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Sample records for falciparum sir2a histone

  1. Expression of P. falciparum var genes involves exchange of the histone variant H2A.Z at the promoter.

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    Michaela Petter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum employs antigenic variation to evade the human immune response by switching the expression of different variant surface antigens encoded by the var gene family. Epigenetic mechanisms including histone modifications and sub-nuclear compartmentalization contribute to transcriptional regulation in the malaria parasite, in particular to control antigenic variation. Another mechanism of epigenetic control is the exchange of canonical histones with alternative variants to generate functionally specialized chromatin domains. Here we demonstrate that the alternative histone PfH2A.Z is associated with the epigenetic regulation of var genes. In many eukaryotic organisms the histone variant H2A.Z mediates an open chromatin structure at promoters and facilitates diverse levels of regulation, including transcriptional activation. Throughout the asexual, intraerythrocytic lifecycle of P. falciparum we found that the P. falciparum ortholog of H2A.Z (PfH2A.Z colocalizes with histone modifications that are characteristic of transcriptionally-permissive euchromatin, but not with markers of heterochromatin. Consistent with this finding, antibodies to PfH2A.Z co-precipitate the permissive modification H3K4me3. By chromatin-immunoprecipitation we show that PfH2A.Z is enriched in nucleosomes around the transcription start site (TSS in both transcriptionally active and silent stage-specific genes. In var genes, however, PfH2A.Z is enriched at the TSS only during active transcription in ring stage parasites. Thus, in contrast to other genes, temporal var gene regulation involves histone variant exchange at promoter nucleosomes. Sir2 histone deacetylases are important for var gene silencing and their yeast ortholog antagonises H2A.Z function in subtelomeric yeast genes. In immature P. falciparum parasites lacking Sir2A or Sir2B high var transcription levels correlate with enrichment of PfH2A.Z at the TSS. As Sir2A knock out parasites mature the var

  2. Global histone analysis by mass spectrometry reveals a high content of acetylated lysine residues in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

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    Trelle, Morten Beck; Salcedo-Amaya, Adriana M; Cohen, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone tails play a key role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression in a range of organisms from yeast to human, however, little is known about histone proteins from the parasite that causes malaria in humans, Plasmodium falciparum. We characterize...... comprehensive map of histone modifications in Plasmodium falciparum and highlight the utility of tandem MS for detailed analysis of peptides containing multiple PTMs....

  3. Dynamic histone H3 epigenome marking during the intraerythrocytic cycle of Plasmodium falciparum

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    Salcedo-Amaya, Adriana M; van Driel, Marc A; Alako, Blaise T

    2009-01-01

    Epigenome profiling has led to the paradigm that promoters of active genes are decorated with H3K4me3 and H3K9ac marks. To explore the epigenome of Plasmodium falciparum asexual stages, we performed MS analysis of histone modifications and found a general preponderance of H3/H4 acetylation and H3K4...

  4. Structure, localization and histone binding properties of nuclear-associated nucleosome assembly protein from Plasmodium falciparum

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    Maier Alexander G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nucleosome assembly proteins (NAPs are histone chaperones that are crucial for the shuttling and incorporation of histones into nucleosomes. NAPs participate in the assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes thus contributing to chromatin structure organization. The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum contains two nucleosome assembly proteins termed PfNapL and PfNapS. Methods Three-dimensional crystal structure of PfNapS has been determined and analysed. Gene knockout and localization studies were also performed on PfNapS using transfection studies. Fluorescence spectroscopy was performed to identify histone-binding sites on PfNapS. Extensive sequence and structural comparisons were done with the crystal structures available for NAP/SET family of proteins. Results Crystal structure of PfNapS shares structural similarity with previous structures from NAP/SET family. Failed attempts to knock-out the gene for PfNapS from malaria parasite suggest essentiality in the parasite. GFP-fused PfNapS fusion protein targeting indicates cellular localization of PfNapS in the parasite nucleus. Fluorescence spectroscopy data suggest that PfNapS interacts with core histones (tetramer, octamer, H3, H4, H2A and H2B at a different site from its interaction with linker histone H1. This analysis illustrates two regions on the PfNapS dimer as the possible sites for histone recognition. Conclusions This work presents a thorough analysis of the structural, functional and regulatory attributes of PfNapS from P. falciparum with respect to previously studied histone chaperones.

  5. A Plasmodium falciparum histone deacetylase regulates antigenic variation and gametocyte conversion.

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    Coleman, Bradley I; Skillman, Kristen M; Jiang, Rays H Y; Childs, Lauren M; Altenhofen, Lindsey M; Ganter, Markus; Leung, Yvette; Goldowitz, Ilana; Kafsack, Björn F C; Marti, Matthias; Llinás, Manuel; Buckee, Caroline O; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2014-08-13

    The asexual forms of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are adapted for chronic persistence in human red blood cells, continuously evading host immunity using epigenetically regulated antigenic variation of virulence-associated genes. Parasite survival on a population level also requires differentiation into sexual forms, an obligatory step for further human transmission. We reveal that the essential nuclear gene, P. falciparum histone deacetylase 2 (PfHda2), is a global silencer of virulence gene expression and controls the frequency of switching from the asexual cycle to sexual development. PfHda2 depletion leads to dysregulated expression of both virulence-associated var genes and PfAP2-g, a transcription factor controlling sexual conversion, and is accompanied by increases in gametocytogenesis. Mathematical modeling further indicates that PfHda2 has likely evolved to optimize the parasite's infectious period by achieving low frequencies of virulence gene expression switching and sexual conversion. This common regulation of cellular transcriptional programs mechanistically links parasite transmissibility and virulence.

  6. Plasmodium falciparum Histone Acetyltransferase, a Yeast GCN5 Homologue Involved in Chromatin Remodeling

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    QiFan; LijiaAn; LiwangCui

    2005-01-01

    The yeast transcriptional coactivator GCN5 (yGCN5), a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), is part of large multimeric complexes that are required for chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation. Like other eukaryotes, the malaria parasite DNA is organized into nucleosomes and the genome encodes components of chromatin-remodeling complexes. Here we show that GCN5 is conserved in Plasmodium species and that the most homologous regions are within the HAT domain and the bromodomain. The Plasmodiumfalclparum GCN5 homologue (PfGCN5) is spliced with three introns, encoding a protein of 1,464 residues. Mapping of the ends of the PfGCN5 transcript suggests that the mRNA is 5.2 to 5.4 kb, consistent with the result from Northern analysis. Using free core histones, we determined that recombinant PfGCN5 proteins have conserved HAT activity with a substrate preference for histone H3. Using substrate-specific antibodies, we determined that both Lys-8 and -14 of H3 were acetylated by the recombinant PfGCN5. In eukaryotes, GCN5 homologues interact with yeast ADA2 homologues and form large multiprotein HAT complexes. We have identified an ADA2 homologue in P. falciparum, PfADA2. Yeast two-hybrid and in vitro binding assays verified the interactions between PfGCN5 and PfADA2, suggesting that they may be associated with each other in vivo. The conserved function of the HAT domain in PfGCN5 was further illustrated with yeast complementation experiments, which showed that the PfGCN5 region corresponding to the full-length yGCN5 could partially complement the yGCN5 deletion mutation. Furthermore, a chimera comprising the PfGCN5 HAT domain fused to the remainder of yeast GCN5 (yGCN5) fully rescued the yGCN5 deletion mutant. These data demonstrate that PfGCN5 is an authentic GCN5 family member and may exist in chromatin-remodeling complexes to regulate gene expression in P. falciparum.

  7. Comparative gene expression profiling of P. falciparum malaria parasites exposed to three different histone deacetylase inhibitors.

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    Katherine T Andrews

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors are being intensively pursued as potential new drugs for a range of diseases, including malaria. HDAC inhibitors are also important tools for the study of epigenetic mechanisms, transcriptional control, and other important cellular processes. In this study the effects of three structurally related antimalarial HDAC inhibitors on P. falciparum malaria parasite gene expression were compared. The three hydroxamate-based compounds, trichostatin A (TSA, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; Vorinostat® and a 2-aminosuberic acid derivative (2-ASA-9, all caused profound transcriptional effects, with ~2-21% of genes having >2-fold altered expression following 2 h exposure to the compounds. Only two genes, alpha tubulin II and a hydrolase, were up-regulated by all three compounds after 2 h exposure in all biological replicates examined. The transcriptional changes observed after 2 h exposure to HDAC inhibitors were found to be largely transitory, with only 1-5% of genes being regulated after removing the compounds and culturing for a further 2 h. Despite some structural similarity, the three inhibitors caused quite diverse transcriptional effects, possibly reflecting subtle differences in mode of action or cellular distribution. This dataset represents an important contribution to our understanding of how HDAC inhibitors act on malaria parasites and identifies alpha tubulin II as a potential transcriptional marker of HDAC inhibition in malaria parasites that may be able to be exploited for future development of HDAC inhibitors as new antimalarial agents.

  8. Valproic Acid as a Potential Inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum Histone Deacetylase 1 (PfHDAC1: An in Silico Approach

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    Mohamed A. Abdallah Elbadawi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A new Plasmodium falciparum histone deacetylase1 (PfHDAC1 homology model was built based on the highest sequence identity available template human histone deacetylase 2 structure. The generated model was carefully evaluated for stereochemical accuracy, folding correctness and overall structure quality. All evaluations were acceptable and consistent. Docking a group of hydroxamic acid histone deacetylase inhibitors and valproic acid has shown binding poses that agree well with inhibitor-bound histone deacetylase-solved structural interactions. Docking affinity dG scores were in agreement with available experimental binding affinities. Further, enzyme-ligand complex stability and reliability were investigated by running 5-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations. Thorough analysis of the simulation trajectories has shown that enzyme-ligand complexes were stable during the simulation period. Interestingly, the calculated theoretical binding energies of the docked hydroxamic acid inhibitors have shown that the model can discriminate between strong and weaker inhibitors and agrees well with the experimental affinities reported in the literature. The model and the docking methodology can be used in screening virtual libraries for PfHDAC1 inhibitors, since the docking scores have ranked ligands in accordance with experimental binding affinities. Valproic acid calculated theoretical binding energy suggests that it may inhibit PfHDAC1.

  9. PfSETvs methylation of histone H3K36 represses virulence genes in Plasmodium falciparum

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    Jiang, Lubin; Mu, Jianbing; Zhang, Qingfeng

    2013-01-01

    The variant antigen Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), which is expressed on the surface of P. falciparum-infected red blood cells, is a critical virulence factor for malaria. Each parasite has 60 antigenically distinct var genes that each code for a different PfEMP1...

  10. Functional analysis of sirtuin genes in multiple Plasmodium falciparum strains.

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    Catherine J Merrick

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of severe human malaria, employs antigenic variation to avoid host immunity. Antigenic variation is achieved by transcriptional switching amongst polymorphic var genes, enforced by epigenetic modification of chromatin. The histone-modifying 'sirtuin' enzymes PfSir2a and PfSir2b have been implicated in this process. Disparate patterns of var expression have been reported in patient isolates as well as in cultured strains. We examined var expression in three commonly used laboratory strains (3D7, NF54 and FCR-3 in parallel. NF54 parasites express significantly lower levels of var genes compared to 3D7, despite the fact that 3D7 was originally a clone of the NF54 strain. To investigate whether this was linked to the expression of sirtuins, genetic disruption of both sirtuins was attempted in all three strains. No dramatic changes in var gene expression occurred in NF54 or FCR-3 following PfSir2b disruption, contrasting with previous observations in 3D7. In 3D7, complementation of the PfSir2a genetic disruption resulted in a significant decrease in previously-elevated var gene expression levels, but with the continued expression of multiple var genes. Finally, rearranged chromosomes were observed in the 3D7 PfSir2a knockout line. Our results focus on the potential for parasite genetic background to contribute to sirtuin function in regulating virulence gene expression and suggest a potential role for sirtuins in maintaining genome integrity.

  11. Functional analysis of sirtuin genes in multiple Plasmodium falciparum strains.

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    Merrick, Catherine J; Jiang, Rays H Y; Skillman, Kristen M; Samarakoon, Upeka; Moore, Rachel M; Dzikowski, Ron; Ferdig, Michael T; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of severe human malaria, employs antigenic variation to avoid host immunity. Antigenic variation is achieved by transcriptional switching amongst polymorphic var genes, enforced by epigenetic modification of chromatin. The histone-modifying 'sirtuin' enzymes PfSir2a and PfSir2b have been implicated in this process. Disparate patterns of var expression have been reported in patient isolates as well as in cultured strains. We examined var expression in three commonly used laboratory strains (3D7, NF54 and FCR-3) in parallel. NF54 parasites express significantly lower levels of var genes compared to 3D7, despite the fact that 3D7 was originally a clone of the NF54 strain. To investigate whether this was linked to the expression of sirtuins, genetic disruption of both sirtuins was attempted in all three strains. No dramatic changes in var gene expression occurred in NF54 or FCR-3 following PfSir2b disruption, contrasting with previous observations in 3D7. In 3D7, complementation of the PfSir2a genetic disruption resulted in a significant decrease in previously-elevated var gene expression levels, but with the continued expression of multiple var genes. Finally, rearranged chromosomes were observed in the 3D7 PfSir2a knockout line. Our results focus on the potential for parasite genetic background to contribute to sirtuin function in regulating virulence gene expression and suggest a potential role for sirtuins in maintaining genome integrity.

  12. Transcriptional Profiling Defines Histone Acetylation as a Regulator of Gene Expression during Human-to-Mosquito Transmission of the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

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    Che J. Ngwa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum from the human to the mosquito is mediated by the intraerythrocytic gametocytes, which, once taken up during a blood meal, become activated to initiate sexual reproduction. Because gametocytes are the only parasite stages able to establish an infection in the mosquito, they are crucial for spreading the tropical disease. During gametocyte maturation, different repertoires of genes are switched on and off in a well-coordinated sequence, pointing to regulatory mechanisms of gene expression. While epigenetic gene control has been studied during erythrocytic schizogony of P. falciparum, little is known about this process during human-to-mosquito transmission of the parasite. To unveil the potential role of histone acetylation during gene expression in gametocytes, we carried out a microarray-based transcriptome analysis on gametocytes treated with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA. TSA-treatment impaired gametocyte maturation and lead to histone hyper-acetylation in these stages. Comparative transcriptomics identified 294 transcripts, which were more than 2-fold up-regulated during gametocytogenesis following TSA-treatment. In activated gametocytes, which were less sensitive to TSA, the transcript levels of 48 genes were increased. TSA-treatment further led to repression of ~145 genes in immature and mature gametocytes and 7 genes in activated gametocytes. Up-regulated genes are mainly associated with functions in invasion, cytoadherence, and protein export, while down-regulated genes could particularly be assigned to transcription and translation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated a link between gene activation and histone acetylation for selected genes. Among the genes up-regulated in TSA-treated mature gametocytes was a gene encoding the ring finger (RING-domain protein PfRNF1, a putative E3 ligase of the ubiquitin-mediated signaling pathway. Immunochemistry

  13. Transcriptional Profiling Defines Histone Acetylation as a Regulator of Gene Expression during Human-to-Mosquito Transmission of the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

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    Ngwa, Che J; Kiesow, Meike J; Papst, Olga; Orchard, Lindsey M; Filarsky, Michael; Rosinski, Alina N; Voss, Till S; Llinás, Manuel; Pradel, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Transmission of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum from the human to the mosquito is mediated by the intraerythrocytic gametocytes, which, once taken up during a blood meal, become activated to initiate sexual reproduction. Because gametocytes are the only parasite stages able to establish an infection in the mosquito, they are crucial for spreading the tropical disease. During gametocyte maturation, different repertoires of genes are switched on and off in a well-coordinated sequence, pointing to regulatory mechanisms of gene expression. While epigenetic gene control has been studied during erythrocytic schizogony of P. falciparum, little is known about this process during human-to-mosquito transmission of the parasite. To unveil the potential role of histone acetylation during gene expression in gametocytes, we carried out a microarray-based transcriptome analysis on gametocytes treated with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). TSA-treatment impaired gametocyte maturation and lead to histone hyper-acetylation in these stages. Comparative transcriptomics identified 294 transcripts, which were more than 2-fold up-regulated during gametocytogenesis following TSA-treatment. In activated gametocytes, which were less sensitive to TSA, the transcript levels of 48 genes were increased. TSA-treatment further led to repression of ~145 genes in immature and mature gametocytes and 7 genes in activated gametocytes. Up-regulated genes are mainly associated with functions in invasion, cytoadherence, and protein export, while down-regulated genes could particularly be assigned to transcription and translation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated a link between gene activation and histone acetylation for selected genes. Among the genes up-regulated in TSA-treated mature gametocytes was a gene encoding the ring finger (RING)-domain protein PfRNF1, a putative E3 ligase of the ubiquitin-mediated signaling pathway. Immunochemistry demonstrated PfRNF1

  14. The nucleosome (histone-DNA complex is the TLR9-specific immunostimulatory component of Plasmodium falciparum that activates DCs.

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    Nagaraj M Gowda

    Full Text Available The systemic clinical symptoms of Plasmodium falciparum infection such as fever and chills correspond to the proinflammatory cytokines produced in response to the parasite components released during the synchronized rupture of schizonts. We recently demonstrated that, among the schizont-released products, merozoites are the predominant components that activate dendritic cells (DCs by TLR9-specific recognition to induce the maturation of cells and to produce proinflammatory cytokines. We also demonstrated that DNA is the active constituent and that formation of a DNA-protein complex is essential for the entry of parasite DNA into cells for recognition by TLR9. However, the nature of endogenous protein-DNA complex in the parasite is not known. In this study, we show that parasite nucleosome constitute the major protein-DNA complex involved in the activation of DCs by parasite nuclear material. The parasite components were fractionated into the nuclear and non-nuclear materials. The nuclear material was further fractionated into chromatin and the proteins loosely bound to chromatin. Polynucleosomes and oligonucleosomes were prepared from the chromatin. These were tested for their ability to activate DCs obtained by the FLT3 ligand differentiation of bone marrow cells from the wild type, and TLR2(-/-, TLR9(-/- and MyD88(-/- mice. DCs stimulated with the nuclear material and polynucleosomes as well as mono- and oligonucleosomes efficiently induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines in a TLR9-dependent manner, demonstrating that nucleosomes (histone-DNA complex represent the major TLR9-specific DC-immunostimulatory component of the malaria parasite nuclear material. Thus, our data provide a significant insight into the activation of DCs by malaria parasites and have important implications for malaria vaccine development.

  15. Telomeric Heterochromatin in Plasmodium falciparum

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    Rosaura Hernandez-Rivas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Until very recently, little was known about the chromatin structure of the telomeres and subtelomeric regions in Plasmodium falciparum. In yeast and Drosophila melanogaster, chromatin structure has long been known to be an important aspect in the regulation and functioning of these regions. Telomeres and subtelomeric regions are enriched in epigenetic marks that are specific to heterochromatin, such as methylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 and lysine 20 of histone H4. In P. falciparum, histone modifications and the presence of both the heterochromatin “writing” (PfSir2, PKMT and “reading” (PfHP1 machinery at telomeric and subtelomeric regions indicate that these regions are likely to have heterochromatic structure that is epigenetically regulated. This structure may be important for telomere functions such as the silencing of the var gene family implicated in the cytoadherence and antigenic variation of these parasites.

  16. Comprehensive histone phosphorylation analysis and identification of Pf14-3-3 protein as a histone H3 phosphorylation reader in malaria parasites.

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    Eeshita G Dastidar

    Full Text Available The important role of histone posttranslational modifications, particularly methylation and acetylation, in Plasmodium falciparum gene regulation has been established. However, the role of histone phosphorylation remains understudied. Here, we investigate histone phosphorylation utilizing liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry to analyze histones extracted from asexual blood stages using two improved protocols to enhance preservation of PTMs. Enrichment for phosphopeptides lead to the detection of 14 histone phospho-modifications in P. falciparum. The majority of phosphorylation sites were observed at the N-terminal regions of various histones and were frequently observed adjacent to acetylated lysines. We also report the identification of one novel member of the P. falciparum histone phosphosite binding protein repertoire, Pf14-3-3I. Recombinant Pf14-3-3I protein bound to purified parasite histones. In silico structural analysis of Pf14-3-3 proteins revealed that residues responsible for binding to histone H3 S10ph and/or S28ph are conserved at the primary and the tertiary structure levels. Using a battery of H3 specific phosphopeptides, we demonstrate that Pf14-3-3I preferentially binds to H3S28ph over H3S10ph, independent of modification of neighbouring residues like H3S10phK14ac and H3S28phS32ph. Our data provide key insight into histone phosphorylation sites. The identification of a second member of the histone modification reading machinery suggests a widespread use of histone phosphorylation in the control of various nuclear processes in malaria parasites.

  17. Comprehensive histone phosphorylation analysis and identification of Pf14-3-3 protein as a histone H3 phosphorylation reader in malaria parasites.

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    Dastidar, Eeshita G; Dzeyk, Kristina; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Malmquist, Nicholas A; Doerig, Christian; Scherf, Artur; Lopez-Rubio, Jose-Juan

    2013-01-01

    The important role of histone posttranslational modifications, particularly methylation and acetylation, in Plasmodium falciparum gene regulation has been established. However, the role of histone phosphorylation remains understudied. Here, we investigate histone phosphorylation utilizing liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry to analyze histones extracted from asexual blood stages using two improved protocols to enhance preservation of PTMs. Enrichment for phosphopeptides lead to the detection of 14 histone phospho-modifications in P. falciparum. The majority of phosphorylation sites were observed at the N-terminal regions of various histones and were frequently observed adjacent to acetylated lysines. We also report the identification of one novel member of the P. falciparum histone phosphosite binding protein repertoire, Pf14-3-3I. Recombinant Pf14-3-3I protein bound to purified parasite histones. In silico structural analysis of Pf14-3-3 proteins revealed that residues responsible for binding to histone H3 S10ph and/or S28ph are conserved at the primary and the tertiary structure levels. Using a battery of H3 specific phosphopeptides, we demonstrate that Pf14-3-3I preferentially binds to H3S28ph over H3S10ph, independent of modification of neighbouring residues like H3S10phK14ac and H3S28phS32ph. Our data provide key insight into histone phosphorylation sites. The identification of a second member of the histone modification reading machinery suggests a widespread use of histone phosphorylation in the control of various nuclear processes in malaria parasites.

  18. Histones in functional diversification. Core histone variants.

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    Pusarla, Rama-Haritha; Bhargava, Purnima

    2005-10-01

    Recent research suggests that minor changes in the primary sequence of the conserved histones may become major determinants for the chromatin structure regulating gene expression and other DNA-related processes. An analysis of the involvement of different core histone variants in different nuclear processes and the structure of different variant nucleosome cores shows that this may indeed be so. Histone variants may also be involved in demarcating functional regions of the chromatin. We discuss in this review why two of the four core histones show higher variation. A comparison of the status of variants in yeast with those from higher eukaryotes suggests that histone variants have evolved in synchrony with functional requirement of the cell.

  19. Readers of histone modifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miyong Yun; Jun Wu; Jerry L Workman; Bing Li

    2011-01-01

    Histone modifications not only play important roles in regulating chromatin structure and nuclear processes but also can be passed to daughter cells as epigenetic marks.Accumulating evidence suggests that the key function of histone modifications is to signal for recruitment or activity of downstream effectors. Here, we discuss the latest discovery of histone-modification readers and how the modification language is interpreted.

  20. Plasmodium falciparum Nucleosomes Exhibit Reduced Stability and Lost Sequence Dependent Nucleosome Positioning

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    Silberhorn, Elisabeth; Schwartz, Uwe; Symelka, Anne; de Koning-Ward, Tania; Längst, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    The packaging and organization of genomic DNA into chromatin represents an additional regulatory layer of gene expression, with specific nucleosome positions that restrict the accessibility of regulatory DNA elements. The mechanisms that position nucleosomes in vivo are thought to depend on the biophysical properties of the histones, sequence patterns, like phased di-nucleotide repeats and the architecture of the histone octamer that folds DNA in 1.65 tight turns. Comparative studies of human and P. falciparum histones reveal that the latter have a strongly reduced ability to recognize internal sequence dependent nucleosome positioning signals. In contrast, the nucleosomes are positioned by AT-repeat sequences flanking nucleosomes in vivo and in vitro. Further, the strong sequence variations in the plasmodium histones, compared to other mammalian histones, do not present adaptations to its AT-rich genome. Human and parasite histones bind with higher affinity to GC-rich DNA and with lower affinity to AT-rich DNA. However, the plasmodium nucleosomes are overall less stable, with increased temperature induced mobility, decreased salt stability of the histones H2A and H2B and considerable reduced binding affinity to GC-rich DNA, as compared with the human nucleosomes. In addition, we show that plasmodium histone octamers form the shortest known nucleosome repeat length (155bp) in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggest that the biochemical properties of the parasite histones are distinct from the typical characteristics of other eukaryotic histones and these properties reflect the increased accessibility of the P. falciparum genome. PMID:28033404

  1. Histone chaperones: assisting histone traffic and nucleosome dynamics.

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    Gurard-Levin, Zachary A; Quivy, Jean-Pierre; Almouzni, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    The functional organization of eukaryotic DNA into chromatin uses histones as components of its building block, the nucleosome. Histone chaperones, which are proteins that escort histones throughout their cellular life, are key actors in all facets of histone metabolism; they regulate the supply and dynamics of histones at chromatin for its assembly and disassembly. Histone chaperones can also participate in the distribution of histone variants, thereby defining distinct chromatin landscapes of importance for genome function, stability, and cell identity. Here, we discuss our current knowledge of the known histone chaperones and their histone partners, focusing on histone H3 and its variants. We then place them into an escort network that distributes these histones in various deposition pathways. Through their distinct interfaces, we show how they affect dynamics during DNA replication, DNA damage, and transcription, and how they maintain genome integrity. Finally, we discuss the importance of histone chaperones during development and describe how misregulation of the histone flow can link to disease.

  2. Current Perspectives on Histone Demethylases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqing TIAN; Jingyuan FANG

    2007-01-01

    The posttranslational modification of histones plays an important role in chromatin regulation.Histone methylation influences constitutive heterochromatin, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation and gene transcription. Histone demethylase catalyzes the removal of methyl groups on lysine or arginine residues of histones. Two kinds of histone lysine demethylases have been identified, including lysine specific demethylase 1 and Jumonji C (JmjC) domain family proteins. These histone demethylases are involved in the regulation of gene expression. Histone modification is a dynamic process, and the imbalance of histone methylation has been linked to cancers. Therefore, histone demethylases may represent a new target for anti-cancer therapy.

  3. Lysine methylation: beyond histones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Zhang; Hong Wen; Xiaobing Shi

    2012-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of histone proteins,such as acetylation,methylation,phosphorylation,and ubiquitylation,play essential roles in regulating chromatin dynamics.Combinations of different modifications on the histone proteins,termed 'histone code' in many cases,extend the information potential of the genetic code by regulating DNA at the epigenetic level.Many PTMs occur on non-histone proteins as well as histones,regulating protein-protein interactions,stability,localization,and/or enzymatic activities of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes.Although protein phosphorylation,ubiquitylation,and acetylation have been extensively studied,only a few proteins other than histones have been reported that can be modified by lysine methylation.This review summarizes the current progress on lysine methylation of nonhistone proteins,and we propose that lysine methylation,like phosphorylation and acetylation,is a common PTM that regulates proteins in diverse cellular processes.

  4. Histone Variants and Epigenetics

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    Henikoff, Steven; Smith, M. Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Histones package and compact DNA by assembling into nucleosome core particles. Most histones are synthesized at S phase for rapid deposition behind replication forks. In addition, the replacement of histones deposited during S phase by variants that can be deposited independently of replication provide the most fundamental level of chromatin differentiation. Alternative mechanisms for depositing different variants can potentially establish and maintain epigenetic states. Variants have also evolved crucial roles in chromosome segregation, transcriptional regulation, DNA repair, and other processes. Investigations into the evolution, structure, and metabolism of histone variants provide a foundation for understanding the participation of chromatin in important cellular processes and in epigenetic memory. PMID:25561719

  5. Histone variants and lipid metabolism

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    Borghesan, Michela; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Oben, Jude; Pazienza, Valerio; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2014-01-01

    Within nucleosomes, canonical histones package the genome, but they can be opportunely replaced with histone variants. The incorporation of histone variants into the nucleosome is a chief cellular strategy to regulate transcription and cellular metabolism. In pathological terms, cellular steatosis

  6. Deciphering histone code of transcriptional regulation in malaria parasites by large-scale data mining.

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    Chen, Haifen; Lonardi, Stefano; Zheng, Jie

    2014-06-01

    Histone modifications play a major role in the regulation of gene expression. Accumulated evidence has shown that histone modifications mediate biological processes such as transcription cooperatively. This has led to the hypothesis of 'histone code' which suggests that combinations of different histone modifications correspond to unique chromatin states and have distinct functions. In this paper, we propose a framework based on association rule mining to discover the potential regulatory relations between histone modifications and gene expression in Plasmodium falciparum. Our approach can output rules with statistical significance. Some of the discovered rules are supported by literature of experimental results. Moreover, we have also discovered de novo rules which can guide further research in epigenetic regulation of transcription. Based on our association rules we build a model to predict gene expression, which outperforms a published Bayesian network model for gene expression prediction by histone modifications. The results of our study reveal mechanisms for histone modifications to regulate transcription in large-scale. Among our findings, the cooperation among histone modifications provides new evidence for the hypothesis of histone code. Furthermore, the rules output by our method can be used to predict the change of gene expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Histone chaperones link histone nuclear import and chromatin assembly.

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    Keck, Kristin M; Pemberton, Lucy F

    2013-01-01

    Histone chaperones are proteins that shield histones from nonspecific interactions until they are assembled into chromatin. After their synthesis in the cytoplasm, histones are bound by different histone chaperones, subjected to a series of posttranslational modifications and imported into the nucleus. These evolutionarily conserved modifications, including acetylation and methylation, can occur in the cytoplasm, but their role in regulating import is not well understood. As part of histone import complexes, histone chaperones may serve to protect the histones during transport, or they may be using histones to promote their own nuclear localization. In addition, there is evidence that histone chaperones can play an active role in the import of histones. Histone chaperones have also been shown to regulate the localization of important chromatin modifying enzymes. This review is focused on the role histone chaperones play in the early biogenesis of histones, the distinct cytoplasmic subcomplexes in which histone chaperones have been found in both yeast and mammalian cells and the importins/karyopherins and nuclear localization signals that mediate the nuclear import of histones. We also address the role that histone chaperone localization plays in human disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Histone chaperones and chromatin assembly.

  8. The Histone Database: an integrated resource for histones and histone fold-containing proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Levine, Kevin M; Morales, Mario; Zhang, Suiyuan; Moreland, R Travis; Baxevanis, Andreas D; Landsman, David

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromatin is composed of DNA and protein components-core histones-that act to compactly pack the DNA into nucleosomes, the fundamental building blocks of chromatin. These nucleosomes are connected to adjacent nucleosomes by linker histones. Nucleosomes are highly dynamic and, through various core histone post-translational modifications and incorporation of diverse histone variants, can serve as epigenetic marks to control processes such as gene expression and recombination. The Histone Sequence Database is a curated collection of sequences and structures of histones and non-histone proteins containing histone folds, assembled from major public databases. Here, we report a substantial increase in the number of sequences and taxonomic coverage for histone and histone fold-containing proteins available in the database. Additionally, the database now contains an expanded dataset that includes archaeal histone sequences. The database also provides comprehensive multiple sequence alignments for each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4), the linker histones (H1/H5) and the archaeal histones. The database also includes current information on solved histone fold-containing structures. The Histone Sequence Database is an inclusive resource for the analysis of chromatin structure and function focused on histones and histone fold-containing proteins.

  9. The SAGA Histone Deubiquitinase Module Controls Yeast Replicative Lifespan via Sir2 Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. McCormick

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the yeast replicative lifespan of a large number of open reading frame (ORF deletions. Here, we report that strains lacking genes SGF73, SGF11, and UBP8 encoding SAGA/SLIK complex histone deubiquitinase module (DUBm components are exceptionally long lived. Strains lacking other SAGA/SALSA components, including the acetyltransferase encoded by GCN5, are not long lived; however, these genes are required for the lifespan extension observed in DUBm deletions. Moreover, the SIR2-encoded histone deacetylase is required, and we document both a genetic and physical interaction between DUBm and Sir2. A series of studies assessing Sir2-dependent functions lead us to propose that DUBm strains are exceptionally long lived because they promote multiple prolongevity events, including reduced rDNA recombination and altered silencing of telomere-proximal genes. Given that ataxin-7, the human Sgf73 ortholog, causes the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 7, our findings indicate that the genetic and epigenetic interactions between DUBm and SIR2 will be relevant to neurodegeneration and aging.

  10. Plasmodium falciparum malaria associated with ABO blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria associated with ABO blood phenotypes and ... out to investigate the relationship between blood group types and P. falciparum ... of long lasting treated (LLT) mosquito bed nets and the prevalence of infection.

  11. Histone variants and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghesan, Michela; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Oben, Jude; Pazienza, Valerio; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2014-01-01

    Within nucleosomes, canonical histones package the genome, but they can be opportunely replaced with histone variants. The incorporation of histone variants into the nucleosome is a chief cellular strategy to regulate transcription and cellular metabolism. In pathological terms, cellular steatosis i

  12. Analysis of histones and histone variants in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Ila; Rai, Krishan Mohan; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Verandra; Singh, Mala; Ranjan, Amol; Lodhi, Niraj; Sawant, Samir V

    2012-01-01

    Histone proteins are the major protein components of chromatin - the physiologically relevant form of the genome (or epigenome) in all eukaryotic cells. For many years, histones were considered passive structural components of eukaryotic chromatin. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that dynamic association of histones and their variants to the genome plays a very important role in gene regulation. Histones are extensively modified during posttranslation viz. acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, etc., and the identification of these covalent marks on canonical and variant histones is crucial for the understanding of their biological significance. Different biochemical techniques have been developed to purify and separate histone proteins; here, we describe techniques for analysis of histones from plant tissues.

  13. Inhibitors of histone deacetylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to compounds of formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, hydrate, solvate, or prodrug thereof, wherein X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, W1, W2, W3, and W4 are as described. The present invention relates generally to inhibitors of histone deacetylase and to methods...

  14. Histones and genome integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Wes D; Pinto, Ines

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomes undergo extensive structural rearrangements during the cell cycle, from the most open chromatin state required for DNA replication to the highest level of compaction and condensation essential for mitotic segregation of sister chromatids. It is now widely accepted that chromatin is a highly dynamic structure that participates in all DNA-related functions, including transcription, DNA replication, repair, and mitosis; hence, histones have emerged as key players in these cellular processes. We review here the studies that implicate histones in functions that affect the chromosome cycle, defined as the cellular processes involved in the maintenance, replication, and segregation of chromosomal DNA. Disruption of the chromosome cycle affects the integrity of the cellular genome, leading to aneuploidy, polyploidy or cell death. Histone stoichiometry, mutations that affect the structure of the nucleosome core particle, and mutations that affect the structure and/or modifications of the histone tails, all have a direct impact on the fidelity of chromosome transmission and the integrity of the genome.

  15. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Klinker

    Full Text Available The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  16. Antibodies and Plasmodium falciparum merozoites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, R; Ramasamy, M; Yasawardena, S

    There is considerable interest in using merozoite proteins in a vaccine against falciparum malaria. Observations that antibodies to merozoite surface proteins block invasion are a basis for optimism. This article draws attention to important and varied aspects of how antibodies to Plasmodium

  17. The Histone Database: an integrated resource for histones and histone fold-containing proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Levine, Kevin M.; Morales, Mario; Zhang, Suiyuan; Moreland, R. Travis; Baxevanis, Andreas D; Landsman, David

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromatin is composed of DNA and protein components—core histones—that act to compactly pack the DNA into nucleosomes, the fundamental building blocks of chromatin. These nucleosomes are connected to adjacent nucleosomes by linker histones. Nucleosomes are highly dynamic and, through various core histone post-translational modifications and incorporation of diverse histone variants, can serve as epigenetic marks to control processes such as gene expression and recombination. The Hi...

  18. Histone deacetylases and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xia-xia; Zhou, Tian; Wang, Xin-An; Tong, Xiao-hong; Ding, Jia-wang

    2015-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common pathological process that leads to cardiovascular diseases, a disease of large- and medium-sized arteries that is characterized by a formation of atherosclerotic plaques consisting of necrotic cores, calcified regions, accumulated modified lipids, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), endothelial cells, leukocytes, and foam cells. Recently, the question about how to suppress the occurrence of atherosclerosis and alleviate the progress of cardiovascular disease becomes the hot topic. Accumulating evidence suggests that histone deacetylases(HDACs) play crucial roles in arteriosclerosis. This review summarizes the effect of HDACs and HDAC inhibitors(HDACi) on the progress of atherosclerosis.

  19. Histone methyltransferases in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Mareike; Helin, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is perceived as a heterogeneous group of diseases that is characterized by aberrant patterns of gene expression. In the last decade, an increasing amount of data has pointed to a key role for epigenetic alterations in human cancer. In this review, we focus on a subclass of epigenetic...... regulators, namely histone methyltransferases (HMTs). Several HMTs have been linked to different types of cancer; however, in most cases we only have limited knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms by which the HMTs contribute to disease development. We summarize the current knowledge regarding some...

  20. Histone Deacetylases and Cardiometabolic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yiew, Kan Hui; Chatterjee, Tapan K.; Hui, David Y.; Weintraub, Neal L.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiometabolic disease, emerging as a worldwide epidemic, is a combination of metabolic derangements leading to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Genetic and environmental factors are linked through epigenetic mechanisms to the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disease. Post-translational modifications of histone tails, including acetylation and deacetylation, epigenetically alter chromatin structure and dictate cell-specific gene expression patterns. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) f...

  1. An age of fewer histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberdoerffer, Philipp

    2010-11-01

    Changes in chromatin structure are a conserved hallmark of ageing, and the mechanism driving these changes, as well as their functional significance, are heavily investigated. Loss of core histones is now observed in aged cells and may contribute to this phenomenon. Histone loss is coupled to cell division and seems to be triggered by telomeric DNA damage.

  2. Direct interplay among histones, histone chaperones, and a chromatin boundary protein in the control of histone gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunder, Rachel M; Rine, Jasper

    2012-11-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the histone chaperone Rtt106 binds newly synthesized histone proteins and mediates their delivery into chromatin during transcription, replication, and silencing. Rtt106 is also recruited to histone gene regulatory regions by the HIR histone chaperone complex to ensure S-phase-specific expression. Here we showed that this Rtt106:HIR complex included Asf1 and histone proteins. Mutations in Rtt106 that reduced histone binding reduced Rtt106 enrichment at histone genes, leading to their increased transcription. Deletion of the chromatin boundary element Yta7 led to increased Rtt106:H3 binding, increased Rtt106 enrichment at histone gene regulatory regions, and decreased histone gene transcription at the HTA1-HTB1 locus. These results suggested a unique regulatory mechanism in which Rtt106 sensed the level of histone proteins to maintain the proper level of histone gene transcription. The role of these histone chaperones and Yta7 differed markedly among the histone gene loci, including the two H3-H4 histone gene pairs. Defects in silencing in rtt106 mutants could be partially accounted for by Rtt106-mediated changes in histone gene repression. These studies suggested that feedback mediated by histone chaperone complexes plays a pivotal role in regulating histone gene transcription.

  3. Tetany with Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P S; Singh, Neha

    2012-07-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is a malarial infection with high morbidity and wide spectrum of atypical presentation. Here we report an unusual presentation of malaria as tetany with alteration in calcium,phosphate and magnesium metabolism Hypocalcaemia in malaria can cause prolonged Q-Tc interval which could be arisk factor for quinine cardiotoxicity and sudden death Hence monitoring of serum calcium in severe malarial infection and cautious use of quinine in such patients is very important in management

  4. Histone-modifying enzymes, histone modifications and histone chaperones in nucleosome assembly: Lessons learned from Rtt109 histone acetyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Jayme L; Chen, Xiaoyue; Walters, Michael A; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    During DNA replication, nucleosomes ahead of replication forks are disassembled to accommodate replication machinery. Following DNA replication, nucleosomes are then reassembled onto replicated DNA using both parental and newly synthesized histones. This process, termed DNA replication-coupled nucleosome assembly (RCNA), is critical for maintaining genome integrity and for the propagation of epigenetic information, dysfunctions of which have been implicated in cancers and aging. In recent years, it has been shown that RCNA is carefully orchestrated by a series of histone modifications, histone chaperones and histone-modifying enzymes. Interestingly, many features of RCNA are also found in processes involving DNA replication-independent nucleosome assembly like histone exchange and gene transcription. In yeast, histone H3 lysine K56 acetylation (H3K56ac) is found in newly synthesized histone H3 and is critical for proper nucleosome assembly and for maintaining genomic stability. The histone acetyltransferase (HAT) regulator of Ty1 transposition 109 (Rtt109) is the sole enzyme responsible for H3K56ac in yeast. Much research has centered on this particular histone modification and histone-modifying enzyme. This Critical Review summarizes much of our current understanding of nucleosome assembly and highlights many important insights learned from studying Rtt109 HATs in fungi. We highlight some seminal features in nucleosome assembly conserved in mammalian systems and describe some of the lingering questions in the field. Further studying fungal and mammalian chromatin assembly may have important public health implications, including deeper understandings of human cancers and aging as well as the pursuit of novel anti-fungal therapies.

  5. Epigenetic regulation: methylation of histone and non-histone proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Histone methylation is believed to play important roles in epigenetic memory in various biological processes. However, questions like whether the methylation marks themselves are faithfully transmit- ted into daughter cells and through what mechanisms are currently under active investigation. Previ- ously, methylation was considered to be irreversible, but the recent discovery of histone lysine de- methylases revealed a dynamic nature of histone methylation regulation on four of the main sites of methylation on histone H3 and H4 tails (H3K4, H3K9, H3K27 and H3K36). Even so, it is still unclear whether demethylases specific for the remaining two sites, H3K79 and H4K20, exist. Furthermore, be- sides histone proteins, the lysine methylation and demethylation also occur on non-histone proteins, which are probably subjected to similar regulation as histones. This review discusses recent pro- gresses in protein lysine methylation regulation focusing on the above topics, while referring readers to a number of recent reviews for the biochemistry and biology of these enzymes.

  6. Why are histones dynamic?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Afin de pouvoir être contenu dans le noyau des cellules eucaryotes, l’ADN doit être compacté en un ensemble très structuré. L’ADN eucaryote est généralement associé à des protéines, principalement à des histones, pour former cette structure très compact appelée chromatine. La chromatine régule de nombreux processus cellulaires de bases reposant sur les interactions ADN-protéines, y compris la transcription des gènes. La liaison des facteurs de transcription aux séquences régulatrices des gène...

  7. Replication stress interferes with histone recycling and predeposition marking of new histones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasencakova, Zuzana; Scharf, Annette N D; Ask, Katrine

    2010-01-01

    To restore chromatin on new DNA during replication, recycling of histones evicted ahead of the fork is combined with new histone deposition. The Asf1 histone chaperone, which buffers excess histones under stress, is a key player in this process. Yet how histones handled by human Asf1 are modified...

  8. Epigenetic regulation: methylation of histone and non-histone proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Fei; SHI Yang

    2009-01-01

    Histone methylation is believed to play important roles In epigenetic memory in various biological processes. However, questions like whether the methylation marks themselves are faithfully transmit-ted into daughter cells and through what mechanisms are currently under active investigation. Previ-ously, methylation was considered to be irreversible, but the recent discovery of histone lysine de-methylases revealed a dynamic nature of histone methylation regulation on four of the main sites of methylation on histone H3 and H4 tails (H3K4, H3K9, H3K27 and H3K36). Even so, it is stlll unclear whether demethylases specific for the remaining two sites, H3K79 and H4K20, exist. Furthermore, be-sides hlstone proteins, the lysine methylation and demethylation also occur on non-histone proteins,which are probably subjected to similar regulation as histones. This review discusses recent pro-gresses In protein lysine methylation regulation focusing on the above topics, while referring readers to a number of recent reviews for the biochemistry and biology of these enzymes.

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: malaria parasite P. falciparum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available malaria parasite P. falciparum Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium_falciparum_L.png Plasmodium_falci...parum_NL.png Plasmodium_falciparum_S.png Plasmodium_falciparum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/...taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Plasmodium+falciparum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Plasmodium+falci...parum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Plasmodium+falci...parum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Plasmodium+falciparum&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=218 ...

  10. A novel, enigmatic histone modification: biotinylation of histones by holocarboxylase synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Yousef I; Zempleni, Janos

    2008-12-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase catalyzes the covalent binding of biotin to histones in humans and other eukaryotes. Eleven biotinylation sites have been identified in histones H2A, H3, and H4. K12-biotinylated histone H4 is enriched in heterochromatin, repeat regions, and plays a role in gene repression. About 30% of the histone H4 molecules are biotinylated at K12 in histone H4 in human fibroblast telomeres. The abundance of biotinylated histones at distinct genomic loci depends on biotin availability. Decreased histone biotinylation decreases life span and stress resistance in Drosophila. Low enrichment of biotinylated histones at transposable elements impairs repression of these elements.

  11. Histone code or not? Combinatorial pattern analyses of histone modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Chongzhi; Peng, Weiqun; Wang, Zhibin; Schones, Dustin E.; Barski, Artem; Cuddapah, Suresh; Cui, Kairong; Roh, Tae-Young; Zhao, Keji; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Zhang, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are organized into chromatin, the structure of which plays critical role in the program of gene expression. Chromatin structure and function is regulated by a myriad of posttranslational modifications on histone tails of the nucleosomes, the fundamental unit of chromatin. It remains unclear how different modifications interact. Based on high- resolution genomic maps of close to 40 histone methylations and acetylations in human T-cells obtained experimentally by ChIP- Seq technique, we investigated the combinatorial patterns of histone modifications at gene promoter regions. We found that a very limited number of patterns dominate. Modifications within a pattern are strongly correlated and each pattern is associated with a distinct gene expression distribution. Our results suggest that it is the patterns rather than the individual modifications that affect the downstream readout.

  12. Histone variants: key players of chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biterge, Burcu; Schneider, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Histones are fundamental structural components of chromatin. Eukaryotic DNA is wound around an octamer of the core histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Binding of linker histone H1 promotes higher order chromatin organization. In addition to their structural role, histones impact chromatin function and dynamics by, e.g., post-translational histone modifications or the presence of specific histone variants. Histone variants exhibit differential expression timings (DNA replication-independent) and mRNA characteristics compared to canonical histones. Replacement of canonical histones with histone variants can affect nucleosome stability and help to create functionally distinct chromatin domains. In line with this, several histone variants have been implicated in the regulation of cellular processes such as DNA repair and transcriptional activity. In this review, we focus on recent progress in the study of core histone variants H2A.X, H2A.Z, macroH2A, H3.3, and CENP-A, as well as linker histone H1 variants, their functions and their links to development and disease.

  13. A nuclear targeting system in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochakarn Theerarat

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The distinct differences in gene control mechanisms acting in the nucleus between Plasmodium falciparum and the human host could lead to new potential drug targets for anti-malarial development. New molecular toolkits are required for dissecting molecular machineries in the P. falciparum nucleus. One valuable tool commonly used in model organisms is protein targeting to specific sub-cellular locations. Targeting proteins to specified locations allows labeling of organelles for microscopy, or testing of how the protein of interest modulates organelle function. In recent years, this approach has been developed for various malaria organelles, such as the mitochondrion and the apicoplast. A tool for targeting a protein of choice to the P. falciparum nucleus using an exogenous nuclear localization sequence is reported here. Methods To develop a nuclear targeting system, a putative nuclear localization sequence was fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP. The nuclear localization sequence from the yeast transcription factor Gal4 was chosen because of its well-defined nuclear localization signal. A series of truncated Gal4 constructs was also created to narrow down the nuclear localization sequence necessary for P. falciparum nuclear import. Transfected parasites were analysed by fluorescent and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Results The nuclear localization sequence of Gal4 is functional in P. falciparum. It effectively transported GFP into the nucleus, and the first 74 amino acid residues were sufficient for nuclear localization. Conclusions The Gal4 fusion technique enables specific transport of a protein of choice into the P. falciparum nucleus, and thus provides a tool for labeling nuclei without using DNA-staining dyes. The finding also indicates similarities between the nuclear transport mechanisms of yeast and P. falciparum. Since the nuclear transport system has been thoroughly studied in yeast, this could give clues

  14. The histone acetyltransferase p300 inhibitor C646 reduces pro-inflammatory gene expression and inhibits histone deacetylases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Thea; Boichenko, Alexander; Leus, Niek G J; Ourailidou, Maria Eleni; Wapenaar, Hannah; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Imhof, Axel; Bischoff, Rainer; Haisma, Hidde J; Dekker, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylations are reversible posttranslational modifications of histone and non-histone proteins that play important regulatory roles in signal transduction cascades and gene expression. Lysine acetylations are regulated by histone acetyltransferases as writers and histone deacetylases as eras

  15. Histone chaperone networks shaping chromatin function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammond, Colin; Strømme, Caroline Bianchi; Huang, Hongda

    2017-01-01

    and fate, which affects all chromosomal processes, including gene expression, chromosome segregation and genome replication and repair. Here, we review the distinct structural and functional properties of the expanding network of histone chaperones. We emphasize how chaperones cooperate in the histone...... chaperone network and via co-chaperone complexes to match histone supply with demand, thereby promoting proper nucleosome assembly and maintaining epigenetic information by recycling modified histones evicted from chromatin....

  16. Diversity and Divergence of Dinoflagellate Histone Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Georgi K; Lynch, Michael

    2015-12-08

    Histone proteins and the nucleosomal organization of chromatin are near-universal eukaroytic features, with the exception of dinoflagellates. Previous studies have suggested that histones do not play a major role in the packaging of dinoflagellate genomes, although several genomic and transcriptomic surveys have detected a full set of core histone genes. Here, transcriptomic and genomic sequence data from multiple dinoflagellate lineages are analyzed, and the diversity of histone proteins and their variants characterized, with particular focus on their potential post-translational modifications and the conservation of the histone code. In addition, the set of putative epigenetic mark readers and writers, chromatin remodelers and histone chaperones are examined. Dinoflagellates clearly express the most derived set of histones among all autonomous eukaryote nuclei, consistent with a combination of relaxation of sequence constraints imposed by the histone code and the presence of numerous specialized histone variants. The histone code itself appears to have diverged significantly in some of its components, yet others are conserved, implying conservation of the associated biochemical processes. Specifically, and with major implications for the function of histones in dinoflagellates, the results presented here strongly suggest that transcription through nucleosomal arrays happens in dinoflagellates. Finally, the plausible roles of histones in dinoflagellate nuclei are discussed.

  17. Antimalarial activity of phenylthiazolyl-bearing hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Geoffrey S; Chen, Yufeng; Andrews, Katherine T; Caridha, Diana; Gerena, Lucia; Gettayacamin, Montip; Johnson, Jacob; Li, Qigui; Melendez, Victor; Obaldia, Nicanor; Tran, Thanh N; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2008-10-01

    The antimalarial activity and pharmacology of a series of phenylthiazolyl-bearing hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) was evaluated. In in vitro growth inhibition assays approximately 50 analogs were evaluated against four drug resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The range of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) was 0.0005 to >1 microM. Five analogs exhibited IC(50)s of 600. The most potent compound, WR301801 (YC-2-88) was shown to cause hyperacetylation of P. falciparum histones, which is a marker for HDAC inhibition in eukaryotic cells. The compound also inhibited malarial and mammalian HDAC activity in functional assays at low nanomolar concentrations. WR301801 did not exhibit cures in P. berghei-infected mice at oral doses as high as 640 mg/kg/day for 3 days or in P. falciparum-infected Aotus lemurinus lemurinus monkeys at oral doses of 32 mg/kg/day for 3 days, despite high relative bioavailability. The failure of monotherapy in mice may be due to a short half-life, since the compound was rapidly hydrolyzed to an inactive acid metabolite by loss of its hydroxamate group in vitro (half-life of 11 min in mouse microsomes) and in vivo (half-life in mice of 3.5 h after a single oral dose of 50 mg/kg). However, WR301801 exhibited cures in P. berghei-infected mice when combined at doses of 52 mg/kg/day orally with subcurative doses of chloroquine. Next-generation HDACIs with greater metabolic stability than WR301801 may be useful as antimalarials if combined appropriately with conventional antimalarial drugs.

  18. Guillain-Barré syndrome in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Wijesundere, A.

    1992-01-01

    A patient with Plasmodium falciparum malaria developed peripheral neuropathy. Clinical, cerebro-spinal fluid examination and nerve conduction studies confirmed Guillain-Barré syndrome, not previously reported in P. falciparum malaria.

  19. Identification and Interrogation of Combinatorial Histone Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R Karch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone proteins are dynamically modified to mediate a variety of cellular processes including gene transcription, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis. Regulation of these processes occurs through the recruitment of non-histone proteins to chromatin by specific combinations of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs. Mass spectrometry has emerged as an essential tool to discover and quantify histone PTMs both within and between samples in an unbiased manner. Developments in mass spectrometry that allow for characterization of large histone peptides or intact protein has made it possible to determine which modifications occur simultaneously on a single histone polypeptide. A variety of techniques from biochemistry, biophysics, and chemical biology have been employed to determine the biological relevance of discovered combinatorial codes. This review first describes advancements in the field of mass spectrometry that have facilitated histone PTM analysis and then covers notable approaches to probe the biological relevance of these modifications in their nucleosomal context.

  20. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Histone Proteoforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zuo-Fei; Arnaudo, Anna M.; Garcia, Benjamin A.

    2014-06-01

    Histones play important roles in chromatin, in the forms of various posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and sequence variants, which are called histone proteoforms. Investigating modifications and variants is an ongoing challenge. Previous methods are based on antibodies, and because they usually detect only one modification at a time, they are not suitable for studying the various combinations of modifications on histones. Fortunately, mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a high-throughput technology for histone analysis and does not require prior knowledge about any modifications. From the data generated by mass spectrometers, both identification and quantification of modifications, as well as variants, can be obtained easily. On the basis of this information, the functions of histones in various cellular contexts can be revealed. Therefore, MS continues to play an important role in the study of histone proteoforms. In this review, we discuss the analysis strategies of MS, their applications on histones, and some key remaining challenges.

  1. 3-Halo Chloroquine Derivatives Overcome Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter-Mediated Drug Resistance in P. falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaye, Sonia; Tazoo, Dagobert; Bohle, D Scott; Georges, Elias

    2015-12-01

    Polymorphism in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) was shown to cause chloroquine resistance. In this report, we examined the antimalarial potential of novel 3-halo chloroquine derivatives (3-chloro, 3-bromo, and 3-iodo) against chloroquine-susceptible and -resistant P. falciparum. All three derivatives inhibited the proliferation of P. falciparum; with 3-iodo chloroquine being most effective. Moreover, 3-iodo chloroquine was highly effective at potentiating and reversing chloroquine toxicity of drug-susceptible and -resistant P. falciparum.

  2. Histone gene expression and histone mRNA 3' end structure in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pettitt Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone protein synthesis is essential for cell proliferation and required for the packaging of DNA into chromatin. In animals, histone proteins are provided by the expression of multicopy replication-dependent histone genes. Histone mRNAs that are processed by a histone-specific mechanism to end after a highly conserved RNA hairpin element, and lack a poly(A tail. In vertebrates and Drosophila, their expression is dependent on HBP/SLBP that binds to the RNA hairpin element. We showed previously that these cis and trans acting regulators of histone gene expression are conserved in C. elegans. Here we report the results of an investigation of the histone mRNA 3' end structure and of histone gene expression during C. elegans development. Results Sequence analysis of replication-dependent histone genes revealed the presence of several highly conserved sequence elements in the 3' untranslated region of histone pre-mRNAs, including an RNA hairpin element and a polyadenylation signal. To determine whether in C. elegans histone mRNA 3' end formation occurs at this polyadenylation signal and results in polyadenylated histone mRNA, we investigated the mRNA 3' end structure of histone mRNA. Using poly(A selection, RNAse protection and sequencing of histone mRNA ends, we determined that a majority of C. elegans histone mRNAs lack a poly(A tail and end three to six nucleotides after the hairpin structure, after an A or a U, and have a 3' OH group. RNAi knock down of CDL-1, the C. elegans HBP/SLBP, does not significantly affect histone mRNA levels but severely depletes histone protein levels. Histone gene expression varies during development and is reduced in L3 animals compared to L1 animals and adults. In adults, histone gene expression is restricted to the germ line, where cell division occurs. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the expression of C. elegans histone genes is subject to control mechanisms similar to the ones in other

  3. Gametocytogenesis : the puberty of Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariey Frédéric

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The protozoan Plasmodium falciparum has a complex life cycle in which asexual multiplication in the vertebrate host alternates with an obligate sexual reproduction in the anopheline mosquito. Apart from the apparent recombination advantages conferred by sex, P. falciparum has evolved a remarkable biology and adaptive phenotypes to insure its transmission despite the dangers of sex. This review mainly focuses on the current knowledge on commitment to sexual development, gametocytogenesis and the evolutionary significance of various aspects of gametocyte biology. It goes further than pure biology to look at the strategies used to improve successful transmission. Although gametocytes are inevitable stages for transmission and provide a potential target to fight malaria, they have received less attention than the pathogenic asexual stages. There is a need for research on gametocytes, which are a fascinating stage, responsible to a large extent for the success of P. falciparum.

  4. Single molecule DNA compaction by purified histones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN ShiYong; WANG XiaoLing; FU WenBo; WANG WeiChi; LI Ming

    2008-01-01

    The compaction of single DNA molecules by purified histones is studied using magnetic tweezers, The compaction rate increases rapidly when the histone concentration is increased from 0.002 to 0.2 mmol/L, and saturates when the concentration is beyond 0.2 mmol/L, The time course of compaction is exponential at low histone concentrations. It becomes sigmoidal at high concentrations. Cooperativity between the histones bound to DNA is proposed to be responsible for the transition. The histones are loaded onto DNA randomly at low concentrations. They tend to bind DNA cooperatively at high con-centrations because the structural torsions of DNA induced by the bound histones become overlapping so that the binding of one histone facilitates the binding of others. Under very large forces, the com-pacted histone-DNA complex can be disrupted in a discrete manner with a step size of ~60 nm. But the histones cannot be completely stripped off DNA, as is revealed by the lowered B-S transition plateau of the histone-bound DNA.

