients' fall-risk factors over time. Continuous communication, education and training is needed to sustain in-hospital falls prevention.

  1. History of falls, gait, balance, and fall risks in older cancer survivors living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min H; Shilling, Tracy; Miller, Kara A; Smith, Kristin; LaVictoire, Kayle

    2015-01-01

    Older cancer survivors may be predisposed to falls because cancer-related sequelae affect virtually all body systems. The use of a history of falls, gait speed, and balance tests to assess fall risks remains to be investigated in this population. This study examined the relationship of previous falls, gait, and balance with falls in community-dwelling older cancer survivors. At the baseline, demographics, health information, and the history of falls in the past year were obtained through interviewing. Participants performed tests including gait speed, Balance Evaluation Systems Test, and short-version of Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. Falls were tracked by mailing of monthly reports for 6 months. A "faller" was a person with ≥1 fall during follow-up. Univariate analyses, including independent sample t-tests and Fisher's exact tests, compared baseline demographics, gait speed, and balance between fallers and non-fallers. For univariate analyses, Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. Baseline variables with Pfalls with age as covariate. Sensitivity and specificity of each predictor of falls in the model were calculated. Significance level for the regression analysis was Pfalls. Baseline demographics, health information, history of falls, gaits speed, and balance tests did not differ significantly between fallers and non-fallers. Forward logistic regression revealed that a history of falls was a significant predictor of falls in the final model (odds ratio =6.81; 95% confidence interval =1.594-29.074) (Pfalls were 74% and 69%, respectively. Current findings suggested that for community-dwelling older cancer survivors with mixed diagnoses, asking about the history of falls may help detect individuals at risk of falling.

  2. Head Trauma from Falling Increases Subsequent Emergency Department Visits More Than Other Fall-Related Injuries in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerland, Lauren T; Stephens, Julie A; Robinson, Shari; Falk, James; Phieffer, Laura; Rosenthal, Joseph A; Caterino, Jeffrey M

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether fall-related injuries affect return to the ED after the initial visit. Retrospective chart review. Academic Level 1 trauma center ED. Individuals aged 65 and older evaluated for a fall from standing height or less and discharged (N = 263, average age 77, 70% female). After institutional review board approval, electronic medical record data were queried. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with risk of returning to the ED within 90 days. Injuries included fractures (45%, n = 117); head trauma (22%, n = 58); abrasions, lacerations, or contusions (34%, n = 88); and none (22%, n = 57). Emergency care was frequently required, with 13 (5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.3-7.6%) returning within 72 hours, 35 (13%, 95% CI = 9.2-17%] within 30 days, and 57 (22%, 95% CI = 17-27%) within 90 days. Univariately, the odds of returning to the ED within 90 days was more than two times as high for those with head trauma as for those without (odds ratio = 2.66). This remained significant in the multivariable model, which controlled for Charlson Comorbidity Index, fractures, soft tissue injuries, and ED observation unit use. More than one-third of older adults with minor head trauma from a fall will need to return to the ED in the following 90 days. These individuals should receive close attention from primary care providers. The link between minor head trauma and ED recidivism is a new finding. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Fatigue life prediction of Ni-base thermal solar receiver tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartrott, Philipp von; Schlesinger, Michael [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Uhlig, Ralf; Jedamski, Jens [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Solar receivers for tower type Solar Thermal Power Plants are subjected to complex thermo-mechanical loads including fast and severe thermo-mechanical cycles. The material temperatures can reach more than 800 C and fall to room temperature very quickly. In order to predict the fatigue life of a receiver design, receiver tubes made of Alloy 625 with a wall thickness of 0.5 mm were tested in isothermal and thermo-cyclic experiments. The number of cycles to failure was in the range of 100 to 100,000. A thermo-mechanical fatigue life prediction model was set up. The model is based on the cyclic deformation of the material and the damage caused by the growth of fatigue micro cracks. The model reasonably predicts the experimental results. (orig.)

  4. Spectrum of relativistic radiation from electric charges and dipoles as they fall freely into a black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shatskiy, A. A., E-mail: shatskiy@asc.rssi.ru; Novikov, I. D.; Lipatova, L. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Astrospace Center, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-15

    The motion of electric charges and dipoles falling radially and freely into a Schwarzschild black hole is considered. The inverse effect of the electromagnetic fields on the black hole is neglected. Since the dipole is assumed to be a point particle, the deformation due to the action of tidal forces on it is neglected. According to the theorem stating that 'black holes have no hair', the multipole electromagnetic fields should be completely radiated as a multipole falls into a black hole. The electromagnetic radiation power spectrum for these multipoles (a monopole and a dipole) has been found. Differences have been found in the spectra for different orientations of the falling dipole. A general method has been developed to find the radiated multipole electromagnetic fields for multipoles (including higher-order multipoles-quadrupoles, etc.) falling freely into a black hole. The calculated electromagnetic spectra can be compared with observational data from stellar-mass and smaller black holes.

  5. Epidemiology of falls in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Nancye May

    2011-03-01

    Worldwide, falls among older people are a public health concern because of their frequency and adverse consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, as well as their impact on health system services and costs. This epidemiological review outlines the public health burden of falls and fall-related injuries and the impact of population aging. The magnitude of the problem is described in terms of the classification of falls and measurement of outcomes, including fall incidence rates across settings, sociodemographic determinants, international trends, and costs of falls and fall-related injuries. Finally, public health approaches to minimize falls risk and consequent demand on health care resources are suggested.

  6. Impact of fear of falling and fall history on disability incidence among older adults: Prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Keitaro; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2018-04-01

    Fear of falling (FOF) is a major health problem for older adults, present not just in fallers, but also nonfallers. This study examined the impact of FOF and fall history on disability incidence among community-dwelling older adults from a prospective cohort study. A total of 5104 older adults living in community settings participated in baseline assessment and were followed up for about 4 years (median 52 mo, range 49-55 mo). At baseline, participants were assessed the presence of FOF and their fall history, and divided into 4 groups: Fall (-) FOF (-), Fall (+) FOF (-), Fall (-) FOF (+), and Fall (+) FOF (+). Disability incidence was defined as national long-term care insurance certification for personal support or care. During the follow-up period, 429 participants (9.9%) were newly certified as having a disability and needing personal support for long-term care insurance. Fall (-) FOF (+) group and Fall (+) FOF (+) group showed a significantly higher risk of disability incidence than Fall (-) FOF (-) group even after adjusting for covariates (Fall (-) FOF (+): hazard ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.62, Fall (+) FOF (+): hazard ratio 1.44, 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.98). Fear of falling could be a simple and useful predictor of disability incidence in community-dwelling older adults. Identifying and decreasing fall risk factors may prevent fall-related injuries, but excessive FOF may be associated with increased risk of disability incidence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Fall Prevention Hits Stumbling Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Charlotte

    2018-03-01

    Implementation of efforts to screen older people for fall risk-and to intervene before falls occur-have been scattershot at best. Ongoing studies of fall prevention called STRIDE (Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop Confidence in Elders) might change that. The studies look at whether clinicians can implement a fall-prevention program across rural, urban, and suburban treatment settings.

  8. Risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries in adults 85 years of age and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstrom, Anna C; Guse, Clare E; Layde, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Falls are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. No previous studies on risk factors for falls have focused on adults 85 years and older, the most rapidly growing segment of adults. We examined demographic, health, and behavioral risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries in adults 65 years and older, with a particular focus on adults 85 years and older. We analyzed self-reported information from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 2008. Data was available for 120,923 people aged 65 or older and 12,684 people aged 85 or older. Of those aged 85 or older, 21.3% reported at least one fall in the past 3 months and 7.2% reported at least one fall related injury requiring medical care or limiting activity for a day or longer. Below average general health, male sex, perceived insufficient sleep, health problems requiring assistive devices, alcohol consumption, increasing body mass index and history of stroke were all independently associated with a greater risk of falls or fall related injuries. The greater risk of falling in those 85 years and older appeared to be due to the deterioration of overall health status with age; among those with excellent overall health status, there was no greater risk of falling in adults 85 years and older compared to those 65-84 years of age. Our results suggest that those with risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries may be appropriate targets for evidence-based fall prevention programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Personalization on Smartphone-Based Fall Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Medrano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of falling is high among different groups of people, such as older people, individuals with Parkinson's disease or patients in neuro-rehabilitation units. Developing robust fall detectors is important for acting promptly in case of a fall. Therefore, in this study we propose to personalize smartphone-based detectors to boost their performance as compared to a non-personalized system. Four algorithms were investigated using a public dataset: three novelty detection algorithms—Nearest Neighbor (NN, Local Outlier Factor (LOF and One-Class Support Vector Machine (OneClass-SVM—and a traditional supervised algorithm, Support Vector Machine (SVM. The effect of personalization was studied for each subject by considering two different training conditions: data coming only from that subject or data coming from the remaining subjects. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC was selected as the primary figure of merit. The results show that there is a general trend towards the increase in performance by personalizing the detector, but the effect depends on the individual being considered. A personalized NN can reach the performance of a non-personalized SVM (average AUC of 0.9861 and 0.9795, respectively, which is remarkable since NN only uses activities of daily living for training.

  10. [Impact of fall risk and fear of falling on mobility of independently living senior citizens transitioning to frailty: screening results concerning fall prevention in the community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, J; Dapp, U; Laub, S; von Renteln-Kruse, W

    2007-08-01

    There is a strong relation between mobility, walking safety and living independently in old age. People with walking problems suffer from fear of falling and tend to restrict their mobility and performance level in the community environment--even before falls occur. This study was planned to test the validity and prognostic value of a fall risk screening instrument ("Sturz-Risiko-Check") that has already shown its feasibility, acceptance and reliability, targeting independently living senior citizens. The study sample was recruited from a sheltered housing complex in Hamburg (with written consent). Persons with need of professional care ("Pflegestufe" in Germany) were excluded. The residents were asked to fill in the multidimensional questionnaire ("Sturz-Risiko- Check"). In a second step, a trained nurse asked the participants in a phone call about their competence in the instrumental activities of daily living (I-ADL mod. from Lawton, Brody 1969) and about their usual mobility performance level (e.g. frequency and distance of daily walks, use of public transport). According to the number and weight of self-reported risk factors for falling, three groups: "low fall risk", "medium fall risk" and "high fall risk" were classified. Finally, this classification was re-tested after one year, asking for falls and fall related injuries. A total of 112 senior citizens without need of personal care, living in a sheltered housing facility were asked to participate. Acceptance was high (76.1%). Self-reported data from 79 participants concerning falls, fall-risk, mobility and instrumental activities of daily living were included in the statistical analyses. Mean age was 78 (64 to 93) years and associated by a high percentage of women (75.9%) in this sample. The older participants reported 0 to 13 different factors (mean 5) related to a high risk of future falls. Most participants (78.5%) quit cycling because of fear of falling. There was a high incidence in the study sample

  11. What are the Main Physical Functioning Factors Associated With Falls Among Older People With Different Perceived Fall Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Mirian N; Bilton, Tereza L; Dias, Rosangela C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Perracini, Monica R

    2017-07-01

    Fall risk perceptions may influence the judgement over physical and functional competencies to avoid falls. However, few studies have explored the physical functioning characteristics associated with falls among older people with low perceived fall risk. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of falls and physical functioning factors associated with falling among community-dwelling older adults with low and high perceived fall risk. We conducted a cross-sectional population based study with 773 community-dwelling elders. Perceived fall risk was investigated using Falls Efficacy Scale International. We considered fallers those who reported at least one fall in the previous 12 months. Physical functioning measures used were grip strength, usual gait speed, sit-to-stand test, five step test, timed up and go test, one-legged stance test, anterior and lateral functional reach test. At least one fall was reported by 103 (30%) participants with low perceived fall risk and by 196 (46%) participants with high perceived fall risk. The odds of falling were lower among those with greater grip strength and with a greater stance time in one-legged test, and the odds of falling among elders with high perceived fall risk were higher among those who took more time in performing the five step test. We believe that our results highlight the need of not neglecting the risk of falls among active older adults with low perceived fall risk, particularly in those elders that show reduced stability in a small base of support and a lower leg strength. In addition, we suggest that elders with high perceived fall risk should be assessed using anticipatory postural adjustment tests. Particularly, our results may help physiotherapists to identify eligible elders with different perceptions of fall risk for tailored interventions aimed at reducing falls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Cognitive and physical resources are important in order to complete a geriatric fall prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Marianne; Damgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    It is well documented that falls may be prevented, but effectiveness in reducing the risk of falling depends on the uptake of and the adherence to preventive actions. 65+-year-old fallers identified by screening for fall risk were offered referral to a geriatric fall clinic together with fallers referred from general practitioners (GPs). They were assessed to identify individual risk factors for falling, and appropriate interventions were planned, including exercise classes. A total of 811 persons were identified by screening, 342 of whom accepted referral. Furthermore, 176 were referred from GPs. Only 402 of 518 fallers attended the clinic. A total of 65 dropped out by their own request, 29 stopped because they became seriously ill or died. Another 62 patients were discharged before fulfilling the programme as they were unable to participate due to physical or cognitive problems. Indicators of cessation were cognitive or physical weakness. Geriatric fall prevention is resource-consuming both in terms of staff needed and with respect to demands made on the patients, and the frailest part of the fall population cannot comply. It is necessary to differentiate fall prevention services for the population of elderly fallers as interventions in primary healthcare have been shown to be more effective among the most frail elderly fallers. The project received funding from the Danish Ministry of the Interior and Health and from The Fund for Scientific Work in the Geriatric Field within the former Copenhagen Hospital Corporation. not relevant.

  13. Assessment of muscle mass, risk of falls and fear of falling in elderly people with diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Azevedo Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective : To assess muscle mass, risk of falls and fear of falling in elderly adults with diabetic neuropathy (DNP. Methods : 50 elderly patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and diabetic neuropathy (NPD participated in this study. Risk of falling was assessed using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS. Fear of falling was assessed by means of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I. Muscle mass was assessed by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis (BIA and Janssen's equation. Subjects were divided into two groups: one with a history of falls in the six months before study enrollment (G1 and the other without history of falls (G2. Results : There were statistically significant differences between G1 and G2 regarding lean body mass (p < 0.05, risk of falls as measured by the BBS (p < 0.01, and fear of falling as measured by the FES-I (p < 0.01. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the BBS and BIA (r = 0.45 and p < 0.01, showing that the greater the lean body mass, the lower the risk of falling. Conclusions : We found an association between lean mass, risk of falls and fear of falling in elderly adults with DNP and a history of falls from own height.

  14. A comparison of automatic fall detection by the cross-product and magnitude of tri-axial acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Pei-Kuang; Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Chen, Yu-Chuan; Tang, Fuk-Tan; Wong, May-Kuen

    2009-01-01

    Falling is an important problem in the health maintenance of people above middle age. Portable accelerometer systems have been designed to detect falls. However, false alarms induced by some dynamic motions, such as walking and jumping, are difficult to avoid. Acceleration cross-product (AC)-related methods are proposed and examined by this study to seek solutions for detecting falls with less motion-evoked false alarms. A set of tri-axial acceleration data is collected during simulated falls, posture transfers and dynamic activities by wireless sensors for making methodological comparisons. The performance of fall detection is evaluated in aspects of parameter comparison, threshold selection, sensor placement and post-fall posture (PP) recruitment. By parameter comparison, AC leads to a larger area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve than acceleration magnitude (AM). Three strategies of threshold selection, for 100% sensitivity (Sen100), for 100% specificity (Spe100) and for the best sum (BS) of sensitivity and specificity, are evaluated. Selecting a threshold based on Sen100 and BS leads to more practicable results. Simultaneous data recording from sensors in the chest and waist is performed. Fall detection based on the data from the chest shows better global accuracy. PP recruitment leads to lower false alarm ratios (FR) for both AC- and AM-based methods

  15. New methods for fall risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejupi, Andreas; Lord, Stephen R; Delbaere, Kim

    2014-09-01

    Accidental falls are the leading cause of injury-related death and hospitalization in old age, with over one-third of the older adults experiencing at least one fall or more each year. Because of limited healthcare resources, regular objective fall risk assessments are not possible in the community on a large scale. New methods for fall prediction are necessary to identify and monitor those older people at high risk of falling who would benefit from participating in falls prevention programmes. Technological advances have enabled less expensive ways to quantify physical fall risk in clinical practice and in the homes of older people. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that sensor-based fall risk assessments of postural sway, functional mobility, stepping and walking can discriminate between fallers and nonfallers. Recent research has used low-cost, portable and objective measuring instruments to assess fall risk in older people. Future use of these technologies holds promise for assessing fall risk accurately in an unobtrusive manner in clinical and daily life settings.

  16. Particle interactions in concentrated suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondy, L.A.; Graham, A.L.; Abbott, J.R.; Brenner, H.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of research that focuses on slow flows of suspensions in which colloidal and inertial effects are negligibly small. The authors describe nuclear magnetic resonance imaging experiments to quantitatively measure particle migration occurring in concentrated suspensions undergoing a flow with a nonuniform shear rate. These experiments address the issue of how the flow field affects the microstructure of suspensions. In order to understand the local viscosity in a suspension with such a flow-induced, spatially varying concentration, one must know how the viscosity of a homogeneous suspension depends on such variables as solids concentration and particle orientation. The authors suggest the technique of falling ball viscometry, using small balls, as a method to determine the effective viscosity of a suspension without affecting the original microstructure significantly. They also describe data from experiments in which the detailed fluctuations of a falling ball's velocity indicate the noncontinuum nature of the suspension and may lead to more insights into the effects of suspension microstructure on macroscopic properties. Finally, they briefly describe other experiments that can be performed in quiescent suspensions (in contrast to the use of conventional shear rotational viscometers) in order to learn more about boundary effects in concentrated suspensions

  17. Negative specific heat, phase transition and particles spilling from a potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, J.; Liu, Q.H.; Liu, T.G.; Li, L.X.

    2008-01-01

    For a finite number of noninteracting particles in a box with a potential well in the center, the microcanonical kinetic energy in dependence on the total energy as it is negative can be classified into three categories. The first exhibits a monotonical rise and the specific heat is positive. The second shows a diminishing sawtooth wave with a global rise. The last corresponds to the extreme case and takes the regular sawtooth wave form. The sawtooth wave portion associates periodically a kinetic energy fall in spite of an increase of the total energy; and we attribute to such a fall the negative specific heat. The phase transition can be defined when the relatively dense particle state in the well and relatively dilute particle state in the rest volume of the box coexist, and the appearance of the negative specific heat is sufficient but not necessary for the onset of the phase transition

  18. First Aid: Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids do, it's no surprise that falls are common. Although many result in mild bumps, cuts, and bruises, some can cause serious injuries that need immediate medical attention. What to Do ...

  19. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam, 2008 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellgraph, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-03-31

    The goal of this project is to provide temporary upstream passage of bull trout around Albeni Falls Dam on the Pend Oreille River, Idaho. Our specific objectives are to capture fish downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, tag them with combination acoustic and radio transmitters, release them upstream of Albeni Falls Dam, and determine if genetic information on tagged fish can be used to accurately establish where fish are located during the spawning season. In 2007, radio receiving stations were installed at several locations throughout the Pend Oreille River watershed to detect movements of adult bull trout; however, no bull trout were tagged during that year. In 2008, four bull trout were captured downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, implanted with transmitters, and released upstream of the dam at Priest River, Idaho. The most-likely natal tributaries of bull trout assigned using genetic analyses were Grouse Creek (N = 2); a tributary of the Pack River, Lightning Creek (N = 1); and Rattle Creek (N = 1), a tributary of Lightning Creek. All four bull trout migrated upstream from the release site in Priest River, Idaho, were detected at monitoring stations near Dover, Idaho, and were presumed to reside in Lake Pend Oreille from spring until fall 2008. The transmitter of one bull trout with a genetic assignment to Grouse Creek was found in Grouse Creek in October 2008; however, the fish was not found. The bull trout assigned to Rattle Creek was detected in the Clark Fork River downstream from Cabinet Gorge Dam (approximately 13 km from the mouth of Lightning Creek) in September but was not detected entering Lightning Creek. The remaining two bull trout were not detected in 2008 after detection at the Dover receiving stations. This report details the progress by work element in the 2008 statement of work, including data analyses of fish movements, and expands on the information reported in the quarterly Pisces status reports.

  20. Getting help quickly: older people and community worker perspectives of contingency planning for falls management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Kimberly; Murray, Carolyn M; Kumar, Saravana

    2018-01-01

    Older people living in the community need to plan for getting help quickly if they have a fall. In this paper planning for falls is referred to as contingency planning and is not a falls prevention strategy but rather a falls management strategy. This research explored the perspectives of older people and community workers (CWs) about contingency planning for a fall. Using a qualitative descriptive approach, participants were recruited through a community agency that supports older people. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven older people (67-89 years of age) and a focus group was held with seven workers of mixed disciplines from the same agency. Older people who hadn't fallen were included but were assumed to be at risk of falls because they were in receipt of services. Thematic analysis and concept mapping combined the data from the two participant groups. Four themes including preconceptions about planning ahead for falling, a fall changes perception, giving, and receiving advice about contingency plans and what to do about falling. Both CWs and older people agree contingency planning requires understanding of individual identity and circumstances. CWs have limited knowledge about contingency planning and may be directive, informative, or conservative. Implications for Rehabilitation Falls can result in serious consequences for older people. There is an evidence-practice gap as availability of and access to contingency planning does not necessarily mean older people will use it in a falls emergency. Older people prefer community workers to be directive or informative about contingency planning options but they do want choice and control. Increased community workers knowledge of, and collaborative decision-making about, contingency planning may promote patient-centered services and assist in closing the evidence-practice gap.

