WorldWideScience

Sample records for fair trading act

  1. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  2. Trade Fairs, Markets and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how trade fairs act as a framing mechanism that enables participants to come together for the exchange of goods and services and to perceive themselves as acting in a social field. This way, trade fairs make markets possible. Based on ongoing participant observation at book....../material, social, situational, content/appreciative, and the use value of goods, values which are then equated with a commodity exchange value in the form of price. Trade fairs frame order, but they are also events where the respective field might be reconfigurated. The contingency of personal interaction...

  3. Trade Fairs, Markets and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This working paper takes as its starting point the work of the German economic sociologist, Jens Beckert, and his call for empirical investigations into how intentionally rational actors reach decisions under conditions when they do not know what is best to do. It describes how trade fairs act...... as a framing mechanism that enables participants to come together for the exchange of goods and services and to perceive themselves as acting in a social field. Fairs frame the contacts people make and sustain as networks; the institutional rules and social norms guiding their behaviour there; and the values...... and cognitive frames that they bring to bear and negotiate with other participants. They make actors aware of a ‘mutual correspondence’ in their interpretation of the goods in which they deal and of the social situations in which engage for the sake of such trade. Trade fairs both configure fields and make...

  4. Fair trade international surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbyrd, Casey

    2009-12-01

    Since the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertile individuals have crossed borders to obtain treatments unavailable or unaffordable in their own country. Recent media coverage has focused on the outsourcing of surrogacy to developing countries, where the cost for surrogacy is significantly less than the equivalent cost in a more developed country. This paper discusses the ethical arguments against international surrogacy. The major opposition viewpoints can be broadly divided into arguments about welfare, commodification and exploitation. It is argued that the only valid objection to international surrogacy is that surrogate mothers may be exploited by being given too little compensation. However, the possibility of exploitation is a weak argument for prohibition, as employment alternatives for potential surrogate mothers may be more exploitative or more harmful than surrogacy. It is concluded that international surrogacy must be regulated, and the proposed regulatory mechanism is termed Fair Trade Surrogacy. The guidelines of Fair Trade Surrogacy focus on minimizing potential harms to all parties and ensuring fair compensation for surrogate mothers.

  5. Fair Trade - is it really fair?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Tomáš; Mysliveček, Jan

    -, č. 367 (2008), s. 1-53 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : Fair Trade * coffee * price setting Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp367.pdf

  6. The impact of fair trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Fair Trade started as an effort to enable smallholder producers from developing countries to successfully compete in international markets. Better access to market outlets and stable prices are considered key principles for sustainable poverty reduction and stakeholder

  7. Marketingová komunikace fair trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nídlová, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on how fair trade and its brand are communicated on the market. The theoretical part describes the basic concepts of marketing, marketing communication and marketing research. The practical part describes the general meaning of fair trade and its main principles and goals. The following section is devoted to the analysis of recent marketing activities. The main research investigates the level of knowledge of fair trade among Czech consumers. The conclusion summarizes the r...

  8. Empowerment of Marginalized Producer Groups through Fair Trade ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Empowerment of Marginalized Producer Groups through Fair Trade Practices ... Fair Trade Forum India (FTF I) is the national network of fair trade ... An IDRC delegation will join international delegates and city representatives at the ICLEI ...

  9. FAIR TRADE: ITS REAL IMPACT ON THE WORKING POOR

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid A. Krasnozhon; David Simpson; Walter E. Block

    2015-01-01

    Fair trade gains popularity, while free trade is undergoing more and more criticism. Since international free trade supposedly pollutes the environment, promotes the utilization of sweatshops, exploits child labor, and impoverishes developing countries, fair trade is a preferable alternative (World Fair Trade Organization, 2011). By reviewing empirical studies and examining regulations concerning fair trade practices, this paper provides a comparative analysis of both free and fair trade in l...

  10. Fishers, Fair Trade, and finding middle ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, Megan; Bush, Simon; Oosterveer, Peter; Larastiti, Laksmi

    2016-01-01

    The goal of Fair Trade certification is to contribute to sustainable development by offering trading conditions that are transparent and equitable. One important condition is improved market access and strengthened producer organizations. In regions like Southeast Asia this goal can be hard to

  11. Starbucks's Fair Trade in the Edge of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Rizqiyanto, Saomi

    2017-01-01

    Starbucks as a global company that reflect American values plays an important role in the trade of coffee industry. In February 2000, Starbucks partially adopted the Fair Trade and in early 2001 Starbucks fully adopt Fair Trade. This research seeks to examine the relationship between Starbucks as a symbol of globalization with Starbucks as a global corporation who adopt Fair Trade. This study also seeks to explain how any practical Starbucks Fair Trade as a whole and uncover the reasons behin...

  12. Fair trade - Õiglane kaubandus / Tuuliki Kasonen-Lins

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasonen-Lins, Tuuliki

    2007-01-01

    Õiglase kaubanduse liikumise ajaloolisest arengust. Fair trade on kaubandusvõrk, kus kaubeldakse arengumaades inimväärsetes tingimustes toodetud ja sealsetelt kaupmeestelt õiglaste hindadega ostetud kaupadega. Fair Trade Euroopas

  13. A Survey of the Economics of Fair Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Dammert, Ana C.; Mohan, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Fair Trade has spread in developing countries as an initiative aimed at lifting poor smallholder farmers out of poverty by providing them with premium prices, availability of credit, and improved community development and social goods. Fair Trade is also viewed as a niche market for high value products in a context of globalization and trade liberalization policies that affect smallholder farmers in developing countries. The question of whether Fair Trade affects the welfare of rural farmers,...

  14. The Fair Trade Balance: New Challenges after 25 years of Fair Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.

    2012-01-01

    During the last 25 years Fair Trade (FT) experienced substantial growth, but competition from private labels is increasingly challenging the policy foundations of the FT business model. While direct welfare effects of FT for farmers are rather modest, security of delivery contracts and pre-financing

  15. Fair Trade in Sustainable Development. The Potential for Fair Trade Market Growth in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Śmigielska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of Fair Trade, which is considered an alternative to conventional trade, and becomes increasingly popular in the Western countries. In addition, some results of empirical research, conveyed in Poland and aimed at diagnosis and assessment of Fairtrade products market, are provided. Fair trade is analysed not only in the broad theoretical context which shows its contribution to sustainable development and relation to corporate social responsibility, but also in the framework of supply chains management. The benefits from the Fairtrade label, including transaction costs reduction are indicated. The assumption is that to achieve them, consumer acceptance of the idea and willingness to buy Fairtrade products are necessary. The empirical research was focused on answering the question whether a market niche for Fairtrade goods exists in Poland and how to develop it by the means of communication tools. The market niche, although very small, has been identified and described. It is apparent that, in order to develop it, a public policy, aimed at raising the awareness of Fair Trade idea, is necessary as well as marketing activities like social marketing Internet campaigns and better and more prominently products display.

  16. Starbucks’s Fair Trade in The Edge of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saomi Rizqiyanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Starbucks as a global company that reflect American values plays an important role in the trade of coffee industry. In February 2000, Starbucks partially adopted the Fair Trade and in early 2001 Starbucks fully adopt Fair Trade. This research seeks to examine the relationship between Starbucks as a symbol of globalization with Starbucks as a global corporation who adopt Fair Trade. This study also seeks to explain how any practical Starbucks Fair Trade as a whole and uncover the reasons behind Starbucks adopt Fair Trade. The research uses a case study method and using a primary and secondary reference sources in the form of books and journals. As a results, this study indicate that Starbucks has strong reasons that ultimately makes the company adopted the Fair Trade. The adoption of Fair Trade also known as CAFE Practices is apparently not spared from criticism of the observer of Fair Trade.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v16i2.5546

  17. Fair Trade: Social Regulation in Global Food Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynolds, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the theoretical and empirical parameters of social regulation in contemporary global food markets, focusing on the rapidly expanding Fair Trade initiative. Fair Trade seeks to transform North/South relations by fostering ethical consumption, producer empowerment, and certified commodity sales. This initiative joins an array…

  18. Fair Trade Flowers: Global Certification, Environmental Sustainability, and Labor Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynolds, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the organization of the fair trade flower industry, integration of Ecuadorian enterprises into these networks, and power of certification to address key environmental and social concerns on participating estates. Pursuing a social regulatory approach, I locate fair trade within the field of new institutions that establish and…

  19. THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO FREE TRADE WITHIN FAIR TRADE CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya’kub Aiyub Kadir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free trade and fair trade are considered an ambiguous term with relative meanings of identification. Objectively, free and fair trade does not mean completely free and fair, but it means trade under binding rules obeyed by member countries as a consequence of their commitment after signing and ratification of the WTO agreements. Hence, this paper aims at exploring the issue and does an effort to harmonise between free trade and fair trade within the WTO system. Perdagangan bebas dan perdagangan yang adil adalah dua istilah yang ambigu maknanya. Secara obyektif, perdagangan bebas tidak bermakna bebas dan adil seluruhnya, tetapi bermakna sebuah perdagangan di bawah aturan-aturan mengikat setelah negara anggota menandatangani dan meratifikasi kesepakatan WTO. Tetapi dalam realitas kebanyakan Negara, terutama negara berkembang tidak mampu untuk membuka pasar dan menurunkan tarif secara keseluruhan. Persoalan tidak berimbangnya kekuatan, kurang demokrasi, krisis legitimasi dan dobel standar dalam WTO sistem merupakan sebuah tantangan yang masih berlanjut. Paper ini akan mengkaji persoalan ini dan berupaya mengharmonisasikan antara perdagangan bebas dan adil dalam sistem WTO.

  20. THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO FREE TRADE WITHIN FAIR TRADE CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya’kub Aiyub Kadir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free trade and fair trade are considered an ambiguous term with relative meanings of identification. Objectively, free and fair trade does not mean completely free and fair, but it means trade under binding rules obeyed by member countries as a consequence of their commitment after signing and ratification of the WTO agreements. Hence, this paper aims at exploring the issue and does an effort to harmonise between free trade and fair trade within the WTO system.   Perdagangan bebas dan perdagangan yang adil adalah dua istilah yang ambigu maknanya. Secara obyektif, perdagangan bebas tidak bermakna bebas dan adil seluruhnya, tetapi bermakna sebuah perdagangan di bawah aturan-aturan mengikat setelah negara anggota menandatangani dan meratifikasi kesepakatan WTO. Tetapi dalam realitas kebanyakan Negara, terutama negara berkembang tidak mampu untuk membuka pasar dan menurunkan tarif secara keseluruhan. Persoalan tidak berimbangnya kekuatan, kurang demokrasi, krisis legitimasi dan dobel standar dalam WTO sistem merupakan sebuah tantangan yang masih berlanjut. Paper ini akan mengkaji persoalan ini dan berupaya mengharmonisasikan antara perdagangan bebas dan adil dalam sistem WTO.

  1. Fair Trade Practices in the Northwest Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael D’Almeida Martins

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and analyzes the Arte Baniwa project, a sustainable development project based on the production and commercialization of Baniwa indigenous basketwork with the support of the Instituto Socioambiental (ISA, a major NGO in Brazil. The project seeks to enhance the value of the Baniwa basketmaking tradition, increase production within the limits of the sustainable use of natural resources, generate income for indigenous producers and their political associations, and train indigenous leadership in the skills of business management. The methodology encompasses a literature review on fair trade and builds upon ethnographic and participative research methods. The narrative and analysis of the case study comprise a framework that is two-fold: first, it looks at existing inter-organizational tiers between actors and identifies the presence of two different logics within the project; second, it encompasses the reality of many emerging fair trade initiatives in Brazil which harness market forces to pursue local sustainable development. The paper argues that ISA has acted as a boundary organization by communicating, translating and mediating between traditional (indigenous knowledge and Western culture. By doing so, it was able to mobilize the project’s capacity to promote sustainable development.

  2. Fair Trade and the Fetishization of Levinasian Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staricco, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    justice, proving unable to grasp the important ethical elements that Fair Trade integrates in its project. In reaction to this, this article intends to critically examine what the Fair Trade movement proposes to be ‘fair’ by resorting to the thought of the French philosopher Emmanuel Lévinas......The certification-based Fair Trade initiative has been steadily growing during the last two decades. While many scholars have analyzed its main characteristics and developments, only a few have assessed it against a concept of justice. And those exceptional cases have only focused on distributive....... To accomplish this goal, a new understanding of his conception of justice is presented, one that seeks to overcome the limitations that the two most common interpretations in the literature suffer. The idea of Lévinas’ ‘dialectics of justice’ is used to discuss Fair Trade’s relation of alterity, its...

  3. A FEW CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT TRADE FAIR STANDS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEIDONI Nadina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects related to the design of a trade fair stand, advertising a company specialized in the fabrication of corrugated fibre board packaging. The first section reviews shortly the main features of the industrial design. The second section deals with the structural conception of successful trade shows. Further, the importance of the package in the marketing matters is addressed. In this context corrugated fibreboard, as secondary or tertiary material is essential. In the final section, a comparison between two trade fair stands, representing a corrugated fibreboard company are presented.

  4. A cut above: building the market for fair trade timber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2008-02-15

    Unlike coffee and cotton, timber has yet to become a fair trade commodity. But now its time has come. Rights over forest resources are increasingly ceded to small-scale community forest enterprises (CFEs), as large-scale industrial logging is now largely discredited in the sustainable development context. The fair trade emphasis on just pricing for poorer producers is exactly what CFEs need as incentive to invest in sustainable forest management — and secure environmental and poverty reduction benefits at one stroke. With fair trade timber, CFEs could boost their entrepreneurial capacity using democratic business models with in-built social and environmental responsibility. The Fair Trade Labelling Organizations International and Forest Stewardship Council are exploring the ways and means through a new partnership, but more is needed. Consumers must be made aware of why paying higher prices is key to creating CFE incentives for sustainable forest management and poverty reduction. Time and money are needed for consumer education and installing fair trade timber in producer country forest policies, market segregation and procurement policies at all levels.

  5. 76 FR 53882 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Trade Fair Certification Program Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... companies by introducing them to key international trade fairs where they can achieve their export... trade fair, and to ensure that the fair is a good marketing opportunity for U.S. companies. II. Method...

  6. A Bumper Crop of Fair Trade Coffee Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Talbot

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The history of the world coffee market is a story of cycles of boom and bust. The most recent bust, one of the most severe in history, began in 1998 and started to ease in 2005. This period of severe crisis across the coffee producing countries in the developing world stimulated a growing interest in fair trade coffee as a means of helping the small farmers who were being devastated by historically low prices. As public interest and consumption grew, social scientists, as is their wont, set out to study the phenomenon. The result is the current bumper crop of books analyzing fair trade coffee.

  7. Willingness to pay for fair trade products: Results from a discrete choice experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peyer, Mathias; Balderjahn, Ingo; Scholderer, Joachim

    under the assumption that a fair trade label was included on the product package. It is concluded that fair trade certification may result yield real competitive advantage for producers of consumer goods, and that the generality of the observed effects should be investigated in other product categories...... awareness of fair trade labels and prior experience with fair trade products as individual-differences variables. Results indicated that consumer willingness to pay for fair trade labels was significant and positive under virtually all experimental conditions, and increased further when the fair trade label...... was combined with a strong manufacturer brand, when participants had prior experience with fair-trade products, and when participants had high prior awareness of fair trade labels. Based on the parameter estimates, price response functions were fitted, and changes in market shares were predicted for each brand...

  8. 2006 China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair:Ample Fruits Shown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2006 Malaysia China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair, organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT), was held in August in Prince World Trade Center(PWTC), Kuala Lumpur.

  9. Fair Housing Act Cases Filed by Year and State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The 'Fair Housing Act Cases Filed by Year and State with the Bases and Outcomes - 2000-2013' dataset summarizes the cases filed as a result of complaints made...

  10. 77 FR 74831 - Fair Credit Reporting Act Disclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... the FACT Act added a new Section 612(a) to the FCRA that gives consumers the right to request free... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION [Docket No. CFPB-2012-0047] Fair Credit Reporting Act Disclosures AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice regarding charges for certain...

  11. Preschools Under the Fair Labor Standards Act. (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    This pamphlet provides general information concerning the application of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) to employees of preschool centers. The contents include discussion of the purview of the Act regarding preschools; monetary requirements such as minimum wages and employee facilities; provisions for equal pay, overtime pay, work hours,…

  12. Act locally, trade globally. Emissions trading for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Climate policy raises a number of challenges for the energy sector, the most significant being the transition from a high to a low-CO2 energy path in a few decades. Emissions trading has become the instrument of choice to help manage the cost of this transition, whether used at international or at domestic level. Act Locally, Trade Globally, offers an overview of existing trading systems, their mechanisms, and looks into the future of the instrument for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Are current markets likely to be as efficient as the theory predicts? What is, if any, the role of governments in these markets? Can domestic emissions trading systems be broadened to activities other than large stationary energy uses? Can international emissions trading accommodate potentially diverse types of emissions targets and widely different energy realities across countries? Are there hurdles to linking emissions trading systems based on various design features? Can emissions trading carry the entire burden of climate policy, or will other policy instruments remain necessary? In answering these questions, Act Locally, Trade Globally seeks to provide a complete picture of the future role of emissions trading in climate policy and the energy sector.

  13. Fair-trade and tea: a comparative analysis of value chains in Kabarole Districtm Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odoch, M.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation examines the competiveness of the fair trade tea value chain through a comparative study of the conventional and fair trade tea value chains in Kabarole district, Uganda. By examining this economically important subject, it clarifies the process by which value chains compete for

  14. Fair trade for coffee producing small-scale farmers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam kwon Mun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The agriculture played an important role in the industrialization process of Mexico. However, the agricultural policy of State has isolated small scale farmers, giving priority just to large agricultural exporters. This study analyzes the implications that can have fair trade for the Mexican small scale farmers. The fair trade tries to cover the production cost and basic necessities for the small scale farmers, making direct ties between producers and consumers. This type of linkage guarantees the minimum price and the extra social payment to the small scale farmers, grouped in cooperatives o associations.Coffee is one of the most known fair trade product, and Mexico is one of the most important coffer exporters of the world. The fair trade of coffee production where many small farmers work is carried out by cooperative like UCIRI (Unión de Comunidades Indígenas de la Región Istmo. The case study shows that fair trade cannot provide complete answers to the all problems that have small farmers. But, since fair trade tries to promote small farmers well-being and many small farmers could get rid of extreme poverty thanks to fair trade, it might be possible to say that fair trade can be one valuable option for the sustainable development of small farmers.

  15. The Impact of Fair Trade Certification for Coffee Farmers in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Fort, R.

    2012-01-01

    Smallholder farmers producing for Fair Trade market outlets are usually considered to benefit from better prices and stable market outlets. However, many empirical studies verifying this impact suffer from strong selection bias. This study uses a balanced sample of Fair Trade farmers and likewise

  16. Reframing ‘Crisis’ in Fair Trade Coffee Production: Trajectories of Agrarian Change in Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, J.; Fisher, E.; Arce, A.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    A focus on crisis provides a methodological window to understand how agrarian change shapes producer engagement in fair trade. This orientation challenges a separation between the market and development, situating fair trade within global processes that incorporate agrarian histories of social

  17. Hijacked organic, limited local, faulty fair trade: what's a radical to eat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Organic farming has been hijacked by big business. Local food can have a larger carbon footprint than products shipped in from overseas. Fair trade doesn't address the real concerns of farmers in the global South. As the food movement has moved from the countercultural fringe to become a mainstream phenomenon, organic, local, and fair trade advocates have been beset by criticism from overt foes and erstwhile allies alike. Now that Starbucks advertises fair trade coffee and Kraft owns Boca soy burgers, it's fair to ask, "What's a radical to eat?"

  18. Institutions of Higher Education Under the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    The Fair Labor Standards Act contains provisions and standards concerning minimum wages, equal pay, maximum hours and overtime pay, recordkeeping, and child labor. These basic requirements apply to employees engaged in interstate commerce or in the production of goods for interstate commerce and also to employees in certain enterprises that are so…

  19. Preschools Under the Fair Labor Standards Act, July 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    This pamphlet provides general information concerning the application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to employees of preschool centers. Included is a discussion of: (1) Basic Monetary Requirements, including minimum wages and facilities furnished to the preschool employees, (2) Equal Pay Provisions, (3) Overtime, (4) Hours Worked, (5) Exemptions,…

  20. Ethischer Konsum vs. Konsumreduktion: Inwieweit lenkt Fair Trade vom Problem des Überkonsums ab?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Ulinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the alleged trade-off between reducing overconsumption and promoting ethical consumption, especially in the form of Fair Trade. While Fair Trade is primarily concerned with promoting greater equity in international trade, it does not address problems of ecological exhaustion through overconsumption. Furthermore, Fair Trade could promote increased consumption by inducing false consciousness among consumers. In this context, I propose an integrative approach of trying to address these two problems simultaneously by changing the social patterns of consumption, instead of interpreting them as diametrically opposed. Awareness is the first step in inducing a behavioural change. On an individual level, Fair Trade is fairly successful at creating sensational feedback processes, which increase the awareness for the social and environmental implications of individual consumer behaviour. Moreover, on an aggregate level, Fair Trade changes social patterns of consumption to promote ethical consideration in the context of consumer decision-making. Although Fair Trade is not primarily concerned with the level of consumption, it can help bring forth a change in consumption patterns in order to reduce overconsumption.

  1. 48 CFR 52.225-4 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate. 52.225-4 Section 52.225-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-4 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreement—Israeli Trade Act... Agreement—Israeli Trade Act Certificate (JUN 2009) (a) The offeror certifies that each end product, except...

  2. Medical rosters and the Trade Practices Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengilley, Warren

    2003-04-07

    Medical rosters are not free of trade practices problems, notwithstanding assurances by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC). Neither the ACCC nor the recently convened Wilkinson Committee has applied rigorous legal principles in interpreting the Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cwlth) to reach its conclusions. The Australian law should be changed to bring it into line with that of the United States and New Zealand.

  3. Power plant instrumentation and control. Innovations shown at the Interkama '99 trade fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullemeyer, M.; Fritz, P.

    2000-01-01

    At the Interkama '99 trade fair, innovative software and hardware solutions for the power industry 'from power plant to the plug' were shown. The report mentions the companies and explains their new developments and systems. (orig./CB) [de

  4. Regulation of health practitioners by trade practices and fair trading legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2009-02-01

    In a variety of situations, particularly those characterised by commerciality, corporate structures and unregistered practitioners, there are major limitations to traditional regulation by health boards and councils, as well as hearings by external tribunals. Part of the difficulty lies with the ability of external bodies to award compensation to complainants/notifiers proved to have suffered adverse consequences from proven unprofessional conduct. This column advances suggestions for reform of the powers of external tribunals to redress this deficit. It also reviews the benefits of an associated form of regulation by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission and offices of fair trading to enable consumer protection. It reviews recent decisions in the Federal Court of Australia and the Supreme Court of Victoria in such matters as well as recommendations in 2008 by the Victorian Health Services Commissioner.

  5. 48 CFR 25.406 - Israeli Trade Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Israeli Trade Act. 25.406... PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.406 Israeli Trade Act. Acquisitions of supplies by most agencies are covered by the Israeli Trade Act, if the estimated value of the acquisition is $50,000 or more...

  6. Consumer Behavior Analysis of Fair Trade Coffee: Evidence from Field Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Jeanine P.; Werner, Matt J.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers have shown increased interest in purchasing goods with pro- environmental claims or products that promote societal well-being, such as fair wages paid to farmers of the raw materials and workers in the manufacturing process of a good (e.g., social product labels, including Fair Trade). However, few studies have explored actual purchase…

  7. Is Equality always desirable? : Analyzing the Trade-Off between Fairness and Attractiveness in Crew Rostering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Breugem (Thomas); T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); D. Huisman (Dennis)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we analyze the trade-off between perceived fairness and perceived attractiveness in crew rostering. First, we introduce the Fairness-oriented Crew Rostering Problem. In this problem, attractive cyclic rosters have to be constructed, while respecting a pre-specified

  8. 48 CFR 52.225-3 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Israeli Trade Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Israeli Trade Act. 52.225-3 Section 52.225-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-3 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli Trade Act. As prescribed in 25.1101(b)(1)(i), insert the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli...

  9. Fair Trade Facts and Figures 2010: A Success Story for Producers and Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boonman (Mark); W. Huisman (Wendela); E. Sarrucco-Fedorovtsjev (Elmy); T. Sarrucco (Terya)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstractCommentary on the report by Carol Wills (the full commentary is offered as a separate download ...) “Handicraft is the trade of the poor. They don’t have land to produce food” Joan Karanja, Director of Cooperation for Fair Trade in Africa (COFTA) “That is the little

  10. Gas fair and electricity : Speaker presentations of the 6. annual North American natural gas and electricity conference and trade fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Future prospects of North American natural gas and electric utilities following deregulation, competition and restructuring have been the principal topics of the 22 papers presented at the 6. North American Natural Gas and Electricity Conference and Trade Fair. Progress in some of the major pipeline projects that will bring Canadian gas to US markets, other pipeline issues, energy financing and the impact of technology in this new era of competition also received attention. figs

  11. Fair Trade as a Solution for Inequality on the Global Market - Corporate Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Lovric

    2016-01-01

    New alternatives to free trade are evolving at the global market; their aim is to bring more ethics and morality into the relations between the trading parties (producers, corporations and buyers). This article analyses one of such alternatives i.e. Fair Trade from the perspective of influencing change of corporate politics. Due to the rising awareness of buyers about the origin of goods and the initiatives of forcing corporations into changing their practices based on unethica...

  12. The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 and procedural fairness in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    fair. In a South African context, procedural fairness and substantive fairness are therefore of equal importance. 5. The Consumer Protection Act and procedural fairness. In the discussion below, the special ..... actually read the terms, but standardisation in presentation may make it slightly easier for a consumer to understand ...

  13. The impact of retailers own brand Fair Trade products on developing countries producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, L. K.; Vieira, L. M.; Ferreira, G. C.

    Fair Trade certification allows small producers to access international markets and to add value to their products. The Fair-Trade Labelling Organisation certification body (FLOCERT) is responsible for organising and transferring technical information from the consumer market to producers...... in developing countries. Fair trade certification reduces the complexity of transactions and enables producers to adhere to the certification system. FLOCERT exercises governance power in production sites to meet demand by the enforcement of the standards not dissimilar to what happens in global value chains....... Large food retailers have changed practices in the agro-food sector and opened markets to small producers from developing countries. Nevertheless, results reveal that certification imparts in high entry barriers in the form of the need for formal producers' associations, minimum export capacity...

  14. French fair trade coffee buyers' purchasing motives: An exploratory study using means-end chains analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Ferran, Florence; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2007-01-01

    Considering the growth of fair trade product consumption in European countries and the expansion of its distribution to different kinds of distribution networks in reply to increasing consumer sensitivity to the ethical characteristics of a product, it becomes important to understand it better....... In this paper, we examine the motives and the values underlying this purchase through a laddering methodology with 54 French fair trade coffee purchasers. A quantitative analysis of the ladders allows us to define several groups of motives that are socially and individually oriented. Moreover, our results...

  15. Fair Trade and Justice: A Case Study of Fair Trade and its Effect on the Freedom of Bolivia’s Indigenous Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Stenn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Amartya Sen has written that for justice to be realized, freedom needs to be expanded. Fair Trade, a model of global trade that puts into motion billions of dollars, purports to promote justice, and therefore expands freedom. Fair Trade is a four-pillar structure comprised of institutions, producers, consumers, and government/policy. An economic, ethnographic study of Bolivia’s indigenous women working within the Fair Trade model for the past 15 years reported mixed results. The women questioned the justice of the model based on negative experiences induced by irregular work, stress, and unsupportive communities. At the same time, women acknowledged enhanced capabilities and opportunities emanating from skills development, empowerment, and income. Although it increased women’s freedom, there are ways in which Fair Trade could be made fairer through transparency, reciprocity, and public reasoning. This work is significant in the sense that it creates a new understanding of justice and trade that enables women’s voices to be heard.Amartya Sen ha planteado que para lograr justicia, se necesita expandir la libertad. El Comercio Justo, un modelo de comercio global que pone en movimiento miles de millones de dólares, pretende promover la justicia y, por consiguiente, expandir la libertad. El Comercio Justo es una estructura de cuatro pilares que comprende instituciones, productores, consumidores   y gobiernos/políticas gubernamentales. Un estudio económico y etnográfico de mujeres indígenas de Bolivia que han trabajado con este modelo de comercio los últimos 15 años reportó resultados muy diversos. Las mujeres cuestionaban la justicia de un modelo basado en experiencias negativas resultado del trabajo irregular, del estrés y de la falta de apoyo por parte de las comunidades. Al mismo tiempo, las mujeres reconocían mejoras en las capacidades y oportunidades que emanaban del desarrollo de habilidades, el empoderamiento y los ingresos

  16. Emissions Trading Schemes under IFRS - Towards a “true and fair view”

    OpenAIRE

    Haupt, Madlen; Ismer, Roland

    2011-01-01

    This research paper seeks to contribute to the latest discussions on the financial reporting for emissions trading schemes. It starts out by giving an overview of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) accounting policies, which are currently applied by the majority of participants in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. It then argues that in order to fulfil the aims of financial reporting under IFRS, namely to provide a true and fair view, accounting must depict CO2 as a cost of...

  17. The limits of a success story: Fair trade and the history of postcolonial globalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, P.

    2015-01-01

    The history of fair trade is the matter of a heated debate wrapped up in differences regarding the ideals, goals and allies of a movement which has achieved highly visible successes in recent years. The emerging historiography challenges the common narrative of recent and sudden success. It draws

  18. Social Enterprise with International Impact: The Case for Fair Trade Certification of Volunteer Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdee, Anna; Emmott, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Social enterprise and fair trade are seen increasingly as redefining capitalist relationships through revaluing social impact and ownership in enterprise activities. One of the dilemmas in such activities is the tension between operating a viable and commercially-sustainable enterprise and maximising social and developmental impacts. This article…

  19. The Darjeeling Distinction: Labor and Justice on Fair-Trade Tea Plantations in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Poerting

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: The Darjeeling Distinction: Labor and Justice on Fair-Trade Tea Plantations in India. By Sarah Besky. Berkeley, CA: University of California press, 2014. xxxi + 233 pp. US$ 29.95. ISBN 978-0-520-27739-7.