  5. A PHD in histone language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrika, Nulu Naga Prafulla; Sundaravelpandian, Kalaipandian; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of core histones are important for various DNA-templated processes such as transcription and repair. We recently reported that the ALFIN LIKE 6 (AL6) gene, identified in a forward genetic screen, is critical for phosphate deficiency-induced root hair formation and several other processes associated with the regulation of cellular phosphate homeostasis. AL6 contains a Plant Homeo Domain (PHD) finger that can bind to trimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me3). Homozygous mutants defective in AL6 expression form very short root hairs under phosphate-deficient conditions, presumably caused by altered expression of putative primary and secondary down-stream targets of AL6. In this Addendum, we speculate about possible roles of AL6, H3K4 trimethylation and other chromatin modifications in the adaptation of plants to low phosphate availability. PMID:23531693

  6. Readers of histone methylarginine marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayatri, Sitaram; Bedford, Mark T

    2014-08-01

    Arginine methylation is a common posttranslational modification (PTM) that alters roughly 0.5% of all arginine residues in the cells. There are three types of arginine methylation: monomethylarginine (MMA), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). These three PTMs are enriched on RNA-binding proteins and on histones, and also impact signal transduction cascades. To date, over thirty arginine methylation sites have been cataloged on the different core histones. These modifications alter protein structure, impact interactions with DNA, and also generate docking sites for effector molecules. The primary "readers" of methylarginine marks are Tudor domain-containing proteins. The complete family of thirty-six Tudor domain-containing proteins has yet to be fully characterized, but at least ten bind methyllysine motifs and eight bind methylarginine motifs. In this review, we will highlight the biological roles of the Tudor domains that interact with arginine methylated motifs, and also address other types of interactions that are regulated by these particular PTMs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dissecting the Molecular Roles of Histone Chaperones in Histone Acetylation by Type B Histone Acetyltransferases (HAT-B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigney, Allison; Ricketts, M Daniel; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2015-12-18

    The HAT-B enzyme complex is responsible for acetylating newly synthesized histone H4 on lysines K5 and K12. HAT-B is a multisubunit complex composed of the histone acetyltransferase 1 (Hat1) catalytic subunit and the Hat2 (rbap46) histone chaperone. Hat1 is predominantly localized in the nucleus as a member of a trimeric NuB4 complex containing Hat1, Hat2, and a histone H3-H4 specific histone chaperone called Hif1 (NASP). In addition to Hif1 and Hat2, Hat1 interacts with Asf1 (anti-silencing function 1), a histone chaperone that has been reported to be involved in both replication-dependent and -independent chromatin assembly. To elucidate the molecular roles of the Hif1 and Asf1 histone chaperones in HAT-B histone binding and acetyltransferase activity, we have characterized the stoichiometry and binding mode of Hif1 and Asf1 to HAT-B and the effect of this binding on the enzymatic activity of HAT-B. We find that Hif1 and Asf1 bind through different modes and independently to HAT-B, whereby Hif1 binds directly to Hat2, and Asf1 is only capable of interactions with HAT-B through contacts with histones H3-H4. We also demonstrate that HAT-B is significantly more active against an intact H3-H4 heterodimer over a histone H4 peptide, independent of either Hif1 or Asf1 binding. Mutational studies further demonstrate that HAT-B binding to the histone tail regions is not sufficient for this enhanced activity. Based on these data, we propose a model for HAT-B/histone chaperone assembly and acetylation of H3-H4 complexes.

  8. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyun Jeon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed.

  9. Basic nuclear processes affected by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylase inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legartová, Soňa; Stixová, Lenka; Strnad, Hynek; Kozubek, Stanislav; Martinet, Nadine; Dekker, Frank J; Franek, Michal; Bártová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The optimal balance between histone acetylation and deacetylation is important for proper gene function. Therefore, we addressed how inhibitors of histone-modifying enzymes can modulate nuclear events, including replication, transcription, splicing and DNA repair. MATERIALS & METHODS: Changes i

  10. Dynamic fuzziness during linker histone action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBryant, Steven J; Hansen, Jeffrey C

    2012-01-01

    Linker histones are multi-domain nucleosome binding proteins that stabilize higher order chromatin structures and engage in specific protein-protein interactions. Here we emphasize the structural and functional properties of the linker histone C-terminal domain (CTD), focusing on its intrinsic disorder, interaction-induced secondary structure formation and dynamic fuzziness. We argue that the fuzziness inherent in the CTD is a primary molecular mechanism underlying linker histone function in the nucleus.

  11. Archaeal histones: dynamic and versatile genome architects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Henneman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome organization and compaction in Archaea involves different chromatin proteins, among which homologues of eukaryotic histones. Archaeal histones are considered the ancestors of their eukaryotic counterparts, which isreflected in the way they position along the genome and wrap DNA. Evolution from the archaeal modes of action to the prototypical eukaryotic nucleosome may be attributed to altered histone-histone interactions and DNA sequence determinants cooperating to yield stable multimeric structures. The identification of a new candidate phylum, proposed to be a missing link between archaea and eukaryotes, Lokiarchaeaota, may be instrumental in addressing this hypothesis.

  12. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boubidi, Saïd C; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  13. Congenital Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Melissa; Szymanski, Ann Marie; Slovin, Ariella; Wong, Edward C C; DeBiasi, Roberta L

    2017-01-11

    Congenital malaria is rare in the United States, but is an important diagnosis to consider when evaluating febrile infants. Herein, we describe a case of congenital Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a 2-week-old infant born in the United States to a mother who had emigrated from Nigeria 3 months before delivery. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria. PMID:20113565

  15. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boubidi, Saïd C; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  16. Uncoupling histone turnover from transcription-associated histone H3 modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Paolo; Strubin, Michel

    2015-04-30

    Transcription in eukaryotes is associated with two major changes in chromatin organization. Firstly, nucleosomal histones are continuously replaced by new histones, an event that in yeast occurs predominantly at transcriptionally active promoters. Secondly, histones become modified post-translationally at specific lysine residues. Some modifications, including histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and acetylation at lysines 9 (H3K9ac) and 14 (H3K14ac), are specifically enriched at active promoters where histones exchange, suggesting a possible causal relationship. Other modifications accumulate within transcribed regions and one of them, H3K36me3, is thought to prevent histone exchange. Here we explored the relationship between these four H3 modifications and histone turnover at a few selected genes. Using lysine-to-arginine mutants and a histone exchange assay, we found that none of these modifications plays a major role in either promoting or preventing histone turnover. Unexpectedly, mutation of H3K56, whose acetylation occurs prior to chromatin incorporation, had an effect only when introduced into the nucleosomal histone. Furthermore, we used various genetic approaches to show that histone turnover can be experimentally altered with no major consequence on the H3 modifications tested. Together, these results suggest that transcription-associated histone turnover and H3 modification are two correlating but largely independent events.

  17. MAP kinases and histone modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamaki Suganuma; Jerry L. Workman

    2012-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways alter the gene expression program in response to extracellular or intracellular cues.Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) govern numerous cellular processes including cell growth,stress response,apoptosis,and differentiation.In the past decade,MAPKs have been shown to regulate the transcription machinery and associate with chromatin-modifying complexes.Moreover,recent studies demonstrate that several MAPKs bind directly to chromatin at target genes.This review highlights the recent discoveries of MAPK signaling in regard to histone modifications and chromatin regulation.Evidence suggesting that further unknown mechanisms integrate signal transduction with chromatin biology is discussed.

  18. Histone acetyltransferases: challenges in targeting bi-substrate enzymes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wapenaar, Hannah; Dekker, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are epigenetic enzymes that install acetyl groups onto lysine residues of cellular proteins such as histones, transcription factors, nuclear receptors, and enzymes...

  19. Ethanol precipitation analysis of thymus histone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvoet, P.

    1957-01-01

    An analytical ethanol precipitation technique, similar to 's salting-out procedure, was used for the characterisation of whole thymus histone and the products obtained by preparative ethanol fractionation. The analysis was carried out at —5° C and pH 6.5. Whole histone prepared according to et al.,

  20. Histone modifications: Cycling with chromosomal replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thon, Genevieve

    2008-01-01

    Histone modifications tend to be lost during chromosome duplication. Several recent studies suggest that the RNA interference pathway becomes active during the weakened transcriptional repression occurring at centromeres in S phase, resulting in the re-establishment of histone modifications that ...

  1. Canonical and variant histones of protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmasso, Maria Carolina; Sullivan, William Joseph; Angel, Sergio Oscar

    2011-06-01

    Protozoan parasites have tremendously diverse lifestyles that require adaptation to a remarkable assortment of different environmental conditions. In order to complete their life cycles, protozoan parasites rely on fine-tuning gene expression. In general, protozoa use novel regulatory elements, transcription factors, and epigenetic mechanisms to regulate their transcriptomes. One of the most surprising findings includes the nature of their histones--these primitive eukaryotes lack some histones yet harbor novel histone variants of unknown function. In this review, we describe the histone components of different protozoan parasites based on literature and database searching. We summarize the key discoveries regarding histones and histone variants and their impact on chromatin regulation in protozoan parasites. In addition, we list histone genes IDs, sequences, and genomic localization of several protozoan parasites and Microsporidia histones, obtained from a thorough search of genome databases. We then compare these findings with those observed in higher eukaryotes, allowing us to highlight some novel aspects of epigenetic regulation in protists and to propose questions to be addressed in the upcoming years.

  2. Mosquito Vectors and the Globalization of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Zilversmit, Martine M; Neafsey, Daniel E; Hartl, Daniel L; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2016-11-23

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a devastating public health problem. Recent discoveries have shed light on the origin and evolution of Plasmodium parasites and their interactions with their vertebrate and mosquito hosts. P. falciparum malaria originated in Africa from a single horizontal transfer between an infected gorilla and a human, and became global as the result of human migration. Today, P. falciparum malaria is transmitted worldwide by more than 70 different anopheline mosquito species. Recent studies indicate that the mosquito immune system can be a barrier to malaria transmission and that the P. falciparum Pfs47 gene allows the parasite to evade mosquito immune detection. Here, we review the origin and globalization of P. falciparum and integrate this history with analysis of the biology, evolution, and dispersal of the main mosquito vectors. This new perspective broadens our understanding of P. falciparum population structure and the dispersal of important parasite genetic traits.

  3. Structure and Functions of Linker Histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubitelev, A V; Nikitin, D V; Shaytan, A K; Studitsky, V M; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2016-03-01

    Linker histones such as variants H1, H5, and other similar proteins play an important role in regulation of chromatin structure and dynamics. However, interactions of linker histones with DNA and proteins, as well as specific functions of their different variants, are poorly studied. This is because they acquire tertiary structure only when interacting with a nucleosome, and because of limitations of currently available methods. However, deeper investigation of linker histones and their interactions with other proteins will address a number of important questions - from structure of compacted chromatin to regulation of early embryogenesis. In this review, structures of histone H1 variants and its interaction with chromatin DNA are considered. A possible functional significance of different H1 variants, a role of these proteins in maintaining interphase chromatin structure, and interactions of linker histones with other cellular proteins are also discussed.

  4. Histone variants in plant transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danhua; Berger, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin based organization of eukaryotic genome plays a profound role in regulating gene transcription. Nucleosomes form the basic subunits of chromatin by packaging DNA with histone proteins, impeding the access of DNA to transcription factors and RNA polymerases. Exchange of histone variants in nucleosomes alters the properties of nucleosomes and thus modulates DNA exposure during transcriptional regulation. Growing evidence indicates the important function of histone variants in programming transcription during developmental transitions and stress response. Here we review how histone variants and their deposition machineries regulate the nucleosome stability and dynamics, and discuss the link between histone variants and transcriptional regulation in plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Gene Regulatory Mechanisms and Networks, edited by Dr. Erich Grotewold and Dr. Nathan Springer.

  5. Acetylated histone H3 increases nucleosome dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marek; Manohar, Mridula; Ottesen, Jennifer; Poirier, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Chromatin's basic unit structure is the nucleosome, i.e. genomic DNA wrapped around a particular class of proteins -- histones -- which due to their physical hindrance, block vital biological processes, such as DNA repair, DNA replication, and RNA transcription. Histone post-translational modifications, which are known to exist in vivo, are hypothesized to regulate these biological processes by directly altering DNA-histone interactions and thus nucleosome structure and stability. Using magnetic tweezers technique we studied the acetylation of histone H3 in the dyad region, i.e. at K115 and K122, on reconstituted arrays of nucleosomes under constant external force. Based on the measured increase in the probability of dissociation of modified nucleosomes, we infer that this double modification could facilitate histone chaperone mediated nucleosome disassembly in vivo.

  6. A genetic system to assess in vivo the functions of histones and histone modifications in higher eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günesdogan, Ufuk; Jäckle, Herbert; Herzig, Alf

    2010-10-01

    Despite the fundamental role of canonical histones in nucleosome structure, there is no experimental system for higher eukaryotes in which basic questions about histone function can be directly addressed. We developed a new genetic tool for Drosophila melanogaster in which the canonical histone complement can be replaced with multiple copies of experimentally modified histone transgenes. This new histone-replacement system provides a well-defined and direct cellular assay system for histone function with which to critically test models in chromatin biology dealing with chromatin assembly, variant histone functions and the biological significance of distinct histone modifications in a multicellular organism.

  7. Desferrioxamine suppresses Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, S; Rossan, R N; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A

    1987-02-01

    Clinical observation has suggested that iron deficiency may be protective in malaria, and we have found that desferrioxamine (DF), an iron-specific chelating agent, inhibited Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. It was difficult to be confident that DF would be effective in an intact animal, however, because continuous exposure to DF was required in vitro and, in vivo, DF is rapidly excreted. Also, the in vitro effect of DF was overcome by addition of iron to the culture and in vivo there are potentially high local iron concentrations when iron is absorbed from the diet or released from reticuloendothelial cells. We now show that DF given by constant subcutaneous infusion does suppress parasitemia in P. falciparum-infected Aotus monkeys.

  8. The human histone chaperone sNASP interacts with linker and core histones through distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanyu; Ge, Zhongqi; Walsh, Scott T R; Parthun, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Somatic nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein (sNASP) is a human homolog of the N1/N2 family of histone chaperones. sNASP contains the domain structure characteristic of this family, which includes a large acidic patch flanked by several tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs. sNASP possesses a unique binding specificity in that it forms specific complexes with both histone H1 and histones H3/H4. Based on the binding affinities of sNASP variants to histones H1, H3.3, H4 and H3.3/H4 complexes, sNASP uses distinct structural domains to interact with linker and core histones. For example, one of the acidic patches of sNASP was essential for linker histone binding but not for core histone interactions. The fourth TPR of sNASP played a critical role in interactions with histone H3/H4 complexes, but did not influence histone H1 binding. Finally, analysis of cellular proteins demonstrated that sNASP existed in distinct complexes that contained either linker or core histones.

  9. Histone tail modifications and noncanonical functions of histones: perspectives in cancer epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadnagy, Annamaria; Beaulieu, Raymond; Balicki, Danuta

    2008-04-01

    Over the past few years, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have occupied an important place in the effort to develop novel, but less toxic, anticancer therapy. HDAC inhibitors block HDACs, which are the enzymes responsible for histone deacetylation, and therefore they modulate gene expression. The cellular effects of HDAC inhibitors include growth arrest and the induction of differentiation. Early successes in cancer therapeutics obtained using these drugs alone or in combination with other anticancer drugs emphasize the important place of posttranslational modifications of histones in cancer therapy. Histone tail modifications along with DNA methylation are the most studied epigenetic events related to cancer progression. Moreover, extranuclear functions of histones have also been described. Because HDAC inhibitors block HDACs and thereby increase histone acetylation, we propose a model wherein exogenous acetylated histones or other related acetylated proteins that are introduced into the nucleus become HDAC substrates and thereby compete with endogenous histones for HDACs. This competition may lead to the increased acetylation of the endogenous histones, as in the case of HDAC inhibitor therapy. Moreover, other mechanisms of action, such as binding to chromatin and modulating gene expression, are also possible for exogenously introduced histones.

  10. Exploring the folate pathway in Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, John E.

    2005-01-01

    As in centuries past, the main weapon against human malaria infections continues to be intervention with drugs, despite the widespread and increasing frequency of parasite populations that are resistant to one or more of the available compounds. This is a particular problem with the lethal species of parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, which claims some two million lives per year as well as causing enormous social and economic problems. Amongst the antimalarial drugs currently in clinical use, t...

  11. Plasma glutamine levels and falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, G; Planche, T; Agbenyega, T; Bedu-Addo, G; Owusu-Ofori, A; Adebe-Appiah, J; Agranoff, D; Woodrow, C; Castell, L; Elford, B; Krishna, S

    1999-01-01

    Glutamine deficiency is associated with increased rates of sepsis and mortality, which can be prevented by glutamine supplementation. Changes in glutamine concentration were examined in Ghanaian children with acute falciparum malaria and control cases. The mean (SD) plasma glutamine concentration was lower in patients with acute malaria (401 (82) mumol/L, n = 50) than in control patients (623 (67) mumol/L, n = 7; P sepsis and dyserythropoeisis.

  12. Identification and characterization of lysine-methylated sites on histones and non-histone proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzong-Yi; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Lu, Cheng-Tzung; Cheng, Tzu-Hsiu; Chang, Tzu-Hao

    2014-06-01

    Protein methylation is a kind of post-translational modification (PTM), and typically takes place on lysine and arginine amino acid residues. Protein methylation is involved in many important biological processes, and most recent studies focused on lysine methylation of histones due to its critical roles in regulating transcriptional repression and activation. Histones possess highly conserved sequences and are homologous in most species. However, there is much less sequence conservation among non-histone proteins. Therefore, mechanisms for identifying lysine-methylated sites may greatly differ between histones and non-histone proteins. Nevertheless, this point of view was not considered in previous studies. Here we constructed two support vector machine (SVM) models by using lysine-methylated data from histones and non-histone proteins for predictions of lysine-methylated sites. Numerous features, such as the amino acid composition (AAC) and accessible surface area (ASA), were used in the SVM models, and the predictive performance was evaluated using five-fold cross-validations. For histones, the predictive sensitivity was 85.62% and specificity was 80.32%. For non-histone proteins, the predictive sensitivity was 69.1% and specificity was 88.72%. Results showed that our model significantly improved the predictive accuracy of histones compared to previous approaches. In addition, features of the flanking region of lysine-methylated sites on histones and non-histone proteins were also characterized and are discussed. A gene ontology functional analysis of lysine-methylated proteins and correlations of lysine-methylated sites with other PTMs in histones were also analyzed in detail. Finally, a web server, MethyK, was constructed to identify lysine-methylated sites. MethK now is available at http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/MethK/.

  13. Clinical trials of chemotherapy for falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, P; Olliaro, P

    1998-02-01

    Plasmodium falciparum remains one of the World's most prevalent and devastating pathogens. Mainly for economic reasons, the parasite's ability to develop resistance to drugs has not been matched by the rate at which new compounds are developed. Even so, there are new drugs (or new combinations of old drugs) currently under investigation, or in the process of development (at the moment): Pyronaridine, a well-tolerated, synthetic drug that may have utility for multi-resistant falciparum malaria in many parts of the world; however,problems remain over the formulation of this drug (which is a major determinant of its bioavailability) and its eventual cost. Chlorproguanil-dapsone (lap dap) is being studied as a possible low-cost'successor' to pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine; the utility of chlorproguanil-dapsone as 'salvage' therapy for clinical cases of pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine failure has yet to be tested in clinical trials. Atovaquone-proguanil (malarone) has utility against multi-resistant parasites; however, it is likely to be expensive (but is currently being provided free-of-charge in certain areas of Africa). Artemether-benflumetol (coartemether) combines the advantages of artemether (a rapid reduction in parasite load) with a second drug that reduces the risk of recrudescence; the cost of this combination is unclear. Rectal artesunate is being studied as an intervention to reduce the proportion of children with falciparum malaria who deteriorate to severe disease; the formulation is appropriate for use in rural health centres.

  14. Linker histones in hormonal gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicent, G P; Wright, R H G; Beato, M

    2016-03-01

    In the present review, we summarize advances in our knowledge on the role of the histone H1 family of proteins in breast cancer cells, focusing on their response to progestins. Histone H1 plays a dual role in gene regulation by hormones, both as a structural component of chromatin and as a dynamic modulator of transcription. It contributes to hormonal regulation of the MMTV promoter by stabilizing a homogeneous nucleosome positioning, which reduces basal transcription whereas at the same time promoting progesterone receptor binding and nucleosome remodeling. These combined effects enhance hormone dependent gene transcription, which eventually requires H1 phosphorylation and displacement. Various isoforms of histone H1 have specific functions in differentiated breast cancer cells and compact nucleosomal arrays to different extents in vitro. Genome-wide studies show that histone H1 has a key role in chromatin dynamics of hormone regulated genes. A complex sequence of enzymatic events, including phosphorylation by CDK2, PARylation by PARP1 and the ATP-dependent activity of NURF, are required for H1 displacement and gene de-repression, as a prerequisite for further nucleosome remodeling. Similarly, during hormone-dependent gene repression a dedicated enzymatic mechanism controls H1 deposition at promoters by a complex containing HP1γ, LSD1 and BRG1, the ATPase of the BAF complex. Thus, a broader vision of the histone code should include histone H1, as the linker histone variants actively participate in the regulation of the chromatin structure. How modifications of the core histones tails affect H1 modifications and vice versa is one of the many questions that remains to be addressed to provide a more comprehensive view of the histone cross-talk mechanisms.

  15. HistoneDB 2.0: a histone database with variants--an integrated resource to explore histones and their variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draizen, Eli J; Shaytan, Alexey K; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Talbert, Paul B; Landsman, David; Panchenko, Anna R

    2016-01-01

    Compaction of DNA into chromatin is a characteristic feature of eukaryotic organisms. The core (H2A, H2B, H3, H4) and linker (H1) histone proteins are responsible for this compaction through the formation of nucleosomes and higher order chromatin aggregates. Moreover, histones are intricately involved in chromatin functioning and provide a means for genome dynamic regulation through specific histone variants and histone post-translational modifications. 'HistoneDB 2.0--with variants' is a comprehensive database of histone protein sequences, classified by histone types and variants. All entries in the database are supplemented by rich sequence and structural annotations with many interactive tools to explore and compare sequences of different variants from various organisms. The core of the database is a manually curated set of histone sequences grouped into 30 different variant subsets with variant-specific annotations. The curated set is supplemented by an automatically extracted set of histone sequences from the non-redundant protein database using algorithms trained on the curated set. The interactive web site supports various searching strategies in both datasets: browsing of phylogenetic trees; on-demand generation of multiple sequence alignments with feature annotations; classification of histone-like sequences and browsing of the taxonomic diversity for every histone variant. HistoneDB 2.0 is a resource for the interactive comparative analysis of histone protein sequences and their implications for chromatin function. Database URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/HistoneDB2.0.

  16. Histone demethylases in development and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marianne Terndrup; Helin, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Histone modifications serve as regulatory marks that are instrumental for the control of transcription and chromatin architecture. Strict regulation of gene expression patterns is crucial during development and differentiation, where diverse cell types evolve from common predecessors. Since...... the first histone lysine demethylase was discovered in 2004, a number of demethylases have been identified and implicated in the control of gene expression programmes and cell fate decisions. Histone demethylases are now emerging as important players in developmental processes and have been linked to human...

  17. Dynamics of Histone Tails within Chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Morgan; North, Justin; Page, Michael; Jaroniec, Christopher; Hammel, Christopher; Poirier, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Genetic information in humans is encoded within DNA molecules that is wrapped around histone octamer proteins and compacted into a highly conserved structural polymer, chromatin. The physical and material properties of chromatin appear to influence gene expression by altering the accessibility of proteins to the DNA. The tails of the histones are flexible domains that are thought to play a role in regulating DNA accessibility and compaction; however the molecular mechanisms for these phenomena are not understood. I will present CW-EPR studies on site directed spin labeled nucleosomes that probe the structure and dynamics of these histone tails within nucleosomes.

  18. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.; Bekker-Jensen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important DNA repair mechanism required for cellular resistance against UV light and toxic chemicals such as those found in tobacco smoke. In living cells, NER efficiently detects and removes DNA lesions within the large nuclear macromolecular complex called...... of histone variants and histone displacement (including nucleosome sliding). Here we review current knowledge, and speculate about current unknowns, regarding those chromatin remodeling activities that physically displace histones before, during and after NER. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel...

  19. Molecular mechanisms and potential functions of histone demethylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooistra, Susanne Marije; Helin, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Histone modifications are thought to regulate chromatin structure, transcription and other nuclear processes. Histone methylation was originally believed to be an irreversible modification that could only be removed by histone eviction or by dilution during DNA replication. However, the isolation...... of two families of enzymes that can demethylate histones has changed this notion. The biochemical activities of these histone demethylases towards specific Lys residues on histones, and in some cases non-histone substrates, have highlighted their importance in developmental control, cell-fate decisions...

  20. Transcription-Coupled Replacement of Histones: Degradation or Recycling?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Shan Chen; Xiao-Bo Qiu

    2012-01-01

    Histone modifications are proposed to constitute a “histone code” for epigenetic regulation of gene expression.However,recent studies demonstrate that histones have to be disassembled from chromatin during transcription.Recent evidence,though not conclusive,suggests that histones might be degradable after being removed from chromatin during transcription.Degradation of overexpressed excessive histones,instead of native histones,has been shown to be dependent on proteasomes and ubiquitination.Since the 26S proteasome usually recognizes polyubiquitinated substrates,it is critical to demonstrate whether degradation of histones is mediated by polyubiquitination.Unexpectedly,there is almost no evidence that any ubiquitin ligase can promote polyubiquitination-dependent degradation of constitutive histones.Meanwhile,acetylation and phosphorylation are also associated with histone degradation.This review attempts to summarize the current knowledge on the transcription-coupled degradation of histones and its regulation by posttranslational protein modifications.

  1. In vitro targeting reveals intrinsic histone tail specificity of the Sin3/histone deacetylase and N-CoR/SMRT corepressor complexes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.; Carrozza, M.J.; Lasonder, E.; Workman, J.L.; Logie, C.; Stunnenberg, H.G.

    2004-01-01

    The histone code is among others established via differential acetylation catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). To unambiguously determine the histone tail specificity of HDAC-containing complexes, we have established an in vitro system consisting of

  2. Acute kidney injury in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Koopmans (Liese); M.E. van Wolfswinkel (Marlies); D.A. Hesselink (Dennis); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); R. Koelewijn (Rob); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a known complication of malaria, and is reported to occur in up to 40 % of adult patients with a severe Plasmodium falciparum infection in endemic regions. To gain insight in the incidence and risk factors of AKI in imported P. falciparum malaria,

  3. Acute kidney injury in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Koopmans, L.C. (Liese); M.E. van Wolfswinkel (Marlies); D.A. Hesselink (Dennis); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); R. Koelewijn (Rob); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J. van Genderen (P.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a known complication of malaria, and is reported to occur in up to 40 % of adult patients with a severe Plasmodium falciparum infection in endemic regions. To gain insight in the incidence and risk factors of AKI in imported P. falciparum malaria,

  4. Survival strategies of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Ramya, TNC; Surolia, Namita; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2002-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the protozoan parasite causing falciparum malaria, is undoubtedly highly versatile when it comes to survival and defence strategies. Strategies adopted by the asexual blood stages of Plasmodium range from unique pathways of nutrient uptake to immune evasion strategies and multiple drug resistance. Studying the survival strategies of Plasmodium could help us envisage strategies of tackling one of the worst scourges of mankind.

  5. Replication stress interferes with histone recycling and predeposition marking of new histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasencakova, Zuzana; Scharf, Annette N D; Ask, Katrine; Corpet, Armelle; Imhof, Axel; Almouzni, Geneviève; Groth, Anja

    2010-03-12

    To restore chromatin on new DNA during replication, recycling of histones evicted ahead of the fork is combined with new histone deposition. The Asf1 histone chaperone, which buffers excess histones under stress, is a key player in this process. Yet how histones handled by human Asf1 are modified remains unclear. Here we identify marks on histones H3-H4 bound to Asf1 and changes induced upon replication stress. In S phase, distinct cytosolic and nuclear Asf1b complexes show ubiquitous H4K5K12diAc and heterogeneous H3 marks, including K9me1, K14ac, K18ac, and K56ac. Upon acute replication arrest, the predeposition mark H3K9me1 and modifications typical of chromatin accumulate in Asf1 complexes. In parallel, ssDNA is generated at replication sites, consistent with evicted histones being trapped with Asf1. During recovery, histones stored with Asf1 are rapidly used as replication resumes. This shows that replication stress interferes with predeposition marking and histone recycling with potential impact on epigenetic stability.

  6. ADP-ribosylation of histones by ARTD1: an additional module of the histone code?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottiger, Michael O

    2011-06-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a covalent post-translational protein modification catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases and is involved in important processes such as cell cycle regulation, DNA damage response, replication or transcription. Histones are ADP-ribosylated by ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin-like 1 at specific amino acid residues, in particular lysines, of the histones tails. Specific ADP-ribosyl hydrolases and poly-ADP-ribose glucohydrolases degrade the ADP-ribose polymers. The ADP-ribose modification is read by zinc finger motifs or macrodomains, which then regulate chromatin structure and transcription. Thus, histone ADP-ribosylation may be considered an additional component of the histone code.

  7. Nucleosome Dancing at the Tempo of Histone Tail Acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélique Galvani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of histone acetylation on transcription was revealed over 50 years ago by Allfrey and colleagues. However, it took decades for an understanding of the fine mechanism by which this posttranslational modification affects chromatin structure and promotes transcription. Here, we review breakthroughs linking histone tail acetylation, histone dynamics, and transcription. We also discuss the histone exchange during transcription and highlight the important function of a pool of non-chromatinized histones in chromatin dynamics.

  8. Histone Deacetylase Genes in Arabidopsis Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Courtney Hollender; Zhongchi Liu

    2008-01-01

    Histone acetylatlon and deacetylation are directly connected with transcriptional activation and silencing in eukaryotas.Gene families for enzymes that accomplish these histone modifications show surprising complexity in domain organization,tissue-specific expression, and function. This review is focused on the family of histone deacetylases (HDACs) that remove the acetyl group from core histone tails, resulting in a "closed" chromatin and transcriptional repression. In Arabidopsis,18 HDAC genes are divided in to three different types - RPD3-1ike, HD-tuin and sirtuin - with two or more members ineach type. The structural feature of each HDAC class, the expression profile of each HDAC gene during development and functional insights of important family members are summarized here. It is clear that HDACs are an important class of global transcriptional regulators that play crucial roles in plant development, defense, and adaptation.

  9. Quantitative proteomic approaches to studying histone modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Barry M; Young, Nicolas L; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2011-01-01

    Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) positively and negatively regulate gene expression, and are consequently a vital influence on the genomic profile of all eukaryotic species. The study of histone PTMs using classical methods in molecular biology, such as immunofluorescence and Western blotting, is challenging given the technical issues of the approaches, and chemical diversity and combinatorial patterns of the modifications. In light of these many technical limitations, mass spectrometry (MS) is emerging as the most unbiased and rigorous experimental platform to identify and quantify histone PTMs in a high-throughput manner. This review covers the latest developments in mass spectrometry for the analysis of histone PTMs, with the hope of inspiring the continued integration of proteomic, genomic and epigenetic research.

  10. A histone timer for zygotic genome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriaco, Giorgia; Tamkun, John W

    2013-09-30

    Histone H1 variants play key roles in the regulation of higher-order chromatin structure and have been implicated in numerous developmental processes. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Pérez-Montero et al. (2013) present evidence that the Drosophila histone H1 variant dBigH1 prevents premature activation of the zygotic genome during early embryogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Histone Lysine Methylation in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-dong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN belongs to debilitating microvascular complications of diabetes and is the leading cause of end-stage renal diseases worldwide. Furthermore, outcomes from the DCCT/EDIC study showed that DN often persists and progresses despite intensive glucose control in many diabetes patients, possibly as a result of prior episode of hyperglycemia, which is called “metabolic memory.” The underlying mechanisms responsible for the development and progression of DN remain poorly understood. Activation of multiple signaling pathways and key transcription factors can lead to aberrant expression of DN-related pathologic genes in target renal cells. Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms in chromatin such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and methylation can influence the pathophysiology of DN and metabolic memory. Exciting researches from cell culture and experimental animals have shown that key histone methylation patterns and the related histone methyltransferases and histone demethylases can play important roles in the regulation of inflammatory and profibrotic genes in renal cells under diabetic conditions. Because histone methylation is dynamic and potentially reversible, it can provide a window of opportunity for the development of much-needed novel therapeutic potential for DN in the future. In this minireview, we discuss recent advances in the field of histone methylation and its roles in the pathogenesis and progression of DN.

  12. Characterization of yeast histone H3-specific type B histone acetyltransferases identifies an ADA2-independent Gcn5p activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthun Mark R

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acetylation of the core histone NH2-terminal tails is catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases. Histone acetyltransferases can be classified into two distinct groups (type A and B on the basis of cellular localization and substrate specificity. Type B histone acetyltransferases, originally defined as cytoplasmic enzymes that acetylate free histones, have been proposed to play a role in the assembly of chromatin through the acetylation of newly synthesized histones H3 and H4. To date, the only type B histone acetyltransferase activities identified are specific for histone H4. Results To better understand the role of histone acetylation in the assembly of chromatin structure, we have identified additional type B histone acetyltransferase activities specific for histone H3. One such activity, termed HatB3.1, acetylated histone H3 with a strong preference for free histones relative to chromatin substrates. Deletion of the GCN5 and ADA3 genes resulted in the loss of HatB3.1 activity while deletion of ADA2 had no effect. In addition, Gcn5p and Ada3p co-fractionated with partially purified HatB3.1 activity while Ada2p did not. Conclusions Yeast extracts contain several histone acetyltransferase activities that show a strong preference for free histone H3. One such activity, termed HatB3.1, appears to be a novel Gcn5p-containing complex which does not depend on the presence of Ada2p.

  13. Recruitment of PfSET2 by RNA polymerase II to variant antigen encoding loci contributes to antigenic variation in P. falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchechi E Ukaegbu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone modifications are important regulators of gene expression in all eukaryotes. In Plasmodium falciparum, these epigenetic marks regulate expression of genes involved in several aspects of host-parasite interactions, including antigenic variation. While the identities and genomic positions of many histone modifications have now been cataloged, how they are targeted to defined genomic regions remains poorly understood. For example, how variant antigen encoding loci (var are targeted for deposition of unique histone marks is a mystery that continues to perplex the field. Here we describe the recruitment of an ortholog of the histone modifier SET2 to var genes through direct interactions with the C-terminal domain (CTD of RNA polymerase II. In higher eukaryotes, SET2 is a histone methyltransferase recruited by RNA pol II during mRNA transcription; however, the ortholog in P. falciparum (PfSET2 has an atypical architecture and its role in regulating transcription is unknown. Here we show that PfSET2 binds to the unphosphorylated form of the CTD, a property inconsistent with its recruitment during mRNA synthesis. Further, we show that H3K36me3, the epigenetic mark deposited by PfSET2, is enriched at both active and silent var gene loci, providing additional evidence that its recruitment is not associated with mRNA production. Over-expression of a dominant negative form of PfSET2 designed to disrupt binding to RNA pol II induced rapid var gene expression switching, confirming both the importance of PfSET2 in var gene regulation and a role for RNA pol II in its recruitment. RNA pol II is known to transcribe non-coding RNAs from both active and silent var genes, providing a possible mechanism by which it could recruit PfSET2 to var loci. This work unifies previous reports of histone modifications, the production of ncRNAs, and the promoter activity of var introns into a mechanism that contributes to antigenic variation by malaria parasites.

  14. A brief histone in time: understanding the combinatorial functions of histone PTMs in the nucleosome context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Marlee K; Cheung, Peter

    2016-02-01

    It has been over 50 years since Allfrey et al. proposed that histone acetylation regulates RNA synthesis, and the study of histone modifications has progressed at an extraordinary pace for the past two decades. In this review, we provide a perspective on some key events and advances in our understanding of histone modifications. We also highlight reagents and tools from past to present that facilitated progress in this research field. Using histone H3 phosphorylation as an underlying thread, we review the rationale that led to the proposal of the histone code hypothesis, as well as examples that illustrate the concepts of combinatorial histone modifications and cross-talk pathways. We further highlight the importance of investigating these mechanisms in the context of nucleosomes rather than just at the histone level and present current and developing approaches for such studies. Overall, research on histone modifications has yielded great mechanistic insights into the regulation of genomic functions, and extending these studies using nucleosomes will further elucidate the complexity of these pathways in a more physiologically relevant context.

  15. Plasmodium Falciparum Versus Plasmodium Vivax: Which Is a Lesser Evil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathod Chirag C, Deshpande Shubhangi V, Rana Himanshu M, Godbole Varsha Y, Patel Amul, Patel Vaibhav, Darad Dimple, Panchal Maulik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: With changing spectrum, different grades of biochemical & haematological changes generally found to be more severe with p. falciparum, now frequently seen with p. vivax. Present study intends to find species specific differences in diseases progression & complications. Methodology: A retrospective study of Malaria-patients admitted at GMERS Medical College & Hospital, Vadodara from january-2011to december-2011 was done. p. falciparum, P. Vivax were diagnosed by demonstrating asexual forms of parasites in peripheral blood smear, haematological & biochemical tests were analyzed. Results: Out of 1093 cases, 781 were slide positive, remaining 312 were treated on clinical-ground .Of 781 cases, 443 (56% p. falciparum, 327 (42% P. Vivax and 11(2% were mixed Infection. Male to female ratio was 1.8:1&0.8:1 in p. falciparum & P. vivax, respectively. Fever, Prodroms, GI symptoms, Liver -dysfunction (51%vs47%, Renal- dysfunction (52%vs48% were equally frequent; whereas Hemolysis, Bleeding tendency, Breathlessness and altered sensorium were more in p. falciparum. Anemia (56%, Thrombocytopenia (60%, Pancytopenia (54%, Hemolysis (65% was more frequent in p. falciparum. Leucopenia (54% was more frequent in p. Vivax. Conclusion: In contrast to earlier studies, which have proven p. falciparum to be more fatal & complicated, it was noted in present study that P. Vivax species was frequent cause of overall slide-positive cases causing complications head to head with p. falciparum. Anemia, Hepato-renal dysfunctions were equally frequent, nonfatal leucopenia more in p. Vivax, while hemolysis and thrombocytopenia was more in p. falciparum. If ignored complications can alter clinical course & be equally fatal in p. vivax malaria. Hence p. vivax can no more be considered as benign infection and can be equally lethal.

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicaemia in a patient with severe Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A; Høiby, N; Theander, T G

    1987-01-01

    presented with severe form of malaria, progressing rapidly into coma and died within a short time. P. aeruginosa was isolated from his blood taken on the day of admission. His neutrophils were all occupied by P. falciparum. The unusual combination of severe falciparum malaria infection and P. aeruginosa......This report describes a Danish patient with severe Plasmodium falciparum infection and Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicaemia. The patient had been sailing along the coast of West Africa for ten years without taking any antimalaria prophylaxis and without any apparent previous history of malaria. He...

  17. The role of histone ubiquitination during spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Kai; Liang, Xiaotong; Huang, Sizhou; Xu, Wenming

    2014-01-01

    Protein ubiquitin-proteasome (ubiquitin-proteasome) system is the major mechanism responsible for protein degradation in eukaryotic cell. During spermatogenesis, the replacement of histone by protamine is vital for normal sperm formation, which is involved in ubiquitination enzymes expressed in testis. Recently, histone ubiquitin ligases have been shown to play critical roles in several aspects of spermatogenesis, such as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), DNA damage response, and spermiogenesis. In this review, we highlight recent progress in the discovery of several histone ubiquitin ligases and elaborate mechanisms of how these enzymes are involved in these processes through knockout mouse model. Using Huwe1, UBR2, and RNF8 as examples, we emphasized the diverse functions for each enzyme and the broad involvement of these enzymes in every stage, from spermatogonia differentiation and meiotic division to spermiogenesis; thus histone ubiquitin ligases represent a class of enzymes, which play important roles in spermatogenesis through targeting histone for ubiquitination and therefore are involved in transcription regulation, epigenetic modification, and other processes essential for normal gametes formation.

  18. The Role of Histone Ubiquitination during Spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein ubiquitin-proteasome (ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major mechanism responsible for protein degradation in eukaryotic cell. During spermatogenesis, the replacement of histone by protamine is vital for normal sperm formation, which is involved in ubiquitination enzymes expressed in testis. Recently, histone ubiquitin ligases have been shown to play critical roles in several aspects of spermatogenesis, such as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI, DNA damage response, and spermiogenesis. In this review, we highlight recent progress in the discovery of several histone ubiquitin ligases and elaborate mechanisms of how these enzymes are involved in these processes through knockout mouse model. Using Huwe1, UBR2, and RNF8 as examples, we emphasized the diverse functions for each enzyme and the broad involvement of these enzymes in every stage, from spermatogonia differentiation and meiotic division to spermiogenesis; thus histone ubiquitin ligases represent a class of enzymes, which play important roles in spermatogenesis through targeting histone for ubiquitination and therefore are involved in transcription regulation, epigenetic modification, and other processes essential for normal gametes formation.

  19. Histone chaperone-mediated nucleosome assembly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hsiu-Fang; Liu, Zi-Ning; Chow, Sih-Yao; Lu, Yi-Han; Li, Hsin

    2015-01-01

    A huge amount of information is stored in genomic DNA and this stored information resides inside the nucleus with the aid of chromosomal condensation factors. It has been reported that the repeat nucleosome core particle (NCP) consists of 147-bp of DNA and two copies of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. Regulation of chromosomal structure is important to many processes inside the cell. In vivo, a group of histone chaperones facilitate and regulate nucleosome assembly. How NCPs are constructed with the aid of histone chaperones remains unclear. In this study, the histone chaperone-mediated nucleosome assembly process was investigated using single-molecule tethered particle motion (TPM) experiments. It was found that Asf1 is able to exert more influence than Nap1 and poly glutamate acid (PGA) on the nucleosome formation process, which highlights Asf1's specific role in tetrasome formation. Thermodynamic parameters supported a model whereby energetically favored nucleosomal complexes compete with non-nucleosomal complexes. In addition, our kinetic findings propose the model that histone chaperones mediate nucleosome assembly along a path that leads to enthalpy-favored products with free histones as reaction substrates.

  20. Histones bundle F-actin filaments and affect actin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotnick, Edna; Sol, Asaf; Muhlrad, Andras

    2017-01-01

    Histones are small polycationic proteins complexed with DNA located in the cell nucleus. Upon apoptosis they are secreted from the cells and react with extracellular polyanionic compounds. Actin which is a polyanionic protein, is also secreted from necrotic cells and interacts with histones. We showed that both histone mixture (histone type III) and the recombinant H2A histone bundles F-actin, increases the viscosity of the F-actin containing solution and polymerizes G-actin. The histone-actin bundles are relatively insensitive to increase of ionic strength, unlike other polycation, histatin, lysozyme, spermine and LL-37 induced F-actin bundles. The histone-actin bundles dissociate completely only in the presence of 300-400 mM NaCl. DNA, which competes with F-actin for histones, disassembles histone induced actin bundles. DNase1, which depolymerizes F- to G-actin, actively unbundles the H2A histone induced but slightly affects the histone mixture induced actin bundles. Cofilin decreases the amount of F-actin sedimented by low speed centrifugation, increases light scattering and viscosity of F-actin-histone mixture containing solutions and forms star like superstructures by copolymerizing G-actin with H2A histone. The results indicate that histones are tightly attached to F-actin by strong electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. Since both histones and F-actin are present in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis, therefore, the formation of the stable histone-actin bundles can contribute to the pathology of this disease by increasing the viscosity of the sputum. The actin-histone interaction in the nucleus might affect gene expression.

  1. Small molecule inhibitors of histone deacetylases and acetyltransferases as potential therapeutics in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Teatske; Leus, Niek; Timmerman, Tirza; Dekker, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Uncontrolled cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis in cancer are, among others, regulated by post-translational modifications of histone proteins. The most investigated type of histone modification is lysine acetylation. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs), acetylate histone lysine residues,

  2. Acetylation of retinal histones in diabetes increases inflammatory proteins: effects of minocycline and manipulation of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, Chandra Sekhar Rao; Zheng, Ling; Du, Yunpeng; Yohannes, Elizabeth; Kao, Hung-Ying; Miyagi, Masaru; Kern, Timothy S

    2012-07-27

    Histone acetylation was significantly increased in retinas from diabetic rats, and this acetylation was inhibited in diabetics treated with minocycline, a drug known to inhibit early diabetic retinopathy in animals. Histone acetylation and expression of inflammatory proteins that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy were increased likewise in cultured retinal Müller glia grown in a diabetes-like concentration of glucose. Both the acetylation and induction of the inflammatory proteins in elevated glucose levels were significantly inhibited by inhibitors of histone acetyltransferase (garcinol and antisense against the histone acetylase, p300) or activators of histone deacetylase (theophylline and resveratrol) and were increased by the histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberolylanilide hydroxamic acid. We conclude that hyperglycemia causes acetylation of retinal histones (and probably other proteins) and that the acetylation contributes to the hyperglycemia-induced up-regulation of proinflammatory proteins and thereby to the development of diabetic retinopathy.

  3. Antifungal properties of wheat histones (H1-H4) and purified wheat histone H1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucca, Anthony J; Heden, Lars-Olof; Ingber, Bruce; Bhatnagar, Deepak

    2011-07-13

    Wheat ( Triticum spp.) histones H1, H2, H3, and H4 were extracted, and H1 was further purified. The effect of these histones on specific fungi that may or may not be pathogenic to wheat was determined. These fungi included Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillus niger , Fusarium oxysporum , Fusarium verticillioides , Fusarium solani , Fusarium graminearum , Penicillium digitatum , Penicillium italicum , and Greeneria uvicola . Non-germinated and germinating conidia of these fungi were bioassayed separately. The non-germinated and germinating conidia of all Fusarium species were highly susceptible to the mixture (H1-H4) as well as pure H1, with viability losses of 99-100% found to be significant (p histone mixture and pure H1. F. graminearum was the most sensitive to histone activity. The histones were inactive against all of the non-germinated Penicillium spp. conidia. However, they significantly reduced the viability of the germinating conidia of the Penicillium spp. conidia, with 95% loss at 2.5 μM. Non-germinated and germinating conidia viability of the Aspergillus spp. and G. uvicola were unaffected when exposed to histones up to 10 μM. Results indicate that Fusarium spp. pathogenic to wheat are susceptible to wheat histones, indicating that these proteins may be a resistance mechanism in wheat against fungal infection.

  4. The FACT histone chaperone guides histone H4 into its nucleosomal conformation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laura; Poe, Bryan; Connell, Zaily; Xin, Hua; Formosa, Tim

    2013-09-01

    The pob3-Q308K mutation alters the small subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae histone/nucleosome chaperone Facilitates Chromatin Transactions (FACT), causing defects in both transcription and DNA replication. We describe histone mutations that suppress some of these defects, providing new insight into the mechanism of FACT activity in vivo. FACT is primarily known for its ability to promote reorganization of nucleosomes into a more open form, but neither the pob3-Q308K mutation nor the compensating histone mutations affect this activity. Instead, purified mutant FACT complexes fail to release from nucleosomes efficiently, and the histone mutations correct this flaw. We confirm that pob3-T252E also suppresses pob3-Q308K and show that combining two suppressor mutations can be detrimental, further demonstrating the importance of balance between association and dissociation for efficient FACT:nucleosome interactions. To explain our results, we propose that histone H4 can adopt multiple conformations, most of which are incompatible with nucleosome assembly. FACT guides H4 to adopt appropriate conformations, and this activity can be enhanced or diminished by mutations in Pob3 or histones. FACT can therefore destabilize nucleosomes by favoring the reorganized state, but it can also promote assembly by tethering histones and DNA together and maintaining them in conformations that promote canonical nucleosome formation.

  5. The emerging functions of histone demethylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Karl; Christensen, Jesper; Cloos, Paul Ac;

    2008-01-01

    Epigenetic information refers to heritable changes in gene function that are stable between cell divisions but which is not a result of changes in the DNA sequence. Part of the epigenetic mechanism has been ascribed to modifications of histones or DNA that affects the transcription of specific...... genes. In this context, post-translational modifications of histone tails, in particular methylation of lysines, are regarded as important for the storage of epigenetic information. Regulation of this information plays an important role during cellular differentiation where cells with different...... characteristic features evolve from the same ancestor, despite identical genomic material. The characterization of several enzymes catalyzing histone lysine methylation have supported this concept by showing the requirement of these enzymes for normal development and their involvement in diseases such as cancer...

  6. [Structure and function of histone chaperone FACT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, M T; Maluchenko, N V; Valieva, M E; Gerasimova, N S; Kulaeva, O I; Georgiev, P G; Studitsky, V M

    2015-01-01

    FACT is heterodimer protein complex and histone chaperone that plays an important role in maintaining and modifying chromatin structure during various DNA-dependent processes. FACT is involved in nucleosome assembly de novo and in the preservation and recovery of the nucleosome structure during and after transcription, replication and repair of DNA. During transcript elongation FACT reduces the height of the nucleosome barrier and supports survival of the nucleosomes during and after passage of RNA polymerase II. In this process FACT interacts with histone H2A-H2B dimer in nucleosomes, thus facilitating uncoiling of nucleosomal DNA from the octamer of histones; it also facilitates subsequent recovery of the canonical structure of the nucleosome after transcription. FACT also plays an important role in transformation of human cells and in maintaining the viability of the tumor cells.

  7. H1 histones: current perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshman, Sean W; Young, Nicolas L; Parthun, Mark R; Freitas, Michael A

    2013-11-01

    H1 and related linker histones are important both for maintenance of higher-order chromatin structure and for the regulation of gene expression. The biology of the linker histones is complex, as they are evolutionarily variable, exist in multiple isoforms and undergo a large variety of posttranslational modifications in their long, unstructured, NH2- and COOH-terminal tails. We review recent progress in understanding the structure, genetics and posttranslational modifications of linker histones, with an emphasis on the dynamic interactions of these proteins with DNA and transcriptional regulators. We also discuss various experimental challenges to the study of H1 and related proteins, including limitations of immunological reagents and practical difficulties in the analysis of posttranslational modifications by mass spectrometry.

  8. Linker histones: History and current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane-Robinson, C

    2016-03-01

    Although the overall structure of the fifth histone (linker histone, H1) is understood, its location on the nucleosome is only partially defined. Whilst it is clear that H1 helps condense the chromatin fibre, precisely how this is achieved remains to be determined. H1 is not a general gene repressor in that although it must be displaced from transcription start sites for activity to occur, there is only partial loss along the body of genes. How the deposition and removal of H1 occurs in particular need of further study. Linker histones are highly abundant nuclear proteins about which we know too little. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Chemical and semisynthesis of modified histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Suman Kumar; Jbara, Muhammad; Brik, Ashraf

    2016-05-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones play critical roles in the epigenetic regulation of eukaryotic genome by directly altering the biophysical properties of chromatin or by recruiting effector proteins. The large number of PTMs and the inherent complexity in their population and signaling processes make it highly challenging to understand epigenetics-related processes. To address these challenges, accesses to homogeneously modified histones are obligatory. Over the last decade, synthetic protein chemists have been devising novel synthetic tools and applying state-of-the-art chemoselective ligation strategies to prepare precious materials useful in answering fundamental questions in this area. In this short review, we cover some of the recent breakthroughs in these directions in particular the synthesis and semi-synthesis of modified histones and their use to unravel the mysteries of epigenetics. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Structure of histone-based chromatin in archaea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mattiroli, Francesca; Bhattacharyya, Sudipta; Dyer, Pamela N; White, Alison E; Sandman, Kathleen; Burkhart, Brett W; Byrne, Kyle R; Lee, Thomas; Aim, Natalie G; Santangelo, Thomas J; Reeve, John N; Luger, Karolin

    2017-01-01

    .... We report the crystal structure of an archaeal histone-DNA complex. DNA wraps around an extended polymer, formed by archaeal histone homodimers, in a quasi-continuous superhelix with the same geometry as DNA in the eukaryotic nucleosome...

  11. Regulation and function of histone acetyltransferase MOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Han, Xiaofei; Guan, Jingyun; Li, Xiangzhi

    2014-03-01

    The mammalian MOF (male absent on the first), a member of the MYST (MOZ, YBF2, SAS2, and Tip60) family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs), is the major enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of histone H4 on lysine 16. Acetylation of K16 is a prevalent mark associated with chromatin decondensation. MOF has recently been shown to play an essential role in maintaining normal cell functions. In this study, we discuss the important roles of MOF in DNA damage repair, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. We also analyze the role of MOF as a key regulator of the core transcriptional network of embryonic stem cells.

  12. Histone H4 Lysine 20 methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine; Schotta, Gunnar; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2013-01-01

    of histones have emerged as key regulators of genomic integrity. Intense research during the past few years has revealed histone H4 lysine 20 methylation (H4K20me) as critically important for the biological processes that ensure genome integrity, such as DNA damage repair, DNA replication and chromatin...... instability, demonstrating the important functions of H4K20 methylation in genome maintenance. In this review, we explain molecular mechanisms underlying these defects and discuss novel ideas for furthering our understanding of genome maintenance in higher eukaryotes....

  13. Histone variants and melanoma: facts and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Nikifor K; Ulff-Møller, Constance J; Dimitrov, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer with rising incidence and morbidity. Despite advances in treatment, the 10-yr survival for patients with metastatic disease is less than 10%. During the past few years, ongoing research on different epigenomic aberrations in melanoma has catalyzed better understanding of its pathogenesis and identification of new therapeutics. In our review, we will focus on the role of histone variants, key epigenetic players in melanoma initiation and progression. Specifically, incorporation of histone variants enables additional layers of chromatin structure, and here, we will describe how alterations in this epigenetic behavior impact melanoma.

  14. On Programmed Cell Death in Plasmodium falciparum: Status Quo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Dewaldt; Durand, Pierre Marcel; Coetzer, Thérèsa Louise

    2012-01-01

    Conflicting arguments and results exist regarding the occurrence and phenotype of programmed cell death (PCD) in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Inconsistencies relate mainly to the number and type of PCD markers assessed and the different methodologies used in the studies. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge and empirical evidence for PCD in the intraerythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. We consider possible reasons for discrepancies in the data and offer suggestions towards more standardised investigation methods in this field. Furthermore, we present genomic evidence for PCD machinery in P. falciparum. We discuss the potential adaptive or nonadaptive role of PCD in the parasite life cycle and its possible exploitation in the development of novel drug targets. Lastly, we pose pertinent unanswered questions concerning the PCD phenomenon in P. falciparum to provide future direction. PMID:22287973

  15. International population movements and regional Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrew J. Tatem; David L. Smith; Susan Hanson

    2010-01-01

    ... to areas targeted for elimination. Here, census-based migration data were analyzed with network analysis tools, Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission maps, and global population databases to map globally communities of countries...

  16. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibitokou, Samad; Oesterholt, Mayke; Brutus, Laurent;

    2012-01-01

    Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in placental intervillous spaces causes inflammation and pathology. Knowledge of the profiles of immune cells associated with the physiopathology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is scarce. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective...

  17. Heterologous Protection against Malaria after Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schats, R.; Bijker, E.M.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Graumans, W.; Vegte-Bolmer, M. van de; Lieshout, L. van; Haks, M.C.; Hermsen, C.C.; Scholzen, A.; Visser, L.G.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sterile protection in >90% of volunteers against homologous Plasmodium falciparum infection has been achieved only using the controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) model. This efficient model involves whole parasite immunizations under chloroquine prophylaxis (CPS-immunization),

  18. Automated erythrocytapheresis in severe falciparum malaria : A critical appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Jellie A.; Meertens, John H. J. M.; Zijlstra, Jan G.; Ligtenberg, Jack J. M.; Tulleken, Jaap E.; van der Werf, Tjip S.

    2006-01-01

    Imported falciparum malaria is increasing in Western countries. In patients with severe disease, exchange transfusion has been added to antimalarial and conventional supportive therapy to increase removal of parasitized erythrocytes, but hemodynamic compromise limits its use; automated erythrocytaph

  19. An update on histone lysine methylation in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yu; Zhongyuan Bu; Wen-Hui Shen; Aiwu Dong

    2009-01-01

    Histone methylation plays crucial roles in epigenetic regulation.The SET domain proteins are now recognized as generally having methyltransferase activity targeted to specific lysine residues of histones.The enzymes and their specific histone lysine methylation have enormous impacts on the regulation of chromatin structure and function.In this review,we discuss recent advances made on histone lysine methylations and their diverse functions in plant growth and development.

  20. Spatial and temporal distribution of falciparum malaria in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hualiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falciparum malaria is the most deadly among the four main types of human malaria. Although great success has been achieved since the launch of the National Malaria Control Programme in 1955, malaria remains a serious public health problem in China. This paper aimed to analyse the geographic distribution, demographic patterns and time trends of falciparum malaria in China. Methods The annual numbers of falciparum malaria cases during 1992–2003 and the individual case reports of each clinical falciparum malaria during 2004–2005 were extracted from communicable disease information systems in China Center for Diseases Control and Prevention. The annual number of cases and the annual incidence were mapped by matching them to corresponding province- and county-level administrative units in a geographic information system. The distribution of falciparum malaria by age, gender and origin of infection was analysed. Time-series analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between the falciparum malaria in the endemic provinces and the imported falciparum malaria in non-endemic provinces. Results Falciparum malaria was endemic in two provinces of China during 2004–05. Imported malaria was reported in 26 non-endemic provinces. Annual incidence of falciparum malaria was mapped at county level in the two endemic provinces of China: Yunnan and Hainan. The sex ratio (male vs. female for the number of cases in Yunnan was 1.6 in the children of 0–15 years and it reached 5.7 in the adults over 15 years of age. The number of malaria cases in Yunnan was positively correlated with the imported malaria of concurrent months in the non-endemic provinces. Conclusion The endemic area of falciparum malaria in China has remained restricted to two provinces, Yunnan and Hainan. Stable transmission occurs in the bordering region of Yunnan and the hilly-forested south of Hainan. The age and gender distribution in the endemic area is

  1. Parasite virulence and disease severity in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ribacke, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Malaria stands out as one of the most important infectious diseases and one of the world s leading causes of death. Plasmodium falciparum is the parasite responsible for the great majority of severe disease syndromes and mortality, and affects mainly children and pregnant women. Despite intensive research efforts, the understanding of P. falciparum virulence is limited. Infections with the parasite cause everything from asymptomatic parasitemia to severe disease and death, a...

