Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott
Several factors limit the energy savings potential and increase the costs of energy-efficient technologies to consumers. These factors may usefully be placed into two categories; one category is what economists would define as market failures and the other is related to consumer preferences. This paper provides a conceptual framework for understanding the roles of these factors, and develops a methodology to quantify their effects on costs and potentials of two energy efficient end uses - residential lighting and clothes washers. It notes the significant roles played by the high implicit cost of obtaining information about the benefits of the two technologies and the apparent inability to process and utilize information. For compact fluorescent lamps, this report finds a conservative estimate of the cost of conserved energy of 3.1 cents per kWh. For clothes washers, including water savings reduces the cost of conserved energy from 13.6 cents to 4.3 cents per equivalent kWh. Despite these benefits, market share remains low. About 18 million tons of CO2 could be saved cost effectively from 2005 sales of these two technologies alone. The paper also notes that trading of carbon emissions will incur transaction costs that will range from less than 10 cents per metric ton of CO2 for larger size projects and programs to a few dollars per metric ton of carbon for the smaller ones.
B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); S. Stremersch (Stefan)
textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of
Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.
Full Text Available Information is one of the most important resources that a company must possess. Some information is hidden deep in the black box - the mind of the consumer, as in the case of information about consumer preferences. Although it seems a concept difficult to grasp, it was shown that consumer preferences can be effectively measured and their research may provide a deeper understanding of the choices that consumers make when deciding to select an offer against another and when deciding to continue in time the relationship with one supplier. The following paper reveals some important aspects regarding the use of information regarding consumer preferences, the fundamentals behind consumer preferences research and the milestones in the consumer preferences research process.
Full Text Available Information is one of the most important resources that a company must possess. Some information is hidden deep in the black box - the mind of the consumer, as in the case of information about consumer preferences. Although it seems a concept difficult to grasp, it was shown that consumer preferences can be effectively measured and their research may provide a deeper understanding of the choices that consumers make when deciding to select an offer against another and when deciding to continue in time the relationship with one supplier. The following paper reveals some important aspects regarding the use of information regarding consumer preferences, the fundamentals behind consumer preferences research and the milestones in the consumer preferences research process.
Purpose: To assess the consumer preference for community pharmacy (CP) for filling prescription, and ... For OTC products, preference among consumers was almost the same among. CPs and local stores. With regard to health supplements and screening test kits, most ..... MARA, Malaysia for financial support for this.
Andrea Velandia Morales
Full Text Available According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996 there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms. The results showed that sexy women is more associated with the masculine description, whereas the executive women is more associated to the feminine product description, and in both cases the housewife is the least associated with the two different descriptions. It was also found that the influence and the women prestige mediated the relationship between the stereotypes and the preference shown for the product described in feminine terms
Velandia Morales, Andrea; Universidad de Granada; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Universidad de Granada
According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996) there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms). The results showed that se...
Kerssens, J.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.
Allowing consumers greater choice of health plans is believed to be the key to high quality and low costs in social health insurance. This study investigates consumer preferences (361 persons, response rate 43%) for hypothetical health plans with differed in 12 characteristics (premium, deductibles,
Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A
Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.
Brunsø, Karen; Scholderer, Joachim; Verbeke, Wim
composition, still little is known about the effect this has on consumer preferences and product choices. In connection with the SEAFOODplus project CONSUMERSURVEY, which aims at explaining seafood consumption, a major survey has been carried out in five European countries in order to achieve more knowledge...... about consumer preferences and choice in relation to fish in general as well as preferences for farmed and wild fish. Questionnaires were sent to a representative sample of consumers in 5 European countries: Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Poland and Spain, and a total of 4786 valid questionnaires were...... returned and analysed. Results show that there is widespread confusion regarding whether fish is wild or farmed. The data disclose large discrepancies in reported total fish consumption frequency as shown in Table 1 and reported consumption of wild and farmed fish as shown in table 2. From the total sample...
Marra, Carlo A; Harvard, Stephanie; Grubisic, Maja; Galo, Jessica; Clarke, Ann; Elliott, Susan; Lynd, Larry D
Food allergen labeling is an important tool to reduce risk of exposure and prevent anaphylaxis for individuals with food allergies. Health Canada released a Canadian food allergen labeling regulation (2008) and subsequent update (2012) suggesting that research is needed to guide further iterations of the regulation to improve food allergen labeling and reduce risk of exposure. The primary objective of this study was to examine consumer preferences in food labeling for allergy avoidance and anaphylaxis prevention. A secondary objective was to identify whether different subgroups within the consumer population emerged. A discrete choice experiment using a fractional factorial design divided into ten different versions with 18 choice-sets per version was developed to examine consumer preferences for different attributes of food labeling. Three distinct subgroups of Canadian consumers with different allergen considerations and food allergen labeling needs were identified. Overall, preferences for standardized precautionary and safety symbols at little or no increased cost emerged. While three distinct groups with different preferences were identified, in general the results revealed that the current Canadian food allergen labeling regulation can be improved by enforcing the use of standardized precautionary and safety symbols and educating the public on the use of these symbols.
Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.
Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai
Kerssens, Jan J; Groenewegen, Peter P
Allowing consumers greater choice of health plans is believed to be the key to high quality and low costs in social health insurance. This study investigates consumer preferences (361 persons, response rate 43%) for hypothetical health plans which differed in 12 characteristics (premium, deductibles, no-claim discount, extension of insurance and financial services, red tape involved, medical help-desk, choice of family physicians and hospitals, dental benefits, physical therapy benefits, benefits for prescription drugs and homeopathy). In 90% the health plan with the most attractive characteristics was preferred, indicating a predominantly rational kind of choice. The most decisive characteristics for preference were: complete dental benefits, followed by zero deductibles, and free choice of hospitals.
NREL Transportation-Related Consumer Preference Data Transportation-Related Consumer Preference Data Photo of reporters test driving Toyota prototype electric and fuel cell vehicles. Consumer for the development and implementation of these technologies. NREL collects, analyzes, and reports on
Full Text Available The paper presents results of research of preferences of Moravian consumers when buying food. The research focuses on characteristics of consumer behavior on the market with food, the preferences of product characteristics, price characteristics, convenient distribution and influence of selected marketing communication tools. The data collection was conducted via questionnaire in April through June 2010 on a sample of 2017 respondents by a research team of Department of Marketing and Trade at FBE MENDELU in Brno. The results suggest that Moravian consumers prefer retail stores with fresh food (mean = 7.99 and wider assortment (7.71, their choice of outlet is also influenced by the convenience of its location – the most preferred are the ones nearest to respondents’ homes or job (7.31, nevertheless, there is greater variability in level of agreement with this behavior among respondents. Respondents develop a certain level of loyalty, most of them have their favorite store and do no alternate much (7.26. However, they tend to be as savvy as possible (6.89 and take their time to consider their final choice (6.52.
Turksen, I. B.; Wilson, I. A.
Consumer preference models are widely used in new product design, marketing management, pricing and market segmentation. The purpose of this article is to develop and test a fuzzy set preference model which can represent linguistic variables in individual-level models implemented in parallel with existing conjoint models. The potential improvements in market share prediction and predictive validity can substantially improve management decisions about what to make (product design), for whom to make it (market segmentation) and how much to make (market share prediction).
Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to identify if the congruence of the consumers personality with the perceived brand per-sonality increases their brand preferences. To achieve this purpose, the paper was structured in two parts; the first part contains a general literature review of the consumer behaviour theory and its influence factors and a more specific one regarding the consumer’s and brand personality concepts. The second part describes the used research methodology for achieving the paper’s purpose. The results of the underlying exploratory research confirmed the hypothesis that an overlapping of the consumers’ personality and the brand personality they perceive is positively correlated with their brand preferences.
Carlsson, Fredrik; Frykblom, Peter; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan
This paper employs a choice experiment to obtain consumer preferences and willingness to pay for food product quality attributes currently not available in Sweden. Data were obtained from a large mail survey and estimated with a random parameter logit model. We found evidence for intraproduct differences in consumer preferences for identical attributes, as well as interproduct discrepancies in ranking of attributes. Furthermore, we found evidence of a market failure relating to the potential use of genetically modified animal fodder. Finally, we found support for the idea that a cheap-talk script can alleviate problems of external validity of choice experiments. Our results are useful in forming product differentiation strategies within the food industry, as well as for the formation of food policy.
Booske, B C; Sainfort, F; Hundt, A S
To examine (1) what people say is important to them in choosing a health plan; (2) the effect, if any, that giving health plan information has on what people say is important to them; and (3) the effect of preference elicitation methods on what people say is important. A random sample of 201 Wisconsin state employees who participated in a health plan choice experiment during the 1995 open enrollment period. We designed a computer system to guide subjects through the review of information about health plan options. The system began by eliciting the stated preferences of the subjects before they viewed the information, at time 0. Subjects were given an opportunity to revise their preference structures first after viewing summary information about four health plans (time 1) and then after viewing more extensive, detailed information about the same options (time 2). At time 2, these individuals were also asked to rate the relative importance of a predefined list of health plan features presented to them. Data were collected on the number of attributes listed at each point in time and the importance weightings assigned to each attribute. In addition, each item on the attribute list was content analyzed. The provision of information changes the preference structures of individuals. Costs (price) and coverage dominated the attributes cited both before and after looking at health plan information. When presented with information on costs, quality, and how plans work, many of these relatively well educated consumers revised their preference structures; yet coverage and costs remained the primary cited attributes. Although efforts to provide health plan information should continue, decisions on the information to provide and on making it available are not enough. Individuals need help in understanding, processing, and using the information to construct their preferences and make better decisions.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test whether projection bias exists in consumers' purchasing decisions for food products. To achieve our aim, we used a non-hypothetical experiment (i.e., experimental auction, where hungry and non-hungry participants were incentivized to reveal their willingness to pay (WTP. The results confirm the existence of projection bias when consumers made their decisions on food products. In particular, projection bias existed because currently hungry participants were willing to pay a higher price premium for cheeses than satiated ones, both in hungry and satiated future states. Moreover, participants overvalued the food product more when they were delivered in the future hungry condition than in the satiated one. Our study provides clear, quantitative and meaningful evidence of projection bias because our findings are based on economic valuation of food preferences. Indeed, the strength of this study is that findings are expressed in terms of willingness to pay which is an interpretable amount of money.
Lataille, Angela T.; Buttorff, Christine; White, Sharon; Niparko, John K.
Low utilization of hearing aids has drawn increased attention to the study of consumer preferences using both simple ratings (e.g., Likert scale) and conjoint analyses, but these two approaches often produce inconsistent results. The study aims to directly compare Likert scales and conjoint analysis in identifying important attributes associated with hearing aids among those with hearing loss. Seven attributes of hearing aids were identified through qualitative research: performance in quiet settings, comfort, feedback, frequency of battery replacement, purchase price, water and sweat resistance, and performance in noisy settings. The preferences of 75 outpatients with hearing loss were measured with both a 5-point Likert scale and with 8 paired-comparison conjoint tasks (the latter being analyzed using OLS [ordinary least squares] and logistic regression). Results were compared by examining implied willingness-to-pay and Pearson’s Rho. A total of 56 respondents (75%) provided complete responses. Two thirds of respondents were male, most had sensorineural hearing loss, and most were older than 50; 44% of respondents had never used a hearing aid. Both methods identified improved performance in noisy settings as the most valued attribute. Respondents were twice as likely to buy a hearing aid with better functionality in noisy environments (p < .001), and willingness to pay for this attribute ranged from US$2674 on the Likert to US$9000 in the conjoint analysis. The authors find a high level of concordance between the methods—a result that is in stark contrast with previous research. The authors conclude that their result stems from constraining the levels on the Likert scale. PMID:22514094
Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lans, van der I.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.
Based on an extensive customized conjoint analysis with 24 attributes of pork production, covering issues from feed to fork, we identified six consumer segments: ecologists (17%), tradition-minded consumers (17%), animal friends (16%), health-concerned consumers (18%), economists (12%) and
Dolgopolova, Irina; Teuber, Ramona; Bruschi, Viola
Advances in the bioeconomy lead to a range of innovative products appearing at the consumer markets. However, these products often face consumer resistance. In this chapter we test if a reference point effects approach can provide more information about consumers decision-making regarding novel f...
Malhotra, N K
This paper proposes a stochastic procedure for modeling consumer preferences via LOGIT analysis. First, a simple, non-technical exposition of the use of a stochastic approach in health care marketing is presented. Second, a study illustrating the application of the LOGIT model in assessing consumer preferences for hospitals is given. The paper concludes with several implications of the proposed approach.
Faber, N.M.; Mojet, J.; Poelman, A.A.M.
In the common implementation of external preference mapping consumer preferences are fitted as polynomial functions of the first two principal components (PCs) of the sensory data. A major weakness of the method is the relatively small number of consumers that can be significantly fitted. Several
Parcell, Joseph L.; Gedikoglu, Haluk
Increasing concerns about a healthy diet, food safety and support for the local economy provide new opportunities for farmers to increase their farm income by locally selling their farm products. The major challenge for farmers making local sales is to predict consumer preferences correctly and provide goods to the market accordingly. By analyzing results from a consumer survey conducted in the Midwest, the current study determines the consumer preferences for domestic artisan cheese compared...
Browne, Graeme; Hemsley, Martin
Historically, people living with mental illness have had limited chance to participate in mental health services other than as patients. Following on from a recent review focusing on consumer participation in mental health services, this paper looks at consumer participation in housing. Housing is a critical element in recovery from mental illness. Without suitable housing, people have little chance of maintaining other resources in their lives, such as supportive social relationships and meaningful activities. Consumer participation is not a common topic in the recent literature, despite the significant public policy push to promote it. The importance of appropriate housing to the recovery of people living with mental illness cannot be underestimated. Even well-meaning and well-resourced housing initiatives can fall short of meeting consumers' recovery goals when they do not incorporate the expressed needs of consumers. These expressed needs include keeping units small in size and employing drop-in support models.
Paul E. Sendak
The three grades of maple syrup and a commercial table syrup containing artificial flavor and 3 percent pure maple syrup were evaluated by 1,018 women in four cities. The results indicate that differences in preference for flavor are related to how close the respondents are to a maple syrup-production region. Differences in preference among grades of pure maple syrup...
De Groote, Hugo; Kimenju, Simon Chege
New maize varieties have been biofortified with provitamin A, mainly a-carotene, which renders the grain yellow or orange. Unfortunately, many African consumers prefer white maize. The maize consumption patterns in Africa are, however, not known. To determine which maize products African consumers prefer to purchase and which maize preparations they prefer to eat. A survey of 600 consumers was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, at three types of maize outlets: posho mills (small hammer mills), kiosks, and supermarkets. Clients of posho mills had lower incomes and less education than those of kiosks and supermarkets. The preferred maize product of the posho-mill clients was artisanal maize meal; the preferred product of the others was industrial maize meal. Maize is the preferred staple for lunch and dinner, eaten as a stiff porridge (ugali), followed by boiled maize and beans (githeri), regardless of socioeconomic background. For breakfast, only half the consumers prefer maize, mostly as a soft porridge (uji). This proportion is higher in low-income groups. Consumers show a strong preference for white maize over yellow, mostly for its organoleptic characteristics, and show less interest in biofortified maize. Maize is the major food staple in Nairobi, mostly eaten in a few distinct preparations. For biofortified yellow maize to be accepted, a strong public awareness campaign to inform consumers is needed, based on a sensory evaluation and the mass media, in particular on radio in the local language.
... using Community Pharmacy Preference Evaluation Questionnaire (ComPETe): A ... (CP) for filling prescription, and purchasing over-the-counter (OTC) and health ... Prescription Filling, Over-the-counter Products, Financial Management ...
Biguzzi, Coralie; Ginon, Emilie; Gomez-y-Paloma, Sergio; Langrell, Sergio; Lefebvre, Marianne; Marette, Stephan; Mateu, Guillermo; Sutan, Angela
This article aims to analyse consumers' preferences for Integrated Pest Management (IPM), in comparison to conventional and organic food products. It analyses the case of tomatoes, based on experimental data of 189 French consumers. We find that consumers are more interested in information on the production system than on the characteristics of the final product in terms of pesticide residue levels, and more in IPM than organic. While information on IPM production increases consumers' willing...
He, Lingnan; Cong, Feng; Liu, Yanping; Zhou, Xinyue
This article investigates the effect of optimal distinctiveness on consumer product consumption. The authors argue that consumers acquire and display material possessions to restore their optimal levels of distinctiveness. Results showed that placing consumers in a state of low distinctiveness increased desire to acquire distinctive products, whereas perceptions of high distinctiveness reduced desire to acquire such products. Consumers' desire for distinctiveness-related products held true for various consumer choices, including willingness to pay more for limited-edition products and preference for unpopular gifts. This finding has implications for understanding consumer choice in expressing identity. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
O. Toubia; M.G. de Jong (Martijn); D. Stieger; J.H. Fuller (John)
textabstractWe develop and test an incentive-compatible Conjoint Poker (CP) game. The preference data collected in the context of this game are comparable to incentive-compatible choice-based conjoint (CBC) analysis data. We develop a statistical efficiency measure and an algorithm to construct
Full Text Available The marine zone tourism is growing attracting more tourists. Pramuka Island is marine conservation area enriched with marine biodiversity in coral reefs and other natural resources. To develop this potential tourist destination, a customer-based marketing program is required to attract domestic and foreign tourists. The main vision is to understand tourist preferences for marine tourism activities and facilities. A research was conducted on Pramuka Island as a well-known marine tourism zone. The objective was to determine the key tourist preferences for marine tourism destination. Research methods utilized Cochran Q test and Conjoint analysis where the primary data were obtained from tourist respondents. The result showed that there was a tourist preference based on the five attributes considered most important, namely tourism activities, tourist attractions, types of accommodation, food and souvenirs types. This study provided marine tourism destination management with useful guidance for broader implications of the implementation of marketing programs and tourism attraction. Moreover, the results of this study consolidated the learning of a variety of academic and industrial research papers in particular for the measurement of customer preferences towards marine tourism destination.
Codron, Jean-Marie; Grunert, Klaus G.; Giraud-Heraud, Eric
, more healthful, or produced in ways that are more beneficial to the environment and take animal welfare and equitable labor concerns into consideration. For example, 80 percent of the consumers in the European Union (EU) indicate a concern for animal welfare (Blandford and Fulponi, 1999), and European...... consumers are increasingly demanding organic food products and a wider selection of such products (Lohr, 2001). The social concerns for equitable income distribution and sustainable development are reflected in the growth of sales of products marketed under Fair Trade labels. The European Fair Trade market...
Ngapo, T M
The aim of this study is to identify the most important characteristics of fresh pork that determine consumer choice in five Canadian provinces. Within-consumer preference replication and systematic image manipulation in surveying showed differences in strategies for pork choice in lean colour (P<0.001) and marbling (P=0.006). High proportions of Nova Scotians (29%) chose light red pork, Albertans (42%) dark red and Quebecers (29%) non-marbled pork. Overall, the most important choice criteria were fat cover (57% preferred lean, 8% fatty) and lean colour (35% dark red, 18% light red). Marbling and drip were less used, but are important noting that 26% of consumers used three or four characteristics to make their choice. The preferences are readily met by the industry, but unfortunately, preferences for minimal or no marbling and fat cover likely result in a compromised gustative experience for many Canadian consumers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The perception and preference of consumers for local poultry meat in the Kumasi ... reduced its freshness and taste and made it less healthy for consumption. ... the government should subsidize the cost of inputs for the local poultry industry, ...
Once it is fermented, it is shaken or agitated in the calabash for hours to churn into butter. Butter granules are removed and either made into butter or boiled to make Ghee or butter oil known as Omazeothung'ombe by the Herero community and the remaining liquid is the fermented buttermilk or Omashikwa, Consumers of ...
Ahn, Joongha; Shin, Jungwoo; Lee, Jongsu; Shin, Kwangsoo; Park, Hayoung
The scope of healthcare has been expanding from caring for sick people to keeping people from becoming sick, and telemedicine will play a significant role in this new healthcare paradigm. This study investigated consumer preferences and willingness to pay for attributes of telemedicine services in South Korea. A market simulation was conducted to examine the market shares of alternative services and their relationships to the perceived usefulness of service types and preferred device types. Using a conjoint survey, we collected data on consumer preferences for six telemedicine service attributes. Data analysis used the Bayesian mixed logit model. The market simulation estimated the probabilities of a specific service alternative being chosen using estimated model coefficients. Wearable devices were the most preferred, followed by smart-home and smartphone devices. Consumers perceived managing blood glucose to be the most useful telemedicine service, followed by monitoring oxygen saturation and blood pressure. The market simulation indicated that consumer preferences for device types were associated with the types of chronic diseases for which management through telemedicine services is perceived to be useful. As the focus of healthcare moves from treating patients to keeping individuals healthy, a key factor for the successful deployment of telemedicine services is understanding consumer perceptions and attitudes. The results of this study revealed the dynamics of consumer preferences with regard to service attributes.
Full Text Available Competition in global pork markets has increased as trade barriers have opened as a result of free trade agreements. Japanese prefer both loin and Boston butt, while Chinese prefer pork offal. Frozen pork has increased in terms of imports into China. Japanese consumers consider pork meat origin along with pork price when making purchase decisions. While the Chinese prefer a strong tasting pork product, South Korean consumers show very strong preferences to pork that is higher in fat. Therefore, South Korean consumers have a higher demand for pork belly and Boston butt. Consequently, the supply and demand of pork in Korea is hardly met, which means that importation of high fat parts is inevitable. In Korea there is lower preference toward low fat parts such as loin, picnic shoulder, and ham. During the economic depression in South Korea there have been observable changes in consumer preferences. There remains steep competition among the pork exporting countries in terms of gaining share in the international pork market. If specific consumer preferences would be considered carefully, there is the possibility to increase the amount of pork exported to these countries.
Oh, S.-H.; See, M. T.
Competition in global pork markets has increased as trade barriers have opened as a result of free trade agreements. Japanese prefer both loin and Boston butt, while Chinese prefer pork offal. Frozen pork has increased in terms of imports into China. Japanese consumers consider pork meat origin along with pork price when making purchase decisions. While the Chinese prefer a strong tasting pork product, South Korean consumers show very strong preferences to pork that is higher in fat. Therefore, South Korean consumers have a higher demand for pork belly and Boston butt. Consequently, the supply and demand of pork in Korea is hardly met, which means that importation of high fat parts is inevitable. In Korea there is lower preference toward low fat parts such as loin, picnic shoulder, and ham. During the economic depression in South Korea there have been observable changes in consumer preferences. There remains steep competition among the pork exporting countries in terms of gaining share in the international pork market. If specific consumer preferences would be considered carefully, there is the possibility to increase the amount of pork exported to these countries. PMID:25049488
Johannes Dahlin; Verena Halbherr; Peter Kurz; Michael Nelles; Carsten Herbes
In an effort to support the long-term viability of the bioenergy industry through an end market for digestate, we investigated purchasing preferences for fertilizer product features in the home gardening market. We conducted a discrete choice experiment (DCE), presenting 504 respondents with a total of 6048 product attribute choices in a simulated context that replicated the tradeoff decisions made in the real marketplace. We analyzed the choice data using a hierarchical Bayes estimate to gen...
Structuring preferences has been developed with econometric models using functional flexible parametric form and the exploring the perceptions about expressed and latent needs using different multivariate approaches. Purpose of this research is to explore the demand for a new drink using the mean-end chain (MEC) theory and multivariate SEM procedure. The first part is dedicated to description of specialty foods for their capacity to create new niche markets. The MEC theory is introduced to ex...
Full Text Available In an effort to support the long-term viability of the bioenergy industry through an end market for digestate, we investigated purchasing preferences for fertilizer product features in the home gardening market. We conducted a discrete choice experiment (DCE, presenting 504 respondents with a total of 6048 product attribute choices in a simulated context that replicated the tradeoff decisions made in the real marketplace. We analyzed the choice data using a hierarchical Bayes estimate to generate part-worth utilities for fertilizer product attributes. We then conducted a latent class analysis to identify market segments that could be expected to respond to differentiated product design strategies. We were able to quantify both purchasing preferences for fertilizer product attributes as well as the importance of each attribute to the perceived utility of a product. We were further able to identify five distinct market segments that make clear the potential for differentiated strategies in the home gardening market. We found both negative and positive price sensitivities, with sociodemographically distinct subgroups that favored low-, mid-, and high-priced products. We also found purchasing preferences for brand status, product labeling and nutrient values. Our results provide insights that should help product managers in the biogas industry develop marketing strategies to integrate digestate into a sustainable energy production system.
Ngapo, T.M.; Martin, J.F.; Dransfield, E.
Using the same digital photographs of pork chops varying systematically in fat cover, colour, marbling and drip, 12,590 consumers from 23 countries each selected their preferred chop. Preferences differed considerably between individuals, between groups and between countries when comparing
Lee, Min-A; Jung, Yoojin; Jo, Cheorun; Park, Ji-Young; Nam, Ki-Chang
This study analyzed consumers' preferences and price sensitivity to native chickens. A survey was conducted from Jan 6 to 17, 2014, and data were collected from consumers (n=500) living in Korea. Statistical analyses evaluated the consumption patterns of native chickens, preference marketing for native chicken breeds which will be newly developed, and price sensitivity measurement (PSM). Of the subjects who preferred broilers, 24.3% do not purchase native chickens because of the dryness and tough texture, while those who preferred native chickens liked their chewy texture (38.2%). Of the total subjects, 38.2% preferred fried native chickens (38.2%) for processed food, 38.4% preferred direct sales for native chicken distribution, 51.0% preferred native chickens to be slaughtered in specialty stores, and 32.4% wanted easy access to native chickens. Additionally, the price stress range (PSR) was 50 won and the point of marginal cheapness (PMC) and point of marginal expensiveness (PME) were 6,980 won and 12,300 won, respectively. Evaluation of the segmentation market revealed that consumers who prefer broiler to native chicken breeds were more sensitive to the chicken price. To accelerate the consumption of newly developed native chicken meat, it is necessary to develop a texture that each consumer needs, to increase the accessibility of native chickens, and to have diverse menus and recipes as well as reasonable pricing for native chickens.
Han, Qing; Zhou, Hui; Nanseki, Teruaki; Wang, Jimin; 南石, 晃明
This paper analyzes the consistency of consumer's stated preference (SP) and revealed preference (RP) for fresh certified pork by using Beijing urban residents' questionnaire survey data in December 2010. It models the factors of the consistency of SP–RP and calculates the marginal effect coefficients. The results indicate that these factors of whether consumer's household have children under 18 years old, consumer's knowledge about certified products and searching frequency about food qualit...
Van Oel, C.J.; Van den Berkhof, F.W.