  20. Living in times of solidarity: fair trade and the fractured life worlds of Guatemalan coffee farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arce, A.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the social effects of fair trade transactions emerging from policies to expand the market around the globe. Focusing on the case of coffee farmers in Guatemala, it examines tensions that are created in local organisational networks linked to production, processing and

  1. Segmenting Consumers According to Their Purchase of Products with Organic, Fair-Trade, and Health Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; van Doorn, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Using actual purchase data of food products with different labels, we examine Dutch consumers' purchases of organic, fair-trade, and health labels. Empirically, consumers' purchase behavior of labeled products can be categorized into two dimensions: a health-related and a sustainable dimension

  2. The relationship between in-store marketing and observed sales for organic versus fair trade products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.; Nierop, van J.E.M.; Sloot, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    To stimulate sales of sustainable products, such as organic and fair trade products, retailers need to know whether their in-store instruments effectively enhance market shares. This study uses sales data and a multilevel modeling approach to explain the market shares of sustainable products

  3. The relationship between in-store marketing and observed sales for organic versus fair trade products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, Erica; van Nierop, Erjen; Sloot, Laurens

    To stimulate sales of sustainable products, such as organic and fair trade products, retailers need to know whether their in-store instruments effectively enhance market shares. This study uses sales data and a multilevel modeling approach to explain the market shares of sustainable products

  4. Fair Trade as a Solution for Inequality on the Global Market - Corporate Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lovric

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available New alternatives to free trade are evolving at the global market; their aim is to bring more ethics and morality into the relations between the trading parties (producers, corporations and buyers. This article analyses one of such alternatives i.e. Fair Trade from the perspective of influencing change of corporate politics. Due to the rising awareness of buyers about the origin of goods and the initiatives of forcing corporations into changing their practices based on unethical treatment of workers in the 3rd world countries, alternative ways of trade are becoming part of traditional corporate environment in the free trade chain. By elaborating fundamental principles of certification process, the article gives an answer to the question of creation of added ethical value in the aspect of positioning corporations in the “new economy”.

  5. Outage Probability versus Fairness Trade-off in Opportunistic Relay Selection with Outdated CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicario JoseLopez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the existing trade-offs in terms of system performance versus fairness of a cooperative system based on opportunistic relay selection (ORS and with outdated channel state information (CSI. In particular, system performance is analytically evaluated in terms of outage probability, and the fairness behavior is assessed based on the power consumption at the different relays. In order to improve the fairness behavior of ORS while keeping the selection diversity gain, we propose a relay selection mechanism where the relay with the highest normalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is selected for relaying the source's information. The proposed strategy is compared with existing relay selection strategies by adopting a novel graphical representation inspired by expected profit versus risk plots used in modern portfolio theory. As shown in the paper, this strategy allows operating the system in more favorable points of the outage versus fairness region.

  6. 16 CFR 313.16 - Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONGRESS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date § 313.16 Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. Nothing in this part shall be construed to modify, limit, or... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. 313...

  7. 12 CFR 216.16 - Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date § 216.16 Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. Nothing in this part shall be construed to modify, limit, or... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. 216.16...

  8. 12 CFR 573.16 - Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date § 573.16 Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. Nothing in this part shall be construed to modify, limit, or supersede the operation of the... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. 573.16...

  9. 12 CFR 716.16 - Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date § 716.16 Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. Nothing in this part shall be construed to modify, limit, or supersede the... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. 716.16...

  10. 12 CFR 332.16 - Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date § 332.16 Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. Nothing in this part shall be construed to modify, limit, or... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. 332.16...

  11. 77 FR 14688 - Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... to revise the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage, overtime and recordkeeping regulations... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Part 552 RIN 1235-AA05 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Labor. ACTION: Extension of...

  12. 77 FR 11021 - Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... proposing to revise the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage, overtime and recordkeeping regulations... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Part 552 RIN 1235-AA05 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Labor. ACTION: Notice and...

  13. Biogenic Amines as Quality Marker in Organic and Fair-Trade Cocoa-Based Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Restuccia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quantitative determination of eight biogenic amines (cadaverine, serotonin, histamine, spermidine, spermine, tyramine, putrescine and β-phenylethylamine by an liquid chromatography method with evaporative light scattering detection was performed. The analysis of several samples of conventional, organic and fair trade cocoa-derivatives showed that organic and fair trade samples always contain much lower amine concentrations in comparison with their conventional counterparts, supporting the idea that biogenic amines can be regarded as cocoa quality markers. Irrespective of the kind of sample, results also showed that the most abundant amines were histamine, tyramine, spermidine, putrescine and spermine while β-phenylethylamine, cadaverine and serotonine have been found more rarely, all the amines never reaching dangerous amounts for consumer health. With the aim to confirm the experimental results, clustering analysis was performed on samples and instrumental results using principal component analysis.

  14. Unlikely (but perfect) partners in the fight for the green energy and fair trade economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Fred

    2009-01-01

    A priority for the United Steelworkers the last several years has been its work with the Sierra Club as part of the Blue Green Alliance. By working with our unconventional allies, we impacted the most important general election in any of our lifetimes. Now, smart investments in renewable energy and fuel-efficient cars are cornerstones of the Obama administration's economic recovery plan. The other priority issue when we began the Blue Green Alliance was fair trade. It still is a priority.

  15. Tensions Between Firm Size and Sustainability Goals: Fair Trade Coffee in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip H. Howard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability marketing trends have typically been led by smaller, more mission-driven firms, but are increasingly attracting larger, more profit-driven firms. Studying the strategies of firms that are moving away from these two poles (i.e., mission-driven but larger firms, and profit-driven firms that are more committed to sustainability may help us to better understand the potential to resolve tensions between firm size and sustainability goals. We used this approach to analyze a case study of the U.S. fair trade coffee industry, employing the methods of data visualization and media content analysis. We identified three firms that account for the highest proportion of U.S. fair trade coffee purchases (Equal Exchange, Green Mountain Coffee Roasters and Starbucks and analyzed their strategies, including reactions to recent changes in U.S. fair trade standards. We found an inverse relationship between firm size and demonstrated commitment to sustainability ideals, and the two larger firms were much less likely to acknowledge conflicts between size and sustainability in their public discourse. We conclude that similar efforts to increase sustainability marketing for other products and services should be more skeptical of approaches that rely on primarily on the participation of large, profit-driven firms.

  16. Fair

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The 'Presses Polytechniques Universitaires Romandes' is organising a book exhibition. The major topics covered will be science and technology. The fair will take place in the foyer of the main building (building 60), and will be open from 10am - 4pm on 5th July 2005.

  17. THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT 68 OF 2008 AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS IN CONSUMER CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip N Stoop

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, the concept "contractual fairness" can be narrowed down, described and analysed with reference to the two interdependent types of fairness – substantive and procedural fairness. Measures aimed at procedural fairness in contracts address conduct during the bargaining process and generally aim at ensuring transparency. One could say that a contract is procedurally fair where its terms are transparent and do not mislead as to aspects of the goods, service, price and terms. Despite the noble aims of legislative measures aimed at procedural fairness there are certain limits to the efficacy of procedural measures and transparency. The special procedural measures which must be considered in terms of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 in order to decide if a contract is fair are analysed in this article, as are other measures contained in the Act, which may also increase procedural fairness, and are discussed so as to allow suppliers to predict whether their contracts will be procedurally fair or not in terms of the Act. The special procedural measures can be categorised under measures requiring disclosure and/or mandatory terms, and measures addressing bargaining position and choice. It is concluded that owing to the nature of all these factors and measures related to procedural fairness, it is clear that openness and transparency are required by the CPA.

  18. 77 FR 43081 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ...; Information Collection; Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate AGENCIES... approved information collection requirement concerning the Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli..., Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate, by any of the following...

  19. Organic rice production in developing countries with regard to fair trade (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlin, Charlotte; Mikkelsen, Henrik N.; Olsen, Lino Klit

    1999-01-01

    . Local certification is desirable from socio-economic considerations.2. Local work up of the products is likewise desirable for socio-economis reasons.3. The establishment of grower groups can ease the two points above.4. Education of the farmers with regard to understanding the organic production method......This report deals with the possibilities of organic rice production in developing countries under fair trade conditions - conditions which assures the producer a fair price for the delivered product.It is concluded that the following points should be worked with when carrying out such a project:1...... and the learning of soil improvement techniques.In connection with the choice of area it is concluded that the naturally most stable areas are also the most favourable for organic production.With regards to the ownership af the area which is chosen for organic production it is evaluated that the small family run...

  20. 48 CFR 22.1002-4 - Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Labor Standards Act minimum wage. 22.1002-4 Section 22.1002-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... its employees working on the contract less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the... Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1002-4 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum...

  1. The Trade Fair: Introducing ESP Multimedia at a Technical University in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chiao Tsai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This discussion provides an overview of steps in developing and assessing ESP multimedia courseware at a technical university in Taiwan. The courseware is designed to expand language skills that foster Chinese learners of English as they develop communicative skills for international business. Student evaluations of the prototype for its Trade Fair component suggests that it is useful for situating the learning process and simulating social cues, which in turn supports building the communicative skills needed for the kinds of interaction demanded by tourism, travel, hospitality, and similar areas of international business.

  2. A Novel Approach to Neighborhood Fair Energy Trading in a Distribution Network of Multiple Microgrid Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jadhav, Ashok Mohan; Patne, Nita Ravindra; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    of their total surplus. To avoid the selfish behaviour of any buyer MG, an algorithm is used by the energy market operator which verifies the strategies submitted by buyer MGs before releasing set points to the generators. Apart from fairness and stability, the extensive numerical study confirms the ascendancy...... as a mediator between the trading parties. Depending on the priority factor, each buyer MG decides its strategy for energy demand from the surplus using a non-cooperative game theory based algorithm. The interests of seller MGs are protected by allowing them to decide the amount of energy they want to share out...

  3. 24 CFR 180.415 - Notice of proposed adverse action regarding Federal financial assistance in non-Fair Housing Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regarding Federal financial assistance in non-Fair Housing Act matters. 180.415 Section 180.415 Housing and... proposed adverse action regarding Federal financial assistance in non-Fair Housing Act matters. (a) Filing... govern the proceeding. (c) Consolidation. The ALJ may provide for non-Fair Housing Act proceedings at HUD...

  4. The Governance of Fair Trade System: Evidence from Small Honey Producers in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Fair Trade [FT] certification as a way to include small producers in global value chains, and identifies the main barriers for small honey producers from RS to meet these criteria. A new trading system such as FT has been providing access for food products coming from small farmers from developing countries. The method of this study integrates global value chain analysis and the methodology proposed by Paul (2005 to analyse FT as development projects. This study is three-fold: first to characterise the FT system; then to present the role of governance by third party certifiers such as FLO-CERT and finally to provide empirical evidence of the main difficulties that small producers have to comply with FT, such as export and organisation capacity. Our findings show that large retailers recently became big players in the FT system. The certification costs are high but can provide market access though there is a risk of overspecialisation.

  5. 48 CFR 52.222-44 - Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment. 52.222-44 Section 52.222-44 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-44 Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act—Price... Contract Act—Price Adjustment (SEP 2009) (a) This clause applies to both contracts subject to area...

  6. Peran Pt.bloom Agro Dalam Implementasi Prinsip Fair Trade Di Indonesia (Studi Kasus: Ekspor Beras Organik Pt.bloom Agro Ke Mancanegara Tahun 2008-2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Yealta, Den; Ikhsani, Munadia

    2016-01-01

    This research describes the role of PT.Bloom Agro to do Fair Teade implementation in Indonesia in the case study is the export of PT.Bloom Agros€™s organic rice to foreign country. Fair Trade is the kind of Alternatives trade which populer as donatian movement in 1940. But now in the globalitation era that causes of free trade, fair trade is more popular as alternatives trade movement and as a certification to mark a product has fair tarde guarantee. And in Indonesia PT.Bloom Agro which an ex...

  7. 26 CFR 1.943-1 - Withholding by a China Trade Act corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withholding by a China Trade Act corporation. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES China Trade Act Corporations § 1.943-1 Withholding by a China Trade Act corporation. Dividends paid by a China Trade Act corporation to a nonresident alien individual...

  8. FairTrade's theory of change: an evaluation based on the cooperative life cycle framework and mixed methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francesconi, G.N.; Ruben, R.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a quasi-experimental analysis of the impact of FairTrade certification on the commercial performance of coffee farmers in Tanzania. In doing so the study emphasises the importance of a well-contextualised theory of change as a basis for evaluation design. It also stresses the

  9. Integrating English for Specific Purposes Courseware into Task-Based Learning in a Context of Preparing for International Trade Fairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shu-Chiao

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on integrating courseware for participating in international trade fairs into English for specific purposes (ESP) instruction at a technical university in Taiwan. An Information and Communication Technology (ICT) approach combining courseware integration with Task Based Learning (TBL), was adopted. Evaluation of implementing…

  10. The development of a market for sustainable coffee in the Netherlands: Rethinking the contribution of fair trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Reinders, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have observed the process of mainstreaming Fair Trade and the emergence of alternative sustainability standards in the coffee industry. The underlying market dynamics that have contributed to these developments are, however, under-researched. Insight into these dynamics

  11. 17 CFR 248.16 - Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Reporting Act. 248.16 Section 248.16 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-P: Privacy of Consumer Financial Information and Safeguarding Personal Information Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date § 248.16 Protection of Fair Credit...

  12. Minimum Wage and Maximum Hours Standards Under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Economic Effects Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report describes the 1966 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act and summarizes the findings of three 1969 studies of the economic effects of these amendments. The studies found that economic growth continued through the third phase of the amendments, beginning February 1, 1969, despite increased wage and hours restrictions for recently…

  13. Collaboration on contentious issues: research partnerships for gender equity in Nicaragua's Fair Trade coffee cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Lori; Terstappen, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the use of collaborative and partnership approaches in health and agricultural research has flourished. Such approaches are frequently adopted to ensure more successful research uptake and to contribute to community empowerment through participatory research practices. At the same time that interest in research partnerships has been growing, publications on methods, models, and guidelines for building these partnerships have proliferated. However, partnership development is not necessarily as straightforward or linear a process as such literature makes it appear, particularly when the research involves divisive or contentious issues. This paper explores prevailing views on research partnerships, and also questions the applicability of partnership models using an emerging research program around gender equity and health in Fair Trade coffee cooperatives in Nicaragua as an example. Moreover, the paper introduces some of the complicated issues facing the authors as they attempt to develop and expand partnerships in this research area. The paper culminates with a series of strategies that the authors plan to use that offer alternative ways of thinking about building research partnerships concerning controversial or complex issues in the field of community health and development.

  14. The Rights Granted to Trade Unions Under the Companies Act 71 of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the entering into force of the Companies Act 71 of 2008 in 2011 a number of rights were granted to trade unions by the act. The Companies Act 71 of 2008 not only grants rights to registered trade unions, as is the case in labour law, but in some cases it grants rights to trade unions representing employees at the ...

  15. 26 CFR 1.941-1 - Special deduction for China Trade Act corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES China Trade Act Corporations § 1.941-1 Special deduction for China Trade Act corporations. In addition to the deductions from taxable income otherwise allowed such a corporation, a China Trade Act corporation is, under certain conditions, allowed an additional deduction in...

  16. 76 FR 18365 - Fair Credit Reporting Act and Bank Secrecy Act Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Procedure Act (APA), an agency may, for good cause, find (and incorporate the finding and a brief statement... and comment procedures prescribed by the APA are unnecessary because the final rule makes technical... Asked Questions, and the FFIEC Bank Secrecy Act/Anti-Money Laundering Examination Manual. (iii...

  17. 48 CFR 52.222-43 - Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts). 52.222-43 Section 52... Standards Act and Service Contract Act—Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts). As prescribed in 22.1006(c)(1), insert the following clause: Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act...

  18. THE RIGHTS GRANTED TO TRADE UNIONS UNDER THE COMPANIES ACT 71 OF 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi C Schoeman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the entering into force of the Companies Act 71 of 2008 in 2011 a number of rights were granted to trade unions by the act. The Companies Act 71 of 2008 not only grants rights to registered trade unions, as is the case in labour law, but in some cases it grants rights to trade unions representing employees at the workplace. It is argued that rights afforded to trade unions by the act ought to be granted only to trade unions that are registered in terms of the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995. In addition, it is also argued that the Companies Act 71 of 2008 ought in principle to differentiate between rights that are granted to registered trade unions representing employees at the workplace and rights that are granted to registered majority trade unions, or at the least to sufficiently representative trade unions.

  19. Pushing the boundaries of the social: private agri-food standards and the governance of Fair Trade in European public procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Eleanor; Sheppard, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    The article explores how fair trade and associated private agri-food standards are incorporated into public procurement in Europe. Procurement law is underpinned by principles of equity, non-discrimination and transparency; one consequence is that legal obstacles exist to fair trade being privileged within procurement practice. These obstacles have pragmatic dimensions, concerning whether and how procurement can be used to fulfil wider social policy objectives or to incorporate private standa...

  20. Distribution of airborne microbes and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacteria during Gwalior trade fair, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayprakash Yadav

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: The study indicates significantly higher bacterial and fungal bioaerosols during the fair event. Therefore, further research is needed to explore the health aspects and guidelines to control microbial load during such types of events.

  1. The Impact of the Labour Relations Act on Minority Trade Unions: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of the Labour Relations Act on Minority Trade Unions: A South African ... trade unions in terms of international labour standards and the Constitution. In part one the article examines the concept of majoritarianism, pluralism and ...

  2. Online Canton Fairs Ready for Convenient Trade--An Interview with Ding Qiang, General Manager of MOFCOM China International Electronic Commerce Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghong; Sun Yongjian

    2006-01-01

    @@ In 2006, the Canton Fairs will greet the 99th and 100th respectively in spring and fall. To meet the need of the development of the convenient trade, the Canton Fairs website, the platform of the online Canton Fairs run by MOFCOM China International Electronic Commerce Center is ready to take several effective measures to offer more convenient services. On March 24, China's Foreign Trade took the occasion to interview with Mr. Ding Qiang, General Manager of MOFCOM China International Electronic Commerce Center.

  3. 26 CFR 1.941-2 - Meaning of terms used in connection with China Trade Act corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Trade Act corporations. 1.941-2 Section 1.941-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES China Trade Act Corporations § 1.941-2 Meaning of terms used in connection with China Trade Act corporations. (a) A China Trade Act corporation...

  4. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  5. DIAGNOSIS OF PIRARUCU FISH TRADE IN MARKETS AND FAIRS OF SANTARÉM, PARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayane de Macêdo Nicácio Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study accomplished adiagnos is of the pirarucu fish (Arapaima gigas trading in sale points of Santarém-Pará.  The data were collected weekly through interviews with the trades people at the sale points, in a period from November/2012 to November/2014.The information were scanned in relational databases on Access Platform and analyzed through descriptive statistics. They were applied 354 questionnaires to the trades people who presented the pirarucu fish for sale. It was verified that the payment to the providers is made in cash by the most part of the trades people (93%, which are mostly fishermen of the region (84%. The sliced fish products (50% and fresh piece (33% were the most available forms on the selling stalls. It was verified that the defense period causes changes in the pirarucu fish trading process. Some trades people denied giving information, but the obtained results shows important data to the management of this resource in the region. Keywords: Lower Amazonas; commercialization; Arapaimatidae.

  6. Finding the moral fiber: Why reform is urgently needed for a fair cotton trade

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, K.; Kripke, G.; Alpert, E.

    2004-01-01

    Metadata only record US subsidies have led to depressed world cotton prices, which in turn have cost countries in Africa millions of dollars in lost export earnings. Oxfam estimates that sub-Saharan African countries lost $305 million due to US subsidies in crop year 2001. Because cotton is an important livelihood for millions of poor people, Oxfam believes action is urgently needed to reform the distortions in cotton trade that undermine the value of cotton to developing countries. The ce...

  7. Globe 2004 review : 8. biennial trade fair and conference on business and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Globe 2004 conference offered networking opportunities for those interested in critical environmental business and sustainability issues. More than 10,000 participants from 75 countries attended the conference which addressed issues associated with sustainability principles in the design and construction of buildings, urban transportation systems and energy and water systems. The conference and trade show highlighted innovative technologies regarding alternate energy sources; air quality management; climate change; energy-efficient vehicles; fuel cell technologies; green building products and technologies; industrial waste management; urban environmental management; solid waste management, recycling and sustainable construction; and, transportation technologies and solutions. figs

  8. Fair Trade Metaphor as a Control Privacy Method for Pervasive Environments: Concepts and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Esquivel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proof of concept from which the metaphor of “fair trade” is validated as an alternative to manage the private information of users. Our privacy solution deals with user’s privacy as a tradable good for obtaining environmental services. Thus, users gain access to more valuable services as they share more personal information. This strategy, combined with optimistic access control and transaction registry mechanisms, enhances users’ confidence in the system while encouraging them to share their information, with the consequent benefit for the community. The study results are promising considering the user responses regarding the usefulness, ease of use, information classification and perception of control with the mechanisms proposed by the metaphor.

  9. A proposal to correct external effects in the coffee market: a tax on regular coffee and tea to subsidise the fair trade coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Galarraga, Ibon; Markandya, Anil

    2006-01-01

    This paper justifies the need to introduce a tax on regular coffee drinkers in the UK to subsidise the fair trade/organic coffee production. This policy will allow to take full account of the negative external effect of regular coffee production while internalising the positive effect of fair trade initiatives. Designing such a policy is possible and the benefits of it can be calculated. This paper shows how. Propuesta para corregir las externalidades en el mercado de café: un impuesto sobre ...

  10. Changing Context of Trade Mark Protection in India: A Review of the Trade Marks Act, 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Akhileshwar

    2004-01-01

    With liberalisation and globalisation of the Indian economy, it has become possible for anyone to get into production and services in most of the sectors. This has led to rampant misuse and appropriation of trade marks. In an insulated economy, with monopoly markets, law protecting trade marks had a limited role. In the changed context, however, trade mark law will be a field of much interest for academics and practitioners. Towards this, the paper explores the formation of trade mark law in ...

  11. The Export Trading Company Act of 1982 and the photovoltaics industry: An assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enfield, S.; Laporta, C.

    1983-01-01

    The potential advantages of recent export promotion legislation for the U.S. photovoltaics industry were assessed. The provisions of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 were reviewed and the export trade sector was surveyed to determine what impact the Act is haviang on export company activity. The photovoltaics industry was then studied to determine whether the Act offers particular advantages for promoting its product overseas.

  12. Fair trade: as an international hot topic and its approach in Brazil Fair Trade (comércio justo como um ‘Tópico Quente” internacional e sua abordagem no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Lazaro Silva-Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} This paper aims to analyse the concept of Fair Trade in international and Braszilian literature. Throgh the identification of the grow of thema and analyzing the possible "barriers" to the development of the theme in the Brazilian context. The authors  develop two bibliometric research, a eletronic amd international one based on database of "Web of Science from ISI” and another in the brazilian publications (proceedings and journals. Although the indentification of the thma as a real emerging theme in international literature("hot topic", the authors noted a significant gap in the Brazilian publications. The author propouses to use  use the theoretical approach, that emerges fom the French social science, the  "quality and conventions" aproach that are being use to understand the coordination of networks of agribusiness So, in Brazil, the Fair Trade still inscipiente because it does not comes from a "civic (moral convention", that could be a necessary phase to achive de “market convention”, in other side de developed countries began has a civic convention and are achiving the market as a new convention, assimilated by the retails networks.Este artigo tem como objetivo

  13. 77 FR 31039 - Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    .... 332-352, Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-352] Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  14. 76 FR 79023 - Determinations Under Section 1106(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988Russian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Determinations Under Section 1106(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988--Russian Federation... Competitiveness Act of 1988 (19 U.S.C. 2905(a)), I determine that state trading enterprises account for a...

  15. The consumer protection act 68 of 2008 and procedural fairness in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measures aimed at procedural fairness in contracts address conduct during the bargaining process and generally aim at ensuring transparency. One could say that a contract is procedurally fair where its terms are transparent and do not mislead as to aspects of the goods, service, price and terms. Despite the noble aims of ...

  16. 26 CFR 1.6072-3 - Income tax due dates postponed in case of China Trade Act corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Trade Act corporations. 1.6072-3 Section 1.6072-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Documents § 1.6072-3 Income tax due dates postponed in case of China Trade Act corporations. (a) With... tax return of any corporation organized under the China Trade Act of 1922 (15 U.S.C. ch. 4), as...

  17. 48 CFR 25.504-3 - FTA/Israeli Trade Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FTA/Israeli Trade Act. 25.504-3 Section 25.504-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Evaluating Foreign Offers-Supply Contracts 25.504-3 FTA/Israeli Trade...

  18. Application of the Coasting Trade Act to offshore oil and gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jonge, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    The main features of the 1992 Coasting Trade Act are summarized. The main purpose of the Act is to protect Canadian ship owners and to ensure they have an opportunity to recover their investments in having Canadian built and crewed vessels. The Coasting Trade Act replaces provisions of the Canada Shipping Act which prohibited non-British ships from entering into Canadian domestic trade. The intention for the Coasting Trade Act is to reserve the coasting trade of Canada to Canadian-registered ships. However, when a Canadian ship is not available, a suitable foreign ship may be temporarily permitted to engage in the Canadian coasting trade as long as Canadian safety standards are met and duties are paid. The Canada Customs and Revenue Agency deals with licence applications while the Canadian Transportation Agency deals with unfair practices and enforcement. The provisions relating to the Coasting Trade License applications are examined along with how they are administered with particular reference to offshore oil and gas operations. The paper also presents recent decisions regarding application licences for Tycom (US) Inc., the Norwegian Polar Ship Management, and the Cyprus-registered seismic vessel, the Northern Access. It is noted that in evaluating the suitability and availability of a Canadian vessel for an activity proposed to be performed by a foreign vessel, the Canadian Transportation Agency examines the technical, financial and commercial elements brought by the parties

  19. Incentives to Fair trade certification: the case of orange production in the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Schiavi Bánkuti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors believe that contemporary challenges related to sustainable rural development planning and food security are encouraging experiments with new models of rural development that includes Fair trade arrangements. The article is based on the outcomes of a case study of motivations to adopt these arrangements among orange cultivators located in the state of Paraná, in South Brazil. These arrangements are seen as an alternative, successful strategy for the small-scale farmers located in this area. The evidences confirm that the main impulse to make use of this kind of certification is related to expectations of improvements in quality of life for producers and their families. Regular access to markets was assumed as one important economic feature. From the environmental perspective the certification process allows too for coherent enforcement of the established regulations and also for the strengthening of so-called “good practices”. Otherwise, monitoring reveals the emergence of several obstacles due to cultural factors and to working contingencies. Bureaucratic control of the certification dynamics was considered rather as a positive factor of improvement of the whole productive system.

  20. 19 CFR 205.6 - Investigations under section 301(e)(3) of the Trade Act of 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Trade Act of 1974. 205.6 Section 205.6 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION...) INTERNATIONAL TRADE OR OF TAKING RETALIATORY ACTIONS TO OBTAIN THE ELIMINATION OF UNJUSTIFIABLE OR UNREASONABLE FOREIGN ACTS OR POLICIES WHICH RESTRICT U.S. COMMERCE Investigations Concerning the Probable Impact on the...

  1. 75 FR 24967 - Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication. DATES: June 24, 2010... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-352] Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  2. Pricing fair trade products to include unpaid labour and empower women – the example of Nicaraguan sesame and coffee cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Butler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses an initiative taking place in two cooperatives in Nicaragua. This involves the incorporation of a component for women’s unpaid work into the cost structures of Fair Trade contracts for coffee and sesame. The argument is that the unpaid work which is done mainly by women in the household and community represents an important input into production and one which should be valued and remunerated. Its recognition can both empower women and provide a fresh demonstration of the power of the cooperatives and Fair Trade in innovating so as to improve the conditions of disadvantaged people in their supply chains.The funding which has now been in place for two years has led to a number of very different projects for women. The involvement has spread not only to women doing unpaid work but also to women in low paid and marginalised jobs within the cooperatives. In particular, this raises the question of to whom the money allocated under this scheme should be paid, and whether it should primarily be used for collective or individual projects. This is an innovative development with the power fundamentally to change gender relations and empower women. It is significant that it is being pioneered in a poor country in the South rather than in the rich North. Este artículo analiza una iniciativa que tiene lugar en dos cooperativas de Nicaragua. Se incorpora al estudio el componente del trabajo no remunerado de las mujeres en el coste de las estructuras del comercio justo con contratos para el café y el sésamo. El argumento que se esgrime es que el trabajo no remunerado realizado principalmente por mujeres en el ámbito doméstico y de la comunidad representa un aporte importante a la producción, que se debe valorar y remunerar. Su reconocimiento puede investir de poder a las mujeres y demostrar el poder de las cooperativas y el comercio justo para innovar y mejorar las condiciones de personas desfavorecidas en las cadenas de producci

  3. 76 FR 70921 - Implementation of the Fair Housing Act's Discriminatory Effects Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Housing Act complaints, recognizes the discriminatory effects theory of liability and requires HUD...) (``A violation of the [Act] may be premised on a theory of disparate impact.''); HUD v. Ross, 1994 WL 326437, at *5 (HUD ALJ July 7, 1994) (``Absent a showing of business necessity, facially neutral policies...

  4. Comparative analysis on the conditions of production in two associations of fruit growers of western Colombia to participate in fair trade projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Santacoloma Varón

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis was performed on two fruit-farming organizations agro-ecologically and conventionally oriented and established its affinity with fair trade principles. A survey was done on fruit production, marketing systems and opportunities to sell "fair price" products. It was found that both groups are small farmers, agro-ecological producers offer a variety of fruit, because of not using chemicals the consumers recognize the quality by an extra charge, they sell their products in farmer markets and generate direct relationships with consumers.Conventional producers offer only Lulo (Solanum quitoense, chemicals are used, the indicator of quality is recognized by the size and presentation of the fruit and marketing is done in supermarkets. We conclude that agro-ecological producers would be close to a way of fair trade, provided that incorporate quality improvement programs, and use the product information and communication technologies for development of cooperation networks and identification of market niches. It is important to support public or private access to credit, infrastructure and market information to help in decision making improvement.