  2. Hemoglobinopathies: slicing the Gordian knot of Plasmodium falciparum malaria pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steve M; Cerami, Carla; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria kills over 500,000 children every year and has been a scourge of humans for millennia. Owing to the co-evolution of humans and P. falciparum parasites, the human genome is imprinted with polymorphisms that not only confer innate resistance to falciparum malaria, but also cause hemoglobinopathies. These genetic traits--including hemoglobin S (HbS), hemoglobin C (HbC), and α-thalassemia--are the most common monogenic human disorders and can confer remarkable degrees of protection from severe, life-threatening falciparum malaria in African children: the risk is reduced 70% by homozygous HbC and 90% by heterozygous HbS (sickle-cell trait). Importantly, this protection is principally present for severe disease and largely absent for P. falciparum infection, suggesting that these hemoglobinopathies specifically neutralize the parasite's in vivo mechanisms of pathogenesis. These hemoglobin variants thus represent a "natural experiment" to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which P. falciparum produces clinical morbidity, which remain partially obscured due to the complexity of interactions between this parasite and its human host. Multiple lines of evidence support a restriction of parasite growth by various hemoglobinopathies, and recent data suggest this phenomenon may result from host microRNA interference with parasite metabolism. Multiple hemoglobinopathies mitigate the pathogenic potential of parasites by interfering with the export of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) to the surface of the host red blood cell. Few studies have investigated their effects upon the activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, although recent murine studies suggest a role for heme oxygenase-1 in protection. Ultimately, the identification of mechanisms of protection and pathogenesis can inform future therapeutics and preventive measures. Hemoglobinopathies slice the "Gordian knot" of host and parasite

  3. Hemoglobinopathies: Slicing the Gordian Knot of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steve M.; Cerami, Carla; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria kills over 500,000 children every year and has been a scourge of humans for millennia. Owing to the co-evolution of humans and P. falciparum parasites, the human genome is imprinted with polymorphisms that not only confer innate resistance to falciparum malaria, but also cause hemoglobinopathies. These genetic traits—including hemoglobin S (HbS), hemoglobin C (HbC), and α-thalassemia—are the most common monogenic human disorders and can confer remarkable degrees of protection from severe, life-threatening falciparum malaria in African children: the risk is reduced 70% by homozygous HbC and 90% by heterozygous HbS (sickle-cell trait). Importantly, this protection is principally present for severe disease and largely absent for P. falciparum infection, suggesting that these hemoglobinopathies specifically neutralize the parasite's in vivo mechanisms of pathogenesis. These hemoglobin variants thus represent a “natural experiment” to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which P. falciparum produces clinical morbidity, which remain partially obscured due to the complexity of interactions between this parasite and its human host. Multiple lines of evidence support a restriction of parasite growth by various hemoglobinopathies, and recent data suggest this phenomenon may result from host microRNA interference with parasite metabolism. Multiple hemoglobinopathies mitigate the pathogenic potential of parasites by interfering with the export of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) to the surface of the host red blood cell. Few studies have investigated their effects upon the activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, although recent murine studies suggest a role for heme oxygenase-1 in protection. Ultimately, the identification of mechanisms of protection and pathogenesis can inform future therapeutics and preventive measures. Hemoglobinopathies slice the “Gordian knot” of host and parasite

  4. Insulin reduces the requirement for serum in Plasmodium falciparum culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Tosta

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulin added to Plasmodium falciparum cultures (0.2 IU/ml reduced the requirement for human serum from ten to five percent. This represents an obvious advantage by its serum-sparing effect and by reducing the chances of using contaminated serum in cultures. The growth-promoting ability of insulin was observed eitherin culture- adapted P. falciparum or in newly-isolated samples.

  5. Hemoglobinopathies: slicing the Gordian knot of Plasmodium falciparum malaria pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve M Taylor

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum malaria kills over 500,000 children every year and has been a scourge of humans for millennia. Owing to the co-evolution of humans and P. falciparum parasites, the human genome is imprinted with polymorphisms that not only confer innate resistance to falciparum malaria, but also cause hemoglobinopathies. These genetic traits--including hemoglobin S (HbS, hemoglobin C (HbC, and α-thalassemia--are the most common monogenic human disorders and can confer remarkable degrees of protection from severe, life-threatening falciparum malaria in African children: the risk is reduced 70% by homozygous HbC and 90% by heterozygous HbS (sickle-cell trait. Importantly, this protection is principally present for severe disease and largely absent for P. falciparum infection, suggesting that these hemoglobinopathies specifically neutralize the parasite's in vivo mechanisms of pathogenesis. These hemoglobin variants thus represent a "natural experiment" to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which P. falciparum produces clinical morbidity, which remain partially obscured due to the complexity of interactions between this parasite and its human host. Multiple lines of evidence support a restriction of parasite growth by various hemoglobinopathies, and recent data suggest this phenomenon may result from host microRNA interference with parasite metabolism. Multiple hemoglobinopathies mitigate the pathogenic potential of parasites by interfering with the export of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 to the surface of the host red blood cell. Few studies have investigated their effects upon the activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, although recent murine studies suggest a role for heme oxygenase-1 in protection. Ultimately, the identification of mechanisms of protection and pathogenesis can inform future therapeutics and preventive measures. Hemoglobinopathies slice the "Gordian knot" of host and

  6. Structural insights into yeast histone chaperone Hif1: a scaffold protein recruiting protein complexes to core histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hejun; Zhang, Mengying; He, Wei; Zhu, Zhongliang; Teng, Maikun; Gao, Yongxiang; Niu, Liwen

    2014-09-15

    Yeast Hif1 [Hat1 (histone acetyltransferase 1)-interacting factor], a homologue of human NASP (nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein), is a histone chaperone that is involved in various protein complexes which modify histones during telomeric silencing and chromatin reassembly. For elucidating the structural basis of Hif1, in the present paper we demonstrate the crystal structure of Hif1 consisting of a superhelixed TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domain and an extended acid loop covering the rear of TPR domain, which represent typical characteristics of SHNi-TPR [Sim3 (start independent of mitosis 3)-Hif1-NASP interrupted TPR] proteins. Our binding assay indicates that Hif1 could bind to the histone octamer via histones H3 and H4. The acid loop is shown to be crucial for the binding of histones and may also change the conformation of the TPR groove. By binding to the core histone complex Hif1 may recruit functional protein complexes to modify histones during chromatin reassembly.

  7. The histone chaperones Nap1 and Vps75 bind histones H3 and H4 in a tetrameric conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Andrew; Ward, Richard; Wiechens, Nicola; Singh, Vijender; El-Mkami, Hassane; Norman, David George; Owen-Hughes, Tom

    2011-02-18

    Histone chaperones physically interact with histones to direct proper assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes regulating diverse nuclear processes such as DNA replication, promoter remodeling, transcription elongation, DNA damage, and histone variant exchange. Currently, the best-characterized chaperone-histone interaction is that between the ubiquitous chaperone Asf1 and a dimer of H3 and H4. Nucleosome assembly proteins (Nap proteins) represent a distinct class of histone chaperone. Using pulsed electron double resonance (PELDOR) measurements and protein crosslinking, we show that two members of this class, Nap1 and Vps75, bind histones in the tetrameric conformation also observed when they are sequestered within the nucleosome. Furthermore, H3 and H4 trapped in their tetrameric state can be used as substrates in nucleosome assembly and chaperone-mediated lysine acetylation. This alternate mode of histone interaction provides a potential means of maintaining the integrity of the histone tetramer during cycles of nucleosome reassembly.

  8. The Structural Determinants behind the Epigenetic Role of Histone Variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjinder S. Cheema

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Histone variants are an important part of the histone contribution to chromatin epigenetics. In this review, we describe how the known structural differences of these variants from their canonical histone counterparts impart a chromatin signature ultimately responsible for their epigenetic contribution. In terms of the core histones, H2A histone variants are major players while H3 variant CenH3, with a controversial role in the nucleosome conformation, remains the genuine epigenetic histone variant. Linker histone variants (histone H1 family haven’t often been studied for their role in epigenetics. However, the micro-heterogeneity of the somatic canonical forms of linker histones appears to play an important role in maintaining the cell-differentiated states, while the cell cycle independent linker histone variants are involved in development. A picture starts to emerge in which histone H2A variants, in addition to their individual specific contributions to the nucleosome structure and dynamics, globally impair the accessibility of linker histones to defined chromatin locations and may have important consequences for determining different states of chromatin metabolism.

  9. Histones as mediators of host defense, inflammation and thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, Marloes; Eijk, Martin van; Haagsman, Henk P; Hartshorn, Kevan L

    2016-01-01

    Histones are known for their ability to bind to and regulate expression of DNA. However, histones are also present in cytoplasm and extracellular fluids where they serve host defense functions and promote inflammatory responses. Histones are a major component of neutrophil extracellular traps that c

  10. [Treatment of fulminant falciparum malaria with erythrapheresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvier, B; Maudan, P; Debue, J F; Joussemet, M; Roué, R

    1988-01-01

    Ten days after his return from Cameroon, a twenty-six year old Frenchman, serving on voluntary service overseas, presented with fulminant falciparum malaria: shock, altered consciousness, haemolytic anaemia, threatening disseminated coagulation (platelets less than 150 X 10(-6).l-1; prothrombin time and Stuart factor less than 50%; fibrinogen less than 1.5 g.l-1). In spite of quinine therapy, parasitaemia increased from 4 to 35% within 24 h. Using an Haemonetics V50, the exchange of one and a half red blood cell masses was carried out with 17 red blood cell packs. Calcium gluconate was used to prevent the hypocalcaemia induced by the anticoagulant solution. The patient's platelets and plasma were completely reinjected. The result was very satisfactory. This kind of exchange, well tolerated clinically and biologically, would seem better than the classical exchange transfusion. When 10% of the red blood cells are infected by Plasmodium falciparum, it is necessary to exchange from one and a half to two blood masses. Lesser exchanges are always associated with important relapses and quinine therapy must be carried on during and after the exchange. Restricting this exchange only to red blood cells enabled the patient to benefit from his own coagulation factors, antibodies and platelets, and consequently to reduce the number of blood donors involved. However, metabolites (especially bilirubin and circulating immune complexes) were not eliminated. Partial plasmapheresis may be associated with erythropheresis using human albumin as plasma substitute. This technique needs to be assessed, in order to optimize immediate efficiency and post-transfusion infectious risk.

  11. Combating multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Aung Myint; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Landier, Jordi; Parker, Daniel M; Nosten, François H

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 50 years, Plasmodium falciparum has developed resistance against all antimalarial drugs used against it: chloroquine, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, quinine, piperaquine and mefloquine. More recently, resistance to the artemisinin derivatives and the resulting failure of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) are threatening all major gains made in malaria control. Each time resistance has developed progressively, with delayed clearance of parasites first emerging only in a few regions, increasing in prevalence and geographic range, and then ultimately resulting in the complete failure of that antimalarial. Drawing from this repeated historical chain of events, this article presents context-specific approaches for combating drug-resistant P. falciparum malaria. The approaches begin with a context of drug-sensitive parasites and focus on the prevention of the emergence of drug resistance. Next, the approaches address a scenario in which resistance has emerged and is increasing in prevalence and geographic extent, with interventions focused on disrupting transmission through vector control, early diagnosis and treatment, and the use of new combination therapies. Elimination is also presented as an approach for addressing the imminent failure of all available antimalarials. The final drug resistance context presented is one in which all available antimalarials have failed; leaving only personal protection and the use of new antimalarials (or new combinations of antimalarials) as a viable strategy for dealing with complete resistance. All effective strategies and contexts require a multipronged, holistic approach. © 2017 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  12. The dynamics of natural Plasmodium falciparum infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Felger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural immunity to Plasmodium falciparum has been widely studied, but its effects on parasite dynamics are poorly understood. Acquisition and clearance rates of untreated infections are key elements of the dynamics of malaria, but estimating these parameters is challenging because of frequent super-infection and imperfect detectability of parasites. Consequently, information on effects of host immune status or age on infection dynamics is fragmentary. METHODS: An age-stratified cohort of 347 individuals from Northern Ghana was sampled six times at 2 month intervals. High-throughput capillary electrophoresis was used to genotype the msp-2 locus of all P. falciparum infections detected by PCR. Force of infection (FOI and duration were estimated for each age group using an immigration-death model that allows for imperfect detection of circulating parasites. RESULTS: Allowing for imperfect detection substantially increased estimates of FOI and duration. Effects of naturally acquired immunity on the FOI and duration would be reflected in age dependence in these indices, but in our cohort data FOI tended to increase with age in children. Persistence of individual parasite clones was characteristic of all age-groups. Duration peaked in 5-9 year old children (average duration 319 days, 95% confidence interval 318;320. CONCLUSIONS: The main age-dependence is on parasite densities, with only small age-variations in the FOI and persistence of infections. This supports the hypothesis that acquired immunity controls transmission mainly by limiting blood-stage parasite densities rather than changing rates of acquisition or clearance of infections.

  13. Inhibitors of DNA Methylation, Histone Deacetylation, and Histone Demethylation: A Perfect Combination for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnow, C A; Topper, M; Stone, M; Murray-Stewart, T; Li, H; Baylin, S B; Casero, R A

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing and inappropriate activation of gene expression are frequent events during the initiation and progression of cancer. These events involve a complex interplay between the hypermethylation of CpG dinucleotides within gene promoter and enhancer regions, the recruitment of transcriptional corepressors and the deacetylation and/or methylation of histone tails. These epigenetic regulators act in concert to block transcription or interfere with the maintenance of chromatin boundary regions. However, DNA/histone methylation and histone acetylation states are reversible, enzyme-mediated processes and as such, have emerged as promising targets for cancer therapy. This review will focus on the potential benefits and synergistic/additive effects of combining DNA-demethylating agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors or lysine-specific demethylase inhibitors together in epigenetic therapy for solid tumors and will highlight what is known regarding the mechanisms of action that contribute to the antitumor response.

  14. dKDM2 couples histone H2A ubiquitylation to histone H3 demethylation during Polycomb group silencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Lagarou (Anna); A.B. Mohd Sarip; Y.M. Moshkin (Yuri); G.E. Chalkley (Gillian); K. Bezstarosti (Karel); J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); C.P. Verrijzer (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractTranscription regulation involves enzyme-mediated changes in chromatin structure. Here, we describe a novel mode of histone crosstalk during gene silencing, in which histone H2A monoubiquitylation is coupled to the removal of histone H3 Lys 36 dimethylation (H3K36me2). This pathway was u

  15. Histone Variants in Development and Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Chen; Jicheng Zhao; Guohong Li

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomic DNA is highly packaged into chromatin by histones to fit inside the nucleus.Other than the bulk packaging role of canonical histones with an expression peak at S phase and replication-coupled deposition,different histone variants have evolved distinct regulatory mechanisms for their expression,deposition and functional implications.The diversity of histone variants results in structural plasticity of chromatin and highlights functionally distinct chromosomal domain,which plays critical roles in development from a fertilized egg into a complex organism,as well as in aging and diseases.However,the mechanisms of this fundamental process are poorly understood so far.It is of particular interest to investigate how the variants are incorporated into chromatin and mark specific chromatin states to regulate gene expression,and how they are involved in development and diseases.In this review,we focus on recent progress in studies of epigenetic regulation of three extensively investigated variants including H2A.Z,macroH2A and H3.3,and their functional implications in development and diseases.

  16. Special issue on epigenetic inheritance by histone modifications, histone variants and non-coding RNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng CAO

    2011-01-01

    @@ Keeping in view the ever-growing importance of understanding the epigenetic phenomena shaping the behavior of life, our team decided to embark on the idea to organize this special issue of Frontiers in Biology on Epigenetics.Epigenetics refers to the study of heritable changes in gene expression without changes in DNA sequence, which is accomplished by DNA methylation, histone modifications, histone variants, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNAs.

  17. Histones and histone modifications in perinuclear chromatin anchoring: from yeast to man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Jennifer C; Gonzalez-Sandoval, Adriana; Gasser, Susan M

    2016-02-01

    It is striking that within a eukaryotic nucleus, the genome can assume specific spatiotemporal distributions that correlate with the cell's functional states. Cell identity itself is determined by distinct sets of genes that are expressed at a given time. On the level of the individual gene, there is a strong correlation between transcriptional activity and associated histone modifications. Histone modifications act by influencing the recruitment of non-histone proteins and by determining the level of chromatin compaction, transcription factor binding, and transcription elongation. Accumulating evidence also shows that the subnuclear position of a gene or domain correlates with its expression status. Thus, the question arises whether this spatial organization results from or determines a gene's chromatin status. Although the association of a promoter with the inner nuclear membrane (INM) is neither necessary nor sufficient for repression, the perinuclear sequestration of heterochromatin is nonetheless conserved from yeast to man. How does subnuclear localization influence gene expression? Recent work argues that the common denominator between genome organization and gene expression is the modification of histones and in some cases of histone variants. This provides an important link between local chromatin structure and long-range genome organization in interphase cells. In this review, we will evaluate how histones contribute to the latter, and discuss how this might help to regulate genes crucial for cell differentiation. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  18. Regulation of replication fork progression through histone supply and demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Anja; Corpet, Armelle; Cook, Adam J L

    2007-01-01

    DNA replication in eukaryotes requires nucleosome disruption ahead of the replication fork and reassembly behind. An unresolved issue concerns how histone dynamics are coordinated with fork progression to maintain chromosomal stability. Here, we characterize a complex in which the human histone...... chaperone Asf1 and MCM2-7, the putative replicative helicase, are connected through a histone H3-H4 bridge. Depletion of Asf1 by RNA interference impedes DNA unwinding at replication sites, and similar defects arise from overproduction of new histone H3-H4 that compromises Asf1 function. These data link Asf......1 chaperone function, histone supply, and replicative unwinding of DNA in chromatin. We propose that Asf1, as a histone acceptor and donor, handles parental and new histones at the replication fork via an Asf1-(H3-H4)-MCM2-7 intermediate and thus provides a means to fine-tune replication fork...

  19. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter and multidrug resistance 1 genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkatesan, Meera; Gadalla, Nahla B; Stepniewska, Kasia

    2014-01-01

    Adequate clinical and parasitologic cure by artemisinin combination therapies relies on the artemisinin component and the partner drug. Polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) genes are associated...

  20. Structure of the histone chaperone CIA/ASF1-double bromodomain complex linking histone modifications and site-specific histone eviction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Yusuke; Adachi, Naruhiko; Hayashi, Yohei; Eitoku, Masamitsu; Sano, Norihiko; Natsume, Ryo; Kudo, Norio; Tanokura, Masaru; Senda, Toshiya; Horikoshi, Masami

    2010-05-04

    Nucleosomes around the promoter region are disassembled for transcription in response to various signals, such as acetylation and methylation of histones. Although the interactions between histone-acetylation-recognizing bromodomains and factors involved in nucleosome disassembly have been reported, no structural basis connecting histone modifications and nucleosome disassembly has been obtained. Here, we determined at 3.3 A resolution the crystal structure of histone chaperone cell cycle gene 1 (CCG1) interacting factor A/antisilencing function 1 (CIA/ASF1) in complex with the double bromodomain in the CCG1/TAF1/TAF(II)250 subunit of transcription factor IID. Structural, biochemical, and biological studies suggested that interaction between double bromodomain and CIA/ASF1 is required for their colocalization, histone eviction, and pol II entry at active promoter regions. Furthermore, the present crystal structure has characteristics that can connect histone acetylation and CIA/ASF1-mediated histone eviction. These findings suggest that the molecular complex between CIA/ASF1 and the double bromodomain plays a key role in site-specific histone eviction at active promoter regions. The model we propose here is the initial structure-based model of the biological signaling from histone modifications to structural change of the nucleosome (hi-MOST model).

  1. High prevalence of drug-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Schunk, Mirjam; Kumma, Wondimagegn P.; Barreto Miranda, Isabel; Maha E. Osman; Roewer, Susanne; Alano, Abraham; Loescher, Thomas; Bienzle, Ulrich; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2006-01-01

    Background: In Ethiopia, malaria is caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Drug resistance of P. falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) is frequent and intense in some areas. Methods: In 100 patients with uncomplicated malaria from Dilla, southern Ethiopia, P. falciparum dhfr and dhps mutations as well as P. vivax dhfr polymorphisms associated with resistance to SP and P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations conferring CQ resistance were assesse...

  2. Dynamic Regulation of Histone Modifications in Xenopus Oocytes through Histone Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M. David; Sommerville, John; Wong, Jiemin

    2006-01-01

    Histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation has broad roles in transcriptional repression, gene silencing, maintenance of heterochromatin, and epigenetic inheritance of heterochromatin. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes, we have previously shown that targeting G9a, an H3K9 histone methyltransferase, to chromatin increases H3K9 methylation and consequently represses transcription. Here we report that treatment with trichostatin A induces histone acetylation and is sufficient to activate transcription repressed by G9a, and this activation is accompanied by a reduction in dimethyl H3K9 (H3K9me2). We tested the possibility that the reduction in H3K9me2 was due to the replacement of methylated H3 with unmethylated H3.3. Surprisingly, we found that both free H3 and H3.3 are continually exchanged with chromatin-associated histones. This dynamic exchange of chromatin-associated H3 with free H3/H3.3 was not affected by alterations in transcriptional activity, elongation, acetylation, H3K9 methylation, or DNA replication. In support of this continual histone exchange model, we show that maintenance of H3K9 methylation at a specific site requires the continual presence of an H3K9 histone methyltransferase. Upon dissociation of the methyltransferase, H3K9 methylation decreases. Taken together, our data suggest that chromatin-associated and non-chromatin-associated histones are continually exchanged in the Xenopus oocyte, creating a highly dynamic chromatin environment. PMID:16943430

  3. Transportproteiner som drug-targets hos Plasmodium falciparum. Nye perspektiver i behandlingen af malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekvist, Peter; Colding, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, infects and replicates in human erythrocytes. Through the use of substrate-specific transport proteins, P. falciparum takes up nutrients from the erythrocyte's cytoplasm. The sequencing and publishing of the P. falciparum genome have made it possible...

  4. Structure and function of histone acetyltransferase MOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiao Yi; Costa, Max; Sun, Hong

    2015-01-01

    MOF was first identified in Drosophila melanogaster as an important component of the dosage compensation complex. As a member of MYST family of histone acetyltransferase, MOF specifically deposits the acetyl groups to histone H4 lysine 16. Throughout evolution, MOF and its mammalian ortholog have retained highly conserved substrate specificity and similar enzymatic activities. MOF plays important roles in dosage compensation, ESC self-renewal, DNA damage and repair, cell survival, and gene expression regulation. Dysregulation of MOF has been implicated in tumor formation and progression of many types of human cancers. This review will discuss the structure and activity of mammalian hMOF as well as its function in H4K16 acetylation, DNA damage response, stem cell pluripotency, and carcinogenesis.

  5. Exploring the folate pathway in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, John E

    2005-06-01

    As in centuries past, the main weapon against human malaria infections continues to be intervention with drugs, despite the widespread and increasing frequency of parasite populations that are resistant to one or more of the available compounds. This is a particular problem with the lethal species of parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, which claims some two million lives per year as well as causing enormous social and economic problems. Amongst the antimalarial drugs currently in clinical use, the antifolates have the best defined molecular targets, namely the enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), which function in the folate metabolic pathway. The products of this pathway, reduced folate cofactors, are essential for DNA synthesis and the metabolism of certain amino acids. Moreover, their formation and interconversions involve a number of other enzymes that have not as yet been exploited as drug targets. Antifolates are of major importance as they currently represent the only inexpensive regime for combating chloroquine-resistant malaria, and are now first-line drugs in a number of African countries. Aspects of our understanding of this pathway and antifolate drug resistance are reviewed here, with a particular emphasis on approaches to analysing the details of, and balance between, folate biosynthesis by the parasite and salvage of pre-formed folate from exogenous sources.

  6. New synchronization method for Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwangi Jonathan M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum is usually asynchronous during in vitro culture. Although various synchronization methods are available, they are not able to narrow the range of ages of parasites. A newly developed method is described that allows synchronization of parasites to produce cultures with an age range as low as 30 minutes. Methods Trophozoites and schizonts are enriched using Plasmion. The enriched late stage parasites are immobilized as a monolayer onto plastic Petri dishes using concanavalin A. Uninfected erythrocytes are placed onto the monolayer for a limited time period, during which time schizonts on the monolayer rupture and the released merozoites invade the fresh erythrocytes. The overlay is then taken off into a culture flask, resulting in a highly synchronized population of parasites. Results Plasmion treatment results in a 10- to 13-fold enrichment of late stage parasites. The monolayer method results in highly synchronized cultures of parasites where invasion has occurred within a very limited time window, which can be as low as 30 minutes. The method is simple, requiring no specialized equipment and relatively cheap reagents. Conclusions The new method for parasite synchronization results in highly synchronized populations of parasites, which will be useful for studies of the parasite asexual cell cycle.

  7. Artesunate-induced hemoglobinuria in falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avik Karak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old male got admitted with fever of 103°F with chills and rigor for 6 days. He was diagnosed with Plasmodium falciparum infection by peripheral blood smear examination, later confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Blood smear showed 2% parasitemia. As the patient was hypotensive, intravenous artesunate was started. Two days later, he reported passing "Coca-Cola"-colored urine. Examination revealed tachycardia, anemia, and mild icterus. Serum free hemoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase was elevated whereas haptoglobin was very low. Urine showed the presence of hemoglobin without red blood cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay was normal. Chloroquine, primaquine, and quinine levels in blood were undetectable. There was no evidence of any coinfection. Artesunate was stopped suspecting a causal relationship. Intravenous quinine was started. The urine showed progressive clearance over 3 days, and the patient recovered. The strong temporal association of initiating artesunate and occurrence of hemoglobinuria suggested the possible etiological implication which is not documented before.

  8. Plasmodium falciparum secretome in erythrocyte and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani eSoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of deadly malaria disease. It is an intracellular eukaryote and completes its multi-stage life cycle spanning the two hosts viz, mosquito and human. In order to habituate within host environment, parasite conform several strategies to evade host immune responses such as surface antigen polymorphism or modulation of host immune system and it is mediated by secretion of proteins from parasite to the host erythrocyte and beyond, collectively known as, malaria secretome. In this review, we will discuss about the deployment of parasitic secretory protein in mechanism implicated for immune evasion, protein trafficking, providing virulence, changing permeability and cyto-adherence of infected erythrocyte. We will be covering the possibilities of developing malaria secretome as a drug/vaccine target. This gathered information will be worthwhile in depicting a well-organized picture for host-pathogen interplay during the malaria infection and may also provide some clues for development of novel anti-malarial therapies.

  9. Human histone acetyltransferase 1 (Hat1) acetylates lysine 5 of histone H2A in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafrova, Juliana I; Tafrov, Stefan T

    2014-07-01

    The primary structure of Histone Acetyltransferase 1 (Hat1) has been conserved throughout evolution; however, despite its ubiquity, its cellular function is not well characterized. To study its in vivo acetylation pattern and function, we utilized shRNAmir against Hat1 expressed in the well-substantiated HeLa (human cervical cancer) cell line. To reduce the interference by enzymes with similar HAT specificity, we used HeLa cells expressing histone acetyltransferase Tip60 with mutated acetyl-CoA binding site that abrogates its enzyme activity (mutant HeLa-tip60). Two shRNAmir were identified that reduced the expression of the cytoplasmic and nuclear forms of Hat1. Cytosolic protein preparations from these two clones showed decreased levels of acetylation of lysine 5 (K5) and K12 on histone H4, with the concomitant loss of the acetylation of histone H2A at K5. This pattern of decreased acetylation of H2AK5 was well defined in preparations of histone protein and insoluble nuclear-protein (INP) fractions as well. Abrogating the Hat1 expression caused a 74% decrease in colony-forming efficiency of mutant HeLa-tip60 cells, reduced the size of the colonies by 50%, and decreased the amounts of proteins with molecular weights below 35 kDa in the INP fractions.

  10. Bivalent histone modifications during tooth development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Wei Zheng; Bin-Peng Zhang; Ruo-Shi Xu; Xin Xu; Ling Ye; Xue-Dong Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Histone methylation is one of the most widely studied post-transcriptional modifications. It is thought to be an important epigenetic event that is closely associated with cell fate determination and differentiation. To explore the spatiotemporal expression of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) epigenetic marks and methylation or demethylation transferases in tooth organ development, we measured the expression of SET7, EZH2, KDM5B and JMJD3 via immunohistochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis in the first molar of BALB/c mice embryos at E13.5, E15.5, E17.5, P0 and P3, respectively. We also measured the expression of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 with immunofluorescence staining. During murine tooth germ development, methylation or demethylation transferases were expressed in a spatial–temporal manner. The bivalent modification characterized by H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 can be found during the tooth germ development, as shown by immunofluorescence. The expression of SET7, EZH2 as methylation transferases and KDM5B and JMJD3 as demethylation transferases indicated accordingly with the expression of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 respectively to some extent. The bivalent histone may play a critical role in tooth organ development via the regulation of cell differentiation.

  11. Gene promoters dictate histone occupancy within genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Roberto; Erickson, Benjamin; Zhang, Lian; Kim, Hyunmin; Valiquett, Elan; Bentley, David

    2013-10-01

    Spt6 is a transcriptional elongation factor and histone chaperone that reassembles transcribed chromatin. Genome-wide H3 mapping showed that Spt6 preferentially maintains nucleosomes within the first 500 bases of genes and helps define nucleosome-depleted regions in 5' and 3' flanking sequences. In Spt6-depleted cells, H3 loss at 5' ends correlates with reduced pol II density suggesting enhanced transcription elongation. Consistent with its 'Suppressor of Ty' (Spt) phenotype, Spt6 inactivation caused localized H3 eviction over 1-2 nucleosomes at 5' ends of Ty elements. H3 displacement differed between genes driven by promoters with 'open'/DPN and 'closed'/OPN chromatin conformations with similar pol II densities. More eviction occurred on genes with 'closed' promoters, associated with 'noisy' transcription. Moreover, swapping of 'open' and 'closed' promoters showed that they can specify distinct downstream patterns of histone eviction/deposition. These observations suggest a novel function for promoters in dictating histone dynamics within genes possibly through effects on transcriptional bursting or elongation rate.

  12. On the origin of the histone fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söding Johannes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histones organize the genomic DNA of eukaryotes into chromatin. The four core histone subunits consist of two consecutive helix-strand-helix motifs and are interleaved into heterodimers with a unique fold. We have searched for the evolutionary origin of this fold using sequence and structure comparisons, based on the hypothesis that folded proteins evolved by combination of an ancestral set of peptides, the antecedent domain segments. Results Our results suggest that an antecedent domain segment, corresponding to one helix-strand-helix motif, gave rise divergently to the N-terminal substrate recognition domain of Clp/Hsp100 proteins and to the helical part of the extended ATPase domain found in AAA+ proteins. The histone fold arose subsequently from the latter through a 3D domain-swapping event. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a genetically fixed 3D domain swap that led to the emergence of a protein family with novel properties, establishing domain swapping as a mechanism for protein evolution. Conclusion The helix-strand-helix motif common to these three folds provides support for our theory of an 'ancient peptide world' by demonstrating how an ancestral fragment can give rise to 3 different folds.

  13. Histones and chromatin structure in hyperthermophilic Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayling, R A; Sandman, K; Reeve, J N

    1996-05-01

    HMf is a histone from the hyperthermophile Methanothermus fervidus. It is the archetype and most studied member of a family of archaeal histones that have primary sequences and three-dimensional structures in common with the eukaryal nucleosome core histones and that bind and compact DNA molecules into nucleosome-like structures (NLS). HMf preparations are mixtures of two similar, small (approximately 7.5 kDa) polypeptides designated HMfA and HMfB that in vivo form both homodimers and heterodimers. HMfA synthesis predominates during exponential growth but the relative amount of HMfB increases as M. fervidus cells enter the stationary growth phase. Analyses of homogeneous preparations of recombinant (r) (HMfA)2 and (rHMfB)2 have demonstrated that these proteins have different DNA-binding and compaction properties in vitro, consistent with different roles in vivo for the (HMfA)2, (HMfB)2 and HMfA. HmfB dimers, and for the NLS that they form, in regulating gene expression and in genome compaction and stability.

  14. Histone deacetylases and cardiovascular cell lineagecommitment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which include alldiseases of the heart and circulation system, arethe leading cause of deaths on the globally. Duringthe development of CVDs, choric inflammatory, lipidmetabolism disorder and endothelial dysfunction arewidely recognized risk factors. Recently, the newtreatment for CVDs that designed to regenerate thedamaged myocardium and injured vascular endotheliumand improve recovery by the use of stem cells, attractsmore and more public attention. Histone deacetylases(HDACs) are a family of enzymes that remove acetylgroups from lysine residues of histone proteinsallowing the histones to wrap the DNA more tightlyand commonly known as epigenetic regulators ofgene transcription. HDACs play indispensable roles innearly all biological processes, such as transcriptionalregulation, cell cycle progression and developmentalevents, and have originally shown to be involved incancer and neurological diseases. HDACs are alsofound to play crucial roles in cardiovascular diseases bymodulating vascular cell homeostasis (e.g. , proliferation,migration, and apoptosis of both ECs and SMCs). Thisreview focuses on the roles of different members ofHDACs and HDAC inhibitor on stem cell/ progenitor celldifferentiation toward vascular cell lineages (endothelialcells, smooth muscle cells and Cardiomyocytes) and itspotential therapeutics.

  15. Complement activation in Ghanaian children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helegbe, Gideon K; Goka, Bamenla Q; Kurtzhals, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe anaemia (SA), intravascular haemolysis (IVH) and respiratory distress (RD) are severe forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, with RD reported to be of prognostic importance in African children with malarial anaemia. Complement factors have been implicated in the mechanism......55)] in children with discrete clinical forms of P. falciparum malaria. The relationship between the findings and clinical parameters including coma, haemoglobin (Hb) levels and RD were investigated. RESULTS: Of the 484 samples tested, 131(27%) were positive in DCT, out of which 115/131 (87.8%) were...... falciparum malaria, possibly through induction of erythrophagocytosis and haemolysis. In contrast to other studies, this study did not find association between levels of the complement...

  16. Plasmodium falciparum: growth response to potassium channel blocking compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Karena L; Kim, Kami; McDonald, Thomas V

    2008-11-01

    Potassium channels are essential for cell survival and regulate the cell membrane potential and electrochemical gradient. During its lifecycle, Plasmodium falciparum parasites must rapidly adapt to dramatically variant ionic conditions within the mosquito mid-gut, the hepatocyte and red blood cell (RBC) cytosols, and the human circulatory system. To probe the participation of K(+) channels in parasite viability, growth response assays were performed in which asexual stage P. falciparum parasites were cultured in the presence of various Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocking compounds. These data describe the novel anti-malarial effects of bicuculline methiodide and tubocurarine chloride and the novel lack of effect of apamine and verruculogen. Taken together, the data herein imply the presence of K(+) channels, or other parasite-specific targets, in P. falciparum-infected RBCs that are sensitive to blockade with Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocking compounds.

  17. [Research Progress on Artemisinin Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-long; Pan, Wei-qing

    2015-12-01

    Artemisinin (ART) is a novel and effective antimalarial drug discovered in China. As recommended by the World Health Organization, the ART-based combination therapies (ACTs) have become the first-line drugs for the treatment of falciparum malaria. ART and its derivatives have contributed greatly to the effective control of malaria globally, leading to yearly decrease of malaria morbidity and mortality. However, there have recently been several reports on the resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to ART in Southeast Asia. This is deemed a serious threat to the global malaria control programs. In this paper, we reviewed recent research progress on ART resistance to P. falciparum, including new tools for resistance measurement, resistance-associated molecular markers, and the origin and spread of the ART-resistant parasite strains.

  18. Theoretical framework for the histone modification network: modifications in the unstructured histone tails form a robust scale-free network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yohei; Senda, Toshiya; Sano, Norihiko; Horikoshi, Masami

    2009-07-01

    A rapid increase in research on the relationship between histone modifications and their subsequent reactions in the nucleus has revealed that the histone modification system is complex, and robust against point mutations. The prevailing theoretical framework (the histone code hypothesis) is inadequate to explain either the complexity or robustness, making the formulation of a new theoretical framework both necessary and desirable. Here, we develop a model of the regulatory network of histone modifications in which we encode histone modifications as nodes and regulatory interactions between histone modifications as links. This network has scale-free properties and subnetworks with a pseudo-mirror symmetry structure, which supports the robustness of the histone modification network. In addition, we show that the unstructured tail regions of histones are suitable for the acquisition of this scale-free property. Our model and related insights provide the first framework for an overall architecture of a histone modification network system, particularly with regard to the structural and functional roles of the unstructured histone tail region. In general, the post-translational "modification webs" of natively unfolded regions (proteins) may function as signal routers for the robust processing of the large amounts of signaling information.

  19. Biochemical Analysis Reveals the Multifactorial Mechanism of Histone H3 Clipping by Chicken Liver Histone H3 Protease

    KAUST Repository

    Chauhan, Sakshi

    2016-09-02

    Proteolytic clipping of histone H3 has been identified in many organisms. Despite several studies, the mechanism of clipping, the substrate specificity, and the significance of this poorly understood epigenetic mechanism are not clear. We have previously reported histone H3 specific proteolytic clipping and a protein inhibitor in chicken liver. However, the sites of clipping are still not known very well. In this study, we attempt to identify clipping sites in histone H3 and to determine the mechanism of inhibition by stefin B protein, a cysteine protease inhibitor. By employing site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro biochemical assays, we have identified three distinct clipping sites in recombinant human histone H3 and its variants (H3.1, H3.3, and H3t). However, post-translationally modified histones isolated from chicken liver and Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type cells showed different clipping patterns. Clipping of histone H3 N-terminal tail at three sites occurs in a sequential manner. We have further observed that clipping sites are regulated by the structure of the N-terminal tail as well as the globular domain of histone H3. We also have identified the QVVAG region of stefin B protein to be very crucial for inhibition of the protease activity. Altogether, our comprehensive biochemical studies have revealed three distinct clipping sites in histone H3 and their regulation by the structure of histone H3, histone modifications marks, and stefin B.

  20. Replication-coupled chromatin assembly of newly synthesized histones: distinct functions for the histone tail domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlassi-Lassallette, Aïda; Thiriet, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    The maintenance of the genome during replication requires the assembly of nucleosomes with newly synthesized histones. Achieving the deposition of newly synthesized histones in chromatin implies their transport from the cytoplasm to the nucleus at the replication sites. Several lines of evidence have revealed critical functions of the histone tail domains in these conserved cellular processes. In this review, we discuss the role of the amino termini of the nucleosome building blocks, H2A/H2B and H3/H4, in different model systems. The experimental data showed that H2A/H2B tails and H3/H4 tails display distinct functions in nuclear import and chromatin assembly. Furthermore, we describe recent studies exploiting the unique properties of the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum , that have advanced understanding of the function of the highly conserved replication-dependent diacetylation of H4.

  1. Identification and characterization of the genes encoding the core histones and histone variants of Neurospora crassa.

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, Shan M.; Swanson, Johanna; Selker, Eric U.

    2002-01-01

    We have identified and characterized the complete complement of genes encoding the core histones of Neurospora crassa. In addition to the previously identified pair of genes that encode histones H3 and H4 (hH3 and hH4-1), we identified a second histone H4 gene (hH4-2), a divergently transcribed pair of genes that encode H2A and H2B (hH2A and hH2B), a homolog of the F/Z family of H2A variants (hH2Az), a homolog of the H3 variant CSE4 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (hH3v), and a highly diverged ...

  2. Identification and characterization of the genes encoding the core histones and histone variants of Neurospora crassa.

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, Shan M.; Swanson, Johanna; Selker, Eric U.

    2002-01-01

    We have identified and characterized the complete complement of genes encoding the core histones of Neurospora crassa. In addition to the previously identified pair of genes that encode histones H3 and H4 (hH3 and hH4-1), we identified a second histone H4 gene (hH4-2), a divergently transcribed pair of genes that encode H2A and H2B (hH2A and hH2B), a homolog of the F/Z family of H2A variants (hH2Az), a homolog of the H3 variant CSE4 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (hH3v), and a highly diverged ...

  3. Histones and nucleosomes in Archaea and Eukarya: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S L; Reeve, J N

    1998-08-01

    Archaeal histones from mesophilic, thermophilic, and hyperthermophilic members of the Euryarchaeota have primary sequences, the histone fold, tertiary structures, and dimer formation in common with the eukaryal nucleosome core histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Archaeal histones form nucleoprotein complexes in vitro and in vivo, designated archaeal nucleosomes, that contain histone tetramers and protect approximately 60 base pairs of DNA from nuclease digestion. Based on the sequence and structural homologies and experimental data reviewed here, archaeal nucleosomes appear similar, and may be homologous in evolutionary terms and function, to the structure at the center of the eukaryal nucleosome formed by the histone (H3 + H4)2 tetramer.

  4. HAMLET interacts with histones and chromatin in tumor cell nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düringer, Caroline; Hamiche, Ali; Gustafsson, Lotta; Kimura, Hiroshi; Svanborg, Catharina

    2003-10-24

    HAMLET is a folding variant of human alpha-lactalbumin in an active complex with oleic acid. HAMLET selectively enters tumor cells, accumulates in their nuclei and induces apoptosis-like cell death. This study examined the interactions of HAMLET with nuclear constituents and identified histones as targets. HAMLET was found to bind histone H3 strongly and to lesser extent histones H4 and H2B. The specificity of these interactions was confirmed using BIAcore technology and chromatin assembly assays. In vivo in tumor cells, HAMLET co-localized with histones and perturbed the chromatin structure; HAMLET was found associated with chromatin in an insoluble nuclear fraction resistant to salt extraction. In vitro, HAMLET bound strongly to histones and impaired their deposition on DNA. We conclude that HAMLET interacts with histones and chromatin in tumor cell nuclei and propose that this interaction locks the cells into the death pathway by irreversibly disrupting chromatin organization.

  5. Loss of cellular immune reactivity during acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L; Theander, T G; Abu-Zeid, Y A;

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen patients suffering from acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria were studied. All were residents of an area of unstable malaria-transmission in Eastern Sudan. Blood-samples were drawn at diagnosis, and 7 and 30 days later. Blood-samples from thirteen donors, drawn outside the malaria...... convalescence. Five donors examined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) showed no increase in surface expression of IL-2 receptor on peripheral lymphocytes. The data indicate that acute P. falciparum malaria causes a depletion of antigen-reactive T-cells from the peripheral circulation, probably due...

  6. [Erythrocytes infected by Plasmodium falciparum activate human platelets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, B; Peyron, F; Sheick Zadiuddin, I; Kolodié, L; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    1990-01-01

    Blood platelets are involved in Plasmodium falciparum malaria pathology as shown by thrombocytopenia and increased plasma level of two alpha granule proteins: beta thromboglobulin (beta TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF4). In this study we demonstrate that Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes activate directly the secretion of beta TG and PF4 by human platelets. This secretion is related to parasitemia and occurs immediately after contact. Treatment of parasited erythrocytes by trypsin and diffusion chamber experiments suggest that platelet activation is triggered by parasitic substances shed on erythrocyte membrane and released in the culture medium.

  7. Soluble haemoglobin is a marker of recent Plasmodium falciparum infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Bygbjerg, I C; Theander, T G;

    1997-01-01

    . falciparum malaria compared to the levels during acute disease. Thus, both soluble Hb and haptoglobin appear to be markers of recent P. falciparum infections. Very high levels of CRP protein were measured in some of the malaria patients at the day of treatment while lower levels were recorded 7 and 30 days...... after treatment. Soluble Hb levels were associated with malariometric parameters in a similar fashion to haptoglobin. The new Mab-based assay for measuring soluble Hb in the peripheral blood of malaria patients may be useful for future epidemiological studies of malaria....

  8. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, D; Reddy, G R; Dame, J B; Almira, E C; Laipis, P J; Ferl, R J; Yang, T P; Rowe, T C; Schuster, S M

    1994-07-01

    An initiative was undertaken to sequence all genes of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in an effort to gain a better understanding at the molecular level of the parasite that inflicts much suffering in the developing world. 550 random complimentary DNA clones were partially sequenced from the intraerythrocytic form of the parasite as one of the approaches to analyze the transcribed sequences of its genome. The sequences, after editing, generated 389 expressed sequence tag sites and over 105 kb of DNA sequences. About 32% of these clones showed significant homology with other genes in the database. These clones represent 340 new Plasmodium falciparum expressed sequence tags.

  9. Loss of cellular immune reactivity during acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L; Theander, T G; Abu-Zeid, Y A

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen patients suffering from acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria were studied. All were residents of an area of unstable malaria-transmission in Eastern Sudan. Blood-samples were drawn at diagnosis, and 7 and 30 days later. Blood-samples from thirteen donors, drawn outside the malaria...... convalescence. Five donors examined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) showed no increase in surface expression of IL-2 receptor on peripheral lymphocytes. The data indicate that acute P. falciparum malaria causes a depletion of antigen-reactive T-cells from the peripheral circulation, probably due...

  10. Naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars

    2005-01-01

    protective immunity to P. falciparum malaria is acquired following natural exposure to the parasites is beginning to emerge, not least thanks to studies that have combined clinical and epidemiological data with basic immunological research. This framework involves IgG with specificity for clonally variant......Infection by Plasmodium falciparum parasites can lead to substantial protective immunity to malaria, and available evidence suggest that acquisition of protection against some severe malaria syndromes can be fairly rapid. Although these facts have raised hopes that the development of effective...

  11. NICKEL COMPOUNDS INDUCE HISTONE UBIQUITINATION BY INHIBITING HISTONE DEUBIQUITINATING ENZYME ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Qingdong; Ellen, Thomas P.; Costa, Max

    2007-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) compounds are known carcinogens but underlying mechanisms are not clear. Epigenetic changes are likely to play an important role in nickel ion carcinogenesis. Previous studies have shown epigenetic effects of nickel ions, including the loss of histone acetylation and a pronounced increase in dimethylated H3K9 in nickel-exposed cells. In this study, we demonstrated that both water-soluble and insoluble nickel compounds induce histone ubiquitination (uH2A and uH2B) in a variety of c...

  12. Linker histone H1 and protein-protein interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kalashnikova, Anna A; Rogge, Ryan A.; Hansen, Jeffrey C

    2015-01-01

    Linker histones H1 are ubiquitous chromatin proteins that play important roles in chromatin compaction, transcription regulation, nucleosome spacing and chromosome spacing. H1 function in DNA and chromatin structure stabilization is well studied and established. The current paradigm of linker histone mode of function considers all other cellular roles of linker histones to be a consequence from H1 chromatin compaction and repression. Here we review the multiple processes regulated by linker h...

  13. Replication-Uncoupled Histone Deposition during Adenovirus DNA Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Komatsu, Tetsuro; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2012-01-01

    In infected cells, the chromatin structure of the adenovirus genome DNA plays critical roles in its genome functions. Previously, we reported that in early phases of infection, incoming viral DNA is associated with both viral core protein VII and cellular histones. Here we show that in late phases of infection, newly synthesized viral DNA is also associated with histones. We also found that the knockdown of CAF-1, a histone chaperone that functions in the replication-coupled deposition of his...

  14. Sharing of antigens between Plasmodium falciparum and Anopheles albimanus Antígenos compartidos entre Plasmodium falciparum y Anopheles albimanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Wide

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of common antigens between Plasmodium falciparum and Anopheles albimanus was demonstrated. Different groups of rabbits were immunized with: crude extract from female An. albimanus (EAaF, red blood cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum (EPfs, and the SPf66 synthetic malaria vaccine. The rabbit's polyclonal antibodies were evaluated by ELISA, Multiple Antigen Blot Assay (MABA, and immunoblotting. All extracts were immunogenic in rabbits according to these three techniques, when they were evaluated against the homologous antigens. Ten molecules were identified in female mosquitoes and also in P. falciparum antigens by the autologous sera. The electrophoretic pattern by SDS-PAGE was different for the three antigens evaluated. Cross-reactions between An. albimanus and P. falciparum were found by ELISA, MABA, and immunoblotting. Anti-P. falciparum and anti-SPf66 antibodies recognized ten and five components in the EAaF crude extract, respectively. Likewise, immune sera against female An. albimanus identified four molecules in the P. falciparum extract antigen. As far as we know, this is the first work that demonstrates shared antigens between anophelines and malaria parasites. This finding could be useful for diagnosis, vaccines, and the study of physiology of the immune response to malaria.Epítopes de antígenos compartidos entre Plasmodium falciparum y Anopheles albimanus fueron identificados. Diferentes grupos de conejos fueron inmunizados con: extracto crudo de mosquito hembra de An. albimanus (EAaH, glóbulos rojos infectados con P. falciparum (EPfs y la vacuna antimalárica sintética SPf66. Los anticuerpos policlonales producidos en conejos fueron evaluados por ELISA, inmunoensayo simultáneo de múltiples antígenos (MABA e Immunoblotting. Todos los extractos resultaron inmunogénicos cuando se evaluaron por ELISA, MABA e Immunoblotting. Diez moléculas fueron identificadas en los mosquitos hembras y diez en los antígenos de

  15. Non-falciparum malaria infections in pregnant women in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, John; Njie, Fanta; Cairns, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections are found in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa but little is known about their importance in pregnancy. METHODS: Blood samples were collected at first antenatal clinic attendance from 2526 women enrolled in a trial of intermittent screening...... for a non-falciparum malaria infection were investigated and the influence of these infections on the outcome of pregnancy was determined. RESULTS: P. falciparum infection was detected frequently (overall prevalence by PCR: 38.8 %, [95 % CI 37.0, 40.8]), with a prevalence ranging from 10.8 % in The Gambia...... to 56.1 % in Ghana. Non-falciparum malaria infections were found only rarely (overall prevalence 1.39 % [95 % CI 1.00, 1.92]), ranging from 0.17 % in the Gambia to 3.81 % in Mali. Ten non-falciparum mono-infections and 25 mixed falciparum and non-falciparum infections were found. P. malariae...

  16. A cross strain Plasmodium falciparum microarray optimized for the transcriptome analysis of Plasmodium falciparum patient derived isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Subudhi, Amit Kumar

    2016-07-20

    Malarial parasite P. falciparum, an apicomplexan protozoan has a 23.3 MB nuclear genome and encodes ~ 5600 transcripts. The genetic diversity of the parasite within and across geographical zones is a challenge to gene expression studies which are essential for understanding of disease process, outcome and developing markers for diagnostics and prognostics. Here, we describe the strategy involved in designing a custom P. falciparum 15K array using the Agilent platform and Genotypic\\'s Right Design methodology to study the transcriptome of Indian field isolates for which genome sequence information is limited. The array contains probes representing genome sequences of two distinct geographical isolates (i.e. 3D7 and HB3) and sub-telomeric var gene sequences of a third isolate (IT4) known to adhere in culture condition. Probes in the array have been selected based on their efficiency to detect transcripts through a 244K array experimentation. Array performance for the 15K array, was evaluated and validated using RNA materials from P. falciparum clinical isolates. A large percentage (91%) of the represented transcripts was detected from Indian P. falciparum patient isolates. Replicated probes and multiple probes representing the same gene showed perfect correlation between them suggesting good probe performance. Additional transcripts could be detected due to inclusion of unique probes representing HB3 strain transcripts. Variant surface antigen (VSA) transcripts were detected by optimized probes representing the VSA genes of three geographically distinct strains. The 15K cross strain P. falciparum array has shown good efficiency in detecting transcripts from P. falciparum parasite samples isolated from patients. The low parasite loads and presence of host RNA makes arrays a preferred platform for gene expression studies over RNA-Seq.

  17. Roles of histone ubiquitylation in DNA damage signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui-Sui DONG; Michael S. Y. HUEN

    2011-01-01

    Histone ubiquitylation has emerged as an important chromatin modification associated with DNA damage signaling and repair pathways.These histone marks,laid down by E3 ubiquitin ligases that include RNF8 and RNF168,decorate chromatin domains surrounding DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs).Recent work implicated ubiquitylated histones in orchestrating cell cycle checkpoints,DNA repair and gene transcription.Here we summarize recent advances that contribute to our current knowledge of the highly dynamic nature of DSB-associated histone ubiquitylation,and discuss major challenges ahead in understanding the versatility of ubiquitin conjugation in maintaining genome stability.

  18. Roles of histones and nucleosomes in gene transcription

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the latest research developments in the field of eukaryotic gene regulation by the structural alterations of chromatin and nucleosomes. The following issues are briefly addressed: (ⅰ) nucleosome and histone modifications by both the ATP-dependent remodel- ing com-plexes and the histone acetyltransferases and their roles in gene activation; (ⅱ) competitive binding of histones and transcription factors on gene promoters, and transcription repression by nucleosomes; and (ⅲ) influences of linker histone H1 on gene regulation. Meanwhile, the significance and impact of these new research progresses, as well as issues worthwhile for further study are commented.

  19. Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Rick M; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2016-06-01

    For more than five decades, Southeast Asia (SEA) has been fertile ground for the emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. After generating parasites resistant to chloroquine, sulfadoxine, pyrimethamine, quinine, and mefloquine, this region has now spawned parasites resistant to artemisinins, the world's most potent antimalarial drugs. In areas where artemisinin resistance is prevalent, artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs)-the first-line treatments for malaria-are failing fast. This worrisome development threatens to make malaria practically untreatable in SEA, and threatens to compromise global endeavors to eliminate this disease. A recent series of clinical, in vitro, genomics, and transcriptomics studies in SEA have defined in vivo and in vitro phenotypes of artemisinin resistance, identified its causal genetic determinant, explored its molecular mechanism, and assessed its clinical impact. Specifically, these studies have established that artemisinin resistance manifests as slow parasite clearance in patients and increased survival of early-ring-stage parasites in vitro; is caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parasite's K13 gene, is associated with an upregulated "unfolded protein response" pathway that may antagonize the pro-oxidant activity of artemisinins, and selects for partner drug resistance that rapidly leads to ACT failures. In SEA, clinical studies are urgently needed to monitor ACT efficacy where K13 mutations are prevalent, test whether new combinations of currently available drugs cure ACT failures, and advance new antimalarial compounds through preclinical pipelines and into clinical trials. Intensifying these efforts should help to forestall the spread of artemisinin and partner drug resistance from SEA to sub-Saharan Africa, where the world's malaria transmission, morbidity, and mortality rates are highest.

  20. Unique properties of Plasmodium falciparum porphobilinogen deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Viswanathan Arun; Arumugam, Rajavel; Gopalakrishnan, Bulusu; Jyothsna, Yeleswarapu Sri; Rangarajan, Pundi N; Padmanaban, Govindarajan

    2008-01-04

    The hybrid pathway for heme biosynthesis in the malarial parasite proposes the involvement of parasite genome-coded enzymes of the pathway localized in different compartments such as apicoplast, mitochondria, and cytosol. However, knowledge on the functionality and localization of many of these enzymes is not available. In this study, we demonstrate that porphobilinogen deaminase encoded by the Plasmodium falciparum genome (PfPBGD) has several unique biochemical properties. Studies carried out with PfPBGD partially purified from parasite membrane fraction, as well as recombinant PfPBGD lacking N-terminal 64 amino acids expressed and purified from Escherichia coli cells (DeltaPfPBGD), indicate that both the proteins are catalytically active. Surprisingly, PfPBGD catalyzes the conversion of porphobilinogen to uroporphyrinogen III (UROGEN III), indicating that it also possesses uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) activity, catalyzing the next step. This obviates the necessity to have a separate gene for UROS that has not been so far annotated in the parasite genome. Interestingly, DeltaPfP-BGD gives rise to UROGEN III even after heat treatment, although UROS from other sources is known to be heat-sensitive. Based on the analysis of active site residues, a DeltaPfPBGDL116K mutant enzyme was created and the specific activity of this recombinant mutant enzyme is 5-fold higher than DeltaPfPBGD. More interestingly, DeltaPfPBGDL116K catalyzes the formation of uroporphyrinogen I (UROGEN I) in addition to UROGEN III, indicating that with increased PBGD activity the UROS activity of PBGD may perhaps become rate-limiting, thus leading to non-enzymatic cyclization of preuroporphyrinogen to UROGEN I. PfPBGD is localized to the apicoplast and is catalytically very inefficient compared with the host red cell enzyme.

  1. Rapid divergence of histones in Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) and evolution of a novel histone involved in DNA damage response in hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Puli Chandramouli; Ubhe, Suyog; Sirwani, Neha; Lohokare, Rasika; Galande, Sanjeev

    2017-08-01

    Histones are fundamental components of chromatin in all eukaryotes. Hydra, an emerging model system belonging to the basal metazoan phylum Cnidaria, provides an ideal platform to understand the evolution of core histone components at the base of eumetazoan phyla. Hydra exhibits peculiar properties such as tremendous regenerative capacity, lack of organismal senescence and rarity of malignancy. In light of the role of histone modifications and histone variants in these processes it is important to understand the nature of histones themselves and their variants in hydra. Here, we report identification of the complete repertoire of histone-coding genes in the Hydra magnipapillata genome. Hydra histones were classified based on their copy numbers, gene structure and other characteristic features. Genomic organization of canonical histone genes revealed the presence of H2A-H2B and H3-H4 paired clusters in high frequency and also a cluster with all core histones along with H1. Phylogenetic analysis of identified members of H2A and H2B histones suggested rapid expansion of these groups in Hydrozoa resulting in the appearance of unique subtypes. Amino acid sequence level comparisons of H2A and H2B forms with bilaterian counterparts suggest the possibility of a highly mobile nature of nucleosomes in hydra. Absolute quantitation of transcripts confirmed the high copy number of histones and supported the canonical nature of H2A. Furthermore, functional characterization of H2A.X.1 and a unique variant H2A.X.2 in the gastric region suggest their role in the maintenance of genome integrity and differentiation processes. These findings provide insights into the evolution of histones and their variants in hydra. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Open and Closed: The Roles of Linker Histones in Plants and Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Over, Ryan S.; Michaels, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Linker histones play key roles alongside core histones in the regulation and maintenance of chromatin. Here, we illustrate our current understanding of the contributions of linker histones to the cell cycle, development, and chromatin structure in plants and animals.