  1. Risk factors of indoor fall injuries in community-dwelling older women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Xia, Qinghua; Jiang, Yu; Zhou, Peng; Li, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to explore the characteristics and the potential risk factors of indoor fall injuries in community-dwelling older women, and to provide evidence for the future intervention strategy. A prospective cohort of 3043 women aged 60 years old and above from 3 selected counties in Shanghai was followed up on the outcomes of indoor fall injuries for up to 1 year. Demographic and health data were collected during admission; the physical function, balance ability and home-living environment were examined by a structured questionnaire when admitted. The outcome of indoor fall injury was investigated by a visit in month 3, month 6 and month 12 after baseline survey. Univariate analysis and Multiple Logistic Regression Model were used to examine the associations between potential risk factors and outcomes of indoor fall injuries. Two hundred and thirty-one of the 3043 women (7.6%) eventually suffered indoor fall injuries at least once during the 1-year follow-up. The injurious falls of women were significantly associated with age, educational level, marital status, health status, balance ability, physical activity and home-living environment in the univariate analyses. Women who worried about falls and restrained activities for it were more likely to suffer fall injury. Younger women, with less chronic disease, with good balance ability and living in good corridor environment, were less likely to receive fall injury in multiple logistic regression analyses. Multidimensional factors were associated with indoor fall injuries for community-dwelling older women. Proper clinical treatment of chronic disease and improvement of women's balance ability, as well as reducing the risk factor of indoor environment, which will play vital roles in preventing indoor fall injuries, should be prioritized for the intervention strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevention of falls in nursing homes: subgroup analyses of a randomized fall prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Kilian; Lamb, Sarah E; Büchele, Gisela; Lall, Ranjit; Lindemann, Ulrich; Becker, Clemens

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial fall prevention program in prespecified subgroups of nursing home residents. Secondary analysis of a cluster-randomized, controlled trial. Six nursing homes in Germany. Seven hundred twenty-five long-stay residents; median age 86; 80% female. Staff and resident education on fall prevention, advice on environmental adaptations, recommendation to wear hip protectors, and progressive balance and resistance training. Time to first fall and the number of falls. Falls were assessed during the 12-month intervention period. Univariate regression analyses were performed, including a confirmatory test of interaction. The intervention was more effective in people with cognitive impairment (hazard ratio (HR)=0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.35-0.69) than in those who were cognitively intact (HR=0.91, 95% CI=0.68-1.22), in people with a prior history of falls (HR=0.47, 95% CI=0.33-0.67) than in those with no prior fall history (HR=0.77, 95% CI=0.58-1.01), in people with urinary incontinence (HR=0.59, 95% CI=0.45-0.77) than in those with no urinary incontinence (HR=0.98, 95% CI=0.68-1.42), and in people with no mood problems (incidence rate ratio (IRR)=0.41, 95% CI=0.27-0.61) than in those with mood problems (IRR=0.74, 95% CI=0.51-1.09). The effectiveness of a multifactorial fall prevention program differed between subgroups of nursing home residents. Cognitive impairment, a history of falls, urinary incontinence, and depressed mood were important in determining response.

  3. Fall risk factors in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P; Hildebrand, K

    2000-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, gait disturbance, and postural instability. Patients with PD suffer frequent falls, yet little research has been done to identify risks specific to PD patients. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with falls for PD patients through the collection of demographic, environmental, and medical information as well as fall diaries completed during a 3-month period. Patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic PD, with and without falls, were included in the study provided they could stand and walk and had no other condition that could predispose them to falls. Of the 118 participants, 59% reported one or more falls. A total of 237 falls were reported. Duration and severity of PD symptoms, particularly freezing, involuntary movements, and walking and postural difficulties, were significantly associated with an increased risk of falls. Other factors associated with falls were postural hypotension and daily intake of alcohol. Forty percent of falls resulted in injury, but serious injury was rare. The findings have implications for reducing the risk of falls through patient education.

  4. A concentrated solar cavity absorber with direct heat transfer through recirculating metallic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, M. R. I., E-mail: islamrabiul@yahoo.com; Saha, Manabendra, E-mail: manabendra.saha@adelaide.edu.au, E-mail: manab04me@gmail.com; Beg, R. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi-6204 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    A recirculating flow solar particle cavity absorber (receiver) is modeled to investigate the flow behavior and heat transfer characteristics of a novel developing concept. It features a continuous recirculating flow of non-reacting metallic particles (black silicon carbide) with air which are used as a thermal enhancement medium. The aim of the present study is to numerically investigate the thermal behavior and flow characteristics of the proposed concept. The proposed solar particle receiver is modeled using two phase discrete particle model (DPM), RNG k-flow model and discrete ordinate (DO) radiation model. Numerical analysis is carried out considering a solar receiver with only air and the mixture of non-reacting particles and air as a heat transfer as well as heat carrying medium. The parametric investigation is conducted considering the incident solar flux on the receiver aperture and changing air flow rate and recirculation rate inside the receiver. A stand-alone feature of the recirculating flow solar particle receiver concept is that the particles are directly exposed to concentrated solar radiation monotonously through recirculating flow inside the receiver and results in efficient irradiation absorption and convective heat transfer to air that help to achieve high temperature air and consequently increase in thermal efficiency. This paper presents, results from the developed concept and highlights its flow behavior and potential to enhance the heat transfer from metallic particles to air by maximizing heat carrying capacity of the heat transfer medium. The imposed milestones for the present system will be helpful to understand the radiation absorption mechanism of the particles in a recirculating flow based receiver, the thermal transport between the particles, the air and the cavity, and the fluid dynamics of the air and particle in the cavity.

  5. The relationship of intrinsic fall risk factors to a recent history of falling in older women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Cathy M; Busch, Angela J; Schachter, Candice L; Harrison, Liz; Olszynski, Wojciech

    2005-07-01

    Cross-sectional descriptive analysis investigating intrinsic fall risk factors in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. To examine the relationships between history of recent falls and balance, pain, quality of life, function, posture, strength, and mobility. Women with osteoporosis who fall are at a high risk of fracture due to decreased bone strength. Identifying fall risk factors for older women with osteoporosis is a crucial step in decreasing the incidence of falls and fracture. METHOD AND MEASURES: Seventy-three women over 60 years of age with established osteoporosis participated in comprehensive testing of fall history, physical function, and quality of life. Significant correlations were found between a recent history of falls and degree of kyphosis (r = 0.29), fear of falls/emotional status (r = -0.27), and balance (r = -0.27). Degree of kyphosis and fear of falls/emotional status explained 20% of the variance of recent fall history using binary logistic regression. Women with an increased kyphosis were more likely to have had a recent fall (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03-1.34) and those with better emotional status and less fear of falling were less likely to have had a recent fall (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38-0.97). Increased thoracic kyphosis and fear of falling are 2 intrinsic factors associated with recent falls in women with osteoporosis. To design more effective interventions to decrease fall risk in this population, future prospective, longitudinal studies should monitor kyphosis, fear of falling, balance reactions, and other potential risk factors not identified in this study.

  6. The efficacy of fall-risk-increasing drug (FRID) withdrawal for the prevention of falls and fall-related complications: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin Yusen; Holbrook, Anne

    2017-02-20

    Despite limited evidence of effectiveness, withdrawal (discontinuation or dose reduction) of high risk medications known as "fall-risk increasing drugs" (FRIDs) is typically conducted as a fall prevention strategy based on presumptive benefit. Our objective is to determine the efficacy of fall-risk increasing drugs (FRIDs) withdrawal on the prevention of falls and fall-related complications. We will search for all published and unpublished randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of FRID withdrawal compared to usual care on the rate of falls, incidence of falls, fall-related injuries, fall-related fractures, fall-related hospitalizations, or adverse effects related to the intervention in adults aged 65 years or older. Electronic database searches will be conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and CINAHL. A grey literature search will be conducted including clinical trial registries and conference proceedings and abstracts. Two reviewers will independently perform in duplicate citation screening, full-text review, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. Conflicts will be resolved through team discussion or by a third reviewer if no consensus can be reached. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria will be used to independently rate overall confidence in effect estimates for each outcome. Results will be synthesized descriptively, and a random effects meta-analysis will be conducted for each outcome if studies are deemed similar methodologically, clinically, and statistically. We will attempt to determine whether a FRID withdrawal strategy alone is effective at preventing falls in older adults. Our results will be used to optimize and focus fall prevention strategies and initiatives internationally with a goal of improving the health of older adults. PROSPERO CRD42016040203.

  7. A Feasibility Study for An Integrated Approach to Fall Prevention in Community Care: Stay Up and Active in Orange County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Lindgren

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Falls amongst persons over 60 present significant risks for serious injury or debility. Falls place burdens on Emergency Medical Services (EMS, hospitals, and the adults themselves. Recognizing a need to provide interventions to minimize risk, Orange County Emergency Services (OCES, the Orange County Department on Aging (OCDoA, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC partnered to create the Stay Up and Active Program (SUAA. Methods: A streamlined workflow algorithm between the OCES and OCDoA was created and employed to provide falls risk assessment and necessary services. Qualitative techniques were used to assess the need for such a program and its potential impact. A subset of individuals were interviewed three months after the intervention to assess the impact of the intervention on their fall risk. Results: In the first seven months, 478 instances of individuals who called OCES screened positive for falls risk. Of the 478 positive screenings, 55 individuals were identified as having received more than one positive fall screen due to multiple calls. The maximum number of positive screenings by one individual was 14. More women (61.3% than men screened positive for fall risk. Individuals 88 years of age (6.9% represented the mode of the individuals with positive screens. Nineteen (4.0% people who called OCES and received the intervention completed a three month follow up survey. Of the nineteen, 86% (n=16 reported no recurrent fall.Conclusion: The number of individuals who screened positive supports the need for early identification and intervention through EMS. This program identified several challenges connecting older adults with services already available to keep them independent which provided insight to all stakeholders regarding factors that inhibit the program’s success. The program evaluation should continue to provide suggestions for improvement and ensure sustainability.

  8. Prospective study of falls and risk factors for falls in adults with advanced cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stone, Carol A

    2012-06-10

    Retrospective studies of inpatients with cancer suggest that a cancer diagnosis confers a high risk of falls. In adults with advanced cancer, we aimed to prospectively document the incidence of falls, identify the risk factors, and determine if falls in this population occur predominantly in older patients.

  9. Community College Estimated Growth: Fall 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippe, Kent; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    A survey from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) found that enrollment growth in fall 2010 slowed its pace at community colleges, increasing 3.2% from the previous year. This contrasts with more dramatic increases in recent years: more than 11% between fall 2008 and fall 2009, and nearly 17% between fall 2007 and fall 2009,…

  10. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention for falls prevention in older people: a multicentre cohort randomised controlled trial (the REducing Falls with ORthoses and a Multifaceted podiatry intervention trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockayne, Sarah; Rodgers, Sara; Green, Lorraine; Fairhurst, Caroline; Adamson, Joy; Scantlebury, Arabella; Corbacho, Belen; Hewitt, Catherine E; Hicks, Kate; Hull, Robin; Keenan, Anne-Maree; Lamb, Sarah E; McIntosh, Caroline; Menz, Hylton B; Redmond, Anthony; Richardson, Zoe; Vernon, Wesley; Watson, Judith; Torgerson, David J

    2017-04-01

    Falls are a serious cause of morbidity and cost to individuals and society. Evidence suggests that foot problems and inappropriate footwear may increase the risk of falling. Podiatric interventions could help reduce falls; however, there is limited evidence regarding their clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention for preventing falls in community-dwelling older people at risk of falling, relative to usual care. A pragmatic, multicentred, cohort randomised controlled trial with an economic evaluation and qualitative study. Nine NHS trusts in the UK and one site in Ireland. In total, 1010 participants aged ≥ 65 years were randomised (intervention, n  = 493; usual care, n  = 517) via a secure, remote service. Blinding was not possible. All participants received a falls prevention leaflet and routine care from their podiatrist and general practitioner. The intervention also consisted of footwear advice, footwear provision if required, foot orthoses and foot- and ankle-strengthening exercises. The primary outcome was the incidence rate of falls per participant in the 12 months following randomisation. The secondary outcomes included the proportion of fallers and multiple fallers, time to first fall, fear of falling, fracture rate, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cost-effectiveness. The primary analysis consisted of 484 (98.2%) intervention and 507 (98.1%) usual-care participants. There was a non-statistically significant reduction in the incidence rate of falls in the intervention group [adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73 to 1.05; p  = 0.16]. The proportion of participants experiencing a fall was lower (50% vs. 55%, adjusted odds ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.00; p  = 0.05). No differences were observed in key secondary outcomes. No serious, unexpected and related adverse events were reported. The

  11. Intrinsic factors associated with pregnancy falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuefang; Yeoh, Han T

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 25% to 27% of women sustain a fall during pregnancy, and falls are associated with serious injuries and can affect pregnancy outcomes. The objective of the current study was to identify intrinsic factors associated with pregnancy that may contribute to women's increased risk of falls. A literature search (Medline and Pubmed) identified articles published between January 1980 and June 2013 that measured associations between pregnancy and fall risks, using an existing fall accident investigation framework. The results indicated that physiological, biomechanical, and psychological changes associated with pregnancy may influence the initiation, detection, and recovery phases of falls and increase the risk of falls in this population. Considering the logistic difficulties and ethnic concerns in recruiting pregnant women to participate in this investigation of fall risk factors, identification of these factors could establish effective fall prevention and intervention programs for pregnant women and improve birth outcomes. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(10):403-408.]. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Box of ideal gas in free fall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothawala, Dawood, E-mail: dawood@physics.iitm.ac.in [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2013-03-26

    We study the quantum partition function of non-relativistic, ideal gas in a (non-cubical) box falling freely in arbitrary curved spacetime with center 4-velocity u{sup a}. When perturbed energy eigenvalues are properly taken into account, we find that corrections to various thermodynamic quantities include a very specific, sub-dominant term which is independent of kinematic details such as box dimensions and mass of particles. This term is characterized by the dimensionless quantity, Ξ=R{sub 0{sup ^}0{sup ^}}Λ{sup 2}, where R{sub 0{sup ^}0{sup ^}}=R{sub ab}u{sup a}u{sup b} and Λ=βℏc, and, quite intriguingly, produces Euler relation of homogeneity two between entropy and energy – a relation familiar from black hole thermodynamics.

  13. Fall Risk Assessment Predicts Fall-Related Injury, Hip Fracture, and Head Injury in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Martin; Eriksson, Joel; Larsson, Berit; Odén, Anders; Johansson, Helena; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the role of a fall risk assessment, using the Downton Fall Risk Index (DFRI), in predicting fall-related injury, fall-related head injury and hip fracture, and death, in a large cohort of older women and men residing in Sweden. Cross sectional observational study. Sweden. Older adults (mean age 82.4 ± 7.8) who had a fall risk assessment using the DFRI at baseline (N = 128,596). Information on all fall-related injuries, all fall-related head injuries and hip fractures, and all-cause mortality was collected from the Swedish Patient Register and Cause of Death Register. The predictive role of DFRI was calculated using Poisson regression models with age, sex, height, weight, and comorbidities as covariates, taking time to outcome or end of study into account. During a median follow-up of 253 days (interquartile range 90-402 days) (>80,000 patient-years), 15,299 participants had a fall-related injury, 2,864 a head injury, and 2,557 a hip fracture, and 23,307 died. High fall risk (DFRI ≥3) independently predicted fall-related injury (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.39-1.49), hip fracture (HR = 1.51, 95% CI =1.38-1.66), head injury (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03-1.22), and all-cause mortality (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.35-1.43). DFRI more strongly predicted head injury (HR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.21-1.36 vs HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.11) and hip fracture (HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.30-1.53 vs HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.05-1.11) in 70-year old men than in 90-year old women (P Fall risk assessment using DFRI independently predicts fall-related injury, fall-related head injury and hip fracture, and all-cause mortality in older men and women, indicating its clinical usefulness to identify individuals who would benefit from interventions. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Preventing falls in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-02-27

    Essential facts Falls are the most frequent adverse event reported in hospitals, usually affecting older patients. Every year, more than 240,000 falls are reported in acute hospitals and mental health trusts in England and Wales, equivalent to more than 600 a day, according to the Royal College of Physicians (RCP). But research shows that when nurses, doctors and therapists work together, falls can be reduced by 20-30%.

  15. Planck 2013 results X. Energetic particle effects: characterization, removal, and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Girard, D; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miniussi, A; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Mottet, S; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Racine, B; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Sanselme, L; Santos, D; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the detection, interpretation and removal of the signal resulting from interactions of high energy particles with the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI). These interactions fall into two categories, heating the 0.1 K bolometer plate and glitches in each detector time stream. Glitch shapes are not simple single pole exponential decays and fall into a three families. The glitch shape for each family has been characterized empirically in flight data and removed from the detector time streams. The spectrum of the count rate/unit energy is computed for each family and a correspondence to where on the detector the particle hit is made. Most of the detected glitches are from galactic protons incident on the Si die frame supporting the micromachined bolometric detectors. At HFI, the particle flux is ~ 5 per square cm and per second and is dominated by protons incident on the spacecraft with an energy >39 MeV, leading to a rate of typically one event per second and per detector. Different categ...

  16. Preventing Falls in Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Lainie Van Voast; Mire, L Glen

    2017-08-15

    The American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society recommend that all adults older than 65 years be screened annually for a history of falls or balance impairment. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians recommend exercise or physical therapy and vitamin D supplementation to prevent falls in community-dwelling older adults who are at increased risk of falls. Although the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians do not recommend routine multifactorial intervention to prevent falls in all community-dwelling older adults, they state that it may be appropriate in individual cases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed an algorithm to aid in the implementation of the American Geriatrics Society/British Geriatrics Society guideline. The algorithm suggests assessment and multifactorial intervention for those who have had two or more falls or one fall-related injury. Multifactorial interventions should include exercise, particularly balance, strength, and gait training; vitamin D supplementation with or without calcium; management of medications, especially psychoactive medications; home environment modification; and management of postural hypotension, vision problems, foot problems, and footwear. These interventions effectively decrease falls in the community, hospital, and nursing home settings. Fall prevention is reimbursed as part of the Medicare Annual Wellness Visit.

  17. Spinal sagittal contour affecting falls: cut-off value of the lumbar spine for falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Kasukawa, Yuji; Hongo, Michio; Shimada, Yoichi

    2013-06-01

    Spinal deformities reportedly affect postural instability or falls. To prevent falls in clinical settings, the determination of a cut-off angle of spinal sagittal contour associated with increase risk for falls would be useful for screening for high-risk fallers. The purpose of this study was to calculate the spinal sagittal contour angle associated with increased risk for falls during medical checkups in community dwelling elders. The subjects comprised 213 patients (57 men, 156 women) with a mean age of 70.1 years (range, 55-85 years). The upright and flexion/extension thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angles, and the spinal inclination were evaluated with SpinalMouse(®). Postural instability was evaluated by stabilometry, using the total track length (LNG), enveloped areas (ENV), and track lengths in the lateral and anteroposterior directions (X LNG and Y LNG, respectively). The back extensor strength (BES) was measured using a strain-gauge dynamometer. The relationships among the parameters were analyzed statistically. Age, lumbar lordosis, spinal inclination, LNG, X LNG, Y LNG, and BES were significantly associated with falls (Pfalls about lumbar lordosis angles revealed that angles of 3° and less were significant for falls. The present findings suggest that increased age, spinal inclination, LNG, X LNG, Y LNG, and decreased BES and lumbar lordosis, are associated with falls. An angle of lumbar lordosis of 3° or less was associated with falls in these community-dwelling elders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical and Community Strategies to Prevent Falls and Fall-Related Injuries Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Peterson, Rachel; Mohler, Martha Jane

    2017-09-01

    Falls in older adults are the result of several risk factors across biological and behavioral aspects of the person, along with environmental factors. Falls can trigger a downward spiral in activities of daily living, independence, and overall health outcomes. Clinicians who care for older adults should screen them annually for falls. A multifactorial comprehensive clinical fall assessment coupled with tailored interventions can result in a dramatic public health impact, while improving older adult quality of life. For community-dwelling older adults, effective fall prevention has the potential to reduce serious fall-related injuries, emergency room visits, hospitalizations, institutionalization, and functional decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The efficacy of fall-risk-increasing drug (FRID withdrawal for the prevention of falls and fall-related complications: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Yusen Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite limited evidence of effectiveness, withdrawal (discontinuation or dose reduction of high risk medications known as “fall-risk increasing drugs” (FRIDs is typically conducted as a fall prevention strategy based on presumptive benefit. Our objective is to determine the efficacy of fall-risk increasing drugs (FRIDs withdrawal on the prevention of falls and fall-related complications. Methods/design We will search for all published and unpublished randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of FRID withdrawal compared to usual care on the rate of falls, incidence of falls, fall-related injuries, fall-related fractures, fall-related hospitalizations, or adverse effects related to the intervention in adults aged 65 years or older. Electronic database searches will be conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, and CINAHL. A grey literature search will be conducted including clinical trial registries and conference proceedings and abstracts. Two reviewers will independently perform in duplicate citation screening, full-text review, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. Conflicts will be resolved through team discussion or by a third reviewer if no consensus can be reached. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE criteria will be used to independently rate overall confidence in effect estimates for each outcome. Results will be synthesized descriptively, and a random effects meta-analysis will be conducted for each outcome if studies are deemed similar methodologically, clinically, and statistically. Discussion We will attempt to determine whether a FRID withdrawal strategy alone is effective at preventing falls in older adults. Our results will be used to optimize and focus fall prevention strategies and initiatives internationally with a goal of improving the health of older adults. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD

  20. Preventing Falls and Related Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... slowed reflexes. Drinking alcoholic beverages also increases the risk of falling. Alcohol slows reflexes and response time; causes dizziness, sleepiness, or lightheadedness; alters balance; and encourages risky behaviors that can lead to falls. The Force and Direction of a Fall The ...