  5. 78 FR 15031 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Andean Trade Preferences Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Management and Budget (OMB) approval. All comments will become a matter of public record. In this document..., Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA) Certificate of Origin. This form can be used... 17. Type of Review: Extension (without change). Affected Public: Businesses. ATPA Certificate of...

  6. International liner cargo shipping: a review of Part X of the Trade Practices Act 1974

    OpenAIRE

    Productivity Commission

    2001-01-01

    On 12 March 1999 the Assistant Treasurer referred Part X of the Trade Practices Act 1974 and associated regulations to the Commission for inquiry and report within six months. The Commission was to report on the appropriate arrangements for regulation of international cargo shipping services.

  7. 77 FR 28620 - Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-352] Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication AGENCY: United States International Trade... to report biennially to the Congress by September 30 of each reporting year on the economic impact of...

  8. 48 CFR 52.225-12 - Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. 52.225-12 Section 52.225-12 Federal Acquisition...—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. As prescribed in 25.1102(d)(1), insert the following provision: Notice of Buy American Act Requirement—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements (FEB 2009) (a...

  9. 12 CFR 40.16 - Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 40.16 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF... Reporting Act. Nothing in this part shall be construed to modify, limit, or supersede the operation of the... provisions of this part regarding whether information is transaction or experience information under section...

  10. It is just not fair: the Endangered Species Act in the United States and Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Olive

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The United States and the Canadian province of Ontario have enacted endangered species laws that regulate private land. The rationale for this is that the vast majority of endangered species in the two countries rely on private lands for survival. However, from a landowner perspective the law is deemed unfair. This paper presents analysis from 141 interviews with landowners in three U.S. states and Ontario. In recognition of distributive justice claims, both the U.S. government and the Ontario government have enacted programs aimed at increasing financial incentives for participation and compliance with the law. However, the law is still perceived as unfair. The central argument of this paper is that future amendments and new policies for endangered species should confront two other forms of environmental justice: procedural justice and justice-as-recognition. Landowners in both countries expressed not only concerns about compensation, but also a deep desire to be included in the protection and recovery process, as well as to be recognized by government and society as good stewards of the land. The paper concludes by stating that future policy amendments need to address justice-as-recognition if endangered species conservation on private lands is to be considered fair by landowners.

  11. 29 CFR 550.1 - “Talent fees” as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âTalent feesâ as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair...) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS DEFINING AND DELIMITING THE TERM âTALENT FEESâ § 550.1 “Talent fees” as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended. The...

  12. The Food Safety Modernization Act: a barrier to trade? Only if the science says so.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    The Food Safety Modernization Act improves oversight of America's food safety system. Title III, which regulates imported food, may create extra burdens for importers and therefore act as a barrier to trade. What will be on trial before the World Trade Organization (WTO), however, is not the law's content, but the science supporting it. Under the WTO regime, food safety laws that could restrict the free movement of food commodities must be sufficiently justified by scientific evidence. Member states must engage in risk assessments and regulate food imports in a manner that is "no more restrictive than necessary" to protect against the health risks identified by scientific evidence. This article examines the requirements of the WTO to evaluate the FSMA's legality under WTO rules. It analyzes the case law of the WTO Panel and Appellate Body and compares the FMSA to the EU's General Food Law.

  13. Interactions between energy efficiency and emission trading under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillsman, E.L.; Alvic, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments affect electric utilities in numerous ways. The feature that probably has received the greatest attention is the provision to let utilities trade emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), while at the same time requiring them to reduce S0 2 emissions in 2000 by an aggregate 43%. The emission trading system was welcomed by many as a way of reducing the cost of reducing emissions, by providing greater flexibility than past approaches. This report examines some of the potential interactions between trading emissions and increasing end-use energy efficiency. The analysis focuses on emission trading in the second phase of the trading program, which begins in 2000. The aggregate effects, calculated by an emission compliance and trading model, turn out to be rather small. Aggressive improvement of end-use efficiency by all utilities might reduce allowance prices by $22/ton (1990 dollars), which is small compared to the reduction that has occurred in the estimates of future allowance prices and when compared to the roughly $400/ton price we estimate as a base case. However, the changes in the allowance market that result are large enough to affect some compliance decisions. If utilities in only a few states improve end-use efficiency aggressively, their actions may not have a large effect on the price of an allowance, but they could alter the demand for allowances and thereby the compliance decisions of utilities in other states. The analysis shows how improving electricity end-use efficiency in some states can cause smaller emission reductions in other states, relative to what would have happened without the improvements. Such a result, while not surprising given the theory behind the emission trading system, is upsetting to people who view emissions, environmental protection, and energy efficiency in moral rather than strictly economic terms

  14. The Implementation Fair Trade System Based on the Natural Potencial Resources in Effective and Efficient Ways Through the ASEAN Free Trade Era

    OpenAIRE

    Nawastuty S, Dian

    2016-01-01

    Indonesian economic development's dimension in free trade zone era will held upon to form the development pillars frameworks. The Indonesian development pillars which are : to pull the destitution out, to absorb the man power, and to develop the economic. However, the main problem to held the development pillars frameworks is the barrier in pulling the destitution out. Pulling the destitution out which are mean by the writers team in these article especially for the traditional farmer. These ...

  15. Guaranteeing the implementation of guarantees of origin: Creating a fair mechanism for renewable electricity generation and trade in europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houwing; Michiel; Vries, Laurens J. de

    2005-01-01

    With the Renewables Directive (2001/77/EC) the EU has obliged its Member States to implement the Guarantees of Origin (GO) policy instrument into their national renewable electricity support schemes. Compared to formerly existing policy instruments as tradable green certificates, GOs can in a Union broad quota obligation scheme, for example, prove to be of major value in arriving at a more transparent and efficient way of trading renewable electricity. This paper gives an overview of the most important hurdles still to be addressed, mainly being double counting issues and policy interactions. When more clarity is given from the Commission in the future and when more EU Member States implement GOs beyond the minimum requirements, international trading of renewable electricity can become truly feasible. (Author)

  16. Do information, price, or morals influence ethical consumption? A natural field experiment and customer survey on the purchase of Fair Trade coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andorfer, Veronika A; Liebe, Ulf

    2015-07-01

    We address ethical consumption using a natural field experiment on the actual purchase of Fair Trade (FT) coffee in three supermarkets in Germany. Based on a quasi-experimental before-and-after design the effects of three different treatments - information, 20% price reduction, and a moral appeal - are analyzed. Sales data cover actual ethical purchase behavior and avoid problems of social desirability. But they offer only limited insights into the motivations of individual consumers. We therefore complemented the field experiment with a customer survey that allows us to contrast observed (ethical) buying behavior with self-reported FT consumption. Results from the experiment suggest that only the price reduction had the expected positive and statistically significant effect on FT consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Teaching the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act to Legal and Ethical Environment of Business Undergraduate Students through a Role-Play Experiential Learning Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Konrad S.; Thue, Matthew I.

    2017-01-01

    This article begins with a description of a role-play exercise for teaching the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) to an introductory Legal and Ethical Environment of Business Law (Business Law) undergraduate class. It goes on to provide the context for consumer debt in the United States. Next, the problems of debt collection are…

  18. Price fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Diller, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to integrate the various strands of fair price research into a concise conceptual model. Design/methodology/approach – The proposed price fairness model is based on a review of the fair pricing literature, incorporating research reported in not only English but also German. Findings – The proposed fair price model depicts seven components of a fair price: distributive fairness, consistent behaviour, personal respect and regard for the partner, fair dea...

  19. The constitutional protection of trade secrets and patents under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 ("Biosimilars Act") is for the field of pharmaceutical products the single most important legislative development since passage of the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 ("Hatch-Waxman Act"), on which portions of the Biosimilars Act are clearly patterned. Congress revised section 351 of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA) to create a pathway for FDA approval of "biosimilar" biological products. Each biosimilar applicant is required to cite in its application a "reference product" that was approved on the basis of a full application containing testing data and manufacturing information, which is owned and was submitted by another company and much of which constitutes trade secret information subject to constitutional protection. Because the Biosimilars Act authorizes biosimilar applicants to cite these previously approved applications, the implementation of the new legislative scheme raises critical issues under the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution, pursuant to which private property--trade secrets included--may not be taken for public use, without "just compensation." FDA must confront those issues as it implements the scheme set out in the Biosimilars Act. This article will discuss these issues, after providing a brief overview of the Biosimilars Act and a more detailed examination of the law of trade secrets.

  20. Evaluating the impact of the alcohol act on off-trade alcohol sales: a natural experiment in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Geue, Claudia; Lewsey, James; Mackay, Daniel; McCartney, Gerry; Curnock, Esther; Beeston, Clare

    2014-12-01

    A ban on multi-buy discounts of off-trade alcohol was introduced as part of the Alcohol Act in Scotland in October 2011. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of this legislation on alcohol sales, which provide the best indicator of population consumption. Interrupted time-series regression was used to assess the impact of the Alcohol Act on alcohol sales among off-trade retailers in Scotland. Models accounted for underlying seasonal and secular trends and were adjusted for disposable income, alcohol prices and substitution effects. Data for off-trade retailers in England and Wales combined (EW) provided a control group. Weekly data on the volume of pure alcohol sold by off-trade retailers in Scotland and EW between January 2009 and September 2012. The introduction of the legislation was associated with a 2.6% (95% CI = -5.3 to 0.2%, P = 0.07) decrease in off-trade alcohol sales in Scotland, but not in EW (-0.5%, 95% CI = -4.6 to 3.9%, P = 0.83). A statistically significant reduction was observed in Scotland when EW sales were adjusted for in the analysis (-1.7%, 95% CI = -3.1 to -0.3%, P = 0.02). The decline in Scotland was driven by reduced off-trade sales of wine (-4.0%, 95% CI = -5.4 to -2.6%, P types in Scotland, or in sales of any drink type in EW. The introduction of the Alcohol Act in Scotland in 2011 was associated with a decrease in total off-trade alcohol sales in Scotland, largely driven by reduced off-trade wine sales. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. 78 FR 76700 - Procurement Thresholds for Implementation of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... International Procurement Policy, Office of the United States Trade Representative, (202) 395-9646 or scott... the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Government Procurement, Chapter 15 of the United... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Procurement Thresholds for Implementation of the...

  2. 78 FR 23280 - Agency Information Collection Activities: United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ..., Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and Rulings, Office of International Trade, 90 K Street NE., 10th... and Rulings, Office of International Trade, 90 K Street NE., 10th Floor, Washington, DC 20229-1177, at... trade benefits to countries in the Caribbean Basin. For preferential duty treatment under CBTPA...

  3. Towards a Fair Global Economic Regime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staricco, Juan Ignacio

    . The further exploration of Fair Trade’s political and ideological dimensions sheds light on the reasons behind the system’s current limitations. The analysis shows that Fair Trade offers very limited improvements compared to the conventional economy. Additionally, for the Argentinean wine industry, Fair Trade......This dissertation offers an assessment of Fair Trade’s transformative potential through an empirical examination of the case of Fair Trade wine produced in Argentina and consumed in the United Kingdom. Guided by a dialectical understanding of the research process, the analysis is done at various...

  4. The Impact of the Labour Relations Act on Minority Trade Unions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    representing different interests, power will be distributed in a manner that is fair. It ... In this case the union was denied organisational rights to which it .... scope of the Public Service Co-ordinating Bargaining Council or a Bargaining Council.

  5. LAWS ON SEX DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT--FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS ACT, TITLE VII. STATE FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES LAWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    TITLE VII OF THE FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS ACT (1964) PROHIBITS DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN ADDITION TO THE USUAL GROUNDS OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, AND NATIONAL ORIGIN. IT COVERS PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGED IN INDUSTRIES AFFECTING COMMERCE, AS WELL AS EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES. IT IS UNLAWFUL FOR EMPLOYERS TO REFUSE TO HIRE,…

  6. 76 FR 76808 - Procurement Thresholds for Implementation of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Organization (WTO) Agreement on Government Procurement, Chapter 15 of the United States-Australia Free Trade... out U.S. trade agreement obligations under the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement, Chapter 15 of... Agreement on Government Procurement A. Central Government Entities Listed in U.S. Annex 1 (1) Procurement of...

  7. Assortiment-kanaalmatch voor biologische fair tradeproducten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEI,

    2008-01-01

    Stichting FairBites ontwikkelt middels een innovatief organisatiemodel biologische en fair trade voedingsproducten voor de out-of-home (OOH) markt. Deze producten zijn zeer beperkt beschikbaar in dit marktsegment dat ± 35% van de voedingsmarkt vertegenwoordigd. FairBites richt zich op jong

  8. The use of fair-weather cases from the ACT-America Summer 2016 field campaign to better constrain regional biogenic CO2 surface fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, B. J.; Davis, K. J.; DiGangi, J. P.; Feng, S.; Hoffman, K.; Jacobson, A. R.; Lauvaux, T.; McGill, M. J.; Miles, N.; Pal, S.; Pauly, R.; Richardson, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) study is a multi-year NASA-funded project designed to increase our understanding of regional-scale greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes over North America through aircraft, satellite, and tower-based observations. This is being accomplished through a series of field campaigns that cover three focus regions (Mid-Atlantic, Gulf Coast, and Midwest), and all four seasons (summer, winter, fall, and spring), as well as a variety of meteorological conditions. While constraints on GHG fluxes can be derived on the global scale (through remote-site concentration measurements and global flux inversion models) and the local scale (through eddy-covariance flux tower measurements), observational constraints on the intermediate scales are not as readily available. Biogenic CO2 fluxes are particularly challenging because of their strong seasonal and diurnal cycles and large spatial variability. During the summer 2016 ACT field campaign, fair weather days were targeted for special flight patterns designed to estimate surface fluxes at scales on the order of 105 km2 using a modified mass-balance approach. For some onshore flow cases in the Gulf Coast, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flight transects were performed both inland and offshore when it could be reasonably inferred that the homogeneous Gulf air provided the background GHG field for the inland transect. On other days, two-day flight sequences were performed, where the second-day location of the flight patterns was designed to encompass the air mass that was sampled on the first day. With these flight patterns, the average regional flux can be estimated from the ABL CO2 concentration change. Direct measurements of ABL depth from both aircraft profiles and high-resolution airborne lidar will be used, while winds and free-tropospheric CO2 can be determined from model output and in situ aircraft observations. Here we will present examples of this flux estimation for both Gulf

  9. Fairness Doctrine in Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles Vance

    After a decade of debate, numerous Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rulings, and many court decisions, the application of the "fairness doctrine"--an act that mandates objectivity in the presentation of facts concerning controversial issues--remains unsettled. This report discusses issues involved in the application of the…

  10. Book fair

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Swiss academic publishing house 'Presses Polytechniques Universitaires Romandes'will be presenting its most recent scientific and technical publications at a book fair in the lobby of the Main Building (60) from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Thursday 28 September 2006.

  11. The sexual history provisions in the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999--a violation of the right to a fair trial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G

    2001-07-01

    In response to the Home Office recommendations contained in Speaking Up for Justice (1998) the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act (YJCEA) 1999 introduced a new regime for the conduct of sexual offence trials. Section 41 of the Act, which came into force on 4 December 2000, brings about dramatic changes to the rules on the admissibility of evidence of complainants' sexual behaviour, severely restricting the discretion of trial judges to introduce such evidence or to allow questioning concerning it. This represents a radical new departure that will fundamentally affect an accused's position at trial. Responses to section 41 have predictably been divided given the extremely sensitive nature of this area of the law of evidence and the complex set of social and political issues which are at stake. Many have greeted it as a long overdue reform of a system premised upon outmoded and sexist beliefs concerning women's sexual behaviour which has routinely functioned to admit prejudicial and irrelevant evidence. Others, predominantly within the legal profession, have expressed serious concerns over whether the new law is workable and the extent to which, by potentially excluding critically relevant evidence, it may infringe upon a defendant's right to a fair trial. The quality of the legislation is soon to be tested. On 26 and 27 March 2001 the House of Lords heard an interlocutory appeal in the case of R v. A and were asked to decide if the new provisions, by excluding previous sexual history evidence between the complainant and the defendant, contravened Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights. Their Lordships are, at the time of writing, yet to give judgment and the fate of the defendant in question, and several others whose trials have been postponed pending their decision, hangs in the balance. This article seeks to show that the new Act, despite being well-intentioned, does not adopt a coherent or sustainable approach to the relevance of previous

  12. Proceedings of the 11. annual North American natural gas and electricity market conference and trade show : GasFair power 2002. CD-Rom ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The electricity market is undergoing changes, from deregulation to competition and convergence. This conference provided an opportunity for North American natural gas and electricity industries representatives and stake holders to share their views concerning the many challenges, issues and opportunities in this field. Emerging market developments, issues and strategies are some of the topics discussed during this conference and trade show. The organizers placed emphasis on energy purchasers and managers, and the opportunities facing them for the improvement of their company's financial health by means of savings on natural gas costs and electricity purchases. In addition, there are several opportunities for improved energy efficiency and technologies and integrated energy and risk management programs which were all discussed. The economic challenges and opportunities arising from the supply, demand, marketing and pricing for gas and power products and services facing energy marketers, traders, producers, utilities and transporters were addressed. A detailed and practical examination of ways by which energy consumers can address issues of volatile gas and power prices was provided. Effective, cost saving purchasing options and risk management strategies and tools, contracting, outsourcing, aggregating and cost-effective energy management programs were also explored. In all, approximately 900 delegates attended the conference and trade show from all across Canada and the United States. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Fair innings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Greg

    2015-05-01

    In many societies, the aging of the population is becoming a major problem. This raises difficult issues for ethics and public policy. On what is known as the fair innings view, it is not impermissible to give lower priority to policies that primarily benefit the elderly. Philosophers have tried to justify this view on various grounds. In this article, I look at a consequentialist, a fairness-based, and a contractarian justification. I argue that all of them have implausible implications and fail to correspond to our moral intuitions. I end by outlining a different kind of consequentialist justification that avoids those implications and corresponds better to our considered moral judgments. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. FAIRS AS THE MECHANISM OF CULTURAL INTEGRATION IN MULTIETHNIC REGIONS: THE CASE OF FAIRS OF MIDDLE VOLGA IN THE 19TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Александрович Краснощеков

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a historical-cultural analysis of the role of fairs in the processes of cultural interaction in multi-ethnic regions in the 19th century as exemplified by the Middle Volga region. The article is based on a body of sources, which describe the local fairs, including reference books, statistical and economic data for the provinces of the Middle Volga and documents of ‘Economic notes to the general surveying of 1766-1861s’ stored at the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (RGADA. The author used historical cultural and methodological approaches, which enabled to estimate fairs as a cultural phenomenon and consider fair trade of the Middle Volga region in a historical perspective, to identify its genesis, and patterns of development in the history of the region. The analysis showed that the fairs served as a mechanism for cultural integration of the peoples of the Middle Volga region in the 19th century. As a part of everyday life, fairs were not only the leading form of trade and form of marketing communications on the basis of personal contacts in the Middle Volga in the 19th century, but also a major cultural phenomenon, a place where different social, professional and ethnic interactions were reflected in the real forms of everyday culture. The peoples of the region closely associated with the central provinces of Russia and with each other through fairs, which played the role of ethno-cultural integration mechanism and the transmission of values and forms of traditional culture in the Middle Volga. The economic and cultural ties between the inhabitants of the region, with a variety of beliefs, customs, habits and needs, expressed in the forms of fair trade, resulted in more homogeneous forms of economic activity, the spread in the daily use of the population of similar features of material and spiritual culture.

  15. Crisp Fair Gambles

    OpenAIRE

    André , Eric

    2014-01-01

    Axiomatic models of decision under ambiguity with a non-unique prior allow for the existence of Crisp Fair Gambles: acts whose expected utility is nul whichever of the priors is used. But, in these models, the DM has to be indifferent to the addition of such acts. Their existence is then at odds with a preference taking into account the variance of the prospects. In this paper we study some geometrical and topological properties of the set of priors that would rule out the existence of Crisp ...

  16. Control: Why, when and how? Some general principles of state control presented on the example of disqualification from performing commercial activities pursuant to § 35 of the German Trade, Commerce and Industry Regulation Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pürner Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues relating to state control and state reaction to breaches of the rules discovered, using the example of Section 35 of the German Trade, Commerce and Industry Regulation Act (§ 35 Gewerbeordnung, GewO. This provision is the central norm in German law, on the basis of which entrepreneurial activities can be prohibited. In the introduction, the author provides an overview of different forms of control and discusses the role of the courts in general, but also in the context of reviewing the control measures taken by the state. The author agrees that jurisprudence (case law is not a source of law in the countries of the European-Continental legal system. However, this should not lead to the wrong conclusion that the courts are neither qualified nor obliged to develop the law. After the introductory remarks, the author discusses the provisions contained in § 35 of the German Trade, Commerce and Industry Regulation Act (Gewerbeordnung. This example is of particular interest as it demonstrates various general principles of state control over private activities. While the provision originally contained a casuistic enumeration of individual cases, it nowadays uses a blanket clause. Accordingly, the concept of Unzuverlässigkeit ('unreliability ', which is not defined in more detail is the definitional element for a disqualification from the practice of commercial activities. Hence, the courts' task in dealing with the respective cases has significantly changed, as the control process involves consideration of both public and private interests, as well as striking a fair balance between the opposing public and private interests. The author points out that this is also justified as the legislator can hardly foresee all cases to which the provision might appear in practice. In particular, the author points out that the German legislator, unlike the legislators in some transformation states, has opted for having as few

  17. Does science speak clearly and fairly in trade and food safety disputes? The search for an optimal response of WTO adjudication to problematic international standard-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuei-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Most international health-related standards are voluntary per se. However, the incorporation of international standard-making into WTO agreements like the SPS Agreement has drastically changed the status and effectiveness of the standards. WTO members are urged to follow international standards, even when not required to comply fully with them. Indeed, such standards have attained great influence in the trade system. Yet evidence shows that the credibility of the allegedly scientific approach of these international standard-setting institutions, especially the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) governing food safety standards, has been eroded and diluted by industrial and political influences. Its decision-making is no longer based on consensus, but voting. The adoption of new safety limits for the veterinary drug ractopamine in 2012, by a very close vote, is simply another instance of the problematic operations of the Codex. These dynamics have led skeptics to question the legitimacy of the standard setting body and to propose solutions to rectify the situation. Prior WTO rulings have yet to pay attention to the defect in the decision-making processes of the Codex. Nevertheless, the recent Appellate Body decision on Hormones II is indicative of a deferential approach to national measures that are distinct from Codex formulas. The ruling also rejects the reliance on those experts who authored the Codex standards to assess new measures of the European Community. This approach provides an opportunity to contemplate what the proper relationship between the WTO and Codex ought to be. Through a critical review of WTO rulings and academic proposals, this article aims to analyze how the WTO ought to define such interactions and respond to the politicized standard-making process in an optimal manner. This article argues that building a more systematic approach and normative basis for WTO judicial review of standard-setting decisions and the selection of technical

  18. 77 FR 31880 - Operating Instructions for Implementing the Amendments to the Trade Act of 1974 Enacted by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... apply for TAA benefits and services with Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance (OTAA) in the Department... criteria that test whether the group of workers was adversely affected by international trade have been met..., added to the TAA program in 1993 to provide benefits to workers who lost their jobs because of trade...

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(11)(i), use the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used...

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7035 Section 252.225-7035 Federal... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(10), use the following provision: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (DEC...

  1. 29 CFR 4.2 - Payment of minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payment of minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the... and Procedures § 4.2 Payment of minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards... employees shall pay any employees engaged in such work less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a...

  2. 19 CFR 147.13 - Transfer to fair building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer to fair building. 147.13 Section 147.13... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Procedure for Importation § 147.13 Transfer to fair building. (a... port director for the transfer of the articles covered thereby to the buildings in which they are to be...

  3. Governanças híbridas complementares aos contratos no comércio justo citrícola internacional Hybrid governances complementary to contracts in international fair trade orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melise Dantas Machado Bouroullec

    2010-12-01

    in transactions between legally independent organizations that chose to coordinate part of their joint activities. The sector chosen was the chain of fair trade orange juice (traditional and organic, and the main actors involved are Brazilian orange growers' organizations, European buyers, and international certifiers of fair trade. Particular emphasis was given to the coordination mechanisms that are complementary to contracts and which were firstly highlighted by Menard (2004. Those mechanisms of coordination are assured by a private certifier that is accepted voluntarily by the actors involved. This certifier authority, which can be more or less formal, coordinates several factors involved in transactions involving a mixed type of governance that includes control and incentives.

  4. Slovak Republic Act of 11 February 1998 on the energetics and on alterations to Act No. 455/1991 Collection of Acts of CSFR on small business (trade Act) in version of posterior regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This act constitute: (a) conditions of undertaking in electro-energetic, gas industry, and heat supply (in next only 'energetic' branches) ; (b) rights and responsibility of physical and act person undertaking in energetic branches; (c) rights and responsibility of customers of electricity, gas, and heat; counteract measures in the need situations, (d) and at prevention before need situations in energetic branches; (e) state regulation in energetic; (f) authority on keep of this act. The act is divided into for parts: (1) General constitutions, (2) Energetic branches; (3) The state authority; (4) Common, transient and invalidation constitutions.This act deals with the specific conditions for undertaking in nuclear power plants, too (licensing, security). This act shall into effect on 1 July 1998

  5. The Criminalization of the Theft of Trade Secrets:\\ud An Analysis of the Economic Espionage Act

    OpenAIRE

    Searle, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a law and economics assessment of how the elevation of the theft of trade secrets from civil malfeasance to a felony affects the incentives for both firms and potential thieves. The paper begins with theoretical analysis of the EEA and concludes with an empirical assessment of prosecutions under the EEA. In comparison to penalties used in civil cases, the new incentive of a criminal deterrent to trade secret theft introduces severe consequences, such as incarceration as a ...

  6. Validity and Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's critique on Xiaoming Xi's article, "How do we go about investigating test fairness?," which lays out a broad framework for studying fairness as comparable validity across groups within the population of interest. Xi proposes to develop a fairness argument that would identify and evaluate potential fairness-based…

  7. Are the FAIR Data Principles Fair?

    OpenAIRE

    Dunning, Alastair; de Smaele, Madeleine; Boehmer, Jasmin

    2017-01-01

    Presentation given at IDCC17 about FAIR data research done by Research Data Services of TU Delft, on 22nd February 2018. Relates to practice paper: Dunning, Alastair, de Smaele, Madeleine, & Böhmer, Jasmin. (2017, January 31). Are the FAIR Data Principles fair?. Zenodo. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.321423  Relates to data-set: Dunning, A.C. (Alastair); de Smaele, M.M.E. (Madeleine); Böhmer, J.K. (Jasmin) (2017) Evaluation of data repositories based on the FAIR Principles for ...

  8. FAIR VALUE IMPLICATIONS ON ROMANIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian-Dan COSTEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fair value generated intense debate during the last years, as the financial turmoil influenced many economies and capital markets, including the Romanian ones, too. Some researchers and professionals consider fair value in charge with the financial crisis and they ask for historical cost accounting basis for financial reporting. Fair value has its supporters, too. They consider that fair value reflects the effects of changes in market conditions when they take place, and accounting information is more reliable in this framework. Following recent regulations, Romanian entities activating on capital market as investors in capital market instruments, or whose shares are traded on a regulated market, must prepare their individual financial statements in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards. The study provides some conclusions that could enlarge the utility of fair value related to entities that activate on Romanian capital market.

  9. 19 CFR 206.44 - Contents of a petition under section 421(b) or (o) of the Trade Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... total value of the lost sale or lost revenue, and the total quantity of product involved (by weight or... DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND REVIEW OF RELIEF ACTIONS Investigations for Relief From Market Disruption... information in support of the claim that products of the People's Republic of China are being imported into...

  10. 75 FR 2578 - 2010 Special 301 Review: Identification of Countries Under Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Canada affecting United States cultural industries. The USTR must identify any act, policy or practice of Canada that affects cultural industries, is adopted or expanded after December 17, 1992, and is... assessing the effect of the acts, policies, and practices. Any comments that include quantitative loss...

  11. 76 FR 81555 - 2012 Special 301 Review: Identification of Countries Under Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Canada affecting United States cultural industries. The USTR must identify any act, policy or practice of Canada that affects cultural industries, is adopted or expanded after December 17, 1992, and is... of the acts, policies, and practices. Any comments that include quantitative loss claims should be...

  12. 75 FR 82424 - 2011 Special 301 Review: Identification of Countries Under Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... Canada affecting United States cultural industries. The USTR must identify any act, policy or practice of Canada that affects cultural industries, is adopted or expanded after December 17, 1992, and is... assessing the effect of the acts, policies, and practices. Any comments that include quantitative loss...

  13. 1, 2, 3 ... FAIR !

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, C.; Sharkov, B.; Stoecker, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR at Darmstadt/Germany will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented forefront research in hadron, nuclear, atomic and plasma physics and applied sciences. The start version of FAIR, the so called Modularized Start Version includes a basic accelerator as well as three experimental modules - 1, 2, 3 FAIR!