  3. One-pot refolding of core histones from bacterial inclusion bodies allows rapid reconstitution of histone octamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Tae; Gibbons, Garrett; Lee, Shirley Y; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta; Dou, Yali

    2015-06-01

    We report an optimized method to purify and reconstitute histone octamer, which utilizes high expression of histones in inclusion bodies but eliminates the time consuming steps of individual histone purification. In the newly modified protocol, Xenopus laevis H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 are expressed individually into inclusion bodies of bacteria, which are subsequently mixed together and denatured in 8M guanidine hydrochloride. Histones are refolded and reconstituted into soluble octamer by dialysis against 2M NaCl, and metal-affinity purified through an N-terminal polyhistidine-tag added on the H2A. After cleavage of the polyhistidine-tag, histone octamer is further purified by size exclusion chromatography. We show that the nucleosomes reconstituted using the purified histone octamer above are fully functional. They serve as effective substrates for the histone methyltransferases DOT1L and MLL1. Small angle X-ray scattering further confirms that the reconstituted nucleosomes have correct structural integration of histone octamer and DNA as observed in the X-ray crystal structure. Our new protocol enables rapid reconstitution of histone octamer with an optimal yield. We expect this simplified approach to facilitate research using recombinant nucleosomes in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure and function of the histone chaperone CIA/ASF1 complexed with histones H3 and H4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Ryo; Eitoku, Masamitsu; Akai, Yusuke; Sano, Norihiko; Horikoshi, Masami; Senda, Toshiya

    2007-03-15

    CIA (CCG1-interacting factor A)/ASF1, which is the most conserved histone chaperone among the eukaryotes, was genetically identified as a factor for an anti-silencing function (Asf1) by yeast genetic screening. Shortly after that, the CIA-histone-H3-H4 complex was isolated from Drosophila as a histone chaperone CAF-1 stimulator. Human CIA-I/II (ASF1a/b) was identified as a histone chaperone that interacts with the bromodomain-an acetylated-histone-recognizing domain-of CCG1, in the general transcription initiation factor TFIID. Intensive studies have revealed that CIA/ASF1 mediates nucleosome assembly by forming a complex with another histone chaperone in human cells and yeast, and is involved in DNA replication, transcription, DNA repair and silencing/anti-silencing in yeast. CIA/ASF1 was shown as a major storage chaperone for soluble histones in proliferating human cells. Despite all these biochemical and biological functional analyses, the structure-function relationship of the nucleosome assembly/disassembly activity of CIA/ASF1 has remained elusive. Here we report the crystal structure, at 2.7 A resolution, of CIA-I in complex with histones H3 and H4. The structure shows the histone H3-H4 dimer's mutually exclusive interactions with another histone H3-H4 dimer and CIA-I. The carboxy-terminal beta-strand of histone H4 changes its partner from the beta-strand in histone H2A to that of CIA-I through large conformational change. In vitro functional analysis demonstrated that CIA-I has a histone H3-H4 tetramer-disrupting activity. Mutants with weak histone H3-H4 dimer binding activity showed critical functional effects on cellular processes related to transcription. The histone H3-H4 tetramer-disrupting activity of CIA/ASF1 and the crystal structure of the CIA/ASF1-histone-H3-H4 dimer complex should give insights into mechanisms of both nucleosome assembly/disassembly and nucleosome semi-conservative replication.

  5. The Histone Deacetylase Complex 1 Protein of Arabidopsis Has the Capacity to Interact with Multiple Proteins Including Histone 3-Binding Proteins and Histone 1 Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, Giorgio; Carr, Craig; Asensi-Fabado, Maria A; Donald, Naomi A; Páldi, Katalin; Hannah, Matthew A; Amtmann, Anna

    2016-05-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins can adopt multiple conformations, thereby enabling interaction with a wide variety of partners. They often serve as hubs in protein interaction networks. We have previously shown that the Histone Deacetylase Complex 1 (HDC1) protein from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) interacts with histone deacetylases and quantitatively determines histone acetylation levels, transcriptional activity, and several phenotypes, including abscisic acid sensitivity during germination, vegetative growth rate, and flowering time. HDC1-type proteins are ubiquitous in plants, but they contain no known structural or functional domains. Here, we explored the protein interaction spectrum of HDC1 using a quantitative bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) epidermal cells. In addition to binding histone deacetylases, HDC1 directly interacted with histone H3-binding proteins and corepressor-associated proteins but not with H3 or the corepressors themselves. Surprisingly, HDC1 also was able to interact with variants of the linker histone H1. Truncation of HDC1 to the ancestral core sequence narrowed the spectrum of interactions and of phenotypic outputs but maintained binding to a H3-binding protein and to H1. Thus, HDC1 provides a potential link between H1 and histone-modifying complexes.

  6. Histones and lung cancer: Are the histone deacetylases a promising therapeutic target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petta, Vasiliki; Gkiozos, Ioannis; Strimpakos, Alex; Syrigos, Konstantinos

    2013-11-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid is wrapped around an octamer of core histone proteins to form a nucleosome, the basic structure of chromatin. Two main families of enzymes maintain the equilibrium of acetyl groups added to or removed from lysine residues. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from lysine residues in histone amino termini and non-histone proteins also, leading to chromatin condensation and transcriptional repression. HDAC overexpression, resulting in tumor suppressor genes silencing, has been found in several human cancer tissues, indicating that aberrant epigenetic activity is associated with cancer development. Therefore, inhibitors of these enzymes are emerging anticancer agents and there is evidence supporting their role in hematological malignancies. The minimal efficacy of conventional chemotherapy has prompted a renewed focus on targeted therapy based on pathways altered during the pathogenesis of lung cancer. We identify the pleiotropic antitumor effects of HDAC inhibitors in lung cancer, focusing on the result caused by their use individually, as well as in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents, in lung cancer cell lines and in clinical trials. We searched reviews and original papers in Pubmed over the last 10 years. We identified 76 original papers on this topic. Numerous preclinical studies have shown that HDAC inhibitors exhibit impressive antitumor activity in lung cancer cell lines. Nevertheless, Phase III randomized studies do not support HDAC inhibitors use in lung cancer patients in everyday practice. Ongoing and future studies would help determine their role in lung cancer treatment.

  7. Histone lysine crotonylation during acute kidney injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ruiz-Andres

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a potentially lethal condition for which no therapy is available beyond replacement of renal function. Post-translational histone modifications modulate gene expression and kidney injury. Histone crotonylation is a recently described post-translational modification. We hypothesized that histone crotonylation might modulate kidney injury. Histone crotonylation was studied in cultured murine proximal tubular cells and in kidneys from mice with AKI induced by folic acid or cisplatin. Histone lysine crotonylation was observed in tubular cells from healthy murine and human kidney tissue. Kidney tissue histone crotonylation increased during AKI. This was reproduced by exposure to the protein TWEAK in cultured tubular cells. Specifically, ChIP-seq revealed enrichment of histone crotonylation at the genes encoding the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator PGC-1α and the sirtuin-3 decrotonylase in both TWEAK-stimulated tubular cells and in AKI kidney tissue. To assess the role of crotonylation in kidney injury, crotonate was used to increase histone crotonylation in cultured tubular cells or in the kidneys in vivo. Crotonate increased the expression of PGC-1α and sirtuin-3, and decreased CCL2 expression in cultured tubular cells and healthy kidneys. Systemic crotonate administration protected from experimental AKI, preventing the decrease in renal function and in kidney PGC-1α and sirtuin-3 levels as well as the increase in CCL2 expression. For the first time, we have identified factors such as cell stress and crotonate availability that increase histone crotonylation in vivo. Overall, increasing histone crotonylation might have a beneficial effect on AKI. This is the first observation of the in vivo potential of the therapeutic manipulation of histone crotonylation in a disease state.

  8. Biguanide-Atovaquone Synergy against Plasmodium falciparum In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The synergistic potential of a range of biguanides, their triazine metabolites, tetracyclines, and pyrimethamine in combination with atovaquone has been assessed. All five biguanides tested interacted synergistically with atovaquone against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. All of the other compounds tested were either additive or antagonistic.

  9. Interleukin-10 regulates hepcidin in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Honglei

    2014-02-10

    Background: Acute malarial anemia remains a major public health problem. Hepcidin, the major hormone controlling the availability of iron, is raised during acute and asymptomatic parasitemia. Understanding the role and mechanism of raised hepcidin and so reduced iron availability during infection is critical to establish evidence-based guidelines for management of malaria anemia. Our recent clinical evidence suggests a potential role of IL-10 in the regulation of hepcidin in patients with acute P. falciparum malaria. Methods: We have measured secretion of hepcidin by primary macrophages and the hepatoma cell line HepG2 stimulated with IL-10, IL-6 and Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Findings: We have observed that IL-10 and IL-6 production increased in primary macrophages when these cells were co-cultured with Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. We found that IL-10 induced hepcidin secretion in primary macrophages in a dose-dependent manner but not in HepG2 cells. These effects were mediated through signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3-phosphorylation and completely abrogated by a specific STAT3 inhibitor. Conclusion: IL-10 can directly regulate hepcidin in primary macrophages but not in HepG2 cells. This effect can be modulated by Plasmodium falciparum. The results are consistent with a role for IL-10 in modulating iron metabolism during acute phase of infection. 2014 Huang et al.

  10. A Patient with G6PD Deficiency and Falciparum Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Fagani

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A 20 year old male patient from Afghanistan with a history of G6PD deficiency and clinical manifestations of malaria referred to Bou-Ali Hospital in Tehran, capital of Iran. Giemsa stained thick blood films revealed an infection of Plasmodium falciparum with 33700 parasite/μL of blood. The patient was successfully treated according to malaria treatment guideline.

  11. Antibodies to a recombinant glutamate-rich Plasmodium falciparum protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogh, B; Petersen, E; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    1992-01-01

    A Plasmodium falciparum antigen gene coding for a 220-kD glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) has been cloned, and the 783 C-terminal amino acids of this protein (GLURP489-1271) have been expressed as a beta-galactosidase fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The encoded 783 amino acid residues contain two...

  12. Positive blood culture with Plasmodium falciparum : Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Jutte J. C.; Van Assen, Sander; Mulder, André B.; Kampinga, Greetje A.

    2007-01-01

    An adult traveler presented with fever and malaise after returning from Sierra Leone. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum were seen in a blood smear, with parasitemia being 10%. Moreover, blood cultures drawn on admission signaled as "positive" after 1 day of incubation, but no bacteria were

  13. Plasmodium falciparum transcriptome analysis reveals pregnancy malaria associated gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Proux, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) causing maternal anemia and low birth weight is among the multiple manifestations of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Infected erythrocytes (iEs) can acquire various adhesive properties that mediate the clinical severity of malaria. Recent advances...

  14. Artemether-lumefantrine treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2015-01-01

    -lumefantrine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to define therapeutic day 7 lumefantrine concentrations and identify patient factors that substantially alter these concentrations. A systematic review of PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov and conference proceedings identified all relevant studies...

  15. Plasmodium falciparum infection causes proinflammatory priming of human TLR responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCall, M.B.B.; Netea, M.G.; Hermsen, C.C.; Jansen, T.; Jacobs, L.; Golenbock, D.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    TLRs are a major group of pattern recognition receptors that are crucial in initiating innate immune responses and are capable of recognizing Plasmodium ligands. We have investigated TLR responses during acute experimental P. falciparum (P.f.) infection in 15 malaria-naive volunteers. TLR-4 response

  16. Positive blood culture with Plasmodium falciparum: Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Jutte J. C.; Van Assen, Sander; Mulder, André B.; Kampinga, Greetje A.

    2007-01-01

    An adult traveler presented with fever and malaise after returning from Sierra Leone. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum were seen in a blood smear, with parasitemia being 10%. Moreover, blood cultures drawn on admission signaled as "positive" after 1 day of incubation, but no bacteria were

  17. Positive blood culture with Plasmodium falciparum : Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Jutte J. C.; Van Assen, Sander; Mulder, André B.; Kampinga, Greetje A.

    2007-01-01

    An adult traveler presented with fever and malaise after returning from Sierra Leone. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum were seen in a blood smear, with parasitemia being 10%. Moreover, blood cultures drawn on admission signaled as "positive" after 1 day of incubation, but no bacteria were

  18. The prognostic value of schizontaemia in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van Wolfswinkel (Marlies); M. De Mendonça Melo (Mariana); K. Vliegenthart-Jongbloed (Klaske); R. Koelewijn (Rob); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In Plasmodium falciparum infection, peripheral parasite counts do not always correlate well with the sequestered parasite burden. As erythrocytes parasitized with mature trophozoites and schizonts have a high tendency to adhere to the microvascular endothelium, they are often

  19. The prognostic value of schizontaemia in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van Wolfswinkel (Marlies); M. De Mendonça Melo (Mariana); K. Vliegenthart-Jongbloed (Klaske); R. Koelewijn (Rob); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In Plasmodium falciparum infection, peripheral parasite counts do not always correlate well with the sequestered parasite burden. As erythrocytes parasitized with mature trophozoites and schizonts have a high tendency to adhere to the microvascular endothelium, they are often

  20. The epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: weapons of mass dispersion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drakeley, C.; Sutherland, C.; Bousema, J.T.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Targett, G.A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum in Sub-Saharan Africa focuses on the prevalence patterns of asexual parasites in people of different ages, whereas the gametocytes that propagate the disease are often neglected. One expected benefit of the widespread introduction of artemisinin-base

  1. The histone chaperones Vps75 and Nap1 form ring-like, tetrameric structures in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowman, Andrew; Hammond, Colin M; Stirling, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    NAP-1 fold histone chaperones play an important role in escorting histones to and from sites of nucleosome assembly and disassembly. The two NAP-1 fold histone chaperones in budding yeast, Vps75 and Nap1, have previously been crystalized in a characteristic homodimeric conformation. In this study...... fold histone chaperones. The tetramerisation of NAP-1 fold histone chaperones may act to shield acidic surfaces in the absence of histone cargo thus providing a 'self-chaperoning' type mechanism....

  2. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Endemicity in Indonesia in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Gething, Peter W.; Patil, Anand P.; Rogayah, Hanifah; Kusriastuti, Rita; Wismarini, Desak M.; Tarmizi, Siti N.; Baird, J. Kevin; Hay, Simon I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria control programs require a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of infection risk to efficiently allocate resources. We used model based geostatistics (MBG) techniques to generate a contemporary map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria risk in Indonesia in 2010. Methods Plasmodium falciparum Annual Parasite Incidence (PfAPI) data (2006–2008) were used to map limits of P. falciparum transmission. A total of 2,581 community blood surveys of P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) were identified (1985–2009). After quality control, 2,516 were included into a national database of age-standardized 2–10 year old PfPR data (PfPR2–10) for endemicity mapping. A Bayesian MBG procedure was used to create a predicted surface of PfPR2–10 endemicity with uncertainty estimates. Population at risk estimates were derived with reference to a 2010 human population count surface. Results We estimate 132.8 million people in Indonesia, lived at risk of P. falciparum transmission in 2010. Of these, 70.3% inhabited areas of unstable transmission and 29.7% in stable transmission. Among those exposed to stable risk, the vast majority were at low risk (93.39%) with the reminder at intermediate (6.6%) and high risk (0.01%). More people in western Indonesia lived in unstable rather than stable transmission zones. In contrast, fewer people in eastern Indonesia lived in unstable versus stable transmission areas. Conclusion While further feasibility assessments will be required, the immediate prospects for sustained control are good across much of the archipelago and medium term plans to transition to the pre-elimination phase are not unrealistic for P. falciparum. Endemicity in areas of Papua will clearly present the greatest challenge. This P. falciparum endemicity map allows malaria control agencies and their partners to comprehensively assess the region-specific prospects for reaching pre-elimination, monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of

  3. Erasing the methyl mark: histone demethylases at the center of cellular differentiation and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cloos, Paul A C; Christensen, Jesper; Agger, Karl;

    2008-01-01

    The enzymes catalyzing lysine and arginine methylation of histones are essential for maintaining transcriptional programs and determining cell fate and identity. Until recently, histone methylation was regarded irreversible. However, within the last few years, several families of histone...... demethylases erasing methyl marks associated with gene repression or activation have been identified, underscoring the plasticity and dynamic nature of histone methylation. Recent discoveries have revealed that histone demethylases take part in large multiprotein complexes synergizing with histone deacetylases......, histone methyltransferases, and nuclear receptors to control developmental and transcriptional programs. Here we review the emerging biochemical and biological functions of the histone demethylases and discuss their potential involvement in human diseases, including cancer....

  4. Antimalarial Benzoxaboroles Target Plasmodium falciparum Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoiki, Ebere; Palencia, Andres; Guo, Denghui; Ahyong, Vida; Dong, Chen; Li, Xianfeng; Hernandez, Vincent S; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Choi, Wai; Gut, Jiri; Legac, Jennifer; Cooper, Roland; Alley, M R K; Freund, Yvonne R; DeRisi, Joseph; Cusack, Stephen; Rosenthal, Philip J

    2016-08-01

    There is a need for new antimalarials, ideally with novel mechanisms of action. Benzoxaboroles have been shown to be active against bacteria, fungi, and trypanosomes. Therefore, we investigated the antimalarial activity and mechanism of action of 3-aminomethyl benzoxaboroles against Plasmodium falciparum Two 3-aminomethyl compounds, AN6426 and AN8432, demonstrated good potency against cultured multidrug-resistant (W2 strain) P. falciparum (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of 310 nM and 490 nM, respectively) and efficacy against murine Plasmodium berghei infection when administered orally once daily for 4 days (90% effective dose [ED90], 7.4 and 16.2 mg/kg of body weight, respectively). To characterize mechanisms of action, we selected parasites with decreased drug sensitivity by culturing with stepwise increases in concentration of AN6426. Resistant clones were characterized by whole-genome sequencing. Three generations of resistant parasites had polymorphisms in the predicted editing domain of the gene encoding a P. falciparum leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS; PF3D7_0622800) and in another gene (PF3D7_1218100), which encodes a protein of unknown function. Solution of the structure of the P. falciparum LeuRS editing domain suggested key roles for mutated residues in LeuRS editing. Short incubations with AN6426 and AN8432, unlike artemisinin, caused dose-dependent inhibition of [(14)C]leucine incorporation by cultured wild-type, but not resistant, parasites. The growth of resistant, but not wild-type, parasites was impaired in the presence of the unnatural amino acid norvaline, consistent with a loss of LeuRS editing activity in resistant parasites. In summary, the benzoxaboroles AN6426 and AN8432 offer effective antimalarial activity and act, at least in part, against a novel target, the editing domain of P. falciparum LeuRS.

  5. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, Khadime; Tine, Roger Clément Kouly; Ndiaye, Magatte; Sow, Doudou; Sarr, Aïssatou; Mbuyi, Marie Louise Tshibola; Diouf, Ibrahima; Lô, Amy Colé; Abiola, Annie; Seck, Mame Cheikh; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou; Badiane, Aïda Sadikh; N'Diaye, Jean Louis A; Ndiaye, Daouda; Faye, Oumar; Dieng, Thérèse; Dieng, Yémou; Ndir, Oumar; Gaye, Oumar; Faye, Babacar

    2015-07-16

    In Senegal, a significant decrease of malaria transmission intensity has been noted the last years. Parasitaemia has become lower and, therefore, more difficult to detect by microscopy. In the context of submicroscopic parasitaemia, it has become relevant to rely on relevant malaria surveillance tools to better document malaria epidemiology in such settings. Serological markers have been proposed as an essential tool for malaria surveillance. This study aimed to evaluate the sero-epidemiological situation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in two sentinel sites in Senegal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in Velingara (south Senegal) and Keur Soce (central Senegal) between September and October 2010. Children under 10 years old, living in these areas, were enrolled using two-level, random sampling methods. P. falciparum infection was diagnosed using microscopy. P. falciparum antibodies against circumsporozoite protein (CSP), apical membrane protein (AMA1) and merozoite surface protein 1_42 (MSP1_42) were measured by ELISA method. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was done to assess factors associated with P. falciparum antibodies carriage. A total of 1,865 children under 10 years old were enrolled. The overall falciparum malaria prevalence was 4.99% with high prevalence in Velingara of 10.03% compared to Keur Soce of 0.3%. Symptomatic malaria cases (fever associated with parasitaemia) represented 17.37%. Seroprevalence of anti-AMA1, anti-MSP1_42 and anti-CSP antibody was 38.12, 41.55 and 40.38%, respectively. The seroprevalence was more important in Velingara and increased with age, active malaria infection and area of residence. The use of serological markers can contribute to improved malaria surveillance in areas with declining malaria transmission. This study provided useful baseline information about the sero-epidemiological situation of malaria in Senegal and can contribute to the identification of malaria hot spots in order to concentrate

  6. [From malaria parasite point of view--Plasmodium falciparum evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerka, Agata; Kaczmarek, Radosław; Jaśkiewicz, Ewa

    2015-12-31

    Malaria is caused by infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium, which have arguably exerted the greatest selection pressure on humans in the history of our species. Besides humans, different Plasmodium parasites infect a wide range of animal hosts, from marine invertebrates to primates. On the other hand, individual Plasmodium species show high host specificity. The extraordinary evolution of Plasmodium probably began when a free-living red algae turned parasitic, and culminated with its ability to thrive inside a human red blood cell. Studies on the African apes generated new data on the evolution of malaria parasites in general and the deadliest human-specific species, Plasmodium falciparum, in particular. Initially, it was hypothesized that P. falciparum descended from the chimpanzee malaria parasite P. reichenowi, after the human and the chimp lineage diverged about 6 million years ago. However, a recently identified new species infecting gorillas, unexpectedly showed similarity to P. falciparum and was therefore named P. praefalciparum. That finding spurred an alternative hypothesis, which proposes that P. falciparum descended from its gorilla rather than chimp counterpart. In addition, the gorilla-to-human host shift may have occurred more recently (about 10 thousand years ago) than the theoretical P. falciparum-P. reichenowi split. One of the key aims of the studies on Plasmodium evolution is to elucidate the mechanisms that allow the incessant host shifting and retaining the host specificity, especially in the case of human-specific species. Thorough understanding of these phenomena will be necessary to design effective malaria treatment and prevention strategies.

  7. Congenital Plasmodium falciparum infection in neonates in Muheza District, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimera Sharadhuli I

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although recent reports on congenital malaria suggest that the incidence is increasing, it is difficult to determine whether the clinical disease is due to parasites acquired before delivery or as a result of contamination by maternal blood at birth. Understanding of the method of parasite acquisition is important for estimating the time incidence of congenital malaria and design of preventive measures. The aim of this study was to determine whether the first Plasmodium falciparum malaria disease in infants is due to same parasites present on the placenta at birth. Methods Babies born to mothers with P. falciparum parasites on the placenta detected by PCR were followed up to two years and observed for malaria episodes. Paired placental and infant peripheral blood samples at first malaria episode within first three months of life were genotyped (msp2 to determine genetic relatedness. Selected amplifications from nested PCR were sequenced and compared between pairs. Results Eighteen (19.1% out of 95 infants who were followed up developed clinical malaria within the first three months of age. Eight pairs (60% out of 14 pairs of sequenced placental and cord samples were genetically related while six (40% were genetically unrelated. One pair (14.3% out of seven pairs of sequenced placental and infants samples were genetically related. In addition, infants born from primigravidae mothers were more likely to be infected with P. falciparum (P P. falciparum infection earlier than those from secundigravidae and primigravidae mothers (RR = 1.43. Conclusion Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites present on the placenta as detected by PCR are more likely to result in clinical disease (congenital malaria in the infant during the first three months of life. However, sequencing data seem to question the validity of this likelihood. Therefore, the relationship between placental parasites and first clinical disease need to be confirmed in

  8. Histone lysine demethylases as targets for anticancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Jonas W; Agger, Karl; Helin, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    interesting drug targets. The successful introduction of DNA methylation and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors for the treatment of specific subtypes of cancer has paved the way for the use of epigenetic therapy. Here, we highlight key biological findings demonstrating the roles of members of the histone...

  9. Enzyme kinetics and inhibition of histone acetyltransferase KAT8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, Hannah; van der Wouden, Petra E; Groves, Matthew R; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Dekker, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Lysine acetyltransferase 8 (KAT8) is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) responsible for acetylating lysine 16 on histone H4 (H4K16) and plays a role in cell cycle progression as well as acetylation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. Further studies on its biological function and drug discovery

  10. Interrogating the function of metazoan histones using engineered gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Daniel J; Klusza, Stephen; Penke, Taylor J R; Meers, Michael P; Curry, Kaitlin P; McDaniel, Stephen L; Malek, Pamela Y; Cooper, Stephen W; Tatomer, Deirdre C; Lieb, Jason D; Strahl, Brian D; Duronio, Robert J; Matera, A Gregory

    2015-02-09

    Histones and their posttranslational modifications influence the regulation of many DNA-dependent processes. Although an essential role for histone-modifying enzymes in these processes is well established, defining the specific contribution of individual histone residues remains a challenge because many histone-modifying enzymes have nonhistone targets. This challenge is exacerbated by the paucity of suitable approaches to genetically engineer histone genes in metazoans. Here, we describe a platform in Drosophila for generating and analyzing any desired histone genotype, and we use it to test the in vivo function of three histone residues. We demonstrate that H4K20 is neither essential for DNA replication nor for completion of development, unlike inferences drawn from analyses of H4K20 methyltransferases. We also show that H3K36 is required for viability and H3K27 is essential for maintenance of cellular identity but not for gene activation. These findings highlight the power of engineering histones to interrogate genome structure and function in animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. H2A.Z demarcates intergenic regions of the plasmodium falciparum epigenome that are dynamically marked by H3K9ac and H3K4me3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richárd Bártfai

    Full Text Available Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms and their enzymes are promising targets for malaria therapeutic intervention; however, the epigenetic component of gene expression in P. falciparum is poorly understood. Dynamic or stable association of epigenetic marks with genomic features provides important clues about their function and helps to understand how histone variants/modifications are used for indexing the Plasmodium epigenome. We describe a novel, linear amplification method for next-generation sequencing (NGS that allows unbiased analysis of the extremely AT-rich Plasmodium genome. We used this method for high resolution, genome-wide analysis of a histone H2A variant, H2A.Z and two histone H3 marks throughout parasite intraerythrocytic development. Unlike in other organisms, H2A.Z is a constant, ubiquitous feature of euchromatic intergenic regions throughout the intraerythrocytic cycle. The almost perfect colocalisation of H2A.Z with H3K9ac and H3K4me3 suggests that these marks are preferentially deposited on H2A.Z-containing nucleosomes. By performing RNA-seq on 8 time-points, we show that acetylation of H3K9 at promoter regions correlates very well with the transcriptional status whereas H3K4me3 appears to have stage-specific regulation, being low at early stages, peaking at trophozoite stage, but does not closely follow changes in gene expression. Our improved NGS library preparation procedure provides a foundation to exploit the malaria epigenome in detail. Furthermore, our findings place H2A.Z at the cradle of P. falciparum epigenetic regulation by stably defining intergenic regions and providing a platform for dynamic assembly of epigenetic and other transcription related complexes.

  12. Histone deacetylase complexes promote trinucleotide repeat expansions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Debacker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of DNA trinucleotide repeats cause at least 17 inherited neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease. Expansions can occur at frequencies approaching 100% in affected families and in transgenic mice, suggesting that specific cellular proteins actively promote (favor expansions. The inference is that expansions arise due to the presence of these promoting proteins, not their absence, and that interfering with these proteins can suppress expansions. The goal of this study was to identify novel factors that promote expansions. We discovered that specific histone deacetylase complexes (HDACs promote CTG•CAG repeat expansions in budding yeast and human cells. Mutation or inhibition of yeast Rpd3L or Hda1 suppressed up to 90% of expansions. In cultured human astrocytes, expansions were suppressed by 75% upon inhibition or knockdown of HDAC3, whereas siRNA against the histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 stimulated expansions. Genetic and molecular analysis both indicated that HDACs act at a distance from the triplet repeat to promote expansions. Expansion assays with nuclease mutants indicated that Sae2 is one of the relevant factors regulated by Rpd3L and Hda1. The causal relationship between HDACs and expansions indicates that HDACs can promote mutagenesis at some DNA sequences. This relationship further implies that HDAC3 inhibitors being tested for relief of expansion-associated gene silencing may also suppress somatic expansions that contribute to disease progression.

  13. Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium helical interspersed subtelomeric proteins contribute to cytoadherence and anchor P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 to the host cell cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberli, Alexander; Zurbrügg, Laura; Rusch, Sebastian;

    2016-01-01

    Adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to host endothelium is conferred through the parasite-derived virulence factor P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), the major contributor to malaria severity. PfEMP1 located at knob structures on the erythrocyte surface is...

  14. Methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 occurs during translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Carlos; Saavedra, Francisco; Alvarez, Francisca; Díaz-Celis, César; Ugalde, Valentina; Li, Jianhua; Forné, Ignasi; Gurard-Levin, Zachary A.; Almouzni, Geneviève; Imhof, Axel; Loyola, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Histone post-translational modifications are key contributors to chromatin structure and function, and participate in the maintenance of genome stability. Understanding the establishment and maintenance of these marks, along with their misregulation in pathologies is thus a major focus in the field. While we have learned a great deal about the enzymes regulating histone modifications on nucleosomal histones, much less is known about the mechanisms establishing modifications on soluble newly synthesized histones. This includes methylation of lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9), a mark that primes the formation of heterochromatin, a critical chromatin landmark for genome stability. Here, we report that H3K9 mono- and dimethylation is imposed during translation by the methyltransferase SetDB1. We discuss the importance of these results in the context of heterochromatin establishment and maintenance and new therapeutic opportunities in pathologies where heterochromatin is perturbed. PMID:26405197

  15. New histone supply regulates replication fork speed and PCNA unloading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlvang, Jakob; Feng, Yunpeng; Alabert, Constance;

    2014-01-01

    Correct duplication of DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin is central to genome function and stability. However, it remains unclear how cells coordinate DNA synthesis with provision of new histones for chromatin assembly to ensure chromosomal stability. In this paper, we show...... that replication fork speed is dependent on new histone supply and efficient nucleosome assembly. Inhibition of canonical histone biosynthesis impaired replication fork progression and reduced nucleosome occupancy on newly synthesized DNA. Replication forks initially remained stable without activation...... of conventional checkpoints, although prolonged histone deficiency generated DNA damage. PCNA accumulated on newly synthesized DNA in cells lacking new histones, possibly to maintain opportunity for CAF-1 recruitment and nucleosome assembly. Consistent with this, in vitro and in vivo analysis showed that PCNA...

  16. Heterologous expression of human H1 histones in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albig, W; Runge, D M; Kratzmeier, M; Doenecke, D

    1998-09-18

    The complete set of seven human H1 histone subtype genes was heterologously expressed in yeast. Since Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacks standard histone H1 we could isolate each recombinantly expressed human H1 subtype in pure form without contamination by endogenous H I histones. For isolation of the H1 histones in this expression system no tagging was needed and the isoforms could be extracted with the authentic primary structure by a single extraction step with 5%(0.74 M) perchloric acid. The isolated H1 histone proteins were used to assign the subtype genes to the corresponding protein spots or peaks after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and capillary zone electrophoresis, respectively. This allowed us to correlate transcriptional data with protein data, which was barely possible until now.

  17. RNF8-dependent histone modifications regulate nucleosome removal during spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin-Yu; Wu, Jiaxue; Ye, Lin; Gavrilina, Galina B; Saunders, Thomas L; Yu, Xiaochun

    2010-03-16

    During spermatogenesis, global nucleosome removal occurs where histones are initially replaced by transition proteins and subsequently by protamines. This chromatin reorganization is thought to facilitate the compaction of the paternal genome into the sperm head and to protect the DNA from damaging agents. Histone ubiquitination has been suggested to be important for sex chromosome inactivation during meiotic prophase and nucleosome removal at postmeiotic stages. However, the mechanisms regulating these ubiquitin-mediated processes are unknown. In this study, we investigate the role of the ubiquitin ligase RNF8 during spermatogenesis and find that RNF8-deficient mice are proficient in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) but deficient in global nucleosome removal. Moreover, we show that RNF8-dependent histone ubiquitination induces H4K16 acetylation, which may be an initial step in nucleosome removal. Thus, our results show that RNF8 plays an important role during spermatogenesis through histone ubiquitination, resulting in trans-histone acetylation and global nucleosome removal.

  18. CTCF induces histone variant incorporation, erases the H3K27me3 histone mark and opens chromatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Weth (Oliver); C. Paprotka (Christine); K. Günther (Katharina); A. Schulte (Astrid); M. Baierl (Manuel); J. Leers (Joerg); N.J. Galjart (Niels); R. Renkawitz (Rainer)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInsulators functionally separate active chromatin domains frominactive ones. The insulator factor, CTCF, has been found to bind to boundaries and to mediate insulator function. CTCF binding sites are depleted for the histone modification H3K27me3 and are enriched for the histone variant

  19. Chondroitin sulfate A-adhering Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes express functionally important antibody epitopes shared by multiple variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Lea; Dobrilovic, Tina; Magistrado, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Acquired protection from Plasmodium falciparum placental malaria, a major cause of maternal, fetal, and infant morbidity, is mediated by IgG specific for the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 variant VAR2CSA. This protein enables adhesion of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes to chond......Acquired protection from Plasmodium falciparum placental malaria, a major cause of maternal, fetal, and infant morbidity, is mediated by IgG specific for the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 variant VAR2CSA. This protein enables adhesion of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes...

  20. EXPRESSION AND FUNCTIONAL INTERACTION OF CHICKEN RbAp46 POLYPEPTIDE WITH HISTONES, HISTONE DEACETYLASE-1, AND HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahyar Ahmad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we cloned and sequenced cDNA encoding the chicken p46 polypeptide, RbAp46. The cDNA encoding a protein consists of 424 amino acids is a member of the WD protein family, with seven WD repeat motifs, and exhibits 90.3% identity to RbAp48, and 94.3% identity to the human RbAp46. The RbAp46 fusion protein were synthesized by in vitro translation system and in Escherichia coli under induction by 50 µM IPTG and single step purified with glutathione-Agarose beads, showed that GST-tagged protein of approximately 72 kDa. The in vitro experiment established that RbAp46 interacts with chicken histones, chHDAC-1, and chHAT-1. The in vitro immunoprecipitation experiment, involving truncated mutants of RbAp46, revealed not only that two regions comprising amino acids 33-179 and 375-404 are necessary for its binding to H2B, but also that two regions comprising amino acids 1-32 and 405-424 are necessary for its binding to H4. Furthermore, the GST pulldown affinity assay, involving truncated mutants of RbAp46, revealed that a region comprising amino acids 359-404 binds to chHAT-1 in vitro. Taken together, these results indicate not only that RbAp46 should participate differentially in a number of DNA-utilizing processes through interactions of its distinct regions with histones and chHAT-1, but also that the proper propeller structure of RbAp46 is not necessary for its interaction with chHAT-1.

  1. Recombinant thrombomodulin protects mice against histone-induced lethal thromboembolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Nakahara

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that histones, the chief protein component of chromatin, are released into the extracellular space during sepsis, trauma, and ischemia-reperfusion injury, and act as major mediators of the death of an organism. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular and molecular basis of histone-induced lethality and to assess the protective effects of recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM. rTM has been approved for the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC in Japan, and is currently undergoing a phase III clinical trial in the United States. METHODS: Histone H3 levels in plasma of healthy volunteers and patients with sepsis and DIC were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with purified histones, and pathological examinations were performed. The protective effects of rTM against histone toxicity were analyzed both in vitro and in mice. RESULTS: Histone H3 was not detectable in plasma of healthy volunteers, but significant levels were observed in patients with sepsis and DIC. These levels were higher in non-survivors than in survivors. Extracellular histones triggered platelet aggregation, leading to thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries and subsequent right-sided heart failure in mice. These mice displayed symptoms of DIC, including thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, decreased fibrinogen, fibrin deposition in capillaries, and bleeding. Platelet depletion protected mice from histone-induced death in the first 30 minutes, suggesting that vessel occlusion by platelet-rich thrombi might be responsible for death during the early phase. Furthermore, rTM bound to extracellular histones, suppressed histone-induced platelet aggregation, thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries, and dilatation of the right ventricle, and rescued mice from lethal thromboembolism. CONCLUSIONS: Extracellular histones cause massive

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs: multitargeted anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ververis K

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Katherine Ververis,1 Alison Hiong,1 Tom C Karagiannis,1,* Paul V Licciardi2,*1Epigenomic Medicine, Alfred Medical Research and Education Precinct, 2Allergy and Immune Disorders, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors are an emerging class of therapeutics with potential as anticancer drugs. The rationale for developing HDAC inhibitors (and other chromatin-modifying agents as anticancer therapies arose from the understanding that in addition to genetic mutations, epigenetic changes such as dysregulation of HDAC enzymes can alter phenotype and gene expression, disturb homeostasis, and contribute to neoplastic growth. The family of HDAC inhibitors is large and diverse. It includes a range of naturally occurring and synthetic compounds that differ in terms of structure, function, and specificity. HDAC inhibitors have multiple cell type-specific effects in vitro and in vivo, such as growth arrest, cell differentiation, and apoptosis in malignant cells. HDAC inhibitors have the potential to be used as monotherapies or in combination with other anticancer therapies. Currently, there are two HDAC inhibitors that have received approval from the US FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, Zolinza and depsipeptide (romidepsin, Istodax. More recently, depsipeptide has also gained FDA approval for the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Many more clinical trials assessing the effects of various HDAC inhibitors on hematological and solid malignancies are currently being conducted. Despite the proven anticancer effects of particular HDAC inhibitors against certain cancers, many aspects of HDAC enzymes and HDAC inhibitors are still not fully understood. Increasing our understanding of the effects of HDAC inhibitors, their targets and mechanisms of action will be critical for the

  3. Novel nucleosomal particles containing core histones and linker DNA but no histone H1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Hope A; Cui, Feng; Ocampo, Josefina; Burke, Tara L; Nikitina, Tatiana; Nagarajavel, V; Kotomura, Naoe; Zhurkin, Victor B; Clark, David J

    2016-01-29

    Eukaryotic chromosomal DNA is assembled into regularly spaced nucleosomes, which play a central role in gene regulation by determining accessibility of control regions. The nucleosome contains ∼147 bp of DNA wrapped ∼1.7 times around a central core histone octamer. The linker histone, H1, binds both to the nucleosome, sealing the DNA coils, and to the linker DNA between nucleosomes, directing chromatin folding. Micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digests the linker to yield the chromatosome, containing H1 and ∼160 bp, and then converts it to a core particle, containing ∼147 bp and no H1. Sequencing of nucleosomal DNA obtained after MNase digestion (MNase-seq) generates genome-wide nucleosome maps that are important for understanding gene regulation. We present an improved MNase-seq method involving simultaneous digestion with exonuclease III, which removes linker DNA. Remarkably, we discovered two novel intermediate particles containing 154 or 161 bp, corresponding to 7 bp protruding from one or both sides of the nucleosome core. These particles are detected in yeast lacking H1 and in H1-depleted mouse chromatin. They can be reconstituted in vitro using purified core histones and DNA. We propose that these 'proto-chromatosomes' are fundamental chromatin subunits, which include the H1 binding site and influence nucleosome spacing independently of H1.

  4. DNA methylation affects nuclear organization, histone modifications, and linker histone binding but not chromatin compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Nick; Thomson, Inga; Boyle, Shelagh; Allan, James; Ramsahoye, Bernard; Bickmore, Wendy A

    2007-05-07

    DNA methylation has been implicated in chromatin condensation and nuclear organization, especially at sites of constitutive heterochromatin. How this is mediated has not been clear. In this study, using mutant mouse embryonic stem cells completely lacking in DNA methylation, we show that DNA methylation affects nuclear organization and nucleosome structure but not chromatin compaction. In the absence of DNA methylation, there is increased nuclear clustering of pericentric heterochromatin and extensive changes in primary chromatin structure. Global levels of histone H3 methylation and acetylation are altered, and there is a decrease in the mobility of linker histones. However, the compaction of both bulk chromatin and heterochromatin, as assayed by nuclease digestion and sucrose gradient sedimentation, is unaltered by the loss of DNA methylation. This study shows how the complete loss of a major epigenetic mark can have an impact on unexpected levels of chromatin structure and nuclear organization and provides evidence for a novel link between DNA methylation and linker histones in the regulation of chromatin structure.

  5. Capture ELISA for IgM antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum glutamate rich protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Borre, M B; Petersen, E

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a novel mu chain capture ELISA for the detection of IgM antibodies against a Plasmodium falciparum antigen. A fragment of the 220 kDa P. falciparum glutamate rich protein containing amino acid residues 489-1271 was expressed in E. coli as a recombinant chimeric beta-galactos......This report describes a novel mu chain capture ELISA for the detection of IgM antibodies against a Plasmodium falciparum antigen. A fragment of the 220 kDa P. falciparum glutamate rich protein containing amino acid residues 489-1271 was expressed in E. coli as a recombinant chimeric beta...

  6. Trafficking of STEVOR to the Maurer's clefts in Plasmodium falciparum -infected erythrocytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Przyborski, Jude M; Miller, Susanne K; Rohrbach, Petra; Pfahler, Judith M; Crabb, Brendan S; Henrich, Philipp P; Lanzer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum exports proteins to destinations within its host erythrocyte, including cytosol, surface and membranous profiles of parasite origin termed Maurer's clefts...

  7. Dysregulation of Histone Acetyltransferases and Deacetylases in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide despite advances in its prevention and management. A comprehensive understanding of factors which contribute to CVD is required in order to develop more effective treatment options. Dysregulation of epigenetic posttranscriptional modifications of histones in chromatin is thought to be associated with the pathology of many disease models, including CVD. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs and deacetylases (HDACs are regulators of histone lysine acetylation. Recent studies have implicated a fundamental role of reversible protein acetylation in the regulation of CVDs such as hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, diabetic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, and heart failure. This reversible acetylation is governed by enzymes that HATs add or HDACs remove acetyl groups respectively. New evidence has revealed that histone acetylation regulators blunt cardiovascular and related disease states in certain cellular processes including myocyte hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The accumulating evidence of the detrimental role of histone acetylation in cardiac disease combined with the cardioprotective role of histone acetylation regulators suggests that the use of histone acetylation regulators may serve as a novel approach to treating the millions of patients afflicted by cardiac diseases worldwide.

  8. Histone Acylation beyond Acetylation: Terra Incognita in Chromatin Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Rousseaux

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Histone acetylation, one of the first and best studied histone post-translational modifications (PTMs, as well as the factors involved in its deposition (writers, binding (readers and removal (erasers, have been shown to act at the heart of regulatory circuits controlling essential cellular functions. The identification of a variety of competing histone lysine-modifying acyl groups including propionyl, butyryl, 2-hydroxyisobutyryl, crotonyl, malonyl, succinyl and glutaryl, raises numerous questions on their functional significance, the molecular systems that manage their establishment, removal and interplay with the well-known acetylation-based mechanisms. Detailed and large-scale investigations of two of these new histone PTMs, crotonylation and 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation, along with histone acetylation, in the context of male genome programming, where stage-specific gene expression programs are switched on and off in turn, have shed light on their functional contribution to the epigenome for the first time. These initial investigations fired many additional questions, which remain to be explored. This review surveys the major results taken from these two new histone acylations and discusses the new biology that is emerging based on the diversity of histone lysine acylations.

  9. PTEN Interacts with Histone H1 and Controls Chromatin Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hong Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin organization and dynamics are integral to global gene transcription. Histone modification influences chromatin status and gene expression. PTEN plays multiple roles in tumor suppression, development, and metabolism. Here, we report on the interplay of PTEN, histone H1, and chromatin. We show that loss of PTEN leads to dissociation of histone H1 from chromatin and decondensation of chromatin. PTEN deletion also results in elevation of histone H4 acetylation at lysine 16, an epigenetic marker for chromatin activation. We found that PTEN and histone H1 physically interact through their C-terminal domains. Disruption of the PTEN C terminus promotes the chromatin association of MOF acetyltransferase and induces H4K16 acetylation. Hyperacetylation of H4K16 impairs the association of PTEN with histone H1, which constitutes regulatory feedback that may reduce chromatin stability. Our results demonstrate that PTEN controls chromatin condensation, thus influencing gene expression. We propose that PTEN regulates global gene transcription profiling through histones and chromatin remodeling.

  10. Histone deacetylase inhibitors promote the tumoricidal effect of HAMLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brest, Patrick; Gustafsson, Mattias; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Gustafsson, Lotta; Duringer, Caroline; Hamiche, Ali; Svanborg, Catharina

    2007-12-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) and HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) interact with histones, modify the structure of chromatin, and trigger tumor cell death. This study investigated how the combination of HDIs and HAMLET influences cell viability, histone acetylation, and DNA integrity. The pretreatment of tumor cells with HDIs was shown to enhance the lethal effect of HAMLET and the histone hyperacetylation response to HDIs increased even further after HAMLET treatment. HDIs and HAMLET were shown to target different histone domains as HAMLET bound tailless core histones, whereas HDIs modify the acetylation of the histone tail. DNA damage in response to HAMLET was increased by HDIs. The DNA repair response (p21WAFI expression) was induced by both agonists but abolished when the two agonists were combined. The results suggest that the synergy of HDIs and HAMLET is based on different but converging death pathways, both involving chromatin alterations. We speculate that HAMLET and HDIs might be combined to promote tumor cell death in vivo.

  11. Lateral Thinking: How Histone Modifications Regulate Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Moyra; Daujat, Sylvain; Schneider, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The DNA of each cell is wrapped around histone octamers, forming so-called 'nucleosomal core particles'. These histone proteins have tails that project from the nucleosome and many residues in these tails can be post-translationally modified, influencing all DNA-based processes, including chromatin compaction, nucleosome dynamics, and transcription. In contrast to those present in histone tails, modifications in the core regions of the histones had remained largely uncharacterised until recently, when some of these modifications began to be analysed in detail. Overall, recent work has shown that histone core modifications can not only directly regulate transcription, but also influence processes such as DNA repair, replication, stemness, and changes in cell state. In this review, we focus on the most recent developments in our understanding of histone modifications, particularly those on the lateral surface of the nucleosome. This region is in direct contact with the DNA and is formed by the histone cores. We suggest that these lateral surface modifications represent a key insight into chromatin regulation in the cell. Therefore, lateral surface modifications form a key area of interest and a focal point of ongoing study in epigenetics.

  12. Centromere domain organization and histone modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bjerling

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Centromere function requires the proper coordination of several subfunctions, such as kinetochore assembly, sister chromatid cohesion, binding of kinetochore microtubules, orientation of sister kinetochores to opposite spindle poles, and their movement towards the spindle poles. Centromere structure appears to be organized in different, separable domains in order to accomplish these functions. Despite the conserved nature of centromere functions, the molecular genetic definition of the DNA sequences that form a centromere in the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and in humans has revealed little conservation at the level of centromere DNA sequences. Also at the protein level few centromere proteins are conserved in all of these four organisms and many are unique to the different organisms. The recent analysis of the centromere structure in the yeast S. pombe by electron microscopy and detailed immunofluorescence microscopy of Drosophila centromeres have brought to light striking similarities at the overall structural level between these centromeres and the human centromere. The structural organization of the centromere is generally multilayered with a heterochromatin domain and a central core/inner plate region, which harbors the outer plate structures of the kinetochore. It is becoming increasingly clear that the key factors for assembly and function of the centromere structure are the specialized histones and modified histones which are present in the centromeric heterochromatin and in the chromatin of the central core. Thus, despite the differences in the DNA sequences and the proteins that define a centromere, there is an overall structural similarity between centromeres in evolutionarily diverse eukaryotes.

  13. The Severity of Plasmodium falciparum infection is associated with transcript levels of var genes encoding endothelial protein C receptor-binding P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkumbaye, Sixbert I; Wang, Christian W; Lyimo, Eric

    2017-01-01

    By attaching infected erythrocytes to the vascular lining, Plasmodium falciparum parasites leave blood circulation and avoid splenic clearance. This sequestration is central to pathogenesis. Severe malaria is associated with parasites expressing an antigenically distinct P. falciparum erythrocyte...

  14. [Plasmodium falciparum malaria: epidemiology and clinical features at Tarapoto Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, J; Rodriguez, J; Romero, D

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted of the clinical records of 41 patients discharged from a hospital in Tarapoto, Peru, between August 1992 and June 1996 following treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Patients ranged in age from 18 to 65 years; 25 were male. The cases were uniformly distributed throughout the year. The duration of illness averaged 11 days. At admission, 40 patients had fever, 36 had shaking chills, 29 had headache, 21 had nausea and vomiting, 21 had hyporexia, 15 had pallor, and 13 had splenomegaly. 3 of the 16 women were pregnant. 7 patients reported a history of malaria. The admission diagnosis was malaria in 33 cases. 31 patients were treated with chloroquine; 18 were subsequently treated with pyrimethamine-sulfadoxin and 1 received doxycycline. No cases of grave illness or death occurred. The increasing presence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Peruvian lowlands should promote review of the adequacy of control programs.

  15. Reduced erythrocyte deformability associated with hypoargininemia during Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Juliana; Buffet, Pierre A; Ciceron, Liliane; Milon, Geneviève; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Safeukui, Innocent

    2014-01-20

    The mechanisms underlying reduced red blood cell (RBC) deformability during Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria remain poorly understood. Here, we explore the possible involvement of the L-arginine and nitric oxide (NO) pathway on RBC deformability in Pf-infected patients and parasite cultures. RBC deformability was reduced during the acute attack (day0) and returned to normal values upon convalescence (day28). Day0 values correlated with plasma L-arginine levels (r = 0.69; p = 0.01) and weakly with parasitemia (r = -0.38; p = 0.006). In vitro, day0 patient's plasma incubated with ring-stage cultures at 41°C reduced RBC deformability, and this effect correlated strongly with plasma L-arginine levels (r = 0.89; p falciparum malaria may altogether impair NO production and reduce RBC deformability, particularly at febrile temperature.

  16. Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum: A process linked to dormancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qin; Kyle, Dennis E; Gatton, Michelle L

    2012-12-01

    Artemisinin (ART) based combination therapy (ACT) is used as the first line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in over 100 countries and is the cornerstone of malaria control and elimination programs in these areas. However, despite the high potency and rapid parasite killing action of ART derivatives there is a high rate of recrudescence associated with ART monotherapy and recrudescence is not uncommon even when ACT is used. Compounding this problem are reports that some parasites in Cambodia, a known foci of drug resistance, have decreased in vivo sensitivity to ART. This raises serious concerns for the development of ART resistance in the field even though no major phenotypic and genotypic changes have yet been identified in these parasites. In this article we review available data on the characteristics of ART, its effects on Plasmodium falciparum parasites and present a hypothesis to explain the high rate of recrudescence associated with this potent class of drugs and the current enigma surrounding ART resistance.

  17. Sickle Cell Trait Protects Against Plasmodium falciparum Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billo, Mounkaila A.; Johnson, Eric S.; Doumbia, Seydou O.; Poudiougou, Belco; Sagara, Issaka; Diawara, Sory I.; Diakité, Mahamadou; Diallo, Mouctar; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Tounkara, Anatole; Rice, Janet; James, Mark A.; Krogstad, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Although sickle cell trait protects against severe disease due to Plasmodium falciparum, it has not been clear whether sickle trait also protects against asymptomatic infection (parasitemia). To address this question, the authors identified 171 persistently smear-negative children and 450 asymptomatic persistently smear-positive children in Bancoumana, Mali (June 1996 to June 1998). They then followed both groups for 2 years using a cohort-based strategy. Among the 171 children with persistently negative smears, the median time for conversion to smear-positive was longer for children with sickle trait than for children without (274 vs. 108 days, P sickle trait than for children without (190 vs. 365 days; P = 0.02). These protective effects of sickle trait against asymptomatic P. falciparum infection under conditions of natural transmission were demonstrable using a cohort-based approach but not when the same data were examined using a cross-sectional approach. PMID:23035141

  18. Plasmodium falciparum In Vitro Resistance to Monodesethylamodiaquine, Dakar, Senegal, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Bécaye; Madamet, Marylin; Camara, Cheikhou; Amalvict, Rémy; Fall, Mansour; Nakoulima, Aminata; Diatta, Bakary; Diémé, Yaya; Wade, Boubacar; Pradines, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    We successfully cultured 36 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from blood samples of 44 malaria patients admitted to the Hôpital Principal de Dakar (Dakar, Senegal) during August-December 2014. The prevalence of isolates with in vitro reduced susceptibility was 30.6% for monodesethylamodiaquine, 52.8% for chloroquine, 44.1% for mefloquine, 16.7% for doxycycline, 11.8% for piperaquine, 8.3% for artesunate, 5.9% for pyronaridine, 2.8% for quinine and dihydroartemisinin, and 0.0% for lumefantrine. The prevalence of isolates with reduced in vitro susceptibility to the artemisinin-based combination therapy partner monodesethylamodiaquine increased from 5.6% in 2013 to 30.6% in 2014. Because of the increased prevalence of P. falciparum parasites with impaired in vitro susceptibility to monodesethylamodiaquine, the implementation of in vitro and in vivo surveillance of all artemisinin-based combination therapy partners is warranted.

  19. RIFINs are adhesins implicated in severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goel, Suchi; Palmkvist, Mia; Moll, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Rosetting is a virulent Plasmodium falciparum phenomenon associated with severe malaria. Here we demonstrate that P. falciparum–encoded repetitive interspersed families of polypeptides (RIFINs) are expressed on the surface of infected red blood cells (iRBCs), where they bind to RBCs—preferentiall......Rosetting is a virulent Plasmodium falciparum phenomenon associated with severe malaria. Here we demonstrate that P. falciparum–encoded repetitive interspersed families of polypeptides (RIFINs) are expressed on the surface of infected red blood cells (iRBCs), where they bind to RBCs......—preferentially of blood group A—to form large rosettes and mediate microvascular binding of iRBCs. We suggest that RIFINs have a fundamental role in the development of severe malaria and thereby contribute to the varying global distribution of ABO blood groups in the human population....

  20. Engineered resistance to Plasmodium falciparum development in transgenic Anopheles stephensi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison T Isaacs

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transposon-mediated transformation was used to produce Anopheles stephensi that express single-chain antibodies (scFvs designed to target the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The scFvs, m1C3, m4B7, and m2A10, are derived from mouse monoclonal antibodies that inhibit either ookinete invasion of the midgut or sporozoite invasion of salivary glands. The scFvs that target the parasite surface, m4B7 and m2A10, were fused to an Anopheles gambiae antimicrobial peptide, Cecropin A. Previously-characterized Anopheles cis-acting DNA regulatory elements were included in the transgenes to coordinate scFv production with parasite development. Gene amplification and immunoblot analyses showed promoter-specific increases in transgene expression in blood-fed females. Transgenic mosquito lines expressing each of the scFv genes had significantly lower infection levels than controls when challenged with P. falciparum.

  1. Peptide Inhibition of Topoisomerase IB from Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Roy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of diseases inflicted by protozoan parasites such as Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Plasmodium, which pose a serious threat to human health worldwide, depends on a rather small number of antiparasite drugs, of which many are toxic and/or inefficient. Moreover, the increasing occurrence of drug-resistant parasites emphasizes the need for new and effective antiprotozoan drugs. In the current study, we describe a synthetic peptide, WRWYCRCK, with inhibitory effect on the essential enzyme topoisomerase I from the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The peptide inhibits specifically the transition from noncovalent to covalent DNA binding of P. falciparum topoisomerase I, while it does not affect the ligation step of catalysis. A mechanistic explanation for this inhibition is provided by molecular docking analyses. Taken together the presented results suggest that synthetic peptides may represent a new class of potential antiprotozoan drugs.

  2. PENGEMBANGAN BIAKAN IN-VITRO PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM SECARA KONTINU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekar Tuti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To support malaria research on its' serology/immunology, chemotherapy, drug sensitivity aspects etc. especially for falciparum malaria, a large amount of antigen (parasites is needed. These antigen could not be obtained from patients in the field only. Considering this situation, attempts have been made to develop a Plasmodium falciparum continuous culture   in-vitro following a method introduced  by Trager and Jensen (1976. In our laboratory, the parasite grew and multiplied nicely for 60 days. During that period of cultivation, a large amount of parasites (mostly mature trophozoite and schizont stages have been collected for antigen production. Several tubes of mostly young trophozoites stage have been preserved, it can be cultured again in the future or transported to another laboratory for further culture.

  3. Pharmacophore model for pentamidine analogs active against Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athri, Prashanth; Wenzler, Tanja; Tidwell, Richard; Bakunova, Svetlana M; Wilson, W David

    2010-12-01

    Pentamidine and its analogs constitute a class of compounds that are known to be active against Plasmodium falciparum, which causes the most dangerous malarial infection. Malaria is a widespread disease known to affect hundreds of millions of people and presents a perceivable threat of spreading. Hence, there is a need for well-defined scaffolds that lead to new, effective treatment. Here we present a pentamidine-based pharmacophore constructed using GALAHAD that would aid targeted synthesis of leads with enhanced properties, as well as the development of lead scaffolds. The study was supported by high-quality biological in vitro data of 22 compounds against the P. falciparum strains NF54 and K1. The model established reveals the importance of hydrophobic phenyl rings with polar oxygen and amidine substituents and the hydrophobic linking chain for the activity against malaria.

  4. Molecular monitoring of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genton Blaise

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs are recommended for use against uncomplicated malaria in areas of multi-drug resistant malaria, such as sub-Saharan Africa. However, their long-term usefulness in these high transmission areas remains unclear. It has been suggested that documentation of the S769N PfATPase6 mutations may indicate an emergence of artemisinin resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in the field. The present study assessed PfATPase6 mutations (S769N and A623E in 615 asymptomatic P. falciparum infections in Tanzania but no mutant genotype was detected. This observation suggests that resistance to artemisinin has not yet been selected in Tanzania, supporting the Ministry of Health's decision to adopt artemether+lumefantrine as first-line malaria treatment. The findings recommend further studies to assess PfATPase6 mutations in sentinel sites and verify their usefulness in monitoring emergency of ACT resistance.

  5. Two distinct modes for propagation of histone PTMs across the cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alabert, Constance; Barth, Teresa K; Reverón-Gómez, Nazaret;

    2015-01-01

    of new histone deposition. Importantly, within one cell cycle, all PTMs are restored. In general, new histones are modified to mirror the parental histones. However, H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) and H3K27me3 are propagated by continuous modification of parental and new histones because the establishment...

  6. Regulation of Insulin Gene Transcription by Multiple Histone Acetyltransferases

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin gene transcription is mainly regulated by a 340-bp promoter region upstream of the transcription start site by beta-cell-enriched transcription factors Pdx-1, MafA, and NeuroD1. Previous studies have shown that histone H4 hyperacetylation is important for acute up-regulation of insulin gene transcription. Until now, only the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) protein p300 has been shown to be involved in this histone H4 acetylation event. In this report we investigated...

  7. Surface antigens and virulence in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Normark, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is an intracellular protozoan that may cause severe forms of malaria. It is a major world health hazard and reaps the highest toll among the children and pregnant mothers of the developing world. An Anopheles mosquito vector injects the pathogen when taking a blood meal. After multiplication in cells of the liver, the parasite escapes and infects red blood cells in a cyclic manner and this is when the clinical manifestations of malaria as a disease beco...