  1. Fall predictors in the community dwelling elderly: a cross sectional and prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, A J; Gallagher, J C; Smith, L M; Logsdon, S

    2010-06-01

    To ascertain the risk factors for falls, stumbles and recurrent falls in a cohort of elderly people with mean age of 76.7-/+6.1 years. 137 community dwelling elderly living independently or in assisted living institutions participated in the study. Each subject was assessed by history, physical examination and physical performance tests at the beginning and end of study. Falls and stumbles were recorded in a falls dairy for 1 year. Significant predictors of being a faller were a history of falls at baseline (Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.85, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.56 - 9.50), depression (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.02 - 1.38) and timed rise (Incident Rate Ratio (IRR) = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.03 - 1.50). For predicting recurrent fallers Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were as follows: 0.71 (95%CI 0.61-0.81) for timed up and go, 0.67 (95%CI 0.56-0.78) for timed rise and 0.70 (95%CI 0.60-0.80) for timed walk fast pace. Timed rise was the single most important test that was able to predict both a first time faller and recurrent faller. Timed up and go was the most significant test to predict recurrent fallers.

  2. Virtual obstacle crossing: Reliability and differences in stroke survivors who prospectively experienced falls or no falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, Michiel; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Wittink, Harriet; van de Port, Ingrid G; Wubbels, Gijs; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2017-10-01

    Stroke survivors often fall during walking. To reduce fall risk, gait testing and training with avoidance of virtual obstacles is gaining popularity. However, it is unknown whether and how virtual obstacle crossing is associated with fall risk. The present study assessed whether obstacle crossing characteristics are reliable and assessed differences in stroke survivors who prospectively experienced falls or no falls. We recruited twenty-nine community dwelling chronic stroke survivors. Participants crossed five virtual obstacles with increasing lengths. After a break, the test was repeated to assess test-retest reliability. For each obstacle length and trial, we determined; success rate, leading limb preference, pre and post obstacle distance, margins of stability, toe clearance, and crossing step length and speed. Subsequently, fall incidence was monitored using a fall calendar and monthly phone calls over a six-month period. Test-retest reliability was poor, but improved with increasing obstacle-length. Twelve participants reported at least one fall. No association of fall incidence with any of the obstacle crossing characteristics was found. Given the absence of height of the virtual obstacles, obstacle avoidance may have been relatively easy, allowing participants to cross obstacles in multiple ways, increasing variability of crossing characteristics and reducing the association with fall risk. These finding cast some doubt on current protocols for testing and training of obstacle avoidance in stroke rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Approach to Fall in Elderly Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ilkin Naharci

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Falls are one of the geriatric syndromes which occur commonly and significantly increase morbidity and mortality rates in elderly. The incidence of falls increases with age. Falls usually occur when impairments in cognitive, behavioral, and executive function begin. The incidence of fall is between 30 and 40 percent of community-dwelling people and approximately 50 percent of individuals in the long-term care setting over the age of 65 years. Fracture (hip, arm, wrist, pelvis, head trauma or major lacerations, as defined serious wounding, occur 10-25% of elderly cases. Fall is overlooked in clinical examination due to various reasons; the patient never mentions the event to a doctor; there is no injury at the time of the fall; the doctor fails to ask the patient about a history of falls; or either doctor or patient erroneously believes that falls are an inevitable part of the aging process. Elderly give not usually any self-information about fall, for this reason, all older patients should be asked at least once per year about falls and should be assessed in terms of balance and gait disorders. There are many distinct causes for falls in old people. Falls in older individuals occur when a threat to the normal homeostatic mechanisms that maintain postural stability is superimposed on underlying age-related declines in balance, ambulation, and cardiovascular function. This factor may be an acute illness (eg, fever, water loss, arrhythmia, a new medication, an environmental stress (eg, unfamiliar surrounding, or an unsafe walking surface. The elderly person can not cope with happened additional stress. To prevent and decrease the frequency of falls, effective approaches are medical interventions, environmental modifications, education-exercise programs, and assisted device. Detection and amelioration of risk factors can significantly reduce the rate of future falls. The assessment of fall, causing mobility restriction, use of nursing home, and

  4. Development and feasibility of falls prevention advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harten-Krouwel, Diny; Schuurmans, Marieke; Emmelot-Vonk, Mariëlle; Pel-Littel, Ruth

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the feasibility of nursing falls prevention advice and factors influencing feasibility. The frequency and seriousness of falls in hospitalised patients are underestimated, and such falls should be preventable because of the presence of professionals. A best practice-based falls prevention advice was developed to decrease the incidence of secondary falls and the incidence of primary falls in the long term and to increase the knowledge of nurses about falls prevention and the seriousness of falls. A descriptive, explorative study. Feasibility of the advice for 30 patients was assessed 82 times (theoretically, three times per patient) by observation and by interviewing nurses, patients and their families. The falls prevention advice was used in 48% of the assessments. There was a difference in use between interventions. Interventions that required more knowledge, communication and extra activities were implemented the least. The absence of materials and knowledge about falls prevention were important determinants of the non-implementation of certain interventions. Before falls prevention advice is implemented, it is important to educate nurses about falls, communication skills and implementation of the advice. The falls prevention advice might help nurses to prevent falls and increase their knowledge about falls prevention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Falls prevention in hospitals and mental health units: an extended evaluation of the FallSafe quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Frances; Lowe, Derek; Darowski, Adam; Windsor, Julie; Treml, Jonathan; Byrne, Lisa; Husk, Janet; Phipps, Jill

    2014-07-01

    inpatient falls are a major patient safety issue causing distress, injury and death. Systematic review suggests multifactorial assessment and intervention can reduce falls by 20-30%, but large-scale studies of implementation are few. This paper describes an extended evaluation of the FallSafe quality improvement project, which presented key components of multifactorial assessment and intervention as a care bundle. : data on delivery of falls prevention processes were collected at baseline and for 18 months from nine FallSafe units and nine control units. Data on falls were collected from local risk management systems for 24 months, and data on under-reporting through staff surveys. : in FallSafe units, delivery of seven care bundle components significantly improved; most improvements were sustained after active project support was withdrawn. Twelve-month moving average of reported fall rates showed a consistent downward trend in FallSafe units but not controls. Significant reductions in reported fall rate were found in FallSafe units (adjusted rate ratio (ARR) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.84 P control units (ARR 0.91, 95% CI 0.81-1.03 P = 0.13). No significant changes in injurious fall rate were found in FallSafe units (ARR 0.86, 95% CI 0.71-1.03 P = 0.11), or controls (ARR 0.88, 95% CI 0.72-1.08 P = 0.13). In FallSafe units, staff certain falls had been reported increased from 60 to 77%. : introducing evidence-based care bundles of multifactorial assessment and intervention using a quality improvement approach resulted in improved delivery of multifactorial assessment and intervention and significant reductions in fall rates, but not in injurious fall rates. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Scoring the home falls and accidents screening tool for health professionals (HOME FAST-HP): Evidence from one epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Lynette; Byles, Julie

    2018-03-30

    Falls in older people are a major public health concern. To target falls prevention interventions, screening tools need to be able to identify older people at greater risk of falling. This study aimed to investigate the screening capacity of the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool for health professionals (HOME FAST-HP), and to identify the best cut-off score to identify older people at higher risk of falls using the HOME FAST-HP. The study used cross-sectional data from a random sample of 650 women from the 1921 to 1926 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH). Selected women were sent a postal survey including the HOME FAST-HP, falls history, and other health factors. Scores on the home fast were calculated and the cut-point for optimal sensitivity and specificity of the HOME FAST-HP in relation to falls was assessed using a Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. A total of 567 older women participated (response rate 87%). The mean age of participants was 77.5 yrs (95% CI 77.31-77.70). A total of 153 participants (27%) reported a fall in the previous six months. The mean number of hazards using the HOME FAST-HP was 9.74 (95% CI 9.48-10.01), range 2-22. Non-fallers had a mean of 9.6 hazards (95% CI 9.32-9.91) and fallers had a mean of 10.63 hazards (95% CI 10.08-11.19) which was a significant difference (t = 3.41, P = 0.001). The area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) was 0.58 (95% CI 0.53-0.64). A HOME FAST-HP cut-off score of 9 was associated with the optimal sensitivity for falls (73.9%), with specificity (37.9%), and positive predictive value was 30.6% and negative predictive value was 79.7%. The HOME FAST-HP can be used as a screening tool to identify fallers with a cut-off score of nine indicating a higher risk of falling. © 2018 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  7. An outpatient multifactorial falls prevention intervention does not reduce falls in high-risk elderly Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Ane B; Andersen, Hanne E; Pedersen, Kirsten D

    2009-01-01

    , mean age 74, 73.7%women, who had visited the emergency department or had been hospitalized due to a fall. INTERVENTION: Identification of general medical, cardiovascular, and physical risk factors for falls and individual intervention in the intervention group. Participants in the control group....... Followup exceeded 90.0%. A total of 422 falls were registered in the intervention group, 398 in the control group. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no effect of the intervention on fall rates (relative risk=1.06, 95%confidence interval (CI)=0.75 -1.51), proportion with falls (odds ratio (OR)=1.20, 95......OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of multifactorial fall prevention in community-dwelling people aged 65 and older in Denmark. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Geriatric outpatient clinic at Glostrup University Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred ninety-two elderly people...

  8. Investigation and hazard assessment of the 2003 and 2007 Staircase Falls rock falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Wieczorek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1857 more than 600 rock falls, rock slides, debris slides, and debris flows have been documented in Yosemite National Park, with rock falls in Yosemite Valley representing the majority of the events. On 26 December 2003, a rock fall originating from west of Glacier Point sent approximately 200 m3 of rock debris down a series of joint-controlled ledges to the floor of Yosemite Valley. The debris impacted talus near the base of Staircase Falls, producing fragments of flying rock that struck occupied cabins in Curry Village. Several years later on 9 June 2007, and again on 26 July 2007, smaller rock falls originated from the same source area. The 26 December 2003 event coincided with a severe winter storm and was likely triggered by precipitation and/or frost wedging, but the 9 June and 26 July 2007 events lack recognizable triggering mechanisms. We investigated the geologic and hydrologic factors contributing to the Staircase Falls rock falls, including bedrock lithology, weathering, joint spacing and orientations, and hydrologic processes affecting slope stability. We improved upon previous geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazards, based on a shadow angle approach, by using STONE, a three-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. STONE produced simulated rock-fall runout patterns similar to the mapped extent of the 2003 and 2007 events, allowing us to simulate potential future rock falls from the Staircase Falls detachment area. Observations of recent rock falls, mapping of rock debris, and simulations of rock fall runouts beneath the Staircase Falls detachment area suggest that rock-fall hazard zones extend farther downslope than the extent previously defined by mapped surface talus deposits.

  9. Investigation and hazard assessment of the 2003 and 2007 Staircase Falls rock falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G. F.; Stock, G. M.; Reichenbach, P.; Snyder, J. B.; Borchers, J. W.; Godt, J. W.

    2008-05-01

    Since 1857 more than 600 rock falls, rock slides, debris slides, and debris flows have been documented in Yosemite National Park, with rock falls in Yosemite Valley representing the majority of the events. On 26 December 2003, a rock fall originating from west of Glacier Point sent approximately 200 m3 of rock debris down a series of joint-controlled ledges to the floor of Yosemite Valley. The debris impacted talus near the base of Staircase Falls, producing fragments of flying rock that struck occupied cabins in Curry Village. Several years later on 9 June 2007, and again on 26 July 2007, smaller rock falls originated from the same source area. The 26 December 2003 event coincided with a severe winter storm and was likely triggered by precipitation and/or frost wedging, but the 9 June and 26 July 2007 events lack recognizable triggering mechanisms. We investigated the geologic and hydrologic factors contributing to the Staircase Falls rock falls, including bedrock lithology, weathering, joint spacing and orientations, and hydrologic processes affecting slope stability. We improved upon previous geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazards, based on a shadow angle approach, by using STONE, a three-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. STONE produced simulated rock-fall runout patterns similar to the mapped extent of the 2003 and 2007 events, allowing us to simulate potential future rock falls from the Staircase Falls detachment area. Observations of recent rock falls, mapping of rock debris, and simulations of rock fall runouts beneath the Staircase Falls detachment area suggest that rock-fall hazard zones extend farther downslope than the extent previously defined by mapped surface talus deposits.

  10. Fall prevention in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Mette; Hauge, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    that the number of hospitalization after a fall injury will become an even greater task for the Danish hospitals, The aim of the study was to show if there is a relationship between physically frail elderly nursing home resident’s subjective evaluation of fall-risk and an objective evaluation of their balance....... Further, to suggest tools for fall prevention in nursing home settings on the basis of the results of this study and the literature. A quantitative method inspired by the survey method was used to give an overview of fall patterns, subjective and objective evaluations of fallrisk. Participants were 16...... physically frail elderly nursing home residents from three different nursing homes. Measures: a small staff-questionnaire about incidences and places where the participants had falling-episodes during a 12 month period, The Falls Effi cacy Scale Swedish version (FES(S)) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) Results...

  11. Falls: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and relationship to fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Sarah D; Miller, Ram R

    2008-12-01

    Falls are common in the elderly, and frequently result in injury and disability. Most falls result from an interaction between individual characteristics that increase an individual's propensity to fall and acute mediating risk factors that provide the opportunity to fall. Predisposing risk factors include age-associated changes in strength and balance, comorbidities such as osteoarthritis, visual impairment and dementia, psychotropic medications, and certain types of footwear. Fewer studies have focused on acute precipitating factors, but environmental and situational factors are clearly important to fall risk. Approximately 30% of falls result in an injury that requires medical attention, with fractures occurring in approximately 10%. In addition to the risk factors for falls, the fall descent, fall impact, and bone strength are all important determinants of whether a fall will result in a fracture. In recent years, numerous studies have been directed toward the development of effective fall and fall-related fracture prevention interventions.

  12. Microphysical characteristics of squall-line stratiform precipitation and transition zones inferred using an ice particle property-evolving model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A. A.; Harrington, J. Y.; Morrison, H.

    2017-12-01

    A quasi-idealized 3D squall line (based on a June 2007 Oklahoma case) is simulated using a novel bulk microphysics scheme called the Ice-Spheroids Habit Model with Aspect-ratio Evolution (ISHMAEL). In ISHMAEL, the evolution of ice particle properties, such as mass, shape, maximum diameter, density, and fall speed, are tracked as these properties evolve from vapor growth, sublimation, riming, and melting. Thus, ice properties evolve from various microphysical processes without needing separate unrimed and rimed ice categories. Simulation results show that ISHMAEL produces both a squall-line transition zone and an enhanced stratiform precipitation region. The ice particle properties produced in this simulation are analyzed and compared to observations to determine the characteristics of ice that lead to the development of these squall-line features. It is shown that rimed particles advected rearward from the convective region produce the enhanced stratiform precipitation region. The development of the transition zone results from hydrometer sorting: the evolution of ice particle properties in the convective region produces specific fall speeds that favor significant ice advecting rearward of the transition zone before reaching the melting level, causing a local minimum in precipitation rate and reflectivity there. Microphysical sensitivity studies, for example turning rime splintering off, that lead to changes in ice particle properties reveal that the fall speed of ice particles largely determines both the location of the enhanced stratiform precipitation region and whether or not a transition zone forms.

  13. Fall Risk Assessment Through Automatic Combination of Clinical Fall Risk Factors and Body-Worn Sensor Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Barry R; Redmond, Stephen J; Caulfield, Brian

    2017-05-01

    Falls are the leading global cause of accidental death and disability in older adults and are the most common cause of injury and hospitalization. Accurate, early identification of patients at risk of falling, could lead to timely intervention and a reduction in the incidence of fall-related injury and associated costs. We report a statistical method for fall risk assessment using standard clinical fall risk factors (N = 748). We also report a means of improving this method by automatically combining it, with a fall risk assessment algorithm based on inertial sensor data and the timed-up-and-go test. Furthermore, we provide validation data on the sensor-based fall risk assessment method using a statistically independent dataset. Results obtained using cross-validation on a sample of 292 community dwelling older adults suggest that a combined clinical and sensor-based approach yields a classification accuracy of 76.0%, compared to either 73.6% for sensor-based assessment alone, or 68.8% for clinical risk factors alone. Increasing the cohort size by adding an additional 130 subjects from a separate recruitment wave (N = 422), and applying the same model building and validation method, resulted in a decrease in classification performance (68.5% for combined classifier, 66.8% for sensor data alone, and 58.5% for clinical data alone). This suggests that heterogeneity between cohorts may be a major challenge when attempting to develop fall risk assessment algorithms which generalize well. Independent validation of the sensor-based fall risk assessment algorithm on an independent cohort of 22 community dwelling older adults yielded a classification accuracy of 72.7%. Results suggest that the present method compares well to previously reported sensor-based fall risk assessment methods in assessing falls risk. Implementation of objective fall risk assessment methods on a large scale has the potential to improve quality of care and lead to a reduction in associated hospital

  14. Is a fall just a fall : correlates of falling in healthy older persons. The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Visser, Marjolein; Peila, Rita; Nevitt, Michael C; Cauley, Jane A; Tylavsky, Frances A; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Harris, Tamara B

    OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with falling in well-functioning older people. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses of report of falls over the past 12 months using baseline data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. SETTING: Clinic examinations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, or

  15. The Association Between Body Adiposity Measures, Postural Balance, Fear of Falling, and Fall Risk in Older Community-Dwelling Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Silvia Gonçalves Ricci; Gadelha, André Bonadias; de David, Ana Cristina; Ferreira, Aparecido Pimentel; Safons, Marisete Peralta; Tiedemann, Anne; Lima, Ricardo M

    2017-12-07

    Recent investigations demonstrate an association between obesity and the propensity of older adults to fall. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body adiposity measures, postural balance, fear of falling, and risk of falls in older women. One hundred forty-seven volunteers took part in this cross-sectional study. Participants underwent body composition assessment using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and had body mass index, waist circumference (WC), and body adiposity index measured. Postural balance was assessed using a force platform, while fear of falling and risk of falls were, respectively, evaluated by the Falls Efficacy Scale-International and the QuickScreen Clinical Falls Risk Assessment. All adiposity measures were correlated to at least 1 postural stability parameter and to fear of falling (ρ= 0.163, P risk of falls (ρ= 0.325; P falling (28.04 vs 24.59; P = .002) and had a higher proportion of individuals with increased fall risk (72% vs 35%; P risk of falls in older women, which might be mediated by reduced postural balance and increased fear of falling. Among these indices, WC, an easy and low-cost assessment, demonstrated the strongest association with falls-related outcomes.

  16. [Falls of older individuals: medical assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Breucker, S; Nkodo Mekongo, Y P; Ibebeke, B; Pepersack, T

    2007-01-01

    Falls are one of the most common problems that threaten the independence of older individuals. They usually occur when impairments in multiple domains compromise the compensatory ability of the individual, as is the case for many geriatric syndromes. A number of the physical conditions and environmental situations predispose to falls. The medical risk factors of falls are reviewed. Falls in older individuals are rarely due to a single cause. Mechanisms that maintain postural stability are altered with aging (balance, gait speed, cardiovascular function). Female gender, past history of a fall, cognitive impairment, lower extremity weakness, balance problems, psychotropic drug use, arthritis, history of stroke, orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, and anemia represent the most frequent causes of risk of falls. Physical examination should focus upon the above mentioned risk factors and also on the presence of orthostatic hypotension, visual acuity, hearing assessment, examination of the extremities for deformities or neuropathies, and carotid sinus hypersensitivity which contributes to falls in people with unexplained falls. In conclusion, assessment of older individual at risk of falls or who fall present medical specificities. However, these latter specificities should be included in a comprehensive assessment which focus on intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Interventional strategies including comprehensive and interdisciplinary assessment lead to effective prevention.