  14. A reduced feedback proportional fair multiuser scheduling scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    . A slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we propose a novel proportional fair multiuser switched

  15. FAIR PLAY I N TURKISH SOCIAL LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikail TEL

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We can say that we start hearing term of fair play since last 30 years in our country. While it is a sportive term it also represents respectfulness toward all mutual rights, symbol of being just and honest also we can determine it as basic moral values wh ich needs to be practise. Expression and teaching of Fair play fact starts with family and it needs to be thought as a life discipline which should appear in society. Term of Fair play isn‟t only an organizing term for sportive interrelations it also ne eds to be taken as a cultural fact. It is a way of life. Term of Fair play is a way of thinking and acting so it is is above all of sport branches. It is behaviors and emotions which are accepted as conditions of being a perfect human being by Turkish society. Purpose of this study is to investigate perspective of Turkish society toward Fair play and find lived / real fair play events to set as sample. Term of Fair play, cultural values among Turkish society and real Fair play events had been studied carefully within the theorical scope. This research is a theorical study. Screening the resources used as method for this study. Tried to investigate works, articles and researches had been done about this field and interpret the facts which can be acc epted as sample for Fair play.

  16. Fairness and nanotechnology concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A; Besley, John C

    2011-11-01

    Research suggests that fairness perceptions matter to people who are asked to evaluate the acceptability of risks or risk management. Two separate national random surveys (n = 305 and n = 529) addressed Americans' concerns about and acceptance of nanotechnology risk management in the context of the degree to which they view scientists and risk managers as fair. The first survey investigated general views about scientists across four proposed dimensions of fairness (distributional, procedural, interpersonal, and informational). The results show that respondents who believe that the outcomes of scientific research tend to result in unequal benefits (distributional fairness) and that the procedures meant to protect the public from scientific research are biased (procedural fairness) were more concerned about nanotechnology. Believing scientists would treat them with respect (interpersonal fairness) and ensure access to information (informational fairness) were not significant predictors of concern. The second study also looked at these four dimensions of fairness but focused on perceptions of risk managers working for government, universities, and major companies. In addition to concern, it also examined acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Study 2 results were similar to those of study 1 for concern; however, only perceived informational fairness consistently predicted acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Overall, the study points to the value of considering fairness perceptions in the study of public perceptions of nanotechnology. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. 78 FR 15802 - United States-Israel Free Trade Area Implementation Act; Re-Designation of Qualifying Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Cairo, and Suez Canal zones in Egypt under the IFTA Act to provide that all present and future... customs control that comprise the Greater Cairo zone, the Alexandria zone, the Suez Canal zone, the... Central Delta zone, the Greater Cairo zone, and the Suez Canal zone, as specified on maps and materials on...

  18. Madisonian Fair Use

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This short essay reflects on developments in the law, scholarship, and practice of fair use since the publication in 2004 of an earlier article on patterns in fair use practice and adjudication. It synthesizes many of those developments in the idea of “Madisonian” fair use, borrowing the separation of powers metaphor from James Madison’s work on the US Constitution and applying it, lightly and in a preliminary way, to copyright.

  19. Fair market value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an examination of fair market value concepts as they pertain to producing petroleum properties. conventional petroleum economic theories of fair market value are examined in light of recent work on the market value of long-life reserves. Their work is expanded to show that sellers rely on comparable sales data for estimating FMV. Both results are used to suggest that current practices over-emphasize the discounted cash flow approach to estimating fair market value

  20. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    ....) authorize the imposition of duties if (1) the International Trade Administration (ITA) of the Department of Commerce determines that foreign merchandise is being, or likely to be sold in the United States at less than fair value, and (2) the U.S...

  1. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    ....) authorize the imposition of duties if (1) the International Trade Administration (ITA) of the Department of Commerce determines that foreign merchandise is being, or likely to be sold in the United States at less than fair value, and (2) the U.S...

  2. Free riders play fair

    OpenAIRE

    Takikawa, Hirohide

    2012-01-01

    After the demise of the social contract theory, the argument from fair play, which employs the principle of fair play, has been widely acknowledged as one of the most promising ways of justifying political obligation. First, I articulate the most promising version of the principle of fair play. Then, I show that free riders play fair, that is, that their moral fault lies not in unfairness but in the violation of a rule by appealing to the example of three-in-a-boat. Finally, I conclude that e...

  3. Female Sex Tourism in the Caribbean – A “Fair Trade” or a New Kind of Colonial Exploitation? – Tanika Gupta’s Sugar Mummies and Debbie Tucker Green’s Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Hildegard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The above-mentioned authors offer a challenging and revealing study of the enjoyments and drawbacks of female sex tourism. I examine the interactions between white female tourists and local black men from the context of post-colonialism, asking whether these encounters can be considered a “fair trade” or whether they are the neo-colonising of people in this ex-slave society.

  4. Fairness is intuitive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelen, Alexander W.; Panton, Ulrik Haagen; Tungodden, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we provide new evidence showing that fair behavior is intuitive to most people. We find a strong association between a short response time and fair behavior in the dictator game. This association is robust to controls that take account of the fact that response time might be affected...

  5. Fair Package Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.

  6. Emission allowance trading under the Clean Air Act Amendments: An incentive mechanism for the adoption of Clean Coal Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549) uses tradeable SO 2 allowances as a means of reducing acidic emissions from the electricity generating industry. The use of emission allowances generates two important results; first, utilities are given the flexibility to choose their optimal (least cost) compliance strategies and second, the use of emission allowances creates greater incentives for the development and commercialization of innovative emissions control technology. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) are able to generate electricity more efficiently, use a wide variety of coal grades and types, and dramatically reduce emissions of SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , and PM per kWh. However, development and adoption of the technology is limited by a variety of regulatory and technological risks. The use of SO 2 emission allowances may be able to provide incentives for utility (and nonutility) adoption of this innovative technology. Emission allowances permit the utility to minimize costs on a systemwide basis and provides rewards for addition emission reductions. As CCTs are a more efficient and low emitting source of electricity, the development and implementation of this technology is desirable. This paper will explore the relationship between the incentives created by the SO 2 allowance market and CCT development. Regulatory hindrances and boons for the allowance market shall also be identified to analyze how market development, state mandates, and incentive regulation will effect the ability of allowances to prompt CCT adoption

  7. On fairness and randomness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the behavior of non-deterministic systems under fairness constraints, and the behavior of probabilistic systems. To this end, first a framework based on computable stopping strategies is developed that provides a common foundation for describing both fair...... this perspective the question is investigated what probabilistic properties are needed in such an implementation to guarantee (with probability one) certain required fairness properties in the behavior of the probabilistic system. Generalizing earlier concepts of ε -bounded transition probabilities, we introduce...

  8. Physics at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2014-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is under construction at Darmstadt, Germany. It will deliver high intensity beams of ions and antiprotons for experiments in the fields of atomic physics, plasma physics, nuclear physics, hadron physics, nuclear matter physics, material physics and biophysics. One of the scientific pillars of FAIR is the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment which is designed for the study of high density nuclear matter as it exists in the core of neutron stars. In this article the scientific program of FAIR will be reviewed with emphasis on the CBM experiment

  9. Computational Fair Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina

    Fair division is a fundamental problem in economic theory and one of the oldest questions faced through the history of human society. The high level scenario is that of several participants having to divide a collection of resources such that everyone is satisfied with their allocation -- e.g. two...... heirs dividing a car, house, and piece of land inherited. The literature on fair division was developed in the 20th century in mathematics and economics, but computational work on fair division is still sparse. This thesis can be seen as an excursion in computational fair division divided in two parts....... The first part tackles the cake cutting problem, where the cake is a metaphor for a heterogeneous divisible resource such as land, time, mineral deposits, and computer memory. We study the equilibria of classical protocols and design an algorithmic framework for reasoning about their game theoretic...

  10. Vehicle underbody fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz; McCallen, Rose

    2010-11-09

    A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

  11. Customizing Fair Use Transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, policymakers and commentators across the world have called for the introduction of copyright reform based on the fair use model in the United States. Thus far, Israel, Liberia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka and Taiwan have adopted the fair use regime or its close variants. Other jurisdictions such as Australia, Hong Kong and Ireland have also advanced proposals to facilitate such adoption. This article examines the increasing efforts to transplant fair use into the copyright system based on the U.S. model. It begins by briefly recapturing the strengths and weaknesses of legal transplants. The article then scrutinizes the ongoing effort to transplant fair use from the United States. Specifically, it identifies eight modalities of transplantation. This article concludes with five lessons that can be drawn from studying the ongoing transplant efforts.

  12. Is Equality Fair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Tarasov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer the question whether people consider decisions that lead to equal outcomes fair. I find that this is not always the case. In an experiment where subjects are given equal opportunities to choose how to divide money between each other in a two-player game, any strategy is perceived to be fair more than half the time, including the profit-maximizing strategy. The equal divisions that lead to equal outcomes are sometimes considered unfair by both players. Moreover, players frequently punished the others, whose decisions led to equal outcomes. I hypothesize that such punishments occur because people have different conceptions of what a fair outcome and fair punishment are

  13. Fair weather atmospheric electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R G

    2011-01-01

    Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in 'fair weather' regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

  14. China and the world trading system : will 'in and up' be replaced by 'down and out'?

    OpenAIRE

    WINTERS, L Alan

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of China into the world trading system, focusing on the size and nature of the shocks that this implied for the world economy and the reactions to those shocks proposed by policy makers and academics. While the WTO has acted as a forum in which many of the adjustment pressures created by China’s rapid growth were dealt with fairly constructively, the recent shift by the United States and the EU to mega-regional trade deals, notably the Tran-Pacific Partners...

  15. OnToPV - a virtual guidance through the PV-plant ''Solardach New Munich Trade Fair''; OnToPV - eine virtuelle Fuehrung druch die PV-Anlage ''Solardach Neue Messe Muenchen''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stich, C.; Becker, G.; Zehner, M. [Fachhochschule Muenchen (Germany). Fachbereich Elektrotechnik; Giesler, B. [Shell Solar GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Weber, W.; Flade, F. [Solarenergiefoerderverein Bayern e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    OnToPV is the project of an online tour guide through the PV-plant of the new Munich trade fair. The first focs was to provide an interactive circuit of a PV-plant. Within a virtual tour different areas of the plant should be made accessible over the internet. For this purpose a three-dimensional, multimedia guidance was developed for the PV-plant of the new Munich trade fair with informative diagrams, *.pdf-files and retrievable video-files. In such a way interested internet-users could experience with minimum system requirements, local- and time-independently the PV-plant in its structure and components and could receive different background informations in addition. From the view of the plant operators such an internet project serves on the one hand as an additional source of information where questions could be referred to and on the other hand as sort of advertisement for the technology and the PV-system. In addition the attractiveness of the internet appearance of the plant operator rises and the public awareness of such projects could increase. Seen from the user perspective - such an internet project gives private or business users the possibility to inform themselves interactively, purposefully and with the possibility to move through the plant on their own. Users could utilize the guidance through the plant without overcoming far geographical distances, saving time and money. Perhaps this source of information helps awaking a larger consciousness for renewable energies. The result OnToPV showed the various possibilities offered by projects of this kind in the internet. Ideas of possible extensions as for example the integration of current PV-plant operational data or of a virtual learning platform illustrate the perspectives of the project. Virtual guidance of this kind for various types of power plants are conceivable. (orig.)

  16. Renewable Energy Sources Act and Trading of Emission Certificates: A national and a supranational tool direct energy turnover to renewable electricity-supply in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsten, Selder

    2014-01-01

    Aim: After the nuclear disaster at Fukushima in 2011, Germany decided to phase out atomic energy, without producing new CO 2 emissions. The article discusses the promotion systems that are used. Scope: The percentage of renewable energies in Germany's electricity consumption increased from 3 in 1990 to 23 in 2012. This development was introduced and guided by a law called Renewable Energy Sources Act. It guarantees a privileged acceptance of electricity and a fixed gratification for 20 years to the operators of regenerative power plants. It allows the operators to install regenerative power plants at a reduced risk. By contrast, the international means for CO 2 reduction is the trading of emission certificates, which is also valid for Germany. The article discusses how the promotion of the Erneuerbar-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) and other plant-based promotion systems fit into this condition. It also elucidates the actual decline of promotion, its problems to the country’s environmental economy and the approach of decentralized photovoltaic (PV) energy plants towards economical efficiency. Conclusions: Germany’s energy turnaround to a regenerative energy supply is characterized by a strong and differentiated promotion system. Substantial efforts have to be made as the percentage of the renewable energy sources has significantly increased but is still under 25%

  17. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  18. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403 Federal Acquisition... 25.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. (a... in 25.402(a)(1). The WTO GPA and FTAs specify procurement procedures designed to ensure fairness (see...

  19. The FAIR proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kester, O.

    2015-01-01

    FAIR - the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe - constructed at GSI in Darmstadt comprises an international centre of heavy ion accelerators that will drive heavy ion and antimatter research. FAIR will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities, allowing a large variety of fore-front research in physics and applied science. FAIR will deliver antiproton and ion beams of unprecedented intensities and qualities. The main part of the FAIR facility is a sophisticated accelerator system, which delivers beams to different experiments of the FAIR experimental collaborations - APPA, NuSTAR, CBM and PANDA - in parallel. Modern H-type cavities offer highest shunt impedances of resonant structures of heavy ion linacs at low beam energies < 20 MeV/u and enable the acceleration of intense proton and ion beams. One example is the interdigital H-type structure. The crossed-bar H-cavities extend these properties to high energies even beyond 100 MeV/u. Compared to conventional Alvarez cavities, these crossed-bar (CH) cavities feature much higher shunt impedance at low energies. The design of the proton linac is based on those cavities

  20. BP's emissions trading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, David G.; House, Joshua C.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, BP reduced its emissions of greenhouse gases by more than 10%. BP's success in cutting emissions is often equated with its use of an apparently market-based emissions trading program. However no independent study has ever examined the rules and operation of BP's system and the incentives acting on managers to reduce emissions. We use interviews with key managers and with traders in several critical business units to explore the bound of BP's success with emissions trading. No money actually changed hands when permits were traded, and the main effect of the program was to create awareness of money-saving emission controls rather than strong price incentives. We show that the trading system did not operate like a 'textbook' cap and trade scheme. Rather, the BP system operated much like a 'safety valve' trading system, where managers let the market function until the cost of doing so surpassed what the company was willing to tolerate

  1. Developing fair compensation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trousdale, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of finding an effective way to incorporate Aboriginal values into the process of developing fair compensation structures was discussed. This paper discusses pricing intangible values using dollars, but it was emphasized that 'values' are whatever are important to us. Therefore, in order to achieve fair compensation, creative alternatives that are value-focused should be pursued. In addition to the more straight-forward monetary compensation, compensation could also be about avoiding losses, mitigating adverse impacts, achieving better communication, and promoting cultural understanding. 25 refs., 2 tabs

  2. The FAIR start

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoecker, H.; Sturm, C.

    2011-01-01

    At the 4th of October 2010 nine countries signed the international agreement on the construction of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, FAIR. Adjacent to the existing accelerator complex of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research at Darmstadt/Germany, FAIR substantially expands research goals and technical possibilities. It will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented fore-front research in hadron, nuclear, atomic and plasma physics as well as applied sciences which will be described in this article briefly.

  3. 7 CFR 51.315 - Fairly well formed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.315 Fairly well formed. “Fairly well formed” means that the...

  4. The Good, the Right & the Fair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Sandøe, Peter

    The Good, the Right, and the Fair is a comprehensive introduction to contemporary moral and political philosophy especially suited for undergraduate students in medicine and the life sciences. The book covers first questions concerning the good: What makes a life worth living? Is it only humans who...... matter morally? Is welfare all that matters? It then proceeds to a discussion of the right: How ought we to act? The major ethical theories of the western tradition are presented and their strengths and weaknesses discussed. Finally, key aspects of the philosophical discussion of the fair, including...

  5. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnsma, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is

  6. Fair quantum blind signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian-Yin, Wang; Qiao-Yan, Wen

    2010-01-01

    We present a new fair blind signature scheme based on the fundamental properties of quantum mechanics. In addition, we analyse the security of this scheme, and show that it is not possible to forge valid blind signatures. Moreover, comparisons between this scheme and public key blind signature schemes are also discussed. (general)

  7. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  8. Hadron Physics at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedner, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The new FAIR facility in Darmstadt has a broad program in the field of hadron and nuclear physics utilizing ion beams with unprecedented intensity and accuracy. The hadron physics program centers around the the high-energy storage ring HESR for antiprotons and the PANDA experiment that is integrated in it. The physics program includes among others topics like hadron spectroscopy in the charmonium mass region and below, hyperon physics, electromagnetic processes and charm in nuclei.

  9. PROTON MICROSCOPY AT FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, F. E.; Mariam, F. G.; Golubev, A. A.; Turtikov, V. I.; Varentsov, D.

    2009-01-01

    Proton radiography was invented in the 1990's at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as a diagnostic to study dynamic material properties under extreme pressures, strain and strain rate. Since this time hundreds of dynamic proton radiography experiments have been performed at LANL and a facility has been commissioned at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Russia for similar applications in dynamic material studies. Recently an international effort has investigated a new proton radiography capability for the study of dynamic material properties at the Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) located in Darmstadt, Germany. This new Proton microscope for FAIR(PRIOR) will provide radiographic imaging of dynamic systems with unprecedented spatial, temporal and density resolution, resulting in a window for understanding dynamic material properties at new length scales. It is also proposed to install the PRIOR system at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung before installation at FAIR for dynamic experiments with different drivers including high explosives, pulsed power and lasers. The design of the proton microscope and expected radiographic performance is presented.

  10. FAIR-share

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-seven engineers involved in the FAIR project in Germany recently spent three days at CERN. The purpose of their visit: tour ALICE and meet with CERN engineers. This marks the start of a close cooperation. The FAIR project engineers and their CERN counterparts.If you want to build a new particle accelerator and wish to benefit from existing expertise, who do you go to see? Well… why not go straight to CERN? That’s what this group of 27 engineers did. They are working on a new accelerator project, the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), to be built at the heavy-ion research centre GSI located near Darmstadt, Germany. Representing a variety of disciplines, from manufacturing to architecture, they will be responsible for making the project a reality. The visit was organised from 14-16 October, making it possible to include a tour of the ALICE experiment prior to the re-start of the LHC. However, the main goal was ...

  11. ITB Berlin: The world's leading tourism fair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đeri Lukrecija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MICE is a significant segment of tourism industry. It is of great interest for exhibitors and visitors, as well as for host cities and organizers. ITB Berlin represents the world's leading travel trade show. This paper analyses the key trends of this event in the last five year period (from 2004 until 2008. Analyzed data was annually gathered by Gelzus Messe-Marktforschung GmbH. This research focused on exhibitors', trade visitors and private visitors' origin, age distribution of private visitors, exhibiting companies, exhibiting branches, interest for travel according to type and overall impression and outlook that was gathered through surveys at ITB Berlin. Data was collected in the period 2004-2008 and placed together to make a five year overview. The goal is to present a development of above mentioned values and to discover potential patterns and predict future trends for this tourism fair. .

  12. 76 FR 1965 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Fair Value and Critical Circumstances AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration... sales at less-than-fair-value (``LTFV'') and critical circumstances, in part, in the antidumping... Republic of China: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Affirmative Determination...

  13. Fair value enrichment pricing: is it fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (Public Law 83-702), requires the Department of Energy to recover all costs for its enrichment activities over a reasonable period of time. The proposed legislation would allow the Department to recover its costs plus a percentage of these costs. Six major factors are examined to determine whether the legislation should be adopted: What effect will the legislation have on the prices paid by ultimate consumers of electricity; will the increase in price resulting from the legislation help promote the establishment of a private uranium enrichment industry; how will the price increase impact on the administration's nuclear non-proliferation goals; what additional revenues will be generated from domestic and foreign customers; should the United States continue to perpetuate a subsidy to the U.S. nuclear industry; what effect, if any, will the new price have on the U.S. supply and demand situation for energy

  14. 29 CFR 1903.9 - Trade secrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.9 Trade secrets. (a) Section 15 of the Act provides: “All... concerns or relates to the trade secrets, processes, operations, style of work, or apparatus, or to the...

  15. Trade Off Relevance Dan Reliability: Isu Ifrs

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmudah, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Financial reports containing qualitative characteristic that are useful for usernya.For a long time believed to be the existence of trade off between characteristic of qualitative relevance and reliability. Trade off due to the fact that the use of the method of measurement historical cost and fair value. Trade off occur because of the interests of for the purpose of the preparation of reports on finance. Accountability for the purpose of the measurement of the cost of historical still reliab...

  16. CERN Book fair

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Central Library and IT Department Bookshop

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Library, in conjunction with the IT Department Bookshop, is organizing a book fair on the 28th and 29th October. Some 15 major publishers will be represented, including 6 who will be here in person, and more than 700 of their latest titles will be on display (for sale or order). The major topics covered will be computing, physics, technology, mathematics, engineering and popular science. Those present at this event will include Alpha Science, Cambridge University Press, Elsevier, Institute of Physics, Microsoft Press, O'Reilly, OLF Switzerland, Oxford University Press, McGraw-Hill, Springer, Pearson, Thali Switzerland, Wiley, World Scientific and Ebooks Corporation. The fair will take place on the first floor of the Main Building (bldg.60), Salle des Pas Perdus, and will be open from 10.00 to 17.00 on both days. In addition, EBooks Corporation will describe their electronic book system; insight into this is available at http://www.eblib.com/ We look forward to your support for this initiative. Sh...

  17. 76 FR 5562 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value AGENCY: Import Administration, International... United States at less than fair value (LTFV), as provided in section 735 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as... Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final...

  18. Trade Finance during the 2008–9 Trade Collapse : Key Takeaways

    OpenAIRE

    Chauffour, Jean-Pierre; Malouche, Mariem

    2011-01-01

    Trade finance matters for trade, and when financial markets and world trade collapsed three years ago, a shortage in trade finance was hailed as a possible culprit. Because of the potential for global repercussions, world leaders called on the international community to act swiftly to avoid a depression. Governments and international institutions intervened to mitigate the impacts of the c...

  19. Insider trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslechko, W.S.

    1998-01-01

    The policy arguments for and against prohibiting insider trading within the petroleum industry are discussed. Legal definitions of all relevant terms (e.g. 'special relationship' 'tippees', 'material facts', material changes' 'generally disclosed' information', 'necessary course of business') are provided. Enforcement of insider trading/tipping prohibitions are also defined. The recommended practice is: do not trade; do not tell or advise; encourage timely disclosure; do not speculate; implement a corporate disclosure and trading policy

  20. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.; Kimman, R.; Schweickardt, H.E.

    2001-05-01

    This document brings together 18 testimonies of experts about energy trading: 1 - the energy trading experience on European deregulated markets: structure of deregulated energy markets in Europe, case study: a two years experience of a power exchange in western Europe, case study: European energy exchanges (experience of spot and future trading), case study: risk management on energy deregulated markets; 2 - the trading activity environment and realities in France: the French electrical law and the purchase for resale, experience feedback: status after 3 months of trading in France (the first experience of a French producer), the access to the power transportation network, which legal constraints for trading in France, the access of eligible clients to the French power market, conditions of implementation of a power exchange market in France, which real trading possibilities in France for producers and self-producers in the legal frame, case study: the role of trading in the company (main part or link to process), convergence of gas and electricity markets, gas-electricity trading: which pricing models; 3 - risk management and use of new technologies potentiality, the results outside the French borders: case study: what differences between the European and US markets, prices volatility and commodity risk management: towards the on-line trading, role and developments of E-business in energy trading, how to simplify trade in a liberalized market. (J.S.)

  1. Valuation of Inventories Considering the Fair Value Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaconu Adela

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Our paper represents a pleading for fair value in the specific case of valuating inventories. The real significance and implications of fair value can only be seen after analyzing the topic from different points of view concerning all involved actors. Therefore we have based our scientific demarche on analyzing the trade literature and comparing the foresights of international regulations given by both the accounting setting bodies and the valuation setting bodies. Moreover we have followed two of the three moments which require valuation and for these moments we have selected those cases which require the using of fair value. Our opinion regarding the findings of the research is expresses by giving practical examples for the specific application of fair value and the way to reach it.

  2. The Role og Fairs in the Development and Division of Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csaba, Fabian; Larsen, Frederik

    During the Copenhagen Fashion Week A/W 2010, CPH Kids opened as the first independent trade fair for children’s clothing. Despite considerable resistance, the fair managed to establish itself and challenge the established order by providing a venue devoted fully to children’s clothing and luring...... of CPH Kids and explore the values, identities and structures of Danish children’s fashion in more depth, our investigation points to the field dividing impact that fairs might have....

  3. Moudre ou faire bouillir ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rowlands, Mike; Fuller, Dorian Q.

    2012-01-01

    Moudre ou faire bouillir ? Nourrir les corps et les esprits dans des traditions culinaires et sacrificielles en Asie de l’Ouest, de l’Est et du Sud. Les techniques de préparation alimentaire révélées par l’archéologie pour les différentes régions d’Eurasie, incluant l’utilisation des céramiques, des meules et des plantes domestiques, mettent en évidence des situations contrastées. En Asie de l’Ouest, la mouture, la fabrication du pain et les soles de cuisson en aires ouvertes pour le rôtissag...

  4. How insiders traded before rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braggion, F.; Moore, L.

    2013-01-01

    UK company insiders, such as directors, were legally allowed to trade in the shares of their own companies up until the Companies Act of 1980. This article investigates the trading behaviour of directors over the period 1890 to 1909 in the UK. It finds relatively few instances of directors who

  5. The negotiation of fair trade standards within Ecuadorian flower plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Lyall

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fairtrade International (FLO applies requirements or “standards” for certification in agroindustries in order to channel resources to workers, improve their conditions, and “empower” them, even requiring freedom of association. Researchers have signaled a “dilution” (Jaffee, 2012 of standards in recent years. I take into account the case of the Ecuadorian cut-flower industry to show that FLO’s impacts on power relations ought to be analyzed not in terms of the standards, but rather in terms of the local negotiation of standards within territorial power relations. For this case, I point out that before FLO’s criticisms of conventional market mechanisms, standards generate better conditions, but also facilitate the re-consolidation of labor control.   

  6. Honey beekeeping and livelihoods prospects related to fair trade in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oku's White Honey has been produced for generations in the Kilum-Ijim forest, North-West region of Cameroon. Its white colour and creamy texture are bestowed by special mountainous plants, especially Schefflera abyssinica and Nuxia congesta. This honey is produced in a remote rural area where beekeeping is an ...

  7. Fair-trade indigo in El Salvador | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-17

    Jan 17, 2011 ... Jose Cosme is a 54-year old family man. ... Since 2000, Asociación Bálsamo, a Salvadorian organization, has been trying to ... of Alberta and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) has joined the project.

  8. Sustainable retail innovation: e-commerce and fair trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Tiemi Bastos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Com os mercados progressivamente mais competitivos, prezar por um relacionamento de longo prazo com os consumidores é cada vez mais importante, tornando necessário olhar para eles com atenção ao embarcar em qualquer uma das tendências vigentes no varejo. O consumo, por sua vez, é uma atividade fruto de um processo sociocultural, no qual são embutidos valores, princípios e preferências que condicionam as escolhas. O objetivo de pesquisa do presente estudo reside em investigar a inovação no contexto das atividades varejistas, analisando sob a ótica da inovação sustentável. Em especial, o presente artigo busca estudar o comércio justo no âmbito das lógicas predominantes no varejo competitivo. A pergunta de pesquisa é: uma parceria entre empresa varejista e um negócio social de comércio justo configura como inovação sustentável? Para abordar a questão, a qual detém um caráter exploratório, um estudo de caso é proposto sobre o E-Solidário, uma parceria entre a Solidarium e o Walmart, que juntos têm como objetivo ser o maior canal de comércio justo no Brasil. Verificou-se uma inovação de varejo sustentável como resultado dessa parceria entre as duas organizações, com benefícios para ambas.

  9. Child Labor Act of 1990. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Labor and Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session on S. 2548 To Amend the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 To Increase Penalities for Employers Who Violate the Child Labor Provisions of Such Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    On May 8, 1990, testimony concerning the Child Labor Act of 1990 was heard at a joint hearing of two U.S. Senate subcommittees. Opening statements by Senators Metzenbaum and Jeffords concerned: (1) the increase in child labor law violations since 1983; (2) the lack of increase in penalty fines since that time; (3) child death and injury during…

  10. Social comparison affects brain responses to fairness in asset division : an ERP study with the ultimatum game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; van Dijk, E.; Leliveld, M.C.; Zhou, X.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that social comparison influences individual's fairness consideration and other-regarding behavior. However, it is not clear how social comparison affects the brain activity in evaluating fairness during asset distribution. In this study, participants, acting as

  11. FAIR VALUE: UTILITY AND LIMITS

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Gabriel Cristea

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the utility and the limits of the fair value. We believe that any new product must be tried and tested before being imposed on the market and must be accepted by all potential users and those who will be affected, directly or indirectly and its advantages, disadvantages, risks, its cost must be predetermined and analyzed in a comprehensive and objective.We ask: Do financial statements at fair value meet users' expectations? The requirement to use fair value pricing mode...

  12. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, K.; Schroeter, S.

    2009-01-01

    Two brief articles and two interviews deal with the subject of energy trading. Power and gas exchanges in Europe multiply, but, experts say, we are nowhere near a mature, integrated European energy market as yet. Trading regulations need to be improved and harmonised and interconnections expanded. European Energy Review assesses the state of energy trading in Europe and interviews the ceo's of NordPool (the Nordic power exchange) and APX (Amsterdam Power Exchange)

  13. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  14. Does market competition explain fairness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descioli, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  15. Affect and fairness in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.A.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    A strained relationship exists between mainstream economics and ethics. Over the last decade, behavioral economists have strongly argued for the importance of fairness in motivating behavior, based on substantial experimental evidence. Two main approaches to the modeling of fairness have been

  16. TAXATION. FAIRNESS. EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    of the tax burden between them, depending on how the tax base, depending on the type of taxpayer and according to other criteria. Another coordinated taxation is part of contemporary consumerist polticilor new tax, taxing certain income, especially income individuals is marked by the overall objective of capitalist society, that consumption growth. Fiscal policies are policies the new contemporary consumerism. And this phenomenon influences the distribution of the tax burden among taxpayers, more or less fair. What is tax fairness and how we can quantify? Here's a question that I try to raspunt from equality before the law tax payers. Equality before the tax law is not a primary goal of modern tax policy, it losing ground to tax efficiency goals and its economic and social components. On the other hand though fiscal phenomenon can help to ensure social peace through taxation to keep Sean absolute size of the tax burden and the fact that all are equal before the law, tax law and within given social policies in broadly, social security or insurance in respect restrains can be promoted by themselves and less by fiscal policy.