  8. Treatment of severe falciparum malaria: quinine versus artesunate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipesh Patel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is the most important disease of human being. More than 40% of the world’s population is considered to be at risk of exposure of this disease. Malaria infection has been increasing over recent years due to combination of factors including increasing resistance of malarial parasite. Most of the strains of P. falciparum are now resistance to conventional drugs like chloroquine in many areas. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of quinine and artesunate in treatment of P. falciparum malaria. Methods: This is hospital based prospective study, conducted amongst 35 randomly selected patients of severe P. falciparum malaria. Patients with any contraindications of either drug were excluded to avoid bias. Standard statistical tests were applied for qualitative as well as quantitative data. Results: As per the study end point results of difference of mortality in patients receiving either drug was not significant (p > 0.75, but difference in clinical parameters like fever clearance time (p <0.01, parasite clearance time (p < 0.001 and coma resolution time (p < 0.001 were significant among patients receiving artesunate. There were no any significant differences in adverse effects of both the drugs. Mortality was same in both arms taking either drug. Conclusions: Artesunate is as good as quinine in mortality aspect but artesunate is superior in fever clearance time (FCT & parasite clearance time (PCT. Coma resolution time is faster with quinine as compared to artesunate. There are no significant adverse effects of either drug. So artesunate is equivalent or superior for treatment for severe falciparum malaria. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 30-36

  9. Cryo scanning electron microscopy of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum invades erythrocytes as an essential part of their life cycle. While living inside erythrocytes, the parasite remodels the cell's intracellular organization as well as its outer surface. Late trophozoite-stage parasites and schizonts introduce numerous small protrusions on t...... microscopy under cryogenic conditions allowing for high resolution and magnification of erythrocytes. This novel technique can be used for precise estimates of knob density and for studies on cytoadhesion....

  10. Genes for Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Toxin Biosynthesis in Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Delorenzi, Mauro; Sexton, Adrienne; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Schwarz, Ralph T.; Speed, Terry; Schofield, Louis

    2002-01-01

    About 2.5 million people die of Plasmodium falciparum malaria every year. Fatalities are associated with systemic and organ-specific inflammation initiated by a parasite toxin. Recent studies show that glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) functions as the dominant parasite toxin in the context of infection. GPIs also serve as membrane anchors for several of the most important surface antigens of parasite invasive stages. GPI anchoring is a complex posttranslational modification produced through...

  11. Structure of Plasmodium falciparum ADP-ribosylation factor 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, William J.; Smith, Craig D.; Senkovich, Olga; Holder, Anthony A.; Chattopadhyay, Debasish (UAB); (NIMR)

    2011-09-26

    Vesicular trafficking may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and survival of the malaria parasite. ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are among the major components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of ARF1 GTPase from Plasmodium falciparum has been determined in the GDP-bound conformation at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution and is compared with the structures of mammalian ARF1s.

  12. CRISPR-mediated genome editing of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcus Cs; Fidock, David A

    2014-01-01

    The development of the CRISPR-Cas system is revolutionizing genome editing in a variety of organisms. The system has now been used to manipulate the genome of Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal malaria-causing species. The ability to generate gene deletions or nucleotide substitutions rapidly and economically promises to accelerate the analysis of novel drug targets and to help elucidate the function of specific genes or gene families, while complementing genome-wide association studies.

  13. CRISPR-mediated genome editing of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Marcus CS; David A Fidock

    2014-01-01

    The development of the CRISPR-Cas system is revolutionizing genome editing in a variety of organisms. The system has now been used to manipulate the genome of Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal malaria-causing species. The ability to generate gene deletions or nucleotide substitutions rapidly and economically promises to accelerate the analysis of novel drug targets and to help elucidate the function of specific genes or gene families, while complementing genome-wide association studies.

  14. Artesunate plus pyronaridine for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bukirwa, Hasifa; Unnikrishnan, B; Kramer, Christine V; Sinclair, David; Nair, Suma; Tharyan, Prathap

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that people with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria are treated using Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT). ACT combines three-days of a short-acting artemisinin derivative with a longer-acting antimalarial which has a different mode of action. Pyronaridine has been reported as an effective antimalarial over two decades of use in parts of Asia, and is currently being evaluated as a partner drug for artesunate. Objective...

  15. Complement activation in Ghanaian children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofori Michael F

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe anaemia (SA, intravascular haemolysis (IVH and respiratory distress (RD are severe forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, with RD reported to be of prognostic importance in African children with malarial anaemia. Complement factors have been implicated in the mechanism leading to excess anaemia in acute P. falciparum infection. Methods The direct Coombs test (DCT and flow cytometry were used to investigate the mean levels of RBC-bound complement fragments (C3d and C3bαβ and the regulatory proteins [complement receptor 1 (CD35 and decay accelerating factor (CD55] in children with discrete clinical forms of P. falciparum malaria. The relationship between the findings and clinical parameters including coma, haemoglobin (Hb levels and RD were investigated. Results Of the 484 samples tested, 131(27% were positive in DCT, out of which 115/131 (87.8% were positive for C3d alone while 16/131 (12.2% were positive for either IgG alone or both. 67.4% of the study population were below 5 years of age and DCT positivity was more common in this age group relative to children who were 5 years or older (Odds ratio, OR = 3.8; 95%CI, 2.2–6.7, p Conclusion These results suggest that complement activation contributed to anaemia in acute childhood P. falciparum malaria, possibly through induction of erythrophagocytosis and haemolysis. In contrast to other studies, this study did not find association between levels of the complement regulatory proteins, CD35 and CD55 and malarial anaemia. These findings suggest that complement activation could also be involved in the pathogenesis of RD but larger studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  16. Hyperglycemia in Severe Falciparum Malaria: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Chianura; Isabella Corinna Errante; Giovanna Travi; Roberto Rossotti; Massimo Puoti

    2012-01-01

    Occasionally, malaria may present with unusual signs and symptoms. We report a case of an uncommon presentation of Plasmodium falciparum infection in a 59-year-old Ethiopian immigrant, which initially presented with hyperglycaemia and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Reports of unusual presentations of malaria are few and cases of severe malaria with hyperglycaemia are rarely described. As hyperglycaemia is associated to most severe malaria and high mortality, our aim is to catch ...

  17. Aislamiento y mantenimiento in vitro de Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Pardave L

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron 08 cepas de Plasmodium falciparum a partir de 10 pacientes. Luego fueron adaptadas y mantenidas en cultivo in vitro durante 60 días en eritrocitos humanos grupo O, en medio RPMI 1640 enriquecido con plasma humano grupo O, bajo una atmósfera de 5% de CO2, 5% de O2 y 90% de Nitrógeno y luego preservados a -70ºC.

  18. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Ana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the population structure of Plasmodium species through genetic diversity studies can assist in the design of more effective malaria control strategies, particularly in vaccine development. Central America is an area where malaria is a public health problem, but little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite’s circulating species. This study aimed to investigate the allelic frequency and molecular diversity of five surface antigens in field isolates from Honduras. Methods Five molecular markers were analysed to determine the genotypes of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum from endemic areas in Honduras. Genetic diversity of ama-1, msp-1 and csp was investigated for P. vivax, and msp-1 and msp-2 for P. falciparum. Allelic frequencies were calculated and sequence analysis performed. Results and conclusion A high genetic diversity was observed within Plasmodium isolates from Honduras. A different number of genotypes were elucidated: 41 (n = 77 for pvama-1; 23 (n = 84 for pvcsp; and 23 (n = 35 for pfmsp-1. Pvcsp sequences showed VK210 as the only subtype present in Honduran isolates. Pvmsp-1 (F2 was the most polymorphic marker for P. vivax isolates while pvama-1 was least variable. All three allelic families described for pfmsp-1 (n = 30 block 2 (K1, MAD20, and RO33, and both allelic families described for the central domain of pfmsp-2 (n = 11 (3D7 and FC27 were detected. However, K1 and 3D7 allelic families were predominant. All markers were randomly distributed across the country and no geographic correlation was found. To date, this is the most complete report on molecular characterization of P. vivax and P. falciparum field isolates in Honduras with regards to genetic diversity. These results indicate that P. vivax and P. falciparum parasite populations are highly diverse in Honduras despite the low level of transmission.

  19. Heterologous Protection against Malaria after Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remko Schats

    Full Text Available Sterile protection in >90% of volunteers against homologous Plasmodium falciparum infection has been achieved only using the controlled human malaria infection (CHMI model. This efficient model involves whole parasite immunizations under chloroquine prophylaxis (CPS-immunization, requiring only 30-45 mosquitoes bites infected with P. falciparum-sporozoites. Given the large diversity of P. falciparum parasites, it is essential to assess protection against heterologous parasite strains.In an open-label follow-up study, 16 volunteers previously CPS-immunized and challenged with P. falciparum NF54 (West-Africa in a dose de-escalation and challenge trial were re-challenged with clone NF135.C10 (Cambodia at 14 months after the last immunization (NCT01660854.Two out of thirteen NF54 protected volunteers previously fully protected against NF54 were also fully protected against NF135.C10, while 11/13 showed a delayed patency (median prepatent period of 10.5 days (range 9.0-15.5 versus 8.5 days in 5 malaria-naïve controls (p = 0.0005. Analysis of patency by qPCR indicated a 91 to >99% estimated reduction of liver parasite load in 7/11 partially protected subjects. Three volunteers previously not protected against NF54, were also not protected against NF135.C10.This study shows that CPS-immunization can induce heterologous protection for a period of more than one year, which is a further impetus for clinical development of whole parasite vaccines.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01660854.

  20. Histone chaperone spt16 promotes redeposition of the original h3-h4 histones evicted by elongating RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamai, Adil; Puglisi, Andrea; Strubin, Michel

    2009-08-14

    Nucleosomes are surprisingly dynamic structures in vivo, showing transcription-independent exchange of histones H2A-H2B genome-wide and exchange of H3-H4 mainly within the promoters of transcribed genes. In addition, nucleosomes are disrupted in front of and reassembled behind the elongating RNA polymerase. Here we show that inactivation of histone chaperone Spt16 in yeast results in rapid loss of H2B and H3 from transcribed genes but also from inactive genes. In all cases, histone loss is blocked by a transcription inhibitor, indicating a transcription-dependent event. Thus, nucleosomes are efficiently evicted by the polymerase but do not reform in the absence of Spt16. Yet exchange of nucleosomal H2B with free histones occurs normally, and, unexpectedly, incorporation of new H3 increases at all loci tested. This points to Spt16 restoring normal nucleosome structure by redepositing the displaced H3-H4 histones, thereby preventing incorporation of new histones and perhaps changes in histone modification patterns associated with ongoing transcription.

  1. Targeting NAD+ metabolism in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K O'Hara

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is an essential metabolite utilized as a redox cofactor and enzyme substrate in numerous cellular processes. Elevated NAD+ levels have been observed in red blood cells infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, but little is known regarding how the parasite generates NAD+. Here, we employed a mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach to confirm that P. falciparum lacks the ability to synthesize NAD+ de novo and is reliant on the uptake of exogenous niacin. We characterized several enzymes in the NAD+ pathway and demonstrate cytoplasmic localization for all except the parasite nicotinamidase, which concentrates in the nucleus. One of these enzymes, the P. falciparum nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (PfNMNAT, is essential for NAD+ metabolism and is highly diverged from the human homolog, but genetically similar to bacterial NMNATs. Our results demonstrate the enzymatic activity of PfNMNAT in vitro and demonstrate its ability to genetically complement the closely related Escherichia coli NMNAT. Due to the similarity of PfNMNAT to the bacterial enzyme, we tested a panel of previously identified bacterial NMNAT inhibitors and synthesized and screened twenty new derivatives, which demonstrate a range of potency against live parasite culture. These results highlight the importance of the parasite NAD+ metabolic pathway and provide both novel therapeutic targets and promising lead antimalarial compounds.

  2. Molecular mechanisms and biological importance of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte rosetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Wahlgren

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosetting, i.e. the spontaneous binding of uninfected to malaria infected erythrocytes and endothelial cytoadherence may hinder the blood flow and lead to serve Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Falciparum isolates obtained from unconscious patients all form rosettes and/or express a significantly higher man rosetting rate than isolates from patients with uncomplicated malaria. Furthermore, sera of patients with cerebral malaria are devoid of anti-rosetting activity while sera from patients with mild disease carry high levels of anti-rosetting antibodies. The presence of anti-rosetting antibodies also seems important for the efficient interaction of rosetting infected rbc and leucocytes. Two parasite derived rosetting ligands of Mr 22k and Mr28K named "rosettins, have been found on the surface of rosetting infected erythrocytes. CD36 has in at least some strains of parasites been found to function as a rosetting receptor on the uninfectederythrocyte. Heparin disrupts rosettes of P. falciparum in vitro and inhibits the sequestration of rosetting cells ex vivo. In conclusion, rosetting seems a crucial factor in the development of cerebral malaria and treatment of patients with anti-rosetting substances might become an effectivew adjunct in the treatment of severe malaria.

  3. The role of Plasmodium falciparum food vacuole plasmepsins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Gluzman, Ilya Y; Drew, Mark E; Goldberg, Daniel E

    2005-01-14

    Plasmepsins (PMs) are thought to have an important function in hemoglobin degradation in the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum and have generated interest as antimalarial drug targets. Four paralogous plasmepsins reside in the food vacuole of P. falciparum. Targeted gene disruption by double crossover homologous recombination has been employed to study food vacuole plasmepsin function in cultured parasites. Parasite clones with deletions in each of the individual PM I, PM II, and HAP genes as well as clones with a double PM IV/PM I disruption have been generated. All of these clones lack the corresponding PMs, are viable, and appear morphologically normal. PM II and PM IV/I disruptions have longer doubling times than the 3D7 parental line in rich RPMI medium. This appears to be because of a decreased level of productive progeny rather than an increased cell cycle time. In amino acid-limited medium, all four knockouts exhibit slower growth than the parental strain. Compared with 3D7, knock-out clone sensitivity to aspartic and cysteine protease inhibitors is changed minimally. These results suggest substantial functional redundancy and have important implications for the design of antimalarial drugs. The slow growth phenotype may explain why P. falciparum has maintained four plasmepsin genes with overlapping functions.

  4. Treatment of falciparum malaria in the age of drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanks G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing problem of drug resistance has greatly complicated the treatment for falciparum malaria. Whereaschloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine could once cure most infections, this is no longer true and requiresexamination of alternative regimens. Not all treatment failures are drug resistant and other issues such asexpired antimalarials and patient compliance need to be considered. Continuation of a failing treatment policyafter drug resistance is established suppresses infections rather than curing them, leading to increasedtransmission of malaria, promotion of epidemics and loss of public confidence in malaria control programs.Antifolate drug resistance (i.e. pyrimethamine means that new combinations are urgently needed particularlybecause addition of a single drug to an already failing regimen is rarely effective for very long. Atovaquone/proguanil and mefloquine have been used against multiple drug resistant falciparum malaria with resistance toeach having been documented soon after drug introduction. Drug combinations delay further transmission ofresistant parasites by increasing cure rates and inhibiting formation of gametocytes. Most currentlyrecommended drug combinations for falciparum malaria are variants of artemisinin combination therapy wherea rapidly acting artemisinin compound is combined with a longer half-life drug of a different class. Artemisininsused include dihydroartemisinin, artesunate, artemether and companion drugs include mefloquine, amodiaquine,sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, lumefantrine, piperaquine, pyronaridine, chlorproguanil/dapsone. The standard ofcare must be to cure malaria by killing the last parasite. Combination antimalarial treatment is vital not only tothe successful treatment of individual patients but also for public health control of malaria.

  5. [Drug sensitivity of falciparum malaria imported into France in 1995].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuet, C; Ramiliarisoa, O; Thor, R; Bouchaud, O; Basco, L K; Doury, J C; Le Bras, J

    1997-01-01

    The National Reference Centre for Malaria Chemosusceptibility (CNRCP) and the Tropical Medicine Institute of the Health Department for the Army (IMTSSA) monitor the chemosusceptibility of falciparum malaria introduced in France. In 1995, 353 isolates of P. falciparum are sent to the CNRCP and IMTSSA from malaria cases presenting in 49 civil and military hospitals distributed all over the french country. The patients are mostly Africans living in France and have mainly stayed in West Africa. Half of them did not take any chemoprophylaxis and a quarter took only chloroquine more or less regularly. The curative treatment, when known, is halofantrine alone in 52% of cases and quinine alone in 28% of cases. Three halofantrine failures are reported including 1 incorrect regimen and 4 quinine failures including 3 incorrect regimens. In 1995, in vitro resistance of P. falciparum isolates imported in France to the chemoprophylactic and therapeutic drugs is not worsening. In vitro quinine resistance is rare (1/108), mefloquine resistance (2/20) and halofantrine resistance (12/211) are limited, cycloguanil resistance (42/185) is stable and chloroquine resistance (84/230) is even decreasing (less selective pressure in Africa?).

  6. Malária por Plasmodium falciparum: estudos proteômicos Plasmodium falciparum malaria: proteomic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Siqueira-Batista

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A despeito dos avanços no tratamento e das campanhas de prevenção e de controle da malária nos distintos continentes nos quais a moléstia grassa, a entidade mórbida permanece com significativa relevância no mundo contemporâneo. O Plasmodium falciparum é o grande responsável pela malária grave, caracterizada por distúrbios em diferentes órgãos e sistemas, com possibilidade de evolução ao óbito. Embora incipientes, os estudos proteômicos na malária têm trazido boas perspectivas para melhor compreensão dos aspectos biológicos do Plasmodium, assim como dos mecanismos fisiopatológicos, diagnósticos, terapêuticos e profiláticos da enfermidade. Desse modo, o objetivo do presente artigo é apresentar uma breve revisão das aplicações da análise proteômica na malária por P. falciparum.Despite advances in treatment and campaigns for prevention and control of malaria on the various continents where it is still rampant, this disease remains significantly relevant to the contemporary world. Plasmodium falciparum is the organism that is mainly responsible for severe malaria, which is characterized by disturbances in different organs and systems, with possibly fatal outcomes. Although incipient, proteomic studies of malaria have yielded favorable prospects for elucidating the biological aspects of Plasmodium as well as the pathophysiological, diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic mechanisms of the disease. Thus, the aim of the present article is to present a brief review of the applications of proteomic analysis in P. falciparum malaria.

  7. Immunoglobulin G antibody reactivity to a group A Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 and protection from em>P. falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magistrado, Pamela A; Lusingu, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S;

    2007-01-01

    Variant surface antigens (VSA) on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells play a major role in the pathogenesis of malaria and are key targets for acquired immunity. The best-characterized VSA belong to the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family. In areas...... where P. falciparum is endemic, parasites causing severe malaria and malaria in young children with limited immunity tend to express semiconserved PfEMP1 molecules encoded by group A var genes. Here we investigated antibody responses of Tanzanians who were 0 to 19 years old to PF11_0008, a group A PfEMP...

  8. Caspar controls resistance to Plasmodium falciparum in diverse anopheline species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey S Garver

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Immune responses mounted by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae are largely regulated by the Toll and Imd (immune deficiency pathways via the NF-kappaB transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2, which are controlled by the negative regulators Cactus and Caspar, respectively. Rel1- and Rel2-dependent transcription in A. gambiae has been shown to be particularly critical to the mosquito's ability to manage infection with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Using RNA interference to deplete the negative regulators of these pathways, we found that Rel2 controls resistance of A. gambiae to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, whereas Rel 1 activation reduced infection levels. The universal relevance of this defense system across Anopheles species was established by showing that caspar silencing also prevents the development of P. falciparum in the major malaria vectors of Asia and South America, A. stephensi and A. albimanus, respectively. Parallel studies suggest that while Imd pathway activation is most effective against P. falciparum, the Toll pathway is most efficient against P. berghei, highlighting a significant discrepancy between the human pathogen and its rodent model. High throughput gene expression analyses identified a plethora of genes regulated by the activation of the two Rel factors and revealed that the Toll pathway played a more diverse role in mosquito biology than the Imd pathway, which was more immunity-specific. Further analyses of key anti-Plasmodium factors suggest they may be responsible for the Imd pathway-mediated resistance phenotype. Additionally, we found that the fitness cost caused by Rel2 activation through caspar gene silencing was undetectable in sugar-fed, blood-fed, and P. falciparum-infected female A. gambiae, while activation of the Toll pathway's Rel1 had a major impact. This study describes for the first time a single gene that influences an immune mechanism that is able to abort

  9. Caspar controls resistance to Plasmodium falciparum in diverse anopheline species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Lindsey S; Dong, Yuemei; Dimopoulos, George

    2009-03-01

    Immune responses mounted by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae are largely regulated by the Toll and Imd (immune deficiency) pathways via the NF-kappaB transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2, which are controlled by the negative regulators Cactus and Caspar, respectively. Rel1- and Rel2-dependent transcription in A. gambiae has been shown to be particularly critical to the mosquito's ability to manage infection with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Using RNA interference to deplete the negative regulators of these pathways, we found that Rel2 controls resistance of A. gambiae to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, whereas Rel 1 activation reduced infection levels. The universal relevance of this defense system across Anopheles species was established by showing that caspar silencing also prevents the development of P. falciparum in the major malaria vectors of Asia and South America, A. stephensi and A. albimanus, respectively. Parallel studies suggest that while Imd pathway activation is most effective against P. falciparum, the Toll pathway is most efficient against P. berghei, highlighting a significant discrepancy between the human pathogen and its rodent model. High throughput gene expression analyses identified a plethora of genes regulated by the activation of the two Rel factors and revealed that the Toll pathway played a more diverse role in mosquito biology than the Imd pathway, which was more immunity-specific. Further analyses of key anti-Plasmodium factors suggest they may be responsible for the Imd pathway-mediated resistance phenotype. Additionally, we found that the fitness cost caused by Rel2 activation through caspar gene silencing was undetectable in sugar-fed, blood-fed, and P. falciparum-infected female A. gambiae, while activation of the Toll pathway's Rel1 had a major impact. This study describes for the first time a single gene that influences an immune mechanism that is able to abort development of P. falciparum

  10. A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gething Peter W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission intensity affects almost all aspects of malaria epidemiology and the impact of malaria on human populations. Maps of transmission intensity are necessary to identify populations at different levels of risk and to evaluate objectively options for disease control. To remain relevant operationally, such maps must be updated frequently. Following the first global effort to map Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in 2007, this paper describes the generation of a new world map for the year 2010. This analysis is extended to provide the first global estimates of two other metrics of transmission intensity for P. falciparum that underpin contemporary questions in malaria control: the entomological inoculation rate (PfEIR and the basic reproductive number (PfR. Methods Annual parasite incidence data for 13,449 administrative units in 43 endemic countries were sourced to define the spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission in 2010 and 22,212 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys were used in a model-based geostatistical (MBG prediction to create a continuous contemporary surface of malaria endemicity within these limits. A suite of transmission models were developed that link PfPR to PfEIR and PfR and these were fitted to field data. These models were combined with the PfPR map to create new global predictions of PfEIR and PfR. All output maps included measured uncertainty. Results An estimated 1.13 and 1.44 billion people worldwide were at risk of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria, respectively. The majority of the endemic world was predicted with a median PfEIR of less than one and a median PfRc of less than two. Values of either metric exceeding 10 were almost exclusive to Africa. The uncertainty described in both PfEIR and PfR was substantial in regions of intense transmission. Conclusions The year 2010 has a particular significance as an evaluation milestone for malaria global health policy. The

  11. High-resolution genome-wide mapping of histone modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Tae-young; Ngau, Wing Chi; Cui, Kairong; Landsman, David; Zhao, Keji

    2004-08-01

    The expression patterns of eukaryotic genomes are controlled by their chromatin structure, consisting of nucleosome subunits in which DNA of approximately 146 bp is wrapped around a core of 8 histone molecules. Post-translational histone modifications play an essential role in modifying chromatin structure. Here we apply a combination of SAGE and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocols to determine the distribution of hyperacetylated histones H3 and H4 in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. We call this approach genome-wide mapping technique (GMAT). Using GMAT, we find that the highest acetylation levels are detected in the 5' end of a gene's coding region, but not in the promoter. Furthermore, we show that the histone acetyltransferase, GCN5p, regulates H3 acetylation in the promoter and 5' end of the coding regions. These findings indicate that GMAT should find valuable applications in mapping target sites of chromatin-modifying enzymes.

  12. Features of the PHF8/KIAA1718 histone demethylase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamaki Suganuma; Jerry L Workman

    2010-01-01

    Gene regulation mechanisms in cellular events ranging from development to tumorigenesis target the fundamental unit of chromatin structure, the nucleosome, 146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer.

  13. Substrate Recognition of Histone H2B by DUBm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Elizabeth; Berndsen, Christopher; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2011-03-01

    The SAGA complex is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates gene expression in eukaryotes via histone acetylation and deubiquitination, which are crucial for transcription. Our lab is investigating the SAGA-dependent deubiquitination of histone H2B. The deubiquitinating module (DUBm) of SAGA is comprised of a ubiquitin-specific protease, Ubp8, and three other proteins. It is known that Ubp8 cleaves ubiquitin from histone H2B, however, the specific way in which the enzyme binds to the substrate remains elusive. In order to unravel this mechanism, we attempted to determine the crystal structure of the substrate binding complex. We obtained this substrate by exploiting the techniques of intein chemistry to artificially ubiquitinate a histone H2B peptide, which we then co-crystallized with DUBm. Additionally, we synthesized Ub-K63R-linked chains and Ub-K48-linked chains and co-crystallized them with DUBm.

  14. Reshaping chromatin after DNA damage: the choreography of histone proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Sophie E

    2015-02-13

    DNA damage signaling and repair machineries operate in a nuclear environment where DNA is wrapped around histone proteins and packaged into chromatin. Understanding how chromatin structure is restored together with the DNA sequence during DNA damage repair has been a topic of intense research. Indeed, chromatin integrity is central to cell functions and identity. However, chromatin shows remarkable plasticity in response to DNA damage. This review presents our current knowledge of chromatin dynamics in the mammalian cell nucleus in response to DNA double strand breaks and UV lesions. I provide an overview of the key players involved in regulating histone dynamics in damaged chromatin regions, focusing on histone chaperones and their concerted action with histone modifiers, chromatin remodelers and repair factors. I also discuss how these dynamics contribute to reshaping chromatin and, by altering the chromatin landscape, may affect the maintenance of epigenetic information.

  15. Interplay between histone H1 structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Alicia; Ponte, Inma; Suau, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    H1 linker histones are involved both in the maintenance of higher-order chromatin structure and in gene regulation. Histone H1 exists in multiple isoforms, is evolutionarily variable and undergoes a large variety of post-translational modifications. We review recent progress in the understanding of the folding and structure of histone H1 domains with an emphasis on the interactions with DNA. The importance of intrinsic disorder and hydrophobic interactions in the folding and function of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) is discussed. The induction of a molten globule-state in the CTD by macromolecular crowding is also considered. The effects of phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinases on the structure of the CTD, as well as on chromatin condensation and oligomerization, are described. We also address the extranuclear functions of histone H1, including the interaction with the β-amyloid peptide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Histone modifications induced by a family of bacterial toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, Mélanie Anne; Batsché, Eric; Régnault, Béatrice; Tham, To Nam; Seveau, Stéphanie; Muchardt, Christian; Cossart, Pascale

    2007-08-14

    Upon infection, pathogens reprogram host gene expression. In eukaryotic cells, genetic reprogramming is induced by the concerted activation/repression of transcription factors and various histone modifications that control DNA accessibility in chromatin. We report here that the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes induces a dramatic dephosphorylation of histone H3 as well as a deacetylation of histone H4 during early phases of infection. This effect is mediated by the major listerial toxin listeriolysin O in a pore-forming-independent manner. Strikingly, a similar effect also is observed with other toxins of the same family, such as Clostridium perfringens perfringolysin and Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumolysin. The decreased levels of histone modifications correlate with a reduced transcriptional activity of a subset of host genes, including key immunity genes. Thus, control of epigenetic regulation emerges here as an unsuspected function shared by several bacterial toxins, highlighting a common strategy used by intracellular and extracellular pathogens to modulate the host response early during infection.

  17. A histone demethylase is necessary for regeneration in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Scott; Tsun, Zhi-Yang; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2009-11-24

    Urodele amphibians and teleost fish regenerate amputated body parts via a process called epimorphic regeneration. A hallmark of this phenomenon is the reactivation of silenced developmental regulatory genes that previously functioned during embryonic patterning. We demonstrate that histone modifications silence promoters of numerous genes involved in zebrafish caudal fin regeneration. Silenced developmental regulatory genes contain bivalent me(3)K4/me(3)K27 H3 histone modifications created by the concerted action of Polycomb (PcG) and Trithorax histone methyltransferases. During regeneration, this silent, bivalent chromatin is converted to an active state by loss of repressive me(3)K27 H3 modifications, occurring at numerous genes that appear to function during regeneration. Loss-of-function studies demonstrate a requirement for a me(3)K27 H3 demethylase during fin regeneration. These results indicate that histone modifications at discreet genomic positions may serve as a crucial regulatory event in the initiation of fin regeneration.

  18. Histone variant innovation in a rapidly evolving chordate lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Pascal WTC

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone variants alter the composition of nucleosomes and play crucial roles in transcription, chromosome segregation, DNA repair, and sperm compaction. Modification of metazoan histone variant lineages occurs on a background of genome architecture that shows global similarities from sponges to vertebrates, but the urochordate, Oikopleura dioica, a member of the sister group to vertebrates, exhibits profound modification of this ancestral architecture. Results We show that a histone complement of 47 gene loci encodes 31 histone variants, grouped in distinct sets of developmental expression profiles throughout the life cycle. A particularly diverse array of 15 male-specific histone variants was uncovered, including a testes-specific H4t, the first metazoan H4 sequence variant reported. Universal histone variants H3.3, CenH3, and H2A.Z are present but O. dioica lacks homologs of macroH2A and H2AX. The genome encodes many H2A and H2B variants and the repertoire of H2A.Z isoforms is expanded through alternative splicing, incrementally regulating the number of acetylatable lysine residues in the functionally important N-terminal "charge patch". Mass spectrometry identified 40 acetylation, methylation and ubiquitylation posttranslational modifications (PTMs and showed that hallmark PTMs of "active" and "repressive" chromatin were present in O. dioica. No obvious reduction in silent heterochromatic marks was observed despite high gene density in this extraordinarily compacted chordate genome. Conclusions These results show that histone gene complements and their organization differ considerably even over modest phylogenetic distances. Substantial innovation among all core and linker histone variants has evolved in concert with adaptation of specific life history traits in this rapidly evolving chordate lineage.

  19. Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    respiration by 17β-estradiol through lactate dehydrogenase in MCF7 breast cancer cells. AACR Metabolism and Cancer , Baltimore, October 16-19, 2011. 20...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0237 TITLE: Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yi...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0237 5c

  20. Eukaryotic Replisome Components Cooperate to Process Histones During Chromosome Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Foltman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA unwinding at eukaryotic replication forks displaces parental histones, which must be redeposited onto nascent DNA in order to preserve chromatin structure. By screening systematically for replisome components that pick up histones released from chromatin into a yeast cell extract, we found that the Mcm2 helicase subunit binds histones cooperatively with the FACT (facilitiates chromatin transcription complex, which helps to re-establish chromatin during transcription. FACT does not associate with the Mcm2-7 helicase at replication origins during G1 phase but is subsequently incorporated into the replisome progression complex independently of histone binding and uniquely among histone chaperones. The amino terminal tail of Mcm2 binds histones via a conserved motif that is dispensable for DNA synthesis per se but helps preserve subtelomeric chromatin, retain the 2 micron minichromosome, and support growth in the absence of Ctf18-RFC. Our data indicate that the eukaryotic replication and transcription machineries use analogous assemblies of multiple chaperones to preserve chromatin integrity.

  1. Mechanism of histone survival during transcription by RNA polymerase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaeva, Olga I; Studitsky, Vasily M

    2010-01-01

    This work is related to and stems from our recent NSMB paper, "Mechanism of chromatin remodeling and recovery during passage of RNA polymerase II" (December 2009). Synopsis. Recent genomic studies from many laboratories have suggested that nucleosomes are not displaced from moderately transcribed genes. Furthermore, histones H3/H4 carrying the primary epigenetic marks are not displaced or exchanged (in contrast to H2A/H2B histones) during moderate transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in vivo. These exciting observations suggest that the large molecule of Pol II passes through chromatin structure without even transient displacement of H3/H4 histones. The most recent analysis of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-type mechanism of chromatin remodeling in vitro (described in our NSMB 2009 paper) suggests that nucleosome survival is tightly coupled with formation of a novel intermediate: a very small intranucleosomal DNA loop (Ø-loop) containing transcribing Pol II. In the submitted manuscript we critically evaluate one of the key predictions of this model: the lack of even transient displacement of histones H3/H4 during Pol II transcription in vitro. The data suggest that, indeed, histones H3/H4 are not displaced during Pol II transcription in vitro. These studies are directly connected with the observation in vivo on the lack of exchange of histones H3/H4 during Pol II transcription.

  2. Histone Methylation by Temozolomide; A Classic DNA Methylating Anticancer Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Amanda J.; Diaz, Anthony Joseph; Mura, Hugo; Nyuwen, Lila; Coello, Daniel; Sheva, Saif; Maria, Nava; Gallo, James M.; Wang, Tieli

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim The alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), is considered the standard-of-care for high-grade astrocytomas –known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)– an aggressive type of tumor with poor prognosis. The therapeutic benefit of TMZ is attributed to formation of DNA adducts involving the methylation of purine bases in DNA. We investigated the effects of TMZ on arginine and lysine amino acids, histone H3 peptides and histone H3 proteins. Materials and Methods Chemical modification of amino acids, histone H3 peptide and protein by TMZ was performed in phosphate buffer at physiological pH. The reaction products were examined by mass spectrometry and western blot analysis. Results Our results showed that TMZ following conversion to a methylating cation, can methylate histone H3 peptide and histone H3 protein, suggesting that TMZ exerts its anticancer activity not only through its interaction with DNA, but also through alterations of protein post-translational modifications. Conclusion The possibility that TMZ can methylate histones involved with epigenetic regulation of protein indicates a potentially unique mechanism of action. The study will contribute to the understanding the anticancer activity of TMZ in order to develop novel targeted molecular strategies to advance the cancer treatment. PMID:27354585

  3. Structural Mechanisms of Nucleosome Recognition by Linker Histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bing-Rui; Jiang, Jiansheng; Feng, Hanqiao; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Xiao, T Sam; Bai, Yawen

    2015-08-20

    Linker histones bind to the nucleosome and regulate the structure of chromatin and gene expression. Despite more than three decades of effort, the structural basis of nucleosome recognition by linker histones remains elusive. Here, we report the crystal structure of the globular domain of chicken linker histone H5 in complex with the nucleosome at 3.5 Å resolution, which is validated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The globular domain sits on the dyad of the nucleosome and interacts with both DNA linkers. Our structure integrates results from mutation analyses and previous cross-linking and fluorescence recovery after photobleach experiments, and it helps resolve the long debate on structural mechanisms of nucleosome recognition by linker histones. The on-dyad binding mode of the H5 globular domain is different from the recently reported off-dyad binding mode of Drosophila linker histone H1. We demonstrate that linker histones with different binding modes could fold chromatin to form distinct higher-order structures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Eukaryotic replisome components cooperate to process histones during chromosome replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltman, Magdalena; Evrin, Cecile; De Piccoli, Giacomo; Jones, Richard C; Edmondson, Rick D; Katou, Yuki; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Labib, Karim

    2013-03-28

    DNA unwinding at eukaryotic replication forks displaces parental histones, which must be redeposited onto nascent DNA in order to preserve chromatin structure. By screening systematically for replisome components that pick up histones released from chromatin into a yeast cell extract, we found that the Mcm2 helicase subunit binds histones cooperatively with the FACT (facilitiates chromatin transcription) complex, which helps to re-establish chromatin during transcription. FACT does not associate with the Mcm2-7 helicase at replication origins during G1 phase but is subsequently incorporated into the replisome progression complex independently of histone binding and uniquely among histone chaperones. The amino terminal tail of Mcm2 binds histones via a conserved motif that is dispensable for DNA synthesis per se but helps preserve subtelomeric chromatin, retain the 2 micron minichromosome, and support growth in the absence of Ctf18-RFC. Our data indicate that the eukaryotic replication and transcription machineries use analogous assemblies of multiple chaperones to preserve chromatin integrity. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Histone lysine methylation: critical regulator of memory and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarome, Timothy J; Lubin, Farah D

    2013-01-01

    Histone lysine methylation is a well-established transcriptional mechanism for the regulation of gene expression changes in eukaryotic cells and is now believed to function in neurons of the central nervous system to mediate the process of memory formation and behavior. In mature neurons, methylation of histone proteins can serve to both activate and repress gene transcription. This is in stark contrast to other epigenetic modifications, including histone acetylation and DNA methylation, which have largely been associated with one transcriptional state in the brain. In this review, we discuss the evidence for histone methylation mechanisms in the coordination of complex cognitive processes such as long-term memory formation and storage. In addition, we address the current literature highlighting the role of histone methylation in intellectual disability, addiction, schizophrenia, autism, depression, and neurodegeneration. Further, we discuss histone methylation within the context of other epigenetic modifications and the potential advantages of exploring this newly identified mechanism of cognition, emphasizing the possibility that this molecular process may provide an alternative locus for intervention in long-term psychopathologies that cannot be clearly linked to genes or environment alone.

  6. Physical studies of chromatin. The recombination of histones with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseley, P G; Bradbury, E M; Butler-Browne, G S; Carpenter, B G; Stephens, R M

    1976-02-02

    Experiments have been carried out to define clearly which histone combinations can induce a higher order structure when combined with DNA. The criterion for a higher order structure being the series of low-angle X-ray diffraction maxima nominally at 5.5 nm, 3.7 nm, 2.7 nm and 2.2 nm. Such a pattern, with resolution similar to that of H1-depleted chromatin, is readily attainable by recombining histones H2A + H2B + H3 + H4 with DNA using a salt-gradient dialysis method. However, the use of urea in the recombination procedure is shown to be detrimental to the production of a higher order structure. Low-angle ring patterns are not obtained by recomgining DNA with single pure histones or any combination of histone pairs exept H3 + H4. The diffraction maxima from the latter are, however, weaker than those from chromatin and there are pronounced semi-equatorial arcs. The presence of a third histone, either H2A or H2B in the H3 + H4 recombination mixture tends to distort the recognised low-angle pattern. It is concluded that the histone pair H3 + H4 is essential for the formation of a regular higher order structure in chromatin, although for a complete structural development the presence of H2A + H2B is also required.

  7. Histone deacetylase inhibition abolishes stress-induced spatial memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-López, Viviana; Lamprea, Marisol R; Múnera, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Acute stress induced before spatial training impairs memory consolidation. Although non-epigenetic underpinning of such effect has been described, the epigenetic mechanisms involved have not yet been studied. Since spatial training and intense stress have opposite effects on histone acetylation balance, it is conceivable that disruption of such balance may underlie acute stress-induced spatial memory consolidation impairment and that inhibiting histone deacetylases prevents such effect. Trichostatin-A (TSA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor) was used to test its effectiveness in preventing stress' deleterious effect on memory. Male Wistar rats were trained in a spatial task in the Barnes maze; 1-h movement restraint was applied to half of them before training. Immediately after training, stressed and non-stressed animals were randomly assigned to receive either TSA (1mg/kg) or vehicle intraperitoneal injection. Twenty-four hours after training, long-term spatial memory was tested; plasma and brain tissue were collected immediately after the memory test to evaluate corticosterone levels and histone H3 acetylation in several brain areas. Stressed animals receiving vehicle displayed memory impairment, increased plasma corticosterone levels and markedly reduced histone H3 acetylation in prelimbic cortex and hippocampus. Such effects did not occur in stressed animals treated with TSA. The aforementioned results support the hypothesis that acute stress induced-memory impairment is related to histone deacetylation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Whole-Genome Scans Provide Evidence of Adaptive Evolution in Malawian Plasmodium falciparum Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocholla, Harold; Preston, Mark D; Mipando, Mwapatsa

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Selection by host immunity and antimalarial drugs has driven extensive adaptive evolution in Plasmodium falciparum and continues to produce ever-changing landscapes of genetic variation. METHODS:  We performed whole-genome sequencing of 69 P. falciparum isolates from Malawi and used ...

  9. Lack of Evidence for Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Leogane, Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Ami; Zhong, Kathleen; Kain, Kevin C

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Haiti is considered chloroquine susceptible, although resistance transporter alleles associated with chloroquine resistance were recently detected. Among 49 patients with falciparum malaria, we found neither parasites carrying haplotypes associated with chloroquine resistance nor instances of chloroquine treatment failure. Continued vigilance to detect emergence of chloroquine resistance is needed. PMID:22932030

  10. Genetic loci associated with delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum following artemisinin treatment in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    Genetic loci associated with delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum following artemisinin treatment in Southeast Asia Shannon Takala-Harrisona...resistant Plasmodium falcipa- rum malaria in western Cambodia could threaten prospects for malaria elimination. Identification of the genetic basis of...molecular markers Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the lead-ing treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria (1), and their use with

  11. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Elimination in Hainan Province, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ding-Wei; Du, Jian-Wei; Wang, Guang-Ze; Li, Yu-Chun; He, Chang-Hua; Xue, Rui-De; Wang, Shan-Qing; Hu, Xi-Min

    2015-12-01

    In Hainan Province, China, great achievements in elimination of falciparum malaria have been made since 2010. There have been no locally acquired falciparum malaria cases since that time. The cost-effectiveness of elimination of falciparum malaria has been analyzed in Hainan Province. There were 4,422 falciparum malaria cases reported from 2002 to 2012, more cases occurred in males than in females. From 2002 to 2012, a total of 98.5 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were reported because of falciparum malaria. Populations in the age ranges of 15-25 and 30-44 years had higher incidences and DALYs than other age groups. From 2002 to 2012, malaria-related costs for salaries of staff, funds from the provincial government, national government, and the GFATM were US$3.02, US$2.24, US$1.44, and US$5.08 million, respectively. An estimated 9,504 falciparum malaria cases were averted during the period 2003-2012. The estimated cost per falciparum malaria case averted was US$116.5. The falciparum malaria elimination program in Hainan was highly effective and successful. However, funding for maintenance is still needed because of imported cases. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Lymphocyte response to purified Plasmodium falciparum antigens during and after malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Jepsen, S; Theander, T G

    1986-01-01

    The peripheral blood lymphocyte response to affinity purified soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens from in vitro cultures was studied in seven patients with acute falciparum malaria, on eight occasions, and in 15 persons having had malaria, at various times post infection, on 24 occasions. During...

  13. Lack of evidence for chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Leogane, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Ami; Zhong, Kathleen; Kain, Kevin C; Schwartz, Eli

    2012-09-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Haiti is considered chloroquine susceptible, although resistance transporter alleles associated with chloroquine resistance were recently detected. Among 49 patients with falciparum malaria, we found neither parasites carrying haplotypes associated with chloroquine resistance nor instances of chloroquine treatment failure. Continued vigilance to detect emergence of chloroquine resistance is needed.

  14. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Elimination in Hainan Province, 2002–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ding-Wei; Du, Jian-Wei; Wang, Guang-Ze; Li, Yu-Chun; He, Chang-Hua; Xue, Rui-De; Wang, Shan-Qing; Hu, Xi-Min

    2015-01-01

    In Hainan Province, China, great achievements in elimination of falciparum malaria have been made since 2010. There have been no locally acquired falciparum malaria cases since that time. The cost-effectiveness of elimination of falciparum malaria has been analyzed in Hainan Province. There were 4,422 falciparum malaria cases reported from 2002 to 2012, more cases occurred in males than in females. From 2002 to 2012, a total of 98.5 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were reported because of falciparum malaria. Populations in the age ranges of 15–25 and 30–44 years had higher incidences and DALYs than other age groups. From 2002 to 2012, malaria-related costs for salaries of staff, funds from the provincial government, national government, and the GFATM were US$3.02, US$2.24, US$1.44, and US$5.08 million, respectively. An estimated 9,504 falciparum malaria cases were averted during the period 2003–2012. The estimated cost per falciparum malaria case averted was US$116.5. The falciparum malaria elimination program in Hainan was highly effective and successful. However, funding for maintenance is still needed because of imported cases. PMID:26438030

  15. Chloroquine- and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistant falciparum malaria in vivo - a pilot study in rural Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, HM; Kager, J; Koetsier, DW; van der Werf, TS

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chloroquine (CQ) and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) are the predominantly used antimalarials in Zambia and other parts of East Africa, but increasing resistance of P. falciparum is a major concern. METHODS Seventy consecutive patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled.

  16. Cord blood dendritic cell subsets in African newborns exposed to Plasmodium falciparum in utero.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breitling, L.P.; Fendel, R.; Mordmueller, B.; Adegnika, A.A.; Kremsner, P.G.; Luty, A.J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Placental Plasmodium falciparum infection affects birth outcomes and sensitizes fetal lymphocytes to parasite antigens. We assessed the influence of maternal P. falciparum infection on fetal myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), analyzing the cord blood of offspring o

  17. Possible treatment failure of artemether-lumefantrine in an Italian traveler with uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestina Carla Repetto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin-combination therapies (ACTs are recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in endemic areas with multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum. We report a case of possible artemether-lumefantrine failure in an Italian traveler with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria imported from Democratic Republic of Congo.

  18. Analyzing Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 gene expression by a next generation sequencing based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jakob S.; Petersen, Bent; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine;

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for most cases of severe malaria and causes >1 million deaths every year. The particular virulence of this Plasmodium species is highly associated with the expression of certain members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1(PfEMP1) family...

  19. Falciparum malaria and climate change in the northwest frontier province of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, M J; Dye, C; van der Kaay, H J

    1996-08-01

    Following a striking increase in the severity of autumnal outbreaks of Plasmodium falciparum during the last decade in the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan, the role of climatologic variables was investigated. A multivariate analysis showed that during the transmission season of P. falciparum, the amount of rainfall in September and October, the temperature in November and December, and the humidity in December were all correlated (r2 = 0.82) with two measures of P. falciparum, the falciparum rate (percent of slides examined positive for P. falciparum) since 1981 and the annual P. falciparum proportion (percent of all malaria infections diagnosed as P. falciparum) since 1978. Climatologic records since 1876 show an increase in mean November and December temperatures by 2 degrees C and 1.5 degrees C, respectively, and in October rainfall. Mean humidity in December has also been increasing since 1950. These climatologic changes in the area appear to have made conditions for transmission of P. falciparum more favorable, and may account for the increase in incidence observed in the NWFP in recent years.

  20. Possible clinical failure of artemether-lumefantrine in an italian traveler with uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Ernestina C; Traverso, Antonio; Giacomazzi, Claudio G

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin-combination therapies (ACTs) are recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in endemic areas with multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum. We report a case of possible artemether-lumefantrine clinical failure in an Italian traveler with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria imported from Democratic Republic of Congo.

  1. Genetics of refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum in the mosquito Anopheles stephensi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldmann, A.M.; Gemert, Geert-Jan van; Vegte-Bolmer, Marga G. van de; Jansen, Ritsert C.

    1998-01-01

    We previously selected a line of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi refractory (resistant) to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, using in vitro infections with P. falciparum gametocytes. This report presents data on the genetic background of refractoriness. The results of

  2. Amplification of a Gene Related to Mammalian mdr Genes in Drug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Craig M.; Serrano, Adelfa E.; Wasley, Annemarie; Bogenschutz, Michael P.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Wirth, Dyann F.

    1989-06-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum contains at least two genes related to the mammalian multiple drug resistance genes, and at least one of the P. falciparum genes is expressed at a higher level and is present in higher copy number in a strain that is resistant to multiple drugs than in a strain that is sensitive to the drugs.

  3. Possible Clinical Failure of Artemether-Lumefantrine in an Italian Traveler with Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Ernestina C.; Traverso, Antonio; Giacomazzi, Claudio G.

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin-combination therapies (ACTs) are recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in endemic areas with multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum. We report a case of possible artemether-lumefantrine clinical failure in an Italian traveler with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria imported from Democratic Republic of Congo. PMID:22084655

  4. Histone density is maintained during transcription mediated by the chromatin remodeler RSC and histone chaperone NAP1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryan, Benjamin G; Kim, Jessica; Tran, Nancy Nga H; Lombardo, Sarah R; Venkatesh, Swaminathan; Workman, Jerry L; Carey, Michael

    2012-02-01

    ATPases and histone chaperones facilitate RNA polymerase II (pol II) elongation on chromatin. In vivo, the coordinated action of these enzymes is necessary to permit pol II passage through a nucleosome while restoring histone density afterward. We have developed a biochemical system recapitulating this basic process. Transcription through a nucleosome in vitro requires the ATPase remodels structure of chromatin (RSC) and the histone chaperone nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1). In the presence of NAP1, RSC generates a hexasome. Despite the propensity of RSC to evict histones, NAP1 reprograms the reaction such that the hexasome is retained on the template during multiple rounds of transcription. This work has implications toward understanding the mechanism of pol II elongation on chromatin.

  5. Distinct features of the histone core structure in nucleosomes containing the histone H2A.B variant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Arimura, Yasuhiro; Shirayama, Kazuyoshi; Fujita, Risa; Oba, Yojiro; Sato, Nobuhiro; Inoue, Rintaro; Oda, Takashi; Sato, Mamoru; Heenan, Richard K; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    .... Comparisons with the canonical H2A nucleosome structure revealed that the DNA termini of the H2A.B nucleosome are detached from the histone core surface, and flexibly expanded toward the solvent...

  6. Efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Banegas, Engels Ilich; Mendoza, Meisy; Diaz, Cesar; Bucheli, Sandra Tamara Mancero; Fontecha, Gustavo A; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Goldman, Ira; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Zambrano, Jose Orlinder Nicolas

    2013-05-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is officially used for the primary treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Honduras. In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of CQ for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in the municipality of Puerto Lempira, Gracias a Dios, Honduras was evaluated using the Pan American Health Organization-World Health Organization protocol with a follow-up of 28 days. Sixty-eight patients from 6 months to 60 years of age microscopically diagnosed with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were included in the final analysis. All patients who were treated with CQ (25 mg/kg over 3 days) cleared parasitemia by day 3 and acquired no new P. falciparum infection within 28 days of follow-up. All the parasite samples sequenced for CQ resistance mutations (pfcrt) showed only the CQ-sensitive genotype (CVMNK). This finding shows that CQ remains highly efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Gracias a Dios, Honduras.

  7. Predictors of Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence in Chano Mille, South Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loha, Eskindir; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2012-09-01

    We assessed potential effects of local meteorological and environmental conditions, indoor residual spraying with insecticides, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) use at individual and community levels, and individual factors on Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence in a village in south Ethiopia. A cohort of 8,121 people was followed for 101 weeks with active and passive surveillance. Among 317 microscopically confirmed P. falciparum malaria episodes, 29.3% occurred among temporary residents. The incidence density was 3.6/10,000 person-weeks of observation. We observed higher malaria incidence among males, children 5-14 years of age, ITNs non-users, the poor, and people who lived closer to vector breeding places. Rainfall increased and indoor residual spraying with Deltamethrin reduced falciparum incidence. Although ITNs prevented falciparum malaria for the users, we did not find that free mass ITNs distribution reduced falciparum malaria on a village level.

  8. Refrigeration provides a simple means to synchronize in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lili; Hao, Mingming; Wu, Lanou; Zhao, Zhen; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Li, Xiaomei; He, Yongshu; Sun, Ling; Feng, Guohua; Xiang, Zheng; Cui, Liwang; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2014-05-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is usually asynchronous during in vitro culture. Highly synchronized cultures of P. falciparum are routinely used in malaria research. Here, we describe a simple synchronization procedure for P. falciparum asexual erythrocytic culture, which involves storage at 4°C for 8-24 h followed by routine culture. When cultures with 27-60% of ring stage were synchronized using this procedure, 70-93% ring stages were obtained after 48 h of culture and relative growth synchrony remained for at least two erythrocytic cycles. To test the suitability of this procedure for subsequent work, drug sensitivity assays were performed using four laboratory strains and four freshly adapted clinical P. falciparum isolates. Parasites synchronized by sorbitol treatment or refrigeration showed similar dose-response curves and comparable IC50 values to four antimalarial drugs. The refrigeration synchronization method is simple, inexpensive, time-saving, and should be especially useful when large numbers of P. falciparum culture are handled.

  9. HDAC8 substrates: Histones and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Noah A; Pitcairn, Carol Ann; Fierke, Carol A

    2013-02-01

    The lysine deacetylase family of enzymes (HDACs) was first demonstrated to catalyze deacetylation of acetyllysine residues on histones. In subsequent years, HDACs have been shown to recognize a large pool of acetylated nonhistone proteins as substrates. Recently, thousands of acetylated proteins have been discovered, yet in most cases, the HDAC that catalyzes deacetylation in vivo has not been identified. This gap has created the need for better in vivo, in vitro, and in silico approaches for determining HDAC substrates. While HDAC8 is the best kinetically and structurally characterized HDAC, few efficient substrates have yet been substantiated in vivo. In this review, we delineate factors that may be important for determining HDAC8 substrate recognition and catalytic activity, including structure, complex formation, and post-translational modifications. This summary provides insight into the challenges of identifying in vivo substrates for HDAC8, and provides a good vantage point for understanding the variables important for predicting HDAC substrate recognition. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Post-Training Intrahippocampal Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases Enhances Long-Term Object-Location Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cedrick; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance…

  11. Post-Training Intrahippocampal Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases Enhances Long-Term Object-Location Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cedrick; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance…

  12. Interaction of short peptides with FITC-labeled wheat histones and their complexes with deoxyribooligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoreyeva, L I; Smirnova, T A; Kolomijtseva, G Ya; Khavinson, V Kh; Vanyushin, B F

    2013-02-01

    Judging from fluorescence modulation (quenching), short peptides (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly, Glu-Asp-Arg, Ala-Glu-Asp-Leu, Lys-Glu-Asp-Gly, Ala-Glu-Asp-Arg, and Lys-Glu-Asp-Trp) bind with FITC-labeled wheat histones H1, H2B, H3, and H4. This results from the interaction of the peptides with the N-terminal histone regions that contain respective and seemingly homologous peptide-binding motifs. Because homologous amino acid sequences in wheat core histones were not found, the peptides seem to bind with some core histone regions having specific conformational structure. Peptide binding with histones and histone-deoxyribooligonucleotide complexes depends on the nature of the histone and the primary structures of the peptides and oligonucleotides; thus, it is site specific. Histones H1 bind preferentially with single-stranded oligonucleotides by homologous sites in the C-terminal region of the protein. Unlike histone H1, the core histones bind predominantly with double-stranded methylated oligonucleotides and methylated DNA. Stern-Volmer constants of interaction of histone H1 and core histones with double-stranded hemimethylated oligonucleotides are higher compared with that of binding with unmethylated ones. DNA or deoxyribooligonucleotides in a complex with histones can enhance or inhibit peptide binding. It is suggested that site-specific interactions of short biologically active peptides with histone tails can serve in chromatin as control epigenetic mechanisms of regulation of gene activity and cellular differentiation.

  13. A World Malaria Map: Plasmodium falciparum Endemicity in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Simon I; Guerra, Carlos A; Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kabaria, Caroline W; Manh, Bui H; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F; Brooker, Simon; Smith, David L; Moyeed, Rana A; Snow, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Background Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007. Methods and Findings A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2–10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia), 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+), and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2−10 ≤ 5%). The vast majority (88%) of those living under stable risk in CSE Asia were also in this low endemicity class; a small remainder (11%) were in the intermediate endemicity class (PfPR2−10 > 5 to < 40%); and the remaining fraction (1%) in high endemicity (PfPR2−10 ≥ 40%) areas. High endemicity was widespread in the

  14. Structural and Histone Binding Ability Characterizations of Human PWWP Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hong; Zeng, Hong; Lam, Robert; Tempel, Wolfram; Amaya, Maria F.; Xu, Chao; Dombrovski, Ludmila; Qiu, Wei; Wang, Yanming; Min, Jinrong (Toronto); (Penn)

    2013-09-25

    The PWWP domain was first identified as a structural motif of 100-130 amino acids in the WHSC1 protein and predicted to be a protein-protein interaction domain. It belongs to the Tudor domain 'Royal Family', which consists of Tudor, chromodomain, MBT and PWWP domains. While Tudor, chromodomain and MBT domains have long been known to bind methylated histones, PWWP was shown to exhibit histone binding ability only until recently. The PWWP domain has been shown to be a DNA binding domain, but sequence analysis and previous structural studies show that the PWWP domain exhibits significant similarity to other 'Royal Family' members, implying that the PWWP domain has the potential to bind histones. In order to further explore the function of the PWWP domain, we used the protein family approach to determine the crystal structures of the PWWP domains from seven different human proteins. Our fluorescence polarization binding studies show that PWWP domains have weak histone binding ability, which is also confirmed by our NMR titration experiments. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structures of the BRPF1 PWWP domain in complex with H3K36me3, and HDGF2 PWWP domain in complex with H3K79me3 and H4K20me3. PWWP proteins constitute a new family of methyl lysine histone binders. The PWWP domain consists of three motifs: a canonical {beta}-barrel core, an insertion motif between the second and third {beta}-strands and a C-terminal {alpha}-helix bundle. Both the canonical {beta}-barrel core and the insertion motif are directly involved in histone binding. The PWWP domain has been previously shown to be a DNA binding domain. Therefore, the PWWP domain exhibits dual functions: binding both DNA and methyllysine histones.

  15. Correlation between 'H' blood group antigen and Plasmodium falciparum invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Vrushali; Colah, Roshan; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2016-06-01

    The ABO blood group system is the most important blood group system in clinical practice. The relationship between Plasmodium falciparum and ABO blood groups has been studied for many years. This study was undertaken to investigate the abilities of different blood group erythrocytes to support in vitro growth of P. falciparum parasites. P. falciparum parasites of four different strains (3D7, 7G8, Dd2 and RKL9) were co-cultured with erythrocytes of blood group 'A', 'B', 'O' (n = 10 for each) and 'O(h)' (Bombay group) (n = 7) for 5 days. Statistically significant differences were observed on the fourth day among the mean percent parasitemias of 'O', non-'O' ('A' and 'B') and 'O(h)' group cultures. The parasitemias of four strains ranged from 12.23 to 14.66, 11.68 to 13.24, 16.89 to 22.3, and 7.37 to 11.27 % in 'A', 'B', 'O' and Bombay group cultures, respectively. As the expression of H antigen decreased from 'O' blood group to 'A' and 'B' and then to Bombay blood group, parasite invasion (percent parasitemia) also decreased significantly (p group erythrocytes were virtually converted to Bombay group-like erythrocytes by the treatment of anti-H lectins extracted from Ulex europaeus seeds. Mean percent parasitemia of lectin-treated cultures on the fourth day was significantly lower (p Bombay group erythrocyte cultures, thus further strengthening the hypothesis.