  17. A Wavelet-Based Approach to Fall Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Palmerini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Falls among older people are a widely documented public health problem. Automatic fall detection has recently gained huge importance because it could allow for the immediate communication of falls to medical assistance. The aim of this work is to present a novel wavelet-based approach to fall detection, focusing on the impact phase and using a dataset of real-world falls. Since recorded falls result in a non-stationary signal, a wavelet transform was chosen to examine fall patterns. The idea is to consider the average fall pattern as the “prototype fall”.In order to detect falls, every acceleration signal can be compared to this prototype through wavelet analysis. The similarity of the recorded signal with the prototype fall is a feature that can be used in order to determine the difference between falls and daily activities. The discriminative ability of this feature is evaluated on real-world data. It outperforms other features that are commonly used in fall detection studies, with an Area Under the Curve of 0.918. This result suggests that the proposed wavelet-based feature is promising and future studies could use this feature (in combination with others considering different fall phases in order to improve the performance of fall detection algorithms.

  18. Childhood Falls With Occipital Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, Norrell; van Rijn, Rick R.; Starling, Suzanne P.

    2017-01-01

    Falls are commonly reported in children who present with both accidental and inflicted brain injuries. Short falls rarely result in serious or life-threatening injuries. Our purpose is to describe a series of cases of short falls with occipital impact leading to subdural hemorrhage (SDH). We present

  19. Predicting first fall in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease: Insights from a fall-naïve cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Sue; Galna, Brook; Yarnall, Alison J; Coleman, Shirley; Burn, David; Rochester, Lynn

    2016-12-01

    Falls are common and associated with reduced independence and mortality in Parkinson's disease. Previous research has been conducted on falls-prevalent or advanced disease cohorts. This study identifies risk factors for first fall for 36 months in a newly diagnosed, falls-naïve cohort. A total of 121 consecutive Parkinson's disease patients were recruited. Falls data were collected prospectively during 36 months from diagnosis via monthly falls diaries and telephone follow-up for 117 participants. Assessment comprised a comprehensive battery of clinical, gait, and cognitive measures. Significant predictors were identified from decision-tree analysis and survival analysis with time to first fall during 36 months as the dependent variable. At baseline, 26 (22%) participants reported retrospective falls. At 36 months, the remaining cohort (n = 91) comprised 47 fallers (52%) and 30 (33%) nonfallers and 14 (15%) participants with incomplete diaries. Fallers presented with a significantly higher disease severity, poorer ability to stand on one leg, slower gait speed, increased stance time variability, and higher swing time asymmetry. Median time to first fall was 847 days. Gait speed, stance time, and Hoehn & Yahr III stage emerged as significant predictors of first fall, hazard ratio 3.44 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.58 to 7.48), 3.31(95% CI 1.40 to 7.80), and 2.80 (95% CI 1.38 to 5.65), respectively. The hazard ratio for risk factors combined was 7.82 (CI 2.80 to 21.84). Interventions that target gait deficit and postural control in early Parkinson's disease may limit the potential for first fall. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Self-reported preclinical mobility limitation and fall history as predictors of future falls in older women: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina; Heinonen, A; Viljanen, A

    2010-01-01

    mobility limitation. Fall history was recalled for previous 12 months and dichotomized. The incidence of future falls over 12 months was followed up with fall calendars. RESULTS: During the fall follow-up, a total of 440 falls were reported by 201 participants. Among those with fall history, women...

  1. The unitary space of particle internal states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perjes, Z.

    1978-09-01

    A relativistic theory of particle internal properties has been developed. Suppressing space-time information, internal wave functions and -observables are constructed in a 3-complex-dimensional space. The quantum numbers of a spinning point particle in this unitary space correspond with those of a low-mass hadron. Unitary space physics is linked with space-time notions via the Penrose theory of twistors, where new flavors may be represented by many-twistor systems. It is shown here that a four-twistor particle fits into the unitary space picture as a system of two points with equal masses and oppositely pointing unitary spins. Quantum states fall into the ISU(3) irreducible representations discovered by Sparling and the author. Full details of the computation involving SU(3) recoupling techniques are given. (author)

  2. Falls and Use of Assistive Devices in Stroke Patients with Hemiparesis: Association with Balance Ability and Fall Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oksoo; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates balance ability and the fall efficacy with regard to the experiences of stroke patients with hemiparesis. The experience of falling, the use of assistive devices, and each disease-related characteristic were assessed using face-to-face interviews and a self-reported questionnaire. The Berg Balance Scale and Fall Efficacy Scale were used to measure balance ability and confidence. The fall efficacy was significantly lower in participants who had experienced falls than those who had not. The participants who used assistive devices exhibited low balance ability and fall efficacy compared to those who did not use assistive devices. Stroke patients with fall experience and walking aids might be considered at increased risk of falling. Preventive measures for individuals using walking aids may be beneficial in reducing the fall rate of community-dwelling stroke patients. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  3. Prevalence of falls in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor, Priscila Regina Rorato; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Kovaleski; Kohler, Renan; Winter, Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki, Cintia; Krause, Maressa Priscila

    2015-01-01

    To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. The prevalence of falls in this sample was 32.4%. Among women fallers, 40% self-reported a high fear of falling. It is recommended that functional and resistance exercises are included in the preventive strategies for reducing risk factors for falls and its determinants in elderly women. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic-Prospective Study.

  4. Ageing vision and falls: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saftari, Liana Nafisa; Kwon, Oh-Sang

    2018-04-23

    Falls are the leading cause of accidental injury and death among older adults. One of three adults over the age of 65 years falls annually. As the size of elderly population increases, falls become a major concern for public health and there is a pressing need to understand the causes of falls thoroughly. While it is well documented that visual functions such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and stereo acuity are correlated with fall risks, little attention has been paid to the relationship between falls and the ability of the visual system to perceive motion in the environment. The omission of visual motion perception in the literature is a critical gap because it is an essential function in maintaining balance. In the present article, we first review existing studies regarding visual risk factors for falls and the effect of ageing vision on falls. We then present a group of phenomena such as vection and sensory reweighting that provide information on how visual motion signals are used to maintain balance. We suggest that the current list of visual risk factors for falls should be elaborated by taking into account the relationship between visual motion perception and balance control.

  5. Raindrop fall velocities from an optical array probe and 2-D video disdrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringi, Viswanathan; Thurai, Merhala; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2018-03-01

    We report on fall speed measurements of raindrops in light-to-heavy rain events from two climatically different regimes (Greeley, Colorado, and Huntsville, Alabama) using the high-resolution (50 µm) Meteorological Particle Spectrometer (MPS) and a third-generation (170 µm resolution) 2-D video disdrometer (2DVD). To mitigate wind effects, especially for the small drops, both instruments were installed within a 2/3-scale Double Fence Intercomparison Reference (DFIR) enclosure. Two cases involved light-to-moderate wind speeds/gusts while the third case was a tornadic supercell and several squall lines that passed over the site with high wind speeds/gusts. As a proxy for turbulent intensity, maximum wind speeds from 10 m height at the instrumented site recorded every 3 s were differenced with the 5 min average wind speeds and then squared. The fall speeds vs. size from 0.1 to 2 and > 0.7 mm were derived from the MPS and the 2DVD, respectively. Consistency of fall speeds from the two instruments in the overlap region (0.7-2 mm) gave confidence in the data quality and processing methodologies. Our results indicate that under low turbulence, the mean fall speeds agree well with fits to the terminal velocity measured in the laboratory by Gunn and Kinzer from 100 µm up to precipitation sizes. The histograms of fall speeds for 0.5, 0.7, 1 and 1.5 mm sizes were examined in detail under the same conditions. The histogram shapes for the 1 and 1.5 mm sizes were symmetric and in good agreement between the two instruments with no evidence of skewness or of sub- or super-terminal fall speeds. The histograms of the smaller 0.5 and 0.7 mm drops from MPS, while generally symmetric, showed that occasional occurrences of sub- and super-terminal fall speeds could not be ruled out. In the supercell case, the very strong gusts and inferred high turbulence intensity caused a significant broadening of the fall speed distributions with negative skewness (for drops of 1.3, 2 and 3 mm). The

  6. The Trail Making test: a study of its ability to predict falls in the acute neurological in-patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Bilal Akhter; Bussas, Matthias; Doogan, Catherine; Waller, Denise; Saverino, Alessia; Király, Franz J; Playford, E Diane

    2018-05-01

    To determine whether tests of cognitive function and patient-reported outcome measures of motor function can be used to create a machine learning-based predictive tool for falls. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary neurological and neurosurgical center. In all, 337 in-patients receiving neurosurgical, neurological, or neurorehabilitation-based care. Binary (Y/N) for falling during the in-patient episode, the Trail Making Test (a measure of attention and executive function) and the Walk-12 (a patient-reported measure of physical function). The principal outcome was a fall during the in-patient stay ( n = 54). The Trail test was identified as the best predictor of falls. Moreover, addition of other variables, did not improve the prediction (Wilcoxon signed-rank P Test data (Wilcoxon signed-rank P test of cognitive function, the Trail Making test.

  7. Charge balancing and the fall off of the ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bożek, Piotr [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Broniowski, Wojciech [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland)

    2013-05-02

    Two-dimensional correlation functions in Δη – Δϕ for charged hadrons emitted in heavy-ion collisions are calculated in event-by-event hydrodynamics. With the Glauber model for the initial density distributions in the transverse plane and elongated density profiles in the longitudinal direction, the flow patterns in the azimuthal angle of the two-dimensional correlation function are properly reproduced. We show that the additional fall-off of the same-side ridge in the longitudinal direction can be explained as an effect of local charge conservation at a late stage of the evolution. This additional non-flow effect increases the harmonic flow coefficients for the unlike-sign particle pairs.

  8. Characteristics of daily life gait in fall and non fall-prone stroke survivors and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirjam Pijnappels; Sjoerd M. Bruijn; Kimberley M. Schooten; Jaap H. van Dieën; Dr. H.M. Wittink; Michiel Punt

    2016-01-01

    Background: Falls in stroke survivors can lead to serious injuries and medical costs. Fall risk in older adults can be predicted based on gait characteristics measured in daily life. Given the different gait patterns that stroke survivors exhibit it is unclear whether a similar fall-prediction model

  9. Characteristics and adaptive strategies linked with falls in stroke survivors from analysis of laboratory-induced falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Claire F.; Nevisipour, Masood; Grabiner, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Falls are the most common and expensive medical complication in stroke survivors. There is remarkably little information about what factors lead to a fall in stroke survivors. With few exceptions, the falls literature in stroke has focused on relating metrics of static balance and impairment to fall outcomes in the acute care setting or in community. While informative, these studies provide little information about what specific impairments in a stroke-survivor’s response to dynamic balance challenges lead to a fall. We identified the key kinematic characteristics of stroke survivors’ stepping responses following a balance disturbance that are associated with a fall following dynamic balance challenges. Stroke survivors were exposed to posteriorly-directed translations of a treadmill belt that elicited a stepping response. Kinematics were compared between successful and failed recovery attempts (i.e. a fall). We found that the ability to arrest and reverse trunk flexion and the ability to perform an appropriate initial compensatory step were the most critical response contributors to a successful recovery. We also identified 2 compensatory strategies utilized by stroke survivors to avoid a fall. Despite significant post-stroke functional impairments, the biomechanical causes of trip-related falls by stroke survivors appear to be similar to those of unimpaired older adults and lower extremity amputees. However, compensatory strategies (pivot, hopping) were observed. PMID:27614614

  10. Falls and comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Terese Sara Høj; Hansen, Annette Højmann; Sahlberg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To compare nationwide time trends and mortality in hip and proximal humeral fractures; to explore associations between incidences of falls risk related comorbidities (FRICs) and incidence of fractures. METHODS: The study is a retrospective cohort study using nationwide Danish administrative....... CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the overall reduction in fractures can be explained by reduction in falls related comorbidity....

  11. Home Improvements Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Home Improvements Prevent Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... and ensure your safety. "Safe-ty-fy" Your Home Some Questions for Your Provider Will my medicines ...

  12. Ambulatory fall-risk assessment: amount and quality of daily-life gait predict falls in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schooten, Kimberley S; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Rispens, Sietse M; Elders, Petra J M; Lips, Paul; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-05-01

    Ambulatory measurements of trunk accelerations can provide valuable information on the amount and quality of daily-life activities and contribute to the identification of individuals at risk of falls. We compared associations between retrospective and prospective falls with potential risk factors as measured by daily-life accelerometry. In addition, we investigated predictive value of these parameters for 6-month prospective falls. One week of trunk accelerometry (DynaPort MoveMonitor) was obtained in 169 older adults (mean age 75). The amount of daily activity and quality of gait were determined and validated questionnaires on fall-risk factors, grip strength, and trail making test were obtained. Six-month fall incidence was obtained retrospectively by recall and prospectively by fall diaries and monthly telephone contact. Among all participants, 35.5% had a history of ≥1 falls and 34.9% experienced ≥1 falls during 6-month follow-up. Logistic regressions showed that questionnaires, grip strength, and trail making test, as well as the amount and quality of gait, were significantly associated with falls. Significant associations differed between retrospective and prospective analyses although odds ratios indicated similar patterns. Predictive ability based on questionnaires, grip strength, and trail making test (area under the curve .68) improved substantially by accelerometry-derived parameters of the amount of gait (number of strides), gait quality (complexity, intensity, and smoothness), and their interactions (area under the curve .82). Daily-life accelerometry contributes substantially to the identification of individuals at risk of falls, and can predict falls in 6 months with good accuracy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Fall Prevention in a Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Monika; Freiberger, Ellen; Geilhof, Barbara; Salb, Johannes; Hentschke, Christian; Landendoerfer, Peter; Linde, Klause; Halle, Martin; Blank, Wolfgang A

    2016-05-27

    Falls and fall-related injuries are common in community-dwelling elderly people. Effective multifactorial fall prevention programs in the primary care setting may be a promising approach to reduce the incidence rate of falls. In a cluster randomized trial in 33 general practices 378 people living independently and at high risk of falling (65 to 94 years old; 285 women) were allocated to either a 16 week exercise-based fall prevention program including muscle strengthening and challenging balance training exercises, combined with a 12 week home-based exercise program (222 participants), or to usual care (156 participants). The main outcome was number of falls over a period of 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the number of fall-related injuries, physical function (Timed-Up-and-Go-Test, TUG, Chair-Stand-Test, CST, modified Romberg Test), and fear of falling. In the intervention group (n=222 patients in 17 general practices) 291 falls occurred, compared to 367 falls in the usual care group (n=156 patients in 16 general practices). We observed a lower incidence rate for falls in the intervention group (incidence rate ratio/IRR: 0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.35; 0.84], p=0.007) and for fall-related injuries (IRR: 0.66; [0.42; 0.94], p=0.033). Additionally, patients in the intervention group showed significant improvements in secondary endpoints (TUG: -2.39 s, [-3.91; -0.87], p=0.014; mRomberg: 1.70 s, [0.35; 3.04], p=0.037; fear of falling: -2.28 points, [-3.87; -0.69], p=0.022) compared to usual care. A complex falls prevention program in a primary care setting was effective in reducing falls and fall-related injuries in community dwelling older adults at risk.

  14. Investigation of particle reduction and its transport mechanism in UHF-ECR dielectric etching system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Yokogawa, Ken'etsu; Maeda, Kenji; Izawa, Masaru

    2008-01-01

    Control of particle transport was investigated by using a UHF-ECR etching apparatus with a laser particle monitor. The particles, which float at a plasma-sheath boundary, fall on a wafer when the plasma is turned off. These floating particles can be removed from the region above the wafer by changing the plasma distribution. We measured the distribution of the rotational temperature of nitrogen molecules across the wafer to investigate the effect of the thermophoretic force. We found that mechanisms of particle transport in directions parallel to the wafer surface can be explained by the balance between thermophoretic and gas viscous forces

  15. Factors influencing short-term outcomes for older patients accessing emergency departments after a fall: The role of fall dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Caterina; Di Gregorio, Patrizia; Debiasi, Eugenio; Pedrotti, Martina; La Guardia, Mario; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe; March, Albert

    2017-10-01

    While the relevance of falls in raising the risk of fractures, hospitalization and disability in older age is well recognized, the factors influencing the onset of fractures and the need for ward admission after a fall have yet to be fully elucidated. We investigated which factors and fall dynamics were mainly associated with fall-related injuries and hospitalization among elderly persons accessing the Emergency Department (ED) following a fall. The study involved 2144 older subjects who accessed the ED after a fall. Data on the fall´s nature and related injuries, ward admissions, history of falls, dementia, and medical therapies were examined for all patients. Considering dynamics, we distinguished accidental falls (due to interaction with environmental hazards while in motion) and falls from standing (secondary to syncope, lipothymia, drop attack, or vertigo). The overall prevalence of fractures in our population did not differ significantly with advancing age, though hip fractures were more common in the oldest, and upper limb fractures in the youngest patients. Falls from standing were associated with polypharmacy and with higher ward admission rate despite a lower fractures´ prevalence than accidental falls. The chances of fall-related fractures were more than fourfold as high for accidental dynamics (OR=4.05, 95%CI:3.10-5.29, pfall-related fractures (OR=6.84, 95%CI:5.45-8.58, pfall dynamics. Outcomes of falls in older age depend not only on any fall-related injuries, but also on factors such as polypharmacy, cognitive status and fall dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fall prevention in central coast community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gina M; Kale, Helen L

    2018-04-19

    Fall injuries among people aged 65 years and over (older people) cause substantial health decline and cost to the health system. In 2009 in New South Wales, 25.6% of older people fell in the previous year, and 10.7% (32 000) were hospitalised. Pharmacists are trusted professionals, who interact extensively with older people and have potential to augment fall prevention in pharmacies. This brief report describes how professional development improved pharmacist's knowledge and confidence in fall prevention, encouraged implementation of fall prevention plans and facilitated the provision of brief fall prevention interventions for older clients, after identification of fall risk. In 2014, pharmacists from all Central Coast pharmacies (n = 76) were invited to free, continuing professional development (CPD) in fall prevention. It provided education and resources to identify clients' fall risk, conduct brief fall prevention interventions and implement fall prevention health promotion plans (FPHPP). Pharmacists completed written: Baseline and post-workshop questionnaires to assess changes in pharmacist's knowledge and confidence, and existing fall prevention in pharmacies. Logs of client fall risk and brief fall prevention interventions offered to clients. Four-month follow-up questionnaires to assess implementation of FPHPPs and pharmacy practice changes. Pharmacists representing 36% of pharmacies participated. At four-month follow-up, 67% had implemented FPHPPs, and 62% delivered brief interventions determined by client fall risk. Fall prevention in pharmacies can be augmented through locally provided CPD tailored for pharmacists. SO WHAT?: This model could increase fall prevention reach. It is transferable to settings where health professionals provide services to older adults and require reregistration through professional development. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  17. Healthcare Providers’ Perceptions and Self-Reported Fall Prevention Practices: Findings from a Large New York Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lee eSmith

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Among older adults, falls are the leading cause of injury-related deaths and emergency department visits, and the incidence of falls in the United States is rising as the number of older Americans increases. Research has shown that falls can be reduced by modifying fall risk factors using multifactorial interventions implemented in clinical settings. However, the literature indicates many providers feel they do not know how to conduct fall risk assessments or do not have adequate knowledge about fall prevention To help healthcare providers incorporate older adult fall prevention (i.e., falls risk assessment and treatment into their clinical practice, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC Injury Center has developed the STEADI (Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries tool kit. This study was conducted to identify the practice characteristics and providers’ beliefs, knowledge, and fall-related activities before they received training on how to use the STEADI tool kit. Data were collected as part of a larger State Fall Prevention Project funded by CDC’s Injury Center. Completed questionnaires were returned by 38 medical providers from 11 healthcare practices within a large New York health system. Healthcare providers ranked falls as the lowest priority of five conditions, after diabetes, cardiovascular disease, mental health, and musculoskeletal conditions. Less than 40% of the providers asked most or all of their older patients if they had fallen during the past 12 months. Less than a quarter referred their older patients to physical therapists for balance or gait training, and less than 20% referred older patients to community-based fall prevention programs. Less than 16% reported they conducted standardized functional assessments with their older patients at least once a year. These results suggest that implementing the STEADI tool kit in clinical settings could address knowledge gaps and provide the necessary

  18. [Effects of a fall prevention program on falls in frail elders living at home in rural communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae-Soon; Jeon, Mi Yang; Kim, Chul-Gyu

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of a fall prevention program on falls, physical function, psychological function, and home environmental safety in frail elders living at home in rural communities. The design of this study was a nonequivalent control group pre posttest design. The study was conducted from July to November, 2012 with 30 participants in the experimental group and 30 in the control group. Participants were registered at the public health center of E County. The prevention program on falls consisted of laughter therapy, exercise, foot care and education. The program was provided once a week for 8 weeks and each session lasted 80 minutes. The risk score for falls and depression in the experimental group decreased significantly compared with scores for the control group. Compliance with prevention behavior related to falls, knowledge score on falls, safety scores of home environment, physical balance, muscle strength of lower extremities, and self-efficacy for fall prevention significantly increased in the experimental group compared with the control group. These results suggest that the prevention program on falls is effective for the prevention of falls in frail elders living at home.