In recent decades, commercial developments have become increasingly important for the overall profit of airports. However, little is known about consumer preferences regarding the design of passenger areas, which is striking as the design of terminal buildings affects consumers' emotional state and
Chrysochou, Polymeros; Brunbjerg Jørgensen, Jacob
choosing wine. We further measured consumer level of purchase involvement and we compared their preferences between high and low involvement groups. Findings: Our results show that Danish wine consumers mainly rely on previous experience with wine. Conversely, alcohol content and marketing actions (e...
Ngapo, T.M.; Martin, J.F.; Dransfield, E.
The preference for pork varying in its fat cover, lean colour, marbling and drip differs among countries, but the influence of socio-demographic factors is unknown. In this study of 11,717 consumers from 22 countries, more than 80% of consumers liked pork, thought that pork quality was at least
Simon-Rusinowitz, L; Mahoney, K J; Desmond, S M; Shoop, D M; Squillace, M R; Fay, R A
As long-term care (LTC) expenditures have risen, policymakers have sought ways to control costs while maintaining consumer satisfaction. Concurrently, there is increasing interest within the aging and disability communities in consumer-directed care. The Cash and Counseling Demonstration and Evaluation (CCDE) seeks to increase consumer direction and control costs by offering a cash allowance and information services to persons with disabilities, enabling them to purchase needed assistance. The authors present results from a telephone survey conducted to assess consumer preferences for a cash option in Arkansas and describe how findings from the four-State CCDE can inform consumer information efforts and policymakers.
Full Text Available In recent years an increasing consumer interest in shopping in alternative food chains can be observed also in the Czech Republic. For the successful development of alternative food networks, it is important to understand what motivates consumers to shop there. This paper is aimed to define and discuss the key aspects of the preference determinants of AFN shoppers. The empirical analysis was conducted on 333 shoppers at two alternative food chains in Brno, Czech Republic. The consumer survey was designed to examine cognitive, normative and affective determinants of preference for purchased food. First findings confirm, that by the shopping at alternative food chains consumers demonstrate preferences not only for fresh and tasty food, but also their normative position of willingness to support local production and community.
Sasaki, Keisuke; Ooi, Motoki; Nagura, Naoto; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru; Muroya, Susumu; Hayashi, Takeshi; Akama, Kyoko; Fujikawa, Akira; Hokiyama, Hironao; Kobayashi, Kuniyuki; Nishimura, Takanori
Over the past few decades, beef producers in Japan have improved marbling in their beef products. It was recently reported that marbling is not well correlated with palatability as rated by Japanese consumers. This study sought to identify the consumer segments in Japan that prefer sensory characteristics of beef other than high marbling. Three Wagyu beef, one Holstein beef and two lean imported beef longissimus samples were subjected to a descriptive sensory test, physicochemical analysis and a consumer (n = 307) preference test. According to consumer classification and external preference mapping, four consumer segments were identified as 'gradual high-fat likers', 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers', 'Wagyu likers' and 'distinctive texture likers'. Although the major trend of Japanese consumers' beef preference was 'marbling liking', 16.9% of the consumers preferred beef samples that had moderate marbling and distinctive taste. The consumers' attitudes expressed in a questionnaire survey were in good agreement with the preference for marbling among the 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers'. These results indicate that moderately marbled beef is a potent category in the Japanese beef market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Brennan, Timothy J.
Residential consumers remain reluctant to choose new electricity suppliers. Even the most successful jurisdictions, four US states and other countries, have had to adopt extensive consumer education procedures that serve largely to confirm that choosing electricity suppliers is daunting. Electricity is not unique in this respect; numerous studies find that consumers are generally reluctant to switch brands, even when they are well-informed about product characteristics. If consumers prefer not to choose, opening regulated markets can reduce welfare, even for some consumers who do switch, as the incumbent can exploit this preference by raising price above the formerly regulated level. Policies to open markets might be successful even if limited to industrial and commercial customers, with residential prices based on those in nominally competitive wholesale markets
Oltman, A E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A
This study established attractive attributes and consumer desires for fresh tomatoes. Three focus groups (n = 28 participants) were conducted to explore how consumers perceived tomatoes, including how they purchased and consumed them. Subsequently, an Adaptive Choice Based Conjoint (ACBC) survey was conducted to understand consumer preferences toward traditional tomatoes. The ACBC survey with Kano questions (n = 1037 consumers in Raleigh, NC) explored the importance of color, firmness, size, skin, texture, interior, seed presence, flavor, and health benefits. The most important tomato attribute was color, then juice when sliced, followed by size, followed by seed presence, which was at parity with firmness. An attractive tomato was red, firm, medium/small sized, crisp, meaty, juicy, flavorful, and with few seeds. Deviations from these features resulted in a tomato that was rejected by consumers. Segmentations of consumers were determined by patterns in utility scores. External attributes were the main drivers of tomato liking, but different groups of tomato consumers exist with distinct preferences for juiciness, firmness, flavor, and health benefits. Conjoint analysis is a research technique that collects a large amount of data from consumers in a format designed to be reflective of a real life market setting and can be combined with qualitative insight from focus groups to gain information on consumer consumption and purchase behaviors. This study established that the most important fresh tomato attributes were color, amount of juice when sliced, and size. Distinct consumer clusters were differentiated by preference for color/appearance, juiciness and firm texture. Tomato growers can utilize the results to target attributes that drive consumer choice for fresh tomatoes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®
Baker, Gregory A.
Past research has yielded conflicting results on consumer valuation of food safety characteristics. In this study, conjoint analysis is used to evaluate consumer responses to hypothetical apple products in a nationwide survey. Product characteristics include price, quality, pesticide use levels and the corresponding cancer risk, and type of government inspection. Consumers expressed a broad preference for reduced pesticide usage. Four market segments were identified corresponding to consumers...
Schamel Guenter H.
Full Text Available We explore the key components of consumer demand for the development of a successful wine and culinary tourism segment. In particular, we investigate the demand preferences that are important to consumers interested in a wine and culinary related hotel stay in South Tyrol. Conceptually, we utilize the 4E-Model of experiential consumption by Pine & Gilmore [1, 2] and propose that the four realms of an experience (i.e., entertainment, education, escapist, and aesthetic relate to the principal components of consumer preferences. We survey potential tourists to gain a better understanding of their demand preferences for culinary and wine related hotel stays. Using an exploratory factor analysis, we identify the principal components of consumer demand preferences. The most preferred demand feature of a culinary wine experience relates to informative entertainment. The second feature relates to social-cultural activities that are educating. The third are escapist wine and food-specific activities and the forth relates to the aesthetics of accommodation traits and style in the culinary and wine domain. Moreover, we study the current supply attributes of wine and culinary related hotel offer in South Tyrol and their pricing using a hedonic model. Attributes that provide an entertainment experience form the basis of any offer in the wine and culinary domain. Attributes that provide an educational experience are highly relevant and add will a significant price premium. Matching demand preferences and supply conditions is crucial in developing a successful culinary and wine related tourism segment.
Full Text Available We perform a model analysis to study the origins of limited resilience in coupled ecological-economic systems. We demonstrate that under open access to ecosystems for profit-maximizing harvesting forms, the resilience properties of the system are essentially determined by consumer preferences for ecosystem services. In particular, we show that complementarity and relative importance of ecosystem services in consumption may significantly decrease the resilience of (almost any given state of the system. We conclude that the role of consumer preferences and management institutions is not just to facilitate adaptation to, or transformation of, some natural dynamics of ecosystems. Rather, consumer preferences and management institutions are themselves important determinants of the fundamental dynamic characteristics of coupled ecological-economic systems, such as limited resilience.
Dütschke, Elisabeth; Paetz, Alexandra-Gwyn
Dynamic pricing is being discussed as one method of demand side management (DSM) which could be crucial for integrating more renewable energy sources into the electricity system. At the same time, there have been very few analyses of consumer preferences in this regard: Which type of pricing program are consumers most likely to choose and why? This paper sheds some light on these issues based on two empirical studies from Germany: (1) A questionnaire study including a conjoint analysis-design and (2) A field experiment with test-residents of a smart home laboratory. The results show that consumers are open to dynamic pricing, but prefer simple programs to complex and highly dynamic ones; smart home technologies including demand automation are seen as a prerequisite for DSM. The study provides some indications that consumers might be more willing to accept more dynamic pricing programs if they have the chance to experience in practice how these can be managed in everyday life. At the same time, the individual and societal advantages of such programs are not obvious to consumers. For this reason, any market roll-out will need to be accompanied by convincing communication and information campaigns to ensure that these advantages are perceived. - Highlights: • Little is known about consumer preferences on dynamic pricing. • Two studies are conducted to analyze this topic. • A survey shows that consumers without experience prefer conventional programs. • Test residents of a smart home were more open to dynamic pricing. • They also prefer well-structured programs
Phillips, Jon C.; Matt, Garrett R.; Drukin, April; Campeau-McAllister, Kimberly; Campeau-McAllister, Nicole; Solis, Marco; Gipson, Tenisha
The U.S. raisin industry has experienced a decline in acreage and in number of growers in recent years. One firm is trying a novel approach to marketing raisins, namely, by marketing them still attached to the vine. This product is called cluster raisins. In order to explore consumer preferences related to cluster raisins, and to generate new product ideas and preferred marketing methods, two focus group interviews were implemented. Findings included that a young (i.e., 18 - 25 years) market ...
Costley, Carolyn L; Brucks, Merrie
This study investigated the relation between consumers' memory and use of information in judging brand preferences. The authors used ads to test hypotheses about how pictorial and verbal presentations of previously encountered information and the content of subsequently encountered information affect recall and information use in shaping brand preferences. Even when subjects more easily recalled.pictured attributes than verbally described attributes, this picture superiority effect did not in...
Sow, T M A; Grongnet, J F
This study identified the sensory characteristics and consumer preference for chicken meat in Guinea. Five chicken samples [live village chicken, live broiler, live spent laying hen, ready-to-cook broiler, and ready-to-cook broiler (imported)] bought from different locations were assessed by 10 trained panelists using 19 sensory attributes. The ANOVA results showed that 3 chicken appearance attributes (brown, yellow, and white), 5 chicken odor attributes (oily, intense, medicine smell, roasted, and mouth persistent), 3 chicken flavor attributes (sweet, bitter, and astringent), and 8 chicken texture attributes (firm, tender, juicy, chew, smooth, springy, hard, and fibrous) were significantly discriminating between the chicken samples (Pchicken, the live spent laying hen, and the ready-to-cook broiler (imported) were very well represented and clearly distinguished from the live broiler and the ready-to-cook broiler. One hundred twenty consumers expressed their preferences for the chicken samples using a 5-point Likert scale. The hierarchical cluster analysis of the preference data identified 4 homogenous consumer clusters. The hierarchical cluster analysis results showed that the live village chicken was the most preferred chicken sample, whereas the ready-to-cook broiler was the least preferred one. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) type 1 showed that 72% of the sensory data for the first 2 principal components explained 83% of the chicken preference. The PLSR1 identified that the sensory characteristics juicy, oily, sweet, hard, mouth persistent, and yellow were the most relevant sensory drivers of the Guinean chicken preference. The PLSR2 (with multiple responses) identified the relationship between the chicken samples, their sensory attributes, and the consumer clusters. Our results showed that there was not a chicken category that was exclusively preferred from the other chicken samples and therefore highlight the existence of place for development of
Fernández-Polancoa, José; Mueller Loose, Simone; Luna, Ladislao
Aquaculture production has grown considerably in the southern countries of Europe during the last two decades. This increase in supply has not been matched by an equivalent rise in consumer demand, resulting in price decay. For farmed seabream (Sparus aurata) this paper examines which attributes...... choice and to test for differences in attribute preferences between retailers and consumers. Results indicate that both consumers and retailers agree in their marginal willingness to pay for wild over farmed seabream. However, they differ in the extent to which the disutility from farmed production can...... be offset by the declaration of domestic origin, sustainability certifications, and presence of health benefits or safety claims. Results suggest an asymmetry between retailer and consumer preferences that might explain why seabream differentiated by claims still struggles to find the desired retail...
Chen, Wei; Wassenaar, Henk Jan
Building upon the fundamental principles of decision theory, Decision-Based Design: Integrating Consumer Preferences into Engineering Design presents an analytical approach to enterprise-driven Decision-Based Design (DBD) as a rigorous framework for decision making in engineering design. Once the related fundamentals of decision theory, economic analysis, and econometrics modelling are established, the remaining chapters describe the entire process, the associated analytical techniques, and the design case studies for integrating consumer preference modeling into the enterprise-driven DBD framework. Methods for identifying key attributes, optimal design of human appraisal experiments, data collection, data analysis, and demand model estimation are presented and illustrated using engineering design case studies. The scope of the chapters also provides: •A rigorous framework of integrating the interests from both producer and consumers in engineering design, •Analytical techniques of consumer choice model...
Chrysochou, Polymeros; Corsi, A. M.; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios
Purpose – Cask wine (bag-in-box, soft pack) has not received considerable attention in wine marketing research, but interest among winemakers and consumers has been increasing steadily. However, little is known about what drives consumer preferences for cask wine and, furthermore, what the profile...... a sustainable eco-friendly positioning. Originality/value – This study contributes to the understanding of what drives consumers’ preferences for cask wine, something that few studies have done until now. Moreover, this is the first study to use the BWS method for this type of product....
Lawrence, S E; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A
This study determined and compared drivers of liking for unflavored soymilk with different U.S. consumer groups. A highly trained panel documented appearance, mouthfeel and flavor attributes of 26 commercial soymilks. Twelve representative soymilks were then selected for evaluation by consumers from 3 age/cultural categories (n = 75 each category; Caucasian/African American females aged 18 to 30 y; Asian females aged 18 to 30 y; Caucasian/African American females aged 40 to 64 y). Consumers evaluated overall liking and liking and intensity of specific attributes. Results were evaluated by analysis of variance, followed by internal and external preference mapping. Age had no effect on overall liking, while ethnicity did (Caucasian/African American compared with Asian; P consumer clusters were identified. Sweet taste with vanilla/vanillin and sweet aromatic flavors and higher viscosity were preferred by most consumers and differences between consumer clusters were primarily in drivers of dislike. Drivers of dislike were not identified for Cluster 1 consumers while Clusters 2 and 3 consumers (n = 84, n = 80) disliked beany, green/grassy and meaty/brothy flavors and astringency. Cluster 3 (n = 80) consumers scored all soymilks higher in liking (P consumers, and were willing to overlook disliked attributes with the addition of sweet taste, whereas the Cluster 2 consumers were not. These findings can be utilized to produce soymilks with attributes that are well liked by target consumers and to tailor attributes for segments of the population that have not yet been accommodated. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
Full Text Available This paper presents partial results of a research on consumer preferences when shopping for groceries. It is focused on regional products and consumer preferences in relation to the country of origin of food products. The main objective of this paper is to find the existence of spatial relationships between spatial deployment of regional products and consumer preferences for regional products. It will be necessary to create a data model for monitoring the deployment of regional products and also a data model for tracking important indicators of consumer behavior in all regions of the Czech Republic. The results are based on questionnaire survey that was conducted within the period from October 2010 to January 2011 on a sample of 3767 respondents from the Czech Republic, via both online questionnaires and their printed version. For the data collection the questionnaire system ReLa, developed by the Department of Marketing and Trade at Faculty of Business and Economics at Mendel University in Brno, was used. Data was processed with statistical software STATISTICA (ver. 10. Spatial visualisation was processed with GIS software ArcGIS (ver. 10.1. Preferences for food of Czech origin were analysed in relation to identification criteria. The research results show that the origin of food has an important role in consumer purchase decision-making. There is no significant difference in importance of this factor based on gender of consumers, however, we could prove moderate dependence on respondent’s occupation, education and age. We could also experience regional differences in levels of preferences of local products or products of Czech origin in regard of 14 regions of the Czech Republic. χ2 (N = 3767 = 245.25; p < 0.001. Value of Pearson’s coefficient of contingency is 0.334.
Zhu, X.; Ierland, van E.C.
We develop a theoretical Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model that explicitly includes the environmental input in production functions and the consumers' preferences for environmental quality in utility functions. We empirically apply the model to provide some insights into the effects of the
García-Madariaga, Jesús; Blasco López, Maria-Francisca; Burgos, Ingrit Moya; Virto, Nuria Recuero
Developments in neuroscience have provided the opportunity to know unconscious consumer reactions and acknowledge direct measures of cognitive constructs like attention. Given the ever-increasing concern over packaging's contribution to creating a positive first impression, the current research seeks to examine consumers' attention and declarative preferences regarding the three main different packaging attributes as isolated variables: images, texts and colours. The experiment exposed participants (N = 40) to 63 stimuli, which were based on modifications of the three main packaging attributes of three products of three different food categories. This study used electroencephalogram (EEG) and eye-tracking (ET) to measure attention, and a declarative test was employed to examine preference. First, the results presented herein show that the presence of visual elements, either images or texts on packages, increased the participants' level of attention. Second, the results reveal that colour modifications do not have a significant effect on participants' neurophysiological attention levels. Third, the results demonstrated that the neurophysiological effects among the participants do not necessarily coincide with their subjective evaluations of preference. Hence, this study increases awareness of the relevance of combining traditional market research tools that rely on explicit consumer responses with neuroscientific techniques. These findings indicate, first of all, that more research is needed to ascertain the extent to which consumers' neurophysiological outcomes correspond to their declarative preferences and second, that neurophysiological methods should be given more attention in research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Denver, Sigrid; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård
This study investigates organic consumers’ preferences for local production of apples. The analysis is based on a choice experiment among 637 Danish consumers used in combination with a principal component analysis of a set of opinion questions. The principal component analysis identifies two...
The primary data were collected through a structured from 120 respondents and secondary data was used to determine the factors for variation in prices of cowpea. The study revealed that consumers prefer that is of medium size, red in colour, very sweet in taste and a shelf-life of at least month. It also showed that the most ...
Full Text Available Sparkling wine represents a small but significant proportion of the Australian wine industry’s total production. Yet, Australia remains a significant importer of French Champagne. This study investigated consumer preferences for Australian sparkling wine vs. French Champagne and any compositional and/or sensorial bases for these preferences. A range of French and Australian sparkling wines were analyzed by MIR spectroscopy to determine if sparkling wines could be differentiated according to country of origin. A subset of wines, comprising two French Champagnes, a French sparkling wine and three Australian sparkling wines, were selected for (i descriptive analysis to characterize their sensory profiles and (ii acceptance tests to determine consumer liking (n = 95 Australian wine consumers. Significant differences were observed between liking scores; on average, the $70 French Champagne was liked least and the $12 Australian sparkling wine liked most, but segmentation (based on individual liking scores identified clusters comprising consumers with distinct wine preferences. Interestingly, when consumers were shown wine bottle labels, they considered French wines to be more expensive than Australian wines, demonstrating a clear country of origin influence.
Full Text Available Tuscany, probably the most famous Italian region, is known because of many typical food specialities. One of them is the “fi orentina” - a thick, fi rst quality beef, called after the name of the city of Florence. However, recent trends in consumers’ behaviour and the BSE crisis have affected the attitude of consumers toward such products. In this study are presented the results of a mail survey about beef consumption and preferences that was conducted in Tuscany in May 2002. The survey showed that, despite recent food scares and new consumption behaviour, Tuscany consumers still like and prefer beef that has guarantees of quality. Therefore, there are good market opportunities for the Italian and foreign beef producers in Tuscany if they will provide consumers with not only good quality beef, but also more information about the meat.
Steinman, H A; Jobson, M R
The enormously profitable complementary medicines, dietary supplements and traditional medicines markets are largely unregulated internationally and South Africa. Attempts to ensure that consumers are not exposed to harmful or ineffective products have met with varying success around the world.
Kaambwa, Billingsley; Lancsar, Emily; McCaffrey, Nicola; Chen, Gang; Gill, Liz; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria; Ratcliffe, Julie
Consumer directed care (CDC) is currently being embraced internationally as a means to promote autonomy and choice for consumers (people aged 65 and over) receiving community aged care services (CACSs). CDC involves giving CACS clients (consumers and informal carers of consumers) control over how CACSs are administered. However, CDC models have largely developed in the absence of evidence on clients' views and preferences. We explored CACS clients' preferences for a variety of CDC attributes and identified factors that may influence these preferences and potentially inform improved design of future CDC models. Study participants were clients of CACSs delivered by five Australian providers. Using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) approach undertaken in a group setting between June and December 2013, we investigated the relative importance to CACS consumers and informal (family) carers of gradations relating to six salient features of CDC (choice of service provider(s), budget management, saving unused/unspent funds, choice of support/care worker(s), support-worker flexibility and level of contact with service coordinator). The DCE data were analysed using conditional, mixed and generalised logit regression models, accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Mean ages for 117 study participants were 80 years (87 consumers) and 74 years (30 informal carers). All participants preferred a CDC approach that allowed them to: save unused funds from a CACS package for future use; have support workers that were flexible in terms of changing activities within their CACS care plan and; choose the support workers that provide their day-to-day CACSs. The CDC attributes found to be important to both consumers and informal carers receiving CACSs will inform the design of future CDC models of service delivery. The DCE approach used in this study has the potential for wide applicability and facilitates the assessment of preferences for elements of potential future aged care
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to establish and compare consumer preferences concerning the methods of fruit production (traditional or organic ones in the years 2001, 2003 and 2006 and the relations between the preferences and the socio-economic and demographic features of the consumers. The analysis was conducted on the basis of the data from surveys carried out among the inhabitants of Lublin. Results of those surveys point out that certain features of the consumers such as the sex, incomes and the family type significantly differentiated preferences concerning the method of fruit production. Increased incomes were connected with greater acceptance of the organic method, and their decrease was related to greater frequency of indicating the conventional method. Interest in the method of production, while buying the fruit was significantly higher among men than among women. Declaring the willingness to pay more for organic fruit was also correlated with the consumers’ sex. Besides, in 2006 it was not too strongly related to the incomes of the respondents. In the years 2001 and 2006 changeability of preferences con-cerning the willingness to pay a higher price for organic fruit and no change in the interest in the technology of fruit production while purchasing the fruit were shown.
Full Text Available Submitted paper deals with the consumers´ purchasing preferences towards organic food in Slovakia, pointing at the situation on the organic food market in Slovakia finding the consumers' preferences when buying organic food. The results of the questionnaire survey identified the preferences and opinions of respondents about organic food. Paper analyses the questionnaire survey by 227 respondents concerning the purchasing preferences towards organic food in Slovakia. In order to achieve given aim and to ensure deeper analysis of the results, there had been stated 3 assumptions and 5 hypothesis. As the results of the survey proved, 65% of respondents buy organic food, of which 39% of respondents buy organic food at least once a week. Up to 98% of respondents have already met the concept of organic food and know what it means. 37 % of respondents buy mostly organic fruit and vegetables, 18% of respondents buy the most the meat and meat products in organic quality and 13% of respondents prefer dairy products in organic quality. The most preferred place to buy organic food are specialized stores (36 %,to buy organic food directly from the producer is the most popular way for 29 % of respondents, hypermarket and supermarkets are favorite place to buy organic food for 19% of respondents, and 12% of respondents buy organic food mostly in farmers´ markets. Only 4% of respondents prefer another way to buy organic food. Quality of organic food and not using the pesticides is the most important criteria for buying organic food (36%. Price has also really strong influence on purchasing decision, when 34% of respondents are the most affected by the price when purchasing organic food. Package is considered as the least important criteria when buying organic food by 72% of respondents. On the basis of provided results of our survey and formulated hypothesis which were evaluated by Chi-square goodness of fit test, Chi square test of the square contingency and
Barlagne, Carla; Cornet, Denis; Blazy, Jean-Marc; Diman, Jean-Louis; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry
In West and Central Africa and in the Caribbean, yam is one of the most important sources of carbohydrates and has a great potential to improve food security. The yam production sector is, however, now challenged by the satisfaction of evolving consumers' preferences. Since little is known about consumers' preferences regarding yams' characteristics, product quality, and the drivers of yam purchase, six focus group discussions were conducted (for a total of 31 participants). Among the purchasing criteria, price was considered more important than the others. It was followed by the external damage, the origin, and the size of the tuber. The most frequently cited consumption criteria were the taste, the texture, and color of flesh after cooking. Taste was considered more important than the other criteria. Three consumers' profiles were established reflecting heterogeneity in preferences, especially as concerns the willingness to pay for yam and consumption habits. They were designated as the Hedonistic, the Thrifty and the Flexible. Our results suggest that innovations can be implemented to sustain and stimulate the development of the yam sector in Guadeloupe. Two main development paths were identified. The first path is the valorization of the great existing diversity of yam varieties and the increase in the level of information for consumers about product attributes such as the cooking mode, the origin, and the mode of production. Building a marketing strategy based on the valorization of this diversity can help maintain and preserve yam's agro-biodiversity and the satisfaction of rapidly evolving consumption habits. The second path is the definition of yam ideotypes that suit consumers' needs. We expect that tailoring the production to consumers' needs will have a positive impact on global food security in the Caribbean region.
Koo, Yoonmo; Kim, Chang Seob; Hong, Junhee; Choi, Ie-Jung; Lee, Jongsu
Recently, increases in energy prices have made energy conservation and efficiency improvements even more essential than in the past. However, consumers experience difficulty in obtaining reliable information regarding energy efficiency, so that many countries have implemented regulations to enforce energy-efficiency grade labeling. In this study, consumer preferences regarding energy efficiency grades are analyzed by the mixed logit and MDCEV model based on the revealed preference data of past automobile purchases. Findings show that consumers rationally apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. This study discusses political implications of energy efficiency policies as they might impact consumer behaviors of automobile purchase and usage. - Highlights: ► We model discrete choice model to evaluate energy-efficiency grade regulation. ► Consumers apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. ► However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. ► The policies for efficient automobile usage are discussed.
Gribova N. А.
Full Text Available Nowadays fruits, berries and processed products are an indispensable component of the human diet throughout the year. Frozen fruits and berries are widely distributed on the Russian market and are part of the food industry worldwide. Frozen products become popular among consumers for home use due to the minimal cooking time. Consumer evaluation is the most relevant and significant for identifying preferences and evaluating quality products in Russian markets. In this regard, a qualitative analysis of marketing research has been carried out and preferences have been identified according to which criteria consumers buy quick-frozen products. Some methods of sensory analysis have been used (consumer evaluation, the profile method, and pairwise comparison method. The dominant factor in choosing a brand of quick-frozen products is the combination of an acceptable price and quality, and to a lesser extent, the recommendation of acquaintances, the type of packaging and advertising of products. The research is aimed at identifying organoleptic properties that affect the consumer evaluation of the quality of frozen, thawed grapes in comparison with the reference product. Fruits and berries freeze for hours and even minutes, but are stored for a long time. The problem arises in rehydration – the return of the product to its original state, close to fresh natural raw material. The main goal of the research is aimed at identifying some rational method of defrosting, corresponding to organoleptic and consumer properties. With the help of organoleptic evaluation the best ways of defrosting have been identified – the microwave oven and the freezer. These methods allow obtaining thawed foods with the finest quality and identical to natural raw materials. The storage time after defrosting has been revealed: in the microwave oven – 60 min; at the room temperature – 80 min; in the coldstore – 100 min. The obtained information can be useful for consumers
This research-oriented thesis investigates to which extent German consumers consider the sustainability aspect of a product package as their main factor in preferring a product. The research was conducted based on a comparison between two specific smoothies from the Company A and Company B brands. Company A smoothies are packed in glass bottles, whereas Company B smoothies are sold in plastic bottles. For the scope of the thesis, sustainable product packaging was defined regarding its contrib...