  16. Serological evidence of discrete spatial clusters of Plasmodium falciparum parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejon, Philip; Turner, Louise; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Malaria transmission may be considered to be homogenous with well-mixed parasite populations (as in the classic Ross/Macdonald models). Marked fine-scale heterogeneity of transmission has been observed in the field (i.e., over a few kilometres), but there are relatively few data on the degree of ...... of mixing. Since the Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) is highly polymorphic, the host's serological responses may be used to infer exposure to parasite sub-populations....

  17. Refractory pancytopenia and megaloblastic anemia due to falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Varun; Maheshwari, Anu; Rath, Bimbadhar; Kumar, Praveen; Basu, Srikanta

    2011-08-01

    Anemia is a common complication in malarial infection. Direct destruction and ineffective erythropoesis does not adequately explain the cause of anemia in malaria. We present a case with refractory megaloblastic anemia with asymptomatic falciparum malaria. We hypothesize that promoter variants in the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene might be the cause of severe refractory megaloblastic anemia and pancytopenia in our patient. Malaria should always be kept in mind as a cause of anemia especially in endemic areas even if the child is asymptomatic or there is no demonstrable parasite on routine smear examination.

  18. Reduced susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate in southern Myanmar.

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    Myat P Kyaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinins, the first line treatment for malaria worldwide, has been reported in western Cambodia. Resistance is characterized by significantly delayed clearance of parasites following artemisinin treatment. Artemisinin resistance has not previously been reported in Myanmar, which has the highest falciparum malaria burden among Southeast Asian countries. METHODS: A non-randomized, single-arm, open-label clinical trial of artesunate monotherapy (4 mg/kg daily for seven days was conducted in adults with acute blood-smear positive P. falciparum malaria in Kawthaung, southern Myanmar. Parasite density was measured every 12 hours until two consecutive negative smears were obtained. Participants were followed weekly at the study clinic for three additional weeks. Co-primary endpoints included parasite clearance time (the time required for complete clearance of initial parasitemia, parasite clearance half-life (the time required for parasitemia to decrease by 50% based on the linear portion of the parasite clearance slope, and detectable parasitemia 72 hours after commencement of artesunate treatment. Drug pharmacokinetics were measured to rule out delayed clearance due to suboptimal drug levels. RESULTS: The median (range parasite clearance half-life and time were 4.8 (2.1-9.7 and 60 (24-96 hours, respectively. The frequency distributions of parasite clearance half-life and time were bimodal, with very slow parasite clearance characteristic of the slowest-clearing Cambodian parasites (half-life longer than 6.2 hours in approximately 1/3 of infections. Fourteen of 52 participants (26.9% had a measurable parasitemia 72 hours after initiating artesunate treatment. Parasite clearance was not associated with drug pharmacokinetics. CONCLUSIONS: A subset of P. falciparum infections in southern Myanmar displayed markedly delayed clearance following artemisinin treatment, suggesting either emergence of

  19. Reduced Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to Artesunate in Southern Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaw, Myat P.; Nyunt, Myat H.; Chit, Khin; Aye, Moe M.; Aye, Kyin H.; Aye, Moe M.; Tarning, Joel; Imwong, Mallika; Jacob, Christopher G.; Rasmussen, Charlotte; Perin, Jamie; Ringwald, Pascal; Nyunt, Myaing M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinins, the first line treatment for malaria worldwide, has been reported in western Cambodia. Resistance is characterized by significantly delayed clearance of parasites following artemisinin treatment. Artemisinin resistance has not previously been reported in Myanmar, which has the highest falciparum malaria burden among Southeast Asian countries. Methods A non-randomized, single-arm, open-label clinical trial of artesunate monotherapy (4 mg/kg daily for seven days) was conducted in adults with acute blood-smear positive P. falciparum malaria in Kawthaung, southern Myanmar. Parasite density was measured every 12 hours until two consecutive negative smears were obtained. Participants were followed weekly at the study clinic for three additional weeks. Co-primary endpoints included parasite clearance time (the time required for complete clearance of initial parasitemia), parasite clearance half-life (the time required for parasitemia to decrease by 50% based on the linear portion of the parasite clearance slope), and detectable parasitemia 72 hours after commencement of artesunate treatment. Drug pharmacokinetics were measured to rule out delayed clearance due to suboptimal drug levels. Results The median (range) parasite clearance half-life and time were 4.8 (2.1–9.7) and 60 (24–96) hours, respectively. The frequency distributions of parasite clearance half-life and time were bimodal, with very slow parasite clearance characteristic of the slowest-clearing Cambodian parasites (half-life longer than 6.2 hours) in approximately 1/3 of infections. Fourteen of 52 participants (26.9%) had a measurable parasitemia 72 hours after initiating artesunate treatment. Parasite clearance was not associated with drug pharmacokinetics. Conclusions A subset of P. falciparum infections in southern Myanmar displayed markedly delayed clearance following artemisinin treatment, suggesting either emergence of artemisinin

  20. The histone demethylases JMJD1A and JMJD2B are transcriptional targets of hypoxia-inducible factor HIF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Sophie; Kristensen, Malene Maag; Jensen, Kim Steen;

    2008-01-01

    Posttranslational histone modifications serve to store epigenetic information and control both nucleosome assembly and recruitment of non-histone proteins. Histone methylation occurs on arginine and lysine residues and is involved in the regulation of gene transcription. A dynamic control...

  1. Curcumin-induced Histone Acetylation in Malignant Hematologic Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junbin HU; Yan WANG; Yan CHEN

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effects of curcumin on proliferation of hemato-logical malignant cells in vitro and the anti-tumor mechanism at histone acetylation/histone deacety-lation levels.The effects of curcumin and histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on the growth of Raji cells were tested by MTT assay.The expression of acetylated histone-3 (H3) in Raji,HL60 and K562 cells,and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated with curcumin or TSA was detected by immunohistochemistry and FACS.The results showed curcumin inhibited pro-liferation of Raji cells significantly in a time- and dose-dependent fashion,while exhibited low toxic-ity in PBMCs.Curcumin induced up-regulation of the expression of acetylated H3 dose-dependently in all malignant cell lines tested.In conclusion,curcumin inhibited proliferation of Raji cells selec-tively,enhanced the level of acetylated H3 in Raji,HL60,and K562 cells,which acted as a histone deacetylase inhibitor like TSA.Furthermore,up-regulation of H3 acetylation may play an important role in regulating the proliferation of Raji cells.

  2. The Functional Analysis of Histone Acetyltransferase MOF in Tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jiaming; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yong; Jin, Jingji

    2016-01-14

    Changes in chromatin structure and heritably regulating the gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone post-translational modification, are involved in most cellular biological processes. Thus, abnormal regulation of epigenetics is implicated in the occurrence of various diseases, including cancer. Human MOF (males absent on the first) is a member of the MYST (Moz-Ybf2/Sas3-Sas2-Tip60) family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs). As a catalytic subunit, MOF can form at least two distinct multiprotein complexes (MSL and NSL) in human cells. Both complexes can acetylate histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16); however, the NSL complex possesses broader substrate specificity and can also acetylate histone H4 at lysines 5 and 8 (H4K5 and H4K8), suggesting the complexity of the intracellular functions of MOF. Silencing of MOF in cells leads to genomic instability, inactivation of gene transcription, defective DNA damage repair and early embryonic lethality. Unbalanced MOF expression and its corresponding acetylation of H4K16 have been found in certain primary cancer tissues, including breast cancer, medulloblastoma, ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, gastric cancer, as well as non-small cell lung cancer. In this review, we provide a brief overview of MOF and its corresponding histone acetylation, introduce recent research findings that link MOF functions to tumorigenesis and speculate on the potential role that may be relevant to tumorigenic pathways.

  3. The Functional Analysis of Histone Acetyltransferase MOF in Tumorigenesis

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    Jiaming Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in chromatin structure and heritably regulating the gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone post-translational modification, are involved in most cellular biological processes. Thus, abnormal regulation of epigenetics is implicated in the occurrence of various diseases, including cancer. Human MOF (males absent on the first is a member of the MYST (Moz-Ybf2/Sas3-Sas2-Tip60 family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs. As a catalytic subunit, MOF can form at least two distinct multiprotein complexes (MSL and NSL in human cells. Both complexes can acetylate histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16; however, the NSL complex possesses broader substrate specificity and can also acetylate histone H4 at lysines 5 and 8 (H4K5 and H4K8, suggesting the complexity of the intracellular functions of MOF. Silencing of MOF in cells leads to genomic instability, inactivation of gene transcription, defective DNA damage repair and early embryonic lethality. Unbalanced MOF expression and its corresponding acetylation of H4K16 have been found in certain primary cancer tissues, including breast cancer, medulloblastoma, ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, gastric cancer, as well as non-small cell lung cancer. In this review, we provide a brief overview of MOF and its corresponding histone acetylation, introduce recent research findings that link MOF functions to tumorigenesis and speculate on the potential role that may be relevant to tumorigenic pathways.

  4. Chromatin dynamics: interplay between remodeling enzymes and histone modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swygert, Sarah G; Peterson, Craig L

    2014-08-01

    Chromatin dynamics play an essential role in regulating the accessibility of genomic DNA for a variety of nuclear processes, including gene transcription and DNA repair. The posttranslational modification of the core histones and the action of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes represent two primary mechanisms by which chromatin dynamics are controlled and linked to nuclear events. Although there are examples in which a histone modification or a remodeling enzyme may be sufficient to drive a chromatin transition, these mechanisms typically work in concert to integrate regulatory inputs, leading to a coordinated alteration in chromatin structure and function. Indeed, site-specific histone modifications can facilitate the recruitment of chromatin remodeling enzymes to particular genomic regions, or they can regulate the efficiency or the outcome of a chromatin remodeling reaction. Conversely, chromatin remodeling enzymes can also influence, and sometimes directly modulate, the modification state of histones. These functional interactions are generally complex, frequently transient, and often require the association of myriad additional factors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of Histone Acetylation by Autophagy in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Goonho; Tan, Jieqiong; Garcia, Guillermina; Kang, Yunyi; Salvesen, Guy; Zhang, Zhuohua

    2016-02-12

    Parkinson disease (PD) is the most common age-dependent neurodegenerative movement disorder. Accumulated evidence indicates both environmental and genetic factors play important roles in PD pathogenesis, but the potential interaction between environment and genetics in PD etiology remains largely elusive. Here, we report that PD-related neurotoxins induce both expression and acetylation of multiple sites of histones in cultured human cells and mouse midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Consistently, levels of histone acetylation are markedly higher in midbrain DA neurons of PD patients compared to those of their matched control individuals. Further analysis reveals that multiple histone deacetylases (HDACs) are concurrently decreased in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-treated cells and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated mouse brains, as well as midbrain tissues of human PD patients. Finally, inhibition of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) protects, whereas inhibition of HDAC1 and HDAC2 potentiates, MPP(+)-induced cell death. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy suppresses MPP(+)-induced HDACs degradation. The study reveals that PD environmental factors induce HDACs degradation and histone acetylation increase in DA neurons via autophagy and identifies an epigenetic mechanism in PD pathogenesis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Chemical origins of isoform selectivity in histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kyle V; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2008-01-01

    Histones undergo extensive posttranslational modifications that affect gene expression. Acetylation is a key histone modification that is primarily regulated by two enzymes, one of which is histone deacetylase (HDAC). The activity of HDAC causes transcriptional silencing of DNA. Eleven distinct zinc-dependent histone deacetylase isoforms have been identified in humans. Each isoform has a unique structure and function, and regulates a unique set of genes. HDAC is responsible for the regulation of many genes involved in cancer cell proliferation, and it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological conditions. HDAC inhibitors are known to be very effective anti-cancer agents, and research has shown them to be potential treatments for many other conditions. Histone deacetylase inhibitors modify the expression of many genes, and it is possible that inhibition of one isoform could cause epigenetic changes that are beneficial to treatment of a disease, while inhibition of another isoform could cause contradictory changes. Selective HDAC inhibitors will be better able to avoid these types of situations than non-specific inhibitors, and may also be less toxic than pan-HDAC inhibitors. Many potent pan-HDAC inhibitors have already been developed, leaving the development of selective inhibitors at the forefront of HDAC drug development. Certain structural moieties may be added to HDAC inhibitors to give isoform selectivity, and these will be discussed in this review. This review will focus on the applications of selective HDAC inhibitors, inhibitors reported to show selectivity, and the relationship between inhibitor structure and selectivity.

  7. Critical Role of Histone Turnover in Neuronal Transcription and Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maze, Ian; Wenderski, Wendy; Noh, Kyung-Min; Bagot, Rosemary C; Tzavaras, Nikos; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Elsässer, Simon J; Guo, Yin; Ionete, Carolina; Hurd, Yasmin L; Tamminga, Carol A; Halene, Tobias; Farrelly, Lorna; Soshnev, Alexey A; Wen, Duancheng; Rafii, Shahin; Birtwistle, Marc R; Akbarian, Schahram; Buchholz, Bruce A; Blitzer, Robert D; Nestler, Eric J; Yuan, Zuo-Fei; Garcia, Benjamin A; Shen, Li; Molina, Henrik; Allis, C David

    2015-07-01

    Turnover and exchange of nucleosomal histones and their variants, a process long believed to be static in post-replicative cells, remains largely unexplored in brain. Here, we describe a novel mechanistic role for HIRA (histone cell cycle regulator) and proteasomal degradation-associated histone dynamics in the regulation of activity-dependent transcription, synaptic connectivity, and behavior. We uncover a dramatic developmental profile of nucleosome occupancy across the lifespan of both rodents and humans, with the histone variant H3.3 accumulating to near-saturating levels throughout the neuronal genome by mid-adolescence. Despite such accumulation, H3.3-containing nucleosomes remain highly dynamic-in a modification-independent manner-to control neuronal- and glial-specific gene expression patterns throughout life. Manipulating H3.3 dynamics in both embryonic and adult neurons confirmed its essential role in neuronal plasticity and cognition. Our findings establish histone turnover as a critical and previously undocumented regulator of cell type-specific transcription and plasticity in mammalian brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The proteasome and epigenetics: zooming in on histone modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Svitlana V; Hegde, Ashok N

    2016-08-01

    The proteasome is a structural complex of many proteins that degrades substrates marked by covalent linkage to ubiquitin. Many years of research has shown a role for ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis in synaptic plasticity and memory mainly in degrading synaptic, cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins. Recent work indicates that the proteasome has wider proteolytic and non-proteolytic roles in processes such as histone modifications that affect synaptic plasticity and memory. In this review, we assess the evidence gathered from neuronal as well as non-neuronal cell types regarding the function of the proteasome in positive or negative regulation of posttranslational modifications of histones, such as acetylation, methylation and ubiquitination. We discuss the critical roles of the proteasome in clearing excess histone proteins in various cellular contexts and the possible non-proteolytic functions in regulating transcription of target genes. In addition, we summarize the current literature on diverse chromatin-remodeling machineries, such as histone acetyltransferases, deacetylates, methyltransferases and demethylases, as targets for proteasomal degradation across experimental models. Lastly, we provide a perspective on how proteasomal regulation of histone modifications may modulate synaptic plasticity in the nervous system.

  9. Single-nucleosome mapping of histone modifications in S. cerevisiae.

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    Chih Long Liu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Covalent modification of histone proteins plays a role in virtually every process on eukaryotic DNA, from transcription to DNA repair. Many different residues can be covalently modified, and it has been suggested that these modifications occur in a great number of independent, meaningful combinations. Published low-resolution microarray studies on the combinatorial complexity of histone modification patterns suffer from confounding effects caused by the averaging of modification levels over multiple nucleosomes. To overcome this problem, we used a high-resolution tiled microarray with single-nucleosome resolution to investigate the occurrence of combinations of 12 histone modifications on thousands of nucleosomes in actively growing S. cerevisiae. We found that histone modifications do not occur independently; there are roughly two groups of co-occurring modifications. One group of lysine acetylations shows a sharply defined domain of two hypo-acetylated nucleosomes, adjacent to the transcriptional start site, whose occurrence does not correlate with transcription levels. The other group consists of modifications occurring in gradients through the coding regions of genes in a pattern associated with transcription. We found no evidence for a deterministic code of many discrete states, but instead we saw blended, continuous patterns that distinguish nucleosomes at one location (e.g., promoter nucleosomes from those at another location (e.g., over the 3' ends of coding regions. These results are consistent with the idea of a simple, redundant histone code, in which multiple modifications share the same role.

  10. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: pharmacotherapeutic implications as epigenetic modifier

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    Pinki Vishwakarma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications such as acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins play a decisive role in transcriptional alteration and expression of genes. Acetylation is catalysed by the histone acetyl transferases enzymes and activates expression of genes by converting chromatin into a less compact, transcriptionally active state. Histone deacetylases enzymes catalyze deacetylation that condenses chromatin into a closed structure .Consequently transcriptional factors are unable to access DNA and gene expression is suppressed. Balanced activity of HATs and HDACS is essential for normal gene expression. Increased HDAC activity can lead to imbalance in protein acetylation resulting in hypoacetylation, tight chromatin structure and suppression of various genes. This aberrant suppression of genes is the hallmark of several malignant and other diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACIs have potential to restore the balance of histone acetylation that reverses the silencing of pathological genes. Thus HDACIs modify expression of genes without affecting sequence of DNA and act as epigenetic modifiers. Vorinostat and romidepsin are FDA approved HDACIs. Valproic acid, belinostat and many others are in different phases of clinical trials. This review article explores the target based epigenetic mechanisms as well as existing and potential therapeutic role of HDACIs in various malignant and non-malignant diseases. Data sources were articles published in medical journals and bibliographic database Medline. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 27-36

  11. Analysis of the Genes Encoding the Histones of Microsporidia Nosema bombycis

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    Liu Yang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Histone proteins are essential components of eukaryotic chromosomes, the objective of the study is to provide some new insights into its evolution through analysis of N. bombycis Histone genes at genomic level. In the study, genes encoding core Histone H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 from Nosema bombycis were analyzed by multiple sequence alignments. Analysis showed that: each type of the core Histone genes, sharing high similarity with each other in both coding and non-coding regions, has low copy number. Multiple sequence alignments showed N. bombycis core Histones diverge obviously, relative-rate test revealed Histone proteins have accelerated in the evolutionary rate of amino acid substitution. The distance between the stop codon and consensus poly (A signal is compacted, no conserved hair-pin element was found in 3'-untranslated regions of Histone mRNAs and overlapping gene transcription was observed in the downstream region of Histone variant H3_3, that implies there maybe have only single class of core Histone genes encoding replication-independent Histones in N. bombycis. Surveying the upstream of the coding region of all core Histone genes, there were no canonical TATA or CAAT boxes except that a common Histone motif (TTTCCCTCC was discovered. Moreover, no similar Histone motif mentioned above existed in Encephalitozoon cuniculi, the closely related organisms. That means that similar Histone motif maybe exists in microsporidian last common ancestor, N. bombycis retained Histone motif, while E. cuniculi have lost Histone motif after the differentiation from the common ancestor with the change of the host. Therefore the analysis of the genes encoding the Histones ofN. bombycis revealed that there maybe have two evolution directions in microsporidia, that is, genome extreme compact and mild compact, during the course of evolution. It contributes us to have the knowledge of that there have different genome size in microsporidia and provide useful

  12. Inter-α inhibitor protein and its associated glycosaminoglycans protect against histone-induced injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaban, Hala; Keshari, Ravi S.; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Popescu, Narcis I.; Mehta-D’Souza, Padmaja; Lim, Yow-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular histones are mediators of tissue injury and organ dysfunction; therefore they constitute potential therapeutic targets in sepsis, inflammation, and thrombosis. Histone cytotoxicity in vitro decreases in the presence of plasma. Here, we demonstrate that plasma inter-α inhibitor protein (IAIP) neutralizes the cytotoxic effects of histones and decreases histone-induced platelet aggregation. These effects are mediated through the negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) chondroitin sulfate and high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) associated with IAIP. Cell surface anionic glycosaminoglycans heparan sulfate and HA protect the cells against histone-mediated damage in vitro. Surface plasmon resonance showed that both IAIP and HMW-HA directly bind to recombinant histone H4. In vivo neutralization of histones with IAIP and HMW-HA prevented histone-induced thrombocytopenia, bleeding, and lung microvascular thrombosis, decreased neutrophil activation, and averted histone-induced production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. IAIP and HMW-HA colocalized with histones in necrotic tissues and areas that displayed neutrophil extracellular traps. Increasing amounts of IAIP-histone complexes detected in the plasma of septic baboons correlated with increase in histones and/or nucleosomes and consumption of plasma IAIP. Our data suggest that IAIP, chondroitin sulfate, and HMW-HA are potential therapeutic agents to protect against histone-induced cytotoxicity, coagulopathy, systemic inflammation, and organ damage during inflammatory conditions such as sepsis and trauma. PMID:25631771

  13. Liver changes in severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria: histopathology, apoptosis and nuclear factor kappa B expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Liver involvement in severe Plasmodium falciparum infection is commonly a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among humans. The clinical presentation of jaundice often reflects a certain degree of liver damage. This study investigated the liver pathology of severe P. falciparum malaria as well as the regulation and occurrence of apoptosis in cellular components of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissues. Methods The liver tissues used in the study came from patients who died from P. falciparum malaria with hyperbilirubinaemia (total bilirubin (TB) ≥ 51.3 μmol/L or 3 mg/dl) (12 cases), P. falciparum malaria without hyperbilirubinaemia (TB falciparum malaria were associated with higher TB level. Significant correlations were found between NF-κB p65 expression and apoptosis in Kupffer cells and lymphocytes in the portal tracts. Conclusions Hyperplastic Kupffer cells and portal tract inflammation are two main features found in the liver tissues of severe P. falciparum malaria cases. In addition, NF-κB is associated with Kupffer cells and lymphocyte apoptosis in severe P. falciparum malaria. PMID:24636003

  14. Competitive endothelial adhesion between Plasmodium falciparum isolates under physiological flow conditions

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    Molyneux Malcolm

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequestration of parasitized red blood cells in the microvasculature of major organs involves a sequence of events that is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of severe falciparum malaria. Plasmodium falciparum infections are commonly composed of multiple subpopulations of parasites with varied adhesive properties. A key question is: do these subpopulations compete for adhesion to endothelium? This study investigated whether, in a laboratory model of cytoadherence, there is competition in binding to endothelium between pRBC infected with P. falciparum of variant adhesive phenotypes, particularly under flow conditions. Methods Four different P. falciparum isolates, of known adherence phenotypes, were matched in pairs, mixed in different proportions and allowed to bind to cultured human endothelium. Using in vitro competitive static and flow-based adhesion assays, that allow simultaneous testing of the adhesive properties of two different parasite lines, adherence levels of paired P. falciparum isolates were quantified and analysed using either non-parametric Wilcoxon's paired signed rank test or Student paired test. Results Study findings show that P. falciparum parasite lines show marked differences in the efficiency of adhesion to endothelium. Conclusion Plasmodium falciparum variants will compete for adhesion to endothelia and variants can be ranked by their efficiency of binding. These findings suggest that variants from a mixed infection will not show uniform cytoadherence and so may vary in their ability to cause disease.

  15. Schistosoma haematobium and Plasmodium falciparum co-infection with protection against Plasmodium falciparum ma-laria in Nigerian children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nmorsi OPG; Isaac C; Ukwandu NCD; Ekundayo AO; Ekozien MI

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Malaria remains the single leading killer of children in sub -Sahara Africa and Schistosomiasis is considered to be second to malaria in global importance.Co -infection of malaria and urinary schistosomiasis has been reported to exacerbate disease morbidity such as anaemia.In different part of the globe,the co -in-fection between malaria and schistosomiasis provides some protections on the infected persons.The protective effect of this co -infection elucidated immunologically using cytokines is lacking in our locality.Methods:U-rine and blood samples obtained from the 160 volunteers were subjected to standard parasitological techniques for diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis and malaria respectively.Blood samples collected from these volunteers comprising 80 children with schistosomiasis and malaria and the 80 children who had malaria only were subjec-ted to cytokines concentration determination using commercial standard enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits (Abcam,UK).Results:Eighty participants with co -infection had a mean malarial parasitaemia of 662 ±201.1 μL while the 80 participants with only P.falciparum malaria had a mean malarial parasiteamia of 5943 ±3270.7μL.Also the volunteers had mean haemoglobin of 11.2 g/dL for co -infected individuals and 5.7 g/dL for participants with single infection of malaria.The serum cytokine levels of the children with S. haematobium and P.falciparum and only P.falciparum infection are as follows;interleukin -4 (16.6 pg/mL versus 5.2 pg/mL),IL -5 (501.3 pg/mL versus 357.5 pg/mL);IL -8 (2 550 pg/mL versus 309 pg/mL),IL -10 (273 pg/mL versus 290 pg/mL),TNF -α(25 pg/mL versus 290 pg/mL)and IFN -γ(21.9 pg/mL versus 2.5 pg/mL).The TNF -α/IL -10 ratio is 7 for the children with co -infection while those with only P.falciparum malaria infection had a TNF -α/IL -10 ratio of 0.9.Conclusion:We con-clude that the elevated IL -4,IL -5,IL -8 and IFN -γconcentration induced by schistosomiasis altered the Th1 /Th 2

  16. Hepatitis C Virus Infection May Lead to Slower Emergence of P. falciparum in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollomo, Benjamin; Mezui-Me-Ndong, Jérome; Noulin, Florian; Lachard, Isabelle; Ndong-Atome, Guy-Roger; Makuwa, Maria; Roques, Pierre; Branger, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Mazier, Dominique; Bisser, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Background Areas endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) overlap in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. HBV and HCV infections develop in the liver, where takes place the first development stage of P. falciparum before its further spread in blood. The complex mechanisms involved in the development of hepatitis may potentially influence the development of the liver stage of malaria parasites. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of these interactions could provide new pathophysiological insights for treatment strategies in Malaria. Methodology We studied a cohort of 319 individuals living in a village where the three infections are prevalent. The patients were initially given a curative antimalarial treatment and were then monitored for the emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood, fortnightly for one year, by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. Principal Findings At inclusion, 65 (20.4%) subjects had detectable malaria parasites in blood, 36 (11.3%) were HBV chronic carriers, and 61 (18.9%) were HCV chronic carriers. During follow-up, asexual P. falciparum forms were detected in the blood of 203 patients. The median time to P. falciparum emergence in blood was respectively 140 and 120 days in HBV- and HBV+ individuals, and 135 and 224 days in HCV- and HCV+ individuals. HCV carriage was associated with delayed emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood relative to patients without HCV infection. Conclusions This pilot study represents first tentative evidence of a potential epidemiological interaction between HBV, HCV and P. falciparum infections. Age is an important confounding factor in this setting however multivariate analysis points to an interaction between P. falciparum and HCV at the hepatic level with a slower emergence of P. falciparum in HCV chronic carriers. More in depth analysis are necessary to unravel the basis of hepatic interactions between these two pathogens, which could help in

  17. Hepatitis C virus infection may lead to slower emergence of P. falciparum in blood.

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    Odile Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areas endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV overlap in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. HBV and HCV infections develop in the liver, where takes place the first development stage of P. falciparum before its further spread in blood. The complex mechanisms involved in the development of hepatitis may potentially influence the development of the liver stage of malaria parasites. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of these interactions could provide new pathophysiological insights for treatment strategies in Malaria. METHODOLOGY: We studied a cohort of 319 individuals living in a village where the three infections are prevalent. The patients were initially given a curative antimalarial treatment and were then monitored for the emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood, fortnightly for one year, by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At inclusion, 65 (20.4% subjects had detectable malaria parasites in blood, 36 (11.3% were HBV chronic carriers, and 61 (18.9% were HCV chronic carriers. During follow-up, asexual P. falciparum forms were detected in the blood of 203 patients. The median time to P. falciparum emergence in blood was respectively 140 and 120 days in HBV- and HBV+ individuals, and 135 and 224 days in HCV- and HCV+ individuals. HCV carriage was associated with delayed emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood relative to patients without HCV infection. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study represents first tentative evidence of a potential epidemiological interaction between HBV, HCV and P. falciparum infections. Age is an important confounding factor in this setting however multivariate analysis points to an interaction between P. falciparum and HCV at the hepatic level with a slower emergence of P. falciparum in HCV chronic carriers. More in depth analysis are necessary to unravel the basis of hepatic interactions between these two pathogens

  18. Glycerol inhibits water permeation through Plasmodium falciparum aquaglyceroporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liao Y

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum aquaglyceroporin (PfAQP) is a multifunctional membrane protein in the plasma membrane of P. falciparum, the parasite that causes the most severe form of malaria. The current literature has established the science of PfAQP's structure, functions, and hydrogen-bonding interactions but left unanswered the following fundamental question: does glycerol modulate water permeation through aquaglyceroporin that conducts both glycerol and water? This paper provides an affirmative answer to this question of essential importance to the protein's functions. On the basis of the chemical-potential profile of glycerol from the extracellular bulk region, throughout PfAQP's conducting channel, to the cytoplasmic bulk region, this study shows the existence of a bound state of glycerol inside aquaglyceroporin's permeation pore, from which the dissociation constant is approximately 14μM. A glycerol molecule occupying the bound state occludes the conducting pore through which permeating molecules line up in single file by hydrogen-bonding with one another and with the luminal residues of aquaglyceroporin. In this way, glycerol inhibits permeation of water and other permeants through aquaglyceroporin. The biological implications of this theory are discussed and shown to agree with the existent in vitro data. It turns out that the structure of aquaglyceroporin is perfect for the van der Waals interactions between the protein and glycerol to cause the existence of the bound state deep inside the conducting pore and, thus to play an unexpected but significant role in aquaglyceroporin's functions.

  19. Molecular Aspects of Plasmodium falciparum Infection during Pregnancy

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    Nicaise Tuikue Ndam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoadherence of Plasmodium-falciparum-parasitized red blood cells (PRBCs to host receptors is the key phenomenon in the pathological process of the malaria disease. Some of these interactions can originate poor outcomes responsible for 1 to 3 million annual deaths mostly occurring among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM represents an important exception of the disease occurring at adulthood in malaria endemic settings. Consequences of this are shared between the mother (maternal anemia and the baby (low birth weight and infant mortality. Demonstrating that parasites causing PAM express specific variant surface antigens (VSAPAM, including the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 variant VAR2CSA, that are targets for protective immunity has strengthened the possibility for the development of PAM-specific vaccine. In this paper, we review the molecular basis of malaria pathogenesis attributable to the erythrocyte stages of the parasites, and findings supporting potential anti-PAM vaccine components evidenced in PAM.

  20. Serum enzymes activities in Plasmodium falciparum infection in Southern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koay Yen Chin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH,aspartate aminotranferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase(ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were assessed todetermine the liver functions of patients infected withPlasmodium falciparum. The enzyme activities were assessedin 60 malarial patients and a control group of 44 people.Materials and Methods: The data for the study was collectedfrom the survey conducted from Liaquat University of medicaland health sciences Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakaistan. Sample of60 patients aged between 20 and 50 years were collected. Acontrol group of 44 healthy individual adults was also assessedfor comparative purposes. All the malaria patients who visitedthe OPD during the study period enrolled in the study.Results: The LDH activity in male patients was found to be674.89 ± 33.354 IU/L. This is above the control LDH activity of296.59 ± 14.476 IU/L. Similarly, in female patients, the serumLDH activity of 580.25 ± 24.507 IU/L is over twice the controlfemale serum LDH activity of 302.18 ± 18.082 IU/L. Furtherone-way anova test was performed to find any significance ininfected and control male and female.Conclusion: Hepatic dysfunction was found to be associated toP. falciparum malaria infection.

  1. Targeting glycolysis in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, David D; Penkler, Gerald P; du Toit, Francois; Snoep, Jacky L

    2016-02-01

    Glycolysis is the main pathway for ATP production in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and essential for its survival. Following a sensitivity analysis of a detailed kinetic model for glycolysis in the parasite, the glucose transport reaction was identified as the step whose activity needed to be inhibited to the least extent to result in a 50% reduction in glycolytic flux. In a subsequent inhibitor titration with cytochalasin B, we confirmed the model analysis experimentally and measured a flux control coefficient of 0.3 for the glucose transporter. In addition to the glucose transporter, the glucokinase and phosphofructokinase had high flux control coefficients, while for the ATPase a small negative flux control coefficient was predicted. In a broader comparative analysis of glycolytic models, we identified a weakness in the P. falciparum pathway design with respect to stability towards perturbations in the ATP demand. The mathematical model described here has been submitted to the JWS Online Cellular Systems Modelling Database and can be accessed at http://jjj.bio.vu.nl/database/vanniekerk1. The SEEK-study including the experimental data set is available at DOI 10.15490/seek.1. 56 (http://dx.doi.org/10.15490/seek.1. 56). © 2015 FEBS.

  2. Atorvastatin prevents Plasmodium falciparum cytoadherence and endothelial damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubrier Florent

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum parasitized red blood cell (PRBC to human endothelial cells (EC induces inflammatory processes, coagulation cascades, oxidative stress and apoptosis. These pathological processes are suspected to be responsible for the blood-brain-barrier and other organs' endothelial dysfunctions observed in fatal cases of malaria. Atorvastatin, a drug that belongs to the lowering cholesterol molecule family of statins, has been shown to ameliorate endothelial functions and is widely used in patients with cardiovascular disorders. Methods The effect of this compound on PRBC induced endothelial impairments was assessed using endothelial co-culture models. Results Atorvastatin pre-treatment of EC was found to reduce the expression of adhesion molecules and P. falciparum cytoadherence, to protect cells against PRBC-induced apoptosis and to enhance endothelial monolayer integrity during co-incubation with parasites. Conclusions These results might suggest a potential interest use of atorvastatin as a protective treatment to interfere with the pathophysiological cascades leading to severe malaria.

  3. The Role of Histone Protein Modifications and Mutations in Histone Modifiers in Pediatric B-Cell Progenitor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczar, Szymon; Janczar, Karolina; Pastorczak, Agata; Harb, Hani; Paige, Adam J. W.; Zalewska-Szewczyk, Beata; Danilewicz, Marian; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    While cancer has been long recognized as a disease of the genome, the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in neoplasia was acknowledged more recently. The most active epigenetic marks are DNA methylation and histone protein modifications and they are involved in basic biological phenomena in every cell. Their role in tumorigenesis is stressed by recent unbiased large-scale studies providing evidence that several epigenetic modifiers are recurrently mutated or frequently dysregulated in multiple cancers. The interest in epigenetic marks is especially due to the fact that they are potentially reversible and thus druggable. In B-cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) there is a relative paucity of reports on the role of histone protein modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation) as compared to acute myeloid leukemia, T-cell ALL, or other hematologic cancers, and in this setting chromatin modifications are relatively less well studied and reviewed than DNA methylation. In this paper, we discuss the biomarker associations and evidence for a driver role of dysregulated global and loci-specific histone marks, as well as mutations in epigenetic modifiers in BCP-ALL. Examples of chromatin modifiers recurrently mutated/disrupted in BCP-ALL and associated with disease outcomes include MLL1, CREBBP, NSD2, and SETD2. Altered histone marks and histone modifiers and readers may play a particular role in disease chemoresistance and relapse. We also suggest that epigenetic regulation of B-cell differentiation may have parallel roles in leukemogenesis. PMID:28054944

  4. Sliding and peeling of histone during chromatin remodelling

    CERN Document Server

    Garai, Ashok; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2011-01-01

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes (CRE) are bio-molecular motors in eukaryotic cells. These are driven by a chemical fuel, namely, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). CREs actively participate in many cellular processes that require accessibility of specific stretches of DNA which are packaged as chromatin. The basic unit of chromatin is a nucleosome where 146 bp $\\sim$ 50 nm of a double stranded DNA (dsDNA) is wrapped around a spool formed by histone proteins. We investigate the mechanism of peeling of the histone spool, and its complete detachment, from the dsDNA by a CRE. Our two-state model of a CRE captures effectively two distinct chemical (or conformational) states in the mechano-chemical cycle of each ATP-dependent CRE. We calculate the mean times for histone detachment. Our predictions on the ATP-dependence of the measurable quantities can be tested by carrying out {\\it in-vitro} experiments.

  5. Histone deacetylase inhibition as an alternative strategy against invasive aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic eLamoth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a life-threatening infection due to Aspergillus fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. Drugs targeting the fungal cell membrane (triazoles, amphotericin B or cell wall (echinocandins are currently the sole therapeutic options against IA. Their limited efficacy and the emergence of resistance warrant the identification of new antifungal targets. Histone deacetylases (HDACs are enzymes responsible of the deacetylation of lysine residues of core histones, thus controlling chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation. HDACs also control the acetylation and activation status of multiple non-histone proteins, including the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90, an essential molecular chaperone for fungal virulence and antifungal resistance. This review provides an overview of the different HDACs in Aspergillus spp. as well as their respective contribution to total HDAC activity, fungal growth, stress responses, and virulence. The potential of HDAC inhibitors, currently under development for cancer therapy, as novel alternative antifungal agents against IA is discussed.

  6. Low Proteolytic Clipping of Histone H3 in Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Basilio, Jorge; Serafín-Higuera, Nicolás; Reyes-Hernandez, Octavio D.; Serafín-Higuera, Idanya; Leija-Montoya, Gabriela; Blanco-Morales, Magali; Sierra-Martínez, Monica; Ramos-Mondragon, Roberto; García, Silvia; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice; Yocupicio-Monroy, Martha; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin in cervical cancer (CC) undergoes chemical and structural changes that alter the expression pattern of genes. Recently, a potential mechanism, which regulates gene expression at transcriptional levels is the proteolytic clipping of histone H3. However, until now this process in CC has not been reported. Using HeLa cells as a model of CC and human samples from patients with CC, we identify that the H3 cleavage was lower in CC compared with control tissue. Additionally, the histone H3 clipping was performed by serine and aspartyl proteases in HeLa cells. These results suggest that histone H3 clipping operates as part of post-translational modification system in CC. PMID:27698925

  7. Histone modifications associated with cancer cell migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieda, Miki; Matsuura, Nariaki; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide aberrant histone modifications are present in a wide range of cancers, and they are associated with carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Aberrant histone modification patterns affect transcriptional regulation, chromosome stability, chromatin structure, chromatin remodeling, and DNA methylation; furthermore, these patterns can predict clinical outcome in many types of cancer. The main cause of poor clinical outcome is metastasis, which is strongly associated with tissue invasion at the primary tumor site. Invasion of cancer cells into surrounding tissue and the vasculature is an important initial step in tumor metastasis, and cell migration is a critical requirement for metastasis. Here, we describe the advantages of detecting global histone modifications by immunohistochemical analysis and provide a collection of protocols for assaying cell migration, invasion, and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion in vitro.

  8. Histone modification as a drug resistance driver in brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guifa Xi; Barbara Mania-Farnell; Ting Lei; Tadanori Tomita

    2016-01-01

    Patients with brain tumors, specificaly, malignant forms such as glioblastoma, meduloblas-toma and ependymoma, exhibit dismal survival rates despite advances in treatment strategies. Chemotherapeutics, the primary adjuvant treatment for human brain tumors folowing surgery, commonly lack eficacy due to either intrinsic or acquired drug resistance. New treatments tar-geting epigenetic factors are being explored. Post-translational histone modification provides a critical regulatory platform for processes such as chromosome condensation and segregation, apoptosis, gene transcription, and DNA replication and repair. This work reviews how aberrant histone modifications and alterations in histone-modifying enzymes can drive the acquisition of drug resistance in brain tumors. Elucidating these mechanisms should lead to new treatments for overcoming drug resistance.

  9. Involvement of Histone Modifications in Plant Abiotic Stress Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianyu Yuan; Xuncheng Liu; Ming Luo; Songguang Yang; Keqiang Wu

    2013-01-01

    As sessile organisms, plants encounter various environmental stimuli including abiotic stresses during their lifecycle. To survive under adverse conditions, plants have evolved intricate mechanisms to perceive external signals and respond accordingly. Responses to various stresses largely depend on the plant capacity to modulate the transcriptome rapidly and specifically. A number of studies have shown that the molecular mechanisms driving the responses of plants to environmental stresses often depend on nucleosome histone post-translational modifications including histone acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, and phosphorylation. The combined effects of these modifications play an essential role in the regulation of stress responsive gene expression. In this review, we highlight our current understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms of histone modifications and their roles in plant abiotic stress response.

  10. Polymorphism of Plasmodium Falciparum Dihydrofolate Reductase and Dihydropteroate Synthase Genes among Pregnant Women with Falciparum Malaria in Banjar District, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmawati Basuki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women are highly vulnerable to malaria infection in its endemic areas, particularly infection by Plasmodium falciparum that can cause premature, low birth weight, severe anemia in pregnant women, and death. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP for Intermittent Preventive Treatment for pregnant (IPTp is used for malaria control in pregnancy recommended by the World Health Organization that has already been implemented in Africa. The P. falciparum resistance to SP has been reported in several malarial endemic areas, and mutations in the genes of Plasmodium falciparum Dihydrofolate Reductase (Pfdhfr and Dihydropteroate Synthase (Pfdhps are shown to be associated with parasite resistance to SP treatment. Genetic analysis of Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes in pregnant women infected with P. falciparum has not yet been examined in Indonesia. The cross-sectional study was conducted at two subdistricts, Sungai Pinang and Peramasan, in Banjar district of South Kalimantan Province, where 127 pregnant women were recruited from 2008 to April 2010. Two important mutations in Pfdhfr gene (amino acid positions at N51 and S108 and three in Pfdhps gene (A437, K540 and A581 were analyzed by nested PCR-RFLP method. All of the seven pregnant women samples infected with P. falciparum presented PfDHFR 108N and PfDHPS 437G mutations. One of the samples had the additional mutation at PfDHPS 540, in which Lys is substituted by Glu. These results suggested that P. falciparum might present only some resistance to SP at Sungai Pinang and Peramasan subdistricts, Banjar District, South Kalimantan province, Indonesia. Although there were limited number of samples, this study showed only few mutations of Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes in P. falciparum at Banjar district, South Kalimantan Province, that suggests SP might be effective for IPTp in this area. Thus, further analysis of the other mutation sites in Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes and in vivo efficacy study of SP with more sufficient

  11. Induction of cell death on Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stages by Solanum nudum steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Mary Luz; Vommaro, Rossiane; Zalis, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    . The Mitochondria presented no morphological alterations and the nuclei showed no abnormal chromatin condensation. By the use of S. nudum compounds, cell death in P. falciparum was evident by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA fragmentation and cytoplasmic acidification. The asexual blood stages......-87 μM. However, their mode of action is unknown. Steroids regulate important cellular functions including cell growth, differentiation and death. Thus, the aim of this work was to determine the effects of S. nudum compounds on P. falciparum asexual blood stages and their association with cell death. We...... of P. falciparum showed some apoptotic-like and autophagic-like cell death characteristics induced by SNs treatment....

  12. The use of activated protein C in severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, L G; Austin, D L H

    2007-06-01

    A 56-year-old man presented to a peripheral hospital in New Zealand with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria with cerebral involvement and subsequently developed multi-system organ failure. Activated protein C was used in an attempt to stop the cascade of events into multi-organ failure. Severe infection with P. falciparum is life-threatening and appears to activate a hypercoagulable state similar to that of severe sepsis. Activated protein C is currently used in the treatment of severe sepsis and may provide a new adjuvant therapy for severe P. falciparum malaria.

  13. Structure of the catalytic domain of Plasmodium falciparum ARF GTPase-activating protein (ARFGAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, William J.; Senkovich, Olga; Chattopadhyay, Debasish (UAB)

    2012-03-26

    The crystal structure of the catalytic domain of the ADP ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein (ARFGAP) from Plasmodium falciparum has been determined and refined to 2.4 {angstrom} resolution. Multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) data were collected utilizing the Zn{sup 2+} ion bound at the zinc-finger domain and were used to solve the structure. The overall structure of the domain is similar to those of mammalian ARFGAPs. However, several amino-acid residues in the area where GAP interacts with ARF1 differ in P. falciparum ARFGAP. Moreover, a number of residues that form the dimer interface in the crystal structure are unique in P. falciparum ARFGAP.

  14. Fatal Plasmodium falciparum, Clostridium perfringens, and Candida spp. Coinfections in a Traveler to Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genrich, Gillian L.; Bhatnagar, Julu; Paddock, Christopher D.; Zaki, Sherif R.

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most common causes of febrile illness in travelers. Coinfections with bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens may not be suspected unless a patient fails to respond to malaria treatment. Using novel immunohistochemical and molecular techniques, Plasmodium falciparum, Clostridium perfringens, and Candida spp. coinfections were confirmed in a German traveler to Haiti. Plasmodium falciparum-induced ischemia may have increased this patient's susceptibility to C. perfringens and disseminated candidiasis leading to his death. When a patient presents with P. falciparum and shock and is unresponsive to malaria treatment, secondary infections should be suspected to initiate appropriate treatment. PMID:20339463

  15. [Is Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for tropical malaria, resistant to fansidar?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, B; Keller, H; Frossard, E; Stürchler, D

    1980-03-01

    A world-wide increase of malaria infections is observed. Malaria is imported into Switzerland mainly by tourists and recently by refugees from South East Asia. The strains of P. falciparum resistant to treatment are of increasing importance. A patient with P. falciparum infection from Cambodia is reported, who suffered from three episodes of malaria recrudescence within ten weeks, in spite of adequate therapy with quinine and Fansidar. The definition, the significance and the geographical distribution of resistances and the possible cause for a P. falciparum recrudescence are discussed. For the treatment of repeating recrudescence quinine and Fansidar are recommended, followed by a suppressive Fansidar prophylaxy for 4--8 weeks.

  16. Structural insight into histone recognition by the ING PHD fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Karen S; Kutateladze, Tatiana G

    2009-05-01

    The Inhibitor of Growth (ING) tumor suppressors are implicated in oncogenesis, control of DNA damage repair, cellular senescence and apoptosis. All members of the ING family contain unique amino-terminal regions and a carboxy-terminal plant homeodomain (PHD) finger. While the amino-terminal domains associate with a number of protein effectors including distinct components of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes, the PHD finger binds strongly and specifically to histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me3). In this review we describe the molecular mechanism of H3K4me3 recognition by the ING1-5 PHD fingers, analyze the determinants of the histone specificity and compare the biological activities and structures within subsets of PHD fingers. The atomic-resolution structures of the ING PHD fingers in complex with a H3K4me3 peptide reveal that the histone tail is bound in a large and deep binding site encompassing nearly one-third of the protein surface. An extensive network of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic and cation-pi contacts, and complementary surface interactions coordinate the first six residues of the H3K4me3 peptide. The trimethylated Lys4 occupies an elongated groove, formed by the highly conserved aromatic and hydrophobic residues of the PHD finger, whereas the adjacent groove accommodates Arg2. The two grooves are connected by a narrow channel, the small size of which defines the PHD finger's specificity, excluding interactions with other modified histone peptides. Binding of the ING PHD fingers to H3K4me3 plays a critical role in regulating chromatin acetylation. The ING proteins function as tethering molecules that physically link the HDAC and HAT enzymatic complexes to chromatin. In this review we also highlight progress recently made in understanding the molecular basis underlying biological and tumorigenic activities of the ING tumor suppressors.

  17. Substrate Specificity Profiling of Histone-Modifying Enzymes by Peptide Microarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornett, E.M.; Dickson, B.M.; Vaughan, R.M.; Krishnan, S.; Trievel, R.C.; Strahl, B.D.; Rothbart, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic addition and removal of covalent posttranslational modifications (PTMs) on histone proteins serves as a major mechanism regulating chromatin-templated biological processes in eukaryotic genomes. Histone PTMs and their combinations function by directly altering the physical structure of chromatin and as rheostats for effector protein interactions. In this chapter, we detail microarray-based methods for analyzing the substrate specificity of lysine methyltransferase and demethylase enzymes on immobilized synthetic histone peptides. Consistent with the “histone code” hypothesis, we reveal a strong influenceof adjacent and,surprisingly,distant histonePTMs onthe ability of histone-modifying enzymes to methylate or demethylate their substrates. This platform will greatly facilitate future investigations into histone substrate specificity and mechanisms of PTM signaling that regulate the catalytic properties of histone-modifying enzymes. PMID:27423856

  18. Histone acetylation in astrocytes suppresses GFAP and stimulates a reorganization of the intermediate filament network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanski, Regina; Sneeboer, Marjolein A M; van Bodegraven, Emma J; Sluijs, Jacqueline A; Kropff, Wietske; Vermunt, Marit W.; Creyghton, Menno P; De Filippis, Lidia; Vescovi, Angelo; Aronica, Eleonora; van Tijn, P.; van Strien, Miriam E; Hol, Elly M

    2014-01-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the main intermediate filament in astrocytes and is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms during development. We demonstrate that histone acetylation also controls GFAP expression in mature astrocytes. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) with trichostati

  19. Mechanisms of transcriptional repression by histone lysine methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hublitz, Philip; Albert, Mareike; Peters, Antoine H F M

    2009-01-01

    . In this report, we review the recent literature to deduce mechanisms underlying Polycomb and H3K9 methylation mediated repression, and describe the functional interplay with activating H3K4 methylation. We summarize recent data that indicate a close relationship between GC density of promoter sequences......, transcription factor binding and the antagonizing activities of distinct epigenetic regulators such as histone methyltransferases (HMTs) and histone demethylases (HDMs). Subsequently, we compare chromatin signatures associated with different types of transcriptional outcomes from stable repression to highly...... dynamic regulated genes, strongly suggesting that the interplay of different epigenetic pathways is essential in defining specific types of heritable chromatin and associated transcriptional states....

  20. Characterization of human papillomavirus type 16 pseudovirus containing histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kwag, Hye-Lim; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2016-08-27

    Pseudoviruses (PsVs) that encapsidate a reporter plasmid DNA have been used as surrogates for native human papillomavirus (HPV), whose continuous production is technically difficult. HPV PsVs have been designed to form capsids made up of the major capsid protein L1 and the minor capsid proteins L2. HPV PsVs have been produced in 293TT cells transfected with plasmid expressing L1 and L2 protein and plasmid containing the reporter gene. Several studies have suggested that naturally occurring HPV virions contain cellular histones, and histones have also been identified in mature HPV PsVs. However, the effect of the histones on the properties of the PsVs has not been investigated. Using heparin chromatography, we separated mature HPV type 16 PsVs into three fractions (I, II, and III) according to their heparin-binding affinities. The amounts of cellular histone and cellular nucleotides per PsV were found to increase in the order fraction I, II and III. It appeared that PsVs in fraction I contains just small amount of cellular histone in Western blot analysis. The proportions of the three fractions in PsV preparations were 83.4, 7.5, and 9.1 % for fraction I, II, and III PsVs, respectively. In the electron microscope PsVs in fraction I appeared to have a more condensed structure than those in fractions II and III. Under the electron microscope fraction II and III PsVs appeared to be covered by substantial amounts of cellular histone while there was no visible histone covering PsVs of fraction I. Also the levels of reporter gene expression in infections of fraction II and III PsVs to 293TT cells were significantly lower than those in infections of fraction I PsV, and fraction II and III particles had significantly reduced immunogenicity. Our findings suggest that the involvement of large amounts of cellular histones during PsV formation interferes with the structural integrity of the PsVs and affects their immunogenicity. The fraction I particle therefore has the most

  1. Recognition and classification of histones using support vector machine

    OpenAIRE

    Bhasin, Manoj; Reinherz, Ellis L.; Reche, Pedro A.

    2006-01-01

    Histones are DNA-binding proteins found in the chromatin of all eukaryotic cells. They are highly conserved and can be grouped into five major classes: H1/H5, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Two copies of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 bind to about 160 base pairs of DNA forming the core of the nucleosome (the repeating structure of chromatin) and H1/H5 bind to its DNA linker sequence. Overall, histones have a high arginine/lysine content that is optimal for interaction with DNA. This sequence bias can make the ...

  2. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: Synthesis of Tetrapeptide Analogue SAHA/TPX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Ekou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of HDAC (histone deacetylase activity by specific inhibitors induces growth arrest, differentiation and apoptosis of transformed or several cancer cells. Some of these inhibitors are in clinical trial at phase I or phase II. The discovery and development of specific HDAC inhibitors are helpful for cancer therapy. In this paper we describe the synthesis of simple inhibitor B hybrid analogue suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, trapoxin B (TPX B in as little as five steps. This compound is interesting lead for the design of potent inhibitors of histone deacetylase.

  3. Low Proteolytic Clipping of Histone H3 in Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoval-Basilio, Jorge; Serafín-Higuera, Nicolás; Reyes-Hernandez, Octavio D.; Serafín-Higuera, Idanya; Leija-Montoya, Gabriela; Blanco-Morales, Magali; Sierra-Martínez, Monica; Ramos-Mondragon, Roberto; García, Silvia; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice; Yocupicio-Monroy, Martha; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin in cervical cancer (CC) undergoes chemical and structural changes that alter the expression pattern of genes. Recently, a potential mechanism, which regulates gene expression at transcriptional levels is the proteolytic clipping of histone H3. However, until now this process in CC has not been reported. Using HeLa cells as a model of CC and human samples from patients with CC, we identify that the H3 cleavage was lower in CC compared with control tissue. Additionally, the histone H3...

  4. The role of histones in the immune responses of aquatic invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    C Nikapitiya; T Dorrington; Gómez-Chiarri, M.

    2013-01-01

    Histones are primary components of eukaryotic chromatin and highly abundant in all animal cells. In addition to their important role in chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation, histones contribute to innate immune responses. In several aquatic invertebrate species, as well as in many other invertebrate and vertebrate species, the transcripts for core histones are upregulated in response to immune challenge and exposure to environmental stressors. Histones show antimicrobial activit...

  5. Physarum polycephalum for Studying the Function of Histone Modifications In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menil-Philippot, Vanessa; Thiriet, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Histone modifications have been widely correlated with genetic activities. However, how these posttranslational modifications affect the dynamics and the structure of chromatin is poorly understood. Here, we describe the incorporation of the exogenous histone proteins into the slime mold Physarum polycephalum, which has been revealed to be a valuable tool for examining different facets of the function histones in chromatin dynamics like replication-coupled chromatin assembly, histone exchange, and nucleosome turnover.

  6. Histone deacetylase 1, 2, 6 and acetylated histone H4 in B- and T-cell lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquard, L.; Poulsen, C.B.; Gjerdrum, L.M.;

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are novel therapeutics in the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified (PTCL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), where, for unknown reasons, T-cell malignancies appear to be more sensitive than B-cell malignancies. The aim was to det......AIMS: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are novel therapeutics in the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified (PTCL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), where, for unknown reasons, T-cell malignancies appear to be more sensitive than B-cell malignancies. The aim...... was to determine HDAC expression in DLBCL and PTCL which has not previously been investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC6 and acetylated histone H4 was examined immunohistochemically in 31 DLBCL and 45 PTCL. All four markers showed high expression in both DLBCL and PTCL compared...

  7. Enhanced stability of histone octamers from plant nucleosomes: role of H2A and H2B histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehs, C P; Baxevanis, A D; Moudrianakis, E N; Spiker, S

    1992-11-10

    Gel filtration and sedimentation studies have previously established that the vertebrate animal core histone octamer is in equilibrium with an (H3-H4)2 tetramer and an H2A-H2B dimer [Eickbush, T. H., & Moudrianakis, E. N. (1978) Biochemistry 17, 4955-4964; Godfrey, J. E., Eickbush, T. H., & Moudrianakis, E. N. (1980) Biochemistry 19, 1339-1346]. We have investigated the core histone octamer of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and have found it to be much more stable than its vertebrate animal counterpart. When vertebrate animal histone octamers are subjected to gel filtration in 2 M NaCl, a trailing peak of H2A-H2B dimer can be clearly resolved from the main octamer peak. When the plant octamer is subjected to the identical procedure, there is no trailing peak of H2A-H2B dimer, but rather a single peak containing the octamer. A sampling across the octamer peak from leading to trailing edge shows no change in the ratio of H2A-H2B to (H3-H4)2. Surprisingly, the plant octamer shows the same stability at 0.6 M NaCl, a salt concentration in which the vertebrate animal octamer dissociates into dimers and tetramers. Equilibrium sedimentation data indicate that the assembly potential of the wheat histones in 2 M NaCl is very high at all protein concentrations above 0.1 mg mL-1. In order to disrupt the forces stabilizing the plant histone octamer at high histone concentrations, the concentration of NaCl must be lowered to approximately 0.3 M.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Quantitative analysis of histone modifications: formaldehyde is a source of pathological n(6)-formyllysine that is refractory to histone deacetylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrissi, Bahar; Taghizadeh, Koli; Dedon, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant protein modifications play an important role in the pathophysiology of many human diseases, in terms of both dysfunction of physiological modifications and the formation of pathological modifications by reaction of proteins with endogenous electrophiles. Recent studies have identified a chemical homolog of lysine acetylation, N(6)-formyllysine, as an abundant modification of histone and chromatin proteins, one possible source of which is the reaction of lysine with 3'-formylphosphate residues from DNA oxidation. Using a new liquid chromatography-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify all N(6)-methyl-, -acetyl- and -formyl-lysine modifications, we now report that endogenous formaldehyde is a major source of N(6)-formyllysine and that this adduct is widespread among cellular proteins in all compartments. N(6)-formyllysine was evenly distributed among different classes of histone proteins from human TK6 cells at 1-4 modifications per 10(4) lysines, which contrasted strongly with lysine acetylation and mono-, di-, and tri-methylation levels of 1.5-380, 5-870, 0-1400, and 0-390 per 10(4) lysines, respectively. While isotope labeling studies revealed that lysine demethylation is not a source of N(6)-formyllysine in histones, formaldehyde exposure was observed to cause a dose-dependent increase in N(6)-formyllysine, with use of [(13)C,(2)H2]-formaldehyde revealing unchanged levels of adducts derived from endogenous sources. Inhibitors of class I and class II histone deacetylases did not affect the levels of N(6)-formyllysine in TK6 cells, and the class III histone deacetylase, SIRT1, had minimal activity (removal by histone deacetylases, which supports the idea that this abundant protein modification could interfere with normal regulation of gene expression if it arises at conserved sites of physiological protein secondary modification.