  19. Fall prevention in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Iacomelli, Iacopo; Brunetti, Maria Angela; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Tesi, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2013-01-01

    Summary Falls are frequent in the elderly and affect mortality, morbidity, loss of functional capacity and institutionalization. In the older patient the incidence of falls can sometimes be underestimated, even in the absence of a clear cognitive impairment, because it is often difficult to reconstruct the dynamics. It is quite common that forms due to syncope are associated with retrograde amnesia and in 40 to 60% of the cases falls happen in the absence of witnesses. The pathogenesis of falls is often multifactorial, due to physiological age-related changes or more properly pathological factors, or due to the environment. The identification of risk factors is essential in the planning of preventive measures. Syncope is one of major causes of falls. About 20% of cardiovascular syncope in patients older than 70 appears as a fall and more than 20% of older people with Carotid Sinus Syndrome complain of falls as well as syncope. These data clearly state that older patients with history of falls should undergo a cardiovascular and neuroautonomic assessment besides the survey of other risk factors. Multifactorial assessment requires a synergy of various specialists. The geriatrician coordinates the multidisciplinary intervention in order to make the most effective evaluation of the risk of falling, searching for all predisposing factors, aiming towards a program of prevention. In clear pathological conditions it is possible to enact a specific treatment. Particular attention must indeed be paid to the re-evaluation of drug therapy, with dose adjustments or withdrawal especially for antihypertensive, diuretics and benzodiazepines. The Guidelines of the American Geriatrics Society recommend modification of environmental hazards, training paths, hip protectors and appropriate use of support tools (sticks, walkers), which can be effective elements of a multifactorial intervention program. Balance exercises are also recommended. In conclusion, an initial assessment

  20. Fall prevention in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Iacomelli, Iacopo; Brunetti, Maria Angela; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Tesi, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2013-05-01

    Falls are frequent in the elderly and affect mortality, morbidity, loss of functional capacity and institutionalization. In the older patient the incidence of falls can sometimes be underestimated, even in the absence of a clear cognitive impairment, because it is often difficult to reconstruct the dynamics. It is quite common that forms due to syncope are associated with retrograde amnesia and in 40 to 60% of the cases falls happen in the absence of witnesses. The pathogenesis of falls is often multifactorial, due to physiological age-related changes or more properly pathological factors, or due to the environment. The identification of risk factors is essential in the planning of preventive measures. Syncope is one of major causes of falls. About 20% of cardiovascular syncope in patients older than 70 appears as a fall and more than 20% of older people with Carotid Sinus Syndrome complain of falls as well as syncope. These data clearly state that older patients with history of falls should undergo a cardiovascular and neuroautonomic assessment besides the survey of other risk factors. Multifactorial assessment requires a synergy of various specialists. The geriatrician coordinates the multidisciplinary intervention in order to make the most effective evaluation of the risk of falling, searching for all predisposing factors, aiming towards a program of prevention. In clear pathological conditions it is possible to enact a specific treatment. Particular attention must indeed be paid to the re-evaluation of drug therapy, with dose adjustments or withdrawal especially for antihypertensive, diuretics and benzodiazepines. The Guidelines of the American Geriatrics Society recommend modification of environmental hazards, training paths, hip protectors and appropriate use of support tools (sticks, walkers), which can be effective elements of a multifactorial intervention program. Balance exercises are also recommended. In conclusion, an initial assessment, supported by a

  1. Falls and patient safety for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronovitch, Sharon A

    2006-10-01

    The risk of falling increases with age. Falls in the elderly have been found to raise mortality and morbidity rates and are a leading cause of premature admission to long-term care facilities. Attention to known intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predispose to falling is important in community dwelling and institutionalized older adults. New government guidelines for long-term care facilities have helped focus attention on the safety aspect of fall risk and information about the physical and psychological impact of falling is increasing. Implementation of fall prevention protocols, including the use of fall risk assessment tools, may help reduce the incidence of falls and resultant complications.

  2. Study of the spheronization process of glass particles by the gravitational falling process for internal selective radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Filho, E.C.; Martinelli, J.R.; Sene, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    The internal selective radiotherapy is an alternative to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. Glass microspheres containing β - emitter radionuclide are introduced in the liver, and they are housed preferentially in the region where the cancer cells are located. The microspheres are trapped in the arterioles which feed the tumors, and the β - particles annihilate the cancer cells. The glass particles must be spherical to avoid unnecessary bleeding, and the particle size must be restricted to a range which optimizes the blocking effect and avoid the migration to other parts of the human body. The particle size distribution of microspheres is not easily predicted since the variation of the aspect ratio and the presence of agglomerates can influence the resulting particle size distribution. In the present work, the spheronization process to obtain microspheres from irregular shape glass particles with suitable diameter and shape for radiotherapy treatment is studied. (author)

  3. [Muscle and bone health as a risk factor of fall among the elderly. Kaigoyobou and prevention of falling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchi, Shuichi

    2008-06-01

    Kaigoyobou, prevention of long-term care use, is a comprehensive approach, including physical, nutritional, and social, to maintain independent living in the elderly. Prevention of falling is one useful method of Kaigoyobou. From literature review, post-fall syndrome should be primarily eliminated in the elderly since falling rate of the elderly with the falling history reported significantly greater falling rate than the other community dwelling elderly. The ability to avoid falling when they trip or slip during walking may be the most important physical function needed to be intervened. In order to train elderly person successfully, nutritional intervention need to be considered into fall prevention program.

  4. Older persons afraid of falling reduce physical activity to prevent outdoor falls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Jong, R. de; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective.: The aim of this study was to test the assumption that the level of outdoor physical activity mediates the relationship between fear of falling and actual outdoor falls according to the Task Difficulty Homeostasis Theory. Method.: A prospective follow-up study of 10 months conducted in

  5. Problems and fall risk determinants of quality of life in older adults with increased risk of falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sang-I; Chang, Ku-Chou; Lee, Hsuei-Chen; Yang, Yi-Ching; Tsauo, Jau-Yih

    2015-05-01

    Determine quality of life and its association with fall risk factors in older adults with increased risk of falling. A total of 597 community-dwelling Taiwanese older adults who were screened to have increased risk of falling participated in the present study. The fall risk factors included sociodemographics, physical and psychological function, Timed Up and Go, past fall/medical histories, fear of falling and medications. The Euro QOL EQ-5D was used to measure health-related quality of life. Pain/discomfort was the EQ-5D dimension most frequently reported to be impaired (35%), regardless of the level of fall risk or age groups, followed by mobility (25%). Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Geriatric Depression Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, physiological function, up-and-go, fear of falling and psychotropic medication were independent predictors for total EQ-5D, explaining 68.37% of the variance. Logistic regression analysis showed that for the five EQ-5D dimensions, Geriatric Depression Scale and Up and Go time were the most common determinants. Pain/discomfort was the leading impairment, and greater Geriatric Depression Scale and longer up-and-go time were the main contributing factors in declines in quality of life in older adults with increased risk of falling. These factors are often modifiable, and their management might be considered a priority in falls prevention. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Effect of stroke on fall rate, location and predictors: a prospective comparison of older adults with and without stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Simpson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The literature suggests that stroke is a major risk factor for falls, but there is a lack of prospective, controlled studies which quantify fall-risk after stroke. The purpose of this study was to compare the rates, location and predictors among individuals recently discharged home from stroke rehabilitation to age and sex matched controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A sample of 80 people with stroke and 90 controls received baseline assessments of balance, mobility and balance confidence. Falls were recorded prospectively over 13 months for both groups. Group differences in fall rates and contribution of clinical measures to falls were determined using negative binomial regression. Fall location was compared between groups using χ(2 statistics. The rate of falls for individuals with stroke was 1.77 times the rate for the control group. People with stroke were more likely to fall at home. Poorer balance (Berg Balance Scale was associated with greater falls for both stroke and control groups (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.908 and IRR: 0.877 respectively. A faster Timed Up and Go Test was associated with greater falls for the stroke group (IRR: 0.955 while better walking endurance (Six Minute Walk Test was associated with greater falls for the controls (IRR: 1.004. Balance confidence was not an independent predictor in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals recently discharged home are at greater risk of falling than individuals without stroke. Attention to home environment is warranted. Balance function can predict falls for both people with stroke and age and sex matched controls. Increased mobility may increase exposure to fall opportunities.

  7. Effect of Stroke on Fall Rate, Location and Predictors: A Prospective Comparison of Older Adults with and without Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lisa A.; Miller, William C.; Eng, Janice J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The literature suggests that stroke is a major risk factor for falls, but there is a lack of prospective, controlled studies which quantify fall-risk after stroke. The purpose of this study was to compare the rates, location and predictors among individuals recently discharged home from stroke rehabilitation to age and sex matched controls. Methodology/Principal Findings A sample of 80 people with stroke and 90 controls received baseline assessments of balance, mobility and balance confidence. Falls were recorded prospectively over 13 months for both groups. Group differences in fall rates and contribution of clinical measures to falls were determined using negative binomial regression. Fall location was compared between groups using χ2 statistics. The rate of falls for individuals with stroke was 1.77 times the rate for the control group. People with stroke were more likely to fall at home. Poorer balance (Berg Balance Scale) was associated with greater falls for both stroke and control groups (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.908 and IRR: 0.877 respectively). A faster Timed Up and Go Test was associated with greater falls for the stroke group (IRR: 0.955) while better walking endurance (Six Minute Walk Test) was associated with greater falls for the controls (IRR: 1.004). Balance confidence was not an independent predictor in either group. Conclusions Individuals recently discharged home are at greater risk of falling than individuals without stroke. Attention to home environment is warranted. Balance function can predict falls for both people with stroke and age and sex matched controls. Increased mobility may increase exposure to fall opportunities. PMID:21559367

  8. Free Falling in Stratified Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Try; Vincent, Lionel; Kanso, Eva

    2017-11-01

    Leaves falling in air and discs falling in water are examples of unsteady descents due to complex interaction between gravitational and aerodynamic forces. Understanding these descent modes is relevant to many branches of engineering and science such as estimating the behavior of re-entry space vehicles to studying biomechanics of seed dispersion. For regularly shaped objects falling in homogenous fluids, the motion is relatively well understood. However, less is known about how density stratification of the fluid medium affects the falling behavior. Here, we experimentally investigate the descent of discs in both pure water and in stable linearly stratified fluids for Froude numbers Fr 1 and Reynolds numbers Re between 1000 -2000. We found that stable stratification (1) enhances the radial dispersion of the disc at landing, (2) increases the descent time, (3) decreases the inclination (or nutation) angle, and (4) decreases the fluttering amplitude while falling. We conclude by commenting on how the corresponding information can be used as a predictive model for objects free falling in stratified fluids.

  9. Lattice Constant Dependence on Particle Size for Ceria prepared from a Citrate Sol-Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, V N; Farrell, R A; Sexton, A M; Morris, M A

    2006-01-01

    High surface area ceria nanoparticles have been prepared using a citrate solgel precipitation method. Changes to the particle size have been made by calcining the ceria powders at different temperatures, and X-ray methods used to determine their lattice parameters. The particle sizes have been assessed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the lattice parameter found to fall with decreasing particle size. The results are discussed in the light of the role played by surface tension effects

  10. The neurobiology of falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Alfonso; Plotnik, Meir; Bove, Francesco; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2012-12-01

    Falling is a major clinical problem; especially, in elderly population as it often leads to fractures, immobilization, poor quality of life and life-span reduction. Given the growing body of evidences on the physiopathology of balance disorders in humans, in recent years the approach of research on falls has completely changed and new instruments and new definitions have been formulated. Among them, the definition of "idiopathic faller" (i.e. no overt cause for falling in a given subject) represented a milestone in building the "science of falling". This review deals with the new determinants of the neurobiology of falling: (1) the role of motor impairment and particularly of those "mild parkinsonian signs" frequently detectable in elderly subjects, (2) the role of executive and attentive resources when coping with obstacles, (3) the role of vascular lesions in "highest level gait disorder" (a condition tightly connected with senile gait, cautious gait and frailty), (4) the role of the failure of automaticity or inter-limbs coordination/symmetry during walking and such approach would definitely help the development of screening instrument for subjects at risk (still lacking in present days). This translational approach will lead to the development of specific therapeutic interventions.

  11. Fall Prevention: Simple Tips to Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a gentle exercise that involves slow and graceful dance-like movements. Such activities reduce the risk of ... healthy-lifestyle/healthy-aging/in-depth/fall-prevention/art-20047358 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  12. Fall risk and prevention agreement: engaging patients and families with a partnership for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonnes, Cassandra; Wolf, Darcy

    2017-01-01

    Falls are multifactorial in medical oncology units and are potentiated by an older adult's response to anxiolytics, opiates and chemotherapy protocols. In addition, the oncology patient is at an increased risk for injury from a fall due to coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia and advanced age. At our National Cancer Institute-designated inpatient cancer treatment centre located in the southeastern USA, 40% of the total discharges are over the age of 65. As part of a comprehensive fall prevention programme, bimonthly individual fall reports have been presented with the Chief Nursing Officer (CNO), nursing directors, nurse managers, physical therapists and front-line providers in attendance. As a result of these case discussions, in some cases, safety recommendations have not been followed by patients and families and identified as an implication in individual falls. Impulsive behaviour was acknowledged only after a fall occurred. A medical oncology unit was targeted for this initiative due to a prolonged length of stay. This patient population receives chemotherapeutic interventions, management of oncological treatment consequences and cancer progression care. The aim of this project was to explore if initiation of a Fall Prevention Agreement between the nursing team and older adults being admitted to medical oncology units would reduce the incidence of falls and the incidence of falls with injury. In order to promote patient and family participation in the fall reduction and safety plan, the Fall Risk and Prevention Agreement was introduced upon admission. Using the Morse Fall Scoring system, patient's risk for fall was communicated on the Fall Risk and Prevention Agreement. Besides admission, patients were reassessed based on change of status, transfer or after a fall occurs. Fall and fall injuries rates were compared two-quarters prior to implementation of the fall agreement and eight-quarters post implementation. Falls and fall injuries on the medical oncology unit

  13. Dance movement therapy and falls prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Nicola; Maggi, Stefania; Schofield, Patricia; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-08-01

    Falls are a leading cause of morbidity, healthcare use and mortality. Dance is a popular form of physical activity among older people and previous research has suggested that it may improve various health outcomes in this population, including balance, gait and muscle performance. A systematic review of the potential benefits of dance on falls and fear of falling is lacking. Thus, we conducted a systematic review considering all randomized controls trials (RCTs) investigating if dance can reduce falls and improve fear of falling in older adults. Major databases were searched from inception until 1 March 2017 and a total of 10 RCTs were identified, which included a total of 680 people (n=356 dance, n=324 control). Overall, the mean age of the samples was 69.4 years, and 75.2% were female. Across four RCTs, dance therapy reduced falls versus usual care in only one study. Dance therapy improved fear of falling in two out of three included RCTs. There were no serious adverse events reported in the RCTs. In summary, we found a paucity of studies investigating the effect of dance on falls and fear of falling and the evidence base is preliminary and equivocal. Given the heterogeneity of the included samples and interventions, in addition to the short-term follow-up, no firm conclusions can be drawn. However, dance appears to be safe and, given its popularity and demonstrated benefits on other health/wellbeing outcomes in older adults, it is important that future research considers its potential benefits on falls/fear of falling in older age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fall speed measurement and high-resolution multi-angle photography of hydrometeors in free fall

    OpenAIRE

    T. J. Garrett; C. Fallgatter; K. Shkurko; D. Howlett

    2012-01-01

    We describe here a new instrument for imaging hydrometeors in free fall. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) captures high-resolution photographs of hydrometeors from three angles while simultaneously measuring their fall speed. Based on the stereoscopic photographs captured over the two months of continuous measurements obtained at a high altitude location within the Wasatch Front in Utah, we derive statistics for fall speed, hydrometeor size, shape, orientation and asp...

  15. Rapid appearance of transient secondary adrenocortical insufficiency after alpha-particle radiation therapy for Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.M.; Jordan, R.M.; Kendall, J.W.; Linfoot, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A 17-year-old woman received 12,000 rads of alpha-particle radiation for the treatment of Cushing's disease. One day after the completion of therapy, the patient developed nausea, vomiting, headache, and postural hypotension. Laboratory evaluation demonstrated a marked fall of the previously elevated urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS) and undetectable plasma cortisols. The urinary 17-OHCS transiently returned to supranormal levels but over a 2 1 / 2 -week period decreased and then remained low. The patient also demonstrated a subnormal urinary aldosterone excretion in relation to plasma renin activity (PRA) during 10 mEq/24 h sodium restriction. The remainder of the endocrine evaluation was normal, suggesting that pituitary function otherwise remained intact. One and one-half years after alpha-particle therapy, the patient's urinary 17-OHCS were normal and responded normally to metyrapone. The relationship between urinary aldosterone excretion and PRA also was normal. It is postulated that there was an infarction of an ACTH secreting pituitary tumor leaving the remainder of the pituitary intact. A chronically elevated circulating level of ACTH with sudden loss of ACTH secretion appeared to have been responsible for the initial low urinary aldosterone as well as the low urinary 17-OHCS. This is the first reported case of a presumed pituitary tumor infarction in association with alpha-particle pituitary radiation

  16. Functional Performances on Admission Predict In-Hospital Falls, Injurious Falls, and Fractures in Older Patients: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hars, Mélany; Audet, Marie-Claude; Herrmann, François; De Chassey, Jean; Rizzoli, René; Reny, Jean-Luc; Gold, Gabriel; Ferrari, Serge; Trombetti, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    Falls are common among older inpatients and remain a great challenge for hospitals. Despite the relevance of physical impairments to falls, the prognostic value of performance-based functional measures for in-hospital falls and injurious falls remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the predictive ability and accuracy of various functional tests administered at or close to admission in a geriatric hospital to identify in-hospital fallers and injurious fallers. In this prospective study, conducted in a geriatric hospital in Geneva, Switzerland, 807 inpatients (mean age 85.0 years) were subjected to a battery of functional tests administered by physiotherapists within 3 days (interquartile range 1 to 6) of admission, including Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), simplified Tinetti, and Timed Up and Go tests. Patients were prospectively followed up for falls and injurious falls until discharge using mandatory standardized incident report forms and electronic patients' records. During a median length of hospital stay of 23 days (interquartile range 14 to 36), 329 falls occurred in 189 (23.4%) patients, including 161 injurious falls of which 24 were serious. In-hospital fallers displayed significantly poorer functional performances at admission on all tests compared with non-fallers (p performances on all functional tests predicted in-hospital falls and injurious falls (p poor functional performances, as assessed by SPPB, are independent predictors of in-hospital falls, injurious falls, and fractures in patients admitted to a geriatric hospital. These findings should help to design preventive strategies for in-hospital falls and support the adoption of objective performance-based functional measures into routine hospital practice. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. Evaluation of the Frails' Fall Efficacy by Comparing Treatments (EFFECT) on reducing fall and fear of fall in moderately frail older adults: study protocol for a randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Boon Chong; Mamun, Kaysar; Chandran, Manju; Wong, Chek Hooi

    2011-06-18

    Falls are common in frail older adults and often result in injuries and hospitalisation. The Nintendo® Wii™ is an easily available exercise modality in the community which has been shown to improve lower limb strength and balance. However, not much is known on the effectiveness of the Nintendo® Wii™ to improve fall efficacy and reduce falls in a moderately frail older adult. Fall efficacy is the measure of fear of falling in performing various daily activities. Fear contributes to avoidance of activities and functional decline. This randomised active-control trial is a comparison between the Nintendo WiiActive programme against standard gym-based rehabilitation of the older population. Eighty subjects aged above 60, fallers and non-fallers, will be recruited from the hospital outpatient clinic. The primary outcome measure is the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale and the secondary outcome measures are self-reported falls, quadriceps strength, walking agility, dynamic balance and quality of life assessments. The study is the first randomised control trial using the Nintendo Wii as a rehabilitation modality investigating a change in fall efficacy and self-reported falls. Longitudinally, the study will investigate if the interventions can successfully reduce falls and analyse the cost-effectiveness of the programme.

  18. FEAR OF FALLING AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING OLDER ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Dingová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to describe experience with falls, fear of falling, perceptions of the consequences of falls and how the fear of falling affects daily life in community-dwelling older adults. Design: The study used a qualitative design to describe the lived experiences of community-dwelling older adults with the fear of falling. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with six participants who reported the fear of falling. Results: Five main areas emerged from data analysis: development of the fear of falling, feared consequences of falling, activities curtailment, fall prevention behavior and meaning of social support in daily life. The fear of falling was described as a negative experience, directly linked to fall consequences such as physical injury, incapacitation, loss of autonomy, fear of dependence and experience of humiliating conditions. To maintain a certain level of independence in daily life, the participants chose to avoid falls by activity curtailment, organizing their lives more carefully and getting support from others. Conclusion: All participants identified that they had discovered their fear of falling after experiencing falls. The fear of falling was associated with feared consequences of a potential fall and had an impact on their daily life. The participant also mentioned other contributors to their fear of falling, including ill health and aging. Keywords: Fear of falling, older adults, perceived consequences of falls, daily life.