  17. Can the New Antimonopoly Act Change the Japanese Business Community? : The 2005 Amendment to Antimonopoly Act and Corporate Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Kazukiyo Onishi

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported in the media that bid rigging is commonly practised in almost all public works projects in Japan. It was also said that the Japanese anti-trust authority, the Japan Fair Trade Commission (JFTC), was a watchdog that did not bite, in spite of having a long history of enforcement since 1947. However, the situation is significantly changing because the Japanese Antimonopoly Act was amended in 2005 to greatly strengthen anti-trust enforcement. The JFTC has already succeeded in...

  18. Technology is Changing What's "Fair Use" in Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Howe-Steiger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Doctrine of Fair Use was established by the courts to exempt certain activities such as teaching and research from the legal requirements of the copyright law. Before the 1976 Revision of the Copyright Act, only two cases were brought against teachers for copyright infringements. In both cases the teachers lost because their extensive copying was found to impact the copyright owner's market for legally published copies. Although the 1976 Act explicitly recognizes the existence of potentially Fair Uses, the act makes application of the principle highly situational. Classroom Guidelines attached to the Act make application even more murky and constrained. After 1976 photocopy technology and the advent of the coursepack began a trend towards circumscribing situations in which Fair Use may be applied. Potential impact on a new, lucrative market for sale of rights to copy portions of books and journals appears to dominate contemporary case law. Desktop publishing and Internet and web-based teaching, the authors believe, will further erode traditional applications of Fair Use for educational purposes. They argue that instructors and researchers should assume that there is no Fair Use on the Internet. Guidelines are provided for faculty and others considering dissemination of potentially copyrighted materials to students via digital technologies.

  19. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  20. Organ Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.E. Ambagtsheer (Frederike)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOrgan trade constitutes the sale and purchase of organs for financial or material gain. Although prohibited since the 1980s, an increasing number of reports indicate its proliferation across the globe. Yet, many knowledge gaps exist on organ trade, in particular on the demand -and

  1. Fair market value vs. net investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagassa, G.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that among the 300 some hydro electric power stations coming up for relicensing in the 1990s, some of them will certainly be taken over by the federal government or by competing license applications. Under prevailing interpretations of net investment value contained in the Federal Power Act, it is entirely likely that companies who lose a hydro station this way will go substantially uncompensated. Professional appraisal techniques for determining fair market value of property could produce substantially higher payments for lost hydro stations and may be a more appropriate standard for such applications

  2. International Fairs in the Modern Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio M. Santucci

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available International trade fairs are an important marketing tool for the expanding organic market. Although much output is marketed locally and there is a growing demand for the so-called zero miles products, Italian organic raw materials and processed foods are largely exported. For the first time, a direct survey has been conducted on 100 Italian firms attending BioFach 2000, to analyze aspects like activities performed, goals and expectations, forms of private – public partnerships. By using seven relevant variables, the firms are grouped into five categories. The same firms have been contacted after one month, to assess results, level of satisfaction and willingness to participate in a next edition.

  3. Cultural Values and Overall Fairness;

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Golparvar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research conducted with the aim of investigating the relationships between overall fairness and cultural values with organizational justice, job satisfaction and turnover among the personnel of training and education administrations in Esfahan city. Statistical population were the personnel of education and training administrations regions, which 309 persons from them selected with using simple random sampling. Research instruments were overall fairness with 3 items, cultural values (in two fields including materialism and power distance with 8 items, distributive, procedural and interactional justice with 3,3,3 items respectively, job satisfaction with 3 items and turnover with 3 items. Data were analyzed with using Pearson’s correlation coefficient, structural equation modeling, moderated hierarchical regression and mediating regression analysis. Results showed that there are significant relations between overall fairness with distributive, procedural, interactional justice and turnover, job satisfaction and materialism (P0.05. The results of structural equation modeling and mediating regression analysis showed that overall fairness relatively mediate the relations between procedural justices with turnover. But there was not mediated role for overall fairness in relations between distributive and interactional fairness with turnover and job satisfaction. Moderated regression analysis showed that power distance likely have moderated role in relations between overall fairness with turnover likely.

  4. The Relationship between Tax Rate, Penalty Rate, Tax Fairness and Excise Duty Non-compliance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinnasamy Perabavathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of indirect tax non-compliance by taxpayers became the main concern of most of the tax authorities around the globe. In Malaysia, non complaince such as smuggling and illegal trade activities by importers involving cigarettes, liquor and imported vehicles bound under Excise Act 1976 have caused revenue losses in monetary and non-monetary aspects. Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine the relationship of tax rate, penalty rate and tax fairness of excise duty non-compliance. This study uses the Deterrence Theory as a basis theory to investigate the phenomenon of excise duty non complaince. A total of 500 excise duty offenders throughout Malaysia responded to the survey. The model was empirically tested by using Partial Least Squares (PLS with disproportionate stratified random sampling technique. The results indicated that the perception of tax rate and penalty rate are positively related while tax fairness is negatively related to excise duty non-compliance among importers.

  5. What was fair in acturial fairness?

    OpenAIRE

    Heras Martínez , Antonio José; Teira , David; Pradier , Pierre-Charles

    2016-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://centredeconomiesorbonne.univ-paris1.fr/documents-de-travail-du-ces/; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2016.73 - ISSN : 1955-611X; The concept of acturial fairness stems from an Aristotelian tradition in which fairness requires equality between the goods exchanged. When dealing with aleatory contracts, this principle evolved, among medieval scholars, into equality in risk: benefits and losses should be proportional to the risks unde...

  6. FAIR VALUE: UTILITY AND LIMITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel Cristea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the utility and the limits of the fair value. We believe that any new product must be tried and tested before being imposed on the market and must be accepted by all potential users and those who will be affected, directly or indirectly and its advantages, disadvantages, risks, its cost must be predetermined and analyzed in a comprehensive and objective.We ask: Do financial statements at fair value meet users' expectations? The requirement to use fair value pricing model that was carrying was not accompanied by a parallel examination of its impact on the presentation of accounts.

  7. The ELISe experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the novel ELectron Ion scattering in a Storage ring (eA-collider) experiment that is part of the baseline of FAIR[http://www.gsi.de/fair/reports/btr.html] will be discussed in terms of future prospects in a viable physics programme[http://www.gsi.de/documents/DOC-2006-Mar-118-1.pdf, http://www.gsi.de/fair/experiments/ELISe/] that will be feasible for the first time, making use of a clean purely electromagnetic probe in conjunction with unstable secondary beams, the electron

  8. Fair Value or Market Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  9. A reduced feedback proportional fair multiuser scheduling scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed and ordered scheduling mechanism. A slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we propose a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-diversity scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the per-user feedback thresholds. We demonstrate by numerical examples that our reduced feedback proportional fair scheduler operates within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the achievable rates by the conventional full feedback proportional fair scheduler in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. Fairness and Trust in Structured Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina E. Tarnita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Classical economic theory assumes that people are rational and selfish, but behavioral experiments often point to inconsistent behavior, typically attributed to “other regarding preferences.” The Ultimatum Game, used to study fairness, and the Trust Game, used to study trust and trustworthiness, have been two of the most influential and well-studied examples of inconsistent behavior. Recently, evolutionary biologists have attempted to explain the evolution of such preferences using evolutionary game theoretic models. While deterministic evolutionary game theoretic models agree with the classical economics predictions, recent stochastic approaches that include uncertainty and the possibility of mistakes have been successful in accounting for both the evolution of fairness and the evolution of trust. Here I explore the role of population structure by generalizing and expanding these existing results to the case of non-random interactions. This is a natural extension since such interactions do not occur randomly in the daily lives of individuals. I find that, in the limit of weak selection, population structure increases the space of fair strategies that are selected for but it has little-to-no effect on the optimum strategy played in the Ultimatum Game. In the Trust Game, in the limit of weak selection, I find that some amount of trust and trustworthiness can evolve even in a well-mixed population; however, the optimal strategy, although trusting if the return on investment is sufficiently high, is never trustworthy. Population structure biases selection towards strategies that are both trusting and trustworthy trustworthy and reduces the critical return threshold, but, much like in the case of fairness, it does not affect the winning strategy. Further considering the effects of reputation and structure, I find that they act synergistically to promote the evolution of trustworthiness.

  11. The Economics of Fair Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Karl; Fehr, Ernst; Nowak, Martin A.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the field of experimental economics and speculates about why we value fairness and cooperation over the seemingly more rational selfishness. Illustrates a typical decision making situation using the Ultimatum game. (DDR)

  12. 78 FR 25337 - Notice With Respect to List of Countries Denying Fair Market Opportunities for Government-Funded...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ...: Date of Publication. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Scott Pietan, International Procurement... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Notice With Respect to List of Countries Denying Fair Market Opportunities for Government-Funded Airport Construction Projects AGENCY: Office of the...

  13. Design and research on the platform of network manufacture product electronic trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zude; Liu, Quan; Jiang, Xuemei

    2003-09-01

    With the rapid globalization of market and business, E-trading affects every manufacture enterprise. However, the security of network manufacturing products of transmission on Internet is very important. In this paper we discussed the protocol of fair exchange and platform for network manufacture products E-trading based on fair exchange protocol and digital watermarking techniques. The platform realized reliable and copyright protection.

  14. To what extent Fair Value is Fair, an Analysis of Reliability and Relevance of the Fair Value Accounting Paradigm.

    OpenAIRE

    Dugarte, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    To what extent Fair Value is Fair, an Analysis of Reliability and Relevance of the Fair Value Accounting Paradigm. Rafael Dugarte Escalante September, 2006 Fair value accounting is fair and important for financial reporting in providing relevant, reliable, comparable and understandable information to the users depending on what kind of information is expected from it, and the way in which fair value is actually found. This study complemen...

  15. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  16. Trading sulfur dioxide allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldburg, C.B.; Lave, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act is aimed at generators larger than 25 MW, as these are the largest polluters. Market incentives give each source an emissions allocation but also flexibility. If a plant has lower emissions than the target, it can sell the 'surplus' emissions as allowances to plants that fail to meet the target. Only a few trades have occurred to date. Market-based incentives should lower the costs of improving environmental quality significantly. However, currently institutional dificulties hamper implementation

  17. Measuring and Controlling Fairness of Triangulations

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui; Gü nther, Felix; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    of fairness must take new aspects into account. We use concepts from discrete differential geometry (star-shaped Gauss images) to express fairness, and we also demonstrate how fairness can be incorporated into interactive geometric design of triangulated

  18. Issues in Fair Value Accounting under IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Jannis

    2008-01-01

    The dissertation presents theoretical evidence for inconsistencies in fair value accounting under IFRS, experimental evidence for biases in risk perception of fair values and empirical evidence for discretion in banks' disclosure policies with respect to fair value measurement.

  19. 77 FR 31393 - Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Notice of renewal. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), as amended (5 U.S.C. App. 2), the Secretary of Labor and the United States Trade Representative have...

  20. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2014: FAIR Next Generation ScientistS 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    FAIRNESS 2014 was the third edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on September 22-27 2014 in Vietri sul Mare, Italy. The topics of the workshops cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in a box to stimulate discussions. The broad physics program at FAIR is reflected in the wide range of topics covered by the workshop: • Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point • Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions • Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei • New developments in atomic and plasma physics • Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NUSTAR, APPA and related experiments For each of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2014 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of research that

  1. INTERACTION OF TRADE AND FINANCIAL LINKAGES IN THE FREE TRADE ZONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shevchenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Different models of free trade agreements (FTA and free trade zones (FTZ are considered in the article, argued the complex approach to their structures and results under unstable global economic environment. The typology of the free trade zones models and financial linkages types between countries have been developed. Approaches to the results of the free trade zones have been argued. It has been discovered that for the free trade zones of transitional countries the prevailing are tarde flows concentration whereas financial and investment linkages are acting with developed countries. The main directions of increasing of the financial linkages results in the free trade zones have been discovered.

  2. CERN Scientific Book Fair 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2013 CERN Book Fair, a two-day scientific event offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts.   Key publishers will present a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering, computing and popular science. You are welcome to come along and meet the publishers’ representatives or simply have a look at the books on sale. The fair will take place in the Main Building (Bldg. 500) on the ground floor near Restaurant 1 on Monday 9 and Tuesday 10 September. Participating or represented publishers include: Oxford University Press, Princeton University Press, Springer, Wiley, and World Scientific-Imperial College Press. Fair opening times:  - Monday 9 September 9:00 - 18:00  - Tuesday 10 September 9:00 - 18:00

  3. CERN scientific book fair 2010

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2010 CERN Book Fair, a two-day scientific event offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts.   Some twelve companies will be present and will bring with them a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering, computing and popular science. You are welcome to come along and meet the publishers’ representatives or simply have a look to the books on offer. The Fair will take place in the Main Building (bldg. 500) on the ground floor near the Restaurant 1 on Tuesday 7th and Wednesday 8th September. Participating or represented publishers include: Cambridge University Press, EPFL Press – PPUR, Oxford University Press, Imperial College Press, McGraw-Hill, Oxford University Press, Pearson Education, Princeton University Press, Springer, Taylor and Francis, Wiley, World Scientific. Fair opening times: Tuesday 7 September 9:00 &ndash...

  4. Future Facility: FAIR at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, Guenther

    2007-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, FAIR, is a new particle accelerator facility to be built at the GSI site in Germany. The research at FAIR will cover a wide range of topics in nuclear and hadron physics, high density plasma and atomic physics, and applications in condensed matter physics and biology. A 1.1 km circumference double ring of rapidly cycling 100 and 300 Tm synchrotrons, will be FAIR's central accelerator system. It will be used to produce, inter alia, high intensity secondary beams of antiprotons and short-lived radioactive nuclei. A subsequent suite of cooler and storage rings will deliver heavy ion and antiproton beams of unprecedented quality. Large experiments are presently being designed by the NUSTAR, PANDA, PAX, CBM, SPARC, FLAIR, HEDgeHOB and BIOMAT collaborations

  5. 19 CFR 351.412 - Levels of trade; adjustment for difference in level of trade; constructed export price offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.412 Levels of trade; adjustment for.... The Secretary is authorized to adjust normal value to account for such a difference. (See section 773... value for a difference in level of trade if: (1) The Secretary calculates normal value at a different...

  6. 76 FR 33700 - Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade; Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ...Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given that the Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary), in coordination with the United States Trade Representative (USTR), has renewed the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade (APAC).

  7. Environmental Science: 49 Science Fair Projects. Science Fair Projects Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Robert L.; Keen, G. Daniel

    This book contains 49 science fair projects designed for 6th to 9th grade students. Projects are organized by the topics of soil, ecology (projects in habitat and life cycles), pests and controls (projects in weeds and insects), recycling (projects in resources and conservation), waste products (projects in decomposition), microscopic organisms,…

  8. 76 FR 24026 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Trade Agreements Certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ...; Information Collection; Trade Agreements Certificate AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... approved information collection requirement concerning trade agreements certificate. Public comments are...-mail [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose Under the Trade Agreements Act of...

  9. Children develop a veil of fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Alex; Montinari, Natalia; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that children develop an increasing concern with fairness over the course of development. Research with adults suggests that the concern with fairness has at least 2 distinct components: a desire to be fair and a desire to signal to others that they are fair. We explore......INFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)....

  10. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coburn, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  11. Fair Exchange in Strand Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Guttman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cryptographic protocols are intended to coordinate state changes among principals. Exchange protocols coordinate delivery of new values to the participants, e.g. additions to the set of values they possess. An exchange protocol is fair if it ensures that delivery of new values is balanced: If one participant obtains a new possession via the protocol, then all other participants will, too. Fair exchange requires progress assumptions, unlike some other protocol properties. The strand space model is a framework for design and verification of cryptographic protocols. A strand is a local behavior of a single principal in a single session of a protocol. A bundle is a partially ordered global execution built from protocol strands and adversary activities. The strand space model needs two additions for fair exchange protocols. First, we regard the state as a multiset of facts, and we allow strands to cause changes in this state via multiset rewriting. Second, progress assumptions stipulate that some channels are resilient-and guaranteed to deliver messages-and some principals are assumed not to stop at certain critical steps. This method leads to proofs of correctness that cleanly separate protocol properties, such as authentication and confidentiality, from invariants governing state evolution. G. Wang's recent fair exchange protocol illustrates the approach.

  12. Financial fairness and conditional indexation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinow, T.; Schumacher, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Collective pension contracts can generate advantages for their participants by implementing forms of risk sharing. To ensure the continuity of a collective scheme, it has to be monitored whether the contracts offered to participants are financially fair in terms of their market value. When risk

  13. Financial Fairness and Conditional Indexation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinow, Torsten; Schumacher, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Collective pension contracts can generate advantages for their participants by implementing forms of risk sharing. To ensure the continuity of a collective scheme, it has to be monitored whether the contracts offered to participants are financially fair in terms of their market value. When risk

  14. Pension accounting and fair value

    OpenAIRE

    Napier, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The chapter reviews the applicability of the fair value measurement concept to pension assets and liabilities, concluding that difficulties are likely to arise in measuring pension liabilities at far value, owing to the absence of well-developed markets for such liabilities.

  15. Toddlers Selectively Help Fair Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Surian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that infants and toddlers are inclined to help prosocial agents and assign a positive valence to fair distributions. Also, they expect that positive and negative actions directed toward distributors will conform to reciprocity principles. This study investigates whether toddlers are selective in helping others, as a function of others’ previous distributive actions. Toddlers were presented with real-life events in which two actresses distributed resources either equally or unequally between two puppets. Then, they played together with a ball that accidentally fell to the ground and asked participants to help them to retrieve it. Participants preferred to help the actress who performed equal distributions. This finding suggests that by the second year children’s prosocial actions are modulated by their emerging sense of fairness.HighlightsToddlers (mean age = 25 months are selective in helping distributors.Toddlers prefer helping a fair rather than an unfair distributor.Toddlers’ selective helping provides evidence for an early sense of fairness.

  16. Substitutes for procedural fairness: prototypical leaders are endorsed whether they are fair or not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Johannes; Christ, Oliver; van Dick, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    This article extends research on leader procedural fairness as well as the social identity model of leadership effectiveness (SIMOL) by demonstrating that leader prototypicality can act as a substitute for procedural fairness. Although procedural fairness in general and voice in particular have been found to have a robust positive influence on leader endorsement, the authors showed in an experimental scenario study and a correlational field study that the influence of voice on leader endorsement is substantially reduced when leaders are perceived as prototypical for the group that they lead and followers are highly identified with their group. Additionally, supportive of predictions of the SIMOL, leader prototypicality interacted with follower identification in predicting leader endorsement, such that prototypicality had a positive effect on leader endorsement, which was enhanced among high identifiers. Overall, these results suggest that leaders who are attuned to their followers' group identity can afford to go it alone, for the better or the worse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Internet Search Engines: Copyright's "Fair Use" in Reproduction and Public Display Rights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeweler, Robin

    2007-01-01

    .... If so, is the activity a "fair use" protected by the Copyright Act? These issues frequently implicate search engines, which scan the web to allow users to find content for uses, both legitimate and illegitimate...

  18. CERN Scientific Book Fair 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2008 CERN Book Fair 2008, a three-day scientific book festival offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and electronic book suppliers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts. Some ten companies will be participating and will bring with them a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering and popular science. There will also be a number of tie-in events intended to give you an insight into the writing and publishing process from authors within our own community. Come along and meet the authors, discuss your book ideas with the publishers’ representatives or simply browse the books on offer. The Fair will take place in Building 500 in the area near the Main Auditorium, and special presentations (as detailed below) will be held in rooms nearby or in the Library. Participating publishers and book traders include: Cambridge ...

  19. The NUSTAR program at FAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlert Alexander

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The NUSTAR Collaboration brings together several hundred scientists to form one of the four scientific pillars of the future FAIR facility. NUSTAR aims at the exploitation of intense radioactive beams with energies up to 1.5 GeV/u in order to explore nuclei with large neutron or proton excess. The project has evolved over the last years and now reached a state where a large fraction of the core program is financed, partly built, and even ready for operation. With the signing of the FAIR convention in 2010 and the start of construction, the sub-projects in NUSTAR gain momentum and look forward to commissioning and first beams in this decade. The present status of the project will be presented, focusing on the instrumentation to be applied in the various experimental areas behind the Super-FRS fragment separator, which is the central instrument of NUSTAR.

  20. Collector ring project at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinskii, A; Blell, U; Dimopoulou, C; Gorda, O; Leibrock, H; Litvinov, S; Laier, U; Schurig, I; Weinrich, U; Berkaev, D; Koop, I; Starostenko, A; Shatunov, P

    2015-01-01

    The collector ring is a dedicated ring for fast cooling of ions coming from separators at the FAIR project. To accommodate optimal technical solutions, a structure of a magnet lattice was recently reviewed and modified. Consequently, more appropriate technical solutions for the main magnets could be adopted. A general layout and design of the present machine is shown. The demanding extraction schemes have been detailed and open design issues were completed. (paper)

  1. Accounting for Fair Value Headging

    OpenAIRE

    Botea Elena Mihaela; Stanila Oana Georgiana; SSahlian Daniela Nicoleta

    2010-01-01

    The derivatives appearance was generated by the discovery of new ways to limit and manage current activity risks. Derivatives couldn’t hedge any type of risk. Derivative operations can be used to hedge: interest rate risks, foreign currency exchange rate risks, credit risks. Derivatives used to hedge these risks can be handled to cover fair value exposure, cash flow exposure and exposure to changes in the value of a net investment in a foreign operation. The hedging accounting roll is to prot...

  2. Hybla Fair event: environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, D.R.; Russell, W.L. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A series of environmental measurements during the Hybla Fair nuclear event were made. Experimenters were unsure of conditions that would be created since there was no closure system and the experiments were close to the source. A variety of temperature, pressure, and load devices were tested. The results will aid in the design and engineering of future close-in diagnostic packages and pipes. (U.S.)

  3. Hadronic resonances at FAIR energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings cover the analysis of hadronic resonances in heavy ion collisions. The model used for these studies is the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model. The model will be briefly explained, resonance observables will be highlighted and various kinematical issues will be investigated. Special emphasis will be put on the FAIR energy regime, especially highlighting the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) program.

  4. Fair adaptation to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavola, Jouni; Adger, W. Neil

    2006-01-01

    This article identifies social justice dilemmas associated with the necessity to adapt to climate change, examines how they are currently addressed by the climate change regime, and proposes solutions to overcome prevailing gaps and ambiguities. We argue that the key justice dilemmas of adaptation include responsibility for climate change impacts, the level and burden sharing of assistance to vulnerable countries for adaptation, distribution of assistance between recipient countries and adaptation measures, and fair participation in planning and making decisions on adaptation. We demonstrate how the climate change regime largely omits responsibility but makes a general commitment to assistance. However, the regime has so far failed to operationalise assistance and has made only minor progress towards eliminating obstacles for fair participation. We propose the adoption of four principles for fair adaptation in the climate change regime. These include avoiding dangerous climate change, forward-looking responsibility, putting the most vulnerable first and equal participation of all. We argue that a safe maximum standard of 400-500 ppm of CO 2 concentrations in the atmosphere and a carbon tax of $20-50 per carbon equivalent ton could provide the initial instruments for operationalising the principles. (author)

  5. The FairRoot framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Turany, M; Bertini, D; Karabowicz, R; Kresan, D; Malzacher, P; Uhlig, F; Stockmanns, T

    2012-01-01

    The FairRoot framework is an object oriented simulation, reconstruction and data analysis framework based on ROOT. It includes core services for detector simulation and offline analysis. The framework delivers base classes which enable the users to easily construct their experimental setup in a fast and convenient way. By using the Virtual Monte Carlo concept it is possible to perform the simulations using either Geant3 or Geant4 without changing the user code or the geometry description. Using and extending the task mechanism of ROOT it is possible to implement complex analysis tasks in a convenient way. Moreover, using the FairCuda interface of the framework it is possible to run some of these tasks also on GPU. Data IO, as well as parameter handling and data base connections are also handled by the framework. Since some of the experiments will not have an experimental setup with a conventional trigger system, the framework can handle also free flowing input streams of detector data. For this mode of operation the framework provides classes to create the needed time sorted input streams of detector data out of the event based simulation data. There are also tools to do radiation studies and to visualize the simulated data. A CMake-CDash based building and monitoring system is also part of the FairRoot services which helps to build and test the framework on many different platforms in an automatic way, including also Continuous Integration.

  6. HOW APPRAISERS DEVELOP FAIR VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV ŠKODA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Management is responsible for its own financial decisions. If we take into account, that fair value concept was shown in financial crisis as something that does not work anymore in this way; there is a big need to develop it for the future. Non-professional readers of financial statements believe, however, that company financials are the work of the public accounting firm that had signed the audit certificate. The main reason for bringing this point up is that when companies disclose Fair Value (FV information in their financial statements, they are taking responsibility for the values disclosed. Management may often be encouraged to utilize the services of an outside professional, but at the end of the day, the outside appraiser is a hired gun. Although the appraiser has to take responsibility for his own work, hiring the appraiser does not absolve management of its ultimate responsibility. The obverse of this is also true. Management does not have to hire the appraiser to develop any fair value disclosures made in the financial statements. Developing FV information is not recommended as a do-it yourself undertaking, there is nothing in Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP or Securities Exchange Commission (SEC regulations, however, that requires an outside appraiser.

  7. Structural Optimisation Of Payload Fairings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santschi, Y.; Eaton, N.; Verheyden, S.; Michaud, V.

    2012-07-01

    RUAG Space are developing materials and processing technologies for manufacture of the Next Generation Launcher (NGL) payload fairing, together with the Laboratory of Polymer and Composite Technology at the EPFL, in a project running under the ESA Future Launchers Preparatory Program (FLPP). In this paper the general aims and scope of the project are described, details of the results obtained shall be presented at a later stage. RUAG Space design, develop and manufacture fairings for the European launch vehicles Ariane 5 and VEGA using well proven composite materials and production methods which provide adequate cost/performance ratio for these applications. However, the NGL shall make full use of innovations in materials and process technologies to achieve a gain in performance at a much reduced overall manufacturing cost. NGL is scheduled to become operational in 2025, with actual development beginning in 2014. In this current project the basic technology is being developed and validated, in readiness for application in the NGL. For this new application, an entirely new approach to the fairing manufacture is evaluated.

  8. Children develop a veil of fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alex; Montinari, Natalia; Piovesan, Marco; Olson, Kristina R; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I

    2014-02-01

    Previous research suggests that children develop an increasing concern with fairness over the course of development. Research with adults suggests that the concern with fairness has at least 2 distinct components: a desire to be fair and a desire to signal to others that they are fair. We explore whether children's developing concern with behaving fairly toward others may in part reflect a developing concern with appearing fair to others. In Experiments 1 and 2, most 6- to 8-year-old children behaved fairly toward others when an experimenter was aware of their choices; fewer children opted to behave fairly, however, when they could be unfair to others yet appear fair to the experimenter. In Experiment 3, we explored the development of this concern with appearing fair by using a wider age range (6- to 11-year-olds) and a different method. In this experiment, children chose how to assign a good or bad prize to themselves and another participant by either unilaterally deciding who would get each prize or using a fair procedure--flipping a coin in private. Older children were much more likely to flip the coin than younger children, yet were just as likely as younger children to assign themselves the good prize by reporting winning the coin flip more than chance would dictate. Overall, the results of these experiments suggest that as children grow older they become increasingly concerned with appearing fair to others, which may explain some of their increased tendency to behave fairly.

  9. 76 FR 13902 - Fair Credit Reporting Risk-Based Pricing Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Parts 640 and 698 RIN R411009 Fair Credit Reporting Risk-Based Pricing... respective risk-based pricing rules to require disclosure of credit scores and information relating to credit scores in risk-based pricing notices if a credit score of the consumer is used in setting the material...

  10. Strategy intervention for the evolution of fairness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Zhang

    Full Text Available The 'irrational' preference for fairness has attracted increasing attention. Although previous studies have focused on the effects of spitefulness on the evolution of fairness, they did not consider non-monotonic rejections shown in behavioral experiments. In this paper, we introduce a non-monotonic rejection in an evolutionary model of the Ultimatum Game. We propose strategy intervention to study the evolution of fairness in general structured populations. By sequentially adding five strategies into the competition between a fair strategy and a selfish strategy, we arrive at the following conclusions. First, the evolution of fairness is inhibited by altruism, but it is promoted by spitefulness. Second, the non-monotonic rejection helps fairness overcome selfishness. Particularly for group-structured populations, we analytically investigate how fairness, selfishness, altruism, and spitefulness are affected by population size, mutation, and migration in the competition among seven strategies. Our results may provide important insights into understanding the evolutionary origin of fairness.