  9. Quantitative analysis of histone modifications: formaldehyde is a source of pathological n(6-formyllysine that is refractory to histone deacetylases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Edrissi

    Full Text Available Aberrant protein modifications play an important role in the pathophysiology of many human diseases, in terms of both dysfunction of physiological modifications and the formation of pathological modifications by reaction of proteins with endogenous electrophiles. Recent studies have identified a chemical homolog of lysine acetylation, N(6-formyllysine, as an abundant modification of histone and chromatin proteins, one possible source of which is the reaction of lysine with 3'-formylphosphate residues from DNA oxidation. Using a new liquid chromatography-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify all N(6-methyl-, -acetyl- and -formyl-lysine modifications, we now report that endogenous formaldehyde is a major source of N(6-formyllysine and that this adduct is widespread among cellular proteins in all compartments. N(6-formyllysine was evenly distributed among different classes of histone proteins from human TK6 cells at 1-4 modifications per 10(4 lysines, which contrasted strongly with lysine acetylation and mono-, di-, and tri-methylation levels of 1.5-380, 5-870, 0-1400, and 0-390 per 10(4 lysines, respectively. While isotope labeling studies revealed that lysine demethylation is not a source of N(6-formyllysine in histones, formaldehyde exposure was observed to cause a dose-dependent increase in N(6-formyllysine, with use of [(13C,(2H2]-formaldehyde revealing unchanged levels of adducts derived from endogenous sources. Inhibitors of class I and class II histone deacetylases did not affect the levels of N(6-formyllysine in TK6 cells, and the class III histone deacetylase, SIRT1, had minimal activity (<10% with a peptide substrate containing the formyl adduct. These data suggest that N(6-formyllysine is refractory to removal by histone deacetylases, which supports the idea that this abundant protein modification could interfere with normal regulation of gene expression if it arises at conserved sites of physiological protein secondary

  10. Holocarboxylase synthetase interacts physically with euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase, linking histone biotinylation with methylation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Hassan, Yousef I; Moriyama, Hideaki; Zempleni, Janos

    2013-08-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) catalyzes the binding of the vitamin biotin to histones H3 and H4, thereby creating rare histone biotinylation marks in the epigenome. These marks co-localize with K9-methylated histone H3 (H3K9me), an abundant gene repression mark. The abundance of H3K9me marks in transcriptionally competent loci decreases when HCS is knocked down and when cells are depleted of biotin. Here we tested the hypothesis that the creation of H3K9me marks is at least partially explained by physical interactions between HCS and histone-lysine N-methyltransferases. Using a novel in silico protocol, we predicted that HCS-interacting proteins contain a GGGG(K/R)G(I/M)R motif. This motif, with minor variations, is present in the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EHMT1. Physical interactions between HCS and the N-terminal, ankyrin and SET domains in EHMT1 were confirmed using yeast-two-hybrid assays, limited proteolysis assays and co-immunoprecipitation. The interactions were stronger between HCS and the N-terminus in EHMT1 compared with the ankyrin and SET domains, consistent with the localization of the HCS-binding motif in the EHMT1 N-terminus. HCS has the catalytic activity to biotinylate K161 within the binding motif in EHMT1. Mutation of K161 weakened the physical interaction between EHMT1 and HCS, but it is unknown whether this effect was caused by loss of biotinylation or loss of the motif. Importantly, HCS knockdown decreased the abundance of H3K9me marks in repeats, suggesting that HCS plays a role in creating histone methylation marks in these loci. We conclude that physical interactions between HCS and EHMT1 mediate epigenomic synergies between biotinylation and methylation events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Autoantibodies against citrullinated histone H3 in rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Koen M. J.; de Smit, Menke J.; Withaar, Coenraad; Brouwer, Elisabeth; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.; Vissink, Arjan; Westra, Johanna

    Aim: To determine the presence of citrullinated histones in inflamed periodontal tissue and to determine the presence of anti-citrullinated histone autoantibodies in sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis (PD) patients. Methods: The presence of citrullinated histone H3,

  12. Histone H3 Lysine Methylation in Cognition and Intellectual Disability Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkel, Sven; Lopez-Atalaya, Jose P.; Barco, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Recent research indicates that epigenetic mechanisms and, in particular, the post-translational modification (PTM) of histones may contribute to memory encoding and storage. Among the dozens of possible histone PTMs, the methylation/demethylation of lysines in the N-terminal tail of histone H3 exhibits particularly strong links with cognitive…

  13. In vitro interactions of extracellular histones with LDL suggest a potential pro-atherogenic role.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D Pemberton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nuclear histones have previously been shown to aggregate LDL in vitro, suggestive of a possible pro-atherogenic role. Recent studies indicate that histones are released during acute inflammation, and therefore might interact with circulating lipoproteins in vivo. In view of the associative link between inflammation and cardiovascular disease, the behaviour of histones was investigated using in vitro models of LDL retention and foam cell formation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Heparin agarose beads were used as a model of a matrix rich in sulphated glycosaminoglycans, to which histones bind strongly. Histone-modified beads were observed to pull down more LDL from solution than untreated beads, indicating that histones can function as bridging molecules, enhancing LDL retention. Furthermore, addition of heparin inhibited histone-induced aggregation of LDL. To model foam cell formation, murine RAW 264.7 macrophages were incubated for 24 h in the presence of LDL, histones, LDL plus histones or vehicle control. Cells incubated with LDL in the presence of histones accumulated significantly more intracellular lipid than with LDL or histone alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are consistent with a potential pro-atherogenic role for extracellular histones, which should be investigated further.

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitors induced differentiation and accelerated mineralization of pulp-derived cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, Henry F

    2012-03-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) alter the homeostatic balance between 2 groups of cellular enzymes, histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs), increasing transcription and influencing cell behavior. This study investigated the potential of 2 HDACis, valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA), to promote reparative processes in pulp cells as assayed by viability, cell cycle, and mineralization analyses.

  15. Autoantibodies against citrullinated histone H3 in rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Koen M J; de Smit, Menke J; Withaar, Coenraad; Brouwer, Elisabeth; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; Vissink, Arjan; Westra, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To determine presence of citrullinated histones in inflamed periodontal tissue, and to determine presence of anti-citrullinated histone autoantibodies in sera from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis (PD)-patients . METHODS: Presence of citrullinated histone H3, PAD4 and CD68 was determ

  16. Histones link inflammation and thrombosis through the induction of Weibel-Palade body exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, A; Albánez, S; Mewburn, J; Nesbitt, K; Gould, T J; Liaw, P C; James, P D; Swystun, L L; Lillicrap, D

    2016-11-01

    Essentials Dysregulated DNA and histone release can promote pathological immunothrombosis. Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) are sentinel-like organelles that respond to proinflammatory stimuli. Histones induce WPB exocytosis in a caspase, calcium and charge-dependent mechanism. A targetable axis may exist between DNA/histones and WPBs in inflammation and immunothrombosis.

  17. Esperanto for histones: CENP-A, not CenH3, is the centromeric histone H3 variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, W C; Allshire, R C; Black, B E; Bloom, K; Brinkley, B R; Brown, W; Cheeseman, I M; Choo, K H A; Copenhaver, G P; Deluca, J G; Desai, A; Diekmann, S; Erhardt, S; Fitzgerald-Hayes, M; Foltz, D; Fukagawa, T; Gassmann, R; Gerlich, D W; Glover, D M; Gorbsky, G J; Harrison, S C; Heun, P; Hirota, T; Jansen, L E T; Karpen, G; Kops, G J P L; Lampson, M A; Lens, S M; Losada, A; Luger, K; Maiato, H; Maddox, P S; Margolis, R L; Masumoto, H; McAinsh, A D; Mellone, B G; Meraldi, P; Musacchio, A; Oegema, K; O'Neill, R J; Salmon, E D; Scott, K C; Straight, A F; Stukenberg, P T; Sullivan, B A; Sullivan, K F; Sunkel, C E; Swedlow, J R; Walczak, C E; Warburton, P E; Westermann, S; Willard, H F; Wordeman, L; Yanagida, M; Yen, T J; Yoda, K; Cleveland, D W

    2013-04-01

    The first centromeric protein identified in any species was CENP-A, a divergent member of the histone H3 family that was recognised by autoantibodies from patients with scleroderma-spectrum disease. It has recently been suggested to rename this protein CenH3. Here, we argue that the original name should be maintained both because it is the basis of a long established nomenclature for centromere proteins and because it avoids confusion due to the presence of canonical histone H3 at centromeres.

  18. Protein-based signatures of functional evolution in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Kate B; Sinha, Ipsita; Bustamante, Leyla Y; Day, Nicholas Pj; White, Nicholas J; Woodrow, Charles J

    2011-09-14

    It has been known for over a decade that Plasmodium falciparum proteins are enriched in non-globular domains of unknown function. The potential for these regions of protein sequence to undergo high levels of genetic drift provides a fundamental challenge to attempts to identify the molecular basis of adaptive change in malaria parasites. Evolutionary comparisons were undertaken using a set of forty P. falciparum metabolic enzyme genes, both within the hominid malaria clade (P. reichenowi) and across the genus (P. chabaudi). All genes contained coding elements highly conserved across the genus, but there were also a large number of regions of weakly or non-aligning coding sequence. These displayed remarkable levels of non-synonymous fixed differences within the hominid malaria clade indicating near complete release from purifying selection (dN/dS ratio at residues non-aligning across genus: 0.64, dN/dS ratio at residues identical across genus: 0.03). Regions of low conservation also possessed high levels of hydrophilicity, a marker of non-globularity. The propensity for such regions to act as potent sources of non-synonymous genetic drift within extant P. falciparum isolates was confirmed at chromosomal regions containing genes known to mediate drug resistance in field isolates, where 150 of 153 amino acid variants were located in poorly conserved regions. In contrast, all 22 amino acid variants associated with drug resistance were restricted to highly conserved regions. Additional mutations associated with laboratory-selected drug resistance, such as those in PfATPase4 selected by spiroindolone, were similarly restricted while mutations in another calcium ATPase (PfSERCA, a gene proposed to mediate artemisinin resistance) that reach significant frequencies in field isolates were located exclusively in poorly conserved regions consistent with genetic drift. Coding sequences of malaria parasites contain prospectively definable domains subject to neutral or nearly

  19. Protein-based signatures of functional evolution in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Nicholas PJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been known for over a decade that Plasmodium falciparum proteins are enriched in non-globular domains of unknown function. The potential for these regions of protein sequence to undergo high levels of genetic drift provides a fundamental challenge to attempts to identify the molecular basis of adaptive change in malaria parasites. Results Evolutionary comparisons were undertaken using a set of forty P. falciparum metabolic enzyme genes, both within the hominid malaria clade (P. reichenowi and across the genus (P. chabaudi. All genes contained coding elements highly conserved across the genus, but there were also a large number of regions of weakly or non-aligning coding sequence. These displayed remarkable levels of non-synonymous fixed differences within the hominid malaria clade indicating near complete release from purifying selection (dN/dS ratio at residues non-aligning across genus: 0.64, dN/dS ratio at residues identical across genus: 0.03. Regions of low conservation also possessed high levels of hydrophilicity, a marker of non-globularity. The propensity for such regions to act as potent sources of non-synonymous genetic drift within extant P. falciparum isolates was confirmed at chromosomal regions containing genes known to mediate drug resistance in field isolates, where 150 of 153 amino acid variants were located in poorly conserved regions. In contrast, all 22 amino acid variants associated with drug resistance were restricted to highly conserved regions. Additional mutations associated with laboratory-selected drug resistance, such as those in PfATPase4 selected by spiroindolone, were similarly restricted while mutations in another calcium ATPase (PfSERCA, a gene proposed to mediate artemisinin resistance that reach significant frequencies in field isolates were located exclusively in poorly conserved regions consistent with genetic drift. Conclusion Coding sequences of malaria parasites contain

  20. Exitoso cultivo in vitro de gametocitos de Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blair

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los estadios sexuales de Plasmodium falciparum han sido menos estudiados que los estadios asexuales. Al parecer, esto se debe a la carencia de cultivos estandarizados in vitro y a la dificultad de reconocer sus estadios de desarrollo. Estos hechos no permiten el estudio de aspectos biológicos, aspectos metabólicos, expresión de genes y síntesis de proteínas durante los estadios sexuales, temas de interés en la investigación de nuevos medicamentos antipalúdicos, principalmente los aislados de plantas, y la identificación de un potencial blanco contra Plasmodium. Objetivos. Establecer un cultivo in vitro de gametocitos, con la identificación de sus cinco estadios de desarrollo, y asegurar su continua producción. Materiales y métodos. El cultivo in vitro de gametocitos se realizó a partir de la cepa NF54 de P. falciparum en medio RPMI, con determinación de la parasitemia asexual y sexual, adición de glóbulos rojos A-Rh+ sólo el primer día de cultivo y cambio diario del medio con adición de mezcla de gases (90% N2, 5% O2; 5% CO2, asegurándose que el cultivo se mantuviera a 37 °C. Cuando la parasitemia asexual estuvo entre 3% y 5%, se comenzó a agregar el doble de volumen de medio. Resultados. Se obtuvieron gametocitos en estadios I, II y III a partir del día 11 de cultivo y estadios IV y V a partir del día 14 de cultivo. Conclusiones. Se estandarizó un cultivo in vitro para estadios sexuales de P. falciparum que puede usarse para futuros estudios de evaluación de compuestos, naturales o sintéticos, que actúen sobre los gametocitos, lo cual podría permitir el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias de control contra el paludismo.

  1. Protease-associated cellular networks in malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilburn Timothy G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria continues to be one of the most severe global infectious diseases, responsible for 1-2 million deaths yearly. The rapid evolution and spread of drug resistance in parasites has led to an urgent need for the development of novel antimalarial targets. Proteases are a group of enzymes that play essential roles in parasite growth and invasion. The possibility of designing specific inhibitors for proteases makes them promising drug targets. Previously, combining a comparative genomics approach and a machine learning approach, we identified the complement of proteases (degradome in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and its sibling species 123, providing a catalog of targets for functional characterization and rational inhibitor design. Network analysis represents another route to revealing the role of proteins in the biology of parasites and we use this approach here to expand our understanding of the systems involving the proteases of P. falciparum. Results We investigated the roles of proteases in the parasite life cycle by constructing a network using protein-protein association data from the STRING database 4, and analyzing these data, in conjunction with the data from protein-protein interaction assays using the yeast 2-hybrid (Y2H system 5, blood stage microarray experiments 678, proteomics 9101112, literature text mining, and sequence homology analysis. Seventy-seven (77 out of 124 predicted proteases were associated with at least one other protein, constituting 2,431 protein-protein interactions (PPIs. These proteases appear to play diverse roles in metabolism, cell cycle regulation, invasion and infection. Their degrees of connectivity (i.e., connections to other proteins, range from one to 143. The largest protease-associated sub-network is the ubiquitin-proteasome system which is crucial for protein recycling and stress response. Proteases are also implicated in heat shock response, signal peptide

  2. The remarkable journey of adaptation of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite to New World anopheline mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2014-08-01

    Plasmodium falciparum originated in Africa, dispersed around the world as a result of human migration and had to adapt to several different indigenous anopheline mosquitoes. Anophelines from the New World are evolutionary distant form African ones and this probably resulted in a more stringent selection of Plasmodium as it adapted to these vectors. It is thought that Plasmodium has been genetically selected by some anopheline species through unknown mechanisms. The mosquito immune system can greatly limit infection and P. falciparum evolved a strategy to evade these responses, at least in part mediated by Pfs47, a highly polymorphic gene. We propose that adaptation of P. falciparum to new vectors may require evasion of their immune system. Parasites with a Pfs47 haplotype compatible with the indigenous mosquito vector would be able to survive and be transmitted. The mosquito antiplasmodial response could be an important determinant of P. falciparum population structure and could affect malaria transmission in the Americas.

  3. The remarkable journey of adaptation of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite to New World anopheline mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Molina-Cruz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum originated in Africa, dispersed around the world as a result of human migration and had to adapt to several different indigenous anopheline mosquitoes. Anophelines from the New World are evolutionary distant form African ones and this probably resulted in a more stringent selection of Plasmodium as it adapted to these vectors. It is thought that Plasmodium has been genetically selected by some anopheline species through unknown mechanisms. The mosquito immune system can greatly limit infection and P. falciparum evolved a strategy to evade these responses, at least in part mediated by Pfs47, a highly polymorphic gene. We propose that adaptation of P. falciparum to new vectors may require evasion of their immune system. Parasites with a Pfs47 haplotype compatible with the indigenous mosquito vector would be able to survive and be transmitted. The mosquito antiplasmodial response could be an important determinant of P. falciparum population structure and could affect malaria transmission in the Americas.

  4. [Stain hybridization method with pRepHind probe for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleón Borodowsky, I

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted on the parasitemia detection level and the specificity of the pRepHind DNA probe for diagnosing Plasmodium falciparum by the stain hybridization method. The parasitemia detection level was studied by using dilutions of a P. falciparum in vitro culture, adjusted by direct microscopic examination to 1; 0.1; 0.01; 0.001; 0.0001 and 0.00001% of parasited red cells. Specificity was increased by using DNA extractions from P. Yoelii, P. berghei and human leucocytes. The results showed that the method was able to detect 0.0001% of parasitemia starting from DNA extractions of 100 L infected red cells. The pRepHind probe only detected specifically DNA from P. falciparum. It is concluded that the method is suitable for being used in the diagnosis of infection due to P. falciparum.

  5. Binding of Plasmodium falciparum to CD36 can be shielded by the glycocalyx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Wang, Christian William; Kurtzhals, Jorgen Anders Lindholm

    2017-01-01

    Background: Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes sequester in the microcirculation due to interaction between surface-expressed parasite proteins and endothelial receptors. Endothelial cells are covered in a carbohydrate-rich glycocalyx that shields against undesired leukocyte adhesion...

  6. Loading of erythrocyte membrane with pentacyclic triterpenes inhibits Plasmodium falciparum invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Hanne L; Staalsø, Trine; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

    2006-01-01

    Lupeol and betulinic acid inhibit the proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum parasites by inhibition of the invasion of merozoites into erythrocytes. This conclusion is based on experiments employing parasite cultures synchronized by magnetic cell sorting (MACS). Identical inhibitory effects were...

  7. Longevity and composition of cellular immune responses following experimental Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teirlinck, A.C.; McCall, M.B.B.; Roestenberg, M.; Scholzen, A.; Woestenenk, R.M.; Mast, Q. de; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Hermsen, C.C.; Luty, A.J.F.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular responses to Plasmodium falciparum parasites, in particular interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) production, play an important role in anti-malarial immunity. However, clinical immunity to malaria develops slowly amongst naturally exposed populations, the dynamics of cellular responses in relation

  8. Drug resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Mlimba, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbugi, E.V.; Mutayoba, B.M.; Malisa, A.L.; Balthazary, S.T.; Nyambo, T.B.; Mshinda, H.

    2006-01-01

    Background - Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has been and is currently used for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in many African countries. Nevertheless, the response of parasites to SP treatment has shown significant variation between individuals. Methods - The genes for

  9. Transcriptomic evidence for modulation of host inflammatory responses during febrile Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, T.M.; Jones, M.B.; Ongoiba, A.; Bijker, E.M.; Schats, R.; Venepally, P.; Skinner, J.; Doumbo, S.; Quinten, E.; Visser, L.G.; Whalen, E.; Presnell, S.; O'Connell, E.M.; Kayentao, K.; Doumbo, O.K.; Chaussabel, D.; Lorenzi, H.; Nutman, T.B.; Ottenhoff, T.H.; Haks, M.C.; Traore, B.; Kirkness, E.F.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Crompton, P.D.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying molecular predictors and mechanisms of malaria disease is important for understanding how Plasmodium falciparum malaria is controlled. Transcriptomic studies in humans have so far been limited to retrospective analysis of blood samples from clinical cases. In this prospective,

  10. Reducing Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in Africa: a model-based evaluation of intervention strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griffin, Jamie T; Hollingsworth, T Deirdre; Okell, Lucy C; Churcher, Thomas S; White, Michael; Hinsley, Wes; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Chris J; Ferguson, Neil M; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Ghani, Azra C

    2010-01-01

    .... We developed an individual-based simulation model for Plasmodium falciparum transmission in an African context incorporating the three major vector species (Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis, and An. funestus...

  11. Plasma concentration of parasite DNA as a measure of disease severity in falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imwong, M.; Woodrow, C.; Hendriksen, I.C.E.; Veenemans, J.; Verhoef, J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    In endemic areas malaria parasitemia is common in apparently healthy children and severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in patients with incidental parasitemia. We assessed the performance of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentration measurement in distinguishing uncomplicated from severe malaria in

  12. Targeting a Novel Plasmodium falciparum Purine Recycling Pathway with Specific Immucillins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, L; Shi, W; Lewandowicz, A; Singh, V; Mwakingwe, A; Birck, M R; Taylor Ringia, E A; Bench, G; Madrid, D C; Tyler, P C; Evans, G B; Furneaux, R H; Schramm, V L; Kim, K

    2004-05-19

    Plasmodium falciparum is unable to synthesize purine bases and relies upon purine salvage and purine recycling to meet its purine needs. We report that purines formed as products of the polyamine pathway are recycled in a novel pathway in which 5'-methylthioinosine is generated by adenosine deaminase. The action of P. falciparum purine nucleoside phosphorylase is a convergent step of purine salvage, converting both 5'-methylthioinosine and inosine to hypoxanthine. We used accelerator mass spectrometry to verify that 5'-methylthioinosine is an active nucleic acid precursor in P. falciparum. Prior studies have shown that inhibitors of purine salvage enzymes kill malaria, but potent malaria-specific inhibitors of these enzymes have not previously been described. 5'-methylthio-Immucillin-H, a transition state analogue inhibitor that is selective for malarial over human purine nucleoside phosphorylase, kills P. falciparum in culture. Immucillins are currently in clinical trials for other indications and may have application as antimalarials.

  13. Genetic ablation of a Maurer's cleft protein prevents assembly of the Plasmodium falciparum virulence complex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dixon, Matthew W. A; Kenny, Shannon; McMillan, Paul J; Hanssen, Eric; Trenholme, Katharine R; Gardiner, Donald L; Tilley, Leann

    2011-01-01

    .... falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein‐1 (PfEMP1). Membranous structures called Maurer's clefts are established in the erythrocyte cytoplasm and function as sorting compartments for proteins en route to the RBC membrane, including the knob...

  14. Functional characterization of a SUMO deconjugating protease of Plasmodium falciparum using newly identified small molecule inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Elizabeth L; Albrow, Victoria E; Leader, Brittany A; Békés, Miklós; Mikolajczyk, Jowita; Fonović, Urša Pečar; Shen, Aimee; Drag, Marcin; Xiao, Junpeng; Deu, Edgar; Campbell, Amy J; Powers, James C; Salvesen, Guy S; Bogyo, Matthew

    2011-06-24

    Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is implicated in the regulation of numerous biological processes including transcription, protein localization, and cell cycle control. Protein modification by SUMO is found in Plasmodium falciparum; however, its role in the regulation of the parasite life cycle is poorly understood. Here we describe functional studies of a SUMO-specific protease (SENP) of P. falciparum, PfSENP1 (PFL1635w). Expression of the catalytic domain of PfSENP1 and biochemical profiling using a positional scanning substrate library demonstrated that this protease has unique cleavage sequence preference relative to the human SENPs. In addition, we describe a class of small molecule inhibitors of this protease. The most potent lead compound inhibited both recombinant PfSENP1 activity and P. falciparum replication in infected human blood. These studies provide valuable new tools for the study of SUMOylation in P. falciparum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasmodium falciparum population dynamics in a cohort of pregnant women in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guitard, Juliette; Andersen, Pernille; Ermont, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women acquire protective antibodies that cross-react with geographically diverse placental Plasmodium falciparum isolates, suggesting that surface molecules expressed on infected erythrocytes by pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) parasites have conserved epitopes and, that de...

  16. Short report: polymorphisms in the chloroquine resistance transporter gene in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Lombok, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Yoshinaga, Kazumi; Suryanatha, Aan; Suarsana, Nyoman; Kanbara, Hiroji

    2004-07-01

    The polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) and P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) genes, which are associated with chloroquine resistance, were examined in 48 P. falciparum isolates from uncomplicated malaria patients from the West Lombok District in Indonesia. The point mutation N86Y in pfmdr1 was present in 35.4% of the isolates and mutation K76T in pfcrt was found in all but one of the samples studied. Identified pfcrt haplotypes were mainly identical to the Papua New Guinea type S(agt)VMNT (42 of 48, 87.5%), and a few isolates had the Southeast Asia type CVIET (5 of 48, 10.4%). Moreover, one P. falciparum isolate harbored the K76N mutation, giving rise to the haplotype CVMNN, which was not previously reported in field isolates. Our findings suggest that chloroquine resistance in this area might have the same origin as in Papua New Guinea.

  17. Distribution of two species of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, on Lombok Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Yoshiro; Dachlan, Yoes Prijatna; Soedarto; Hidajati, Sri; Yotopranoto, Subagyo; Kusmartisnawati; Subekti, Sri; Ideham, Bariah; Tsuda, Yoshio; Kawabata, Masato; Takagi, Masahiro; Looareesuwan, Somchai

    2003-09-01

    Medical and entomological surveys were conducted to determine the risk factors of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections on Lombok Island, Indonesia, to find the risk factors and the main mosquito vectors for each malaria. Multivariate longitudinal analysis demonstrated two significant risk factors for infection with P. falciparum: disappearance of P. vivax parasitemia (p<0.001) and a specific study site (p<0.001). In contrast, younger age (p=0.024) and the interpolated virtual density of An. subpictus (p=0.041) were significantly associated with increased risk of infection with P. vivax. Thus, it seems that the distribution of P. vivax was determined largely by the presence of An. subpictus, whilst that of P. falciparum was influenced by antagonism with P. vivax. This result shows the importance of following-up treated P. vivax patients to identify recrudescence of P. falciparum in this area.

  18. The C terminus of the histone chaperone Asf1 cross-links to histone H3 in yeast and promotes interaction with histones H3 and H4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehey, Briana K; Noone, Seth; Liu, Wallace H; Smith, Luke; Churchill, Mair E A; Tyler, Jessica K

    2013-02-01

    The central histone H3/H4 chaperone Asf1 comprises a highly conserved globular core and a divergent C-terminal tail. While the function and structure of the Asf1 core are well known, the function of the tail is less well understood. Here, we have explored the role of the yeast (yAsf1) and human (hAsf1a and hAsf1b) Asf1 tails in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show, using a photoreactive, unnatural amino acid, that Asf1 tail residue 210 cross-links to histone H3 in vivo and, further, that loss of C-terminal tail residues 211 to 279 weakens yAsf1-histone binding affinity in vitro nearly 200-fold. Via several yAsf1 C-terminal truncations and yeast-human chimeric proteins, we found that truncations at residue 210 increase transcriptional silencing and that the hAsf1a tail partially substitutes for full-length yAsf1 with respect to silencing but that full-length hAsf1b is a better overall substitute for full-length yAsf1. In addition, we show that the C-terminal tail of Asf1 is phosphorylated at T270 in yeast. Loss of this phosphorylation site does not prevent coimmunoprecipitation of yAsf1 and Rad53 from yeast extracts, whereas amino acid residue substitutions at the Asf1-histone H3/H4 interface do. Finally, we show that residue substitutions in yAsf1 near the CAF-1/HIRA interface also influence yAsf1's function in silencing.

  19. Cytoadhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes and the infected placenta: a two-way pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, F.T.M.; Avril, M.; Nogueira,P.A.; Gysin, J

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is undoubtedly the world's most devastating parasitic disease, affecting 300 to 500 million people every year. Some cases of Plasmodium falciparum infection progress to the deadly forms of the disease responsible for 1 to 3 million deaths annually. P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes adhere to host receptors in the deep microvasculature of several organs. The cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes to placental syncytiotrophoblast receptors leads to pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). T...

  20. Cytoadhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes and the infected placenta: a two-way pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,F.T.M.; Avril, M.; Nogueira, P. A; Gysin, J.

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is undoubtedly the world's most devastating parasitic disease, affecting 300 to 500 million people every year. Some cases of Plasmodium falciparum infection progress to the deadly forms of the disease responsible for 1 to 3 million deaths annually. P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes adhere to host receptors in the deep microvasculature of several organs. The cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes to placental syncytiotrophoblast receptors leads to pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). T...

  1. Site-Specific Editing of the Plasmodium falciparum Genome Using Engineered Zinc-Finger Nucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Straimer, Judith; Lee, Marcus CS; Lee, Andrew H.; Zeitler, Bryan; Williams, April E.; Pearl, Jocelynn R.; Zhang, Lei; Rebar, Edward J.; Gregory, Philip D.; Llinás, Manuel; Urnov, Fyodor D; David A Fidock

    2012-01-01

    Malaria afflicts over 200 million people worldwide and its most lethal etiologic agent, Plasmodium falciparum, is evolving to resist even the latest-generation therapeutics. Efficient tools for genome-directed investigations of P. falciparum pathogenesis, including drug resistance mechanisms, are clearly required. Here we report rapid and targeted genetic engineering of this parasite, using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) that produce a double-strand break in a user-defined locus and trigger hom...

  2. Complement binding to erythrocytes is associated with macrophage activation and reduced haemoglobin in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goka, B Q; Kwarko, H; Kurtzhals, J A

    2001-01-01

    We have examined IgG and complement factor C3d deposition on erythrocytes by means of the direct Coombs' test (DAT) and looked for an association with the anaemia seen in falciparum malaria in children living in an area of hyperendemic malaria transmission (in Ghana). In one study (in 1997), 53 out....... The studies support the role of complement activation and erythrophagocytosis in the pathogenesis of anaemia in falciparum malaria in African children....

  3. Geographical and temporal conservation of antibody recognition of Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten A; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Lusingu, John

    2004-01-01

    The slow acquisition of protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria probably reflects the extensive diversity of important antigens. The variant surface antigens (VSA) that mediate parasite adhesion to a range of host molecules are regarded as important targets of acquired protective immunity......, is geographically and temporally conserved raises hopes for the feasibility of developing VSA-based vaccines specifically designed to accelerate naturally acquired immunity, thereby enhancing protection against severe and life-threatening P. falciparum malaria....

  4. Tracking Origins and Spread of Sulfadoxine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum dhps Alleles in Thailand▿

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Md Tauqeer; Vinayak, Sumiti; Congpuong, Kanungnit; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Satimai, Wichai; Slutsker, Laurence; Escalante, Ananias A.; Barnwell, John W.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2010-01-01

    The emergence and spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum have been a major impediment for the control of malaria worldwide. Earlier studies have shown that similar to chloroquine (CQ) resistance, high levels of pyrimethamine resistance in P. falciparum originated independently 4 to 5 times globally, including one origin at the Thailand-Cambodia border. In this study we describe the origins and spread of sulfadoxine-resistance-conferring dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) alleles in Thail...

  5. Case report of Plasmodium falciparum malaria presenting as wide complex tachycardia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Kumar; Diwan SK; Mahajan SN; Shilpa Bawankule; Chetan Mahure

    2011-01-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a multisystem disorder and may have diversity of clinical presentations. We are presenting a case report of patients of falciparum malaria who presented to us with palpitation and fever. On electrocardiogram he had wide complex tachycardia. This case reiterates the need to think of malaria in any case with symptoms of fever with chills, even with various unusual presentations like palpitation due to wide complex tachycardia, especially in endemic country like India.

  6. A Replicating Adenovirus Capsid Display Recombinant Elicits Antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites in Aotus nancymaae Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Karen, Kasey A.; Deal, Cailin; Adams, Robert J; Nielsen, Carolyn; Ward, Cameron; Espinosa, Diego A.; Xie, Jane; Zavala,Fidel; Ketner, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Decades of success with live adenovirus vaccines suggest that replication-competent recombinant adenoviruses (rAds) could serve as effective vectors for immunization against other pathogens. To explore the potential of a live rAd vaccine against malaria, we prepared a viable adenovirus 5 (Ad5) recombinant that displays a B-cell epitope from the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum on the virion surface. The recombinant induced P. falciparum sporozoite-neutralizing antibodie...

  7. Implication of a Plasmodium falciparum gene in the switch between asexual reproduction and gametocytogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Donald L; Dixon, Matthew W A; Spielmann, Tobias; Skinner-Adams, Tina S; Hawthorne, Paula L; Ortega, Maria R; Kemp, David J; Trenholme, Katharine R

    2005-04-01

    Gametocytogenesis is fundamental for transmission of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum from the human host to the mosquito vector, yet very little is understood about what triggers the switch between asexual reproduction and gametocytogenesis. Arresting the progression through the sexual cycle would block transmission of this disease. Here we identify a novel gene in P. falciparum that when genetically silenced reduces gametocyte production by a factor of 6, and when complemented up-regulates gametocyte-specific gene transcription.

  8. Differential antibody response of Gambian donors to soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Riley, E M; Allen, S J

    1991-01-01

    A seroepidemiological and clinical study was performed in an area of West Africa (The Gambia) where Plasmodium falciparum is endemic with seasonal transmission. Plasma samples were tested by intermediate gel immunoelectrophoresis for antibodies against 7 soluble P. falciparum antigens. There were...... who had had a documented attack of clinical malaria or parasitaemia. There was no difference in antibody profiles to soluble antigens between children with sickle cell trait and children with normal haemoglobin....

  9. Analysis of malaria parasite phenotypes using experimental genetic crosses of Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa C; Mwangi, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    We review the principles of linkage analysis of experimental genetic crosses and their application to Plasmodium falciparum. Three experimental genetic crosses have been performed using the human malaria parasite P. falciparum. Linkage analysis of the progeny of these crosses has been used to identify parasite genes important in phenotypes such as drug resistance, parasite growth and virulence, and transmission to mosquitoes. The construction and analysis of genetic maps has been used to char...

  10. Recombinant Plasmodium falciparum glutamate rich protein; purification and use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, M; Borre, Mette; Jepsen, S

    1991-01-01

    A method for purification of a recombinant Plasmodium falciparum protein produced in E. coli and its use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is described. The cloned gene fragment encodes GLURP,489-1271 the carboxy-terminal 783 amino acid residue portion of a 1271 amino acid residue P...... of the immunogenicity of a possible future P. falciparum vaccine utilizing epitopes from GLURP....

  11. Plasmodium Falciparum: Adhesion Phenotype of Infected Erythrocytes Using Classical and Mini-Column Cytoadherence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kalantari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum- infected erythrocytes to host cells is an impor­tant trait for parasite survival and has a major role in pathology of malaria disease. Infections with P. falciparum usually consist of several subpopulations of parasites with different adhesive proper­ties. This study aimed to compare relative sizes of various binding subpopulations of different P. falciparum isolates. It also investigated the adhesive phenotype of a laboratory P. falciparum line, A4, using different binding techniques.Methods: Seven different P. falciparum isolates (ITG, A4, 3D7 and four field isolates were cultivated to late trophozoite and schizont and then cytoadherence to cell differentiation 36 (CD36, intercellu­lar cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (V-CAM and E-selectin were examined. The relative binding sizes of parasite subpopulations to human receptors were meas­ured by mini-column cytoadherence method. The adhesion phenotype of P. falciparum-A4 line was evaluated by in vitro static, flow-based and mini-column binding assays.Results: The relative binding size of ITG, A4 and 3D7 clones to a column made with CHO/ICAM-1 was 68%, 54% and 0%, respectively. The relative binding sizes of these lines to CHO/CD36 were 59.7%, 28.7% and 0%, respectively. Different field isolates had variable sizes of respective CD36 and ICAM1-binding subpopulations. A4 line had five different subpopulations each with different binding sizes.Conclusion: This study provided further evidence that P. falciparum isolates have different binding subpopulations sizes in an infection. Furthermore, measurement of ICAM-1 or CD36 binding subpopula­tions may practical to study the cytoadherence phenotypes of P. falciparum field isolates at the molecular level.

  12. Histone acetylation regulates osteodifferentiation of hDPSCs via DSPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shensheng; Liang, Jingping; Wang, Jia; Liu, Bin

    2013-06-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are a unique population of precursor cells isolated from postnatal human dental pulp, with the ability to regenerate a reparative dentin-like complex. We examined the regulation of odontoblast-like differentiation of DPSCs by histone acetylation. Western blot analysis showed that histone H3 acetylation was strongly induced in osteodifferentiation medium. Inhibition of histone acetyltransferase by garcinol reversed osteodifferentiation and mineral formation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay indicated that the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene, which is mainly expressed in odontoblasts and preameloblasts in teeth and plays an important role in tooth function, was also down-regulated in garcinol-treated cells. Moreover, lentivirus-mediated knockdown of DSPP in human DPSCs was associated with significant inhibition of mineral formation, but not osteoblast differentiation. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that DSPP positively affects mineral formation, and that odontoblast-like differentiation and maturation of DPSCs can be regulated by histone acetylation of the DSPP gene.

  13. Small molecule modulators of histone acetyltransferase p300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanyam, Karanam; Swaminathan, V; Ranganathan, Anupama; Kundu, Tapas K

    2003-05-23

    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are a group of enzymes that play a significant role in the regulation of gene expression. These enzymes covalently modify the N-terminal lysine residues of histones by the addition of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA. Dysfunction of these enzymes is often associated with the manifestation of several diseases, predominantly cancer. Here we report that anacardic acid from cashew nut shell liquid is a potent inhibitor of p300 and p300/CBP-associated factor histone acetyltranferase activities. Although it does not affect DNA transcription, HAT-dependent transcription from a chromatin template was strongly inhibited by anacardic acid. Furthermore, we describe the design and synthesis of an amide derivative N-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-2-ethoxy-6-pentadecyl-benzamide (CTPB) using anacardic acid as a synthon, which remarkably activates p300 HAT activity but not that of p300/CBP-associated factor. Although CTPB does not affect DNA transcription, it enhances the p300 HAT-dependent transcriptional activation from in vitro assembled chromatin template. However, it has no effect on histone deacetylase activity. These compounds would be useful as biological switching molecules for probing into the role of p300 in transcriptional studies and may also be useful as new chemical entities for the development of anticancer drugs.

  14. Mechanistic stochastic model of histone modification pattern formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C.M. Anink-Groenen; T.R. Maarleveld; P.J. Verschure; F.J. Bruggeman

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The activity of a single gene is influenced by the composition of the chromatin in which it is embedded. Nucleosome turnover, conformational dynamics, and covalent histone modifications each induce changes in the structure of chromatin and its affinity for regulatory proteins. The dynami

  15. Innovative Strategies for Selective Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maolanon, Alex Ramalak; Madsen, Andreas Stahl; Olsen, Christian Adam

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are a family of closely related enzymes involved in epigenetic and posttranscriptional regulation of numerous genes and proteins. Their deregulation is associated with a number of diseases, and a handful of HDAC inhibitors have been approved for cancer treatment. None...

  16. Cell shape regulates global histone acetylation in human mammaryepithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Beyec, Johanne; Xu, Ren; Lee, Sun-Young; Nelson, Celeste M.; Rizki, Aylin; Alcaraz, Jordi; Bissell, Mina J.

    2007-02-28

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell morphology and gene expression in vivo; these relationships are maintained in three-dimensional (3D) cultures of mammary epithelial cells. In the presence of laminin-rich ECM (lrECM), mammary epithelial cells round up and undergo global histone deacetylation, a process critical for their functional differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether lrECM-dependent cell rounding and global histone deacetylation are indeed part of a common physical-biochemical pathway. Using 3D cultures as well as nonadhesive and micropatterned substrata, here we showed that the cell 'rounding' caused by lrECM was sufficient to induce deacetylation of histones H3 and H4 in the absence of biochemical cues. Microarray and confocal analysis demonstrated that this deacetylation in 3D culture is associated with a global increase in chromatin condensation and a reduction in gene expression. Whereas cells cultured on plastic substrata formed prominent stress fibers, cells grown in 3D lrECM or on micropatterns lacked these structures. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D phenocopied the lrECM-induced cell rounding and histone deacetylation. These results reveal a novel link between ECM-controlled cell shape and chromatin structure, and suggest that this link is mediated by changes in the actin cytoskeleton.

  17. Histone 3 s10 phosphorylation: "caught in the R loop!".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourti-Stathaki, Konstantina; Proudfoot, Nicholas J

    2013-11-21

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Castellano-Pozo et al. (2013) describe a connection between R loop structures and histone 3 S10 phosphorylation (H3S10P), a mark of chromatin compaction. Their results constitute a significant advance in our understanding of the role of R loops in genomic instability.

  18. Balancing chromatin remodeling and histone modifications in transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Emily; Pillus, Lorraine

    2013-11-01

    Chromatin remodelers use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to reposition or evict nucleosomes or to replace canonical histones with histone variants. By regulating nucleosome dynamics, remodelers gate access to the underlying DNA for replication, repair, and transcription. Nucleosomes are subject to extensive post-translational modifications that can recruit regulatory proteins or alter the local chromatin structure. Just as extensive crosstalk has been observed between different histone post-translational modifications, there is growing evidence for both coordinated and antagonistic functional relations between nucleosome remodeling and modifying machineries. Defining the combined functions of the complexes that alter nucleosome interactions, position, and stability is key to understanding processes that require access to DNA, particularly with growing appreciation of their contributions to human health and disease. Here, we highlight recent advances in the interactions between histone modifications and the imitation-switch (ISWI) and chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 1 (CHD1) chromatin remodelers from studies in budding yeast, fission yeast, flies, and mammalian cells, with a focus on yeast.

  19. Functional characterization of Candida albicans Hos2 histone deacetylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, G; Paul-Satyaseela, Maneesh; Dhatchana Moorthy, Nachiappan; Gopalaswamy, Radha; Narayanan, Shridhar

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is a mucosal commensal organism capable of causing superficial (oral and vaginal thrush) infections in immune normal hosts, but is a major pathogen causing systemic and mucosal infections in immunocompromised individuals. Azoles have been very effective anti-fungal agents and the mainstay in treating opportunistic mold and yeast infections. Azole resistant strains have emerged compromising the utility of this class of drugs. It has been shown that azole resistance can be reversed by the co-administration of a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, suggesting that resistance is mediated by epigenetic mechanisms possibly involving Hos2, a fungal deacetylase. We report here the cloning and functional characterization of  HOS2 (High Osmolarity  Sensitive) , a gene coding for fungal histone deacetylase from  C. albicans. Inhibition studies showed that Hos2 is susceptible to pan inhibitors such as trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), but is not inhibited by class I inhibitors such as MS-275. This  in  vitro enzymatic assay, which is amenable to high throughput could be used for screening potent fungal Hos2 inhibitors that could be a potential anti-fungal adjuvant. Purified Hos2 protein consistently deacetylated tubulins, rather than histones from TSA-treated cells. Hos2 has been reported to be a putative NAD+ dependent histone deacetylase, a feature of sirtuins. We assayed for sirtuin activation with resveratrol and purified Hos2 protein and did not find any sirtuin activity.

  20. Sepsis and ARDS: The Dark Side of Histones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiheng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in management over the last several decades, sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS still remain major clinical challenges and the leading causes of death for patients in intensive care units (ICUs due to insufficient understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of these diseases. However, recent studies have shown that histones, also known as chromatin-basic structure proteins, could be released into the extracellular space during severe stress and physical challenges to the body (e.g., sepsis and ARDS. Due to their cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects, extracellular histones can lead to excessive and overwhelming cell damage and death, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of both sepsis and ARDS. In addition, antihistone-based treatments (e.g., neutralizing antibodies, activated protein C, and heparin have shown protective effects and have significantly improved the outcomes of mice suffering from sepsis and ARDS. Here, we review researches related to the pathological role of histone in context of sepsis and ARDS and evaluate the potential value of histones as biomarkers and therapeutic targets of these diseases.

  1. Sepsis and ARDS: The Dark Side of Histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiheng; Huang, Yongbo; Mao, Pu; Zhang, Jianrong; Li, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in management over the last several decades, sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) still remain major clinical challenges and the leading causes of death for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) due to insufficient understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of these diseases. However, recent studies have shown that histones, also known as chromatin-basic structure proteins, could be released into the extracellular space during severe stress and physical challenges to the body (e.g., sepsis and ARDS). Due to their cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects, extracellular histones can lead to excessive and overwhelming cell damage and death, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of both sepsis and ARDS. In addition, antihistone-based treatments (e.g., neutralizing antibodies, activated protein C, and heparin) have shown protective effects and have significantly improved the outcomes of mice suffering from sepsis and ARDS. Here, we review researches related to the pathological role of histone in context of sepsis and ARDS and evaluate the potential value of histones as biomarkers and therapeutic targets of these diseases.

  2. Implication of Posttranslational Histone Modifications in Nucleotide Excision Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shisheng Li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Histones are highly alkaline proteins that package and order the DNA into chromatin in eukaryotic cells. Nucleotide excision repair (NER is a conserved multistep reaction that removes a wide range of generally bulky and/or helix-distorting DNA lesions. Although the core biochemical mechanism of NER is relatively well known, how cells detect and repair lesions in diverse chromatin environments is still under intensive research. As with all DNA-related processes, the NER machinery must deal with the presence of organized chromatin and the physical obstacles it presents. A huge catalogue of posttranslational histone modifications has been documented. Although a comprehensive understanding of most of these modifications is still lacking, they are believed to be important regulatory elements for many biological processes, including DNA replication and repair, transcription and cell cycle control. Some of these modifications, including acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination on the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 or the histone H2A variant H2AX, have been found to be implicated in different stages of the NER process. This review will summarize our recent understanding in this area.

  3. Myc localizes to histone locus bodies during replication in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Daneshvar

    Full Text Available Myc is an important protein at the center of multiple pathways required for growth and proliferation in animals. The absence of Myc is lethal in flies and mice, and its over-production is a potent inducer of over-proliferation and cancer. Myc protein is localized to the nucleus where it executes its many functions, however the specific sub-nuclear localization of Myc has rarely been reported. The work we describe here began with an observation of unexpected, punctate spots of Myc protein in certain regions of Drosophila embryos. We investigated the identity of these puncta and demonstrate that Myc is co-localized with coilin, a marker for sub-nuclear organelles known as Cajal Bodies (CBs, in embryos, larvae and ovaries. Using antibodies specific for U7 snRNP component Lsm11, we show that the majority of Myc and coilin co-localization occurs in Histone Locus Bodies (HLBs, the sites of histone mRNA transcription and processing. Furthermore, Myc localizes to HLBs only during replication in mitotic and endocycling cells, suggesting that its role there relates to replication-dependent canonical histone gene transcription. These results provide evidence that sub-nuclear localization of Myc is cell-cycle dependent and potentially important for histone mRNA production and processing.

  4. Histone deacetylase-mediated morphological transition in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jueun; Lee, Ji-Eun; Lee, Jung-Shin

    2015-12-01

    Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal pathogen, which switches its morphology from single-cell yeast to filament through the various signaling pathways responding to diverse environmental cues. Various transcriptional factors such as Nrg1, Efg1, Brg1, Ssn6, and Tup1 are the key components of these signaling pathways. Since C. albicans can regulate its transcriptional gene expressions using common eukaryotic regulatory systems, its morphological transition by these signaling pathways could be linked to the epigenetic regulation by chromatin structure modifiers. Histone proteins, which are critical components of eukaryotic chromatin structure, can regulate the eukaryotic chromatin structure through their own modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. Recent studies revealed that various histone modifications, especially histone acetylation and deacetylation, participate in morphological transition of C. albicans collaborating with well-known transcription factors in the signaling pathways. Here, we review recent studies about chromatin-mediated morphological transition of C. albicans focusing on the interaction between transcription factors in the signaling pathways and histone deacetylases.

  5. Histone Acetylation Inhibitors Promote Axon Growth in Adult DRG neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shen; Nazif, Kutaiba; Smith, Alexander; Baas, Peter W; Smith, George M

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic mechanisms that guide damaged axons to regenerate following spinal cord injury remain poorly understood. Manipulation of posttranslational modifications of key proteins in mature neurons could re-invigorate growth machinery after injury. One such modification is acetylation, a reversible process controlled by two enzyme families acting in opposition, the Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) and the Histone Acetyl Transferases (HATs). While acetylated histones in the nucleus is associated with upregulation of growth promoting genes, de-acetylated tubulin in the axoplasm is associated with more labile microtubules, conducive to axon growth. In this study we investigated the effects of HAT inhibitors and HDAC inhibitors on cultured adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. We found that inhibition of HATs, using Anacardic Acid or CPTH2, improved axon outgrowth, while inhibition of HDACs using TSA or Tubacin, inhibited axon growth. Furthermore, Anacardic Acid increased the number of axons able to cross an inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) border. Histone acetylation, but not tubulin acetylation levels, was affected by HAT inhibitors, whereas tubulin acetylation levels were increased in the presence of HDAC inhibitor Tubacin. Although microtubule stabilizing drug taxol did not have an effect on the lengths of DRG axons, nocodazole decreased axon lengths. While the mechanistic basis will require future studies, our data show that inhibitors of HAT can augment axon growth in adult DRG neurons, with the potential of aiding axon growth over inhibitory substrates produced by the glial scar. PMID:25702820

  6. Relationship of histone acetylation to DNA topology and transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, W A; Luchnik, A N

    1991-12-01

    An autonomously replicating plasmid constructed from bovine papiloma virus (BPV) and pBR322 was stably maintained as a nuclear episome in a mouse cell culture. Addition to a cell culture of sodium butyrate (5 mM) induced an increase in plasmid DNA supercoiling of 3-5 turns, an increase in acetylation of cellular histones, and a decrease in plasmid transcription by 2- to 4-fold. After withdrawal of butyrate, DNA supercoiling began to fluctuate in a wave-like manner with an amplitude of up to 3 turns and a period of 3-4 h. These waves gradually faded by 24 h. The transcription of the plasmid and acetylation of cellular histones also oscillated with the same period. The wave-like alterations were not correlated with the cell cycle, for there was no resumption of DNA replication after butyrate withdrawal for at least 24 h. In vitro chemical acetylation of histones with acetyl adenylate also led to an increase in the superhelical density of plasmid DNA. The parallel changes in transcription, histone acetylation, and DNA supercoiling in vivo may indicate a functional innerconnection. Also, the observed in vivo variation in the level of DNA supercoiling directly indicates the possibility of its natural regulation in eukaryotic cells.

  7. Structural and histone binding ability characterizations of human PWWP domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The PWWP domain was first identified as a structural motif of 100-130 amino acids in the WHSC1 protein and predicted to be a protein-protein interaction domain. It belongs to the Tudor domain 'Royal Family', which consists of Tudor, chromodomain, MBT and PWWP domains. While Tudor, chromodomain and MBT domains have long been known to bind methylated histones, PWWP was shown to exhibit histone binding ability only until recently. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The PWWP domain has been shown to be a DNA binding domain, but sequence analysis and previous structural studies show that the PWWP domain exhibits significant similarity to other 'Royal Family' members, implying that the PWWP domain has the potential to bind histones. In order to further explore the function of the PWWP domain, we used the protein family approach to determine the crystal structures of the PWWP domains from seven different human proteins. Our fluorescence polarization binding studies show that PWWP domains have weak histone binding ability, which is also confirmed by our NMR titration experiments. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structures of the BRPF1 PWWP domain in complex with H3K36me3, and HDGF2 PWWP domain in complex with H3K79me3 and H4K20me3. CONCLUSIONS: PWWP proteins constitute a new family of methyl lysine histone binders. The PWWP domain consists of three motifs: a canonical β-barrel core, an insertion motif between the second and third β-strands and a C-terminal α-helix bundle. Both the canonical β-barrel core and the insertion motif are directly involved in histone binding. The PWWP domain has been previously shown to be a DNA binding domain. Therefore, the PWWP domain exhibits dual functions: binding both DNA and methyllysine histones. ENHANCED VERSION: This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web

  8. Anti-phospholipid antibodies in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Morris-Jones, S D; Hviid, L;

    1993-01-01

    Plasma levels of antibodies against phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cardiolipin (CL) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients from malaria endemic area of Sudan and The Gambia. Some Sudanese adults produced IgM antibodies against all three types...... of phospholipids (PL) during an acute Plasmodium falciparum infection. The anti-PL antibody titre returned to preinfection levels in most of the donors 30 days after the disease episode. IgG titres against PI, PC and CL were low. In Gambian children with malaria, IgM antibody titres against PI and PC were...... significantly higher in those with severe malaria than in those with mild malaria. These results show that a proportion of malaria patients produce anti-PL antibodies during infection and that titres of these antibodies are associated with the severity of disease....

  9. Falciparum malaria: sticking up, standing out and out-standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, B; Coppel, R; Wahlgren, M

    2000-10-01

    Cytoadherence is believed to be fundamental for the survival of Plasmodium falciparum in vivo and, uniquely, is a major determinant of the virulence of this parasite. Despite the widely professed importance of cytoadhesion in the development of severe disease, there are a number of aspects of this highly complex process that remain poorly understood. Recent progress in the understanding of cytoadhesive phenomena was discussed extensively at the Molecular Approaches to Malaria conference, Lorne, Australia, 2-5 February 2000. Here, Brian Cooke, Mats Wahlgren and Ross Coppel consider just how far we have progressed during the past 30 years and highlight what is still missing in our understanding of the mechanisms and clinical relevance of this apparently vital process.

  10. Origins and spread of pfdhfr mutant alleles in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Toshihiro

    2010-06-01

    The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum parasite resistant to sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine (SP) poses a serious public health problem. Resistance is caused by point mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps), the two key enzymes in the folate biosynthetic pathway. The use of microsatellite markers flanking pfdhfr has recently shown that the invasion of limited resistant lineages may explain the widespread SP resistance in many endemic regions. In Africa, however, multiple indigenous origins of pfdhfr triple mutants have been demonstrated. More new independent lineages and routes of geographical spread of resistance may be found by further molecular evolutionary analyses using samples from various endemic regions. Here, I review recent studies about the history of SP usage and the evolution and spread of resistant lineages while addressing the technical issue of microsatellite analysis.

  11. Driving mosquito refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum with engineered symbiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sibao; Dos-Santos, André L A; Huang, Wei; Liu, Kun Connie; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Wei, Ge; Agre, Peter; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2017-09-29

    The huge burden of malaria in developing countries urgently demands the development of novel approaches to fight this deadly disease. Although engineered symbiotic bacteria have been shown to render mosquitoes resistant to the parasite, the challenge remains to effectively introduce such bacteria into mosquito populations. We describe a Serratia bacterium strain (AS1) isolated from Anopheles ovaries that stably colonizes the mosquito midgut, female ovaries, and male accessory glands and spreads rapidly throughout mosquito populations. Serratia AS1 was genetically engineered for secretion of anti-Plasmodium effector proteins, and the recombinant strains inhibit development of Plasmodium falciparum in mosquitoes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  12. Oral clindamycin in the treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, N P; Saniel, M C; Estoque, M H; Talao, F A; Bustos, D G; Palogan, L P; Gabriel, A I

    1990-09-01

    Clinical trials on oral clindamycin as an antimalarial in hospitalized patients and residents of endemic communities were conducted in the Philippines between May 1984 and December 1985. Seven and 9 qualified subjects in hospital were treated with 300 mg (regimen A) and 600 mg (regimen B) respectively, twice daily for 5 days. Eighteen patients seen at a rural health unit were given the lower dosage. On the basis of the 28-day extended in vivo test of WHO, P. falciparum in all but one patient showed susceptibility to the drug as a blood schizontocide hence, the clinical cure of malaria. Side effects were few and self-limiting. Ten other patients on regimen A were cured within the 7- and/or 28-day extended test period. Clindamycin per se is currently one of the few alternatives in the treatment of clinically moderate drug-resistant malaria.

  13. Mitosis in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Noel; Mahajan, Babita; Kumar, Sanjai

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites belonging to Plasmodium spp. (phylum Apicomplexa) that produce significant morbidity and mortality, mostly in developing countries. Plasmodium parasites have a complex life cycle that includes multiple stages in anopheline mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts. During the life cycle, the parasites undergo several cycles of extreme population growth within a brief span, and this is critical for their continued transmission and a contributing factor for their pathogenesis in the host. As with other eukaryotes, successful mitosis is an essential requirement for Plasmodium reproduction; however, some aspects of Plasmodium mitosis are quite distinct and not fully understood. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of the architecture and key events of mitosis in Plasmodium falciparum and related parasites and compare them with the traditional mitotic events described for other eukaryotes. PMID:21317311

  14. Cryo scanning electron microscopy of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Casper

    2017-07-01

    Plasmodium falciparum invades erythrocytes as an essential part of their life cycle. While living inside erythrocytes, the parasite remodels the cell's intracellular organization as well as its outer surface. Late trophozoite-stage parasites and schizonts introduce numerous small protrusions on the erythrocyte surface, called knobs. Current methods for studying these knobs include atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy. Standard electron microscopy methods rely on chemical fixation and dehydration modifying cell size. Here, a novel method is presented using rapid freezing and scanning electron microscopy under cryogenic conditions allowing for high resolution and magnification of erythrocytes. This novel technique can be used for precise estimates of knob density and for studies on cytoadhesion. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Polymorphism of the merozoite surface protein-1 block 2 region in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem O; Ndiaye, Magatte; OuldAbdallahi, Mohamed; Lekweiry, Khadijetou M; Bogreau, Hervé; Konaté, Lassana; Faye, Babacar; Gaye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Mohamed Salem O Boukhary, Ali O

    2014-01-23

    The genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum has been extensively studied in various parts of the world. However, limited data are available from Mauritania. The present study examined and compared the genetic diversity of P. falciparum isolates in Mauritania. Plasmodium falciparum isolates blood samples were collected from 113 patients attending health facilities in Nouakchott and Hodh El Gharbi regions. K1, Mad20 and RO33 allelic family of msp-1 gene were determined by nested PCR amplification. K1 family was the predominant allelic type carried alone or in association with Ro33 and Mad20 types (90%; 102/113). Out of the 113 P. falciparum samples, 93(82.3%) harboured more than one parasite genotype. The overall multiplicity of infection was 3.2 genotypes per infection. There was no significant correlation between multiplicity of infection and age of patients. A significant increase of multiplicity of infection was correlated with parasite densities. The polymorphism of P. falciparum populations from Mauritania was high. Infection with multiple P. falciparum clones was observed, as well as a high multiplicity of infection reflecting both the high endemicity level and malaria transmission in Mauritania.

  16. J-dot targeting of an exported HSP40 in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Wiebke; Külzer, Simone; Engels, Sonja; Zhang, Qi; Ingmundson, Alyssa; Rug, Melanie; Maier, Alexander G; Przyborski, Jude M

    2016-07-01

    Plasmodium falciparum exports a large number of proteins to its host cell, the mature human erythrocyte, where they are involved in host cell modification. Amongst the proteins trafficked to the host cell, many are heat shock protein (HSP)40 homologues. We previously demonstrated that at least two exported PfHSP40s (referred to as PFE55 and PFA660) localise to mobile structures in the P. falciparum-infected erythrocyte (Kulzer et al., 2010), termed J-dots. The complete molecular content of these structures has not yet been completely resolved, however it is known that they also contain an exported HSP70, PfHSP70x, and are potentially involved in transport of the major cytoadherance ligand, PfEMP1, through the host cell. To understand more about the nature of the association of exported HSP40s with J-dots, here we have studied the signal requirements for recruitment of the proteins to these structures. By expressing various exported GFP chimeras, we can demonstrate that the predicted substrate binding domain is necessary and sufficient for J-dot targeting. This targeting only occurs in human erythrocytes infected with P. falciparum, as it is not conserved when expressing a P. falciparum HSP40 in Plasmodium berghei-infected murine red blood cells, suggesting that J-dots are P. falciparum-specific. This data reveals a new mechanism for targeting of exported proteins to intracellular structures in the P. falciparum-infected erythrocyte.