Full Text Available Standard preference models in consumer research assume that people weigh and add all attributes of the available options to derive a decision, while there is growing evidence for the use of simplifying heuristics. Recently, a greedoid algorithm has been developed (Yee, Dahan, Hauser and Orlin, 2007; Kohli and Jedidi, 2007 to model lexicographic heuristics from preference data. We compare predictive accuracies of the greedoid approach and standard conjoint analysis in an online study with a rating and a ranking task. The lexicographic model derived from the greedoid algorithm was better at predicting ranking compared to rating data, but overall, it achieved lower predictive accuracy for hold-out data than the compensatory model estimated by conjoint analysis. However, a considerable minority of participants was better predicted by lexicographic strategies. We conclude that the new algorithm will not replace standard tools for analyzing preferences, but can boost the study of situational and individual differences in preferential choice processes.
Sajjadi, Seyed Ali; Alipour, Vali; Matlabi, Mohammad; Biglari, Hamed
Understanding consumer perception of drinking water can contribute to improvements in water management and consumer satisfaction. The aim of this study was to assess the consumer perception of tap water quality and other drinking water sources in Gonabad as a small semiarid city. This study was performed in autumn and winter 2013. For collection data a researcher-made a questionnaire consisting of nine questions, based on demographic information prepared. Questions were asked for participants to provide information regarding household drinking water usage and patterns, opinion about tap water safety, taste and reasons for purchasing bottled water. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS version 16 was applied in this study. Results showed that demographic variables had a significant relationship with consumer satisfaction (p Consumer reasons for using domestic water softeners are: suitable taste (80%), easy availability (71%), economical (56%) and low health side effects (34%). According to these results it was clear that each consumer group, based on self-condition, prefers using a specific drinking water source.
Ramsey, Imogen; Corsini, Nadia; Peters, Micah D J; Eckert, Marion
This rapid review summarizes best available evidence on consumers' needs and preferences for information about healthcare, with a focus on the Australian context. Three questions are addressed: 1) Where do consumers find and what platform do they use to access information about healthcare? 2) How do consumers use the healthcare information that they find? 3) About which topics or subjects do consumers need healthcare information? A hierarchical approach was adopted with evidence first sought from reviews then high quality studies using Medline (via PubMed), CINAHL, Embase, the JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, the Campbell Collaboration Library of Systematic Reviews, EPPI-Centre, and Epistemonikos. Twenty-eight articles were included; four systematic reviews, three literature reviews, thirteen quantitative studies, six qualitative studies, and two mixed methods studies. Consumers seek health information at varying times along the healthcare journey and through various modes of delivery. Complacency with historical health information modes is no longer appropriate and flexibility is essential to suit growing consumer demands. Health information should be readily available in different formats and not exclusive to any single medium. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available There have been changes in the shopping behavior and preferences of consumers in the post-communist countries caused by political changes after 1989. Slovakia is not an exception, and it has been observed a change not only at the consumers’ level but also in retail stores. A notable bearer of such changes was the construction of big shopping centers that were a new phenomenon in shopping. They quickly became popular and changed spatial and shopping patterns of consumers. The main aim of this study is to analyze and evaluate the shopping preferences of consumers based on the example of the capital city – Bratislava (at the level of urban districts. The database consists of results of a questionnaire survey carried out in 2011. Respondents were interviewed inside the shopping center. The partial aims focus on the analysis of consumers’ perceptions, the frequency of their shopping and the mode of transport used for shopping. One of the goals of this study is also to evaluate the perception of consumers in terms of the catchment areas of the chosen shopping center, as well as the perceptional classification of retail in the given area and the accessibility of stores.
G. G. Rousseau
Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between nostalgia and consumer preference and to measure levels of nostalgia amongst multicultural groups. The study is based on past research in the field and uses a modified version of a questionnaire developed by Holbrook (1993. A non-probability convenience sample (N=555 was drawn from English, Afrikaans and Xhosa speaking consumers in the Eastern Cape. Fieldwork was carried out by students of industrial psychology at the University of Port Elizabeth. Results showed that mutually interdependent relationships exist between the measured constructs nostalgia and consumer nostalgic preference. Significant relationships further exist between the measured constructs and distinct biographical variables. These results support previous findings that nostalgic consumers represent an important market segment. Opsomming Die hoofdoel van hierdie studie was om n verband tussen nostalgic en verbruikersvoorkeure te ondersoek asook om nostalgievlakke onder multi-kulturele groepe te meet. Die studie is gegrond op vorige navorsing in die veld en gebruik 'n aangepaste weergawe vann vraelys wat deur Holbrook in 1993 ontwikkel is.n Nie-ewekansige genemkheidsteekproef(N=555 is getrek uit Engels, Afrikaans- en Xhosasprekende verbruikers in die Oos Kaap.Veldwerk is uitgevoer deur bedryfsielkunde studente van die Universiteit van Port Elizabeth. Resultate toon onderling interafhanklike verbande tussen die gemete konstrukte, nostalgic en verbruikers se nostalgie-voorkeure. Daar bestaan verder beduidende verbande tussen die gemete konstrukte en bepaalde biografiese veranderlikes. Hierdie resultate bevestig vroere bevindinge dat nostalgiese verbruikers n belangrike marksegment verteenwoordig.
Kelley, Kathleen M; Primrose, Rachel; Crassweller, Robert; Hayes, John E; Marini, Richard
Peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Stokes) are grown in several regions throughout the USA, are eaten fresh, and used as ingredients in value-added processed products. An Internet survey was conducted to investigate Mid-Atlantic consumers' fresh and processed peach purchasing behaviors, and whether packaging certain numbers of peaches together, providing information about nutritional content, and other factors would increase purchases. Additionally, laboratory-based sensory testing was used to better understand peel color, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor preferences for cultivars commonly grown in the Mid-Atlantic region. Irrespective of fresh peach consumption frequency, certain value-added products were of interest. For some products, interest in purchasing was higher than reported purchasing behavior. Preference for certain fresh peach characteristics, such as peel color, differed between less frequent fresh peach consumers and those who consumed fresh peaches more often. Of the four peach cultivars included in the sensory test, most were liked; however, there were some cultivar differences pertaining to color, texture, sweetness, tartness, and flavor liking. Potential marketing strategies can be developed based on frequency of fresh peach consumption and household demographics. Data can be used to select peaches that best appeal to consumers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Colson, Gregory; Rousu, Matthew C
Assessing consumer perceptions and willingness to pay for genetically modified (GM) foods has been one of the most active areas of empirical research in agricultural economics. Researchers over the past 15 years have delivered well over 100 estimates of consumers' willingness to pay for GM foods using surveys and experimental methods. In this review, we explore a number of unresolved issues related to three questions that are critical when considering the sum of the individual contributions that constitute the evidence on consumer preferences for GM foods.
Jimenez-Guerrero, J. F.; Gazquez-Abad, J. C.; Huertas-Garcia, R.; Mondejar-Jimenez, J. A.
Preference formation developed during the consumers evaluation of alternatives is one of the most important stages in models of consumer purchasing behaviour. This is especially true for the purchase of vegetables. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of extrinsic versus intrinsic attributes in the behaviour of consumer when purchasing cucumbers, considering four attributes; price, country of origin and production method (extrinsic), and freshness (intrinsic). Utilizing a sample of German tourists visiting the city of Almeria (Spain), conjoint analysis methodology is used. The results suggest that an intrinsic aspect (freshness) is the most important attribute for consumers. Therefore, marketers are advised to consider the importance of this attribute to the consumer and try to position the product in the destination markets on the basis of product freshness. (Author) 91 refs.
Dejene Mamo BEKANA
Full Text Available This study was proposed to explore the determinants of consumer preferences in Addis Ababa restaurants. Using consumer behavior literatures and theories it was hypothesized that disposable income, price, quality, hygiene practices, friendliness of restaurant staff, safety of food and range or menu variety are important determinants of consumer choice for restaurants. Primary data were generated from 265 customers of 55 restaurants randomly selected with the use of questionnaire of which 258 of the questionnaire ended usable. The non parametric hypothesis testing statistical tool, chi –square tests, and measures of variation were used for statistical analysis purposes. The anticipation of the researcher was that the hypothesis testing results would be significant in parallel with the hypothesized facts. The findings of the research suggest that income has insignificant impact up on quality price trade of among consumers of different income categories. Other hypothesis associated with price, quality, friendliness of restaurant staff, quick table service and range or menu varieties are found to be statistically significant. Over all, the research results suggest that restaurateurs should design marketing strategy that integrates the attributes used in this study to satisfy the needs and wants of their customers and differentiation of their products and services on the basis of the variables scored as they are significant considerations by consumers.
Spinks, Jean; Janda, Monika; Soyer, H Peter; Whitty, Jennifer A
'Store and forward' teledermoscopy is a technology with potential advantages for melanoma screening. Any large-scale implementation of this technology is dependent on consumer acceptance. To investigate preferences for melanoma screening options compared with skin self-examination in adults considered to be at increased risk of developing skin cancer. A discrete choice experiment was completed by 35 consumers, all of whom had prior experience with the use of teledermoscopy, in Queensland, Australia. Participants made 12 choices between screening alternatives described by seven attributes including monetary cost. A mixed logit model was used to estimate the relative weights that consumers place on different aspects of screening, along with the marginal willingness to pay for teledermoscopy as opposed to screening at a clinic. Overall, participants preferred screening/diagnosis by a health professional rather than skin self-examination. Key drivers of screening choice were for results to be reviewed by a dermatologist; a higher detection rate; fewer non-cancerous moles being removed in relation to every skin cancer detected; and less time spent away from usual activities. On average, participants were willing to pay AUD110 to have teledermoscopy with dermatologist review available to them as a screening option. Consumers preferentially value aspects of care that are more feasible with a teledermoscopy screening model, as compared with other skin cancer screening and diagnosis options. This study adds to previous literature in the area which has relied on the use of consumer satisfaction scales to assess the acceptability of teledermoscopy. © The Author(s) 2015.
In June 2016, Korea permitted direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) on 42 genes. However, both the market and industry have not yet been fully activated. Considering the aforementioned context, this study provides important insights. The Korean DTC-GT policy assessment is based on consumer preference analysis using a discrete choice experiment. In August 2016, a web-based survey was conducted to collect data from 1,200 respondents. The estimation results show that consumers prefer a DTC-GT product that is cheap, tests various items or genes, offers accurate test results, and guarantees the confidentiality of all information. However, consumers are not entirely satisfied by current DTC-GT products due to the existence of insufficient and/or inadequate policies. First, the permitted testing of 42 genes is insufficient to satisfy consumers' curiosity regarding their genes. Second, the accuracy of the DTC-GT products has not been fully verified, assessed, and communicated to consumers. Finally, regulatory loopholes that allow information leaks in the DTC-GT process can occur. These findings imply that DTC-GT requires an improvement in government policy-making criteria and the implementation of practical measures to guarantee test accuracy and genetic information. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Huang, Ming-Yi; Huston, Sally A; Perri, Matthew
The purpose of this study was to assess consumer preferences for predictive genetic testing for Alzheimer disease in the United States. A rating conjoint analysis was conducted using an anonymous online survey distributed by Qualtrics to a general population panel in April 2011 in the United States. The study design included three attributes: Accuracy (40%, 80%, and 100%), Treatment Availability (Cure is available/Drug for symptom relief but no cure), and Anonymity (Anonymous/Not anonymous). A total of 12 scenarios were used to elicit people's preference, assessed by an 11-point scale. The respondents also indicated their highest willingness-to-pay (WTP) for each scenario through open-ended questions. A total of 295 responses were collected over 4 days. The most important attribute for the aggregate model was Accuracy, contributing 64.73% to the preference rating. Treatment Availability and Anonymity contributed 20.72% and 14.59%, respectively, to the preference rating. The median WTP for the highest-rating scenario (Accuracy 100%, a cure is available, test result is anonymous) was $100 (mean = $276). The median WTP for the lowest-rating scenario (40% accuracy, no cure but drugs for symptom relief, not anonymous) was zero (mean = $34). The results of this study highlight attributes people find important when making the hypothetical decision to obtain an AD genetic test. These results should be of interests to policy makers, genetic test developers and health care providers.
Shiyanbola, Olayinka O.; Mort, Jane R.
Objective: To describe consumer understanding of pharmacy quality measures and consumer preferences for pharmacy quality information. Methods: Semi-structured focus group design was combined with survey methods. Adults who filled prescription medications for self-reported chronic illnesses at community pharmacies discussed their understanding of Pharmacy Quality Alliance approved quality measures. Questions examined preference of pharmacy quality information rating systems (e.g. stars versus percentages) and desired data display/formats. During the focus group, participants completed a survey examining their understanding of each pharmacy quality measure. All focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics. Results: Thirty-four individuals participated (mean age= 62.85; SD=16.05). Participants were unfamiliar with quality measures information and their level of understanding differed for each quality measure. Surveys indicated 94.1% understood “Drug-Drug Interactions” and “Helping Patients Get Needed Medications” better than other measures (e.g., 76.5% understood “Suboptimal Treatment of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes”). Qualitative analysis indicated participants preferred an overall pharmacy rating for quick access and use. However, participants also wanted quality measures information displayed by health conditions. Participants favored comparison of their pharmacy to city data instead of state data. Most participants liked star ratings better than percentages, letter grades, or numerical ratings. Conclusions: Individuals who have a chronic illness and regularly use community pharmacies are interested in pharmacy quality measures. However, specific quality measures were not understood by some participants. Participants had specific preferences for the display of pharmacy quality information which will be helpful in the design of appropriate quality report systems. PMID
Full Text Available Objective: To describe consumer understanding of pharmacy quality measures and consumer preferences for pharmacy quality information. Methods: Semi-structured focus group design was combined with survey methods. Adults who filled prescription medications for self-reported chronic illnesses at community pharmacies discussed their understanding of Pharmacy Quality Alliance approved quality measures. Questions examined preference of pharmacy quality information rating systems (e.g. stars versus percentages and desired data display/formats. During the focus group, participants completed a survey examining their understanding of each pharmacy quality measure. All focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics. Results: Thirty-four individuals participated (mean age= 62.85; SD=16.05. Participants were unfamiliar with quality measures information and their level of understanding differed for each quality measure. Surveys indicated 94.1% understood “Drug-Drug Interactions” and “Helping Patients Get Needed Medications” better than other measures (e.g., 76.5% understood “Suboptimal Treatment of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes”. Qualitative analysis indicated participants preferred an overall pharmacy rating for quick access and use. However, participants also wanted quality measures information displayed by health conditions. Participants favored comparison of their pharmacy to city data instead of state data. Most participants liked star ratings better than percentages, letter grades, or numerical ratings. Conclusions: Individuals who have a chronic illness and regularly use community pharmacies are interested in pharmacy quality measures. However, specific quality measures were not understood by some participants. Participants had specific preferences for the display of pharmacy quality information which will be helpful in the design of appropriate quality
Full Text Available In recent years, the rapidly growing industry of leisure has displayed some signs of overcrowding on account of the diminished capacities of turning employed resources into profit and the lowered personnel productivity in Romania. Economic agents striving to succeed in this rapidly evolving economic sector should reconsider their position and plan a strategy to grow or reinforce their business. The present paper provides a starting point in outlying the local recreation market specificity by investigating consumer preferences and drivers of choice. Results show that although there is an active demand for commercial recreational activities, its quantum is rather low. Moreover, the study shows that service-related factors (such as quality, personnel qualification, price and novelty appear to have the highest importance for consumers, that positive word of mouth is a rather strong influencer, while advertising and location-related factors rank lowest on the list of priorities when choosing a recreation provider.
Khanfar, Nile; Loudon, David; Sircar-Ramsewak, Feroza
The effect of direct-to-consumer (DTC) television advertising of prescription medications is a growing concern of the United States (U.S.) Congress, state legislatures, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This research study was conducted in order to examine consumers' perceived preferences of DTC television advertisement in relation to "reminder" "help-seeking," and "product-claim" FDA-approved advertisement categories. An additional objective was to examine the influence of DTC television advertising of prescription drugs on consumers' tendency to seek more information about the medication and/or the medical condition. The research indicates that DTC television drug ads appear to be insufficient for consumers to make informed decisions. Their mixed perception and acceptance of the advertisements seem to influence them to seek more information from a variety of medical sources.
van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans; Paeps, Frederic; Fernández-Celemín, Laura
In light of the emerging obesity pandemic, front-of-pack calories labels may be an important tool to assist consumers in making informed healthier food choices. However, there is little prior research to guide key decisions on whether caloric content should be expressed in absolute terms or relative to recommended daily intake, whether it should be expressed in per serving or per 100 g and whether the information should be further brought alive for consumers in terms of what the extra calorie intake implies in relation to activity levels. The present study aimed at providing more insight into consumers' appreciation of front-of-pack labelling of caloric content of food products and their specific preferences for alternative execution formats for such information in Europe. For this purpose, eight executions of front-of-pack calorie flags were designed and their appeal and information value were extensively discussed with consumers through qualitative research in four different countries (Germany, The Netherlands, France and the UK). The results show that calories are well-understood and that participants were generally positive about front-of-pack flags, particularly when flags are uniform across products. The most liked flags are the simpler flags depicting only the number of calories per serving or per 100 g, while more complex flags including references to daily needs or exercise and the flag including a phrase referring to balanced lifestyle were least preferred. Some relevant differences between countries were observed. Although participants seem to be familiar with the notion of calories, they do not seem to fully understand how to apply them. From the results, managerial implications for the design and implementation of front-of-pack calorie labelling as well as important directions for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available Consumer attitudes toward consuming and buying locally produced food are well studied. By contrast, the topic of consumer preferences for local food, with a special emphasis on the role of norms, still lacks empirical evidence. To study the influence of norms and morals on the intention to buy local food products, a quantitative study (N = 327 focusing on external social and internalized moral norms was conducted using the constructs of the theory of planned behavior in combination with an extended norm taxonomy and the perceived consumer effectiveness measure. The norm constructs consisted of two different personal norms, integrated and introjected, and two social norms, descriptive and injunctive. In a factor analysis, two factors for social norms but only one for personal norms were obtained. Multiple regressions explained 50 percent of the variance in intentions and 29 percent of the variance in past behavior. Norm constructs were proven important in the model, as personal norms had the largest effect among all constructs on intentions, and descriptive norms strongly influenced past behavior. An additional mediation analysis showed that personal norms were internalized social injunctive norms and that intentions mediated the relationship between all constructs. The implications of the findings and recommendations for future research are given accordingly.
Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Mora, Marcos; Lobos, Germán
Blueberry plantations in Chile are oriented exclusively towards exports to northern hemisphere countries; however, this fruit has recently been introduced into the domestic market due to the increased supply and a fall in export market prices. Based on the previously mentioned, the objectives of the present study were to evaluate consumer preferences for 3 species of berries (blueberries, strawberries, and raspberries), sold loose (unpackaged) as opposed to packaged and branded, at different prices, in one of the principal blueberry producing areas of Chile; and to distinguish consumer segments by their preferences. To do this a survey was applied to 400 people in the Araucanía Region of southern Chile, who were responsible for purchasing fruit for their households. Conjoint analysis showed a preference for raspberries and strawberries over blueberries, packaged and branded, at the lowest price. Total of 2 principal segments were distinguished by cluster analysis: "price sensitive" (42.7%), who preferred strawberries, and "sensitive to species of berry" (47.5%), who preferred raspberries and strawberries. The segments presented different profiles in their demographic make-up and fruit consumption behavior. Strategies are discussed that might reverse the low acceptance of blueberries in the Chilean domestic market. This study presents information on the introduction of new fresh foods into the market. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans; Paeps, Frederic; Fernández-Celemín, Laura
Objective In light of the emerging obesity pandemic, front-of-pack calories labels may be an important tool to assist consumers in making informed healthier food choices. However, there is little prior research to guide key decisions on whether caloric content should be expressed in absolute terms or relative to recommended daily intake, whether it should be expressed in per serving or per 100 g and whether the information should be further brought alive for consumers in terms of what the extra calorie intake implies in relation to activity levels. The present study aimed at providing more insight into consumers’ appreciation of front-of-pack labelling of caloric content of food products and their specific preferences for alternative execution formats for such information in Europe. Design For this purpose, eight executions of front-of-pack calorie flags were designed and their appeal and information value were extensively discussed with consumers through qualitative research in four different countries (Germany, The Netherlands, France and the UK). Results The results show that calories are well-understood and that participants were generally positive about front-of-pack flags, particularly when flags are uniform across products. The most liked flags are the simpler flags depicting only the number of calories per serving or per 100 g, while more complex flags including references to daily needs or exercise and the flag including a phrase referring to balanced lifestyle were least preferred. Some relevant differences between countries were observed. Although participants seem to be familiar with the notion of calories, they do not seem to fully understand how to apply them. Conclusion From the results, managerial implications for the design and implementation of front-of-pack calorie labelling as well as important directions for future research are discussed. PMID:17601362
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to highlight the use of multiple criteria evaluation methods as a tool for the rating and selection of retail chains from the customers and suppliers perspective. We provide an assessment on the attractiveness of active retail chains on the Slovak market through multiple criteria methods used for the analysis of customer preferences. An analysis was conducted on a sample of consumers in Bratislava involving 11 389 respondents interviewed. The multi-attribute decision-making methods PROMETHEE II and V were used to assess the variants. In the first part of analysis the collected data uncover customers’ preferences in the selection of retail chains. Findings suggest a ranking of evaluated retail chains and thus of customer preferences. Based on the obtained evaluation, in the second part of analysis, a set of retail chains was chosen under constraints concerning the effectiveness of advertising, market share of sales and the maximum number of chosen retail chains and a binary linear programming model was formulated as an outcome. Proposed procedure aims to assist the decision maker in selecting which retail chain to choose for distribution of supplier’s products, and thus maximize benefits, which will result from consumer preferences and service satisfaction level in retail chain.
Bothos, John M. A.; Thanos, Konstantinos-Georgios; Papadopoulou, Eirini; Daveas, Stelios; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.
Agent-based crowd behaviour consists a significant field of research that has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. Agent-based crowd simulation techniques have been used excessively to forecast the behaviour of larger or smaller crowds in terms of certain given conditions influenced by specific cognition models and behavioural rules and norms, imposed from the beginning. Our research employs conditional event algebra, statistical methodology and agent-based crowd simulation techniques in developing a behavioural econometric model about the selection of certain economic behaviour by a consumer that faces a spectre of potential choices when moving and acting in a multiplex mall. More specifically we try to analyse the influence of demographic, economic, social and cultural factors on the economic behaviour of a certain individual and then we try to link its behaviour with the general behaviour of the crowds of consumers in multiplex malls using agent-based crowd simulation techniques. We then run our model using Generalized Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood methods to come up with the most probable forecast estimations, regarding the agent's behaviour. Our model is indicative about the formation of consumers' spectre of choices in multiplex malls under the condition of predefined preferences and can be used as a guide for further research in this area.
Xu, Shuai; Kwa, Michael; Agarwal, Ashwin; Rademaker, Alfred; Kundu, Roopal V
Sunscreen use is a modifiable behavior that can help reduce the risk for skin cancer, prevent sunburns, mitigate photoaging, and treat photosensitive dermatoses. A better understanding of consumer sunscreen preferences would inform dermatologists in their own recommendations. To determine the characteristics and the most commonly cited positive and negative features of highly rated sunscreens described by consumers. The top 1 percentile of sunscreen products on Amazon.com as of December 2015 was selected according to average consumer review (≥4 stars) and the highest number of consumer reviews. Descriptive data for each product were collected from the product page and manufacturer claims. The top 5 "most helpful" reviews (positive and critical) were analyzed and coded by a consensus qualitative coding scheme, which included positive and negative descriptors in 6 major categories according to consumer comments: affordability, cosmetic elegance, separate ratings, product ingredients, product performance, and skin compatibility. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to determine whether characteristics of each product (eg, American Academy of Dermatology [AAD] criteria, sun protection factor [SPF], or vehicle) could be used to predict price per ounce. The number (percentage) of comments categorized by major themes and subthemes was determined. Illustrative consumer comments were also collected. There were 6500 products categorized as sunscreens in the Amazon.com, online catalog. Of the 65 products evaluated, the median price per ounce was $3.32 (range, $0.68-$23.47). Of products, 40% (26 of 65) did not adhere to AAD guidelines (broad spectrum, SPF ≥30, and water resistant) for sunscreens. Vehicles, AAD, and sunscreen type predicted a higher price per ounce. Cosmetic elegance was the most cited positive feature (198 of 325 [61%] comments) followed by product performance (146 of 325 [45%] comments) and skin type compatibility (78 of 325 [24%] comments). In this
Chahal, Hardeep; Devi, Pinkey
Purpose: This paper aims to explore consumer attitude towards service failure and recovery in the higher education in general and with respect to teaching, examination, library, computer lab, administration and infrastructure in particular. Design/Methodology/Approach: The data are collected from 120 students of three undergraduate colleges of…
Hall, Nina L.; Jeanneret, Talia D.; Rai, Alan
In Australia, residential electricity peak demand has risen steeply in recent decades, leading to higher prices as new infrastructure was needed to satisfy demand. One way of limiting further infrastructure-induced retail price rises is via ‘cost-reflective’ electricity network pricing that incentivises users to shift their demand to non-peak periods. Empowering consumers with knowledge of their energy usage is critical to maximise the potential benefits of cost-reflective pricing. This research consulted residential electricity consumers in three Australian states on their perceptions and acceptance of two cost-reflective pricing scenarios (Time-of-Use and Peak Capacity pricing) and associated technologies to support such pricing (smart meters, in-home displays and direct load control devices). An energy economist presented information to focus groups on the merits and limitations of each scenario, and participants’ views were captured. Almost half of the 53 participants were agreeable to Time-of-Use pricing, but did not have a clear preference for Peak Capacity pricing, where the price was based on the daily maximum demand. Participants recommended further information to both understand and justify the potential benefits, and for technologies to be introduced to enhance the pricing options. The results have implications for utilities and providers who seek to reduce peak demand. - Highlights: •Electricity price rises can be limited by ‘cost-reflective’ pricing. •We consulted residential electricity consumers on Time-of-Use and Peak Capacity pricing. •Understanding of peak electricity demand must increase to enable demand shift. •Interactive website could enable consumers to evaluate pricing options. •Smart meter adoption may increase if voluntary and includes an in-home display.