  11. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  12. Association par ticipation, fair trade and sustainable territorial development: the experience of "toca tapetes" Asociativismo, comercio justo y el desarrollo territorial sustentable: la experiencia de "toca tapetes" Associativismo, comércio justo e o desenvolvimento territorial sustentável: a experiência da toca tapetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Gomes Haensel Schmitt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the experience of the participation in associations and inclusion in Fair Trade by the organization "Toca Tapetes" as a contributing factor to sustainable territorial development in the municipality of Araranguá, SC. The methodology was largely qualitative applied through a case study which included targeted interviews that were semi-structured and not disguised, involving social actors that represent the sponsoring agency of micro enterprises in the state of Santa Catarina and with members of the association "Toca Tapetes". The study showed that the association experience of "Toca Tapetes" contributes to the process of sustainable territorial development, ecologically viable and supported by the principles of economic plurality and citizenship. The initiative has enabled the recovery of locally based cultural elements and transfer of job skills from parents to children. It is noteworthy that strengthening of association participation, of complementary exchange and ethical reeducation of the social actors involved in the productive process, by means of cooperation and, consequently, of the contribution to territorial development.El presente estudio tuvo el objetivo de analizar la experiencia de asociativismo e inserción en el Comercio Justo de la organización "Toca Tapetes" - "Toca Alfombras" - como factor de contribución al desarrollo territorial sustentable en el municipio de Araranguá-SC. La metodología utilizada fue predominantemente cualitativa, aplicada a través de un estudio de caso, que contó con la realización de entrevistas dirigidas semiestructuradas y no disfrazadas con actores sociales que representan la agencia de fomento al micro emprendedor en el Estado de Santa Catarina y con miembros de la asociación "Toca Tapetes". El estudio permitió constatar que la experiencia de asociativismo de "Toca Tapetes" contribuye para el proceso de desarrollo territorial sustentado, con viabilidad ecol

  13. INTERNATIONAL TRADE WITH ONIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the global trade situation with onion, 2008-2010. Besides presenting the existing situation of the five units continents (Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania study shows worldwide level of imports and exports, as well as its contribution to the performing acts of international exchange. Quantitative aspects of trade are filled with values data, that allowed the preparation of trade exchanges for this product. The main importer (in quantitative terms is represented by Asia, followed by Europe and at greater distance by the America, while the value of imports was dominated by operations performed in Europe, Asia and America - weights of 39.7 , 38.1 and 18.6% respective (of the world total. Concerning the quantity, the major players on the market exports are represented by Asia and Europe. They have dominated the world market, achieving 45.6 and respective 30.8% of world exports. America ranks third with a share of 17.4%. In terms of value, world exports were dominated by Asia, Europe and America (33.5, 32.7 and respective 26.7%, with a downward trend in the share of Asia and increasing European weights and American (compared to the specific situation of the quantities exported

  14. Fair play in energy policy decisions: Procedural fairness, outcome fairness and acceptance of the decision to rebuild nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visschers, Vivianne H.M.; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To raise public acceptance of new energy policies, promoting the fairness of the outcomes and of the decision-making procedure has been suggested. Very few studies have examined the role of fairness in public acceptance of rebuilding nuclear power plants. Therefore, using a large mail survey, we investigated the public’s acceptance of the decision to rebuild nuclear power plants in Switzerland by 2020. The study examined the influence of procedural fairness and outcome fairness on the acceptance of this decision, as well as other factors such as risk perception and benefit perception. Additionally, we investigated the moderating influence of general attitudes towards nuclear power on the relation between fairness and decision acceptance. Results indicated that outcome fairness strongly increased decision acceptance, along with general attitudes towards nuclear power and perceived economic benefits. Procedural fairness had only a small impact on decision acceptance. The influence of fairness on decision acceptance did not seem to depend on general nuclear attitudes. Our findings imply that, in the case of rebuilding nuclear power plants, perceived benefits and outcome fairness are important determinants of acceptance of the decision, while procedural fairness only has a limited impact. - Highlights: ► We investigated the role of fairness in the acceptance of a nuclear policy decision. ► Outcome fairness strongly influenced decision acceptance regarding nuclear power plants. ► The role of procedural fairness was relatively small in this respect. ► Also, nuclear attitudes and perceived economic benefits affected decision acceptance. ► Outcome fairness seems more relevant for decision acceptance than procedural fairness.

  15. Fair value assessment – valences and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Cozma Ighian Diana; Nistor Cristina Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, FASB and IASB have intensified research on fair value measurements and planned to further expand the scope of applicability of fair value measurements. However, organizations responsible for formulating the principles, enterprises, social bodies and academia are locked in a dispute over the advantages and disadvantages of fair value measurements, and no consensus has been reached yet. This paper explores the arguments for and against fair value and tries to find out whether a...

  16. Fair Value Bewertung von zedierten Reserven

    OpenAIRE

    Heep-Altiner, Maria; Hoos, Sebastian; Krahforst, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Für Schadenreserven existieren keine hinreichend fungiblen Märkte und somit auch keine Marktpreise im klassischen Sinn. Für eine Fair Value Bewertung bedarf es also eines geeigneten Modellansatzes. In der Schadenversicherung wird üblicher- weise der Transaktionswert modelliert, wobei hier die korrekte Modellierung der Kapitalkosten einer der zentralen Punkte ist. Der Fair Value der zedierten Reserven kann als Differenz zwischen dem Fair Value der Bruttoreserven und dem Fair Value der Nettores...

  17. FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Hui Hsu; Youan (Robert) Lin

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued that measuring financial instruments at fair value might not reflect firms’ financial condition. Prior study finds that managers manipulate the “disclosure” of fair value measurement (Song et al. 2010). In this study, we attempt to provide evidence regarding manager’s incentive to manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurements by examining whether the disclosure of less relevant fair value measurement is related to the odds of earnings management. We find that firms ...

  18. FAIR VALUE IMPLICATIONS ON ROMANIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Ciprian-Dan COSTEA

    2014-01-01

    Fair value generated intense debate during the last years, as the financial turmoil influenced many economies and capital markets, including the Romanian ones, too. Some researchers and professionals consider fair value in charge with the financial crisis and they ask for historical cost accounting basis for financial reporting. Fair value has its supporters, too. They consider that fair value reflects the effects of changes in market conditions when they take place, and accounting informatio...

  19. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  20. Trading volume and the number of trades

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan Izzeldin

    2007-01-01

    Trading volume and the number of trades are both used as proxies for market activity, with disagreement as to which is the better proxy for market activity. This paper investigates this issue using high frequency data for Cisco and Intel in 1997. A number of econometric methods are used, including GARCH augmented with lagged trading volume and number of trades, tests based on moment restrictions, regression analysis of volatility on volume and trades, normality of returns when standardized by...

  1. GasFair/PowerFair/EnergyUser '98 : Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Papers presented at three conferences, reviewing recent activities in the natural gas and electric power industries and matters of concern to energy consumers in North America are contained on this single CD-ROM. Seven presentations relate to the natural gas industry, nine to electric power generation and transmission, and ten to a wide range of topics dealing with various concerns relating to the environment, financial and cost management aspects of energy utilization. Speakers at the GasFair sessions discussed recent developments in natural gas supply, marketing, purchasing, risk management and the impact of energy convergence on natural gas. Presentations at the PowerFair segment dealt with issues in electricity deregulation, supply and financing, purchasing and marketing. Issues discussed at the EnergyUser sessions included presentations dealing with ways to save costs with energy technology and integrated services, environmental performance contracting and engineering and energy cost control. The CD-ROM also contains the summary of a round table discussion and five individual presentations made at the Natural Gas Pipeline Forum. This pre-conference institute dealt with the likely effects of new pipelines and pipeline extensions on North American natural gas consumers. . tabs., figs

  2. Do fair value adjustments influence dividend policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharov, I.; van Triest, S.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of positive fair value adjustments on dividend policy. If fair value adjustments are transitory in nature and managers are able to assess their implications for future earnings, fair value adjustments in net income is expected to have no distribution consequences. However,

  3. 7 CFR 51.705 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.705 Section 51.705 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.705 Fairly firm. Fairly firm as applied to common oranges, means that the fruit may be slightly...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1831 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.1831 Section 51.1831 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1831 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the...

  5. 7 CFR 51.774 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.774 Section 51.774 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.774 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2843 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.2843 Section 51.2843 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the onion may yield slightly to moderate pressure but is not...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1012 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.1012 Section 51.1012 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1012 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the fruit is...

  8. 7 CFR 51.3204 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.3204 Section 51.3204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Definitions § 51.3204 Fairly firm. Fairly firm...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1167 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.1167 Section 51.1167 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1167 Fairly firm. Fairly firm as...

  10. 7 CFR 51.643 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.643 Section 51.643 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...) Definitions § 51.643 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the fruit may be slightly soft, but not bruised, and...

  11. Volatility as a downside of fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Leibfried, Peter; Zimmermann, Marc-Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Accounting Standards increasingly require financial instruments such as stocks, derivatives and structured products to be measured at fair value. As fair values represent a financial instrument's market value, price fluctuations find their way into financial statements. Even though fair value measurement provides useful information about the current value of a corporation's assets, it also increases the volatility of earnings.

  12. 29 CFR 452.41 - Working at the trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Working at the trade. 452.41 Section 452.41 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Candidacy for Office; Reasonable Qualifications § 452.41 Working at the trade. (a) It would ordinarily be reasonable for a union to require candidates to be employed at the trade or even to...

  13. 75 FR 68636 - 8000, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] 8000, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading... and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of 8000, Inc. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in...

  14. 76 FR 33803 - Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Order of Suspension of Trading June 7, 2011... trading in the securities of the above-listed companies. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed...

  15. 75 FR 28780 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Service (FAS) will begin accepting Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Farmers petitions for Fiscal Year... TAA for Farmers Program as established by Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107...

  16. Clinical Trial Data as Public Goods: Fair Trade and the Virtual Knowledge Bank as a Solution to the Free Rider Problem - A Framework for the Promotion of Innovation by Facilitation of Clinical Trial Data Sharing among Biopharmaceutical Companies in the Era of Omics and Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelatos, Nikolaos; Reumann, Matthias; Lehrach, Hans; Brand, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge in the era of Omics and Big Data has been increasingly conceptualized as a public good. Sharing of de-identified patient data has been advocated as a means to increase confidence and public trust in the results of clinical trials. On the other hand, research has shown that the current research and development model of the biopharmaceutical industry has reached its innovation capacity. In response to that, the biopharmaceutical industry has adopted open innovation practices, with sharing of clinical trial data being among the most interesting ones. However, due to the free rider problem, clinical trial data sharing among biopharmaceutical companies could undermine their innovativeness. Based on the theory of public goods, we have developed a commons arrangement and devised a model, which enables secure and fair clinical trial data sharing over a Virtual Knowledge Bank based on a web platform. Our model uses data as a virtual currency and treats knowledge as a club good. Fair sharing of clinical trial data over the Virtual Knowledge Bank has positive effects on the innovation capacity of the biopharmaceutical industry without compromising the intellectual rights, proprietary interests and competitiveness of the latter. The Virtual Knowledge Bank is a sustainable and self-expanding model for secure and fair clinical trial data sharing that allows for sharing of clinical trial data, while at the same time it increases the innovation capacity of the biopharmaceutical industry. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. 7 CFR 35.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 35.1 Section 35.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices... Definitions § 35.1 Act. Act or Export Grape and Plum Act means “An Act to promote the foreign trade of the...

  18. 7 CFR 33.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices... AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.1 Act. Act and Export Apple Act are synonymous and mean “An act to promote the foreign trade of the United States in apples to protect the reputation of...

  19. Liquidity and Impact in Fair Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Jaisson, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    We develop a theory which applies to any market dynamics that satisfy a fair market assumption on the nullity of the average profit of simple market making strategies. We show that for any such fair market, there exists a martingale fair price which corresponds to the average liquidation value (at the ask or the bid) of an infinitesimal quantity of stock. We show that this fair price is a natural reference price to compute the ex post gain of limit orders. Using only the fair market assumptio...

  20. 75 FR 41276 - Notice of Meeting of the Industry Trade Advisory Committee on Small and Minority Business (ITAC-11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    .../Retaliation Issue --U.S.-China Trade Issues, including China Currency, Export Subsidies, Indigenous Innovation, IPR, and other issues. --Trade Promotion --Export Finance Myesha T. Ward, Acting Assistant U.S. Trade...

  1. Inspired at a book fair

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    During the Frankfurt book fair last October, the CERN stand drew quite the crowd. Director-General Rolf Heuer was there to promote CERN’s mission and the "LHC: the Large Hadron Collider" book. He met a lot of visitors and for one of them there was also a nice follow-up…   Marcus and his father visiting the LINAC facility. Fifteen year-old Marcus lives in Lauterecken near Frankfurt. The popular book fair last autumn was for him a nice opportunity to get in touch with the CERN environment. Inspired by the stand and what the CERN people were describing, he started to ask more and more questions… So many, that Rolf Heuer decided to invite him to come to CERN and find out some of the answers for himself. A few weeks later, while recovering from an exciting visit to the ATLAS underground cavern and other CERN installations with a cup of tea in Restaurant 1, Marcus shared his enthusiasm about the Organization: “When I was younger, my moth...

  2. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  3. Book Review: Is Fair Value Fair? Financial Reporting from an International Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This is a review of Henk Langendijk, Dirk Swagerman and Willem Verhoog (Eds) "Is Fair Value Fair? Financial Reporting from an International Perspective," Chichester: John Wiley, 2003, ISBN 0 470 85028 0.......This is a review of Henk Langendijk, Dirk Swagerman and Willem Verhoog (Eds) "Is Fair Value Fair? Financial Reporting from an International Perspective," Chichester: John Wiley, 2003, ISBN 0 470 85028 0....

  4. Cultures of High-frequency Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Ann-Christina; Lenglet, Marc; Seyfert, Robert

    2016-01-01

    As part of ongoing work to lay a foundation for social studies of high-frequency trading (HFT), this paper introduces the culture(s) of HFT as a sociological problem relating to knowledge and practice. HFT is often discussed as a purely technological development, where all that matters is the speed...... of allocating, processing and transmitting data. Indeed, the speed at which trades are executed and data transmitted is accelerating, and it is fair to say that algorithms are now the primary interacting agents operating in the financial markets. However, we contend that HFT is first and foremost a cultural...

  5. Fuel trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A first part of this report proposes an overview of trends and predictions. After a synthesis on the sector changes and trends, it indicates and comments the most recent predictions for the consumption of refined oil products and for the turnover of the fuel wholesale market, reports the main highlights concerning the sector's life, and gives a dashboard of the sector activity. The second part proposes the annual report on trends and competition. It presents the main operator profiles and fuel categories, the main determining factors of the activity, the evolution of the sector context between 2005 and 2015 (consumptions, prices, temperature evolution). It analyses the evolution of the sector activity and indicators (sales, turnovers, prices, imports). Financial performances of enterprises are presented. The economic structure of the sector is described (evolution of the economic fabric, structural characteristics, French foreign trade). Actors are then presented and ranked in terms of turnover, of added value, and of result

  6. The Adaptation Law for emissions trading. Part 2. A level playing field for emissions trading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, S.

    2010-01-01

    To supplement, clarify and simplify the regulations for emission trading, the Amendment Act emission trading II was submitted to the Dutch Lower Chamber end of 2009. This article discusses the pending bill and comments on a number of remarkable stipulations that may be important to the market parties. First a brief overview is provided of the basic principles of emission trading and the players in the CO2 market. [nl

  7. Fair-share scheduling algorithm for a tertiary storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakl, Pavel; Sumbera, Michal; Lauret, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Any experiment facing Peta bytes scale problems is in need for a highly scalable mass storage system (MSS) to keep a permanent copy of their valuable data. But beyond the permanent storage aspects, the sheer amount of data makes complete data-set availability onto live storage (centralized or aggregated space such as the one provided by Scalla/Xrootd) cost prohibitive implying that a dynamic population from MSS to faster storage is needed. One of the most challenging aspects of dealing with MSS is the robotic tape component. If a robotic system is used as the primary storage solution, the intrinsically long access times (latencies) can dramatically affect the overall performance. To speed the retrieval of such data, one could organize the requests according to criterion with an aim to deliver maximal data throughput. However, such approaches are often orthogonal to fair resource allocation and a trade-off between quality of service, responsiveness and throughput is necessary for achieving an optimal and practical implementation of a truly faire-share oriented file restore policy. Starting from an explanation of the key criterion of such a policy, we will present evaluations and comparisons of three different MSS file restoration algorithms which meet fair-share requirements, and discuss their respective merits. We will quantify their impact on a typical file restoration cycle for the RHIC/STAR experimental setup and this, within a development, analysis and production environment relying on a shared MSS service [1].

  8. 75 FR 55739 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ..., Canada; Broad Reach Engineering Company, Golden, CO; Celestica Corporation, Toronto, Canada; Deloitte... INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. 4001-21) authorizes the Secretary... Trading Company Act of 1982 and 15 CFR 325.6(a) requires the Secretary to publish a notice in the Federal...

  9. TOWARDS MORE SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE COCOA TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, Philip C.

    2003-01-01

    Cocoa is a classic Third World cash crop. It is produced mostly by small, poor farmers in Africa, while its products - chocolate and sun tan oil - are consumed by rich consumers in North America and Europe. A few West African economies are highly dependent on foreign exchange earned from cocoa sales. It has therefore been targeted by Oxfam's Fair Trade initiative, and IITA's Sustainable Tree Crops Program (STCP) is launching an effort of become more aligned with consumer's social preferences....

  10. Production of hypernuclei at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaitanos, Theodoros; Larionov, Alexei; Mosel, Ulrich [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The strangeness sector of the strong interaction is important for our knowledge on, e.g., nuclear astrophysics. It is still a widely debated topic of current research. Hypernuclear production in heavy-ion collisions and anti p-nucleus collisions offers the opportunity to investigate the hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-hyperon interaction inside a hadronic environment in terrestrial laboratories. We study the formation of fragments with and without strangeness contents in the framework of a dynamical transport model (Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling- Uhlenbeck, GiBUU) and a statistical approach (Statistical Multifragmentation Model, SMM) of fragment formation. We use a coalescence picture for the production of single-{Lambda} and double-{Lambda} hypernuclei, and provide theoretical estimates on their spectra and inclusive cross sections in heavy-ion collisions and anti p induced reactions, relevant for HypHI and PANDA experiments at FAIR.

  11. The PANDA experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussa, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    The approved FAIR upgrade of the GSI facility in Darmstadt, Germany, includes the construction of a High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) for high intensity, phase space cooled antiprotons with momenta up to 15 GeV/c. A wide physics program is planned at this facility to investigate fundamental questions of hadron and nuclear physics in interactions of antiprotons with nucleons and nuclei. To serve the many experiments planned at this new facility, an universal, modular, hermetic spectrometer called PANDA (Proton ANtiproton Detector Array) is planned. This talk presents an overview of the physics program pursued by this project and of the PANDA detector system. The feasibility of measurements in the sector of spin degrees of freedom of quarks will be also discussed. (author)

  12. Waste and fairness: No easy answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacow, L.S.

    1993-01-01

    If the location of most waste-disposal facilities in poor communities were the result of evil intent, then government could act. Unfortunately, economics, not discrimination, plays the dominant role in siting decisions - and there is little government can do about economic factors. While it may not be fair, the fact is that social and economic costs will almost always favor locations in poor, disadvantaged neighborhoods. This is because land, labor, and even social costs (potential environmental degradation, noise, congestion, and social stigma) are all lower in poor than in wealthy neighborhoods. And because minorities are more likely to live in poor neighborhoods, waste facilities will be disproportionately located in minority communities. Even if society succeeded in locating a major waste facility in a wealthy community, the community itself likely would change; the wealthy would leave and be replaced by the less wealthy. About the best government can do under the circumstances is ensure that poor communities are well represented in the siting process and that they have access to technical and legal representation so they can make an informed decision

  13. Decree No. 70-392 of 8 May 1970 laying down administrative measures in implementation of the Act of 1 August 1905 with respect to repression of fraudulent trading in irradiated food intended for human and animal consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Decree provides for the conditions of trade in irradiated food and lays down that food irradiation may be undertaken only in accordance with an Order specifying the irradiation limits and conditions. (NEA) [fr

  14. CONVERGENCES AND DIVERGENCES RELATED TO FAIR VALUE

    OpenAIRE

    Ionica Oncioiu; Florin Razvan Oncioiu; Daniela Simona Nenciu

    2012-01-01

    Many authors present the advantages of fair value accounting, but others contest this concept, because of its volatility and subjective tendency of the models used for the evaluation. The advantages of fair value include utility, relevance, transparency and superior accuracy of the results, provides more clarity to the financial statements, it provides a total accounting of the comparable value and it gives more liability to the manager. However, critics of fair value accounting do not provid...

  15. Fair value accounting – pros and cons

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgieva-Trajkovska, Olivera; Temjanovski, Riste; Koleva, Blagica

    2016-01-01

    Fair value accounting continues to be a topic of significant interest and debate among the preparers and users of financial information. Fair value continues to be an important measurement basis in financial reporting. It provides information about what an entity might realize if it sold an asset or might pay to transfer a liability. In recent years, the use of fair value as a measurement basis for financial reporting has been expanded, even as the debate over its usefulness to stakeholders c...

  16. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  17. Economic Consequences of Fair Value Accounting and a Change in the Distribution Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Kochiyama, Takuma

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the economic consequences of fair value accounting and a change in the distribution rule. In Japan, fair value accounting for financial instruments was mandated from 2001, and unrealized revaluation profits were to be included in income statements. As an institutional correspondence to the change in accounting standards, Japanese Commerce Law implemented the deduction of revaluation profits from distributable profits. However, from 2006, the Japanese Company Act changed...

  18. 78 FR 16611 - Freedom of Information Act; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 4 Freedom of Information Act; Correction AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Trade Commission published a... instruction in our final rule entitled ``Freedom of Information Act'' published February 28, 2013 (78 FR 13472...

  19. 17 CFR 240.12d2-1 - Suspension of trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of trading. 240... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Suspension of Trading, Withdrawal, and Striking from Listing and Registration § 240.12d2-1 Suspension of trading. (a) A national securities exchange may suspend from trading a...

  20. 17 CFR 240.12f-3 - Termination or suspension of unlisted trading privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unlisted trading privileges. 240.12f-3 Section 240.12f-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Unlisted Trading § 240.12f-3 Termination or suspension of unlisted trading privileges. (a) The issuer of any security for which unlisted trading privileges...

  1. 76 FR 19746 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 133; Quad-Cities, IL/IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1749] Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 133; Quad-Cities, IL/IA Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the following Order...

  2. 77 FR 32929 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 163; Ponce, PR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1830] Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 163; Ponce, PR Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the following Order: Whereas...

  3. The PANDA detector at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersani, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The PANDA detector will be installed at FAIR to enterprise a long-term, wide-spectrum physics program in the strong interaction framework. The detector will be installed at the HESR accumulation ring, which will provide an anti-proton beam of unprecedented luminosity and momentum definition. The beam will interact with an internal target. The detector has been designed to allow a 4π coverage around the interaction region. Due to the relatively high energy of the beam, up to 15 GeV, PANDA will feature two magnetic spectrometers: the target spectrometer (TS), with a superconducting solenoid and covering the interaction region, and a forward spectrometer (FS), with a normal-conducting dipole and covering the small angles region. Since the physics program is wide and the requirements on the various subsystems are different, the detector has been designed to be as flexible as possible. The complete detector will be described in detail, both from the viewpoint of the proposed techniques and from the viewpoint of the expected performances. An overview of the status of various components of the detector will be presented, too.

  4. The PANDA detector at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    The PANDA detector will be installed at FAIR to enterprise a long-term, wide-spectrum physics program in the strong interaction framework. The detector will be installed at the HESR accumulation ring, which will provide an anti-proton beam of unprecedented luminosity and momentum definition. The beam will interact with an internal target. The detector has been designed to allow a 4π coverage around the interaction region. Due to the relatively high energy of the beam, up to 15 GeV, PANDA will feature two magnetic spectrometers: the target spectrometer (TS), with a superconducting solenoid and covering the interaction region, and a forward spectrometer (FS), with a normal-conducting dipole and covering the small angles region. Since the physics program is wide and the requirements on the various subsystems are different, the detector has been designed to be as flexible as possible. The complete detector will be described in detail, both from the viewpoint of the proposed techniques and from the viewpoint of the expected performances. An overview of the status of various components of the detector will be presented, too.

  5. Fuel performance analysis code 'FAIR'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami Prasad, P.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1994-01-01

    For modelling nuclear reactor fuel rod behaviour of water cooled reactors under severe power maneuvering and high burnups, a mechanistic fuel performance analysis code FAIR has been developed. The code incorporates finite element based thermomechanical module, physically based fission gas release module and relevant models for modelling fuel related phenomena, such as, pellet cracking, densification and swelling, radial flux redistribution across the pellet due to the build up of plutonium near the pellet surface, pellet clad mechanical interaction/stress corrosion cracking (PCMI/SSC) failure of sheath etc. The code follows the established principles of fuel rod analysis programmes, such as coupling of thermal and mechanical solutions along with the fission gas release calculations, analysing different axial segments of fuel rod simultaneously, providing means for performing local analysis such as clad ridging analysis etc. The modular nature of the code offers flexibility in affecting modifications easily to the code for modelling MOX fuels and thorium based fuels. For performing analysis of fuel rods subjected to very long power histories within a reasonable amount of time, the code has been parallelised and is commissioned on the ANUPAM parallel processing system developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). (author). 37 refs

  6. International Trade and Protectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  7. Fairness through Transparency: The Influence of Price Transparency on Consumer Perceptions of Price Fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Rothenberger

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes that price transparency is a significant factor affecting customer judgments of the fairness of sellers’ prices. Cognitive judgments of fairness require a certain amount of information processing; therefore, the level of transparency and the amount of price information affect fairness judgments. The more clear information consumers possess concerning seller prices, the more positive the judgment will be. Customer price fairness judgment is an effective measurement for the ...

  8. The Entrepreneur Fair: Fifth Grade Student Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    In twenty years of teaching, the author has never been involved in a project that sparked as much enthusiasm from students, parents, the administration, and other teachers as the Entrepreneur Fair. In an effort to challenge students to become entrepreneurs, the author developed a one-day market called the Entrepreneur Fair at Stonewall Elementary…

  9. 7 CFR 735.111 - Fair treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fair treatment. 735.111 Section 735.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... treatment. (a) Contingent upon the capacity of a warehouse, a warehouse operator will deal in a fair and...

  10. Fair Access to Higher Education: Global Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountford-Zimdars, Anna, Ed.; Sabbagh, Daniel, Ed.; Post, David, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    What does "fairness" mean internationally in terms of access to higher education? Increased competition for places in elite universities has prompted a worldwide discussion regarding the fairness of student admission policies. Despite budget cuts from governments--and increasing costs for students--competition is fierce at the most…

  11. Fair value accounting and managerial discretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byrne, A.; Clacher, I.; Hillier, D.; Hodgson, A.

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the extent to which managers exercise discretion under fair value accounting and the value relevance of these disclosures. Utilising a sample of firms that apply the UK fair value pension accounting standard, (FRS-17), we examine the main determinants of the assumptions managers use to

  12. Theory of Mind Enhances Preference for Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagishi, Haruto; Kameshima, Shinya; Schug, Joanna; Koizumi, Michiko; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of theory of mind in fairness-related behavior in preschoolers and to introduce a tool for examining fairness-related behavior in children. A total of 68 preschoolers played the Ultimatum Game in a face-to-face setting. Acquisition of theory of mind was defined as the understanding of false…

  13. Fairness concerns and cooperation in context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei Khavas, T.

    2016-01-01

    Interaction settings offering identical choices result in different behaviour when they are presented in different frames or when they are conducted in different contexts. This thesis investigates the influence of various contexts on people’s fairness and fairness-driven cooperative behaviour. We

  14. Formal analysis of a fair payment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Cederquist; M.T. Dashti (Mohammad)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe formally specify a payment protocol. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the ?-CRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free ?-calculus. These properties are then verified

  15. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    We formally specify a payment protocol. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of timesensitive data. Here the μCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free μ-calculus. These properties are then verified using the finite

  16. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, Muhammad Torabi; Dimitrakos, Theo; Martinelli, Fabio

    We formally specify a payment protocol described by Vogt et al. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the mCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free mu-calculus. These properties are then

  17. Promoting Fair Food-to-Consumer Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel; Hviid Madsen, Mai; Smith, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    with authoritative definitions (adding experts’ final judgments). The research is part of the cross-disciplinary research project “Spin or fair speak – when foods talk” which aims at providing new knowledge, tools, and experimental evidence for promoting fairness in food naming and labelling practices....

  18. FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hui Hsu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many have argued that measuring financial instruments at fair value might not reflect firms’ financial condition. Prior study finds that managers manipulate the “disclosure” of fair value measurement (Song et al. 2010. In this study, we attempt to provide evidence regarding manager’s incentive to manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurements by examining whether the disclosure of less relevant fair value measurement is related to the odds of earnings management. We find that firms with more Level 3 assets and liabilities (i.e., less value relevant fair value measurement are more likely to recognize positive unrealized gains to meet or beat analyst forecast target. In addition, we find that only firms with weak corporate governance disclose more Level 3 fair value liabilities and recognize unrealized gains into reported earnings to meet or beat analyst forecast target. This evidence suggests that managers manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurement in order to manage reported earnings via the adoption of fair value option.

  19. Fair Optimization and Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodzimierz Ogryczak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization models related to designing and operating complex systems are mainly focused on some efficiency metrics such as response time, queue length, throughput, and cost. However, in systems which serve many entities there is also a need for respecting fairness: each system entity ought to be provided with an adequate share of the system’s services. Still, due to system operations-dependant constraints, fair treatment of the entities does not directly imply that each of them is assigned equal amount of the services. That leads to concepts of fair optimization expressed by the equitable models that represent inequality averse optimization rather than strict inequality minimization; a particular widely applied example of that concept is the so-called lexicographic maximin optimization (max-min fairness. The fair optimization methodology delivers a variety of techniques to generate fair and efficient solutions. This paper reviews fair optimization models and methods applied to systems that are based on some kind of network of connections and dependencies, especially, fair optimization methods for the location problems and for the resource allocation problems in communication networks.

  20. High school science fair and research integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalley, Simon; Shepherd, Karen; Reisch, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Research misconduct has become an important matter of concern in the scientific community. The extent to which such behavior occurs early in science education has received little attention. In the current study, using the web-based data collection program REDCap, we obtained responses to an anonymous and voluntary survey about science fair from 65 high school students who recently competed in the Dallas Regional Science and Engineering Fair and from 237 STEM-track, post-high school students (undergraduates, 1st year medical students, and 1st year biomedical graduate students) doing research at UT Southwestern Medical Center. Of the post-high school students, 24% had competed in science fair during their high school education. Science fair experience was similar overall for the local cohort of Dallas regional students and the more diverse state/national cohort of post-high school students. Only one student out of 122 reported research misconduct, in his case making up the data. Unexpectedly, post-high school students who did not participate in science fair anticipated that carrying out science fair would be much more difficult than actually was the case, and 22% of the post-high school students anticipated that science fair participants would resort to research misconduct to overcome obstacles. No gender-based differences between students’ science fair experiences or expectations were evident. PMID:28328976

  1. Fair packet scheduling in Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Nawab, Faisal; Jamshaid, Kamran; Shihada, Basem; Ho, Pin Han

    2014-01-01

    ordering of timestamps among neighboring nodes is sufficient for enforcing local fairness, subsequently leading to flow rate fairness in a multi-hop WMN. We show that TMAC can be implemented using the control frames in IEEE 802.11, and thus can be easily

  2. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-01] Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan- Cooperatives/Condominiums AGENCY: Office of...