  17. Plasmodium falciparum Choline Kinase Inhibition Leads to a Major Decrease in Phosphatidylethanolamine Causing Parasite Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrán-Aguilera, Lucía; Denton, Helen; Rubio-Ruiz, Belén; López-Gutiérrez, Borja; Entrena, Antonio; Izquierdo, Luis; Smith, Terry K.; Conejo-García, Ana; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by different species of the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, with P. falciparum being the deadliest. Increasing parasitic resistance to existing antimalarials makes the necessity of novel avenues to treat this disease an urgent priority. The enzymes responsible for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are attractive drug targets to treat malaria as their selective inhibition leads to an arrest of the parasite’s growth and cures malaria in a mouse model. We present here a detailed study that reveals a mode of action for two P. falciparum choline kinase inhibitors both in vitro and in vivo. The compounds present distinct binding modes to the choline/ethanolamine-binding site of P. falciparum choline kinase, reflecting different types of inhibition. Strikingly, these compounds primarily inhibit the ethanolamine kinase activity of the P. falciparum choline kinase, leading to a severe decrease in the phosphatidylethanolamine levels within P. falciparum, which explains the resulting growth phenotype and the parasites death. These studies provide an understanding of the mode of action, and act as a springboard for continued antimalarial development efforts selectively targeting P. falciparum choline kinase. PMID:27616047

  18. Biochemical and structural characterization of Plasmodium falciparum glutamate dehydrogenase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocher, Kathleen; Fritz-Wolf, Karin; Kehr, Sebastian; Fischer, Marina; Rahlfs, Stefan; Becker, Katja

    2012-05-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenases (GDHs) play key roles in cellular redox, amino acid, and energy metabolism, thus representing potential targets for pharmacological interventions. Here we studied the functional network provided by the three known glutamate dehydrogenases of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The recombinant production of the previously described PfGDH1 as hexahistidyl-tagged proteins was optimized. Additionally, PfGDH2 was cloned, recombinantly produced, and characterized. Like PfGDH1, PfGDH2 is an NADP(H)-dependent enzyme with a specific activity comparable to PfGDH1 but with slightly higher K(m) values for its substrates. The three-dimensional structure of hexameric PfGDH2 was solved to 3.1 Å resolution. The overall structure shows high similarity with PfGDH1 but with significant differences occurring at the subunit interface. As in mammalian GDH1, in PfGDH2 the subunit-subunit interactions are mainly assisted by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions, whereas in PfGDH1 these contacts are mediated by networks of salt bridges and hydrogen bonds. In accordance with this, the known bovine GDH inhibitors hexachlorophene, GW5074, and bithionol were more effective on PfGDH2 than on PfGDH1. Subcellular localization was determined for all three plasmodial GDHs by fusion with the green fluorescent protein. Based on our data, PfGDH1 and PfGDH3 are cytosolic proteins whereas PfGDH2 clearly localizes to the apicoplast, a plastid-like organelle specific for apicomplexan parasites. This study provides new insights into the structure and function of GDH isoenzymes of P. falciparum, which represent potential targets for the development of novel antimalarial drugs.

  19. The prognostic value of schizontaemia in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In Plasmodium falciparum infection, peripheral parasite counts do not always correlate well with the sequestered parasite burden. As erythrocytes parasitized with mature trophozoites and schizonts have a high tendency to adhere to the microvascular endothelium, they are often absent in peripheral blood samples. The appearance of schizonts in peripheral blood smears is thought to be a marker of high sequestered parasite burden and severe disease. In the present study, the value of schizontaemia as an early marker for severe disease in non-immune individuals with imported malaria was evaluated. Methods All patients in the Rotterdam Malaria Cohort diagnosed with P. falciparum malaria between 1 January 1999 and 1 January 2012 were included. Thick and thin blood films were examined for the presence of schizontaemia. The occurrence of WHO defined severe malaria was the primary endpoint. The diagnostic performance of schizontaemia was compared with previously evaluated biomarkers C-reactive protein and lactate. Results Schizonts were present on admission in 49 of 401 (12.2%) patients. Patients with schizontaemia were more likely to present with severe malaria, a more complicated course and had longer duration of admission in hospital. Schizontaemia had a specificity of 0.95, a sensitivity of 0.53, a negative predictive value of 0.92 and a positive predictive value of 0.67 for severe malaria. The presence of schizonts was an independent predictor for severe malaria. Conclusion Absence of schizonts was found to be a specific marker for exclusion of severe malaria. Presence of schizonts on admission was associated with a high positive predictive value for severe malaria. This may be of help to identify patients who are at risk of a more severe course than would be expected when considering peripheral parasitaemia alone. PMID:22929647

  20. Volatile organic compounds associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Ricardo; Coronado, Lorena M; Garrido, Anette C; Durant-Archibold, Armando A; Spadafora, Carmenza

    2017-05-02

    In order to identify new ways to prevent transmission of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, efforts have been made to understand how insects are attracted to humans. Vector-host interaction studies have shown that several volatile compounds play an important role in attracting mosquitoes to human targets. A headspace solid-phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSPME GC-MS) analysis of the volatile organic composition of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and supernatants of ultracentrifugation (SNUs) was carried out in Plasmodium falciparum-infected cultures with high and low parasitemias. A list of 18 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was obtained from the EVs of both infected and uninfected RBCs with 1,2,3-Propanetriol, diacetate (diacetin) increased in the infected EVs, regardless of the parasitemia of the culture. The supernatant analysis, however, gave off 56 VOCs, with pentane 2,2,4-trimethyl being present in all the SNUs of uninfected erythrocytes but absent from the parasite-infected ones. Standing out in this study was hexanal, a reported insect attractant, which was the only VOC present in all samples from SNUs from infected erythrocytes and absent from uninfected ones, suggesting that it originates during parasite infection. The hexanal compound, reportedly a low-level component found in healthy human samples such as breath and plasma, had not been found in previous analyses of P. falciparum-infected patients or cultures. This compound has been reported as an Anopheles gambiae attractant in plants. While the compound could be produced during infection by the malaria parasite in human erythrocytes, the A. gambiae attraction could be used by the parasite as a strategy for transmission.

  1. Molecular characterisation of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil José

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing levels of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine (CQ in Thailand have led to the use of alternative antimalarials, which are at present also becoming ineffective. In this context, any strategies that help improve the surveillance of drug resistance, become crucial in overcoming the problem. Methods In the present study, we have established the in vitro sensitivity to CQ, mefloquine (MF, quinine (QUIN and amodiaquine (AMQ of 52 P. falciparum isolates collected in Thailand, and assessed the prevalence of four putative genetic polymorphisms of drug resistance, pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 N86Y, pfmdr1 D1042N and pfmdr1 Y1246D, by PCR-RFLP. Results The percentage of isolates resistant to CQ, MF, and AMQ was 96% (50/52, 62% (32/52, and 58% (18/31, respectively, while all parasites were found to be sensitive to QUIN. In addition, 41 (79% of the isolates assayed were resistant simultaneously to more than one drug; 25 to CQ and MF, 9 to CQ and AMQ, and 7 to all three drugs, CQ, MF and AMQ. There were two significant associations between drug sensitivity and presence of particular molecular markers, i CQ resistance / pfcrt 76T (P = 0.001, and ii MF resistance / pfmdr1 86N (P Conclusions i In Thailand, the high levels of CQ pressure have led to strong selection of the pfcrt 76T polymorphism and ii pfmdr1 86N appears to be a good predictor of in vitro MF resistance.

  2. Origin and evolution of sulfadoxine resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

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    Sumiti Vinayak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Thailand-Cambodia border is the epicenter for drug-resistant falciparum malaria. Previous studies have shown that chloroquine (CQ and pyrimethamine resistance originated in this region and eventually spread to other Asian countries and Africa. However, there is a dearth in understanding the origin and evolution of dhps alleles associated with sulfadoxine resistance. The present study was designed to reveal the origin(s of sulfadoxine resistance in Cambodia and its evolutionary relationship to African and South American dhps alleles. We sequenced 234 Cambodian Plasmodium falciparum isolates for the dhps codons S436A/F, A437G, K540E, A581G and A613S/T implicated in sulfadoxine resistance. We also genotyped 10 microsatellite loci around dhps to determine the genetic backgrounds of various alleles and compared them with the backgrounds of alleles prevalent in Africa and South America. In addition to previously known highly-resistant triple mutant dhps alleles SGEGA and AGEAA (codons 436, 437, 540, 581, 613 are sequentially indicated, a large proportion of the isolates (19.3% contained a 540N mutation in association with 437G/581G yielding a previously unreported triple mutant allele, SGNGA. Microsatellite data strongly suggest the strength of selection was greater on triple mutant dhps alleles followed by the double and single mutants. We provide evidence for at least three independent origins for the double mutants, one each for the SGKGA, AGKAA and SGEAA alleles. Our data suggest that the triple mutant allele SGEGA and the novel allele SGNGA have common origin on the SGKGA background, whereas the AGEAA triple mutant was derived from AGKAA on multiple, albeit limited, genetic backgrounds. The SGEAA did not share haplotypes with any of the triple mutants. Comparative analysis of the microsatellite haplotypes flanking dhps alleles from Cambodia, Kenya, Cameroon and Venezuela revealed an independent origin of sulfadoxine resistant alleles in each

  3. Origin and evolution of sulfadoxine resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayak, Sumiti; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya; McCollum, Andrea M; Sem, Rithy; Shah, Naman K; Lim, Pharath; Muth, Sinuon; Rogers, William O; Fandeur, Thierry; Barnwell, John W; Escalante, Ananias A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Ariey, Frederick; Meshnick, Steven R; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2010-03-26

    The Thailand-Cambodia border is the epicenter for drug-resistant falciparum malaria. Previous studies have shown that chloroquine (CQ) and pyrimethamine resistance originated in this region and eventually spread to other Asian countries and Africa. However, there is a dearth in understanding the origin and evolution of dhps alleles associated with sulfadoxine resistance. The present study was designed to reveal the origin(s) of sulfadoxine resistance in Cambodia and its evolutionary relationship to African and South American dhps alleles. We sequenced 234 Cambodian Plasmodium falciparum isolates for the dhps codons S436A/F, A437G, K540E, A581G and A613S/T implicated in sulfadoxine resistance. We also genotyped 10 microsatellite loci around dhps to determine the genetic backgrounds of various alleles and compared them with the backgrounds of alleles prevalent in Africa and South America. In addition to previously known highly-resistant triple mutant dhps alleles SGEGA and AGEAA (codons 436, 437, 540, 581, 613 are sequentially indicated), a large proportion of the isolates (19.3%) contained a 540N mutation in association with 437G/581G yielding a previously unreported triple mutant allele, SGNGA. Microsatellite data strongly suggest the strength of selection was greater on triple mutant dhps alleles followed by the double and single mutants. We provide evidence for at least three independent origins for the double mutants, one each for the SGKGA, AGKAA and SGEAA alleles. Our data suggest that the triple mutant allele SGEGA and the novel allele SGNGA have common origin on the SGKGA background, whereas the AGEAA triple mutant was derived from AGKAA on multiple, albeit limited, genetic backgrounds. The SGEAA did not share haplotypes with any of the triple mutants. Comparative analysis of the microsatellite haplotypes flanking dhps alleles from Cambodia, Kenya, Cameroon and Venezuela revealed an independent origin of sulfadoxine resistant alleles in each of these regions.

  4. Spatial prediction of Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shewchuk Tanya

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maps of malaria distribution are vital for optimal allocation of resources for anti-malarial activities. There is a lack of reliable contemporary malaria maps in endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This problem is particularly acute in low malaria transmission countries such as those located in the horn of Africa. Methods Data from a national malaria cluster sample survey in 2005 and routine cluster surveys in 2007 were assembled for Somalia. Rapid diagnostic tests were used to examine the presence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in finger-prick blood samples obtained from individuals across all age-groups. Bayesian geostatistical models, with environmental and survey covariates, were used to predict continuous maps of malaria prevalence across Somalia and to define the uncertainty associated with the predictions. Results For analyses the country was divided into north and south. In the north, the month of survey, distance to water, precipitation and temperature had no significant association with P. falciparum prevalence when spatial correlation was taken into account. In contrast, all the covariates, except distance to water, were significantly associated with parasite prevalence in the south. The inclusion of covariates improved model fit for the south but not for the north. Model precision was highest in the south. The majority of the country had a predicted prevalence of Conclusion The maps showed that malaria transmission in Somalia varied from hypo- to meso-endemic. However, even after including the selected covariates in the model, there still remained a considerable amount of unexplained spatial variation in parasite prevalence, indicating effects of other factors not captured in the study. Nonetheless the maps presented here provide the best contemporary information on malaria prevalence in Somalia.

  5. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Gabon

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    Kendjo Eric

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our study aimed to demonstrate relationships between malarial parasitaemia and age, gravidity and anaemia in pregnant women in Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 311 primigravidae and women in their second pregnancy. Thick blood smears were checked, as were the results of haemoglobin electrophoresis. We also looked for the presence of anaemia, fever, and checked whether the volunteers had had chemoprophylaxis. The study was performed in Gabon where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. Results A total of 177 women (57% had microscopic parasitaemia; 139 (64%of them were primigravidae, 38 (40% in their second pregnancy and 180 (64% were teenagers. The parasites densities were also higher in primigravidae and teenagers. The prevalence of anaemia was 71% and was associated with microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: women with moderate or severe anaemia had higher parasite prevalences and densities. However, the sickle cell trait, fever and the use of chemoprophylaxis did not have a significant association with the presence of P. falciparum. Conclusions These results suggest that the prevalence of malaria and the prevalence of anaemia, whether associated with malaria or not, are higher in pregnant women in Gabon. Primigravidae and young pregnant women are the most susceptible to infection. It is, therefore, urgent to design an effective regimen of malaria prophylaxis for this high risk population.

  6. A molecular mechanism of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbengue, Alassane; Bhattacharjee, Souvik; Pandharkar, Trupti; Liu, Haining; Estiu, Guillermina; Stahelin, Robert V; Rizk, Shahir S; Njimoh, Dieudonne L; Ryan, Yana; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Nguon, Chea; Ghorbal, Mehdi; Lopez-Rubio, Jose-Juan; Pfrender, Michael; Emrich, Scott; Mohandas, Narla; Dondorp, Arjen M; Wiest, Olaf; Haldar, Kasturi

    2015-04-30

    Artemisinins are the cornerstone of anti-malarial drugs. Emergence and spread of resistance to them raises risk of wiping out recent gains achieved in reducing worldwide malaria burden and threatens future malaria control and elimination on a global level. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed parasite genetic loci associated with artemisinin resistance. However, there is no consensus on biochemical targets of artemisinin. Whether and how these targets interact with genes identified by GWAS, remains unknown. Here we provide biochemical and cellular evidence that artemisinins are potent inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PfPI3K), revealing an unexpected mechanism of action. In resistant clinical strains, increased PfPI3K was associated with the C580Y mutation in P. falciparum Kelch13 (PfKelch13), a primary marker of artemisinin resistance. Polyubiquitination of PfPI3K and its binding to PfKelch13 were reduced by the PfKelch13 mutation, which limited proteolysis of PfPI3K and thus increased levels of the kinase, as well as its lipid product phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P). We find PI3P levels to be predictive of artemisinin resistance in both clinical and engineered laboratory parasites as well as across non-isogenic strains. Elevated PI3P induced artemisinin resistance in absence of PfKelch13 mutations, but remained responsive to regulation by PfKelch13. Evidence is presented for PI3P-dependent signalling in which transgenic expression of an additional kinase confers resistance. Together these data present PI3P as the key mediator of artemisinin resistance and the sole PfPI3K as an important target for malaria elimination.

  7. Restoring chromatin after replication: How new and old histone marks come together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasencakova, Zusana; Groth, Anja

    2010-01-01

    replication and chromatin assembly processes in time and space. Dynamic recycling and de novo deposition of histones are fundamental for chromatin restoration. Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are thought to have a causal role in establishing distinct chromatin structures. Here we discuss PTMs...... present on new and parental histones and how they influence genome stability and restoration of epigenetically defined domains. Newly deposited histones must change their signature in the process of chromatin restoration, this may occur in a step-wise fashion involving replication-coupled processes...... and information from recycled parental histones....

  8. Epigenetic targets and drug discovery Part 2: Histone demethylation and DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Liu, Yanli; Lau, Johnathan L; Min, Jinrong

    2015-07-01

    Chromatin structure is dynamically modulated by various chromatin modifications, such as histone/DNA methylation and demethylation. We have reviewed histone methyltransferases and methyllysine binders in terms of small molecule screening and drug discovery in the first part of this review series. In this part, we will summarize recent progress in chemical probe and drug discovery of histone demethylases and DNA methyltransferases. Histone demethylation and DNA methylation have attracted a lot of attention regarding their biology and disease implications. Correspondingly, many small molecule compounds have been designed to modulate the activity of histone demethylases and DNA methyltransferases, and some of them have been developed into therapeutic drugs or put into clinical trials.

  9. Distinct levels in the nanoscale organization of DNA-histone complex revealed by its mechanical unfolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, G. V.; Brar, Loveleen; Hameed, Feroz M.; Raychaudhuri, A. K.; Shivashankar, G. V.

    2007-04-01

    Mechanical unfolding of nanoscale DNA-histone complex, using an atomic force microscope, shows a stepwise disassembly of histones from the nucleosome. A quantitative analysis of the rupture jump statistics and the length released per jump reveals insights into the possible histone contacts within the octamer complex. The measured ruptures correlate with the breakage of multiple contacts that stabilize the histone octamer. These results provide a mechanistic basis by which stepwise disassembly of histone proteins may result from an external force exerted by the adenosinetriphosphate (ATP) dependent chromatin remodeling machines to access regulatory sites on DNA.

  10. Analysis of Myc-induced histone modifications on target chromatin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Martinato

    Full Text Available The c-myc proto-oncogene is induced by mitogens and is a central regulator of cell growth and differentiation. The c-myc product, Myc, is a transcription factor that binds a multitude of genomic sites, estimated to be over 10-15% of all promoter regions. Target promoters generally pre-exist in an active or poised chromatin state that is further modified by Myc, contributing to fine transcriptional regulation (activation or repression of the afferent gene. Among other mechanisms, Myc recruits histone acetyl-transferases to target chromatin and locally promotes hyper-acetylation of multiple lysines on histones H3 and H4, although the identity and combination of the modified lysines is unknown. Whether Myc dynamically regulates other histone modifications (or marks at its binding sites also remains to be addressed. Here, we used quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP to profile a total of 24 lysine-acetylation and -methylation marks modulated by Myc at target promoters in a human B-cell line with a regulatable c-myc transgene. Myc binding promoted acetylation of multiple lysines, primarily of H3K9, H3K14, H3K18, H4K5 and H4K12, but significantly also of H4K8, H4K91 and H2AK5. Dimethylation of H3K79 was also selectively induced at target promoters. A majority of target promoters showed co-induction of multiple marks - in various combinations - correlating with recruitment of the two HATs tested (Tip60 and HBO1, incorporation of the histone variant H2A.Z and transcriptional activation. Based on this and previous findings, we surmise that Myc recruits the Tip60/p400 complex to achieve a coordinated histone acetylation/exchange reaction at activated promoters. Our data are also consistent with the additive and redundant role of multiple acetylation events in transcriptional activation.

  11. Genetic evidence for contribution of human dispersal to the genetic diversity of EBA-175 in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukochi, Yoshiki; Naka, Izumi; Patarapotikul, Jintana; Hananantachai, Hathairad; Ohashi, Jun

    2015-08-01

    The 175-kDa erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA-175) of Plasmodium falciparum plays a crucial role in merozoite invasion into human erythrocytes. EBA-175 is believed to have been under diversifying selection; however, there have been no studies investigating the effect of dispersal of humans out of Africa on the genetic variation of EBA-175 in P. falciparum. The PCR-direct sequencing was performed for a part of the eba-175 gene (regions II and III) using DNA samples obtained from Thai patients infected with P. falciparum. The divergence times for the P. falciparum eba-175 alleles were estimated assuming that P. falciparum/Plasmodium reichenowi divergence occurred 6 million years ago (MYA). To examine the possibility of diversifying selection, nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates for Plasmodium species were also estimated. A total of 32 eba-175 alleles were identified from 131 Thai P. falciparum isolates. Their estimated divergence time was 0.13-0.14 MYA, before the exodus of humans from Africa. A phylogenetic tree for a large sequence dataset of P. falciparum eba-175 alleles from across the world showed the presence of a basal Asian-specific cluster for all P. falciparum sequences. A markedly more nonsynonymous substitutions than synonymous substitutions in region II in P. falciparum was also detected, but not within Plasmodium species parasitizing African apes, suggesting that diversifying selection has acted specifically on P. falciparum eba-175. Plasmodium falciparum eba-175 genetic diversity appeared to increase following the exodus of Asian ancestors from Africa. Diversifying selection may have played an important role in the diversification of eba-175 allelic lineages. The present results suggest that the dispersals of humans out of Africa influenced significantly the molecular evolution of P. falciparum EBA-175.

  12. Two cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Netherlands without recent travel to a malaria-endemic country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Joop E; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Kraaij-Dirkzwager, Marleen M; Kaan, Jan A; Fanoy, Ewout B; Haas, Pieter-Jan; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Kortbeek, Laetitia M; Sankatsing, Sanjay U C

    2013-09-01

    Recently, two patients of African origin were given a diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria without recent travel to a malaria-endemic country. This observation highlights the importance for clinicians to consider tropical malaria in patients with fever. Possible transmission routes of P. falciparum to these patients will be discussed. From a public health perspective, international collaboration is crucial when potential cases of European autochthonous P. falciparum malaria in Europe re considered.

  13. Romidepsin reduces histone deacetylase activity, induces acetylation of histones, inhibits proliferation, and activates apoptosis in immortalized epithelial endometriotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imesch, Patrick; Fink, Daniel; Fedier, André

    2010-12-01

    Romidepsin inhibited HDAC activity, produced acetylation of the histone proteins, up-regulated p21, and down-regulated cyclins B1 and D1, resulting in proliferation inhibition and apoptosis activation in 11z immortalized epithelial endometriotic cells. Our findings provide evidence that endometriotic cells are sensitive to the epigenetic effects of romidepsin and suggest that endometriosis may be therapeutically targeted by romidepsin.

  14. A histone H3K9M mutation traps histone methyltransferase Clr4 to prevent heterochromatin spreading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Chun-Min; Wang, Jiyong; Xu, Ke; Chen, Huijie; Yue, Jia-Xing; Andrews, Stuart; Moresco, James J.; Yates, John R.; Nagy, Peter L.; Tong, Liang; Jia, Songtao

    2016-09-20

    Histone lysine-to-methionine (K-to-M) mutations are associated with multiple cancers, and they function in a dominant fashion to block the methylation of corresponding lysines on wild type histones. However, their mechanisms of function are controversial. Here we show that in fission yeast, introducing the K9M mutation into one of the three histone H3 genes dominantly blocks H3K9 methylation on wild type H3 across the genome. In addition, H3K9M enhances the interaction of histone H3 tail with the H3K9 methyltransferase Clr4 in a SAM (S-adenosyl-methionine)-dependent manner, and Clr4 is trapped at nucleation sites to prevent its spreading and the formation of large heterochromatin domains. We further determined the crystal structure of an H3K9M peptide in complex with human H3K9 methyltransferase G9a and SAM, which reveales that the methionine side chain had enhanced van der Waals interactions with G9a. Therefore, our results provide a detailed mechanism by which H3K9M regulates H3K9 methylation.

  15. The Cac1 subunit of histone chaperone CAF-1 organizes CAF-1-H3/H4 architecture and tetramerizes histones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wallace H; Roemer, Sarah C; Zhou, Yeyun; Shen, Zih-Jie; Dennehey, Briana K; Balsbaugh, Jeremy L; Liddle, Jennifer C; Nemkov, Travis; Ahn, Natalie G; Hansen, Kirk C; Tyler, Jessica K; Churchill, Mair EA

    2016-01-01

    The histone chaperone Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) deposits tetrameric (H3/H4)2 histones onto newly-synthesized DNA during DNA replication. To understand the mechanism of the tri-subunit CAF-1 complex in this process, we investigated the protein-protein interactions within the CAF-1-H3/H4 architecture using biophysical and biochemical approaches. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange and chemical cross-linking coupled to mass spectrometry reveal interactions that are essential for CAF-1 function in budding yeast, and importantly indicate that the Cac1 subunit functions as a scaffold within the CAF-1-H3/H4 complex. Cac1 alone not only binds H3/H4 with high affinity, but also promotes histone tetramerization independent of the other subunits. Moreover, we identify a minimal region in the C-terminus of Cac1, including the structured winged helix domain and glutamate/aspartate-rich domain, which is sufficient to induce (H3/H4)2 tetramerization. These findings reveal a key role of Cac1 in histone tetramerization, providing a new model for CAF-1-H3/H4 architecture and function during eukaryotic replication. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18023.001 PMID:27690308

  16. Biological function and regulation of histone and non-histone lysine methylation in response to DNA damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongcan Chen; Wei-Guo Zhu

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) signaling network is initiated to protect cells from various exogenous and endogenous damage resources.Timely and accurate regulation of DDR proteins is required for distinct DNA damage repair pathways.Post-translational modifications of histone and non-histone proteins play a vital role in the DDR factor foci formation and signaling pathway.Phosphorylation,ubiquitylation,SUMOylation,neddylation,poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation,acetylation,and methylation are all involved in the spatial-temporal regulation of DDR,among which phosphorylation and ubiquitylation are well studied.Studies in the past decade also revealed extensive roles of lysine methylation in response to DNA damage.Lysine methylation is finely regulated by plenty of lysine methyltransferases,lysine demethylases,and can be recognized by proteins with chromodomain,plant homeodomain,Tudor domain,malignant brain tumor domain,or prolinetryptophan-tryptophan-proline domain.In this review,we outline the dynamics and regulation of histone lysine methylation at canonical (H3K4,H3K9,H3K27,H3K36,H3K79,and H4K20) and non-canonical sites after DNA damage,and discuss their context-specific functions in DDR protein recruitment or extraction,chromatin environment establishment,and transcriptional regulation.We also present the emerging advances of lysine methylation in non-histone proteins during DDR.

  17. Cell differentiation along multiple pathways accompanied by changes in histone acetylation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legartová, Soňa; Kozubek, Stanislav; Franek, Michal; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Lochmanová, Gabriela; Martinet, Nadine; Bártová, Eva

    2014-04-01

    Post-translational modification of histones is fundamental to the regulation of basic nuclear processes and subsequent cellular events, including differentiation. In this study, we analyzed acetylated forms of histones H2A, H2B, and H4 during induced differentiation in mouse (mESCs) and human (hESCs) embryonic stem cells and during induced enterocytic differentiation of colon cancer cells in vitro. Endoderm-like differentiation of mESCs induced by retinoic acid and enterocytic differentiation induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate were accompanied by increased mono-, di-, and tri-acetylation of histone H2B and a pronounced increase in di- and tri-acetylation of histone H4. In enterocytes, mono-acetylation of histone H2A also increased and tetra-acetylation of histone H4 appeared only after induction of this differentiation pathway. During differentiation of hESCs, we observed increased mono-acetylation and decreased tri-acetylation of H2B. Mono-, di-, and tri-acetylation of H4 were reduced, manifested by a significant increase in nonacetylated H4 histones. Levels of acetylated histones increased during induced differentiation in mESCs and during histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor-induced enterocytic differentiation, whereas differentiation of human ESCs was associated with reduced acetylation of histones H2B and H4.

  18. The intrinsically disordered distal face of nucleoplasmin recognizes distinct oligomerization states of histones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Isbaal; Fernández-Rivero, Noelia; Arranz, Rocío; Aloria, Kerman; Finn, Ron; Arizmendi, Jesús M.; Ausió, Juan; Valpuesta, José María; Muga, Arturo; Prado, Adelina

    2014-01-01

    The role of Nucleoplasmin (NP) as a H2A-H2B histone chaperone has been extensively characterized. To understand its putative interaction with other histone ligands, we have characterized its ability to bind H3-H4 and histone octamers. We find that the chaperone forms distinct complexes with histones, which differ in the number of molecules that build the assembly and in their spatial distribution. When complexed with H3-H4 tetramers or histone octamers, two NP pentamers form an ellipsoidal particle with the histones located at the center of the assembly, in stark contrast with the NP/H2A-H2B complex that contains up to five histone dimers bound to one chaperone pentamer. This particular assembly relies on the ability of H3-H4 to form tetramers either in solution or as part of the octamer, and it is not observed when a variant of H3 (H3C110E), unable to form stable tetramers, is used instead of the wild-type protein. Our data also suggest that the distal face of the chaperone is involved in the interaction with distinct types of histones, as supported by electron microscopy analysis of the different NP/histone complexes. The use of the same structural region to accommodate all type of histones could favor histone exchange and nucleosome dynamics. PMID:24121686

  19. Histone H3K36 mutations promote sarcomagenesis through altered histone methylation landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Jain, Siddhant U.; Hoelper, Dominik; Bechet, Denise; Molden, Rosalynn C.; Ran, Leili; Murphy, Devan; Venneti, Sriram; Hameed, Meera; Pawel, Bruce R.; Wunder, Jay S.; Dickson, Brendan C.; Lundgren, Stefan M.; Jani, Krupa S.; De Jay, Nicolas; Papillon-Cavanagh, Simon; Andrulis, Irene L.; Sawyer, Sarah L.; Grynspan, David; Turcotte, Robert E.; Nadaf, Javad; Fahiminiyah, Somayyeh; Muir, Tom W.; Majewski, Jacek; Thompson, Craig B.; Chi, Ping; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Allis, C. David; Jabado, Nada; Lewis, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Several types of pediatric cancers reportedly contain high frequency missense mutations in histone H3, yet the underlying oncogenic mechanism remains poorly characterized. Here, we report that the H3 lysine 36 to methionine (H3K36M) mutation impairs the differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells and generates undifferentiated sarcoma in vivo. H3K36M mutant nucleosomes inhibit the enzymatic activities of several H3K36 methyltransferases. Depleting H3K36 methyltransferases, or expressing an H3K36I mutant that similarly inhibits H3K36 methylation, is sufficient to phenocopy the H3K36M mutation. Following the loss of H3K36 methylation, a genome-wide gain in H3K27 methylation leads to a redistribution of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 and de-repression of its target genes known to block mesenchymal differentiation. Our findings are mirrored in human undifferentiated sarcomas where novel K36M/I mutations in H3.1 are identified. PMID:27174990

  20. Histone acetyltransferase p300 mediates histone acetylation of PS1 and BACE1 in a cellular model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Lu

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications, particularly histone acetylation, have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD. While previous studies have suggested that histone hypoacetylation may regulate the expression of genes associated with memory and learning in AD, little is known about histone regulation of AD-related genes such as Presenilin 1(PS1 and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1(BACE1. By utilizing neuroblastoma N2a cells transfected with Swedish mutated human amyloid precursor protein (APP (N2a/APPswe and wild-type APP (N2a/APPwt as cellular models of AD, we examined the alterations of histone acetylation at the promoter regions of PS1 and BACE1 in these cells. Our results revealed that histone H3 acetylation in PS1 and BACE1 promoters is markedly increased in N2a/APPswe cells when compared to N2a/APPwt cells and control cells (vector-transfected, respectively, causing the elevated expression of PS1 and BACE1. In addition, expression of histone acetyltransferase (HAT adenoviral E1A-associated 300-kDa protein (p300 is dramatically enhanced in N2a/APPswe cells compared to N2a/APPwt and control cells. We have further demonstrated the direct binding of p300 protein to the PS1 and BACE1 promoters in N2a/APPswe cells. The expression levels of H3 acetylation of the PS1 and BACE1 promoters and p300 protein, however, were found to be not significantly different in N2a/APPwt cells when compared to controls in our studies. Furthermore, curcumin, a natural selective inhibitor of p300 in HATs, significantly suppressed the expression of PS1 and BACE1 through inhibition of H3 acetylation in their promoter regions in N2a/APPswe cells. These findings indicated that histone acetyltransferase p300 plays a critical role in controlling the expression of AD-related genes through regulating the acetylation of their promoter regions, suggesting that p300 may represent a novel potential therapeutic target for AD.

  1. Histone acetyltransferase p300 mediates histone acetylation of PS1 and BACE1 in a cellular model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; Deng, Yushuang; Yu, Daohai; Cao, Huiming; Wang, Li; Liu, Li; Yu, Caijia; Zhang, Yuping; Guo, Xiuming; Yu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications, particularly histone acetylation, have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). While previous studies have suggested that histone hypoacetylation may regulate the expression of genes associated with memory and learning in AD, little is known about histone regulation of AD-related genes such as Presenilin 1(PS1) and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1(BACE1). By utilizing neuroblastoma N2a cells transfected with Swedish mutated human amyloid precursor protein (APP) (N2a/APPswe) and wild-type APP (N2a/APPwt) as cellular models of AD, we examined the alterations of histone acetylation at the promoter regions of PS1 and BACE1 in these cells. Our results revealed that histone H3 acetylation in PS1 and BACE1 promoters is markedly increased in N2a/APPswe cells when compared to N2a/APPwt cells and control cells (vector-transfected), respectively, causing the elevated expression of PS1 and BACE1. In addition, expression of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) adenoviral E1A-associated 300-kDa protein (p300) is dramatically enhanced in N2a/APPswe cells compared to N2a/APPwt and control cells. We have further demonstrated the direct binding of p300 protein to the PS1 and BACE1 promoters in N2a/APPswe cells. The expression levels of H3 acetylation of the PS1 and BACE1 promoters and p300 protein, however, were found to be not significantly different in N2a/APPwt cells when compared to controls in our studies. Furthermore, curcumin, a natural selective inhibitor of p300 in HATs, significantly suppressed the expression of PS1 and BACE1 through inhibition of H3 acetylation in their promoter regions in N2a/APPswe cells. These findings indicated that histone acetyltransferase p300 plays a critical role in controlling the expression of AD-related genes through regulating the acetylation of their promoter regions, suggesting that p300 may represent a novel potential therapeutic target for AD.

  2. Substrate- and Cofactor-independent Inhibition of Histone Demethylase KDM4C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leurs, Ulrike; Lohse, Brian; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of histone demethylases has within recent years advanced into a new strategy for treating cancer and other diseases. Targeting specific histone demethylases can be challenging as the active sites of KDM1A-B and KDM-4A-D histone demethylases, respectively, are highly conserved. Most...... inhibitors developed up-to-date target either the cofactor- or substrate-binding sites of these enzymes, resulting in a lack of selectivity and off-target effects. This study describes the discovery of the first peptide-based inhibitors of KDM4 histone demethylases that do not share the histone peptide...... sequence, or inhibit through substrate competition. Through screening of DNA-encoded peptide libraries against KDM1 and -4 histone demethylases by phage display, two cyclic peptides targeting the histone demethylase KDM4C were identified and developed as inhibitors by amino acid replacement, truncation...

  3. The Program for Processing Newly-synthesized Histones H3.1 and H4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Eric I.; Fillingham, Jeffrey; Li, Guohong; Zheng, Haiyan; Voigt, Philipp; Kuo, Wei-Hung W.; Seepany, Harshika; Gao, Zhonghua; Day, Loren A.; Greenblatt, Jack F.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism by which newly synthesized histones are imported into the nucleus and deposited onto replicating chromatin alongside segregating nucleosomal counterparts is poorly understood, yet this program is expected to bear on the putative epigenetic nature of histone posttranslational modifications. In order to define the events by which naïve pre-deposition histones are imported into the nucleus, we biochemically purified and characterized the gamut of histone H3.1-containing complexes from human cytoplasmic fractions and identified their associated histone PTMs. Through reconstitution assays, biophysical analyses, and live cell manipulations, we describe in detail this series of events, namely the assembly of H3-H4 dimers, the acetylation of histones by the HAT1 holoenzyme, and the transfer of histones between chaperones that culminates with their karyopherin-mediated nuclear import. We further demonstrate the high degree of conservation for this pathway between higher and lower eukaryotes. PMID:20953179

  4. Quantitative proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications of human histones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian; Nielsen, Eva C; Matthiesen, Rune

    2006-01-01

    software for qualitative and quantitative proteomic analysis of histones extracted from human small cell lung cancer cells. A total of 32 acetylations, methylations, and ubiquitinations were located in the human histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, including seven novel modifications. An LC-MSMS-based method....... Deciphering of the histone code is hampered by the lack of analytical methods for monitoring the combinatorial complexity of reversible multisite modifications of histones, including acetylation and methylation. To address this problem, we used LC-MSMS technology and Virtual Expert Mass Spectrometrist...... was applied in a quantitative proteomic study of the dose-response effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) PXD101 on histone acetylation in human cell cultures. Triplicate LC-MSMS runs at six different HDACi concentrations demonstrated that PXD101 affects acetylation of histones H2A, H2B, H3...

  5. Kinetics of B Cell responses to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 in Ghanaian women naturally exposed to malaria parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampomah, Paulina; Stevenson, Liz; Ofori, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Naturally acquired protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria takes years to develop. It relies mainly on Abs, particularly IgG specific for Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) proteins on the infected erythrocyte surface. It is only partially understood why...... confirmed earlier reports of high atypical memory B cell frequencies among residents of P. falciparum-endemic areas, and indicated an additional effect of pregnancy. Our study provides new knowledge regarding immunity to P. falciparum malaria and underpins efforts to develop PfEMP1-based vaccines against...

  6. El Niño and variations in the prevalence of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M; Brindle, R

    2009-12-01

    Malaria, both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, is a major cause of morbidity in Vanuatu. As P. vivax is more prevalent in seasonal climates and P. falciparum in areas of more consistent rainfall, it is postulated that there will be a correlation between the ratio of vivax:falciparum and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which affects sea surface temperatures and rainfall. With changes in global climate, the frequency, duration and strength of the ENSO are expected to alter, influencing the pattern of malaria. The data showed no obvious correlation between ENSO and either cases of malaria or the vivax:falciparum ratio.

  7. Holocarboxylasesynthetase interacts physically with euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase, linking histone biotinylation with methylation events*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Hassan, Yousef I.; Moriyama, Hideaki; Zempleni, Janos

    2012-01-01

    Holocarboxylasesynthetase (HCS) catalyzes the binding of the vitamin biotin to histonesH3 and H4, thereby creating rare histonebiotinylation marks in the epigenome. These marksco-localize with K9-methylated histone H3 (H3K9me), an abundant gene repression mark. The abundance of H3K9me marks in transcriptionally competent loci decreases when HCS is knocked down and when cells are depleted of biotin. Here we tested the hypothesis that the creation of H3K9me marks is at least partially explained by physical interactions between HCS and histone-lysine N-methyltransferases. Using a novel in silico protocol, we predicted that HCS-interacting proteins contain a GGGG(K/R)G(I/M)R motif. Thismotif, with minor variations, is present in the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EHMT1. Physical interactions between HCS and the N-terminal, ankyrin, and SET domains in EHMT1 were confirmed using yeast-two-hybrid assays, limited proteolysis assays, and co-immunoprecipitation. The interactions were stronger between HCS and the N-terminus in EHMT1 compared with the ankyrin and SET domains, consistent with the localization of the HCS-binding motif in the EHMT1 N-terminus. HCS has the catalytic activity to biotinylate K161 within the binding motif in EHMT1. Mutation of K161 weakenedthe physical interaction between EHMT1 and HCS, but it is unknown whether this effect was caused by loss of biotinylation or loss of the motif. Importantly, HCS knockdown decreased the abundance of H3K9me marks in repeats, suggesting that HCS plays a role in creating histone methylation marks in these loci. We conclude that physical interactionsbetween HCS and EHMT1 mediate epigenomic synergies between biotinylation and methylation events. PMID:23337344

  8. The Histone Code of Toxoplasma gondii Comprises Conserved and Unique Posttranslational Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Sheila C.; Che, Fa-Yun; Silmon de Monerri, Natalie C.; Xiao, Hui; Nieves, Edward; Madrid-Aliste, Carlos; Angel, Sergio O.; Sullivan, William J.; Angeletti, Ruth H.; Kim, Kami; Weiss, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epigenetic gene regulation has emerged as a major mechanism for gene regulation in all eukaryotes. Histones are small, basic proteins that constitute the major protein component of chromatin, and posttranslational modifications (PTM) of histones are essential for epigenetic gene regulation. The different combinations of histone PTM form the histone code for an organism, marking functional units of chromatin that recruit macromolecular complexes that govern chromatin structure and regulate gene expression. To characterize the repertoire of Toxoplasma gondii histone PTM, we enriched histones using standard acid extraction protocols and analyzed them with several complementary middle-down and bottom-up proteomic approaches with the high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer using collision-induced dissociation (CID), higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and/or electron transfer dissociation (ETD) fragmentation. We identified 249 peptides with unique combinations of PTM that comprise the T. gondii histone code. T. gondii histones share a high degree of sequence conservation with human histones, and many modifications are conserved between these species. In addition, T. gondii histones have unique modifications not previously identified in other species. Finally, T. gondii histones are modified by succinylation, propionylation, and formylation, recently described histone PTM that have not previously been identified in parasitic protozoa. The characterization of the T. gondii histone code will facilitate in-depth analysis of how epigenetic regulation affects gene expression in pathogenic apicomplexan parasites and identify a new model system for elucidating the biological functions of novel histone PTM. PMID:24327343

  9. Modification of histones by sugar β-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) occurs on multiple residues, including histone H3 serine 10, and is cell cycle-regulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suisheng; Roche, Kevin; Nasheuer, Heinz-Peter; Lowndes, Noel Francis

    2011-10-28

    The monosaccharide, β-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), can be added to the hydroxyl group of either serines or threonines to generate an O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) residue (Love, D. C., and Hanover, J. A. (2005) Sci. STKE 2005 312, 1-14; Hart, G. W., Housley, M. P., and Slawson, C. (2007) Nature 446, 1017-1022). This post-translational protein modification, termed O-GlcNAcylation, is reversible, analogous to phosphorylation, and has been implicated in many cellular processes. Here, we present evidence that in human cells all four core histones of the nucleosome are substrates for this glycosylation in the relative abundance H3, H4/H2B, and H2A. Increasing the intracellular level of UDP-GlcNAc, the nucleotide sugar donor substrate for O-GlcNAcylation enhanced histone O-GlcNAcylation and partially suppressed phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 (H3S10ph). Expression of recombinant H3.3 harboring an S10A mutation abrogated histone H3 O-GlcNAcylation relative to its wild-type version, consistent with H3S10 being a site of histone O-GlcNAcylation (H3S10glc). Moreover, O-GlcNAcylated histones were lost from H3S10ph immunoprecipitates, whereas immunoprecipitation of either H3K4me3 or H3K9me3 (active or inactive histone marks, respectively) resulted in co-immunoprecipitation of O-GlcNAcylated histones. We also examined histone O-GlcNAcylation during cell cycle progression. Histone O-GlcNAcylation is high in G(1) cells, declines throughout the S phase, increases again during late S/early G(2), and persists through late G(2) and mitosis. Thus, O-GlcNAcylation is a novel histone post-translational modification regulating chromatin conformation during transcription and cell cycle progression.

  10. No need to be HAMLET or BAMLET to interact with histones: binding of monomeric alpha-lactalbumin to histones and basic poly-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permyakov, Serge E; Pershikova, Irina V; Khokhlova, Tatyana I; Uversky, Vladimir N; Permyakov, Eugene A

    2004-05-18

    The ability of a specific complex of human alpha-lactalbumin with oleic acid (HAMLET) to induce cell death with selectivity for tumor and undifferentiated cells was shown recently to be mediated by interaction of HAMLET with histone proteins irreversibly disrupting chromatin structure [Duringer, C., et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 42131-42135]. Here we show that monomeric alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) in the absence of fatty acids is also able to bind efficiently to the primary target of HAMLET, histone HIII, regardless of Ca(2+) content. Thus, the modification of alpha-LA by oleic acid is not required for binding to histones. We suggest that interaction of negatively charged alpha-LA with the basic histone stabilizes apo-alpha-LA and destabilizes the Ca(2+)-bound protein due to compensation for excess negative charge of alpha-LA's Ca(2+)-binding loop by positively charged residues of the histone. Spectrofluorimetric curves of titration of alpha-LA by histone H3 were well approximated by a scheme of cooperative binding of four alpha-LA molecules per molecule of histone, with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 1.0 microM. Such a stoichiometry of binding implies that the binding process is not site-specific with respect to histone and likely is driven by just electrostatic interactions. Co-incubation of positively charged poly-amino acids (poly-Lys and poly-Arg) with alpha-LA resulted in effects which were similar to those caused by histone HIII, confirming the electrostatic nature of the alpha-LA-histone interaction. In all cases that were studied, the binding was accompanied by aggregation. The data indicate that alpha-lactalbumin can be used as a basis for the design of antitumor agents, acting through disorganization of chromatin structure due to interaction between alpha-LA and histone proteins.

  11. A nucleosome turnover map reveals that the stability of histone H4 Lys20 methylation depends on histone recycling in transcribed chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, J Peter; Shukla, Manu; Menendez-Benito, Victoria; Norman-Axelsson, Ulrika; Audergon, Pauline; Sinha, Indranil; Tanny, Jason C; Allshire, Robin C; Ekwall, Karl

    2015-06-01

    Nucleosome composition actively contributes to chromatin structure and accessibility. Cells have developed mechanisms to remove or recycle histones, generating a landscape of differentially aged nucleosomes. This study aimed to create a high-resolution, genome-wide map of nucleosome turnover in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The recombination-induced tag exchange (RITE) method was used to study replication-independent nucleosome turnover through the appearance of new histone H3 and the disappearance or preservation of old histone H3. The genome-wide location of histones was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation-exonuclease methodology (ChIP-exo). The findings were compared with diverse chromatin marks, including histone variant H2A.Z, post-translational histone modifications, and Pol II binding. Finally, genome-wide mapping of the methylation states of H4K20 was performed to determine the relationship between methylation (mono, di, and tri) of this residue and nucleosome turnover. Our analysis showed that histone recycling resulted in low nucleosome turnover in the coding regions of active genes, stably expressed at intermediate levels. High levels of transcription resulted in the incorporation of new histones primarily at the end of transcribed units. H4K20 was methylated in low-turnover nucleosomes in euchromatic regions, notably in the coding regions of long genes that were expressed at low levels. This transcription-dependent accumulation of histone methylation was dependent on the histone chaperone complex FACT. Our data showed that nucleosome turnover is highly dynamic in the genome and that several mechanisms are at play to either maintain or suppress stability. In particular, we found that FACT-associated transcription conserves histones by recycling them and is required for progressive H4K20 methylation.

  12. Evidence for an early prokaryotic origin of histones H2A and H4 prior to the emergence of eukaryotes.

    OpenAIRE

    Slesarev, A I; Belova, G I; Kozyavkin, S A; Lake, J A

    1998-01-01

    Histones have been identified recently in many prokaryotes. These histones, unlike their eukaryotic homologs, are of a single uniform type that is thought to resemble the archetypal ancestor of the eukaryotic histone family. In this paper we report the finding, the cloning and the phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of a prokaryotic histone from the hyperthermophile Methanopyrus kandleri . Unlike previously described prokaryotic histones, the Methanopyrus sequence has a novel structure cons...

  13. Effects of sevuparin on rosette formation and cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiwaew, Somporn; Sritabal, Juntima; Piaraksa, Nattaporn; Keayarsa, Srisuda; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; Utaisin, Chirapong; Sila, Patima; Niramis, Rangsan; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Pongponratn, Emsri; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Leitgeb, Anna M.; Wahlgren, Mats; Lee, Sue J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Chotivanich, Kesinee

    2017-01-01

    In severe falciparum malaria cytoadherence of parasitised red blood cells (PRBCs) to vascular endothelium (causing sequestration) and to uninfected red cells (causing rosette formation) contribute to microcirculatory flow obstruction in vital organs. Heparin can reverse the underlying ligand-receptor interactions, but may increase the bleeding risks. As a heparin-derived polysaccharide, sevuparin has been designed to retain anti-adhesive properties, while the antithrombin-binding domains have been eliminated, substantially diminishing its anticoagulant activity. Sevuparin has been evaluated recently in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria, and is currently investigated in a clinical trial for sickle cell disease. The effects of sevuparin on rosette formation and cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Thailand were investigated. Trophozoite stages of P. falciparum-infected RBCs (Pf-iRBCs) were cultured from 49 patients with malaria. Pf-iRBCs were treated with sevuparin at 37°C and assessed in rosetting and in cytoadhesion assays with human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) under static and flow conditions. The proportion of Pf-iRBCs forming rosettes ranged from 6.5% to 26.0% (median = 12.2%). Rosetting was dose dependently disrupted by sevuparin (50% disruption by 250 μg/mL). Overall 57% of P. falciparum isolates bound to HDMECs under static conditions; median (interquartile range) Pf-iRBC binding was 8.5 (3.0–38.0) Pf-iRBCs/1000 HDMECs. Sevuparin in concentrations ≥ 100 μg/mL inhibited cytoadherence. Sevuparin disrupts P. falciparum rosette formation in a dose dependent manner and inhibits cytoadherence to endothelial cells. The data support assessment of sevuparin as an adjunctive treatment to the standard therapy in severe falciparum malaria. PMID:28249043

  14. Blockage of spontaneous Ca2+ oscillation causes cell death in intraerythrocitic Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Enomoto

    Full Text Available Malaria remains one of the world's most important infectious diseases and is responsible for enormous mortality and morbidity. Resistance to antimalarial drugs is a challenging problem in malaria control. Clinical malaria is associated with the proliferation and development of Plasmodium parasites in human erythrocytes. Especially, the development into the mature forms (trophozoite and schizont of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum causes severe malaria symptoms due to a distinctive property, sequestration which is not shared by any other human malaria. Ca(2+ is well known to be a highly versatile intracellular messenger that regulates many different cellular processes. Cytosolic Ca(2+ increases evoked by extracellular stimuli are often observed in the form of oscillating Ca(2+ spikes (Ca(2+ oscillation in eukaryotic cells. However, in lower eukaryotic and plant cells the physiological roles and the molecular mechanisms of Ca(2+ oscillation are poorly understood. Here, we showed the observation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphospate (IP(3-dependent spontaneous Ca(2+ oscillation in P. falciparum without any exogenous extracellular stimulation by using live cell fluorescence Ca(2+ imaging. Intraerythrocytic P. falciparum exhibited stage-specific Ca(2+ oscillations in ring form and trophozoite stages which were blocked by IP(3 receptor inhibitor, 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB. Analyses of parasitaemia and parasite size and electron micrograph of 2-APB-treated P. falciparum revealed that 2-APB severely obstructed the intraerythrocytic maturation, resulting in cell death of the parasites. Furthermore, we confirmed the similar lethal effect of 2-APB on the chloroquine-resistant strain of P. falciparum. To our best knowledge, we for the first time showed the existence of the spontaneous Ca(2+ oscillation in Plasmodium species and clearly demonstrated that IP(3-dependent spontaneous Ca(2+ oscillation in P. falciparum is critical for the development

  15. A Plasmodium falciparum copper-binding membrane protein with copper transport motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choveaux David L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copper is an essential catalytic co-factor for metabolically important cellular enzymes, such as cytochrome-c oxidase. Eukaryotic cells acquire copper through a copper transport protein and distribute intracellular copper using molecular chaperones. The copper chelator, neocuproine, inhibits Plasmodium falciparum ring-to-trophozoite transition in vitro, indicating a copper requirement for malaria parasite development. How the malaria parasite acquires or secretes copper still remains to be fully elucidated. Methods PlasmoDB was searched for sequences corresponding to candidate P. falciparum copper-requiring proteins. The amino terminal domain of a putative P. falciparum copper transport protein was cloned and expressed as a maltose binding fusion protein. The copper binding ability of this protein was examined. Copper transport protein-specific anti-peptide antibodies were generated in chickens and used to establish native protein localization in P. falciparum parasites by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results Six P. falciparum copper-requiring protein orthologs and a candidate P. falciparum copper transport protein (PF14_0369, containing characteristic copper transport protein features, were identified in PlasmoDB. The recombinant amino terminal domain of the transport protein bound reduced copper in vitro and within Escherichia coli cells during recombinant expression. Immunolocalization studies tracked the copper binding protein translocating from the erythrocyte plasma membrane in early ring stage to a parasite membrane as the parasites developed to schizonts. The protein appears to be a PEXEL-negative membrane protein. Conclusion Plasmodium falciparum parasites express a native protein with copper transporter characteristics that binds copper in vitro. Localization of the protein to the erythrocyte and parasite plasma membranes could provide a mechanism for the delivery of novel anti-malarial compounds.

  16. Genome-wide analysis of regions similar to promoters of histone genes

    KAUST Repository

    Chowdhary, Rajesh

    2010-05-28

    Background: The purpose of this study is to: i) develop a computational model of promoters of human histone-encoding genes (shortly histone genes), an important class of genes that participate in various critical cellular processes, ii) use the model so developed to identify regions across the human genome that have similar structure as promoters of histone genes; such regions could represent potential genomic regulatory regions, e.g. promoters, of genes that may be coregulated with histone genes, and iii/ identify in this way genes that have high likelihood of being coregulated with the histone genes.Results: We successfully developed a histone promoter model using a comprehensive collection of histone genes. Based on leave-one-out cross-validation test, the model produced good prediction accuracy (94.1% sensitivity, 92.6% specificity, and 92.8% positive predictive value). We used this model to predict across the genome a number of genes that shared similar promoter structures with the histone gene promoters. We thus hypothesize that these predicted genes could be coregulated with histone genes. This hypothesis matches well with the available gene expression, gene ontology, and pathways data. Jointly with promoters of the above-mentioned genes, we found a large number of intergenic regions with similar structure as histone promoters.Conclusions: This study represents one of the most comprehensive computational analyses conducted thus far on a genome-wide scale of promoters of human histone genes. Our analysis suggests a number of other human genes that share a high similarity of promoter structure with the histone genes and thus are highly likely to be coregulated, and consequently coexpressed, with the histone genes. We also found that there are a large number of intergenic regions across the genome with their structures similar to promoters of histone genes. These regions may be promoters of yet unidentified genes, or may represent remote control regions that

  17. Falciparum malaria in the north of Laos: the occurrence and implications of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene haplotype SVMNT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Sabine; Alifrangis, Michael; Stohrer, Jörg M;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Pfcrt-gene encodes a transmembrane protein located in the Plasmodium falciparum digestive vacuole. Chloroquine resistant (CQR) strains of African and Southeast Asian origin carry the Pfcrt-haplotype (c72-76) CVIET, whereas most South American and Papua New Guinean CQR stains carry...

  18. Specific and efficient N-propionylation of histones with propionic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester for histone marks characterization by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Rijing; Wu, Haiping; Deng, Haibing; Yu, Yanyan; Hu, Min; Zhai, Huili; Yang, Pengyuan; Zhou, Shaolian; Yi, Wei

    2013-02-19

    Histones participate in epigenetic regulation via a variety of dynamic posttranslational modifications (PTMs) on them. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful tool to investigate histone PTMs. With the bottom-up mass spectrometry approach, chemical derivatization of histones with propionic anhydride or deuterated acetic anhydride followed by trypsin digestion was widely used to block the hydrophilic lysine residues and generate compatible peptides for LC-MS analysis. However, certain severe side reactions (such as acylation on tyrosine or serine) caused by acid anhydrides will lead to a number of analytical issues such as reducing results accuracy and impairing the reproducibility and sensitivity of MS analysis. As an alternative approach, we report a novel derivatization method that utilizes N-hydroxysuccinimide ester to specifically and efficiently derivatize both free and monomethylated amine groups in histones. A competitive inhibiting strategy was implemented in our method to effectively prevent the side reactions. We demonstrated that our method can achieve excellent specificity and efficiency for histones derivatization in a reproducible manner. Using this derivatization method, we succeeded to quantitatively profile the histone PTMs in KMS11 cell line with selective knock out of translocated NSD2 allele (TKO) and the original parental KMS11 cell lines (PAR) (NSD2, a histone methyltransferase that catalyzes the histone H3 K36 methylation), which revealed a significant crosstalk between H3 protein K27 methylation and adjacent K36 methylation.

  19. Artesunate plus pyronaridine for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukirwa, Hasifa; Unnikrishnan, B; Kramer, Christine V; Sinclair, David; Nair, Suma; Tharyan, Prathap

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that people with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria are treated using Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT). ACT combines three-days of a short-acting artemisinin derivative with a longer-acting antimalarial which has a different mode of action. Pyronaridine has been reported as an effective antimalarial over two decades of use in parts of Asia, and is currently being evaluated as a partner drug for artesunate. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of artesunate-pyronaridine compared to alternative ACTs for treating people with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; ClinicalTrials.gov; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); and the WHO International Clinical Trials Search Portal up to 16 January 2014. We searched reference lists and conference abstracts, and contacted experts for information about ongoing and unpublished trials. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials of artesunate-pyronaridine versus other ACTs in adults and children with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. For the safety analysis, we also included adverse events data from trials comparing any treatment regimen containing pyronaridine with regimens not containing pyronaridine. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We combined dichotomous data using risk ratios (RR) and continuous data using mean differences (MD), and presented all results with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included six randomized controlled trials enrolling 3718 children and adults. Artesunate-pyronaridine versus artemether-lumefantrine In two multicentre trials, enrolling

  20. Histone deacetylation is required for progression through mitosis in tobacco cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Butenko, Yana; Grafi, Gideon

    2005-02-01

    Post-translational modifications of core histone proteins play a key role in chromatin structure and function. Here, we study histone post-translational modifications during reentry of protoplasts derived from tobacco mesophyll cells into the cell cycle and evaluate their significance for progression through mitosis. Methylation of histone H3 at lysine residues 4 and 9 persisted in chromosomes during all phases of the cell cycle. However, acetylation of H4 and H3 was dramatically reduced during mitosis in a stage-specific manner; while deacetylation of histone H4 commenced at prophase and persisted up to telophase, histone H3 remained acetylated up to metaphase but was deacetylated at anaphase and telophase. Phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 was initiated at prophase, concomitantly with deacetylation of histone H4, and persisted up to telophase. Preventing histone deacetylation by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) led to accumulation of protoplasts at metaphase-anaphase, and reduced S10 phosphorylation during anaphase and telophase; in cultured tobacco cells, TSA significantly reduced the frequency of mitotic figures. Our results indicate that deacetylation of histone H4 and H3 in tobacco protoplasts occurs during mitosis in a phase-specific manner, and is important for progression through mitosis.