Full Text Available Suburbs in Indonesia are not only characterized by the presence of residential areas, but also trading activities. These activities exist in order to support the needs of residents for goods and/or services. The complicated process that involves pull and push factors causes the suburbs to be well-known as economically potential areas, especially for micro, small, medium and large enterprises. One example of the trading subsectors is restaurants, both micro enterprises with traditional management and franchises patterns with professional management. Most of these restaurants provide barbequed menus which consume shell coconut charcoal. Then the question arises, is the quality of those commodity is the only reason for the restaurants in using it? This paper presents the elaboration of the research on consumer preferences in a suburban area of the consumption of coconut shell charcoal. By using the Fishbein Model, it is concluded that the aspect of belief and price attribute are in the first rank, which shows that those commodity is an expensive fuel, while the second rank is quality. The rest are models and after-sales service, respectively. From the aspect of evaluation, the respondents believe that quality is in the first rank that should be improved in the future. The second is price and the rest are after-sales service, packaging and models, respectively.
Full Text Available Suburbs in Indonesia are not only characterized by the presence of residential areas, but also trading activities. These activities exist in order to support the needs of residents for goods and/or services. The complicated process that involves pull and push factors causes the su-burbs to be well-known as economically potential areas, especially for micro, small, medium and large enterprises. One example of the trading subsectors is restaurants, both micro enterprises with traditional management and franchises patterns with professional management. Most of these restaurants provide barbequed menus which consume shell coconut charcoal. Then the question arises, is the quality of those commodity is the only reason for the restaurants in using it? This paper presents the elaboration of the research on consumer preferences in a suburban area of the consumption of coconut shell charcoal. By using the Fishbein Model, it is concluded that the aspect of belief and price attribute are in the first rank, which shows that those commodity is an expensive fuel, while the second rank is quality. The rest are models and after-sales service, respectively. From the aspect of evaluation, the respondents believe that quality is in the first rank that should be improved in the future. The second is price and the rest are after-sales service, packaging and models, respectively.
Full Text Available Giovanni Pisa,1 Florian Eichmann,1 Stephan Hupfer21Kantar Health GmbH, Munich, Germany; 2Novartis Pharma GmbH, Nuernberg, GermanyAim: The course of heart failure (HF is characterized by frequent hospitalizations, a high mortality rate, as well as a severely impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL. To optimize disease management, understanding of patient preferences is crucial. We aimed to assess patient preferences using conjoint methodology and HRQoL in patients with HF.Methods: Two modules were applied: an initial qualitative module, consisting of in-depth interviews with 12 HF patients, and the main quantitative module in 300 HF patients from across Germany. Patients were stratified according to the time of their last HF hospitalization. Each patient was presented with ten different scenarios during the conjoint exercise. Additionally, patients completed the generic HRQoL instrument, EuroQol health questionnaire (EQ-5D™.Results: The attribute with the highest relative importance was dyspnea (44%, followed by physical capacity (18%. Of similar importance were exhaustion during mental activities (13%, fear due to HF (13%, and autonomy (12%. The most affected HRQoL dimensions according to the EQ-5D questionnaire were anxiety/depression (23% with severe problems, pain/discomfort (19%, and usual activities (15%. Overall average EQ-5D score was 0.39 with stable, chronic patients (never hospitalized having a significantly better health state vs the rest of the cohort.Conclusion: This paper analyzed patient preference in HF using a conjoint methodology. The preference weights resulting from the conjoint analysis could be used in future to design HRQoL questionnaires which could better assess patient preferences in HF care.Keywords: heart failure, quality of life, conjoint analysis, utility, patient preference
selected and interviewed to identify factors that affect preference for fresh beef and to determine the nature of the ... preference are appreciated by the food ... composition and household income .... habit and flavor, made them to prefer fresh.
Fortomaris, P; Arsenos, G; Georgiadis, M; Banos, G; Stamataris, C; Zygoyiannis, D
The effect of meat appearance on consumers' preferences for pork chops was assessed using images manipulated for appearance characteristics. Data were collected from 412 consumers in Greece and Cyprus. Consumers were asked for their preference for pork chops from a book of computer-modified images and then completed a questionnaire of socio-demographic information, including eating and purchasing behaviour. Consumers under the age of 35 years showed preferences for dark red, lean pork, while consumers aged 35 years and older preferred either dark or light red pork. Gender appeared to be an important selection factor as men showed an increased preference for dark red pork while women preferred the light red. Consumers who stated that they like pork for its taste (91%) preferred either dark or light red pork chops while those who like pork for reasons other than taste preferred dark red, lean pork. Urban consumers preferred light red, fatty pork chops while the rural consumers preferred the dark red pork chops.
Tamari, Yuki; Takemura, Kazuhisa
This paper examines consumers' preferences for competing brands by using a preference model of verbal protocols. Participants were 150 university students, who reported their opinions and feelings about McDonalds and Mos Burger (competing hamburger restaurants in Japan). Their verbal protocols were analyzed by using the singular value decomposition method, and the latent decision frames were estimated. The verbal protocols having a large value in the decision frames could be interpreted as showing attributes that consumers emphasize. Based on the estimated decision frames, we predicted consumers' preferences using the logistic regression analysis method. The results indicate that the decision frames projected from the verbal protocol data explained consumers' preferences effectively.
Mozumder, Pallab; Vásquez, William F.; Marathe, Achla
The southwestern part of the US has abundant supply of renewable energy resources but little is known about the consumers' preferences for renewable energy in this region. This paper investigates households' willingness to pay for a renewable energy program in a southwestern state, New Mexico (NM). Using the contingent valuation method, we provide different scenarios that include provision of 10% and 20% of renewable energy supply, to elicit households' willingness to pay (WTP) for the renewable energy. We estimate the WTP for specific shares of renewable energy in the total energy mix as it is a key factor in affecting the price of the energy portfolio in the market. The survey design also allows us to check the scope sensitivity of renewable energy which can help guide the future renewable energy policy. We hope results from this study will offer useful insights to energy regulators and utility companies and help them increase the share of renewable energy supply. - Highlights: ► We estimate willingness to pay (WTP) for renewable energy in the southwestern US. ► Households' WTP in New Mexico is estimated using the contingent valuation method. ► WTP is estimated for 10% - 20% shares of renewable energy in the total energy mix. ► WTP estimates indicate scope sensitivity for a larger share of renewable energy.
Ngapo, T M; Fortin, J; Martin, J-F
Québec consumers and pig farmers selected their preferred chop from 16 images that had been modified to give 16 treatments: two levels each of fat cover, colour, marbling and drip. The selection process was repeated eight times from different groups of chops. Fat cover (47% preferred lean) and colour (44%, light red) were the most frequently chosen characteristics. No significant differences were observed between farmers and consumers preferences (chi(2) test, Ppreference-based clusters were found; 41% preferring dark red, lean meat and 59%, light red, lean meat, without marbling or drip. Choice-based clusters showed no significant links with either individual socio-demographic items, including pig farmer as occupation, or the three socio-demographic-based clusters observed (chi(2) test, Pconsumers and, therefore, inclusion of pig farmers in consumer panels would not bias consumer choice for pork. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Causse, Mathilde; Friguet, Chloé; Coiret, Clément; Lépicier, Mélanie; Navez, Brigitte; Lee, Monica; Holthuysen, Nancy; Sinesio, Fiorella; Moneta, Elisabetta; Grandillo, Silvana
Although tomato flavor has not been a major goal for breeders, nowadays it becomes important as it is a subject of consumer complaint. A better knowledge of tomato consumer preferences, at the European level, should provide the basis for improvement of fruit quality and for market segmentation. In the framework of a large European project, 806 consumers from 3 countries, The Netherlands, France, and Italy, were presented with a set of 16 varieties representing the diversity of fresh tomato offer in order to evaluate their preferences. In parallel, sensory profiles were constructed by expert panels in each country. Preference maps were then constructed in each country revealing the structure of consumer preferences and allowing identification of the most important characteristics. Then a global analysis revealed that preferences were quite homogeneous across countries. This study identified the overall flavor and firmness as the most important traits for improving tomato fruit quality. It showed that consumer preferences from different European countries, with different cultures and food practices, are segmented following similar patterns when projected onto a common referential plan. Moreover, the results clearly showed that diversification of taste and texture is required to satisfy all consumers' expectations as some consumers preferred firm tomatoes, while others preferred melting ones and were more or less demanding in terms of sweetness and flavor intensity. Detailed comparisons also showed the importance of the fruit appearance in consumer preference. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®
Leksrisompong, P P; Lopetcharat, K; Guthrie, B; Drake, M A
The drivers of liking of lemon-lime carbonated beverages were investigated with regular and diet beverage consumers. Ten beverages were selected from a category survey of commercial beverages using a D-optimal procedure. Beverages were subjected to consumer testing (n = 101 regular beverage consumers, n = 100 diet beverage consumers). Segmentation of consumers was performed on overall liking scores followed by external preference mapping of selected samples. Diet beverage consumers liked 2 diet beverages more than regular beverage consumers. There were no differences in the overall liking scores between diet and regular beverage consumers for other products except for a sparkling beverage sweetened with juice which was more liked by regular beverage consumers. Three subtle but distinct consumer preference clusters were identified. Two segments had evenly distributed diet and regular beverage consumers but one segment had a greater percentage of regular beverage consumers (P beverage consumers) did not have a large impact on carbonated beverage liking. Instead, mouthfeel attributes were major drivers of liking when these beverages were tested in a blind tasting. Preference mapping of lemon-lime carbonated beverage with diet and regular beverage consumers allowed the determination of drivers of liking of both populations. The understanding of how mouthfeel attributes, aromatics, and basic tastes impact liking or disliking of products was achieved. Preference drivers established in this study provide product developers of carbonated lemon-lime beverages with additional information to develop beverages that may be suitable for different groups of consumers. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®
While consumption of mandarins has grown steadily in the United States, mandarin cultivars being produced and consumed have been changing. The goal of this research is to identify factors that impact consumer choice of mandarins. In this analysis, consumers were presented with multiple mandarins for...
Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing which kinds of currently labelled information are of interest and actually used by consumers, and which additional kinds could improve consumer choices. We investigate the attitude of consumers with respect to innovative strategies for the diffusion of product information, as smart-labels for mobile-phones. The empirical analysis was organised in focus groups followed by a survey on 240 consumers. Results show that the most important nutritional claims are vitamins, energy and fat content. Consumers show a high interest in the origin of the products, GMOs, environmental impact, animal welfare and type of breeding.
Faisal Afzal Siddiqui
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to conjoint analysis as a research tool, and to indicate its value for analyzing consumer preference based on the value that the consumers attach to the attributes of the goods that they intend to purchase. The study involves the use of the tool of conjoint Analysis to evaluate consumer preference vis.a.vis Brand, Price Level, FM Radio, and Camera. The results of the study indicate that the most important attribute behind consumer preference for mobile phones was Brand, followed by Price, then Camera, and finally FM Radio.
N. GEEROMS; I. VERMEIR; P. VAN KENHOVE; H. HENDRICKX
This paper presents a circumplex taxonomy of related consumer motives based on valence ratings of 34 preferred brand personality traits. Results of INDSCAL analysis reveal a consistent, replicable preferred brand personality structure across 11 different countries and four different product categories. As preferred brand personality dimensions are considered as behavioral expressions of underlying motives, the found structure was reformulated in terms of a taxonomy of eight fundamental consum...
Kim, Mina K; Greve, Patrick; Lee, Youngseung
Understanding consumer hedonic responses on food products are of greatest interests in global food industry. A global partial least square regression (GPLSR) had been well accepted method for understanding consumer preferences. Recently, individual partial least square regression (IPLSR) was accepted as an alternative method of predicting consumer preferences on given food product, because it utilizes the individual differences on product acceptability. To improve the understanding of what constitutes bar-type snack preference, the relationship between sensory attributes and consumer overall liking for 12 bar-type snacks was determined. Sensory attributes that drive consumer product likings were analyzed using averaged-consumer data by GPLSR. To facilitate the interpretation of individual consumer liking, a dummy matrix for the significant weighted regression coefficients of each consumer derived from IPLSR was created. From the application of GPLSR and IPLSR, current study revealed that chocolate and cereal-flavored bars were preferred over fruit-flavored bars. Attributes connected to chocolate flavor positively influenced consumer overall likings on the global and individual consumer levels. Textural attributes affected liking only on the individual level. To fully capture the importance of sensory attributes on consumer preference, the use of GPLSR in conjunction with IPLSR is recommended. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
Gedikoglu, Haluk; Parcell, Joe L.
Increasing concerns about a healthy diet, food safety and support for the local economy provide new opportunities for farmers to increase their farm income by selling their farm products locally. The major challenge for the farmers is to predict consumer preferences correctly and provide goods to the market accordingly. By analyzing a consumer survey conducted in the Midwest region of the US, the current study analyzes the consumer preferences for domestic and imported artisan cheese. The res...
Pharmaceutical market researches in terms of consumer behavior are topical in current social-economical conditions. Thereby the goal of these researches is studying of particular properties of consumer behavior on the drug market and identifying of factors affect on its formation. The method of questioning was used. The questionnaire has been completed from the point of view of possibilities and interests of common consumer. One part of questions was concerned to demographical and personal characteristics of customers. For the analysis of consumer behavior have been used parameters such as frequency of visits to definite pharmacy, attraction of pharmacy, types of purchases. The survey had been determined the basic factors of pharmacy visitors' consumer behavior. According to the consumers opinion the main criteria of choice of pharmacy were professional knowledge and experience of pharmacy's workers. Some of economical factors, such as affordability and etc. have been analyzed.
Powell, Douglas A
Many studies have attempted to gauge consumers' acceptance of genetically engineered or modified (GM) foods. Surveys, asking people about attitudes and intentions, are easy-to-collect proxies of consumer behavior. However, participants tend to respond as citizens of society, not discrete individuals, thereby inaccurately portraying their potential behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior improved the accuracy of self-reported information, but its limited capacity to account for intention variance has been attributed to the hypothetical scenarios to which survey participants must respond. Valuation methods, asking how much consumers may be willing to pay or accept for GM foods, have revealed that consumers are usually willing to accept them at some price, or in some cases willing to pay a premium. Ultimately, it's consumers' actual--not intended--behavior that is of most interest to policy makers and business decision-makers. Real choice experiments offer the best avenue for revealing consumers' food choices in normal life.
Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.
More rice is eaten nowadays in traditionally nonrice-eating countries. This study investigated consumer eating quality preferences among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic implications. A quantitative study with 1,128 consumers of target nationalities
Matthew Bumgardner; David Nicholls; Geoffrey Donovan
Changing consumer tastes and species availability are influencing the design and manufacture of hardwood products. In addition, the globalization of wood product markets is exposing U.S. consumers to new species. This research evaluates consumer preferences for six domestic wood species--three from the eastern United States and three from the western United States. The...
Bakke, Alyssa J; Shehan, Catherine V; Hayes, John E
Fat is an important source of both pleasure and calories in the diet. Dairy products are a major source of fat in the diet, and understanding preferences for fat in fluid milk can potentially inform efforts to change fat consumption patterns or optimize consumer products. Here, patterns of preference for fat in milk were determined in the laboratory among 100 free living adults using rejection thresholds. Participants also answered questions relating to their health concerns, the type of fluid milk typically consumed, and their declared preference for type of milk (in terms of fat level). When revealed preferences in blind tasting were stratified by these measures, we observed striking differences in the preferred level of fat in milk. These data indicate a non-trivial number of consumers who prefer low-fat milk to full fat milk, a pattern that would have been overshadowed by the use of a group mean. While it is widely assumed and claimed that increasing fat content in fluid milk universally increases palatability, present data demonstrate this is not true for a segment of the population. These results underscore the need to go look beyond group means to understand individual differences in food preference.
Romo-Muñoz, Rodrigo Alejandro; Cabas-Monje, Juan Hernán; Garrido-Henrríquez, Héctor Manuel; Gil, José María
In relatively unknown products, consumers use prices as a quality reference. Under such circumstances, the utility function can be non-negative for a specific price range and generate an inverted U-shaped function. The extra virgin olive oil market in Chile is a good example. Although domestic production and consumption have increased significantly in the last few years, consumer knowledge of this product is still limited. The objective of this study was to analyze Chilean consumer preferences and willingness to pay for extra virgin olive oil attributes. Consumers were segmented taking into account purchasing frequency. A Random Parameter Logit model was estimated for preference heterogeneity. Results indicate that the utility function is nonlinear allowing us to differentiate between two regimes. In the first regime, olive oil behaves as a conspicuous good, that is, higher utility is assigned to higher prices and consumers prefer foreign products in smaller containers. Under the second regime, Chilean olive oil in larger containers is preferred.
Mesías, Francisco J; Martínez-Carrasco, Federico; Martínez, José M; Gaspar, Paula
In the current context of growing consumer demand for foodstuffs that are healthy and safe and that are obtained in a manner respectful to the welfare of animals, the analysis of consumer preferences towards attributes of this type takes on particular importance. These trends are especially clear in the case of the consumption of eggs because of their strong negative association with cholesterol levels and their extremely intensive systems of production. The introduction of variants that are more in harmony with current consumer demands represents an interesting market alternative. The present study was aimed at investigating the preferences of Spanish consumers for these alternative types of egg that are entering the market. The survey was conducted with 361 consumers from October 2007 to March 2008. The conjoint analysis allowed us to estimate the relative importance of the main attributes that affect consumer preferences for eggs and to distinguish segments of consumers with similar preference profiles. It was found that price is the most important attribute determining consumer preferences, followed by the hens' feed and their rearing conditions. It was also found that only some groups of consumers are willing to pay the premium necessary for alternative methods of production. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.
Jun 1, 2018 ... Whereas one consumer may derive much utility from a particular brand of .... companies adopt a value model and provide higher quality for less money. ..... wrappers, the difference in consumers‟ rating is slight or marginal; ...
Umberger, Wendy J.; Scott, Emily M.; Stringer, Randy
Results from a 2007 Australian consumer survey conducted at a large farmers market are used to explore the hypothesis that consumers who are more concerned about certain types of food labeling information, particularly information related to food production attributes, are more likely to support policies which help develop farmers markets and support mandatory labeling policies. Product information and attributes such as Country-of-Origin, No Growth Hormones Used, Free Range and Animals Treat...
Colonna, A; Durham, C; Meunier-Goddik, L
Eight hundred ninety consumers at a local food festival were surveyed about their specialty cheese purchasing behavior and asked to taste and rate, through nonforced choice preference, 1 of 4 cheese pairs (Cheddar and Gouda) made from pasteurized and raw milks. The purpose of the survey was to examine consumers' responses to information on the safety of raw milk cheeses. The associated consumer test provided information about specialty cheese consumers' preferences and purchasing behavior. Half of the consumers tested were provided with cheese pairs that were identified as being made from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk. The other half evaluated samples that were identified only with random 3-digit codes. Overall, more consumers preferred the raw milk cheeses than the pasteurized milk cheeses. A larger portion of consumers indicated preferences for the raw milk cheese when the cheeses were labeled and thus they knew which samples were made from raw milk. Most of the consumers tested considered the raw milk cheeses to be less safe or did not know if raw milk cheeses were less safe. After being informed that the raw milk cheeses were produced by a process approved by the FDA (i.e., 60-d ripening), most consumers with concerns stated that they believed raw milk cheeses to be safe. When marketing cheese made from raw milk, producers should inform consumers that raw milk cheese is produced by an FDA-approved process. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Foster, Michele M; Earl, Peter E; Haines, Terry P; Mitchell, Geoffrey K
Accounting for consumer preference in health policy and delivery system design makes good economic sense since this is linked to outcomes, quality of care and cost control. Probability trade-off methods are commonly used in policy evaluation, marketing and economics. Increasingly applied to health matters, the trade-off preference model has indicated that consumers of health care discriminate between different attributes of care. However, the complexities of the health decision-making environment raise questions about the inherent assumptions concerning choice and decision-making behavior which frame this view of consumer preference. In this article, we use the example of primary care in Australia as a vehicle to examine the concept of 'consumer preference' from different perspectives within economics and discuss the significance of how we model preferences for health policy makers. In doing so, we question whether mainstream thinking, namely that consumers are capable of deliberating between rival strategies and are willing to make trade-offs, is a reliable way of thinking about preferences given the complexities of the health decision-making environment. Alternative perspectives on preference can assist health policy makers and health providers by generating more precise information about the important attributes of care that are likely to enhance consumer engagement and optimise acceptability of health care. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sahubawa, L.; Pertiwiningrum, A.; Rahmadian, Y.
The research objectives were to design, assess the economic value and consumer preference level of stingray leather products. The research method included a product design, analysis of economic value and consumer preferences. Mondol stingray (Himantura gerardi) leather, with a length of 50 cm and width of 30 cm, were processed into ID card wallet, man and women’s wallet and key holder. The number of respondents involved to analyze the preference level is 75 respondents (students, lecturers and employees of Universitas Gadjah Mada). Indicators of consumer preferences were model, color, price and purchasing power. The price of ID card wallet is Rp. 450,000; women wallet is Rp. 650,000 and a key holder is Rp. 300,000. Consumer preferences on ID card wallet were as follow: 84 % stated very interesting model; 83 % stated very interesting color; 61 % stated cheap and 53 % had enough. Consumer preferences of women’s wallet were as follow: 81 % stated very interesting model; 84 % stated very interesting color; 56 % stated cheap and 57 % had enough. Consumer preferences on key holder were as follow: 49 % stated interesting model; 72 % stated very interesting color; 61 % stated cheap and 57 % had enough.
Baumann, Leslie; Duque, Deysi K; Schirripa, Michael J
Vitamin C is commonly used to treat aged skin. It has shown regenerative effects on skin wrinkles, texture, strength, and evenness of tone through its roles as an antioxidant, tyrosinase inhibitor, and inducer of collagen synthesis. Available vitamin C formulations on the anti-aging skin care market vary by their pH, packaging, and vehicle, which may decrease absorption, and therefore, the efficacy of the product. The purpose of this study was to assess the subjective efficacy, wearability, tolerance and overall preference of two professional vitamin C topical serums and sunscreens in Caucasian females using a split face method. A virtual split-face study of 39 Caucasian women compared two popular vitamin C and SPF product combinations - C-ESTA® Face Serum and Marini Physical Protectant SPF 45 (Jan Marini Skin, San Jose, CA; Products A) and CE Ferulic® and Physical Fusion UV Defense SPF 50 (Products B; SkinCeuticals Inc, Garland, TX). The products were assigned to each subject's left or right side of the face, and subjects rated and compared products through 5 online surveys at baseline, 24 hours, days 3, 7, and 14. Over 86% of the 35 subjects who completed the study preferred the smell and 83% preferred the feel and application of vitamin C Serum A over Serum B. Seventy-one percent of subjects preferred the feel and application of Sunscreen A over Sunscreen B. Results also showed a significant skin texture improvement and skin tone with Products A vs Product B. Products A trended higher for multiple additional categories. Products A exhibited superior anti-aging benefits than Products B. Subjects preferred the smell, feel, and application of Products A and experienced significantly less irritation than Products B. Overall, Products A were preferred over Products B with subjects willing to pay more for Products A over Products B.
Verbeke, Wim; De Smet, Stefaan; Vackier, Isabelle; Van Oeckel, Monique J; Warnants, Nathalie; Van Kenhove, Patrick
This study investigates the role of drip, colour, marbling and fat cover as intrinsic search cues in the formation of pork chop preferences and individual determinants. Data are collected from a sample of 443 pork consumers in Belgium through using repeated selection of chops from randomised photobooks and questionnaires including socio-demographic, attitudinal and behavioural variables. Data analysis includes mixture regression analysis, bivariate descriptive statistics and the estimation of multivariate probit models. Consumers sampled in this study prefer pork chops without fat cover. Preference for fat cover is stronger among male, 35+ aged consumers with lower levels of awareness of the relation between food and health and who like pork for other reasons than taste and nutritional value (all p<0.05). Preference for colour is equally consistent within an individual, though fifty-fifty light-dark, with dark chops being more preferred by 35+ aged consumers (p<0.05). Preferences for marbling and drip are not consistent and not determined by joint socio-demographic, attitudinal and behavioural factors. Preferences for cue levels are not correlated, except a weak relation between preference for dark chops without drip (r=0.116). Preferences are apparently formed by deductions with the use of single cues as key information, mainly based on fat cover or colour, and random choice on marbling and drip.
Feed costs contribute the largest proportion of the input costs of slaughter birds in an intensive ostrich production unit. Alternative, cheaper feedstuffs, such as lupins (sweet and bitter cultivars), were therefore evaluated to determine the optimal lupin inclusion level in ostrich rations without affecting feed preference and ...
Whitty, Jennifer; Filby, Alexandra; Smith, Adam B; Carr, Louise M
Differences in the process of using liver imaging technologies might be important to patients. This study aimed to investigate preferences for scanning modalities used in diagnosing focal liver lesions. A discrete choice experiment was administered to 504 adults aged 25 ≥years. Respondents made repeated choices between two hypothetical scans, described according to waiting time for scan and results, procedure type, the chance of minor side-effects, and whether further scanning procedures were likely to be required. Choice data were analyzed using mixed-logit models with respondent characteristics used to explain preference heterogeneity. Respondents preferred shorter waiting times, the procedure to be undertaken with a handheld scanner on a couch instead of within a body scanner, no side-effects, and no follow–up scans (p≤.01). The average respondent was willing to wait an additional 2 weeks for the scan if it resulted in avoiding side-effects, 1.5 weeks to avoid further procedures or to be told the results immediately, and 1 week to have the scan performed on a couch with a handheld scanner. However, substantial heterogeneity was observed in the strength of preference for desirable imaging characteristics. An average individual belonging to a general population sub–group most likely to require imaging to characterize focal liver lesions in the United Kingdom would prefer contrast–enhanced ultrasound over magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Insights into the patient perspective around differential characteristics of imaging modalities have the potential to be used to guide recommendations around the use of these technologie
Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Paeps, F.; Fernández-Celemín, L.
Objective In light of the emerging obesity pandemic, front-of-pack calories labels may be an important tool to assist consumers in making informed healthier food choices. However, there is little prior research to guide key decisions on whether caloric content should be expressed in absolute terms
Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Brockhoff, Per M. B.; Erichsen, Lars
This paper will provide an overview of the problem of heterogeneity in consumer data and various ways of coping with it analytically. It will present a new model that combines latent class regression analysis with randon coefficient regression mod together with principal components regression. Fi...
Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim
Kleef, van Trijp & Luning, 2005; Patch, Tapsell & Williams, 2005). With this in mind, the present study aimed at uncovering which functional ingredients consumers accept in selected food product categories such as yoghurt, muesli bars, fish balls, tuna salad, baby meals, rye bread and liver pâté...
Broeder, Peter; Scherp, Evelien
This study focuses on the influence of colour on the online purchasing intention of consumers. The literature review about colour associations showed that several factors could play a mediating role in the relationship between colour and purchasing intention. Two of these factors are emotion and
Ebrahim, R; Ghoneim, A; Irani, Z; Yan, F
Consumer brand preference is an essential step towards understanding consumer choice behaviour, and has therefore always received great attention from marketers. However, the study of brand preference has been limited to traditional marketing focusing on functional attributes to maximise utility. But now the shift to experiential marketing broadens the role of the brand from a bundle of attributes to experiences. Technological advancements have helped to increase the similarities between bran...
Full Text Available Agri-food systems in the Czech Republic are currently undergoing a profound transformation toward high-value products. Appropriate policies are needed to guide this transformation, presupposing good understanding of consumer preferences. Having established a general framework for the analysis of food choice and quality perception, second part of the paper gives overview of results of stated preference evaluation studies conducted in the Czech Republic. The objective of secondary data analysis is to evaluate consumer preferences and willingness to pay for the food quality with the special attention to an evaluation of consumer preferences for health aspects of the food. The consumers’ relative preferences toward the different dimensions of a product’s quality are measured from the consumers’ perspective via their preference scores on various dimensions of quality derived from Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Price premium consumers are willing to pay for the high quality product is investigated using Contingent valuation method (CV. In general, the empirical evidence supports the hypothesis that health ensuring and enhancing characteristics together with sensorial characteristics significantly affect consumers’ preferences for food and most consumers are willing to pay a price premium in order to ensure required quality of food.
Mau, Paulus; Eyzaguirre, Jimena; Jaccard, Mark; Tiedemann, Kenneth; Collins-Dodd, Colleen
Understanding consumer behaviour is essential in designing policies that efficiently increase the uptake of clean technologies over the long-run. Expert opinion or qualitative market analyses have tended to be the sources of this information. However, greater scrutiny on governments increasingly demands the use of reliable and credible evidence to support policy decisions. While discrete choice research and modeling techniques have been applied to estimate consumer preferences for technologies, these methods often assume static preferences. This study builds on the application of discrete choice research and modeling to capture dynamics in consumer preferences. We estimate Canadians' preferences for new vehicle technologies under different market assumptions, using responses from two national surveys focused on hybrid gas-electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The results support the relevance of a range of vehicle attributes beyond the purchase price in shaping consumer preferences towards clean vehicle technologies. They also corroborate our hypothesis that the degree of market penetration of clean vehicle technologies is an influence on people's preferences ('the neighbor effect'). Finally, our results provide behavioural parameters for the energy-economy model CIMS, which we use here to show the importance of including consumer preference dynamics when setting policies to encourage the uptake of clean technologies. (author)
Moon, Lisa A.
An individual's choice to share or have control of the sharing or withholding of their personal health information is one of the most significant public policy challenges associated with electronic information exchange. There were four aims of this study. First, to describe predictors of health data sharing preferences of consumers. Second, to…
Yani, F.; Supriana, T.
Comprehension about consumer preferences gives a very important contribution to the consumer’s decision making process, which eventually affects the level of consumer consumption. This study aims to analyze the level of consumer consumption, consumer preferences, as well as the combination of the most preferred attributes by the fresh shallots consumers in Medan. The number of respondents in this study is 100 households. Consumer preferences were identified using conjoint analysis. Attributes of the product that were observed are the size of the root, aroma, price, and dryness. The result of this study shows that the average level of fresh shallots consumption in Medan is 11.67 grams/capita/day, which is higher compared to the 7 grams/capita/day average of national consumption. Consumers assume that the dryness is a very high importance value in judging and deciding whether to buy the fresh shallots, followed by the attribute of aroma, price, and size of the root. Meanwhile, the combination of attributes that is most preferred are fresh shallots with bulb diameter of 2.5 cm, strong aroma, low price ranging below Rp 35000/kg and dryness level in medium category which means the products are in a rather moist/dry condition, and has a little skin waste.
David Nicholls; Matthew Bumgardner
This technical note describes consumer preferences within selected demographic categories in two major Pacific Northwest markets for six domestic wood species. These woods were considered for construction of four furniture pieces. Chi-square tests were performed to determine species preferences based on gender, age, and income. Age and income were statistically...
David Nicholls; Matthew Bumgardner
This technical note describes consumer preferences within selected demographic categories in two major Pacific Northwest markets for six domestic wood species. These woods were considered for construction of four furniture pieces. Chi-square tests were performed to determine species preferences based on gender, age, and income. Age and income were statistically...
Oh, Woon Yong; Lee, Ji Woong; Lee, Chong Eon; Ko, Moon Seok; Jeong, Jae Hong
In this study, a structured survey questionnaire was used to determine consumers' preferences and behavior with regard to horse meat at a horse meat restaurant located in Jeju, Korea, from October 1 to December 24, 2005. The questionnaire employed in this study consisted of 20 questions designed to characterize six general attributes: horse meat sensory property, physical appearance, health condition, origin, price, and other attributes. Of the 1370 questionnaires distributed, 1126 completed questionnaires were retained based on the completeness of the answers, representing an 82.2% response rate. Two issues were investigated that might facilitate the search for ways to improve horse meat production and marketing programs in Korea. The first step was to determine certain important factors, called principal components, which enabled the researchers to understand the needs of horse meat consumers via principal component analysis. The second step was to define consumer segments with regard to their preferences for horse meat, which was accomplished via cluster analysis. The results of the current study showed that health condition, price, origin, and leanness were the most critical physical attributes affecting the preferences of horse meat consumers. Four segments of consumers, with different demands for horse meat attributes, were identified: origin-sensitive consumers, price-sensitive consumers, quality and safety-sensitive consumers, and non-specific consumers. Significant differences existed among segments of consumers in terms of age, nature of work, frequency of consumption, and general level of acceptability of horse meat.
Broeder, Peter; Scherp, Evelien
This study focuses on the influence of colour on the online purchasing intention of consumers. The literature review about colour associations showed that several factors could play a mediating role in the relationship between colour and purchasing intention. Two of these factors are emotion and trust, which have been shown in previous studies to have a relationship both with certain colours and with online purchasing intention. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between...
Resano, H.; Sanjuan, Ana Isabel
The overall acceptability of 202 consumers has been analysed by ANOVA, multiple means comparison, cluster analysis and internal preference mapping (MDPREF). Three clusters are found with different preference criteria. These clusters can also be characterized according to actual purchase behaviour, declared consumption habits and sociodemographic characteristics. This study demonstrates the importance for the agro-food industry of examining consumers’ individual preferences as well as average ...
Green-Petersen, D.; Hyldig, G.; Sveinsdottir, K.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Martinsdottir, E.
The focus in this article is on the relation between consumer preference and objective description of the product profile of salmon. A consumer study of eight salmon products was carried out in Iceland, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Ireland. In addition, objective sensory profiling using a trained
Causse, M.; Friguet, C.; Coiret, C.; Lepicier, M.; Navez, B.; Lee, van der M.K.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Sinesio, F.; Moneta, E.; Grandillo, S.
Although tomato flavor has not been a major goal for breeders, nowadays it becomes important as it is a subject of consumer complaint. A better knowledge of tomato consumer preferences, at the European level, should provide the basis for improvement of fruit quality and for market segmentation. In
Green-Petersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe; Sveinsdóttir, K.
The focus in this article is on the relation between consumer preference and objective description of the product profile of salmon. A consumer study of eight salmon products was carried out in Iceland, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Ireland. In addition, objective sensory profiling using a trained...
Mueller Loose, Simone; Peschel, Anne; Grebitus, Carola
,718 Australian oyster consumers participated in an online choice experiment with visual product stimuli to simulate their choice of ready-packaged oysters in a retail store. Considering preference heterogeneity respondents’ choices were analysed with a scale adjusted latent class model and six different consumer...... serving suggestions were assessed in a choice experiment. The impact of product packaging and preparation convenience on consumer choice were analysed relative to the traditional demand factors of price, region of origin, oyster species, health, environmental and quality claims. A total of 1...... a minor influence on consumer choice. Consumer differences in price sensitivity and preferences for species and different oyster accompaniments provide scope for consumer oriented product differentiation with the potential to increase oyster demand and healthy seafood consumption....
Yangui, Ahmed; Costa Font, Montserrat; Gil Roig, José María
The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of psychological factors on building the consumer's behavioral decision process towards extra virgin olive oil, with special attention paid to the organic attribute. The paper hypothesises that differences in consumers' personality traits, such as food-related personality traits, purchasing habits and lifestyles, affect consumers' preferences for extra virgin olive oil. The methodological framework is based on the specification of an extended h...
Andersen, Laura Mørch; Smed, Sinne
In this paper we investigate preferences for fat in milk through a structural characteristics model. The data includes information about daily purchases and social and demographic characteristics of more than 1,100 households. We find that consumers who prefer milk with a high fat content do...... not react to information about health effects, but can be influenced by prices, while consumers who prefer milk with a low share of fat are influenced by information, but are less price sensitive. Therefore, when attempting to decrease consumption of fat from milk, prices are more efficient than information....
Verbeke, Wim; Pérez-Cueto, Federico J. A.; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra
sample. This paper draws together the main findings of both projects and provides a comprehensive overview of European citizens' and consumers' attitudes towards and preferences regarding beef and pork. In general, consumers consider meat to be a healthy and important component of the diet. Consumers...... consumer and citizen segments are identified and profiled. Consumer segments were built upon the frequency and variety of pork consumption. The citizen segments were built upon their attitudes towards pig production systems. Overall, the relationship between individuals' views as citizens...... and their behaviour as consumers was found to be quite weak and did not appear to greatly or systematically influence meat-buying habits. Future studies in both projects will concentrate on consumers' acceptance of innovative meat product concepts and products, with the aim of boosting consumer trust and invigorating...
Preferences of consumers for small urban vehicle concepts differing only with respect to their hypothetical purchase prices and network capabilities (i.e., whether they are capable of operating on expressways, major arterials, or local streets) are analyzed using statistical techniques based on psychological scaling theories. Results from these analyses indicate that a vast majority of consumers are not readily willing to give up the accessibility provided by conventional automobiles. More specifically, over the range of hypothetical prices considered here, network capability dominates as a determinant of preferences for vehicle concepts. Also, the ability to operate vehicles on expressways is of utmost importance to consumers.
Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Green-Petersen, Ditte
countries tasted and scored the cod products on a 9-point hedonic scale. In addition information on the consumers attitudes, motives/barriers and fish purchase behaviour was collected. The aim was to investigate how sensory quality corresponded to consumers liking of different cod products and to study...... to fish consumption, attitudes and preferences of the eight cod products. However, it was demonstrated that within each country, different segments of consumers existed with different preferences, motives/barriers and demographic background. The results indicated various potential to increase fish...
Siti Hasnah Hassan
Full Text Available Consumers worldwide have reacted negatively to food products made from genetically modified (GM ingredients. This study strives to understand the importance placed by consumers on the features of a product when purchasing halal yogurt drinks with GM or non GM ingredient along with the level of antioxidants, price, flavor and Halal certification from JAKIM. In addition, their attitudes towards genetically modified foods, in general, and their purchase intention towards genetically modified yo- gurt drinks, in particular, were also determined. Experimental design using a convenience sampling was used; 120 eligible responses were received from the study using three types of yogurt drinks. The research findings showed that nutrition was deemed as being the most important product feature that influenced the decision in purchasing yogurt drinks, followed by freshness, price, flavor, variety, and origin. Furthermore, it was found that respondents presented a neutral attitude and purchase intention towards genetically modified yogurt drinks. The recommendations to market practitioners, research limitations, as well as suggestions for future studies are also discussed.
Torri, Luisa; Noble, Ann Curtis; Heymann, Hildegarde
To increase the market share of Californian wines in other countries, wine preferences need to be explored in potential markets. This work studied the preferences of American and Italian consumers for red wines produced in California and Italy, focusing on wines made from the same varieties in each location. Descriptive analysis and consumer preference tests were performed. Americans scored each of the Californian wines significantly higher in preference than the Italian wines. In contrast, the Italian consumer preference scores for many Italian and Californian wines overlapped. By external preference mapping of the American consumer segments, the ideal flavour of one cluster was closest to the Californian Zinfandel, Merlot and Syrah, which had the 'most balanced' flavour profiles. Another cluster of Italians also preferred the Californian wines. In addition, one Italian cluster was driven by a dislike of the leather, band-aid and medicinal aromas of the Italian Merlot and Refosco. The results provided information that can contribute to wine marketing research necessary for successfully exporting Californian red wines to Italy and vice versa. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Stanley, Jill; Feng, Jinquan; Olsson, Shane
Improving apricot fruit quality delivered to consumers is key to ensuring a successful apricot industry. Previous studies have focused on effects of either soluble solids content (SSC) or fruit firmness on consumer preferences, and results have been equivocal. This study evaluated the effects of crop load and harvest maturity how they affected on fruit SSC and firmness, and on subsequent consumer preferences. SSC of apricots was an important factor only when fruit were firmer than 15 N and not immature. When fruit were softer than 15 N, SSC had little influence on consumer liking. In general, consumers preferred fruit that were grown on trees thinned to approximately 10-20% less than typical commercial crop loads and were harvested in a more mature condition. Consumers also preferred fruit that had a higher sugar/acid ratio or BrimA value, which is the °Brix - k × titratable acidity, where k is a constant that varies between species and cultivars depending on the specific acids and sugars present. High apricot flavour and juiciness were associated with greater sweetness. Management practices that increase fruit SSC and sugar/acid ratio, such as reducing crop load, will improve consumer satisfaction as long as fruit are harvested at an adequate maturity stage and are maintained in storage so that they do not soften too quickly. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Full Text Available This paper is aimed to evaluate the role of additives in food production and to identify how these additives are known and used by consumers in their households. The questionnaire technique was used, the research involved 220 respondents. It was found that the respondents are perceptive to adding of additives into food. Cluster analysis confirmed that the majority of respondents is about the incidence of food additives only partially informed, although 87% of respondents knew what the (E letter of additive means. The correct answers for each question depended on the age and education of respondents and were not dependent on gender of respondents. We recommend to enhance public knowledge about nutrition, diet and food composition, functions, benefits and safety of food additives.
Nemati, Mehdi; Zheng, Yuqing
Objective Systematic review of research examining consumer preference for the main electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) attributes namely flavor, nicotine strength, and type. Method A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles resulted in a pool of 12,933 articles. We included only articles that meet all the selection criteria: (1) peer-reviewed, (2) written in English, and (3) addressed consumer preference for one or more of the e-cigarette attributes including flavor, strength, and type. Results 66 articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Consumers preferred flavored e-cigarettes, and such preference varied with age groups and smoking status. We also found that several flavors were associated with decreased harm perception while tobacco flavor was associated with increased harm perception. In addition, some flavor chemicals and sweeteners used in e-cigarettes could be of toxicological concern. Finally, consumer preference for nicotine strength and types depended on smoking status, e-cigarette use history, and gender. Conclusion Adolescents could consider flavor the most important factor trying e-cigarettes and were more likely to initiate vaping through flavored e-cigarettes. Young adults overall preferred sweet, menthol, and cherry flavors, while non-smokers in particular preferred coffee and menthol flavors. Adults in general also preferred sweet flavors (though smokers like tobacco flavor the most) and disliked flavors that elicit bitterness or harshness. In terms of whether flavored e-cigarettes assisted quitting smoking, we found inconclusive evidence. E-cigarette users likely initiated use with a cigarette like product and transitioned to an advanced system with more features. Non-smokers and inexperienced e-cigarettes users tended to prefer no nicotine or low nicotine e-cigarettes while smokers and experienced e-cigarettes users preferred medium and high nicotine e-cigarettes. Weak evidence exists regarding a positive interaction between menthol
Zare, Samane; Nemati, Mehdi; Zheng, Yuqing
Systematic review of research examining consumer preference for the main electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) attributes namely flavor, nicotine strength, and type. A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles resulted in a pool of 12,933 articles. We included only articles that meet all the selection criteria: (1) peer-reviewed, (2) written in English, and (3) addressed consumer preference for one or more of the e-cigarette attributes including flavor, strength, and type. 66 articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Consumers preferred flavored e-cigarettes, and such preference varied with age groups and smoking status. We also found that several flavors were associated with decreased harm perception while tobacco flavor was associated with increased harm perception. In addition, some flavor chemicals and sweeteners used in e-cigarettes could be of toxicological concern. Finally, consumer preference for nicotine strength and types depended on smoking status, e-cigarette use history, and gender. Adolescents could consider flavor the most important factor trying e-cigarettes and were more likely to initiate vaping through flavored e-cigarettes. Young adults overall preferred sweet, menthol, and cherry flavors, while non-smokers in particular preferred coffee and menthol flavors. Adults in general also preferred sweet flavors (though smokers like tobacco flavor the most) and disliked flavors that elicit bitterness or harshness. In terms of whether flavored e-cigarettes assisted quitting smoking, we found inconclusive evidence. E-cigarette users likely initiated use with a cigarette like product and transitioned to an advanced system with more features. Non-smokers and inexperienced e-cigarettes users tended to prefer no nicotine or low nicotine e-cigarettes while smokers and experienced e-cigarettes users preferred medium and high nicotine e-cigarettes. Weak evidence exists regarding a positive interaction between menthol flavor and nicotine strength.
Rai, Arun; Chen, Liwei; Pye, Jessica; Baird, Aaron
Consumer use of mobile devices as health service delivery aids (mHealth) is growing, especially as smartphones become ubiquitous. However, questions remain as to how consumer traits, health perceptions, situational characteristics, and demographics may affect consumer mHealth usage intentions, assimilation, and channel preferences. We examine how consumers' personal innovativeness toward mobile services (PIMS), perceived health conditions, health care availability, health care utilization, demographics, and socioeconomic status affect their (1) mHealth usage intentions and extent of mHealth assimilation, and (2) preference for mHealth as a complement or substitute for in-person doctor visits. Leveraging constructs from research in technology acceptance, technology assimilation, consumer behavior, and health informatics, we developed a cross-sectional online survey to study determinants of consumers' mHealth usage intentions, assimilation, and channel preferences. Data were collected from 1132 nationally representative US consumers and analyzed by using moderated multivariate regressions and ANOVA. The results indicate that (1) 430 of 1132 consumers in our sample (37.99%) have started using mHealth, (2) a larger quantity of consumers are favorable to using mHealth as a complement to in-person doctor visits (758/1132, 66.96%) than as a substitute (532/1132, 47.00%), and (3) consumers' PIMS and perceived health conditions have significant positive direct influences on mHealth usage intentions, assimilation, and channel preferences, and significant positive interactive influences on assimilation and channel preferences. The independent variables within the moderated regressions collectively explained 59.70% variance in mHealth usage intentions, 60.41% in mHealth assimilation, 34.29% in preference for complementary use of mHealth, and 45.30% in preference for substitutive use of mHealth. In a follow-up ANOVA examination, we found that those who were more favorable
Suh, Hae Sun; Lee, Donghyun; Kim, Sang Yong; Chee, Dong Hyun; Kang, Hye-Young
To examine consumers' attitudes toward direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) for prescription drugs in Korea. We conducted a survey of 350 patients visiting community pharmacies to fill their prescriptions. Consumers' attitudes toward DTCA were assessed in terms of whether they felt DTCA was necessary, their trust in the information provided by DTCA, and their intention to use the information provided by DTCA. We examined consumers' preferences regarding the regulation of DTCA and their expectations of the effects of DTCA. About 60% of the respondents responded that DTCA is necessary and that they intended to use the information from DTCA. Less than half of the respondents reported that they would trust DTCA information. About 70% of the participants expressed the need for prior vetting of the DTCA content. Respondents had the highest expectation on the effect of DTCA as an information source for patients. Positive consumer expectations regarding the effects of DTCA were significantly associated with positive consumer attitudes toward DTCA (odds ratio=4.70, 95% confidence interval: 2.25-9.82). This study provides evidence that consumers in South Korea generally have positive attitudes toward DTCA. However, most of the respondents wanted a prior examination system of DTCA content to ensure that the information conveyed to them via DTCA was trustworthy. Policy-makers should be cautious and well-prepared if they decide to introduce DTCA in Korea. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Preference for information is a personality trait that affects people's tendency to seek information in health-related situations. Prior studies have focused primarily on investigating its impact on patient-provider communication and on the implications for designing information interventions that prepare patients for medical procedures. Few studies have examined its impact on general consumers' interactions with Web-based search engines for health information or the implications for designing more effective health information search systems. This study intends to fill this gap by investigating the impact of preference for information on the search behavior of general consumers seeking health information, their perceptions of search tasks (representing information needs), and user experience with search systems. Forty general consumers who had previously searched for health information online participated in the study in our usability lab. Preference for information was measured using Miller's Monitor-Blunter Style Scale (MBSS) and the Krantz Health Opinion Survey-Information Scale (KHOS-I). Each participant completed four simulated health information search tasks: two look-up (fact-finding) and two exploratory. Their behaviors while interacting with the search systems were automatically logged and ratings of their perceptions of tasks and user experience with the systems were collected using Likert-scale questionnaires. The MBSS showed low reliability with the participants (Monitoring subscale: Cronbach alpha=.53; Blunting subscale: Cronbach alpha=.35). Thus, no further analyses were performed based on the scale. KHOS-I had sufficient reliability (Cronbach alpha=.77). Participants were classified into low- and high-preference groups based on their KHOS-I scores. The high-preference group submitted significantly shorter queries when completing the look-up tasks (P=.02). The high-preference group made a significantly higher percentage of parallel movements in query
Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; González-Sanjosé, María Luisa
The use of oak wood pieces in winemaking is increasing, but the acceptance of this technique by consumers is unknown. For that reason, the main aim of this study was to measure consumers' opinion of red wines made with this new technique, their acceptance of them and their intention to purchase these wines. A preference ranking test was also carried out. A specific questionnaire was drawn up for this study and 65 frequent red wine consumers tasted four wines, two aged traditionally in barrels and two macerated with chips, and a forced choice preference test was carried out. Fifty-five per cent of respondents said that they would not buy wines made using oak chips, although most respondents would buy these wines if, after tasting them, they were as pleasant and had the same quality as the wines aged traditionally in barrels. Wines obtained with oak wood fragments were not significantly rejected either by consumers who answered the questionnaire or by consumer tasters, which could be due to the large disparity of preferences found among tasters. The results clearly indicate that producers should develop each wine taking into account the specific preferences of each consumer group. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Stull, Laura G; McGrew, John H; Salyers, Michelle P
Although assertive community treatment (ACT) has been consistently recognized as effective, there has been little research as to what constitutes success in ACT. The purpose of this study was to understand how ACT consumers and staff define treatment success and failure and to examine whether definitions varied between staff and consumers. Investigators conducted semistructured interviews with 25 staff and 23 consumers from four ACT teams. Across perspectives, success and failure were most clearly related to consumer factors. Other themes included having basic needs met, being socially involved, and taking medications. Reduced hospitalizations were mentioned infrequently. Consumers were more likely than staff to identify the level or type of treatment as defining success and failure, whereas staff were more likely than consumers to discuss substance abuse when defining failure and improved symptoms when defining success. Success in ACT should be viewed more broadly than reduced hospitalizations and include domains such as social involvement.
Lee, Alex Hoong Onn
The emergence of low cost or no frills airlines in last decade or so have posed considerable threat to the businesses of traditional full service airlines. The competition between the different type of airlines have changed the landscape of the airline industry tremendously and have provided air travelers with options which are unprecedented. The aim of this study is to understand consumer preference between low cost and full service airlines and to determine what are the motivations or facto...
Marquis, M Susan; Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes; Kapur, Kanika; Yegian, Jill M
American insurers are designing products to contain health care costs by making consumers financially responsible for their choices. Little is known about how consumers will view these new designs. Our objective is to examine consumer preferences for selected benefit designs. We used the contingent choice method to assess willingness to pay for six health plan attributes. Our sample included subscribers to individual health insurance products in California, US. We used fitted logistic regression models to explore how preferences for the more generous attributes varied with the additional premium and with the characteristics of the subscriber. High quality was the most highly valued attribute based on the amounts consumers report they are willing to pay. They were also willing to pay substantial monthly premiums to reduce their overall financial risk. Individuals in lower health were willing to pay more to reduce their financial risk than individuals in better health. Consumers may prefer tiered-benefit designs to those that involve overall increases in cost sharing. More consumer information is needed to help consumers better evaluate the costs and benefits of their insurance choices.
Sudha, Vasudevan; Spiegelman, Donna; Hong, Biling; Malik, Vasanti; Jones, Clara; Wedick, Nicole M; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Ponnalagu, Muthu Mariyammal; Arumugam, Kokila; Mohan, Viswanathan
To study consumer acceptance of unmilled brown and undermilled rice among urban south Indians. Overweight and normal weight adults living in slum and nonslum residences in Chennai participated (n = 82). Bapatla (BPT) and Uma (red pigmented) rice varieties were chosen. These rice varieties were dehusked (unmilled, 0% polish) and further milled to 2.3% and 4.4% polishing (undermilled). Thus, 9 rice samples in both raw and parboiled forms were provided for consumer tasting over a period of 3 days. A 7-point hedonic scale was used to rate consumer preferences. A validated questionnaire was used to collect demographic, anthropometric, medical history, physical activity, dietary intake data, and willingness of the consumers to switch over to brown rice. Consumers reported that the color, appearance, texture, taste, and overall quality of the 4.4% polished rice was strongly preferred in both varieties and forms. Ratings for 0% polished (brown rice) were substantially lower than those of 2.3% polished rice, which were intermediate in ratings between 0% and 4.4% polishing. However, most of the consumers (93%) expressed a willingness to substitute brown or 2.3% polished rice, if affordable, after the taste tests and education on nutritional and health benefits of whole grains. Though most consumers preferred polished white rice, education regarding health benefits may help this population switch to brown or undermilled rice. Cooking quality and appearance of the grains were perceived as the most important factors to consider when purchasing rice among Chennai urban adults.