  19. Effect of Promoting High-Quality Staff Interactions on Fall Prevention in Nursing Homes: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S; Corazzini, Kirsten; McConnell, Eleanor S; Pan, Wei; Toles, Mark; Hall, Rasheeda; Cary, Michael P; Batchelor-Murphy, Melissa; Yap, Tracey; Anderson, Amber L; Burd, Andrew; Amarasekara, Sathya; Anderson, Ruth A

    2017-11-01

    New approaches are needed to enhance implementation of complex interventions for geriatric syndromes such as falls. To test whether a complexity science-based staff training intervention (CONNECT) promoting high-quality staff interactions improves the impact of an evidence-based falls quality improvement program (FALLS). Cluster-randomized trial in 24 nursing homes receiving either CONNECT followed by FALLS (intervention), or FALLS alone (control). Nursing home staff in all positions were asked to complete surveys at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months. Medical records of residents with at least 1 fall in the 6-month pre- and postintervention windows (n = 1794) were abstracted for fall risk reduction measures, falls, and injurious falls. CONNECT taught staff to improve their connections with coworkers, increase information flow, and use cognitive diversity in problem solving. Intervention components included 2 classroom sessions, relationship mapping, and self-monitoring. FALLS provided instruction in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Falls Management Program. Primary outcomes were (1) mean number of fall risk reduction activities documented within 30 days of falls and (2) median fall rates among residents with at least 1 fall during the study period. In addition, validated scales measured staff communication quality, frequency, timeliness, and safety climate. Surveys were completed by 1545 staff members, representing 734 (37%) and 811 (44%) of eligible staff in intervention and control facilities, respectively; 511 (33%) respondents were hands-on care workers. Neither the CONNECT nor the FALLS-only facilities improved the mean count of fall risk reduction activities following FALLS (3.3 [1.6] vs 3.2 [1.5] of 10); furthermore, adjusted median recurrent fall rates did not differ between the groups (4.06 [interquartile range {IQR}, 2.03-8.11] vs 4.06 [IQR, 2.04-8.11] falls/resident/y). A modest improvement in staff communication measures was observed

  20. A Feasibility Study for an Integrated Approach to Fall Prevention in Community Care: Stay Up and Active in Orange County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Spencer W; Kwaschyn, Katie; Roberts, Ellen; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Evarts, Lori A; Shubert, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Falls among persons over 60 present significant risks for serious injury or debility. Falls place burdens on Emergency Medical Services (EMS), hospitals, and the adults themselves. Recognizing a need to provide interventions to minimize risk, Orange County Emergency Services (OCES), the Orange County Department on Aging (OCDoA), and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) partnered to create the Stay Up and Active Program (SUAA). The purpose of this study was to determine if SUAA was a feasible program to implement in the community. A streamlined workflow algorithm between the OCES and OCDoA was created and employed to provide falls risk assessment and necessary services. Qualitative techniques were used to assess the need for such a program and its potential impact. A subset of individuals was interviewed 3 months after the intervention to assess the impact of the intervention on their fall risk. Formal stakeholder interviews were not conducted, but anecdotal information from EMS providers was obtained and reported. In the first 7 months, 478 instances of individuals who called OCES screened positive for falls risk. Of the 478 positive screenings, 55 individuals were identified as having received more than one positive fall screen due to multiple calls. The maximum number of positive screenings by one individual was 14. More women (61.3%) than men screened positive for fall risk. Individuals 88 years of age (6.9%) represented the highest number of individuals with positive screens. Nineteen (4.0%) people who called OCES and received the intervention completed a 3-month follow-up survey. Of the 19, 86% (n = 16) reported no recurrent fall. The number of individuals who screened positive supports the need for early identification and intervention through SUAA. This program identified several challenges connecting older adults with services already available to keep them independent, which provided insight to all stakeholders regarding factors

  1. Dusty-Plasma Particle Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John E.

    2005-01-01

    A dusty-plasma apparatus is being investigated as means of accelerating nanometer- and micrometer-sized particles. Applications for the dusty-plasma particle accelerators fall into two classes: Simulation of a variety of rapidly moving dust particles and micrometeoroids in outer-space environments that include micrometeoroid streams, comet tails, planetary rings, and nebulae and Deposition or implantation of nanoparticles on substrates for diverse industrial purposes that could include hardening, increasing thermal insulation, altering optical properties, and/or increasing permittivities of substrate materials. Relative to prior apparatuses used for similar applications, dusty-plasma particle accelerators offer such potential advantages as smaller size, lower cost, less complexity, and increased particle flux densities. A dusty-plasma particle accelerator exploits the fact that an isolated particle immersed in plasma acquires a net electric charge that depends on the relative mobilities of electrons and ions. Typically, a particle that is immersed in a low-temperature, partially ionized gas, wherein the average kinetic energy of electrons exceeds that of ions, causes the particle to become negatively charged. The particle can then be accelerated by applying an appropriate electric field. A dusty-plasma particle accelerator (see figure) includes a plasma source such as a radio-frequency induction discharge apparatus containing (1) a shallow cup with a biasable electrode to hold the particles to be accelerated and (2) a holder for the substrate on which the particles are to impinge. Depending on the specific design, a pair of electrostatic-acceleration grids between the substrate and discharge plasma can be used to both collimate and further accelerate particles exiting the particle holder. Once exposed to the discharge plasma, the particles in the cup quickly acquire a negative charge. Application of a negative voltage pulse to the biasable electrode results in the

  2. Relationship Between Difficulties in Daily Activities and Falling: Loco-Check as a Self-Assessment of Fall Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, Manabu; Maeyashiki, Akie; Yoshihara, Shingo; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2016-06-20

    People aged 65 years or older accounted for 25.1% of the Japanese population in 2013, and this characterizes the country as a "super-aging society." With increased aging, fall-related injuries are becoming important in Japan, because such injuries underlie the necessity for nursing care services. If people could evaluate their risk of falling using a simple self-check test, they would be able to take preventive measures such as exercise, muscle training, walking with a cane, or renovation of their surroundings to remove impediments. Loco-check is a checklist measure of early locomotive syndrome (circumstances in which elderly people need nursing care service or are at high risk of requiring the service within a short time), prepared by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) in 2007, but it is unclear if there is any association between this measure and falls. To investigate the association between falls during the previous year and the 7 "loco-check" daily activity items and the total number of items endorsed, and sleep duration. We conducted an Internet panel survey. Subjects were 624 persons aged between 30 and 90 years. The general health condition of the participants, including their experience of falling, daily activities, and sleep duration, was investigated. A multivariate analysis was carried out using logistic regression to investigate the relationship between falls in the previous year and difficulties with specific daily activities and total number of difficulties (loco-check) endorsed, and sleep duration, adjusting for sex and age. One-fourth of participants (157 persons) experienced at least one fall during the previous year. Fall rate of females (94/312: 30.1%) was significantly higher than that of males (63/312: 20.2%). Fall rate of persons aged more than 65 years (80/242: 33.1%) was significantly higher than that of younger persons (77/382: 20.2%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that daily activities such as "impossibility of getting

  3. A simple strategy for fall events detection

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2017-01-20

    The paper concerns the detection of fall events based on human silhouette shape variations. The detection of fall events is addressed from the statistical point of view as an anomaly detection problem. Specifically, the paper investigates the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart to detect fall events. Towards this end, a set of ratios for five partial occupancy areas of the human body for each frame are collected and used as the input data to MEWMA chart. The MEWMA fall detection scheme has been successfully applied to two publicly available fall detection databases, the UR fall detection dataset (URFD) and the fall detection dataset (FDD). The monitoring strategy developed was able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of fall situations.

  4. Factors influencing turning and its relationship with falls in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Yu Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Falls are a major problem for people with Parkinson's disease (PD. Many studies indicate that more than 50% of people with PD have difficulty in turning that may lead to falls during daily activities. The aims of this study were to identify the relationship between turning performance and falls, and to determine the factors that influence turning performance. METHODS: This study examined 45 patients with idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-3 using a battery of tests, including 180° turn time, balance, and muscle strength. The levels of disease severity and freezing of gait were also measured. The number of falls in the past 6 months was recorded. RESULTS: Sixteen out of forty-five participants experienced falls in the past 6 months. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed that turn time was highly related to falls [more affected side: sensitivity = 0.81, specificity = 0.79, area under the curve (AUC = 0.83; less affected side: sensitivity = 0.88, specificity = 0.76, AUC = 0.83]. The most important factor influencing turn time was balance ability (both sides: p = 0.000 according to the regression model. Correlations between turn time and dynamic balance were further established with reaction time, movement velocity, endpoint excursion, and maximal excursion of the LOS (limits of stability test. CONCLUSION: The time needed to complete a 180° turn during the SQT (step/quick turn test is a good index to differentiate fallers from non-fallers in persons with PD. Turn time is most influenced by balance. Furthermore, balance control, especially in an anterior or sideways direction, is important for turning performance.

  5. The effect of vacuum assisted socket suspension on prospective, community-based falls by users of lower limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Noah J; Ehrhardt, Tess

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with lower limb amputation are at increased risk of falling compared to age-matched peers. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of socket suspension on the risk of falling, by comparing prospectively tracked falls between a group of participants that used vacuum assisted socket suspension (VASS) and a group that did not use this system. Fifteen current users of VASS and 12 non-VASS users received an email every two weeks for one year, with a link to an online survey that asked whether they fell (i.e., "unintentionally came to rest on a lower surface") or stumbled (i.e., lost balance but did not fall) in the prior two weeks. A Chi-squared test was used to compare fall and stumble risk between groups, after stratifying by level of amputation, and the phi coefficient (φ) was used to quantify effect size. While the use of VASS did not affect the rate of falling (i.e., falls per person year) for either persons with transtibial amputation (TTA) or those with transfemoral amputation (TFA), the absolute risk of having multiple falls was reduced by nearly 75% in the former (φ=0.83), which is particularly important given that recurrent falls are associated with more severe injuries. There was no effect of VASS on the risk of falls in TFA. Further work is warranted to demonstrate the persistence of these effects in larger, more controlled samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of falls and fear of falling on health-related quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, Y.A.M.; Schrag, A.; Mazibrada, G.; Borm, G.F.; Bloem, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    Postural instability, recurrent falls and fear of falling are common in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). We examined the impact of fall frequency, fear of falling, balance confidence and objectively measured balance impairment (using Tinetti's Mobility Index) on health-related quality of life

  7. [Influence of high fall-related self-efficacy on falls due to dissociation with ADL among elderly women in nursing homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Chikako; Ida, Kunio; Harada, Atsushi

    2009-09-01

    We examined the influence of high fall-related self-efficacy on falls due to dissociation with activities of daily living (ADL) among elderly women in nursing homes. We enrolled 72 female nursing home residents who were 70 years old or over and who scored 18 or higher on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Subjects were classified into three groups based on the relationship between ADL and fall-related self-efficacy derived from a scattergram of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) motor items and Falls Efficacy Scale (FES). The three groups were: group I which had low ADL and high fall-related self-efficacy (n=25); group II which had high ADL and low fall-related self-efficacy (n=30); and group III which had a correlation of ADL and fall-related self-efficacy in the 95% confidence interval (n=17). Then, we investigated the incidence of falls and the number of falls after 6 months in the three groups. The risk factor of falls was also investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis. The incidence and number of falls were significantly different in the three groups after 6 months. Moreover, the incidence of those falling was significantly different between group I and group III. The occurrence of falls was also significantly related with a past history of falls, FES, and group I which had low ADL and high fall-related self-efficacy. These findings suggest that the risk of falling increases in the presence of excessive fall-related self-efficacy dissociated from ADL.

  8. Risk factors, incidence, consequences and prevention strategies for falls and fall-injury within older indigenous populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszyk, Caroline; Harvey, Lara; Sherrington, Cathie; Keay, Lisa; Tiedemann, Anne; Coombes, Julieann; Clemson, Lindy; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-12-01

    To examine the risk factors, incidence, consequences and existing prevention strategies for falls and fall-related injury in older indigenous people. Relevant literature was identified through searching 14 electronic databases, a range of institutional websites, online search engines and government databases, using search terms pertaining to indigenous status, injury and ageing. Thirteen studies from Australia, the United States, Central America and Canada were identified. Few studies reported on fall rates but two reported that around 30% of indigenous people aged 45 years and above experienced at least one fall during the past year. The most common hospitalised fall injuries among older indigenous people were hip fracture and head injury. Risk factors significantly associated with falls within indigenous populations included poor mobility, a history of stroke, epilepsy, head injury, poor hearing and urinary incontinence. No formally evaluated, indigenous-specific fall prevention interventions were identified. Falls are a significant and growing health issue for older indigenous people worldwide that can lead to severe health consequences and even death. No fully-evaluated, indigenous-specific fall prevention programs were identified. Implications for Public Health: Research into fall patterns and fall-related injury among indigenous people is necessary for the development of appropriate fall prevention interventions. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. An update on falls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, B.R.; Steijns, J.A.G.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review: Falls among elderly persons create immense social problems because of their association with physical decline, serious psychosocial consequences, negative impact on the quality of life, and markedly reduced survival. In addition, falls pose high costs to the public health service.

  10. An update on falls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, B.R.; Steijns, J.A.G.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Falls among elderly persons create immense social problems because of their association with physical decline, serious psychosocial consequences, negative impact on the quality of life, and markedly reduced survival. In addition, falls pose high costs to the public health service.

  11. Use of the Dynamic Visual Acuity Test as a screener for community-dwelling older adults who fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honaker, Julie A; Shepard, Neil T

    2011-01-01

    Adequate function of the peripheral vestibular system, specifically the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR; a network of neural connections between the peripheral vestibular system and the extraocular muscles) is essential for maintaining stable vision during head movements. Decreased visual acuity resulting from an impaired peripheral vestibular system may impede balance and postural control and place an individual at risk of falling. Therefore, sensitive measures of the vestibular system are warranted to screen for the tendency to fall, alerting clinicians to recommend further risk of falling assessment and referral to a falling risk reduction program. Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) testing is a computerized VOR assessment method to evaluate the peripheral vestibular system during head movements; reduced visual acuity as documented with DVA testing may be sensitive to screen for falling risk. This study examined the sensitivity and specificity of the computerized DVA test with yaw plane head movements for identifying community-dwelling adults (58-78 years) who are prone to falling. A total of 16 older adults with a history of two or more unexplained falls in the previous twelve months and 16 age and gender matched controls without a history of falls in the previous twelve months participated. Computerized DVA with horizontal head movements at a fixed velocity of 120 deg/sec was measured and compared with the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) a gold standard gait assessment measurement for identifying falling risk. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis and area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the computerized DVA as a screening measure for falling risk as determined by the DGI. Results suggested a link between computerized DVA and the propensity to fall; DVA in the yaw plane was found to be a sensitive (92%) and accurate screening measure when using a cutoff logMAR value of >0.25.

  12. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  13. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  14. Comparison of fall prediction by the Hessisch Oldendorf Fall Risk Scale and the Fall Risk Scale by Huhn in neurological rehabilitation: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Olena; Schmidt, Simone B; Boltzmann, Melanie; Rollnik, Jens D

    2018-05-01

    To calculate scale performance of the newly developed Hessisch Oldendorf Fall Risk Scale (HOSS) for classifying fallers and non-fallers in comparison with the Risk of Falling Scale by Huhn (FSH), a frequently used assessment tool. A prospective observational trail was conducted. The study was performed in a large specialized neurological rehabilitation facility. The study population ( n = 690) included neurological and neurosurgery patients during neurological rehabilitation with varying levels of disability. Around the half of the study patients were independent and dependent in the activities of daily living (ADL), respectively. Fall risk of each patient was assessed by HOSS and FSH within the first seven days after admission. Event of fall during rehabilitation was compared with HOSS and FSH scores as well as the according fall risk. Scale performance including sensitivity and specificity was calculated for both scales. A total of 107 (15.5%) patients experienced at least one fall. In general, fallers were characterized by an older age, a prolonged length of stay, and a lower Barthel Index (higher dependence in the ADL) on admission than non-fallers. The verification of fall prediction for both scales showed a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 64% for the HOSS scale, and a sensitivity of 98% with a specificity of 12% for the FSH scale, respectively. The HOSS shows an adequate sensitivity, a higher specificity and therefore a better scale performance than the FSH. Thus, the HOSS might be superior to existing assessments.

  15. Fear of falling and gait parameters in older adults with and without fall history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Keitaro; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-01

    Fear of falling (FOF) is associated with spatial and temporal gait parameters in older adults. FOF is prevalent among older adults, both those with and without fall history. It is still unclear whether the relationships between FOF and gait parameters are affected by fall history. The aim of the present study was to compare gait parameters by the presence of FOF and fall history. A total of 3575 older adults (mean age 71.7 years, 49.7% female) met the inclusion criteria for the present study. We assessed the presence of fall history and FOF by face-to-face interview, and gait parameters (gait speed, stride length, step rate, double support time and variation of stride length) at a comfortable speed using a computerized electronic walkway. Prevalences of fall history and FOF were as follows: non-fallers without FOF 52.6% (n = 1881); fallers without FOF 6.3% (n = 227); non-fallers with FOF 34.4% (n = 1229); and fallers with FOF 6.7% (n = 238). Analysis of covariance showed significant differences among the four groups in all gait variables even after adjusting for age, sex and number of medications used. It should be noted that non-fallers with FOF showed significantly slower gait speed, shorter stride length and longer double support time than did non-fallers without FOF (P fall history. The assessment of FOF might be helpful for better understanding of age-related changes in gait control. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2455-2459. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Planck 2013 results X. Energetic particle effects: characterization, removal, and simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the detection, interpretation and removal of the signal resulting from interactions of high energy particles with the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI). These interactions fall into two categories, heating the 0.1 K bolometer plate and glitches in each detector time strea...

  17. Does functional capacity, fall risk awareness and physical activity level predict falls in older adults in different age groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Natália Boneti; Rodacki, Andre Luiz Felix; Pereira, Gléber; Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce

    2018-04-11

    The aims of this study were to examine whether: i) functional capacity and physical activity level differ between fallers and non-fallers older adults, by controlling for fall risk awareness; ii) functional capacity, fall risk awareness and physical activity differ between fallers and non-fallers older adults, by controlling for age; iii) variables and which may predict falls in different age groups. 1826 older adults performed a series of functional tests and reported their fall episodes, fall risk awareness and physical activity level. The overall incidence of falls was high (40.2%), and falls risk awareness scores reduced with age. The older adults with greater falls risk awareness and non-fallers presented better scores in all functional tests and physical activity level (P age groups and differed between fallers and non-fallers, irrespective of age group (P age groups (odds ranging: 1.05-1.09). Handgrip strength and balance scores predicted falls until 79 years (OR = 1.04, 95%CI = 1.01-1.06). The physical activity level predicted falls up to 70 years (OR = 1.09, 95%CI = 1.06-1.12). Functional mobility was able to predict falls up to 80 years (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.01-1.08). Therefore, according to age, functional capacity, physical activity level and falls risk awareness can be a predictor of falls in older adults. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term incidence of serious fall-related injuries after bariatric surgery in Swedish obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Lena M S; Sjöholm, Kajsa; Ahlin, Sofie; Jacobson, Peter; Andersson-Assarsson, Johanna C; Karlsson Lindahl, Linda; Maglio, Cristina; Karlsson, Cecilia; Hjorth, Stephan; Taube, Magdalena; Carlsson, Björn; Svensson, Per-Arne; Peltonen, Markku

    2018-05-24

    Obesity increases risk of falling, but the effect of bariatric surgery on fall-related injuries is unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to study the association between bariatric surgery and long-term incidence of fall-related injuries in the prospective, controlled Swedish Obese Subjects study. At inclusion, body mass index was ≥ 34 kg/m 2 in men and ≥38 kg/m 2 in women. The surgery per-protocol group (n = 2007) underwent gastric bypass (n = 266), banding (n = 376), or vertical banded gastroplasty (n = 1365), and controls (n = 2040) received usual care. At the time of analysis (31 December 2013), median follow-up was 19 years (maximal 26 years). Fall-related injuries requiring hospital treatment were captured using data from the Swedish National Patient Register. During follow-up, there were 617 first-time fall-related injuries in the surgery group and 513 in the control group (adjusted hazard ratio 1.21, 95% CI, 1.07-1.36; P = 0.002). The incidence differed between treatment groups (P < 0.001, log-rank test) and was higher after gastric bypass than after usual care, banding and vertical banded gastroplasty (adjusted hazard ratio 0.50-0.52, P < 0.001 for all three comparisons). In conclusion, gastric bypass surgery was associated with increased risk of serious fall-related injury requiring hospital treatment.