  3. VALUATION TECHNIQUES USED IN FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Aurora, BUNEA-BONTAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of assets and liabilities involves significant judgements and estimates, especially when fair value measurement is required. Currently, IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement offers a single and more comprehensive source of guidance that is applied to almost all fair value estimates. When measuring fair value of fixed assets, intangible assets, specified financial assets or liabilities, different valuation techniques may be used: the market approach, the cost approach and the income approach. This article reviews these techniques and points out that different valuation practices may provide different results depending on the item being fair valued and on the inputs used. Also it emphasizes that, in particular circumstances, there is the possibility that a certain technique may be more appropriate than other.

  4. Measuring and Controlling Fairness of Triangulations

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2016-09-30

    The fairness of meshes that represent geometric shapes is a topic that has been studied extensively and thoroughly. However, the focus in such considerations often is not on the mesh itself, but rather on the smooth surface approximated by it, and fairness essentially expresses a mesh’s suitability for purposes such as visualization or simulation. This paper focusses on meshes in the architectural context, where vertices, edges, and faces of meshes are often highly visible, and any notion of fairness must take new aspects into account. We use concepts from discrete differential geometry (star-shaped Gauss images) to express fairness, and we also demonstrate how fairness can be incorporated into interactive geometric design of triangulated freeform skins.

  5. INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL TRADE WITH POTATOES (2009 - 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Mihai MEDELETE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the situation related to the potato world trade, 2009-2011. Defining aspects of this issue begin by presenting the sequence of continental entities defined by the FAO (Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe and Oceania, and then presents the study of global imports and exports, and positioning Romania in performing acts of international exchange - in the context of those mentioned above. During the material, given the composition of the trade balance of international trade presents strict export and import situation - in terms of value, subject to quantitative aspects of other scientific approaches. This (look value is more relevant to what is happening on the international market.

  6. Indian participation in FAIR accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, Amitava

    2015-01-01

    India is a founder member of the FAIR-GmbH, the upcoming International Accelerator Facility at Darmstadt, Germany. Indian participation at FAIR is being funded jointly by the Department of Science and Technology (DST) and the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). Indo- FAIR Coordination Centre at Bose Institute (BI-IFCC) is coordinating the Indian efforts of both in-kind contribution as well as experimental programmes at FAIR. FAIR aims for beams of stable and unstable nuclei as well as antiprotons in a wide range of intensities and energies. A superconducting double-synchrotron SIS100/300 with a circumference of 1,100 meters and with magnetic rigidities of 100 and 300 Tm, respectively, is at the heart of the FAIR accelerator facility. The existing GSI accelerators UNILAC and SIS18 will serve as an injector. Adjacent to the large double- synchrotron is a complex system of storage- cooler rings and experiment stations, including a superconducting nuclear fragment separator (Super-FRS) and an antiproton production target. FAIR will supply rare isotope beams (RIBs) and antiproton beams. In FAIR accelerator facility up to four research programs can be run in a parallel mode. The multidisciplinary research program covers the fields of QCD studies with cooled beams of antiprotons, nucleus nucleus collisions at highest baryon density, nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics investigations with nuclei far off stability, high density plasma physics, atomic and material science studies, radio-biological and other application-oriented studies will contribute in providing in-kind items both for the accelerator and the experiments. As per current plans Indian in kind contributions include: Power Converters, Superconducting Magnets, Beam Stopper, Vacuum Chamber. A short sample from an Indian Industry has been tested successfully at FAIR. Indian participation in building the accelerator components for FAIR is presented

  7. Regional Trade Agreement and Agricultural Trade in East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intra-EAC trade is very low, that is, at 9 per cent of the total regional trade, but it is on upward trend. Agricultural trade accounts for over 40 per cent of the intra-EAC trade. This study investigated the effect of EAC regional trade agreement on the regions agricultural trade by analyzing the degree of trade creation and ...

  8. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment...... be defended in all cases. Especially, the developing countries' benefits from trade have been very dubious. Furthermore, the trading system has contributed to environmental problems in several ways, e.g. generating undervaluation of natural resources, stimulating economic growth with environmental....... The purpose of this article is to critically assess the "free trade dogma" and to investigate the validity of widely used arguments concerning the relations between trade and development and between trade and environment. It is argued that the trading system is not something inherently good, which should...

  9. Fair Value in the light of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Svitselska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main provisions of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been researched as well as its critical analysis has been conducted. Comparison of the previous and the new definition of the concept «fair value» has been done on the basis of what the shortcomings of the previous definition have been highlighted, the characteristic features and advantages of new definition from IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been outlined. It has been proved that new interpretation of the concept of «fair value» is narrower and more accurate than the previous, it clarifies the subject matter, subjects of transactions, as well as the date of its execution. The scheme of estimation at fair value as well as model of fair value determination according to IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» has been presented. Methods of measurement at fair value and the fair value hierarchy have been researched. Some disadvantages of provisions of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» on the basis of its analysis have been highlighted, uncertainty is essential among them in which fair value should be applied.

  10. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  11. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2014-01-01

    The global financial crisis has contributed to the redirection of trade towards new markets outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift, based......-specific investments are particularly difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... on Swedish firm-level trade data. Results suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduce the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Trade in industries that are characterized by a high frequency of trade conflicts and where transactions require extensive relationship...

  12. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    The global financial crisis has accelerated the redirection of trade towards new markets, outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift. Results...... difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduces the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Furthermore, trade in industries that are characterized by a high degree of trade conflicts and that requires extensive relationship specific investments for trade to occur are comparatively...

  13. FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT UNDER IFRS 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COZMA IGHIAN DIANA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The IFRS 13, „Fair Value Measurement”, was first published in May 2011 and it applies to annual reporting periods that begin on or after January 1st 2013; this standard comes as a result of shared efforts on the part of the IASB and the FASB to develop a convergent framework regarding fair value measurement. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the main provisions of the IFRS 13 regarding fair value measurement, with a special emphasis on key concepts found throughout the standard, which refer to the principal market, the most advantageous market, the highest and best use, valuation techniques, and value hierarchy.

  14. 19 CFR 212.02 - When the Act applies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When the Act applies. 212.02 Section 212.02 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT General Provisions § 212.02 When the Act applies...

  15. Trading emissions improve air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lents, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    While admitting sharply contrasting views exist, James M. Lents of the South Coast Air Quality Management District in southern California sees emissions trading open-quotes as a lifesaver for our troubled planet.close quotes He explains: open-quotes If political support for the environment is to be maintained, we must seek the most economical and flexible means of pursuing cleanup. At present, market incentives and emissions trading represent our best hope.close quotes Lents is putting his money where his pen is. The air quality management district he heads plans to use market incentives, including emissions trading, to reduce air pollution in the notoriously dirty southern California area. When the system goes into operation in 1994, he estimates it will save southern California businesses more than $400 million a year in compliance costs, while also making major improvements in the region's air quality. If the idea works there, why won't it work elsewhere, even on a global scale, Lents asks? He believes it will. But open-quotes the ultimate success of emissions-trading programs, whether regional, national, or international in scope, lies in the proof that they're actually achieving reductions in harmful emissions,close quotes he emphasizes. open-quotes These reductions must be real and verifiable to satisfy the Clean Air Act and a skeptical public.close quotes

  16. Organ trade using social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrogy, Waleed; Jawdat, Dunia; Alsemari, Muhannad; Alharbi, Abdulrahman; Alasaad, Abdullah; Hajeer, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to February 19, 2016. The search was conducted on Twitter, Google answers, and Facebook using the following terms: kidney for sale, kidneys for sale, liver for sale, kidney wanted, liver wanted, kidney donor, and liver donor. We found a total of 557 adverts on organ trade, 165 (30%) from donors or sellers, and 392 (70%) from recipients or buyers. On Twitter, we found 472 (85%) adverts, on Google answers 61 (11%), and on Facebook 24 (4%). Organ trade is a global problem, and yet it is increasingly seen in many countries. Although the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation by-laws specifically prohibits and monitors any form of commercial transplantation, it is still essential to enforce guidelines for medical professionals to detect and prevent such criminal acts.

  17. Organ trade using social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Alrogy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to February 19, 2016. The search was conducted on Twitter, Google answers, and Facebook using the following terms: kidney for sale, kidneys for sale, liver for sale, kidney wanted, liver wanted, kidney donor, and liver donor. We found a total of 557 adverts on organ trade, 165 (30% from donors or sellers, and 392 (70% from recipients or buyers. On Twitter, we found 472 (85% adverts, on Google answers 61 (11%, and on Facebook 24 (4%. Organ trade is a global problem, and yet it is increasingly seen in many countries. Although the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation by-laws specifically prohibits and monitors any form of commercial transplantation, it is still essential to enforce guidelines for medical professionals to detect and prevent such criminal acts.

  18. Fair Information Principles of Brazilian Companies online privacy policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Zeni Marchiori

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to present the Fair Information Principles in the privacy policies of the websites of major Brazilian companies (according to the 2014 Forbes Magazine list. The check and analysis were supported by a checklist compiled from documents issued by the Federal Trade Commission and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and development. The study selected fourteen companies from a universe of twenty-five, considering the immediacy criterion of access to the privacy policy on their websites. The security (safeguards principle is the most widespread foundation at the privacy policies of the companies selected (existing in eight of the fourteen analyzed policies; and the principle of responsibility receives less adhesion due to the fact that it is not covered in any of the examined online privacy policies. The Sabesp Company presents the most complete privacy policy, considering the compliance with the Fair Information Principles when compared to the others perused, while WEG does not present any of the principles identified in the documental survey. As for e-commerce, the number of companies that assume some of the Principles is further reduced. For the selected universe the adherence to the Fair information Principles is still incipient, althought its use is not mandatory. An open discussion of the proposed Brazilian law about personal data protection should play an important role in creating further guidance on the subject. Additional studies in this subject should involve the perception of users, as well as a cutout of companies which target e-commerce, considering that an effective alignment with these principles and other guidelines are required in order to protect the user’s privacy and personal data in the web environment.

  19. Unpacking the right to plain and understandable language in the consumer protection act 68 of 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Stoop, Philip N; Chürr, Chrizell

    2013-01-01

    The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 came into effect on 1 April 2011. The purpose of this Act is, among other things, to promote fairness, openness and respectable business practice between the suppliers of goods or services and the consumers of such good and services. In consumer protection legislation fairness is usually approached from two directions, namely substantive and procedural fairness. Measures aimed at procedural fairness address conduct during the bargaining process and gener...

  20. International standards in mitigating trade risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A B

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards.

  1. 75 FR 23697 - Order Finding That the AECO Financial Basis Contract Traded on the IntercontinentalExchange, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ...'' and Cocoa contracts during this period. \\30\\ By way of comparison, open interest in the AEC contract... ensure fair competition among ECMs and DCMs trading similar products and competing for the same business...

  2. Is this a FAIR data repository?

    OpenAIRE

    Boehmer, Jasmin

    2017-01-01

    Presentation given as part of coaching task for University Leiden LIACS TEAM TASKS INFORMATICS ORIENTATION, on 17th November 2017. Group 3 - FAIR data with Rolf Kleef from International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI).

  3. Chamber Core Structures for Fairing Acoustic Mitigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, Steven A; Henderson, Kyle; Williams, Andrew; Ardelean, Emil

    2007-01-01

    .... A composite chamber core fairing consists of many axial tubes sandwiched between face sheets, tubes that can be used as acoustic dampers to reduce low-frequency interior noise with virtually no added mass...

  4. Boundaries between Fair and Harmful Tax Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Szwajdler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show boundaries between fair and harmful tax competition. The author analyses OECD’s reports and literature related to the tax competition. In the beginning, the author presents the notion of tax competition and its division into fair and unfair tax competition. Differences between tax heaven and preferential tax regime are also discussed. In the summary, the author highlights that boundaries between fair and harmful tax competition are not obvious, but there are well-known guidelines, which let distinguish above-mentioned issues. The author considers that there are real tax burden, effective exchange of tax information and transparency in the fair tax regime. The author states that taxpayer can do justified tax planning in such tax system.

  5. 'Nuclex 75'. Preview of the technical fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The 'Nuclex 75' - fourth international technical fair and specialist meetings for the nuclear industry - takes place from the 7th to the 11th October 1975 in the halls of the Schweizer Mustermesse in Basel. The meeting, which has taken place at three-yearly intervals since 1966, is divided into a technical fair and a congress. 422 exhibitors from 25 countries take part in the 'Nuclex 75'. Several industrial countries are again represented by communal exhibitions. The editorial office of 'Atom and Electricity' gives a few hints on the technical fair to follow which are based on the papers of the exhibitor sent in up to the editor's closing date. A detailed report on the technical fair as well as on important topics of the congress will appear in volume 11/12 1975. (orig./LH) [de

  6. Fair and Reasonable Rate Calculation Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides guidelines for calculating the fair and reasonable rates for U.S. flag vessels carrying preference cargoes subject to regulations contained at...

  7. Trade in goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards......An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards...

  8. Emissions Trading Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about emissions trading programs, also known as cap and trade programs, which are market-based policy tools for protecting human health and the environment by controlling emissions from a group of sources.

  9. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  10. Responsibility for what? Fairness and individual responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelen, Alexander Wright; Sørensen, Erik Øiolf; Tungodden, Bertil

    2010-01-01

    -This is the author's version of the article: "Responsibility for what? Fairness and individual responsibility", European Economic Review, Volume 54, Issue 3, April 2010, Pages 429–441. What should individuals be held responsible for? This is a fundamental question in much of the contemporary debate on distributive justice. Different fairness ideals, such as strict egalitarianism, and different versions of equal opportunity ethics and libertarianism give different answers to this question....

  11. Tourist offer and tourist fair: Marketing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berber Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the main aim of tourism system, which is an important part of economy, is a preservation and an improvement of itself supply, as well as connection with demand. As there are many of promotion activities, it requests their adequate observation. Fair activities, as one of the possible ways of promotion, have its own advantages, especially in total tourism product promotion. This paper is focused on importance and role of tourism fairs in continuously achievement of tourism system goals.

  12. Fairness in Communication and Computer Network Design

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Pål

    2006-01-01

    In communication networks, fair sharing of resources is an important issue for one main reason. The growth of network capacity is in general not matching the rapid growth of traffic. Consequently, the resources consumed by each user have to be limited. This implies that users cannot always be assigned the end-to-end bandwidth they ask for. Instead, the limited network resources should be distributed to users in a way that assures fair end-to-end bandwidth assignment among them. Obtaini...

  13. Trade, Labor, Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between international trade and labor standards is one of several controversial issues facing the WTO. Proponents of a trade-labor link argue that labor is a human rights issue and that trade sanctions represent a critical tool in the effort to improve international working conditions. Opponents argue that a link between trade and labor would open the door to protectionist measures that would target low wage countries and harm the very workers the policy is intended to help. ...

  14. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  15. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2006-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  16. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  17. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  18. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  19. The Government's Role in Facing the Injustice of Global Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Despite the controversy about the liberalization of trade, however the government of Indonesia has ratified the WTO provisions by the discharge of the Act Number 7 Year 1994 concerning the Agreement on establishment of the World Trade Organization. This is a fact of law that formed base on the political will of the Indonesian government to encourage the free trade system as an impact of the circulation of the vital flow of goods, services, capital and labor among countries in both the regiona...

  20. 美國聯邦經濟間諜法之回顧與展望──兼論我國營業秘密法之刑罰化 Reviewing the U.S. Economic Espionage Act—With the Extending Comments on the 2013 Amendment of Taiwan’s Trade Secret Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    林志潔 Carol Chih-Chieh Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available 科技、經濟、國家安全,看似不相關的三個名詞,因營業秘密的存在而牢牢相扣。美國自1996 年起以聯邦層級的經濟間諜法來保護營業秘密,對於侵害營業秘密者課予刑事責任,並明確區分竊取營業秘密行為及經濟間諜行為,以嚇阻企業競爭對手竊取營業秘密,防止國家經濟、安全受到危害。然而,美國聯邦經濟間諜法施行至今已十九年,關於經濟間諜罪的案件,經法院判決確定有罪者卻為數不多,本文擬分析經濟間諜法實務上施行之困境,並提出改革建議。又,我國營業秘密法於2013 年增訂刑事規範第13 條之1至第13 條之4,主要參考自經濟間諜法,為分析比較,本文亦將一併檢討我國營業秘密法刑罰化後之問題。 “Technology, economic and national security,” these three words seem to be irrelevant on the surface; however, they are tightly bounded by the existence of the word—trade secret. The federal government of the U.S. passed the Economic Espionage Act in 1996 in an attempt to create a “comprehensive and systematic” approach to address trade secrecy misappropriation, drawing a clear line between economic espionage and theft of trade secrets through federal criminal justice system. It is established to prevent trade rivals from stealing other business’s most precious property—trade secret, and to protect the national economy, security from any harm. While the Economic Espionage Act has been implemented for 19 years, there are only few cases brought in a verdict of guilty, which seemingly contradicts to the legislative purposes. Therefore, this article aims to analyze the predicamentof the Act, and to give constructive propositions. Furthermore, the Trade Secret Act in Taiwan was revised in 2013. It mainly referred to the Economic Espionage, adding article 13-1 to 13-4. In order to compare and assay, this article will also probe into

  1. 7 CFR 1160.101 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Act. 1160.101 Section 1160.101 Agriculture Regulations... Definitions § 1160.101 Act. Act means the Fluid Milk Promotion Act of 1990, Subtitle H of Title XIX of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, Public Law 101-624, 7 U.S.C. 6401-6417, and any...

  2. Fair Value in the light of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement»

    OpenAIRE

    V.V. Svitselska

    2015-01-01

    The main provisions of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been researched as well as its critical analysis has been conducted. Comparison of the previous and the new definition of the concept «fair value» has been done on the basis of what the shortcomings of the previous definition have been highlighted, the characteristic features and advantages of new definition from IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been outlined. It has been proved that new interpretation of the concept of «fair v...

  3. How fair are fair values? A comparison for cross-listed financial companies

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Berden; Franka Liedorp

    2006-01-01

    Fair value accounting and IAS 39 are at the core of a debate between regulators, institutions and supervisors. We add to this debate at a conceptual and empirical level. First we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of fair values for banks and insurance companies. Then we explore the differences between fair values and book values and the implications thereof based on a group of institutions with a listing on a stock exchange in both the home country (on book value) and the US (on fair v...

  4. 76 FR 14570 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Trade Agreements Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... application of the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and the Free Trade Agreements, as... Parts 22, 25, and 52 Government procurement. Dated: March 4, 2011. Millisa Gary, Acting Director, Office... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Cecelia L. Davis, Procurement Analyst, at (202) 219-0202, for clarification of...

  5. 75 FR 49886 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by phone: (202) 720-0638... for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: August 3, 2010. Suzanne Hale, Acting...

  6. Right-to-Work and Fair-Share Agreements: A Delicate Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a brief background on the development of the concept of right-to-work statutes in the private sector under the National Labor Relations Act; reviews right-to-work statutes in public education and examines the status of fair-share agreements. (Contains 23 references.) (Author/PKP)

  7. 78 FR 72716 - Proposed Extension of the Information Collections Pertaining to Special Employment Under the Fair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 29 U.S.C. 201, et seq., which sets the Federal minimum wage, overtime... prohibit industrial homework as necessary to prevent circumvention or evasion of the minimum wage... at not less than 85 percent of the applicable minimum wage or less than $1.60, whichever is higher...

  8. Software Development Infrastructure for the FAIR Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlig, F; Al-Turany, M; Bertini, D; Karabowicz, R

    2011-01-01

    The proposed project FAIR (Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research) is an international accelerator facility of the next generation. It builds on top of the experience and technological developments already made at the existing GSI facility, and incorporate new technological concepts. The four scientific pillars of FAIR are NUSTAR (nuclear structure and astrophysics), PANDA (QCD studies with cooled beams of anti-protons), CBM (physics of hadronic matter at highest baryon densities), and APPA (atomic physics, plasma physics, and applications). The FairRoot framework used by all of the big FAIR experiments as a base for their own specific developments, provides basic functionality like IO, geometry handling etc. The challenge is to support all the different experiments with their heterogeneous requirements. Due to the limited manpower, one of the first design decisions was to (re)use as much as possible already available and tested software and to focus on the development of the framework. Beside the framework itself, the FairRoot core team also provides some software development tools. We will describe the complete set of tools in this article. The Makefiles for all projects are generated using CMake. For software testing and the corresponding quality assurance, we use CTest to generate the results and CDash as web front end. The tools are completed by subversion as source code repository and trac as tool for the complete source code management. This set of tools allows us to offer the full functionality we have for FairRoot also to the experiments based on FairRoot.

  9. Arbitrability of Disputes Pertaining to Abusive Debt Collection Practices in the US: Striking a Balance between Efficiency and Fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanescu, Catalin Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    that the “arbitrability” of abusive debt collection practices raises specific concerns. Specifically, the arbitration of such clauses brings into conflict two federal acts—¬the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) and the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA), which both promote important public policies. Which should...

  10. 77 FR 24459 - Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 9D, Maui Pineapple Company, Ltd., Kahului, Maui, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1821] Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 9D, Maui Pineapple Company, Ltd., Kahului, Maui, HI Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), and the Foreign-Trade Zones...

  11. 17 CFR 240.10b5-2 - Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in misappropriation insider trading cases. 240.10b5-2 Section 240.10b5-2 Commodity and Securities... Devices and Contrivances § 240.10b5-2 Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading... of insider trading under Section 10(b) of the Act and Rule 10b-5. The law of insider trading is...

  12. 76 FR 65496 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 119 Under Alternative Site Framework, Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1790] Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 119 Under Alternative Site Framework, Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), the Foreign-Trade Zones Board...

  13. Extreme state of matter physics at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris Sharkov

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe, FAIR, will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented fore-front research in extreme state of matter physics and applied science. Indeed, it is the largest basic research project on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum of Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), and it is cornerstone of the European Research Area. FAIR offers to scientists from the whole world an abundance of outstanding research opportunities, broader in scope than any other contemporary large-scale facility worldwide. More than 2500 scientists are involved in setting up and exploiting the FAIR facility. They will push the frontiers of our knowledge in hadron, nuclear, atomic and applied physics far ahead, with important implications also for other fields in science such as cosmology, astro and particle physics, and technology. It includes 14 initial experiments, which form the four scientific pillars of FAIR. The main thrust of intense heavy ion and laser beam-matter interaction research focuses on the structure and evolution of matter on both a microscopic and on a cosmic scale. This presentation outlines the current status of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research. It is expected that the actual construction of the facility will commence in 2010 as the project has raised more than one billion euro in funding. The sequence and scope of the construction will be described. Also the physics program of FAIR, based on the acquired funding, will be presented.

  14. Adaptive Filtering Queueing for Improving Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Pin Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a scalable and efficient Active Queue Management (AQM scheme to provide fair bandwidth sharing when traffic is congested dubbed Adaptive Filtering Queueing (AFQ. First, AFQ identifies the filtering level of an arriving packet by comparing it with a flow label selected at random from the first level to an estimated level in the filtering level table. Based on the accepted traffic estimation and the previous fair filtering level, AFQ updates the fair filtering level. Next, AFQ uses a simple packet-dropping algorithm to determine whether arriving packets are accepted or discarded. To enhance AFQ’s feasibility in high-speed networks, we propose a two-layer mapping mechanism to effectively simplify the packet comparison operations. Simulation results demonstrate that AFQ achieves optimal fairness when compared with Rotating Preference Queues (RPQ, Core-Stateless Fair Queueing (CSFQ, CHOose and Keep for responsive flows, CHOose and Kill for unresponsive flows (CHOKe and First-In First-Out (FIFO schemes under a variety of traffic conditions.

  15. Fair for extreme state of matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkov, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe, FAIR, will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented fore-front research in extreme state of matter physics and applied science. Indeed, it is the largest basic research project on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum of Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), and it is cornerstone of the European Research Area. FAIR offers to scientists from the whole world an abundance of outstanding research opportunities, broader in scope than any other contemporary large-scale facility worldwide. More than 2500 scientists are involved in setting up and exploiting the FAIR facility. They will push the frontiers of our knowledge in hadron, nuclear, atomic and applied physics far ahead, with important implications also for other fields in science such as cosmology, astro and particle physics, and technology. It includes 14 initial experiments, which form the four scientific pillars of FAIR. The main thrust of intense heavy ion and laser beam-matter interaction research focuses on the structure and evolution of matter on both a microscopic and on a cosmic scale. This presentation outlines the current status of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research. It is expected that the actual construction of the facility will commence in 2010 as the project has raised more than one billion euro in funding. The sequence and scope of the construction will be described. Also the physics program of FAIR, based on the acquired funding, will be presented. (author)

  16. Partner choice creates fairness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debove, Stéphane; André, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas

    2015-06-07

    Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that this puzzle can be solved if we consider the outside options on which partner choice operates. We conduct a behavioural experiment, run agent-based simulations and analyse a game-theoretic model to understand how outside options affect partner choice and fairness. All support the conclusion that partner choice leads to fairness only when individuals have equal outside options. We discuss how this condition has been met in our evolutionary history, and the implications of these findings for our understanding of other aspects of fairness less specific than preferences for equal divisions of resources. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. FAIR - Baseline technical report. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutbrod, H.H.; Augustin, I.; Eickhoff, H.; Gross, K.D.; Henning, W.F.; Kraemer, D.; Walter, G.

    2006-09-01

    This document presents the Executive Summary, the first of six volumes comprising the 2006 Baseline Technical Report (BTR) for the international FAIR project (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research). The BTR provides the technical description, cost, schedule, and assessments of risk for the proposed new facility. The purpose of the BTR is to provide a reliable basis for the construction, commissioning and operation of FAIR. The BTR is one of the central documents requested by the FAIR International Steering Committee (ISC) and its working groups, in order to prepare the legal process and the decisions on the construction and operation of FAIR in an international framework. It provides the technical basis for legal contracts on contributions to be made by, so far, 13 countries within the international FAIR Consortium. The BTR begins with this extended Executive Summary as Volume 1, which is also intended for use as a stand-alone document. The Executive Summary provides brief summaries of the accelerator facilities, the scientific programs and experimental stations, civil construction and safety, and of the workproject structure, costs and schedule. (orig.)

  18. SEARCHING FOR THE FAIR STORY BEHIND FAIR VALUE FOR FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaci Carmen Giorgiana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims at telling the whole story where fair value accounting is concerned. Harsh criticism has been brought to this concept under current circumstances that motivated out research. Without arguing for fair value as something it is not, we briefly

  19. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-10-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme.

  20. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme

  1. FLUKA shielding calculations for the FAIR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbacher, Georg; Kozlova, Ekaterina; Radon, Torsten; Sokolov, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    FAIR is an international accelerator project being in construction at GSI Helmholtz center for heavy ion research in Darmstadt. The Monte Carlo program FLUKA is used to study radiation protection problems. The contribution deals with general application possibilities of FLUKA and for FAIR with respect the radiation protection planning. The necessity to simulate the radiation transport through shielding of several meters thickness and to determine the equivalent doses outside the shielding with sufficient accuracy is demonstrated using two examples under consideration of the variance reduction. Results of simulation calculations for activation estimation in accelerator facilities are presented.

  2. PRICE FAIRNESS PERCEPTION ON ASIATIC MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeta Ioanăș

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the perception of the price fairness in the literature. I made a small comparison between the European and the Asiatic markets. Price is an important key of the marketing mix. On the daily basis, the price fairness is perceived differently from one user to another. Also other researchers states that the price has a great influence on the perceived value and on buying intentions for a product and through this paper can be seen that the culture influences th...

  3. Bidding in common value fair division games

    OpenAIRE

    Brünner, Tobias; Becker, Alice

    2013-01-01

    In a fair division game an indivisible object with an unknown common value is owned by a group of individuals and should be allocated to one of them while the others are compensated monetarily. Implementing fair division games in the lab, we fi nd many occurrences of the winner's curse under the first-price rule but only few occurrences under the second-price rule. Moreover, bidding behavior is very heterogeneous across subjects. A considerable share of our subjects anticipates that other bid...

  4. The FAIR Project: Status and New Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Detailed planning and R and D for both, the accelerator and the experimental systems of the future international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is in progress on many fronts. It involves a wide range of activities, both at laboratories in partner countries participating in the preparatory activities as well as at GSI.This report summarizes the current situation, with emphasis on recent important developments. This includes new performance aspects of FAIR, in particular also the plans towards QCD spin physics with polarized anti-protons. An outlook on facility development and construction is given

  5. 78 FR 70539 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. TIME AND DATE: 10:00 a.m., Friday, December 13, 2013. PLACE: 1155 21st St. NW... meetings change, an announcement of the change, along with the new time, date and location of the meeting...

  6. Greenhouse gas trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazilov, P. [Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage is a market leader in natural gas, electricity, coal, and weather, emissions with a total of more than $2 billion by volume in emissions transactions in the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and Europe. This power point presentation addressed issues dealing with global warming, the Kyoto Protocol, and explained where we are in terms of reaching commitments for the first compliance period between 2008-2012. The paper focused on international emissions trading (IET), joint implementation (JI) and the clean development mechanism (CDM) and explained how greenhouse gases are traded. Emissions trading refers to the trade of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, perfluoro-carbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluorides. The motivational drivers for trading were outlined in terms of liability for buyers and assets for sellers. To date, trading activity is nearly 120 transactions with nearly 70 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. tabs., figs.