Consumer preferences can lay foundation for determining key product attributes essential for the success of a product in the market, enabling the manufacturers optimally allocate resources towards imparting these critical attributes. However identification of consumer preferences especially for new products is a challenging task. This research investigated the consumer preference factors for solar home systems in Rawalpindi/Islamabad (Pakistan); applying MCDM (Multi Criteria Decision Making) approach, AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) survey and analysis method is used for prioritization of the factors and comparison of decision alternatives. Fourteen factors grouped into five categories are selected. It has been found that the manufacturers have to emphasize on performance and functional attributes of these systems at this stage, the cost factors are comparatively lower in importance. Make and warranty, Environmental and Physical features are also lesser important to the early adopters. (author)
Full Text Available Madura island has high potential for producing tropical fruits, but it still not being well managed especially concerning with the value added Fruit leather is a product created by using various fruits and simple technology application. Fruit leather is categorized as new product on the market, therefore it is important to know consumer preference towards fruit leather attributes so that producer can design an acceptable product in the market. The research investigated attributes within the levels that become consumer preference in purchasing fruit leather product. There were 60 samples respondents taken accidentally at Bangkalan Plaza Shopping area. Method being used was conjoint analysis. Result showed that fruit leather being chosen by consumers as preference are gummy, mixed fruit taste, yellow color small roll shape, at 100 grams and in a plastic tube package.
Patrick, M; Ditunno, P; Ditunno, J F; Marino, R J; Scivoletto, G; Lam, T; Loffree, J; Tamburella, F; Leiby, B
Blinded rank ordering. To determine consumer preference in walking function utilizing the walking Index for spinal cord injury II (WISCI II) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI)from the Canada, the Italy and the United States of America. In all, 42 consumers with incomplete SCI (25 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar) from Canada (12/42), Italy (14/42) and the United States of America (16/42) ranked the 20 levels of the WISCI II scale by their individual preference for walking. Subjects were blinded to the original ranking of the WISCI II scale by clinical scientists. Photographs of each WISCI II level used in a previous pilot study were randomly shuffled and rank ordered. Percentile, conjoint/cluster and graphic analyses were performed. All three analyses illustrated consumer ranking followed a bimodal distribution. Ranking for two levels with physical assistance and two levels with a walker were bimodal with a difference of five to six ranks between consumer subgroups (quartile analysis). The larger cluster (N=20) showed preference for walking with assistance over the smaller cluster (N=12), whose preference was walking without assistance and more devices. In all, 64% (27/42) of consumers ranked WISCI II level with no devices or braces and 1 person assistance higher than multiple levels of the WISCI II requiring no assistance. These results were unexpected, as the hypothesis was that consumers would rank independent walking higher than walking with assistance. Consumer preference for walking function should be considered in addition to objective measures in designing SCI trials that use significant improvement in walking function as an outcome measure.
Full Text Available Success of a new food product on the market is strongly related to how good that product is adapted to consumers’ preferences, wishes, expectations and needs. This paper shows the importance of consumer studies including consumer sensory tests for product prototype optimization on the case of an innovative sweet topping made from well-known Slovenian wine Teran. Empirical study was made combining two stages, first the exploratory qualitative research with focus groups and questionnaire and second a test for new food prototype with consumer sensory techniques. The results of the exploratory research were very encouraging and perceived market potential was substantial. However, when more precise and objective research techniques were applied, obtained managerial recommendation critically differ. Application of the consumer sensory tests, namely preference test and JAR (just about right test, disconfirmed high expectations from the exploratory phase and showed that chocolate flavour is the main driver of liking the topping.
Martínez Michel, Lorelei; Anders, Sven; Wismer, Wendy V
A growing demand for convenient and ready-to-eat products has increased poultry processors' interest in developing consumer-oriented value-added chicken products. In this study, a conjoint analysis survey of 276 chicken consumers in Edmonton was conducted during the summer of 2009 to assess the importance of the chicken part, production method, processing method, storage method, the presence of added flavor, and cooking method on consumer preferences for different value-added chicken product attributes. Estimates of consumer willingness to pay (WTP) premium prices for different combinations of value-added chicken attributes were also determined. Participants'"ideal" chicken product was a refrigerated product made with free-range chicken breast, produced with no additives or preservatives and no added flavor, which could be oven heated or pan heated. Half of all participants on average were willing to pay 30% more for a value-added chicken product over the price of a conventional product. Overall, young consumers, individuals who shop at Farmers' Markets and those who prefer free-range or organic products were more likely to pay a premium for value-added chicken products. As expected, consumers' WTP was affected negatively by product price. Combined knowledge of consumer product attribute preferences and consumer WTP for value-added chicken products can help the poultry industry design innovative value-added chicken products. Practical Application: An optimum combination of product attributes desired by consumers for the development of a new value-added chicken product, as well as the WTP for this product, have been identified in this study. This information is relevant to the poultry industry to enhance consumer satisfaction of future value-added chicken products and provide the tools for future profit growth. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
Inas Rifaat Ibrahim,*, Mohamed Izham M.I & Mahmoud Al-Haddad
Full Text Available Objective: The main aims of this study were to determine consumers’ preferences and perceptions in Baghdad towards the color of Oral Solid Dosage Form.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted using a self–administered questionnaire. A convenient sampling method was adopted to approach the consumers visiting the community pharmacies in Baghdad.The data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 16 ®. Anon-parametric statistics i.e [Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests] were used to evaluate the association of demographic variables with respondents perceptions toward physical characteristics of Oral Solid Dosage Form.Results: Colored OSDF was preferred by 76.4% of consumers.Significant differences in this preference were found among genders (P=0.029; age (P<0.001; educational level (P=0.001;and monthly income level (0.007. Further, consumers perceived that color of OSDF is related with the therapeutic activity of medicine. Significant differences in this perception were found to be influenced by gender (P=0.016; age group(P<0.001; and educational level (P<0.001.Conclusion: In a conclusion, color was the most preferred characteristic of OSDF by Baghdadi consumers with the perceptions that color is related to therapeutic activity of medicines. Gender, age, educational level, and monthly income are important factors that are associated with the preferences and perceptions toward colored OSDF.
Boscarato, Kara; Lee, Stuart; Kroschel, Jon; Hollander, Yitzchak; Brennan, Alice; Warren, Narelle
The manner in which people with mental illness are supported in a crisis is crucial to their recovery. The current study explored mental health consumers' experiences with formal crisis services (i.e. police and crisis assessment and treatment (CAT) teams), preferred crisis supports, and opinions of four collaborative interagency response models. Eleven consumers completed one-on-one, semistructured interviews. The results revealed that the perceived quality of previous formal crisis interventions varied greatly. Most participants preferred family members or friends to intervene. However, where a formal response was required, general practitioners and mental health case managers were preferred; no participant wanted a police response, and only one indicated a preference for CAT team assistance. Most participants welcomed collaborative crisis interventions. Of four collaborative interagency response models currently being trialled internationally, participants most strongly supported the Ride-Along Model, which enables a police officer and a mental health clinician to jointly respond to distressed consumers in the community. The findings highlight the potential for an interagency response model to deliver a crisis response aligned with consumers' preferences. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
García-Torres, S; López-Gajardo, A; Mesías, F J
This paper evaluates consumer liking and preferences towards organic beef from two production systems allowed by EU regulation: i) free-range and ii) intensive (fattened in feed-lot with organic feedstuff) as compared with conventionally produced beef. Data were obtained in April-May 2014 with a sample of 150 regular beef consumers who completed two tasks: firstly a sensory test where consumers tasted and rated the meats and secondly a conjoint analysis to study beef purchasing preferences. Willingness-to-pay for the different meats was also calculated from conjoint results. Results show that consumers preferred organic-from-concentrate beef at sensory level while organic beef from animals fed on grass was preferred when process characteristics (i.e. farming system) or attributes perceived at the point of purchase (i.e. colour) were evaluated. It was also found that the price-premium for organic beef is over 40%, with organic-fed-on grass beef preferred slightly over that fed-on-concentrate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Christensen, Tove; Mørkbak, Morten; Denver, Sigrid
Food quality attributes such as food safety and animal welfare are increasingly influencing consumers' choices of food products. These attributes are not readily traded in the markets. Hence, stated preference methods have proven to be valuable tools for eliciting preferences for such non......-traded attributes. A discrete choice experiment is employed, and the results indicate that consumers in general are willing to pay a premium for campylobacter-free chicken and for improved animal welfare; and they are willing to pay an additional premium for a product containing both attributes. Further, we find...
Wallace, Robin R; Goodman, Suzan; Freedman, Lori R; Dalton, Vanessa K; Harris, Lisa H
To apply principles of shared decision-making to EPF management counseling. To present a patient treatment priority checklist developed from review of available literature on patient priorities for EPF management. Review of evidence for patient preferences; personal, emotional, physical and clinical factors that may influence patient priorities for EPF management; and the clinical factors, resources, and provider bias that may influence current practice. Women have strong and diverse preferences for EPF management and report higher satisfaction when treated according to these preferences. However, estimates of actual treatment patterns suggest that current practice does not reflect the evidence for safety and acceptability of all options, or patient preferences. Multiple practice barriers and biases exist that may be influencing provider counseling about options for EPF management. Choosing management for EPF is a preference-sensitive decision. A patient-centered approach to EPF management should incorporate counseling about all treatment options. Providers can integrate a counseling model into EPF management practice that utilizes principles of shared decision-making and an organized method for eliciting patient preferences, priorities, and concerns about treatment options. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Drake, S L; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A
In the past 2 decades, total sales of cottage cheese have declined 17% despite increases in sales for low-fat cottage cheese. There are no recent published studies investigating consumer preferences for cottage cheese. This study was conducted to identify and define sensory characteristics of commercial cottage cheese and to compare 2 approaches for characterizing consumer preferences: traditional preference mapping and a new composite qualitative approach, qualitative multivariate analysis (QMA). A sensory language was identified to document the sensory properties (visual, flavor, and texture) of cottage cheeses. Twenty-six commercial cottage cheeses with variable fat contents (4, 2, 1, and 0% fat) were evaluated by trained panelists using the sensory language. Eight representative cottage cheeses were selected for consumer acceptance testing (n = 110) and QMA with consumer home usage testing (n = 12), followed by internal and external preference mapping to identify key drivers. Principal component analysis of descriptive data indicated that cottage cheeses were primarily differentiated by cooked, milkfat, diacetyl, and acetaldehyde flavors and salty taste, and by firmness, smoothness, tackiness, curd size, and adhesiveness texture attributes. Similar drivers of liking (diacetyl and milkfat flavors, smooth texture, and mouthcoating) were identified by both consumer research techniques. However, the QMA technique identified controversial distinctions among the cottage cheeses and the influence of brand and pricing. These results can be used by processors to promote cottage cheese sales.
Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the acceptability and preference of meat in Harar and Haramaya towns. The study was carried out from January to March, 2012. One hundred twenty (120 questionnaires were randomly distributed, completed and retrieved for analysis. The results showed that gender had no effect on livestock meat consumption. However, religious had impact on the types of meat consumption. Accordingly, pork was not consumed by both Muslim and Christian, camel meat was consumed by Muslim. Majority of consumers had prefer chicken, beef, and chevon meat as their first choice followed by mutton as compared to other meat. In addition, the study showed a high level of acceptability for the meat of middle aged than old aged. Lean and red color meat got highest acceptability by majority of the consumers than fatty and white meat. The result confirmed that religious and socio-cultural taboos as the major variables that would affect meat preference and consumption of a population in the study area. This study suggested that current preference trend of consumers were not inclusive in that some potential meat animals were hardly utilized or totally ignored from the dish. Therefore, professionals and other stakeholders should made intervention and promote widely utilization of this species to meet animal protein requirement of the community.
Nykänen, Jussi Ilmari; Tuunainen, Virpi Kristiina; Tuunanen, Tuure
This article proposes a research agenda to study what causes consumers to switch smartphone manufacturer and operating system brands. International consumer survey is planned for data collection and structural equation modeling method will be used to extrapolate whether internal preferences play a larger role than external influences in consumers’ switching behavior. The effects are expected to be moderated by behavioral control, subjective uncertainty and prior switching ex...
He, Chenyi; Gao, Zhifeng; Sims, Charles A.; Zhao, Xin
Demand for local food, particularly for fresh vegetable and fruits, keeps increasing. Consumer claimed reasons of purchasing local food often include that local food are fresher, more environmental friendly and can support local community, which implies that the local information can affect consumer’ perception of food quality. Previous research mainly focused on the impact of local information/label on consumer preference as a credence attribute that is not observable even after purchasing t...
Vecchio, N; Radford, K; Fitzgerald, J A; Comans, T; Harris, P; Harris, N
To identify feasible models of intergenerational care programmes, that is, care of children and older people in a shared setting, to determine consumer preferences and willingness to pay. Feasible models were constructed in extensive consultations with a panel of experts using a Delphi technique (n = 23) and were considered based on their practical implementation within an Australian setting. This informed a survey tool that captured the preferences and willingness to pay for these models by potential consumers, when compared to the status quo. Information collected from the surveys (n = 816) was analysed using regression analysis to identify fundamental drivers of preferences and the prices consumers were willing to pay for intergenerational care programmes. The shared campus and visiting models were identified as feasible intergenerational care models. Key attributes of these models included respite day care; a common educational pedagogy across generations; screening; monitoring; and evaluation of participant outcomes. Although parents were more likely to take up intergenerational care compared to the status quo, adult carers reported a higher willingness to pay for these services. Educational attainment also influenced the likely uptake of intergenerational care. The results of this study show that there is demand for the shared campus and the visiting campus models among the Australian community. The findings support moves towards consumer-centric models of care, in line with national and international best practice. This consumer-centric approach is encapsulated in the intergenerational care model and enables greater choice of care to match different consumer demands.
Wismer, W V; Okine, E K; Stein, A; Seibel, M R; Goonewardene, L A
Steaks from corn-fed and barley-fed beef were characterized by a trained panel, which rated corn-fed beef higher (pconsumers preferred (pconsumers showed no preference (p>0.05) for either type of finished beef. Japanese consumers showed a preference (ppreference for cooked corn-fed steaks (p0.05) were observed for Warner-Bratzler shear, marbling scores, cooking losses or Hunter colorimeter values. There was a trend for higher concentrations (p0.10) in mono or polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Viney, Rosalie; Lancsar, Emily; Louviere, Jordan
To investigate the impact of health policies on individual well-being, estimate the value to society of new interventions or policies, or predict demand for healthcare, we need information about individuals' preferences. Economists usually use market-based data to analyze preferences, but such data are limited in the healthcare context. Discrete choice experiments are a potentially valuable tool for elicitation and analysis of preferences and thus, for economic analysis of health and health programs. This paper reviews the use of discrete choice experiments to measure consumers' preferences for health and healthcare. The paper provides an overview of the approach and discusses issues that arise when using discrete choice experiments to assess individuals' preferences for health and healthcare.
Kraai, Imke H; Vermeulen, Karin M; Luttik, Marie Louise A; Hoekstra, Tialda; Jaarsma, Tiny; Hillege, Hans L
AIMS: Knowledge of patient preferences is vital for delivering optimal healthcare. This study uses utility measurement to assess the preferences of heart failure (HF) patients regarding quality of life or longevity. The utility approach represents the perspective of a patient; facilitates the
Kraai, Imke H.; Vermeulen, Karin M.; Luttik, Marie Louise A.; Hoekstra, Tialda; Jaarsma, Trijntje; Hillege, Hans L.
Knowledge of patient preferences is vital for delivering optimal healthcare. This study uses utility measurement to assess the preferences of heart failure (HF) patients regarding quality of life or longevity. The utility approach represents the perspective of a patient; facilitates the combination
Wehrens, M. J. P. W.; Kuyper, H.; Buunk, A. P.; van der Werf, M. P. C.
Getting an insufficient grade at school might be threatening for students. In such a situation the choice of a lower comparison level possibly functions as a self-protective strategy. The present study investigated whether students in high school reported a lower absolute preferred comparison level
Ierland, van E.C.; Zhu, X.
We develop an environmental Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model, which includes the economic functions of the environment, to investigate the impacts of consumers' preference changes towards the enhanced consumption of Novel Protein Foods (NPFs) and towards a higher willingness to pay for
Rosenbaum, Julia; Derby, Elisa; Dutta, Karabi
The USAID/WASHplus project conducted a comprehensive assessment to understand consumer needs and preferences as they relate to increasing the uptake and consistent, exclusive, and correct use of improved cookstoves (ICSs) in Bangladesh. The assessment included household ICS trials, fuel and stove use monitoring, and consumers' perceived value of and willingness to pay for ICSs. Results showed that cooks appreciated and liked the ICS, but that no models met consumer needs sufficiently to replace traditional stoves. Initially, many preferred ICSs over traditional stoves, but this preference decreased over the 3-week trial period. Complaints and suggestions for improvement fell into two general categories: those that can be addressed through fairly simple modifications to the stove design, and those more appropriately addressed through point-of-purchase consumer education and follow-up from service agents or health outreach workers. Most households using the ICS realized fuel use reductions, although these were lower than expected, partly because of continued parallel traditional stove use. When given the option to purchase the stoves at market value, only one of 105 households did so; however, a separate assessment showed that 80% of participants (12 of 15 households) preferred to keep the stove rather than receive a cash buyout at market value. This indicates that users value the ICS when acquisition barriers are removed and highlights the need for better financing options.
David L. Nicholls; Geoffrey H. Donovan; Joseph. Roos
In Alaska, red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) is an abundant but commercially underutilized species despite having properties suitable for higher value products, including furniture and cabinetry. However, it laces the name recognition of mote traditional hardwoods. Our research measured the effect of this lack of familiarity on consumer preferences...
Buhagiar, Mark A; Naylor, Justine M; Simpson, Grahame; Harris, Ian A; Kohler, Friedbert
To understand private consumer and clinician preferences towards different rehabilitation modes following knee or hip arthroplasty, and identify factors which influence the chosen rehabilitation pathway. Mixed methods cross-sectional study involving 95 semi-structured interviews of consumers (patients and carers) and clinicians (arthroplasty surgeons, physiotherapists and rehabilitation physicians) in Sydney, Australia, during 2014-2015. Participants were asked about the acceptability of different modes of rehabilitation provision, and factors influencing their chosen rehabilitation pathway. Interviews were in person or via the telephone. Qualitative analysis software was used to electronically manage qualitative data. An analytical approach guided data analysis. Pre-operative preferences strongly influenced the type of rehabilitation chosen by consumers. Key factors that influenced this were both intrinsic and extrinsic, including; the previous experience of self or known others, the perceived benefits of the chosen mode, a sense of entitlement, the role of orthopaedic surgeons and influence of patient preference, a patient's clinical status post-surgery, the private hospital business model and insurance provider involvement. The acceptability of rehabilitation modes varied between clinician groups. No one rehabilitation mode provided following arthroplasty is singularly preferred by stakeholders. Factors other than the belief that a particular mode was more effective than another appear to dominate the pathway followed by private arthroplasty consumers, indicating evidence-based policies around rehabilitation provision may have limited appeal in the private sector.
Alemu, Mohammed Hussen
in developing countries. Due to these benefits, stakeholders in the food sector have recently focused on establishing the insect production sector. Nevertheless, there are a number of issues that need to be investigated before the production is fully optimized. This thesis investigates consumer demand in terms...... of consumers' preferences and willingness-topay (WTP) for insect-based food products in Kenya. It does this by focusing on the association of consumers' psychological orientations, contextual attributes, tasting experience and peer influence with consumers' choice behavior. A further focus is an investigation...... of the impacts of value elicitation methods in terms of hypothetical and nonhypothetical market scenarios on consumers' WTP for the insect-based food products. Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are employed to collect data in field settings. The data is then analyzed using the state-of-the-art choice modeling...
Dwi Gemina; Titiek Tjahya Andari; Indra Cahya Kusuma
Consumer behavior will determine their decision making in the buying process. The approach to the decision making process that gives a specific description on the reason why consumers behave in certain ways was conducted by: 1) formulating structural variables that affect external and internal factors towards perception; 2) formulating structural variables of perception towards attitude and preference; 3) formulating structural variables of attitude and preference towards consumer behavior on...
Full Text Available Abstract Many factors have been discussed in the literature as the causes for setbacks in the Brazilian ethanol supply chain, such as the low price of petroleum and the high price of sugar in the financial crisis in 2008. However, there is an important gap that was not explored yet, how do drivers choose to refuel their cars? Do the supply chain managers know their consumers? Based on that, this paper aims to demonstrate how the ethanol supply chain stakeholders perceive consumers' preferences and compare them to the factors that are taken into consideration by Brazilian flexible-fuel vehicles drivers when choosing types of fuel gasoline or ethanol. For that, we illustrated the case by using a sample of announcements collected from Brazilian news media featuring the supply chain managers' view and the survey taken by drivers to understand the consumer's actions. Our results indicate that there is a significant difference between the actual preferences of fuel consumers and the perceived consumers' preferences by the stakeholders. This disparity is probably the (or one of the main cause of the second setback in the Brazilian supply chain (2009–2012. Based on these results we point out the strategic implications in managing this supply chain and also the role of public policy in improving the diffusion of ethanol in Brazil.
Full Text Available Many people view animal welfare standards in the agricultural industry as critical and some consumers would prefer to buy high welfare meat. In order to successfully introduce high welfare meat products onto the market, some important marketing decisions must be made. Due to limited shelf space in retail outlets, niche products like high welfare meat cannot be placed both at the self-service counter and at the service counter. In order to analyze where to place it best an online survey of 642 German consumers was conducted. By means of factor and cluster analyses, consumers’ animal welfare attitudes and their preference for a point of purchase were combined. The different target groups were joint using cross tabulation analysis. The results reveal that consumers in the target group show a more positive attitude to the service counter.
Gener Augusto Penso
Full Text Available Abstract In Brazil, there are few studies and information available on consumer preferences for peaches and nectarines. This lack of information, has hindered some aspects of the production chain, as the choice and exploitation of more appropriate cultivars, offer periods, adoption of marketing and marketing strategies, consequently affecting the availability and commercialization of fruits. This study aimed to analyze the consumer preference of peaches and nectarines, evaluate the traits observed for their acquisition, and the marketplace where they are preferably purchased. The research was carried out from November 2016 to February 2017, using the descriptive research methodology, by Survey method and Web 2.0. A structured questionnaire was applied with closed questions. An online form questionnaire was prepared using the Google docs application and also distributed online, through the internet social Medias. 610 people participated in the survey, with predominance of consumers living in the South and Southeast regions of the country, in the age groups of 21 to 30 years old, with a predominance of female participants. Consumption is mainly in the in natura form, and often predominates certain times a year. Consumers buy these fruits mainly in the supermarkets/hypermarkets. The consumers of peaches and nectarines in Brazil have a higher preference for fruits with yellow flesh and red epidermis, followed by fruits with white flesh and intense red epidermis, both preferably with free stone. The main criteria for the acquisition of peaches and nectarines in Brazil are fruit appearance (presence and/or absence of defects, bruises, etc.; followed by price, color of epidermis and fruit size.
Faber, Isaac; Lane, William; Pak, Wayne; Prakel, Mary; Rocha, Cheyne; Farr, John V.
The fragility of the modern electrical grid is exposed during random events such as storms, sporting events and often simply routine operation. Even with these obvious flaws large utilities and governments have been slow to create robust solutions due to the need of large capital investments required to address the issues. In this light creative economic and engineering solutions are desired to finance the needed upgrades. Driven by the requirement to have uninterrupted power that meets customers desires this research focuses on linking consumer preferences to a type of energy source in order to best fulfill stakeholder priorities. This approach is in contrast to the current and prevalent lowest cost methods to producing and consuming energy. This research yields a preliminary ‘micro-energy market’ that consists of an energy network architecture, pricing methodology and mathematical template which quantifies potential economic inefficiencies. If exploited these inefficiencies could be used to fund investment into various energy sources that provide unmet needs such as reduced carbon footprint, renewable, quality, and local production. These inefficiencies can be best exploited within the structure of a microgrid. Identification of opportunities on this smaller scale can provide an incentive for producers to develop a robust set of production facilities of varying size and characteristics to meet the consumer preferences. A stochastic optimization model of a microgrid implementation for a small military installation is used to evaluate the effects of this pricing methodology. The energy production of the resulting microgrid would be optimized to meet consumer preferences and minimize economic inefficiency. - Highlights: • This research focuses on linking consumer preferences to a type of energy source. • Pricing methodology quantifies strategic investments in alternative sources. • Inefficiencies could be used to fund investment into various energy sources
Full Text Available Abstract. The aims of this research were to identify brand recall as well as to analyze consumers’ attitude and consumers’ preference toward pioneer and follower brands on processed dairy product. One hundred and fifty housewives were engaged as respondents in this research. The techniques used in the data analysis were non parametric two related sample test, one sample t-test and independent sample t-test. The result indicated that each of the product category, the percentage of the pioneer brand preference was higher than follower brand, namely Ultra Milk (87.30%, Yakult (94.70%, Anlene (93.30% and Kraft (98.70%. The result showed that from 150 respondents were able to correctly recall Ultra Milk (66.70%, Yakult (86.70%, Anlene (82.70% and Kraft (96.00% as the pioneer brand on each product category. Furthermore, the results showed that the average consumer attitudes were higher toward the pioneer brands than the follower brands. The result also indicated that consumers preferred pioneer brands than follower brands for the same flavour, quality and price. The result led to conclusion that consumers retrieved or recalled pioneer brands more correctly than follower brands. Moreover, consumers had a more favourable attitude to pioneer brands than to follower brands, in which consumers preferred to purchase the pioneer brands products to those of the follower brands concerning the farm-manufactured products of UHT milk, pro-biotic milk, high-calcium milk and cheese. Key Words: brand retrieval, brand recall, attitudes, preference
Full Text Available ABSTRACT With the aim of identifying strategies to increase fruit consumption in Temuco, consumer segments were classified according to the importance and preference of theattributes type of fruit, package/ brand, benefit associated with fruit consumption and price. A survey was applied to 400 people in Temuco,Chile, distributed using a simple allocation: 200 working adults and 200university students. The questionnaire included the SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life scale, respondents’ fruit consumption habits and their characteristics. Using conjoint and cluster analyses, three segments were distinguished: Group 1 (22.0% gave greatest importance to the package/brand and preferred themessage “prevents diseases” and “without information”; Group 2 (47.5% gave greatest importance to the package/brand and preferred the message “prevents diseases”; Group 3 (30.5% assigned greatest importance to the price and preferred the message “contains antioxidants”. The segments differed in their level of satisfaction with food-related life, self-declared lifestyle, age and presence of university students. The results provide input to promote fruit consumption in working adults and university students.