  19. Evaluation of the Frails' Fall Efficacy by Comparing Treatments (EFFECT on reducing fall and fear of fall in moderately frail older adults: study protocol for a randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandran Manju

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are common in frail older adults and often result in injuries and hospitalisation. The Nintendo® Wii™ is an easily available exercise modality in the community which has been shown to improve lower limb strength and balance. However, not much is known on the effectiveness of the Nintendo® Wii™ to improve fall efficacy and reduce falls in a moderately frail older adult. Fall efficacy is the measure of fear of falling in performing various daily activities. Fear contributes to avoidance of activities and functional decline. Methods This randomised active-control trial is a comparison between the Nintendo WiiActive programme against standard gym-based rehabilitation of the older population. Eighty subjects aged above 60, fallers and non-fallers, will be recruited from the hospital outpatient clinic. The primary outcome measure is the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale and the secondary outcome measures are self-reported falls, quadriceps strength, walking agility, dynamic balance and quality of life assessments. Discussions The study is the first randomised control trial using the Nintendo Wii as a rehabilitation modality investigating a change in fall efficacy and self-reported falls. Longitudinally, the study will investigate if the interventions can successfully reduce falls and analyse the cost-effectiveness of the programme. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12610000576022

  20. Do falls and falls-injuries in hospital indicate negligent care -- and how big is the risk? A retrospective analysis of the NHS Litigation Authority Database of clinical negligence claims, resulting from falls in hospitals in England 1995 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, D; Killick, S; Even, T; Willmott, M

    2008-12-01

    circumstances that tend to be more costly. Means were compared and tested through analysis of variance (ANOVA). The association between categorical variables was tested using the chi-square test. Of 668 claims identified by word search, 646 met inclusion criteria. The results presented are for the 479 of these that were "closed" at the time of the census. Of these, 290 (60.5%) had resulted in payment of costs or damages, with the overall total payment being 6,200,737 pound (mean payment 12,945 pound). All claims were settled out of court, so no legal rulings on establishing liability or causation of injury are available. "Falls whilst walking;" "from beds or trolleys" ("with and without bedrails applied") or "transferring/from a chair" were the most frequent source of these claims (n = 308, 64.2%). Clear secondary contributory circumstances were identified in 190 (39.7%) of closed claims. The most common circumstances cited were "perioperative/procedural incidents" (60, 12.5%) and "requests for bedrails being ignored" (54, 11.3%). For primary injuries, "hip/femoral/pelvic fracture" accounted for 203 (42.4%) of closed claims with total payments of 3,228,781 pound (52.1% of all payments), with a mean payment 15,905 pound per closed case. A "secondary" contributory circumstance could be attributed in 133 (27.8%) of cases. Of these, "delay in diagnosis of injury," "recurrent falls during admission" and "fatalities relating to falls" were the commonest circumstances (n = 59, 12.2%). Although falls are the highest volume patient safety incident reported in hospital trusts in England, they result in a relatively small number of negligence claims and receive a relatively low total payment (0.019% in both cases). The mean payment in closed claims is also relatively small. This may reflect the high average age of the people who fall and difficulty in establishing causation, especially where individuals are already frail when they fall. The patterns of claims and the narrative

  1. Body mass index, falls, and injurious falls among U.S. adults: Findings from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylitalo, Kelly R; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie A

    2016-10-01

    Falls are an important health concern because they are associated with loss of independence and disability, particularly among women. We determined the age- and sex-specific prevalence of injurious falls among adults in the United States and examined the impact of obesity on fall risk. Self-reported falls, injurious falls, and health histories were obtained from 280,035 adults aged 45-79years in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Body mass index was categorized as underweight (fall in the previous 12months. Mid-life women 55-59years reported the highest prevalence of injurious falls (15.4%). Among mid-life women, overweight was associated with injurious falls (RR=1.17; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.28), but overweight was not associated with falling among other age-sex groups. Class II/III obesity was associated with injurious falls among all age-sex groups. After considering the mediators like health conditions (depression, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, arthritis) and behaviors (physical activity, sleep), the association of class II/III obesity and injurious fall risk persisted only among mid-life women (RR=1.23; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.36). Not only are mid-life women at high risk for falls, but the class II/III obesity is a risk factor for injurious falls. Targeting mid-life women for fall and injury prevention is an important aim for practitioners, particularly given unique correlates of falling for this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Falling Particles: Concept Definition and Capital Cost Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddard, Larry [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Galluzzo, Geoff [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Adams, Shannon [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Andrew, Daniel [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Renewable Power (ORP) has been tasked to provide effective program management and strategic direction for all of the DOE’s Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy’s (EERE’s) renewable power programs. The ORP’s efforts to accomplish this mission are aligned with national energy policies, DOE strategic planning, EERE’s strategic planning, Congressional appropriation, and stakeholder advice. ORP is supported by three renewable energy offices, of which one is the Solar Energy Technology Office (SETO) whose SunShot Initiative has a mission to accelerate research, development and large scale deployment of solar technologies in the United States. SETO has a goal of reducing the cost of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) by 75 percent of 2010 costs by 2020 to reach parity with base-load energy rates, and to reduce costs 30 percent further by 2030. The SunShot Initiative is promoting the implementation of high temperature CSP with thermal energy storage allowing generation during high demand hours. The SunShot Initiative has funded significant research and development work on component testing, with attention to high temperature molten salts, heliostats, receiver designs, and high efficiency high temperature supercritical CO2 (sCO2) cycles.

  3. “The balancing act”— Licensed practical nurse experiences of falls and fall prevention: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häggqvist Beatrice

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are common in old age and may have serious consequences. There are many strategies to predict and prevent falls from occurring in long-term care and hospitals. The aim of this study was to describe licensed practical nurse experiences of predicting and preventing further falls when working with patients who had experienced a fall-related fracture. Licensed practical nurses are the main caretakers that work most closely with the patients. Methods A qualitative study of focus groups interviews and field observations was done. 15 licensed practical nurses from a rehabilitation ward and an acute ward in a hospital in northern Sweden were interviewed. Content was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The result of the licensed practical nurse thoughts and experiences about risk of falling and fall prevention work is represented in one theme, “the balancing act”. The theme includes three categories: “the right to decide”, “the constant watch”, and “the ongoing negotiation” as well as nine subcategories. The analysis showed similarities and differences between rehabilitation and acute wards. At both wards it was a core strategy in the licensed practical nurse work to always be ready and to pay attention to patients’ appearance and behavior. At the rehabilitation ward, it was an explicit working task to judge the patients’ risk of falling and to be active to prevent falls. At the acute ward, the words “risk of falling” were not used and fall prevention were not discussed; instead the licensed practical nurses used for example “dizzy and pale”. The results also indicated differences in components that facilitate workplace learning and knowledge transfer. Conclusions Differences between the wards are most probably rooted in organizational differences. When it is expected by the leadership, licensed practical nurses can express patient risk of falling, share their observations with others

  4. Evaluation of the Frails' Fall Efficacy by Comparing Treatments (EFFECT) on reducing fall and fear of fall in moderately frail older adults: study protocol for a randomised control trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, Boon Chong; Mamun, Kaysar; Chandran, Manju; Wong, Chek Hooi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Falls are common in frail older adults and often result in injuries and hospitalisation. The Nintendo® Wii™ is an easily available exercise modality in the community which has been shown to improve lower limb strength and balance. However, not much is known on the effectiveness of the Nintendo® Wii™ to improve fall efficacy and reduce falls in a moderately frail older adult. Fall efficacy is the measure of fear of falling in performing various daily activities. Fear contri...

  5. Feasibility of Pilates exercise to decrease falls risk: a pilot randomized controlled trial in community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anna L; Talevski, Jason; Bohensky, Megan A; Brand, Caroline A; Cameron, Peter A; Morello, Renata T

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of Pilates exercise in older people to decrease falls risk and inform a larger trial. Pilot Randomized controlled trial. Community physiotherapy clinic. A total of 53 community-dwelling people aged ⩾60 years (mean age, 69.3 years; age range, 61-84). A 60-minute Pilates class incorporating best practice guidelines for exercise to prevent falls, performed twice weekly for 12 weeks. All participants received a letter to their general practitioner with falls risk information, fall and fracture prevention education and home exercises. Indicators of feasibility included: acceptability (recruitment, retention, intervention adherence and participant experience survey); safety (adverse events); and potential effectiveness (fall, fall injury and injurious fall rates; standing balance; lower limb strength; and flexibility) measured at 12 and 24 weeks. Recruitment was achievable but control group drop-outs were high (23%). Of the 20 participants who completed the intervention, 19 (95%) attended ⩾75% of the classes and reported classes were enjoyable and would recommend them to others. The rate of fall injuries at 24 weeks was 42% lower and injurious fall rates 64% lower in the Pilates group, however, was not statistically significant (P = 0.347 and P = 0.136). Standing balance, lower-limb strength and flexibility improved in the Pilates group relative to the control group (P fall injury rates. A definitive randomized controlled trial analysing the effect of Pilates in older people would be feasible and is warranted given the acceptability and potential positive effects of Pilates on fall injuries and fall risk factors. The protocol for this study is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN1262000224820). © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Falls and fractures in participants and excluded non-participants of a fall prevention exercise program for elderly women with a history of falls: 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hunkyung; Yoshida, Hideyo; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a strength and balance enhancing exercise intervention as a means of preventing falls in community-dwelling elderly Japanese women with a history of falls, while comparing functional fitness, fall and fracture rate in excluded subjects. A 1-year follow-up trial was carried out on 105 participants over the age of 70 years, who were randomly assigned to the exercise or education group, and also on 91 women excluded based on the exclusion criteria. The exercise group attended a 60-min exercise class twice a week for 3 months. Falls, injuries, fractures, and functional fitness assessments were measured at baseline, post-intervention and 1-year follow up. During the follow up, fall rates were 19.6% in the exercise group, 40.4% in the education group and 40.8% in excluded subjects (χ(2)  = 7.069, P = 0.029). Compared with the exercise group, the odds ratio (OR) for falls was greater in the education group (OR 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-6.96) and excluded participants (OR 2.83, 95%CI 1.25-6.80). The OR for fractures was over fourfold greater in excluded participants (OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.02-9.70) than the exercise group. The exercise intervention for participants with fall history effectively decreased incidences of falls and fractures. However, fall and fracture rates in excluded people were high. Further research focusing on feasible countermeasures for falls in excluded people who are at high risk of fractures is required. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Fall risk and anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation in the elderly: A delicate balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, Tracy; Rich, Michael W

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines for managing atrial fibrillation recommend systemic anticoagulation for almost all patients age 65 and older, but in practice up to 50% of older patients do not receive maintenance anticoagulation therapy. The most common reason physicians cite for withholding anticoagulation in older patients with atrial fibrillation is a perception of a high risk of falling and associated bleeding, especially intracranial hemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 Cleveland Clinic.

  8. Falls from height: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Kasim; Sarihan, Mehmet Ediz; Colak, Cemil; Güven, Taner; Gür, Ali; Gürbüz, Sükrü

    2018-01-01

    Emergency services manage trauma patients frequently and falls from height comprise the main cause of emergency service admissions. In this study, we aimed to analyse the demographic characteristics of falls from height and their relationship to the mortality. A total of 460 patients, who admitted to the Emergency Department of Inonu University between November 2011 and November 2014 with a history of fall from height, were examined retrospectively. Demographic parameters, fall characteristics and their effect to mortality were evaluated statistically. The study comprised of 292 (63.5%) men and 168 (36.5%) women patients. The mean age of all patients was 27±24.99 years. Twenty-six (5.6%) patients died and the majority of them were in ≥62 years old group. The highest percentage of falls was at 0-5 years age group (28.3%). People fell mainly from 1.1-4 metres(m) level (46.1%). The causes of falls were ordered as unintentional (92.2%), workplace (8.1%) and suicidal (1.7%). Skin and soft tissue injuries (37.4%) were the main traumatic lesions. Age, fall height, fall place, lineer skull fracture, subarachnoidal hemorrhage, cervical fracture, thoracic vertebra fracture and trauma scores had statistically significant effect on mortality. The casualties died because of subarachnoid hemorrhage mostly.

  9. Fear of Falling in Older Adults: Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukyoo Jung, PhD, RN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fear of falling has been reported in a high percentage of community-dwelling elderly who both do and don't have a history of falling. The aims of this review are to: (a elucidate the definition of fear of falling; (b clarify measurements of fear of falling based on its definition; and (c describe the risk factors for fear of falling. Despite the importance of the percentage and the consequences of fear of falling, its definition is still vague and warrants clarification. Based on a literature review, major fear of falling measurements involve the evaluation of fear of falling and use of a fall efficacy scale. Using a correct definition of fear of falling, nurses working close with older adults need to identify the different definitions of fear of falling and fall efficacy scale. In addition, nurses who work closely with older adults should encourage them to increase or maintain modifiable factors by maximizing their basic health status and enhancing their physical activity to decrease fear of falling.

  10. Prevalence of fall injuries and risk factors for fall among hospitalized children in a specialized childrens hospital in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSowailmi, Banan Abdullah; AlAkeely, Maha Heshaam; AlJutaily, Hayat Ibrahim; Alhasoon, Mohammad Abdulaziz; Omair, Amir; AlKhalaf, Hamad Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Fall injuries among children during hospital stay is a major patient safety issue. Inpatient pediatric falls can lead to numerous negative consequences. In contrast to adults, there is a paucity of information on the prevalence and risk factors associated with children's falls during hospitalization. Identify the prevalence of fall injuries among hospital.ized children and describe the demographic and environmental factors that could predict a higher risk of severe outcomes of fall. Descriptive, cross-sectional prevalence study. Specialized children's hospital. Data was obtained through the electronic Safety Reporting System (SRS). All reported fall events during hospitalization in children less than or equal 14 years of age for the period from 1 April 2015 to 30 April 2016 were included. Fall events that occurred in the day care unit and the outpatient clinic were excluded. Prevalence and possible risk factors for fall events. 48. The prevalence of falls among the 4860 admitted children was 9.9 (95% CI=7.5, 13.1) per 1000 patients (48/4860). A majority of the falls were among boys (n=26, 54%), in the age group from 1-5 years old (n=22, 46%), in children at high risk of falling (n=35, 73%), with normal mobility status (n=21, 44%), and with no history of previ.ous falls (n=33, 69%). Severe injuries accounted for 25% of falls (n=12). However, falls among the moderate risk category (n=9, 69%) were more often severe than falls among the high risk category of children (n=12, 34%) (P=.03). Risk factor identification is required to prevent falls and their severe outcomes. Underreporting and single-centered study. None.

  11. Fall Risk Index predicts functional decline regardless of fall experiences among community-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Yasuko; Wada, Taizo; Kasahara, Yoriko; Kimura, Yumi; Fukutomi, Eriko; Chen, Wenling; Hirosaki, Mayumi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Fujisawa, Michiko; Sakamoto, Ryota; Ishine, Masayuki; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2012-10-01

    The 21-item Fall Risk Index (FRI-21) has been used to detect elderly persons at risk for falls. The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the FRI-21 as a predictor of decline in basic activities of daily living (BADL) among Japanese community-dwelling elderly persons independent of fall risk. The study population consisted of 518 elderly participants aged 65 years and older who were BADL independent at baseline in Tosa, Japan. We examined risk factors for BADL decline from 2008 to 2009 by multiple logistic regression analysis on the FRI-21 and other functional status measures in all participants. We carried out the same analysis in selected participants who had no experience of falls to remove the effect of falls. A total of 45 of 518 participants showed decline in BADL within 1 year. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.20), FRI-21 ≥ 10 (OR 3.81, 95% CI 1.49-9.27), intellectual activity dependence (OR 3.25, 95% CI 1.42-7.44) and history of osteoarthropathy (OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.40-7.21) were significant independent risk factors for BADL decline within 1 year. FRI-21 ≥ 10 and intellectual activity dependence (≤ 3) remained significant predictors, even in selected non-fallers. FRI-21 ≥ 10 and intellectual activity dependence were significant predictive factors of BADL decline, regardless of fall experience, after adjustment for confounding variables. The FRI-21 is a brief, useful tool not only for predicting falls, but also future decline in functional ability in community-dwelling elderly persons. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. The Issues of the Management of Receivables: Lithuanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remeikiene Rita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Constant changes in business environment determine the significance of receivables to business. The analysis of the current situation in Lithuania has revealed that a substantial part of business enterprises are facing the problem of overdue receivables. This issue emerged as extremely topical after the beginning of the economic crisis in 2008. A number of scientific studies confirmed that the level of receivables has a significant impact not only on smooth business operation but also on operational results and serves as the cause of numerous economic and social problems, faced by both business enterprises and the state. Rising level of receivables determines slower recovery of total economics because it has a negative impact on the sustainability of the public sector of the country. In addition, the scientists highlight economic problems such as production capacity losses, general decrease in competitiveness and failure to satisfy the debt claims. The social problems include the increase in unemployment rate, fall of living standards, dissatisfaction with poor economics of the country and uncertainty about the future. The aim of this article is to analyse the impact of receivables on business in Lithuania. The methods of the research include scientific literature analysis and statistical data analysis.

  13. Definitions and methods of measuring and reporting on injurious falls in randomised controlled fall prevention trials: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenk Michael

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standardisation of the assessment methodology and case definition represents a major precondition for the comparison of study results and the conduction of meta-analyses. International guidelines provide recommendations for the standardisation of falls methodology; however, injurious falls have not been targeted. The aim of the present article was to review systematically the range of case definitions and methods used to measure and report on injurious falls in randomised controlled trials (RCTs on fall prevention. Methods An electronic literature search of selected comprehensive databases was performed to identify injurious falls definitions in published trials. Inclusion criteria were: RCTs on falls prevention published in English, study population ≥ 65 years, definition of injurious falls as a study endpoint by using the terms "injuries" and "falls". Results The search yielded 2089 articles, 2048 were excluded according to defined inclusion criteria. Forty-one articles were included. The systematic analysis of the methodology applied in RCTs disclosed substantial variations in the definition and methods used to measure and document injurious falls. The limited standardisation hampered comparability of study results. Our results also highlight that studies which used a similar, standardised definition of injurious falls showed comparable outcomes. Conclusions No standard for defining, measuring, and documenting injurious falls could be identified among published RCTs. A standardised injurious falls definition enhances the comparability of study results as demonstrated by a subgroup of RCTs used a similar definition. Recommendations for standardising the methodology are given in the present review.

  14. Novel use of the Wii Balance Board to prospectively predict falls in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Boon-Chong; Clark, Ross A; Pua, Yong-Hao

    2015-06-01

    The Wii Balance Board has received increasing attention as a balance measurement tool; however its ability to prospectively predict falls is unknown. This exploratory study investigated the use of the Wii Balance Board and other clinical-based measures for prospectively predicting falls among community-dwelling older adults. Seventy-three community-dwelling men and women, aged 60-85years were followed-up over a year for falls. Standing balance was indexed by sway velocities measured using the Wii Balance Board interfaced with a laptop. Clinical-based measures included Short Physical Performance Battery, gait speed and Timed-Up-and-Go test. Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the ability of the Wii Balance Board measure to complement the TUG test in fall screening. Individually, the study found Wii Balance Board anteroposterior (odds ratio 1.98, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.40, P=0.01) and mediolateral (odds ratio 2.80, 95% CI 1.10 to 7.13, p=0.03) sway velocity measures predictive of prospective falls. However, when each velocity measure was adjusted with body mass index and Timed-Up-and-Go, only anteroposterior sway velocity was predictive of prospective falls (odds ratio 2.21, 95% CI 1.18 to 4.14). A faster anteroposterior velocity was associated with increased odds of falling. Area-under-the-curves for Wii Balance Board sway velocities were 0.67 and 0.71 for anteroposterior and mediolateral respectively. The Wii Balance Board-derived anteroposterior sway velocity measure could complement existing clinical-based measures in predicting future falls among community-dwelling older adults. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number: ACTRN12610001099011. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Work-related falls among union carpenters in Washington State before and after the Vertical Fall Arrest Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Li, Leiming; Dement, John

    2003-08-01

    Washington State enacted a change in their fall standard for the construction industry in 1991, preceding the Safety Standard for Fall Protection in the Construction Industry promulgated by Federal OSHA in 1994. We evaluated changes in the rate of falls from elevations and measures of severity among a large cohort of union carpenters after the fall standard change in Washington State, taking into account the temporal trends in their overall injury rates. There was a significant decrease in the rate of falls from height after the standard went into effect, even after adjusting for the overall decrease in work-related injuries among this cohort. Much of the decrease was immediate, likely representing the publicity surrounding fatal falls and subsequent promulgation of the standard. The greatest decrease was seen between 3 and 3(1/2) years after the standard went into effect. There was a significant reduction in mean paid lost days per event after the standard change and there was a significant reduction in mean cost per fall when adjusting for age and the temporal trend for costs among non-fall injuries. Through the use of observational methods we have demonstrated significant effects of the Washington State Vertical Fall Arrest Standard among carpenters in the absence of a control or comparison group. Without controlling for the temporal trend in overall injury rates, the rate of decline in falls appeared significantly greater, but the more pronounced, but delayed, decline was not seen. The analyses demonstrate potential error in failing to account for temporal patterns or assuming that a decline after an intervention is related to the intervention. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. There is more to life than risk avoidance - elderly people's experiences of falls, fall-injuries and compliant flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Johanna; Jernbro, Carolina; Nilson, Finn

    2018-12-01

    Falls are the most common cause of injury in all ages and are especially difficult to prevent among residential care residents. Compliant flooring that absorbs energy generated within the fall, has been proposed as a measure to prevent fall-injury, however little is known regarding the implementation aspects in clinical settings. The aim of this study is to explore the experiences of falls, the risk of fall-injury, prevention in general and specifically compliant flooring as an injury preventative measure amongst frail elderly people living in a residential care facility with compliant flooring. Through this, generate a theory that further explains the underlying barriers of active prevention amongst elderly people. We used the grounded theory method and conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with eight elderly people in residential care (data collected between February and December 2017). The identified categories were Falling as a part of life, Fearing the consequences and A wish to prevent falls and injuries. Through the results it was clear that There is more to life than risk avoidance, permeated the interviews, therefore forming the grounded theory. The interviewees viewed falls as something common and normal, and were uninterested in focusing on the risk of falls. Although they wanted to prevent falls, it was often difficult to integrate preventative measures into their everyday life. They embraced the idea of an injury-reducing compliant flooring, however their main interests lay elsewhere, preferring to focus on social interaction and issues concerning daily activities. The theory generated in this paper proposes explanations on the obstacles of implementing fall prevention measures in an elderly frail population. The findings give insights as to why interest and compliance for active fall prevention measures are low. We conclude that complaint flooring, from the perspective of the residents, can work well in residential care.