  7. Department of Trade annual report 1983-84. [Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The Department of Trade was created on 11 March 1983. It is responsible for the administration of the Government's policies as they relate to international trade, the promotion of Australia's exports and the Australian Trade Commissioner Service. The Department's activities for the financial year 1983/84 are documented in this report. Areas documented are corporate strategy, execution of corporate strategy, management, information services, finance and staffing, Acts administered by the Minister, functions and membership of councils and committees, international trade meetings attended by departmental representatives, departmental publications, and national export award winners.

  8. Impact of trade in emission reduction credits on solar projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.

    1993-01-01

    Since the amendment of the Clean Air Act in 1990, the possibility of trading in Emission Reduction Credits has been looked upon as a strategy for improving the economic feasibility of solar projects. This paper discusses developments towards such a market and reviews current and proposed emission trading practices. The paper analyzes how the current characteristics of the market help or hinder the trading of credits generated by solar projects, and suggests possible solutions. Emission credits from four different solar projects and their trading potentials are presented

  9. 24 CFR 125.501 - Fair Housing Organizations Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Initiative. 125.501 Section 125.501 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... FAIR HOUSING FAIR HOUSING INITIATIVES PROGRAM § 125.501 Fair Housing Organizations Initiative. (a) The Fair Housing Organizations Initiative of the FHIP provides funding to develop or expand the ability of...

  10. 36 CFR 223.60 - Determining fair market value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determining fair market value... Determining fair market value. The objective of Forest Service timber appraisals is to determine fair market value. Fair market value is estimated by such methods as are authorized by the Chief, Forest Service...

  11. 25 CFR 700.119 - Establishment of fair market value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of fair market value. 700.119 Section 700... value. (a) General. The Commission shall establish the amount of fair market value to be offered to the... recommendations as to the fair market value of the habitations and/or improvements; or (2) The fair market value...

  12. Bitcoin trading system

    OpenAIRE

    Turšič, Samo

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis an information solution was developed that enables the implementation of different trading strategies and backtesting over cryptocurrency Bitcoin trading data. Supported exchanges are Bitstamp, BTC-e and MtGox. In the field of technical analysis there already exist various solutions for Bitcoin that help traders to trade and advise them on basis of technical indicators and patterns. However, each has its own drawbacks, which we are aiming to fix. A web application was developed...

  13. Bitcoin trading system

    OpenAIRE

    Turšič, Samo

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis an information solution was developed that enables the implementation of different trading strategies and backtesting over cryptocurrency Bitcoin trading data. Supported exchanges are Bitstamp, BTC-e and MtGox. In the field of technical analysis there already exist various solutions for Bitcoin that help traders to trade and advise them on basis of technical indicators and patterns. However, each has its own drawbacks, which we are aiming to fix. A web application was developed...

  14. International trade and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Urata, Sh¯ujir¯o; Narjoko, Dionisius A.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of globalization on equality has become a serious concern for many countries. More evidence that challenges the theoretical prediction of positive impact of international trade on income distribution has increasingly become available recently. This paper addresses this subject, surveying the empirical findings on the impact of international trade on inequalities from various perspectives. The survey reveals that an increase in trade openness by developing countries appears to have ...

  15. International Organizations and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Antras, Pol

    2010-01-01

    The three central primitives of international trade theory are consumer preferences, factor endowments, and the production technologies that allow firms to transform factors of production into consumer goods. A limitation of traditional trade theory, however, is that the specification of technology treats the mapping between factors of production and final goods as a black box. In practice, the decisions of agents in organizations determine this mapping. Recently, international trade economis...

  16. Racial Trade Barriers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    . This paper analyzes the racial policies pursued in the foreign trade and argues that we need to recognize Aryanization as a world-wide policy in order to fully understand its character and possible consequences. I focus on the pre-war period and analyze the case of Denmark from three different perspectives......: perpetrators, victims and bystanders. The analysis will show that race, economy and foreign trade were combined in an attempt to raise racial trade barriers. This forced the question of German racial policies on the Danish government, Danish-Jewish businesses, and German companies involved in foreign trade...

  17. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  18. Trade Analysis and Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelus, R.; Schot, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to verify compliance with safeguards and draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) collects and analyses trade information that it receives from open sources as well as from Member States. Although the IAEA does not intervene in national export controls, it has to monitor the trade of dual use items. Trade analysis helps the IAEA to evaluate global proliferation threats, to understand States' ability to report exports according to additional protocols but also to compare against State declarations. Consequently, the IAEA has explored sources of trade-related information and has developed analysis methodologies beyond its traditional safeguards approaches. (author)

  19. Trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  20. 78 FR 44961 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Activities; Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT). This is a...: Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT). OMB Number: 1651-0077. Form Number: None. Abstract...

  1. 77 FR 52310 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61, San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... 61, San Juan, Puerto Rico Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18... Order: Whereas, the Puerto Rico Trade and Export Company, grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 61, submitted an application to the Board for authority to expand FTZ 61 to include a site in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, adjacent...

  2. 77 FR 5865 - China Agro-Technology Holdings Ltd.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Suspension of Trading February 2, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a... trading in the securities of China Agro-Technology Holdings Ltd. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of China Agro...

  3. 77 FR 36305 - Stream Communications Network & Media, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ....; Order of Suspension of Trading June 14, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that... a suspension of trading in the securities of the above-listed company. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the security of the above...

  4. 77 FR 4853 - Onyx Service & Solutions, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Suspension of Trading January 27, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a... the public interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities... Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company is suspended for the...

  5. 77 FR 16112 - Eugene Science, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Trading March 15, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of... the public interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities... Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company is suspended for the...

  6. 76 FR 12144 - Advanced Optics Electronics, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Suspension of Trading March 2, 2011. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a... the opinion that the public interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading... Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company is suspended for...

  7. 77 FR 16113 - ASP Ventures Corp., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Trading March 15, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of... the public interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities... Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company is suspended for the...

  8. 76 FR 32246 - Uniontown Energy, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... Trading June 1, 2011. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of current... opinion that the public interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the... Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company is suspended for the...

  9. 17 CFR 240.11a-1 - Regulation of floor trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regulation of floor trading... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Adoption of Floor Trading Regulation (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a-1 Regulation of floor trading. (a) No member of a national securities exchange, while on the floor of such exchange...

  10. 78 FR 65744 - Newtech Resources Ltd., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Trading October 21, 2013. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of... the public interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities... Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company is suspended for the...

  11. 77 FR 26796 - HydroGenetics, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Trading May 2, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of current... require a suspension of trading in the securities of HydroGenetics. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of HydroGenetics is...

  12. 78 FR 45996 - Duoyuan Printing, Inc.; Order of Suspension: of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ...: of Trading July 26, 2013. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack... require a suspension of trading in securities of Duoyuan Printing, Inc. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in Duoyuan Printing, Inc. is...

  13. 77 FR 58203 - Freedom Environmental Services, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Suspension of Trading September 17, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is... require a suspension of trading in the securities of the above-listed company. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the...

  14. 77 FR 10004 - C$ cMoney, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Trading February 16, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of... protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of the above-listed company. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in...

  15. 77 FR 10004 - Nikron Technologies, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... of Trading February 16, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a... trading in the securities of the above-listed company. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company is...

  16. 77 FR 58424 - China Mobile Media Technology, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Suspension of Trading September 18, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is... trading in the securities of the above-listed company. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company is...

  17. 76 FR 67528 - Curatech Industries, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... of Trading October 28, 2011. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a... protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of the company listed above. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in...

  18. 17 CFR 240.12f-1 - Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reinstate unlisted trading privileges. 240.12f-1 Section 240.12f-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Unlisted Trading § 240.12f-1 Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges. (a) An application to reinstate unlisted...

  19. 77 FR 58424 - Enwin Resources, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Trading September 18, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of... the public interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities... Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company is suspended for the...

  20. 75 FR 36128 - Green Energy Resources, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Suspension of Trading June 22, 2010. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a... a suspension of trading in the securities of Green Energy. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed...

  1. 78 FR 33142 - Lanbo Financial Group, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Suspension of Trading May 30, 2013. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack... the opinion that the public interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading... the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company is...

  2. 78 FR 65744 - High End Ventures, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... of Trading October 21, 2013. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a... opinion that the public interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the... Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company is suspended for the...

  3. 77 FR 34037 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Trade Secret...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Trade Secret Claims for Emergency Planning and Community... Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA). Title: Trade Secret Claims for Emergency Planning and...). Estimated total number of potential respondents: 481. Frequency of response: Trade secret claims are...

  4. 77 FR 76797 - To Extend Nondiscriminatory Treatment (Normal Trade Relations Treatment) to the Products of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (the ``WTO Agreement'') with respect to the... Act'') (19 U.S.C. 2431 et seq.) since 1994. The Russian Federation acceded to the World Trade Organization (WTO) on August 22, 2012. The extension of permanent normal trade relations treatment to the...

  5. 75 FR 29975 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 272; Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1679] Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 272; Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June... Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, adjacent to the Philadelphia Customs and Border Protection port of entry (FTZ...

  6. 77 FR 14303 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ..., the thirty-fourth line from the top of the page is amended to read: ``TRADE AGREEMENTS (MAR 2012). 8... read: ``BUY AMERICAN ACT-- CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS UNDER TRADE AGREEMENTS (MAR 2012)'' 10. On page 12937...--CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS UNDER TRADE AGREEMENTS (MAR 2012)'' [FR Doc. C1-2012-4495 Filed 3-8-12; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  7. 75 FR 30782 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 20; Hampton Roads, VA, Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1683] Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 20; Hampton Roads, VA, Area Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act...) in the Hampton Roads, Virginia, area within the Norfolk Customs and Border Protection port of entry...

  8. International provision of trade services, trade, and fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Deardorff, Alan V.

    2001-01-01

    The author examines the special role that trade liberalization in services industries can play in stimulating trade in both services, and goods. International trade in goods requires inputs from such trade services as transportation, insurance, and finance, for example. Restrictions on services across borders, and within foreign countries add costs, and barriers to international trade. Lib...

  9. Fair process: managing in the knowledge economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1997-01-01

    Unlike the traditional factors of production--land, labor, and capital--knowledge is a resource that can't be forced out of people. But creating and sharing knowledge is essential to fostering innovation, the key challenge of the knowledge-based economy. To create a climate in which employees volunteer their creativity and expertise, managers need to look beyond the traditional tools at their disposal. They need to build trust. The authors have studied the links between trust, idea sharing, and corporate performance for more than a decade. They have explored the question of why managers of local subsidiaries so often fail to share information with executives at headquarters. They have studied the dynamics of idea sharing in product development teams, joint ventures, supplier partnerships, and corporate transformations. They offer an explanation for why people resist change even when it would benefit them directly. In every case, the decisive factor was what the authors call fair process--fairness in the way a company makes and executes decisions. The elements of fair process are simple: Engage people's input in decisions that directly affect them. Explain why decisions are made the way they are. Make clear what will be expected of employees after the changes are made. Fair process may sound like a soft issue, but it is crucial to building trust and unlocking ideas. Without it, people are apt to withhold their full cooperation and their creativity. The results are costly: ideas that never see daylight and initiatives that are never seized.

  10. The ̅PANDA Detector at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami Andersson, W

    2016-01-01

    The future ̅PANDA detector at FAIR is a state-of-the-art internal target detector designed for strong interaction studies. By utilizing an antiproton beam, a rich and unique physics programme is planned. The ̅PANDA experiment, as well as feasibility studies for hyperon and charmonium physics, are discussed. (paper)

  11. The ̅PANDA Detector at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami Andersson, W.; ̅PANDA Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    The future ̅PANDA detector at FAIR is a state-of-the-art internal target detector designed for strong interaction studies. By utilizing an antiproton beam, a rich and unique physics programme is planned. The ̅PANDA experiment, as well as feasibility studies for hyperon and charmonium physics, are discussed.

  12. Teaching Fairness in Journalism: A Challenging Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objectivity has long been contentious in American journalism. Many practitioners call it essential to a news organization's credibility. Critics, however, hold objectivity is impossible and urge reporters simply to reveal their biases. For educators, teaching objectivity is challenging. Some, seeking a middle ground, instead urge fairness and…

  13. On the audit of fair value measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder P. Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the hypotheses „whether the auditor’s functional domain, his approach, methodology and responsibilities are undergoing a metamorphosis with the adoption of Fair Value Accounting (hereinafter the „FVA” and whether his/her role is moving away from the mechanized attester of tangible evidence to the one exercising a substantively judgmental function in a holistic assessment of the values ascribed to be fair by the entity’s management” are tested. These hypotheses are tested on the basis of an analysis of the statutory provisions, the pronouncements of accounting and other regulatory bodies and accounting norms and theories. After setting forth the research objectives and the hypotheses, the necessity of the FVA is reviewed and the underlying philosophy is analyzed. Impediments in performing audits of fair-value-based measurements are then identified and the US auditing standards and their international counterparts are touched upon. Finally, some safeguards and precautions for the auditor in an audit of fair-value measurements are presented.

  14. Human Right for Fair Wage: sociological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomareva T. M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the results of sociological research devoted to the analysis of the fair wage problem. The authors analyze the dynamics of labor load and the level of wages in the economic market conditions taking as an example the Omsk Region

  15. Approximating fair use in LicenseScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, C.N.; Etalle, S.; Hartel, P.H.; Law, Y.W.; Sembok, T.M.T.; Zaman, H.B.; Chen, H.; Urs, S.R.; Myaeng, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Current rights management systems are not able to enforce copyright laws because of both legal and technological reasons. The contract rights granted by a copyright owner are often overridden by the users’ statutory rights that are granted by the laws. In particular, Fair Use allows for

  16. Just health: meeting health needs fairly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniels, Norman

    2008-01-01

    ... Protection Medical Professionalism and the Care We Should Get 7 8 161 191 218 part iii uses 9 Fairness in Health Sector Reform Accountability for Reasonableness in Developing Countries: Two Applications Reducing Health Disparities: No Simple Matter Priority Setting and Human Rights 10 11 12 243 274 297 313 vP1: KAE CUNY1073-FM CUNY1073/Daniels 978 0 52...

  17. Expropriation or Fair Game for All?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kur, Annette; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    property has never been exclusive in a strict sense. Copyright, in particular, is relatively rich with examples of rules allowing third parties to use protected content under certain conditions, and against payment of a fair remuneration. In economic terms, this means that property is replaced...

  18. Fair and optimistic quantum contract signing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunković, N.; Bouda, J.; Mateus, P.

    2011-12-01

    We present a fair and optimistic quantum-contract-signing protocol between two clients that requires no communication with the third trusted party during the exchange phase. We discuss its fairness and show that it is possible to design such a protocol for which the probability of a dishonest client to cheat becomes negligible and scales as N-1/2, where N is the number of messages exchanged between the clients. Our protocol is not based on the exchange of signed messages: Its fairness is based on the laws of quantum mechanics. Thus, it is abuse free, and the clients do not have to generate new keys for each message during the exchange phase. We discuss a real-life scenario when measurement errors and qubit-state corruption due to noisy channels and imperfect quantum memories occur and argue that for a real, good-enough measurement apparatus, transmission channels, and quantum memories, our protocol would still be fair. Apart from stable quantum memories, the other segments of our protocol could be implemented by today's technology, as they require in essence the same type of apparatus as the one needed for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) cryptographic protocol. Finally, we briefly discuss two alternative versions of the protocol, one that uses only two states [based on the Bennett 1992 (B92) protocol] and the other that uses entangled pairs, and show that it is possible to generalize our protocol to an arbitrary number of clients.

  19. Fair and optimistic quantum contract signing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paunkovic, N.; Mateus, P. [SQIG - Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, IST, TULisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Bouda, J. [Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanicka 68a, CZ-60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-12-15

    We present a fair and optimistic quantum-contract-signing protocol between two clients that requires no communication with the third trusted party during the exchange phase. We discuss its fairness and show that it is possible to design such a protocol for which the probability of a dishonest client to cheat becomes negligible and scales as N{sup -1/2}, where N is the number of messages exchanged between the clients. Our protocol is not based on the exchange of signed messages: Its fairness is based on the laws of quantum mechanics. Thus, it is abuse free, and the clients do not have to generate new keys for each message during the exchange phase. We discuss a real-life scenario when measurement errors and qubit-state corruption due to noisy channels and imperfect quantum memories occur and argue that for a real, good-enough measurement apparatus, transmission channels, and quantum memories, our protocol would still be fair. Apart from stable quantum memories, the other segments of our protocol could be implemented by today's technology, as they require in essence the same type of apparatus as the one needed for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) cryptographic protocol. Finally, we briefly discuss two alternative versions of the protocol, one that uses only two states [based on the Bennett 1992 (B92) protocol] and the other that uses entangled pairs, and show that it is possible to generalize our protocol to an arbitrary number of clients.

  20. Approximating Fair Use in LicenseScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, C.N.; Law, Y.W.; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku

    2003-01-01

    Current rights management systems are not able to enforce copyright laws because of both legal and technological reasons. The contract rights granted by a copyright owner typically restrict the users' statutory rights that are endorsed by copyright laws. In particular, Fair Use allows these

  1. Cable Design for FAIR SIS 300

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaugerts, J.; Moritz, G.; Wilson, M.N.; Ghosh, A.K.; den Ouden, A.

    GSI, Darmstadt is preparing to build FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) which include SIS 300, a 300T - m fast-ramping heavy ion synchrotron. Dipoles for this ring will be 2.9 m long, producing 6 T over a 100 mm coil aperture and ramped at 1 T/s. The cable for these dipoles must have

  2. 24 CFR 1715.27 - Fair housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair housing. 1715.27 Section 1715.27 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  3. The HADES-at-FAIR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidus, K.; Agakishiev, G.; Balanda, A.; Bassini, R.; Behnke, C.; Belyaev, A.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Cabanelas, P.; Carolino, N.; Chen, J. C.; Chernenko, S.; Díaz, J.; Dybczak, A.

    2012-01-01

    After the completion of the experimental program at SIS18 the HADES setup will migrate to FAIR, where it will deliver high-quality data for heavy-ion collisions in an unexplored energy range of up to 8 A GeV. In this contribution, we briefly present the physics case, relevant detector characteristics and discuss the recently completed upgrade of HADES.

  4. Reactions to perceived fairness : the impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, K. van den

    2001-01-01

    In correspondence with terror management theory, the findings of two experiments show that reminders of death lead to stronger effects of perceived fairness on ratings of negative affect. Furthermore, in line with the theory’s self-esteem mechanism, results of Experiment 1 suggest that state

  5. Constructing Invariant Fairness Measures for Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael

    1998-01-01

    of the size of this vector field is used as the fairness measure on the family.Six basic 3rd order invariants satisfying two quadratic equations are defined. They form a complete set in the sense that any invariant 3rd order function can be written as a function of the six basic invariants together...

  6. Fair and optimistic quantum contract signing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paunkovic, N.; Mateus, P.; Bouda, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a fair and optimistic quantum-contract-signing protocol between two clients that requires no communication with the third trusted party during the exchange phase. We discuss its fairness and show that it is possible to design such a protocol for which the probability of a dishonest client to cheat becomes negligible and scales as N -1/2 , where N is the number of messages exchanged between the clients. Our protocol is not based on the exchange of signed messages: Its fairness is based on the laws of quantum mechanics. Thus, it is abuse free, and the clients do not have to generate new keys for each message during the exchange phase. We discuss a real-life scenario when measurement errors and qubit-state corruption due to noisy channels and imperfect quantum memories occur and argue that for a real, good-enough measurement apparatus, transmission channels, and quantum memories, our protocol would still be fair. Apart from stable quantum memories, the other segments of our protocol could be implemented by today's technology, as they require in essence the same type of apparatus as the one needed for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) cryptographic protocol. Finally, we briefly discuss two alternative versions of the protocol, one that uses only two states [based on the Bennett 1992 (B92) protocol] and the other that uses entangled pairs, and show that it is possible to generalize our protocol to an arbitrary number of clients.

  7. 7 CFR 3560.104 - Fair housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Borrower Management and Operations Responsibilities § 3560... Housing Marketing Plan. (1) Borrowers with housing projects that have four or more rental units must prepare and maintain an Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan (AFHMP) as defined in 24 CFR part 200...

  8. Fairness in risky environments: theory and evidence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babický, V.; Ortmann, Andreas; van Koten, Silvester

    -, č. 419 (2010), s. 1-32 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : fairness * risk aversion * subject pool effects * economics experiments Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp419.pdf

  9. INDONESIAN TRADE UNDER CHINA FREE TRADE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavi Supriana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the implementation of CAFTA (China-Asean Free Trade Area on the international trade flows across Indonesia, China and the rest of ASEAN using a gravitation model. It finds the evidence that the influence of diversion and creation effects on China are significant, while the influence of both effects on Indonesia are not significant. It also finds that the diversion effect, which leads to a decrease in society’s wealth, is greater than that of the creation effect. As a consequence, the gap across countries involved in the trade agreement is wider. Keywords: CAFTA, gravitation model, diversion effect, creation effectJEL classification numbers: F13, F14, F15

  10. Canadian consumer issues in accurate and fair electricity metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    The Public Interest Advocacy Centre (PIAC), located in Ottawa, participates in regulatory proceedings concerning electricity and natural gas to support public and consumer interest. PIAC provides legal representation, research and policy support and public advocacy. A study aimed toward the determination of the issues at stake for residential electricity consumers in the provision of fair and accurate electricity metering, was commissioned by Measurement Canada in consultation with Industry Canada's Consumer Affairs. The metering of electricity must be carried out in a fair and efficient manner for all residential consumers. The Electricity, Gas and Inspection Act was developed to ensure compliance with standards for measuring instrumentation. The accurate metering of electricity through the distribution systems for electricity in Canada represents the main focus of this study and report. The role played by Measurement Canada and the increased efficiencies of service delivery by Measurement Canada or the changing of electricity market conditions are of special interest. The role of Measurement Canada was explained, as were the concerns of residential consumers. A comparison was then made between the interests of residential consumers and those of commercial and industrial electricity consumers in electricity metering. Selected American and Commonwealth jurisdictions were reviewed in light of their electricity metering practices. A section on compliance and conflict resolution was included, in addition to a section on the use of voluntary codes for compliance and conflict resolution

  11. TRUE AND FAIR VIEW – THE SUPREM TRUTH IN ACCOUNTING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria MARCULESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acting in a social and economic environment in a continuous movement and transformation, accounting is experiencing with new situations, in its attempt to answer all functions and information users that it generates, making it an important arbitration instrument in the game of those involved in business world. The main characteristic of accounting is represented by providing useful information retrodictive and predictive in an efficient and economic decision process regarding the economic entity's financial position and accounting performance. Under these circumstances, the information must not contain significant errors, is not biased, and users can be confident that it accurately represents what they proposed to represent, or what is expected, in a reasonably manner to be. Fair and true view seen as an ideal to which any professional accountant should aim, seems to be more difficult to achieve under the current conditions, in which fiscal pressure is more and more unbearable and top management is more and more willing to make compromises that sometimes are at a legal limit. In theory, it is well known that registrations and accounting reports must provide a clear image, honest, fair and full on the assets, financial position and results of the entity. In practice, contrary to ethical principles, more and more "servants" of the accounting profession are either willing, or forced to submit distorted accounting information giving the impression of calmness to a disastrous situation.

  12. THE (UN? FAIRNESS OF FAIR VALUE: SFAS 157, IRVING FISHER AND GECON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barbosa Lustosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the level of adherence of explicit and implicit measurement concepts present in SFAS 157 – Fair Value Measurements to traditional economic-accounting concepts. Background: The expansion of situations in which fair value measurement is required makes more difficult to ensure that the computed measure of value is actually fair. Out of the objectivity of current sales prices in an active market, all other measures of value are expectations about the future, inherently uncertain and inaccurate. Thus, the desired justice of the computed figures lies not in its accuracy, but in the using of the correct concepts for measuring accounting transactions and events. Method: To reach the objective, the characteristics of this standard are confronted with the secular concept of capital and income set by the laureate American neoclassical economist Irving Fisher, which were incorporated into Information System for Economic Management (Gecon. Results: The results indicate that SFAS 157 fair value concept and measurement structure are incorrect or incomplete, suggesting that the maintenance of the fair value expression in accounting seems inadequate. Contributions: This paper contributes to the literature on accounting measurement showing that as a measurement concept in accounting fair value seems inadequate. In abnormal situations or absence of a market, the measure found is always inexact and subjective, and therefore is not correct to call fair the quantity resulting from this arbitrary calculation.

  13. What is a fair CO2 tax increase? On fair emission reductions in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, Henrik; Jagers, Sverker C.

    2007-01-01

    We examine how individual preferences for fair reductions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions affect the support for increases in the CO 2 tax on gasoline and diesel. We assume that people not only care about their own material welfare, but also have preferences for fairness in policy design, and we explore the implications using original data from a mail questionnaire sent to a representative sample of the Swedish population. The main result is that fairness in policy design does matter. Those respondents who adhere to a fairness principle tend to be relatively more positive to increases in the CO 2 tax. One possible explanation for this result is that there is a relatively high degree of reciprocity regarding the origin of emissions and the fairness regarding who should bear the burden of CO 2 reductions. Via a split sample analysis, we also find that the relative importance of fairness principles is dependent upon whether one uses a car often or not. This sheds light on the potential goal conflict between the importance of fairness principles and self-interest in the form of a need for private car transportation. (author)

  14. Evaluating lineup fairness: Variations across methods and measures

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour, Jamal K; Beaudry, Jennifer L; Kalmet, Natalie; Bertrand, Michelle I; Lindsay, R C L

    2017-01-01

    Triers of fact sometimes consider lineup fairness when determining the suggestiveness of an identification procedure. Likewise, researchers often consider lineup fairness when comparing results across studies. Despite their importance, lineup fairness measures have received scant empirical attention and researchers inconsistently conduct and report mock-witness tasks and lineup fairness measures. We conducted a large-scale, online experiment (N = 1010) to examine how lineup fairness measures ...

  15. Sulfur dioxide allowances. Trading and technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Surender; Managi, Shunsuke

    2010-01-01

    The US Clean Air Act Amendments introduce an emissions trading system to regulate SO 2 emissions. This study finds that changes in SO 2 emissions prices are related to innovations induced by these amendments. We find that electricity-generating plants are able to increase electricity output and reduce emissions of SO 2 and NO x from 1995 to 2007 due to the introduction of the allowance trading system. However, compared to the approximate 8% per year of exogenous technological progress, the induced effect is relatively small, and the contribution of the induced effect to overall technological progress is about 1-2%. (author)

  16. High burnup models in computer code fair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, B K; Swami Prasad, P; Kushwaha, H S; Mahajan, S C; Kakodar, A [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1997-08-01

    An advanced fuel analysis code FAIR has been developed for analyzing the behavior of fuel rods of water cooled reactors under severe power transients and high burnups. The code is capable of analyzing fuel pins of both collapsible clad, as in PHWR and free standing clad as in LWR. The main emphasis in the development of this code is on evaluating the fuel performance at extended burnups and modelling of the fuel rods for advanced fuel cycles. For this purpose, a number of suitable models have been incorporated in FAIR. For modelling the fission gas release, three different models are implemented, namely Physically based mechanistic model, the standard ANS 5.4 model and the Halden model. Similarly the pellet thermal conductivity can be modelled by the MATPRO equation, the SIMFUEL relation or the Halden equation. The flux distribution across the pellet is modelled by using the model RADAR. For modelling pellet clad interaction (PCMI)/ stress corrosion cracking (SCC) induced failure of sheath, necessary routines are provided in FAIR. The validation of the code FAIR is based on the analysis of fuel rods of EPRI project ``Light water reactor fuel rod modelling code evaluation`` and also the analytical simulation of threshold power ramp criteria of fuel rods of pressurized heavy water reactors. In the present work, a study is carried out by analysing three CRP-FUMEX rods to show the effect of various combinations of fission gas release models and pellet conductivity models, on the fuel analysis parameters. The satisfactory performance of FAIR may be concluded through these case studies. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs.

  17. High burnup models in computer code fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, B.K.; Swami Prasad, P.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodar, A.

    1997-01-01

    An advanced fuel analysis code FAIR has been developed for analyzing the behavior of fuel rods of water cooled reactors under severe power transients and high burnups. The code is capable of analyzing fuel pins of both collapsible clad, as in PHWR and free standing clad as in LWR. The main emphasis in the development of this code is on evaluating the fuel performance at extended burnups and modelling of the fuel rods for advanced fuel cycles. For this purpose, a number of suitable models have been incorporated in FAIR. For modelling the fission gas release, three different models are implemented, namely Physically based mechanistic model, the standard ANS 5.4 model and the Halden model. Similarly the pellet thermal conductivity can be modelled by the MATPRO equation, the SIMFUEL relation or the Halden equation. The flux distribution across the pellet is modelled by using the model RADAR. For modelling pellet clad interaction (PCMI)/ stress corrosion cracking (SCC) induced failure of sheath, necessary routines are provided in FAIR. The validation of the code FAIR is based on the analysis of fuel rods of EPRI project ''Light water reactor fuel rod modelling code evaluation'' and also the analytical simulation of threshold power ramp criteria of fuel rods of pressurized heavy water reactors. In the present work, a study is carried out by analysing three CRP-FUMEX rods to show the effect of various combinations of fission gas release models and pellet conductivity models, on the fuel analysis parameters. The satisfactory performance of FAIR may be concluded through these case studies. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  18. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  19. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-05

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  20. Fairness, fast and slow: A review of dual process models of fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallsson, Bjørn Gunnar; Hulme, Oliver; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2018-01-01

    -control to override with reasoning-based fairness concerns, or whether fairness itself can be intuitive. While we find strong support for rejecting the notion that self-interest is always intuitive, the literature has reached conflicting conclusions about the neurocognitive systems underpinning fairness. We propose...... that this disagreement can largely be resolved in light of an extended Social Heuristics Hypothesis. Divergent findings may be attributed to the interpretation of behavioral effects of ego depletion or neurostimulation, reverse inference from brain activity to the underlying psychological process, and insensitivity...