Gutner, Cassidy A; Pedersen, Eric R; Drummond, Sean P A
Inclusion of consumer preferences to disseminate evidence-based psychosocial treatment (EBPT) is crucial to effectively bridge the science-to-practice quality chasm. We examined this treatment gap for insomnia, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and comorbid symptoms in a sample of 622 young adult veterans through preference in symptom focus, treatment modality, and related gender differences among those screening positive for each problem. Data were collected from veteran drinkers recruited through targeted Facebook advertisements as part of a brief online alcohol intervention. Analyses demonstrated that veterans reported greater willingness to seek insomnia-focused treatment over PTSD- or depression-focused care. Notably, even when participants screened negative for insomnia, they preferred sleep-focused care to PTSD- or depression-focused care. Although one in five veterans with a positive screen would not consider care, veterans screening for both insomnia and PTSD who would consider care had a preference for in-person counseling, and those screening for both insomnia and depression had similar preferences for in-person and mobile app-based/computer self-help treatment. Marginal gender differences were found. Incorporating direct-to-consumer methods into research can help educate stakeholders about methods to expand EBPT access. Though traditional in-person counseling was often preferred, openness to app-based/computer interventions offers alternative methods to provide veterans with EBPTs. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sena-Esteves, Maria Madalena; Mota, Mariana; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel
The preference for sweet taste in red wine was examined according to consumer categories of age, gender, drinking experience and personality type (Big-5 personality-test). A total of 114 subjects revealed their preferences for sweetness after tasting dry red wine spiked with equal concentrations of glucose and fructose at 2g/L, 4g/L, 8g/L, 16g/L and 32g/L, following an ascending forced choice paired comparison method (2-AFC). The overall preference for sweetness was shown within the range of 4.8 to 21.9g/L, with maximal liking at 8g/L. Three patterns of response to sweetness were observed (sweet dislikers, sweet likers and indifferent to sweet) according to the different categories of consumers. Differences (p>0.05) were not found in sweetness preference among the categories up to 16g/L sugar except for the trait extraversion at 8g/L, where low extraverts showed a higher proportion of responses preferring the sweeter sample. Most significant differences were found only under the highest tasted concentration (32g/L). Females and novices preferred sweeter samples (pconsumers, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Verbeke, Wim; Pérez-Cueto, Federico J A; Barcellos, Marcia D de; Krystallis, Athanasios; Grunert, Klaus G
This paper presents the combined mid-term findings of the consumer research components of two EU Sixth Framework Programme integrated projects concerning meat, ProSafeBeef and Q-PorkChains. The consumer pillar of ProSafeBeef carried out eight focus group discussions in May 2008, in France, Germany, Spain and the UK. Q-PorkChains conducted a large-scale, web-based, consumer survey in January 2008 in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece and Poland. The first project provides a set of qualitative data from a small cohort of focus groups and the second a set of quantitative data from a larger consumer sample. This paper draws together the main findings of both projects and provides a comprehensive overview of European citizens' and consumers' attitudes towards and preferences regarding beef and pork. In general, consumers consider meat to be a healthy and important component of the diet. Consumers support the development of technologies that can improve the health attributes of meat products and guarantee eating quality, but they have a negative view of what they see to be excessive manipulation and lack of naturalness in the production and processing of beef products. In the Q-PorkChains study consumer and citizen segments are identified and profiled. Consumer segments were built upon the frequency and variety of pork consumption. The citizen segments were built upon their attitudes towards pig production systems. Overall, the relationship between individuals' views as citizens and their behaviour as consumers was found to be quite weak and did not appear to greatly or systematically influence meat-buying habits. Future studies in both projects will concentrate on consumers' acceptance of innovative meat product concepts and products, with the aim of boosting consumer trust and invigorating the European beef and pork industries.
Zhi, Ruicong; Zhao, Lei; Shi, Jingye
Developing innovative products that satisfy various groups of consumers helps a company maintain a leading market share. The hedonic scale and just-about-right (JAR) scale are 2 popular methods for hedonic assessment and product diagnostics. In this paper, we chose to study flavored liquid milk because it is one of the most necessary nutrient sources in China. The hedonic scale and JAR scale methods were combined to provide directional information for flavored liquid milk optimization. Two methods of analysis (penalty analysis and partial least squares regression on dummy variables) were used and the results were compared. This paper had 2 aims: (1) to investigate consumer preferences of basic flavor attributes of milk from various cities in China; and (2) to determine the improvement direction for specific products and the ideal overall liking for consumers in various cities. The results showed that consumers in China have local-specific requirements for characteristics of flavored liquid milk. Furthermore, we provide a consumer-oriented product design method to improve sensory quality according to the preference of particular consumers. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Emmanuel Olateju Oyatoye
Full Text Available Conjoint analysis is a technique for establishing the relative importance of different attributes in the provision of a good or a service. In this study, conjoint analysis was applied to characterize beverage product preferences for customers. information during buyer-seller purchasing decision interactions. It identify the influence certain consumers preferences have on beverage purchasing behavior. Using focus group discussion, major attributes were specified. The attributes were then used to generate a plan card using the orthogonal array method. A conjoint based survey using 29 ranked beverages attributes formed the basis of the questionnaires that were randomly administered to 200 purchasers. of beverages drinks between January and March 2013 to specify their preferences. Conjoint analysis was used and the result indicates that the preference range that would deliver the most utility for beverage consumers include products attributes such as reduced price (- 0.478, cylindrical package (-5.822, moderately dissolving beverage granule (-1.833 and taste (- 0.333. The findings conclude that producer need to take the issue of packaging serious in production by ensuring that their product is packaged in cylindrical container which will attract optimum attention of consumers thereby leading to profitability in the long run.
Røssvoll, Elin; Sørheim, Oddvin; Heir, Even; Møretrø, Trond; Olsen, Nina Veflen; Langsrud, Solveig
The aim of this study was to relate consumer preferences and preparation of hamburgers to color change, internal temperature and reduction of shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups O157 and the "Big Six" (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145) under two ground beef packaging scenarios: 75% O2 MAP and vacuum. 75% O2 MAP hamburgers cooked to 60 °C core temperature appeared done and showed less internal red color (lower a*) than corresponding vacuum hamburgers. Similar STEC reduction (<4 log10) was found for both hamburgers at core temperatures ≤ 66 °C. In a representative survey (N=1046) most consumers reported to judge hamburger doneness by the color and many preferred undercooked hamburgers. Premature browning of 75% O2 MAP hamburgers represents a risk of foodborne illness, when considering consumers' food handling practices. The risk is even greater if such ground beef is prepared by consumers who prefer undercooked hamburgers and judge doneness by color. © 2013.
Taylor, Susan J.; Armour, Carol L.
AIM: The purpose of the study was to assess the acceptability to consumers of two methods of induction of labour using a willingness-to-pay (WTP) approach. The methods compared were amniotomy plus oxytocin and prostaglandin E2 vaginal gel, followed by oxytocin if necessary. METHODS: A description of each method was presented, in questionnaire format, to pregnant women attending a public hospital ante-natal clinic. Women were asked to choose one of the two treatments, then give a valuation in dollar terms for both their preferred treatment and the alternative. RESULTS: It was found that 73.7% of patients preferred gel. The mean maximum WTP for amniotomy plus oxytocin was Aus$133 while that for gel was Aus$178 (P=0.0001). Those who chose amniotomy plus oxytocin were WTP 90% more for their preferred treatment compared with the alternative (Aus$180 vs. Aus$95). Similarly, those who preferred gel were WTP 90% more for their preferred treatment compared with the alternative (Aus$222 vs. Aus$119). CONCLUSION: Consumers were able to assess drug information provided on the two therapies, make an informed choice and to value that choice. Information obtained in this way, combined with information on costs, could be used in policy decision-making.
Taylor, Susan J.; Armour, Carol L.
Aim The purpose of the study was to assess the acceptability to consumers of two methods of induction of labour using a willingness‐to‐pay (WTP) approach. The methods compared were amniotomy plus oxytocin and prostaglandin E2 vaginal gel, followed by oxytocin if necessary. Methods A description of each method was presented, in questionnaire format, to pregnant women attending a public hospital ante‐natal clinic. Women were asked to choose one of the two treatments, then give a valuation in dollar terms for both their preferred treatment and the alternative. Results It was found that 73.7% of patients preferred gel. The mean maximum WTP for amniotomy plus oxytocin was Aus$133 while that for gel was Aus$178 (P=0.0001). Those who chose amniotomy plus oxytocin were WTP 90% more for their preferred treatment compared with the alternative (Aus$180 vs. Aus$95). Similarly, those who preferred gel were WTP 90% more for their preferred treatment compared with the alternative (Aus$222 vs. Aus$119). Conclusion Consumers were able to assess drug information provided on the two therapies, make an informed choice and to value that choice. Information obtained in this way, combined with information on costs, could be used in policy decision‐making. PMID:11281930
Full Text Available Given the debate generated by Genetically Modified (GM foods in developed and developing countries, the aim was to evaluate the importance of determining factors in the preference of consumers in Temuco and Talca in central-southern Chile for GM foods using conjoint analysis and to determine the existence of different market segments using a survey of 800 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was established that, in general, genetic modification was a more important factor than either brand or price in the consumer's decision to purchase either food. Cluster analysis identified three segments: the largest (51.4% assigned greatest importance to brand and preferred genetically modified milk and tomato sauce; the second group (41.0% gave greatest importance to the existence of genetic manipulation and preferred non-genetically modified foods; the smallest segment (7.6% mainly valued price and preferred milk and tomato sauce with no genetic manipulation. The three segments rejected the store brand and preferred to pay less for both foods. The results are discussed based on studies conducted in developed and developing countries.
Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Fineout-Overholt, Ellen
Although evidence-based practice (EBP) integrates the best evidence from well-designed studies with a clinician's expertise and patient preferences and values, most of what is emphasized in books and reports on EBP is the 5-step EBP process. However, the consideration of patient values and preferences in making clinical decisions is essential to deliver the highest quality of care. This article briefly reviews the status of EBP in the United States, described the ARCC mentorship model, and highlights how to engage consumers in the EBP process.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a rapid consumer survey undertaken in Uganda. The survey aimed at identifying preferred quality and safety attributes, retail forms and retail outlets for major livestock products and by type of consumers. Results of the survey, combined with nationally representative household datasets, allows description of both the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of the developing market for animal-source foods, which is anticipated to provide major business opportunities for small-scale livestock producers in the short and medium terms.
Jensen, Helen H. [Iowa State University, Department of Economics, 578 Heady Hall, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)]. E-mail email@example.com
Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends.
Jensen, Helen H. . E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends
Jensen, Helen H
Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends.
Li, Shu; Sun, Yan; Wang, Yong
Previous studies on how framing differentially affects consumer perceptions of value from equivalent deals indicate that perceptions of deal value from price-saving versus extra-product promotions are moderated by the stock-up characteristic of the category. In this study, the authors explored the relationship between stock-up characteristic and frame preference and the influence of the consumable nature of goods on frame preference. An experiment involving 223 student participants showed that consumable nature, but not stock-up characteristic, affected frame preference. The authors discuss the implications of this finding for the study of information framing and how it impacts consumer judgment and decision making.
Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth
into consumers' preferences for termite-based food products (TBFPs) using data from a choice experiment survey in Kenya. A novel feature of this paper is that it investigates the combined effects of product-related and contextual attributes, as well as consumer attitudes on preferences for TBFPs. In addition......, the paper focuses on the extent to which preferences may be affected depending on the meal formats, i.e. whether the termites are introduced either as whole insects or as a processed component in a typical daily meal. The results suggest that consumers prefer TBFPs with high nutritional value and especially...... when they are recommended by officials. Results further indicate that affirmative recommendations are particularly important for the processed TBFP, and consumers prefer to buy this type of product in kiosks or supermarkets than at local marketplaces. Despite a considerable degree of preference...
Scozzafava, Gabriele; Corsi, Armando Maria; Casini, Leonardo; Contini, Caterina; Loose, Simone Mueller
Meat is expensive to produce, making it is essential to understand the importance consumers pay to different meat cuts. Previous research on consumers' meat choices has mainly focused on meat species, while consumer preferences for meat cuts has so far only received limited interest. The aim of this study is to shed some light into this relatively unexplored area by answering four research questions. First, this study intends to show the relative importance meat cuts play in relation to other extrinsic product attributes. Secondly, this paper looks into differences in choice criteria between regular and special occasions. Third, consumer segments that differ in their preferences and beef purchase are identified, and, finally, the meat purchase portfolios of these segments are revealed. A stated preference methodology of a discrete choice experiment with cut-specific prices covering several meat cuts simultaneously is proposed to answer the research questions. The sample consists of 1500 respondents representative of the Italian population in terms of age, gender and geographic location The results shows that meat cut is the most important factor when choosing bovine meat followed by quality certification (origin), production technique, the type of breed and price. In terms of consumption occasions, we observe significantly lower price sensitivity for marbled steaks and cutlets for special occasions compared to normal occasions. Segmentation analysis shows that while the choices of two segments (comprising about 40% of the sample) are mostly driven by extrinsic product attributes, the remaining segments are mostly driven by meat cuts. These varying preferences are also reflected in the purchase portfolios of the different segments, while less variability is detected from a socio-demographic perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Madura island has high potential for producing tropical fruits, but it still not being well managed especially concerning with the value added Fruit leather is a product created by using various fruits and simple technology application. Fruit leather is categorized as new product on the market, therefore it is important to know consumer preference towards fruit leather attributes so that producer can design an acceptable product in the market. The research investigated attributes within the l...
Taylor, Susan; Hourihan, Fleur; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol
Evaluation of a community pharmacy disease management program for type 2 diabetes, "SugarCare", was conducted. Compared with the standard care offered by pharmacists, this enhanced program offered patients closer monitoring of blood glucose levels, counselling about lifestyle, etc. The SugarCare study was funded by a grant but if the care is to continue some other method of financing must be found. Objectives: This study aimed to measure consumer preference for one of the two types of care of...
Krass I; Armour C; Taylor S; Hourihan F
Evaluation of a community pharmacy disease management program for type 2 diabetes, ‘SugarCare’, was conducted. Compared with the standard care offered by pharmacists, this enhanced program offered patients closer monitoring of blood glucose levels, counselling about lifestyle, etc. The SugarCare study was funded by a grant but if the care is to continue some other method of financing must be found. Objectives: This study aimed to measure consumer preference for one of the two types of care of...
Ali Alsharef Khlil Khalifah
Full Text Available Persaingan tajam antara bisnis properti perusahaan meningkat seiring dengan bertambahnya populasi dengan meningkatnya kebutuhan rumah. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis preferensi konsumen tentang penampilan rumah yang ditawarkan oleh pengembang perumahan di Semarang. Populasi dalam penelitian ini pengunjung dari pameran perumahan diselenggarakan di beberapa Mall di Semarang. Teknik analisis yang digunakan adalah persepsi responden tentang preferensi konsumen dalam jenis penampilan rumah dengan analisis deskriptif karena dalam analisis deskriptif akan mencerminkan pendapat sebenarnya dari responden penelitian. Berdasarkan hasil dan analisis, kesimpulan dalam penelitian ini adalah: Jenis rumah yang konsumen paling sukai adalah tipe minimalis dan yang kedua adalah tipe Vernakular. Hal ini karena bentuk Minimalist yang ramping dan menarik di hampir setiap ruang. Tipe Minimalis juga memiliki keunikan yang sangat sederhana dan menarik juga modern. Jenis minimalis sangat populer dan harga yang lebih rendah. Sementara itu, jenis vernakular lebih hampir oleh pengusaha yang berasal dari masyarakat kelas tinggi dan mereka mengatakan jenis vernakular besar dan mewah, juga georgeous. [Title: Consumer Preference in Type of House Appearance Offered by Housing Developer in Semarang] Competition among companies property enhances along with increasing population coupled with the increasing needs of house. The purpose of this study is to analyze the consumer preference in type of house appearance offered by housing developer in Semarang. The method used in this research is qualitative methods because the qualitative methods more better in explaining the phenomena in practices. The analytical method used is depending on respondent perception about consumer preference in type of house appearance with descriptive analysis. The house type that the consumer prefer mostly is minimalist type and the second is Vernacular type. This is because the spare
Aaslyng, M D; Tørngren, M A; Madsen, N T
Beef steaks retail-packed with (80% O(2), 20% CO(2)) or without oxygen (either skin-packed or gas-packed (69.6% N(2), 30% CO(2), 0.04% CO or 70% N(2), 30% CO(2))) were compared by consumers in Denmark (n=382), Norway (n=316) and Sweden (n=374). Two pairs of two steaks - one steak packed in a high oxygen atmosphere and one packed without oxygen - were given to the consumers. They were instructed to prepare the steaks at home on two consecutive days, and two persons had to taste each steak. In Denmark, the oxygen-free packing was either gas packing with CO (69.6% N(2), 30% CO(2), 0.04% CO) or without CO (70% N(2), 30% CO(2)), in Norway it was either gas packing with CO (69.6% N(2), 30% CO(2), 0.04% CO) or skin packing, and in Sweden it was either skin packing or gas packing without CO (70% N(2), 30% CO(2)). The meat represented animals that were between 17 and 80 months old (Denmark) and young bulls (Norway and Sweden). Consumers in all three countries clearly preferred steaks packed without oxygen, in terms of overall liking, willingness to pay and their preferred choice of one steak. Furthermore, they preferred the oxygen-free steaks in terms of both overall liking and liking of tenderness, juiciness and flavour. In Sweden, many consumers would pay more than usual for the skin-packed steak, and it was more often chosen as the preferred steak out of the four compared with gas-packed without oxygen. No difference was seen between the two oxygen-free packing methods in Denmark and Norway. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Feldmann , Corinna; Hamm, Ulrich
The purpose of this paper is to get a deeper insight into consumer preferences for different food products varying in their places of origin (i.e. local, Germany, neighbouring country, non-EU country) and production practices (i.e. organic vs. non-organic). Therefore, consumer surveys combined with choice experiments were conducted with 641 consumers in eight supermarkets in different parts of Germany. Multinomial and mixed logit models were estimated to draw conclusions on the preference str...
Jimenez, Daniel E.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Cardenas, Veronica; Daliwal, Sanam S.; Alegría, Margarita
Background Beliefs concerning the causes of mental illness may help explain why there are significant disparities in the rates of formal mental health service use among racial/ethnic minority elderly as compared with their Caucasian counterparts. This study applies the Cultural Influences on Mental Health framework to identify the relationship between race/ethnicity and differences in: (1) beliefs on the cause of mental illness; (2) preferences for type of treatment; and (3) provider characteristics. Method Analyses were conducted using baseline data collected from participants who completed the Cultural Attitudes toward Healthcare and Mental Illness Questionnaire, developed for the PRISM-E (Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for the Elderly) study, a multi-site randomized trial for older adults (65+) with depression, anxiety, or at-risk alcohol consumption. The final sample consisted of 1257 non-Latino Whites, 536 African-Americans, 112 Asian-Americans, and 303 Latinos. Results African-Americans, Asian-Americans, and Latinos had differing beliefs regarding the causes of mental illness when compared to Non-Latino Whites. Race/ethnicity was also associated with determining who makes healthcare decisions, treatment preferences, and preferred characteristics of healthcare providers. Conclusions This study highlights the association between race/ethnicity and health beliefs, treatment preferences, healthcare decisions, and consumers' preferred characteristics of healthcare providers. Accommodating the values and preferences of individuals can be helpful in engaging racial/ethnic minority patients in mental health services. PMID:21992942
Jimenez, Daniel E; Bartels, Stephen J; Cardenas, Veronica; Dhaliwal, Sanam S; Alegría, Margarita
Beliefs concerning the causes of mental illness may help to explain why there are significant disparities in the rates of formal mental health service use among racial/ethnic minority elderly as compared with their white counterparts. This study applies the cultural influences on mental health framework to identify the relationship between race/ethnicity and differences in 1) beliefs on the cause of mental illness, 2) preferences for type of treatment, and 3) provider characteristics. Analyses were conducted using baseline data collected from participants who completed the cultural attitudes toward healthcare and mental illness questionnaire, developed for the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for the Elderly study, a multisite randomized trial for older adults (65+) with depression, anxiety, or at-risk alcohol consumption. The final sample consisted of 1,257 non-Latino whites, 536 African Americans, 112 Asian Americans, and 303 Latinos. African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos had differing beliefs regarding the causes of mental illness when compared with non-Latino whites. Race/ethnicity was also associated with determining who makes healthcare decisions, treatment preferences, and preferred characteristics of healthcare providers. This study highlights the association between race/ethnicity and health beliefs, treatment preferences, healthcare decisions, and consumers' preferred characteristics of healthcare providers. Accommodating the values and preferences of individuals can be helpful in engaging racial/ethnic minority patients in mental health services.
Trujillo, Antonio J; Ruiz, Fernando; Bridges, John F P; Amaya, Jeannette L; Buttorff, Christine; Quiroga, Angélica M
In many countries, health insurance coverage is the primary way for individuals to access care. Governments can support access through social insurance programmes; however, after a certain period, governments struggle to achieve universal coverage. Evidence suggests that complex individual behaviour may play a role. Using a choice experiment, this research explored consumer preferences for health insurance in Colombia. We also evaluated whether preferences differed across consumers with differing demographic and health status factors. A household field experiment was conducted in Bogotá in 2010. The sample consisted of 109 uninsured and 133 low-income insured individuals. Each individual evaluated 12 pair-wise comparisons of hypothetical health plans. We focused on six characteristics of health insurance: premium, out-of-pocket expenditure, chronic condition coverage, quality of care, family coverage and sick leave. A main effects orthogonal design was used to derive the 72 scenarios used in the choice experiment. Parameters were estimated using conditional logit models. Since price data were included, we estimated respondents' willingness to pay for characteristics. Consumers valued health benefits and family coverage more than other attributes. Additionally, differences in preferences can be exploited to increase coverage. The willingness to pay for benefits may partially cover the average cost of providing them. Policy makers might be able to encourage those insured via the subsidized system to enrol in the next level of the social health insurance scheme through expanding benefits to family members and expanding the level of chronic condition coverage.
Kamarul Ariffin Mansor
Full Text Available Since the enactment of the Takaful Act 1984, Malaysia’s Takaful industry has been achieving momentum and increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to Malaysia’s overall Islamic financial system. Hence, for continuing future progress in financial industry’s rapid development, Malaysian government through Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM, invites financial institution across the world to establish Takaful and re-takaful operations in Malaysia to conduct foreign currency business. Nowadays, Muslim’s consumers have the option to choose either Takaful or conventional insurance product. In addition, based on the nature of Takaful product descriptions, it has a higher preference since it is Syariah compliant which align with the Islamic regulation. However, the concept of Takaful is still vague to many people even to the Muslim because there is no proper explanation to educate them on lot of hidden advantages of it. Therefore, this study investigates the causal relationship between consumer awareness, perception and religiosity towards Muslim’s consumer preferences on Takaful product. Primary data were collected through series of questions in a questionnaire that were distributed among Muslim’s Takaful customers of selected Takaful agencies. Analysis on the collected data was performed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and structural equation modelling (SEM using lavaan package in R software. A CFA result show fit indices that met the recommended values criteria. In addition, the path analysis in SEM reports that two out of three independent variables are significant contributors to Muslim’s customers’ preferences towards Takaful.
Utami, Hesty Nurul; Sadeli, Agriani Hermita; Perdana, Tomy; Renaldy, Eddy; Mahra Arari, H.; Ajeng Sesy N., P.; Fernianda Rahayu, H.; Ginanjar, Tetep; Sanjaya, Sonny
There are various fertilizer products in the markets for farmers to be used for farming activities. Fertilizers are a supplements supply to soil nutrients, build up soil fertility in order to support plant nutrients and increase plants productivity. Fertilizers consists of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, micro vitamins and other complex nutrient in farming systems that commonly used in agricultural activities to improve quantity and quality of harvest. Recently, market demand for fertilizer has been increased dramatically; furthermore, fertilizer companies are required to develop strategies to know about consumer preferences towards several issues. Consumer preference depends on consumer needs selected by subject (individual) that is measured by utilization from several things that market offered and as final decision on purchase process. West Java is one of province as the main producer of agricultural products and automatically is one of the potential consumer's fertilizers on farming activities. This research is a case study in nine districts in West Java province, i.e., Bandung, West Bandung, Bogor, Depok, Garut, Indramayu, Majalengka, Cirebon and Cianjur. The purpose of this research is to describe the attributes on consumer preference for fertilizers. The multi-dimensional scaling method is used as quantitative method to help visualize the level of similarity of individual cases on a dataset, to describe and mapping the information system and to accept the goal. The attributes in this research are availability, nutrients content, price, form of fertilizer, decomposition speed, easy to use, label, packaging type, color, design and size of packaging, hardening process and promotion. There are tendency towards two fertilizer brand have similarity on availability of products, price, speed of decomposition and hardening process.
The aim of this thesis is to show marketing possibilities for fermentation products and to generate sepcific recommendations for potential producers and marketers of fermentation products. Since the marketing of fermenting products is largely unexplored and a research gap, this project was launched with an exploratory phase. After the exploratory phase, private gardeners were identified as a promising customer group. Knowledge about the preferences of private gardeners when purchasing soil and fertilizer are crucial for the market success of processed fermentation products. In order to fathom the decision-making behavior of this potential customer group, personal interviews were conducted with private gardeners. These results enable potential producers and marketers of fermentation products to create a product that is in demand on the market because it meets the needs of potential consumers. The personal preferences, however, can be very different, for which reason a segmentation into different groups with similar preferences is made. [de
Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.
Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries decreased, but it is consumed more in non-rice-eating countries. This study aimed to investigate consumer preferences and attitudes toward Jasmine rice among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic
Aizaki, Hideo; Nanseki, Teruaki; Zhou, Hui
This study examined Japanese consumers' valuation of a good agricultural practice (GAP) label on packaged milk and investigated the effect of detailed GAP information on valuation. A total of 624 Japanese consumers were asked to select their most preferred milk through an online survey. The milk was assumed to have three attributes: the GAP label, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points certification, and price. The results showed that consumers' valuation of GAP was significantly positive. Although providing additional GAP information to a respondent who was aware of GAP and what it means had a positive effect on the consumers' valuation of GAP, provision of this information had no effect if the respondent knew about GAP either moderately or slightly, and had a negative effect if the respondent did not know about GAP at all. To increase broad consumer awareness and valuation of GAP, it is important to provide GAP information according to the requirements of consumers. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Chen, Zhen; Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin; Zhou, Xing-Lian
Cascading failure is one of the most central topics in the field of complex networks. In this paper, the cascading failure model is extended to the case of interdependent networks, and the effect of coupling preference on systems robustness is intensively investigated. It is found that the performance of coupling preference on robustness is dependent on coupling probability. Disassortative coupling is more robust for sparse coupling while assortative coupling performs better for dense coupling. We provide an explanation for this constructive phenomenon via examining cascading process from the microscopic point of view. Our work can be useful to the design and optimization of interdependent networked systems.