  17. Falls: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Relationship to Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Sarah D.; Miller, Ram

    2008-01-01

    Falls are common in the elderly, and frequently result in injury, disability, and institutionalization. Although the causes of falls are complex, most falls result from an interaction between individual characteristics that increase an individual's propensity to fall and acute mediating risk factors that provide the opportunity to fall. Predisposing risk factors include age-associated changes in strength and balance, age-associated comorbidities such as osteoarthritis, visual impairment and d...

  18. Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary

    2010-11-23

    Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

  19. Determinants of Falls and Fear of Falling in Ambulatory Persons With Late Effects of Polio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogårdh, Christina; Flansbjer, Ulla-Britt; Lexell, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Falls and fear of falling (FOF) are common in persons with late effects of polio, but there is limited knowledge of associated factors. To determine how knee muscle strength, dynamic balance, and gait performance (adjusted for gender, age, and body mass index) are associated with falls and FOF in persons with late effects of polio. A cross-sectional study. A university hospital outpatient clinic. Eighty-one ambulatory persons with verified late effects of polio (43 men; mean age 67 years). Number of falls the past year, Falls Efficacy Scale-International to assess FOF, a Biodex dynamometer to measure knee muscle strength, the Timed Up & Go test to assess dynamic balance, and the 6-Minute Walk test to assess gait performance. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used for falls (categorical data) and linear regression analyses for FOF (continuous data) as dependent variables. Fifty-nine percent reported at least 1 fall during the past year, and 79% experienced FOF. Reduced knee muscle strength in the more affected limb and gait performance were determinants of falls. An increase of 10 Nm in knee flexor and knee extensor strength reduced the odds ratio between 0.70 and 0.83 (P = .01), and an increase of 100 m in 6-Minute Walk test reduced the odds ratio to 0.41 (P = .001). All factors were determinants of FOF; reduced knee muscle strength in the more and less affected limbs explained 17%-25% of the variance in FOF, dynamic balance 30%, and gait performance 41%. Gender, age, and body mass index only marginally influenced the results. Reduced gait performance, knee muscle strength, and dynamic balance are to a varying degree determinants of falls and FOF in ambulatory persons with late effects of polio. Future studies need to evaluate whether rehabilitation programs targeting these factors can reduce falls and FOF in this population. IV. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  20. Identifying nursing home residents at risk for falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, D K; Kiel, D P; Burrows, A B; Lipsitz, L A

    1998-05-01

    To develop a fall risk model that can be used to identify prospectively nursing home residents at risk for falling. The secondary objective was to determine whether the nursing home environment independently influenced the development of falls. A prospective study involving 1 year of follow-up. Two hundred seventy-two nursing homes in the state of Washington. A total of 18,855 residents who had a baseline assessment in 1991 and a follow-up assessment within the subsequent year. Baseline Minimum Data Set items that could be potential risk factors for falling were considered as independent variables. The dependent variable was whether the resident fell as reported at the follow-up assessment. We estimated the extrinsic risk attributable to particular nursing home environments by calculating the annual fall rate in each nursing home and grouping them into tertiles of fall risk according to these rates. Factors associated independently with falling were fall history, wandering behavior, use of a cane or walker, deterioration of activities of daily living performance, age greater than 87 years, unsteady gait, transfer independence, wheelchair independence, and male gender. Nursing home residents with a fall history were more than three times as likely to fall during the follow-up period than residents without a fall history. Residents in homes with the highest tertile of fall rates were more than twice as likely to fall compared with residents of homes in the lowest tertile, independent of resident-specific risk factors. Fall history was identified as the strongest risk factor associated with subsequent falls and accounted for the vast majority of the predictive strength of the model. We recommend that fall history be used as an initial screener for determining eligibility for fall intervention efforts. Studies are needed to determine the facility characteristics that contribute to fall risk, independent of resident-specific risk factors.

  1. Fabrication of polymeric Janus particles by droplet microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah; Cheong, Inwoo

    2014-01-01

    Janus particles (JPs), with their fascinating property of asymmetry, have received considerable attention in recent years in the fields of colloidal and particulate chemistry. The particles offer a range of exciting potential applications

  2. Dynamics of a jumping particle on a staircase profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, J.; Romero-Valles, M.J.; Torres, P.J.; Veerman, J.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the dynamics of the descent of a particle bouncing down a staircase profile under the action of gravity. In order to get interesting dynamics we make a detail analysis of the case which the particle loses momentum in the direction orthogonal to the collision plane but preserves the tangential component of the momentum. We prove that in this case all orbits are bounded and show the existence and stability of periodic solutions. The interplay between loss and gain of energy due to impacts and free falling respectively generates a rich dynamics

  3. Effectiveness of a multifactorial falls prevention program in community-dwelling older people when compared to usual care: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (Prevquedas Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Negreiros Cabral, Kelem; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues; Soares, Aline Thomaz; de Cristo Stein, Francine; Sera, Celisa Tiemi Nakagawa; Tiedemann, Anne; Sherrington, Cathie; Filho, Wilson Jacob; Paschoal, Sérgio Márcio Pacheco

    2013-03-15

    Falling in older age is a major public health concern due to its costly and disabling consequences. However very few randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted in developing countries, in which population ageing is expected to be particularly substantial in coming years. This article describes the design of an RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial falls prevention program in reducing the rate of falls in community-dwelling older people. Multicentre parallel-group RCT involving 612 community-dwelling men and women aged 60 years and over, who have fallen at least once in the previous year. Participants will be recruited in multiple settings in Sao Paulo, Brazil and will be randomly allocated to a control group or an intervention group. The usual care control group will undergo a fall risk factor assessment and be referred to their clinicians with the risk assessment report so that individual modifiable risk factors can be managed without any specific guidance. The intervention group will receive a 12-week Multifactorial Falls Prevention Program consisting of: an individualised medical management of modifiable risk factors, a group-based, supervised balance training exercise program plus an unsupervised home-based exercise program, an educational/behavioral intervention. Both groups will receive a leaflet containing general information about fall prevention strategies. Primary outcome measures will be the rate of falls and the proportion of fallers recorded by monthly falls diaries and telephone calls over a 12 month period. Secondary outcomes measures will include risk of falling, fall-related self-efficacy score, measures of balance, mobility and strength, fall-related health services use and independence with daily tasks. Data will be analysed using the intention-to-treat principle.The incidence of falls in the intervention and control groups will be calculated and compared using negative binomial regression analysis. This study is the

  4. Short stick exercises for fall prevention among older adults: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Katsushi; Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Takemura, Shigeki; Fukumoto, Jin; Kurasawa, Shigeki; Miyashita, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of short stick exercise (SSEs) on fall prevention and improvement of physical function in older adults. A cluster randomized trial was conducted in five residential care facilities. The intervention group (n = 51) practiced SSEs for six months, followed by routine care for six more months. The control group (n = 54) received ordinary care for 12 months. The primary outcome measure was the number of fallers, taking into account the time to first fall using the Kaplan-Meier method. The secondary outcome measures were physical and mental functions. The number of fallers was significantly lower in the intervention group (n = 6) than in the control group (n = 16) during the 12 months. The adjusted hazard ratio for a first fall in the intervention group compared with the control group was 0.15 (CI, 0.03 to 0.74, p = 0.02). The fall-free period was significantly longer in the intervention group than in controls (mean ± SD, 10.1 ± 3.0 versus 9.0 ± 4.1 months, p = 0.027). The functional reach and sit and reach tests were significantly improved at three and six months. The SSEs appeared effective for fall prevention and improvement of physical function in older adults. Implications for Rehabilitation The newly developed short stick exercises appear an effective means of reducing falls among older adults in residential care facilities. The short stick exercises seem to have an immediate effect on improving physical functions. Effects gained by performing the short stick exercises, such as static balance, flexibility and agility may last for six months. The short stick exercises were found to be easy for older adults to practice continuously in residential care facilities.

  5. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Falls in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Amatullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.

  6. Longitudinal association between habitual walking and fall occurrences among community-dwelling older adults: analyzing the different risks of falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yoshiro; Seino, Satoshi; Yabushita, Noriko; Osuka, Yosuke; Jung, Songee; Nemoto, Miyuki; Figueroa, Rafael; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the association between habitual walking and multiple or injurious falls (falls) among community-dwelling older adults, by considering the relative risk of falling. A cohort of Japanese community-dwelling older adults (n=535) aged 60-91 years (73.1±6.6 year, 157 men and 378 women) who underwent community-based health check-ups from 2008 to 2012 were followed until 2013. Incidence rate of falls between walkers and non-walkers was compared separately by the number of risk factors (Groups R0, R1, R2, R3 and R4+). The Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess the association between habitual walking and falls separately by lower- (Rrisk groups. In Groups R0 and R1, the incidence of falls was lower in walkers than non-walkers; however, in Groups R2, R3, and R4+, the incidence of falls was higher in walkers. The Cox proportional hazard model showed that habitual walking was not significantly associated with falls (hazard ratio (HR): 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-1.62) among the lower risk group but that it was significantly associated with increased falls (HR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.04-3.43) among the higher risk group. The significant interaction between habitual walking and higher risk of falling was found (Prisk factors for falling, caution is needed when recommending walking because walking can actually increase their risk of experiencing multiple or injurious falls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of falls in elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor,Priscila Regina Rorato; Oliveira,Ana Carolina Kovaleski de; Kohler,Renan; Winter,Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki,Cintia; Krause,Maressa Priscila

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. METHODS: Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. RES...

  8. Heat-transfer characteristics of flowing and stationary particle-bed-type fusion-reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nietert, R.E.

    1983-02-01

    The following five appendices are included: (1) physical properties of materials, (2) thermal entrance length Nusselt number variations, (3) stationary particle bed temperature variations, (4) falling bed experimental data and calculations, and (5) stationary bed experimental data and calculations

  9. The consumption of two or more fall risk-increasing drugs rather than polypharmacy is associated with falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Anam; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul B; Tan, Maw P

    2017-03-01

    The presemt study aimed to determine the association between the risk of recurrent and injurious falls with polypharmacy, fall risk-increasing drugs (FRID) and FRID count among community-dwelling older adults. Participants (n = 202) were aged ≥65 years with two or more falls or one injurious fall in the past year, whereas controls (n = 156) included volunteers aged ≥65 years with no falls in the past year. A detailed medication history was obtained alongside demographic data. Polypharmacy was defined as "regular use of five or more prescription drugs." FRID were identified as cardiovascular agents, central nervous system drugs, analgesics and endocrine drugs; multiple FRID were defined as two or more FRID. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for confounders. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was independently associated with an increased risk of falls. Univariate analyses showed both polypharmacy (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.39-3.56; P = 0.001) and the use of two or more FRID (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9-4.5; P = 0.0001) were significantly more likely amongst fallers. After adjustment for age, sex and comorbidities, blood pressure, and physical performance scores, polypharmacy was no longer associated with falls (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.9-2.9; P = 0.102), whereas the consumption of two or more FRID remained a significant predictor for falls (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.3; P = 0.001). Among high risk fallers, the use of two or more FRID was an independent risk factor for falls instead of polypharmacy. Our findings will inform clinical practice in terms of medication reviews among older adults at higher risk of falls. Future intervention studies will seek to confirm whether avoidance or withdrawal of multiple FRID reduces the risk of future falls. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 463-470. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Fear of Falling in Women with Fibromyalgia and Its Relation with Number of Falls and Balance Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Collado-Mateo, D.; Gallego-Diaz, J. M.; Adsuar, J. C.; Domínguez-Muñoz, F. J.; Olivares, P. R.; Gusi, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate fear of falling, number of falls, and balance performance in women with FM and to examine the relationship between these variables and others, such as balance performance, quality of life, age, pain, and impact of fibromyalgia. Methods. A total of 240 women participated in this cross-sectional study. Of these, 125 had fibromyalgia. Several variables were assessed: age, fear of falling from 0 to 100, number of falls, body composition, balance performance, lower limb stre...

  11. Effects of dual-task cognitive-gait intervention on memory and gait dynamics in older adults with a history of falls: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Joshua H; Shetty, Anand; Jones, Tawaih; Shields, Kimberli; Belay, Yordanos; Brown, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The present study highlights the effects of the dual-task cognitive-gait intervention (CGI) on working memory and gait functions in older adults with a history of falls. Thirteen older adults with a history of falls were recruited from local community centers and randomly stratified into either the control (n = 5) or experimental (n = 8) group. The experimental group received the dual-task cognitive-motor intervention involving simultaneous motor (walking) and cognitive (memory recall) task whereas the control group received a placebo treatment (walking with simple music). The intervention was provided 30 minutes per session, over a 6-week period. Memory measures included a combination of word recall and arithmetic task. Gait function measures included velocity and center of pressure (COP) stability. Non-parametric tests were used at p memory performance than the control (p long-term dual-task cognitive-motor intervention improved memory of older adults with a history of falls under the dual cognitive motor task condition.

  12. Can cognitive enhancers reduce the risk of falls in older people with Mild Cognitive Impairment? A protocol for a randomised controlled double blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells Jennie L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults with cognitive problems have a higher risk of falls, at least twice that of cognitively normal older adults. The consequences of falls in this population are very serious: fallers with cognitive problems suffer more injuries due to falls and are approximately five times more likely to be admitted to institutional care. Although the mechanisms of increased fall risk in cognitively impaired people are not completely understood, it is known that impaired cognitive abilities can reduce attentional resource allocation while walking. Since cognitive enhancers, such as cholinesterase inhibitors, improve attention and executive function, we hypothesise that cognitive enhancers may reduce fall risk in elderly people in the early stages of cognitive decline by improving their gait and balance performance due to an enhancement in attention and executive function. Method/Design Double blinded randomized controlled trial with 6 months follow-up in 140 older individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. Participants will be randomized to the intervention group, receiving donepezil, and to the control group, receiving placebo. A block randomization by four and stratification based on fall history will be performed. Primary outcomes are improvements in gait velocity and reduction in gait variability. Secondary outcomes are changes in the balance confidence, balance sway, attention, executive function, and number of falls. Discussion By characterizing and understanding the effects of cognitive enhancers on fall risk in older adults with cognitive impairments, we will be able to pave the way for a new approach to fall prevention in this population. This RCT study will provide, for the first time, information regarding the effect of a medication designed to augment cognitive functioning have on the risk of falls in older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment. We expect a significant reduction in the risk of falls in this

  13. On the possible types of elementary particles compatible with the canonical formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Kaijia

    1988-12-01

    In a paper D erivation of Dirac's Equation for a Free Particle , it was shown by the author that Dirac's equation can be deduced from a canonical formulation on the ground of relativity and quantum mechanics only. This idea will be further developed to a criterion on the possible forms of particles compatible with these formalism. It is shown in the text that only two types can exist in conformity with the criterion, namely fermions with spin 1/2 and scalars with spin zero. An example is given for a particle with spin unity to show that they do not fall into the present category. Particles that play roles in vector fields belong to different categories. Discussions are made for particles coupled with an external electronmagnetic field, preliminary results show that the essential features for the free particles still retain

  14. [Fall risk assessment in regular exercising elderly women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Reiko; Kozaki, Koichi; Kawashima, Yumiko; Iwata, Akiko; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Igata, Akihiro; Toba, Kenji

    2008-09-01

    Fall prevention is important for elderly people to maintain their functional independence. We made a longitudinal fall-risk assessment using our "Fall-predicting score" of women who are 60 years or older and who exercised regularly. We sent "fall-predicting questionnaires" to 632 elderly women aged 60 years or older (mean 65.0+/-4.3), members of "Miishima gymnastics program", and asked about their fall history of falling in the past year in 2004 and 2005. We performed a logistic regression analysis to determine the future risk factor of falling in 2005. The number of people who fell was 134 (21.2%) in 2004 and 121 (19.1%) in 2005. The number of people who fell decreased in the seventh decade, but increased in the eighth decade, and members for 6-10 years showed most decreased fall rates. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, falls in 2004, "tripping", "cannot squeeze a towel", and "walk steep slope around the house" were significant independent risk factors of "falls in 2005". Logistic regression analysis of non-fallers in 2004 showed that age and "tripping" were the significant independent risk factors of "falls in 2005", and the analysis of people who fell in 2004 showed that age, "tripping", "cannot squeeze a towel", "walk steep slope around the house", and "taking more than 5 medicines" were significant independent risk factors for falls in 2005. In regular exercising elderly women, exercise appears to prevent falls in people in the seventh decade and in the members of 6-10 years. Age, past history of falls, and fall-predicting questionnaire were important risk predictors of future falls.

  15. Rheological characterization of nuclear waste using falling-ball rheometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, J.R.; Unal, C.; Stephens, T.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Graham, A.L.; Edwards, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge of the rheological properties of saturated solutions containing solid particles is very important in nuclear waste management technology. For example, the nuclear waste in the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks contains strong electrolyte solutions with a high concentration of solids. Previous attempt using rotational viscometers to determine the rheology has shown unusual thixotropic and shear thinning behaviors with a lack of reproducibility. Using falling-ball rheometry, the rheology of the undisturbed simulant may be determined with much better reproducibility. In this study, a well-mixed simulant which has similar chemical composition to the actual waste will be tested. Falling-ball size and density will be varied to get data in a wide range of shear rates. To determine the rheogram, several methods will be tried to match the observed data. Based on these tests, a rheogram can be determined from the model and its best-fit parameters. The simulant shows shear-thinning behavior and a yield stress. This would suggest a H-B model. But when fitting to one of the simulants which showed a very low yield stress, the predictions assuming no yield and assuming yield resulted in no improvement in the fit when assuming yield

  16. Impaired perceived timing of falls in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Julian; Barnett-Cowan, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injury-related deaths and hospitalizations, with older adults at an increased risk. As humans age, physical changes and health conditions make falls more likely. While we know how the body reflexively responds to prevent injury during a fall, we know little about how people perceive the fall itself. We previously found that young adults required a fall to precede a comparison sound stimulus by approximately 44ms to perceive the two events as simultaneous. This may relate to common anecdotal reports suggesting that humans often describe distortions in their perception of time - time seems to slow down during a fall - with very little recollection of how and when the fall began. Here we examine whether fall perception changes with age. Young (19-25y) and older (61-72y) healthy adults made temporal order judgments identifying whether the onset of their fall or the onset of a comparison sound came first to measure the point of subjective simultaneity. Results show that fall perception is nearly twice as slow for older adults, where perturbation onset has to precede sound onset by ∼88ms to appear coincident, compared to younger adults (∼44ms). We suggest that such age-related differences in fall perception may relate to increased fall rates in older adults. We conclude that a better understanding of how younger versus older adults perceive falls may identify important factors for innovative fall prevention strategies and rehabilitative training exercises to improve fall awareness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Falling into the Light-using music and poetry as complementary modes of understanding falls in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte; Clausen, Nina

    that a broader understanding of falls in old age in the health care system might help health professionals to understand the complexity of falls and by this inspire older persons to prevent falls in different ways. Using poetry and music in our performance we seek to open up for a broader understanding of falls......: irresponsible behavior, disease, destiny, desire to remain independent in old age, appearing elegant/aesthetical and being physical active. One of the interviews was selected and transformed it into a poem (2-3). The poem was then translated into music by the second author. First we present the six...... understandings of falls in old age then we read the poem and finally a musical interpretation of the poem is performed by song and cello. The music is written for soprano and cello and created with direct inspiration from the poem. The fall is reproduced in a series of descending tones coming back as a "chorus...

  18. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be secured... working with house fall blocks. (c) Designated employees shall inspect chains, links, shackles, swivels...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fall protection. 1926.760 Section 1926.760 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.760 Fall protection. (a... protection from fall hazards in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (c) Controlled Decking Zone...

  20. Falls prevention for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Lühmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention.Research questions: The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years, living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT, the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed.Results: Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the

  1. Falls in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, Yvette Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    Falls in Parkinson’s (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD) are common. 50 % of moderately affected PD patients sustained two or more falls during a prospective follow-up of 6 months. During a 3 month period 40 % of HD patients reported one or more fall. Many falls resulted in minor injuries and 42 % of

  2. Geriatric falls in the context of a hospital fall prevention program: delirium, low body mass index, and other risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Katarzyna; Wilczyński, Krzysztof; Szewieczek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Inpatient geriatric falls are a frequent complication of hospital care that results in significant morbidity and mortality. Evaluate factors associated with falls in geriatric inpatients after implementation of the