Montossi, F; Font-i-Furnols, M; del Campo, M; San Julián, R; Brito, G; Sañudo, C
There are increasing concerns of society towards the consumption of animal products which have been produced and transformed in a sustainable manner. This trend influences consumer purchasing decision making, particularly in developed countries. On the other hand, in the next years, the pressure to increase the volume and efficiency of meat production will be much higher to cope with the expected unsatisfied demand. At least in part, current and future technologies could contribute to solve this challenge. However, the use of some of these innovations could have a negative effect on consumer preferences. There is no consensus in our society about this dilemma. The objective of this paper is to review the scientific evidence related to these topics and to analyze and discuss the effect of some of the extrinsic and intrinsic factors linked with the sheep industry which could affect the acceptability of lamb meat by consumers. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Guerrero, Luis
Meat and meat products currently represent an important source of protein in the human diet, and their quality varies according to intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that can sometimes be shaped to make a product more desirable. Because consumers are the final step in the production chain, it is useful to identify which factors affect their behavioral patterns. This would allow the meat sector to better satisfy consumer expectations, demands and needs. This paper focuses on features that might influence consumer behavior, preferences and their perception of meat and meat products with respect to psychological, sensory and marketing aspects. This multidisciplinary approach includes evaluating psychological issues such as attitudes, beliefs, and expectations; sensory properties such as appearance, texture, flavor and odor; and marketing-related aspects such as price and brand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alayli-Goebbels, Adrienne F G; Dellaert, Benedict G C; Knox, Stephanie A; Ament, André J H A; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Bot, Sandra D M; Nijpels, G; Severens, J L
Health promotion (HP) interventions have outcomes that go beyond health. Such broader nonhealth outcomes are usually neglected in economic evaluation studies. To allow for their consideration, insights are needed into the types of nonhealth outcomes that HP interventions produce and their relative importance compared with health outcomes. This study explored consumer preferences for health and nonhealth outcomes of HP in the context of lifestyle behavior change. A discrete choice experiment was conducted among participants in a lifestyle intervention (n = 132) and controls (n = 141). Respondents made 16 binary choices between situations that can be experienced after lifestyle behavior change. The situations were described by 10 attributes: future health state value, start point of future health state, life expectancy, clothing size above ideal, days with sufficient relaxation, endurance, experienced control over lifestyle choices, lifestyle improvement of partner and/or children, monetary cost per month, and time cost per week. With the exception of "time cost per week" and "start point of future health state," all attributes significantly determined consumer choices. Thus, both health and nonhealth outcomes affected consumer choice. Marginal rates of substitution between the price attribute and the other attributes revealed that the attributes "endurance," "days with sufficient relaxation," and "future health state value" had the greatest impact on consumer choices. The "life expectancy" attribute had a relatively low impact and for increases of less than 3 years, respondents were not willing to trade. Health outcomes and nonhealth outcomes of lifestyle behavior change were both important to consumers in this study. Decision makers should respond to consumer preferences and consider nonhealth outcomes when deciding about HP interventions. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Full Text Available Albania has potential for developing the organic agriculture sector; however, it is a new industry and constraints abound including lack of consumer preferences information for organic food. Knowledge on consumer preferences and behaviour toward organic (bio products is crucial for market development benefiting potential entrepreneurs and government policies. They need to know the preference for preferred product attributes and willingness to pay. Tomato, which is the most important vegetable in terms of consumption and production in Albania, is the subject of this study. A conjoint choice experiment with the most important product attributes: production type (bio vs. conventional, production system (open field vs. greenhouse, origin and price were used to design the choice surveys. Four distinct classes have been identified as significant using latent class analysis. The classes are summarized as: bio-ready consumers, price sensitive consumers, variety seeking consumers and quality seeking consumers. Origin played a small influence on preference. Education and income did show some influence on preference for organic tomatoes. Although the organic food market in Albania is in its infancy stage, organic tomatoes are clearly preferred and many consumers are willing to pay a premium price.
The field of Consumer Electronics (CE) can be characterized by continuous technological innovation, fierce global competition, strong pressure on time-to-market, fast adoption cycles and increasingly complex business processes. In this context it is increasingly challenging for product designers and
Muhammad Rehan MASOOM
Full Text Available The present study is designed to make a comprehensive understanding of the attitude of the urban consumers and explore the factors involved in dealing with the perishable food of certain kinds. The rise of the middle class stipulates the enhancement of the shopping environment; hence witnessing a substantial increase of the number of the supermarkets in developing countries like Bangladesh will not be surprising. A number of urban supermarkets in recent times start selling perishable foods that were once available in Bangladesh only in flea markets (Kaccha Bazaar. However, due to the lack of proper infrastructure, agro-based perishable food reaches the urban market via a long process of chain mediations and raises concerns about quality and price for both retailers and consumers. Very often the attitudes of consumers regarding perishable foods are unknown and their preferences remain unidentified. This high level of uncertainty regarding the attitude of consumers and the unpopularity regarding overall food quality need to be resolved to ensure the continuity of the business and guarantee the quality of the products. This has made the study of the consumers’ attitude towards perishable food, especially relevant for emerging economies like Bangladesh. The data is collected from one hundred (100 consumers, who buy food regularly from both super-shops and flea markets in Dhaka city. The collected data are analyzed in terms of factors like importance, expectation and perceived actual level of value to show the gap in terms of perishable foods involved.
Owureku-Asare, Mavis; Ambrose, R P Kingsly; Oduro, Ibok; Tortoe, Charles; Saalia, Firibu K
Postharvest losses (PHL) are incurred in the tomato value chain in Ghana and solar drying of tomato is a promising technology for reducing the loss. However, there are concerns on the usage, functionality and sensory appeal of the dried products to consumers, compounded with the lack of information and research on dried tomato processing in Ghana. A survey was carried out by administering semistructured questionnaires to 395 randomly selected and willing respondents in the Accra Metropolis. Information was obtained on the socioeconomic profile, consumption pattern, knowledge, and acceptance of tomato processing technologies and assessment of quality attributes important to consumers. Most consumers (74%) preferred tomato powder that is conveniently packaged to retain the characteristic intense taste and the flavor using Friedman's rank mean procedure. The study indicated that consumers were more concerned about good manufacturing practices during the production of solar-dried tomato (48.8%) rather than the quality attributes (8.6%). These findings indicate the need for safe solar drying procedures in order to increase consumer acceptability of solar-dried tomato products in Ghana.
Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo
Roasted peanuts are a popular snack in Europe, but their drivers of liking and perceived freshness have not been previously studied with European consumers. Consumer research to date has been focused on U.S. consumers, and only on specific peanut cultivars. In this study, 26 unique samples were produced from peanuts of different types, cultivars, origins, and with different process technologies (including baking, frying, and maceration). The peanut samples were subjected to sensory (expert panel, Spectrum TM ) and instrumental analysis (color, headspace volatiles, sugar profile, large deformation compression tests, and graded by size) and were hedonically rated by consumers in The Netherlands, Spain, and Turkey (n > 200 each). Preference Mapping (PREFMAP) on mean liking models revealed that the drivers of liking are similar across the three countries. Sweet taste, roasted peanut, dark roast, and sweet aromas and the color b * value were related to increased liking, and raw bean aroma and bitter taste with decreased liking. Further partial least square regression (PLSR) modeling of liking and perceived freshness against instrumental attributes showed that the color coordinates in combination with sucrose content and a select few headspace volatiles were strong predictors of both preference and perceived freshness. Finally, additional PLSR models focusing on the headspace volatiles only showed that liking and ''fresh'' attributes were correlated with the presence of several pyrroles in the volatile fraction, and inversely related to ''stale'' and to hexanal and 2-heptanone. This study provides insight into which flavor, taste, and appearance attributes drive liking and disliking of roasted peanuts for European consumers. The drivers are linked back to analytical attributes that can be measured instrumentally, thereby reducing the reliance on costly sensory panels. Particular emphasis is placed on color as a predictor of preference, because of the low cost of the
Pedro Felipe da Costa Coelho
Full Text Available The advent of the Brazilian Law on the Inclusion of People with Disabilities, in 2015, has brought a series of implications for marketing researchers, since it concerns the rights to include people with disabilities in public and private consumption spaces, such as shopping malls. Despite the growth of these consumer spaces in Brazil, several failures in service encounters are frequent, especially when consumers are visually impaired. Therefore, this study aims to understand the consequences of service encounters failures in shopping malls for the consumer with visual disabilities. To reach this goal, we used a qualitative approach of phenomenological nature. Data were collected through direct and naturalistic observations and conduct of nine face-to-face interviews with visually impaired consumers. Through content analysis of the results, we concluded that there is a diversity of failures occurred in service encounters, such as excessive piety of sellers to consumers, contempt and the sudden change in the service script. For this reason, the consequences of service encounter failure were from the verbal confrontation and the withdrawal of the transaction to the word-of-mouth and negative expressions of frustration in virtual social networks. This article also presents managerial and academic contributions for marketing researchers.
Carpenter, C E; Cornforth, D P; Whittier, D
We investigated whether consumer preferences for beef colors (red, purple, and brown) or for beef packaging systems (modified atmosphere, MAP; vacuum skin pack, VSP; or overwrap with polyvinyl chloride, PVC) influenced taste scores of beef steaks and patties. To test beef color effects, boneless beef top loin steaks (choice) and ground beef patties (20% fat) were packaged in different atmospheres to promote development of red, purple, and brown color. To test effects of package type, steaks and patties were pre-treated with carbon monoxide in MAP to promote development of red color, and some meat was repackaged using VSP or PVC overwrap. The differently colored and packaged meats were separately displayed for members of four consumer panels who evaluated appearance and indicated their likelihood to purchase similar meat. Next, the panelists tasted meat samples from what they had been told were the packaging treatments just observed. However, the meat samples actually served were from a single untreated steak or patty. Thus, any difference in taste scores should reflect expectations established during the visual evaluation. The same ballot and sample coding were used for both the visual and taste evaluations. Color and packaging influenced (Ppurple >brown and PVC >VSP>MAP. Appearance scores and likelihood to purchase were correlated (r=0.9). However, color or packaging did not affect (P>0.5) taste scores. Thus, consumer preferences for beef color and packaging influenced likelihood to purchase, but did not bias eating satisfaction.
Ripoll, Guillermo; Blanco, Mireia; Albertí, Pere; Panea, Begoña; Joy, Margalida; Casasús, Isabel
Farmers in dry mountain areas are changing their management strategies to improve livestock farming efficiency, by using different forages or different breeds. The effect of breed (Parda de Montaña vs. Pirenaica) and finishing diet (grazing on meadows vs. a total mixed ration (50% alfalfa, 40% maize grain, 10% straw)) on carcass characteristics and meat quality of steers was studied. Parda de Montaña had a greater (P < 0.01) amount of intramuscular fat than Pirenaica. The finishing diet did not influence carcass fat color, but fatty acid composition was slightly affected. Finishing steers on a total mixed ration increased the percentage of fat of the 10th rib (P < 0.001). Supplementation with concentrates increased the diet energy concentration and also increased the dressing percentage. Both breeds had similar carcass characteristics. Consumers preferred beef from the Pirenaica breed because of its greater tenderness. Consumers did not differentiate between beef from animals fed different finishing diets. However, consumers who like meat very much preferred meat aged in a cooler at 4 °C for 15 days rather than 8 days. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Pang, Jocelyn; Hammond, David
To evaluate the efficacy and consumer preferences of calorie labeling on menus. Between-group experiment. Participants were randomized to view menu items according to 1 of 4 experimental conditions: no calorie information, calorie-only information, calorie plus health statement (HS), and calorie plus the Physical Activity Scale. Participants selected a snack and then rated menus from all conditions on the level of understanding and perceived effectiveness. University of Waterloo, Canada. A total of 213 undergraduate university students recruited from classrooms. The calorie amount of menu selection and ratings of understandability and perceived effectiveness. Linear regression models and chi-square tests. Participants who selected items from menus without calorie information selected snacks with higher calorie amounts than participants in the calorie-only condition (P = .002) and the calorie plus HS condition (P = .001). The calorie plus HS menu was perceived as most understandable and the calorie plus calorie plus Physical Activity Scale menu was perceived as most effective in helping to promote healthy eating. Calorie labeling on menus may assist consumers in making healthier choices, with consumer preference for menus that include contextual health statements. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Voorst, Sabine F; Ten Kate, Chantal A; de Jong-Potjer, Lieke C; Steegers, Eric A P; Denktaş, Semiha
Preconception care (PCC) is care that aims to improve the health of offspring by addressing risk factors in the pre-pregnancy period. Consultations are recognized as a method to promote perinatal health. However, prospective parents underutilize PCC services. Uptake can improve if delivery approaches satisfy consumer preferences. Aim of this study was to identify preferences of women (consumers) as a first step to social marketed individual PCC consultations. In depth, semi-structured interviews were performed to identify women's views regarding the four components of the social marketing model: product (individual PCC consultation), place (setting), promotion (how women are made aware of the product) and price (costs). Participants were recruited from general practices and a midwife's practice. Content analysis was performed by systematic coding with NVIVO software. The 39 participants reflected a multiethnic intermediately educated population. Product: Many participants had little knowledge of the need and the benefits of the product. Regarding the content of PCC, they wish to address fertility concerns and social aspects of parenthood. PCC was seen as an informing and coaching service with a predominant role for health-care professionals. the general practitioner and midwife setting was the most mentioned setting. Promotion: A professional led promotion approach was preferred. Price: Introduction of a fee for PCC consultations will make people reconsider their need for a consultation and could exclude vulnerable patients from utilization. This study provides consumer orientated data to design a social marketed delivery approach for individual PCC consultations. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Semple Susan J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Provision of consumer information and patient education are considered an essential part of chronic disease management programmes developed for patients with heart failure. This study aimed to review the quality and availability of consumer information materials for people with heart failure in Australia. Methods The availability of consumer information was assessed through a questionnaire-based survey of the major organisations in Australia known, or thought, to be producing or using consumer materials on heart failure, including hospitals. The questionnaire was designed to explore issues around the use, production and dissemination of consumer materials. Only groups that had produced consumer information on heart failure were asked to complete the totality of the questionnaire. The quality of information booklets was assessed by using a standardised checklist. Results Of 101 organisations which were sent a questionnaire, 33 had produced 61 consumer resources on heart failure including 21 information booklets, 3 videos, 5 reminder fridge magnets, 7 websites, 15 self-management diaries and 10 self-management plans. Questionnaires were completed for 40 separate information resources. Most had been produced by hospitals or health services. Two information booklets had been translated into other languages. There were major gaps in the availability of these resources as more than half of the resources were developed in 2 of the 8 Australian states and territories, New South Wales and Victoria. Quality assessment of 19 information booklets showed that most had good presentation and language. Overall eight high quality booklets were identified. There were gaps in terms of topics covered, provision of references, quantitative information about treatment outcomes and quality and level of scientific evidence to support medical recommendations. In only one case was there evidence that consumers had been involved in the production of
Full Text Available The paper examined consumer perceptions of banking services as a factor for bank’s preference among open and distance learning students. Survey research method was adopted. The population of study was the ODL students from which sample were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Questionnaire was administered on selected samples. The research instrument was validated through content validity while reliability was done through test-re-test method. Respondents’ perceptions of banking services were captured using the factor analysis technique to determine perceptions order of importance while T-Test determined its significance. The study revealed that the different perceptions of the customers were significant in influencing the choice of bank especially by the students. The paper concluded that the consumer perceptions of the banking services were essential requirements for understanding how well to delight banking customers. The study recommended that bank delivery services must be customer oriented and customer relationship focused
This paper presents an econometric study dealing with household demand in Sweden. The main objective is to empirically examine the differences in consumer reaction to the introduction of, or the change, in environmental taxes. Main focus is on environmental taxes as a signaling device. The hypothesis is that the introduction of an environmental tax provides new information about the properties of the directly taxed goods. This in turn may affect consumer preferences for these goods, hence altering the consumption choice. The result from the econometric analysis shows that all goods have negative own-price elasticities, and positive income elasticities. Concerning the signalling effect of environmental taxes the results are somewhat ambiguous. The tax elasticity for energy goods used for heating seems to be significantly higher than the traditional price elasticity, whereas the opposite seems to be the case for energy goods used for transportation
This paper presents an econometric study dealing with household demand in Sweden. The main objective is to empirically examine the differences in consumer reaction to the introduction of, or the change, in environmental taxes. Main focus is on environmental taxes as a signaling device. The hypothesis is that the introduction of an environmental tax provides new information about the properties of the directly taxed goods. This in turn may affect consumer preferences for these goods, hence altering the consumption choice. The result from the econometric analysis shows that all goods have negative own-price elasticities, and positive income elasticities. Concerning the signalling effect of environmental taxes the results are somewhat ambiguous. The tax elasticity for energy goods used for heating seems to be significantly higher than the traditional price elasticity, whereas the opposite seems to be the case for energy goods used for transportation
Yamaguchi, Keiko; Takeuchi, Kenji
This study was conducted using a web-based survey and bidding game in contingent valuation method to evaluate consumer preferences for packaging with less material. Results revealed that people who live in a municipality implementing unit-based pricing of waste have a higher willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a product. Economic instruments can affect the purchase of products with reduced packaging because a higher disposal cost increases the attractiveness of source reduction. However, unit-based pricing combined with plastic separation for recycling reduces WTP. This result suggests that recycling policy weakens the effect of economic instruments on source reduction of waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maciejovsky, Boris; Budescu, David V
Many Web sites provide consumers with product recommendations, which are typically presented by a sequence of verbal reviews and numerical ratings. In three experiments, we demonstrate that when participants switch between formats (e.g., from verbal to numerical), they are more prone to preference inconsistencies than when they aggregate the recommendations within the same format (e.g., verbal). When evaluating recommendations, participants rely primarily on central-location measures (e.g., mean) and less on other distribution characteristics (e.g., variance). We explain our findings within the theoretical framework of stimulus-response compatibility and we make practical recommendations for the design of recommendation systems and Web portals.
Paulos, Kátia; Rodrigues, Sandra; Oliveira, António Filipe; Leite, Ana; Pereira, Etelvina; Teixeira, Alfredo
The main objective of this study was the sensory characterization, by a taste and a consumers' panel, of fresh sausages from 140 culled goats and 140 culled ewes. Species and type of preparation effects were studied. All data were previously analyzed by analysis of variance. Taste panel data were analyzed by a Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA). Consumers' panel data were analyzed by Preference Mapping. The 1st 2 factors explained 88.22% of total variation in GPA. Different sausages samples were perfectly differentiated by assessors. Goat sausages have been considered harder, more fibrous, and less juicy than sheep sausages. The panelists observed that sheep sausages without paprika had greater intensity of flavor, tasted spicy, and had an off-odor, while goat sausages with paprika were considered sweeter. Consumers' panel did not show any preference for the different types of sausages. This means that all types of sausages can have market opportunity. The present study was a result of a project in co-promotion between 2 breeder associations, an industry unit and a research center. Results indicated that the meat from animals out of quality commercial brands could be useful as processed meat in a product with consumer acceptability. Also these new meat products brought diversity to meat industry to reach new markets and originating 2 new meat brands recorded at INPI (Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial—Natl. Industrial Property Inst.) with the numbers of 489664 and 489662 of National Brands of sheep and goat meat, respectively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
Banovic, Marija; Arvola, Anne; Pennanen, Kyösti; Duta, Denisa E; Brückner-Gühmann, Monika; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G
Foods with increased protein content have rapidly become one of the fastest-growing product categories targeting image- and health-focused consumers. However, it is not clear whether consumers really understand the difference between 'inherently rich in protein' and 'artificially increased protein'. This study used a qualitative focus group approach to investigate the consumer preferences and perceptions of foods with increased protein content among mixed-age and older population in four European countries. In total fifty-two participants were involved in the study. Understanding of the concept of foods with 'increased protein' content was limited. Both older and mixed-age participants could not differentiate between natural sources of protein and foods with increased protein content, no matter whether foods with animal or plant proteins were mentioned. Older participants expressed more scepticism towards foods with increased protein content than mixed-age participants. The combination of protein type and food carrier closer to conventional foods received more acceptance among both older and mixed-age participants. Future use and acceptance of foods with increased protein content will depend on the extent to which consumer concerns about incorporating additional protein into a diet can be responded. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ju, Se-Young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kwak, Tong-Kyoung; Kim, Kyu-Earn
The objective of this study was to investigate food allergens and prevalence rates of food allergies, followed by comparison of consumer attitudes and preferences regarding food allergy labeling by diagnosis of food allergies. A total of 543 individuals living in Seoul and Gyeonggi area participated in the survey from October 15 to 22 in 2013. The results show that the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed food allergies was 17.5%, whereas 6.4% of respondents self-reported food allergies. The most common allergens of doctor-diagnosed and self-reported food allergy respondents were peaches (30.3%) and eggs (33.3%), respectively, followed by peanuts, cow's milk, and crab. Regarding consumer attitudes toward food labeling, checking food allergens as an item was only significantly different between allergic and non-allergic respondents among all five items (P label, and addition of potential allergens) were necessary for an improved food allergen labeling system. PLSR analysis determined that the doctor-diagnosed group and checking of food allergens were positively correlated, whereas the non-allergy group was more concerned with checking product brands. An effective food labeling system is very important for health protection of allergic consumers. Additionally, government agencies must develop policies regarding prevalence of food allergies in Korea. Based on this information, the food industry and government agencies should provide clear and accurate food labeling practices for consumers.
Ju, Se-young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyu-earn
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to investigate food allergens and prevalence rates of food allergies, followed by comparison of consumer attitudes and preferences regarding food allergy labeling by diagnosis of food allergies. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 543 individuals living in Seoul and Gyeonggi area participated in the survey from October 15 to 22 in 2013. RESULTS The results show that the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed food allergies was 17.5%, whereas 6.4% of respondents self-reported food allergies. The most common allergens of doctor-diagnosed and self-reported food allergy respondents were peaches (30.3%) and eggs (33.3%), respectively, followed by peanuts, cow's milk, and crab. Regarding consumer attitudes toward food labeling, checking food allergens as an item was only significantly different between allergic and non-allergic respondents among all five items (P food allergen labeling system. PLSR analysis determined that the doctor-diagnosed group and checking of food allergens were positively correlated, whereas the non-allergy group was more concerned with checking product brands. CONCLUSIONS An effective food labeling system is very important for health protection of allergic consumers. Additionally, government agencies must develop policies regarding prevalence of food allergies in Korea. Based on this information, the food industry and government agencies should provide clear and accurate food labeling practices for consumers. PMID:26425282
Varela Mallou, J; Rial Boubeta, A; Braña Tobío, T
Brand is a product attribute that, for many types of goods or services, makes a major contribution to consumer preferences. Conjoint analysis is a useful technique for the assessment of brand values for a given consumer or group of consumers. In this paper, an application of conjoint analysis to the estimation of brand values in the Spanish daily newspaper market is reported. Four newspaper attributes were considered: brand (i.e., newspaper name), price (0.60, 1.05, or 1.50 euros), Sunday supplement (yes/no), and daily pullout (yes/no). A total of 510 regular readers of the national press, stratified by age and sex, were asked to rank 16 profiles representing an orthogonal fraction of the possible attribute-level combinations. Brand was by far the most important attribute, whereas price had negligible effect. More generally, the results confirm the utility of conjoint analysis for assessing brand equity in the newspaper market and for estimating the relative importance of the various attributes to different subgroups of consumers.
Poulos, Christine; Yang, Jui-Chen; Patil, Sumeet R; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Wood, Siri; Goodyear, Lorelei; Gonzalez, Juan Marcos
Over 5 billion people worldwide are exposed to unsafe water. Given the obstacles to ensuring sustainable improvements in water supply infrastructure and the unhygienic handling of water after collection, household water treatment and storage (HWTS) products have been viewed as important mechanisms for increasing access to safe water. Although studies have shown that HWTS technologies can reduce the likelihood of diarrheal illness by about 30%, levels of adoption and continued use remain low. An understanding of household preferences for HWTS products can be used to create demand through effective product positioning and social marketing, and ultimately improve and ensure commercial sustainability and scalability of these products. However, there has been little systematic research on consumer preferences for HWTS products. This paper reports the results of the first state-of-the-art conjoint analysis study of HWTS products. In 2008, we conducted a conjoint analysis survey of a representative sample of households in Andhra Pradesh (AP), India to elicit and quantify household preferences for commercial HWTS products. Controlling for attribute non-attendance in an error components mixed logit model, the study results indicate that the most important features to respondents, in terms of the effect on utility, were the type of product, followed by the extent to which the product removes pathogens, the retail outlet and, the time required to treat 10 L. Holding all other product attributes constant, filters were preferred to combination products and chemical additives. Department stores and weekly markets were the most favorable sales outlets, followed by mobile salespeople. In general, households do not prefer to purchase HWTS products at local shops. Our results can inform the types of products and sales outlets that are likely to be successful in commercial HWTS markets in AP, as well as the influence of different pricing and financing strategies on product demand
Monteiro, Maria João P; Costa, Ana Isabel A; Fliedel, Geneviève; Cissé, Mady; Bechoff, Aurélie; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Maria Manuela E
The need to increase sustainability and add value to traditional foods claiming health benefits led to the introduction of key improvements in the production of hibiscus beverages in Senegal. The physicochemical and sensory properties of three resulting products (an under-vacuum concentrate, a dilute-to-taste syrup and a ready-to-drink infusion) were assessed, vis-à-vis those of conventionally manufactured beverages, and their impact on local consumer preference determined (n=146). New beverages had more intense, redder colour and higher monomeric anthocyanin content, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Moreover, their colour evaluations by trained panellists were mainly linked to colour density and anthocyanin/polyphenol content, while flavour assessments were associated to titratable acidity and sugar-to-acid ratio. Consumer evaluations, in turn, were driven by the beverages' red colour intensity, aroma strength and balance between sweetness and acidity. This explained why they overwhelmingly preferred the under-vacuum concentrate, regardless of their age, gender or frequency of hibiscus beverage consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Extensive research on consumer food handling has identified common practices that could negatively impact food safety. Limited research has considered if food handling practices differ among diverse groups or if unique approaches are needed to provide food safety education for different audiences. This study examined food handling practice differences between African-American and Latino consumers and differing responses to food safety messages. Four focus groups were conducted, two with African-American participants and two with Latino participants, with each focus group consisting of 10-15 participants. Focus group transcripts were reviewed, coded, and grouped into themes using an iterative process. The 50 participants self-identified as either African-American or Latino, had home meal preparation experience, and were 18 years or older. Each focus group was multigenerational and included males and females. Risky food handling practices reported by both groups included rinsing poultry before cooking and limited food thermometer use. African-American participants preferred informational food safety messages, whereas Latino participants were split in preferring informational, guilt-inducing, and fear-inducing messages.
Håkonsen, Helle; Sundell, Karolina Andersson; Martinsson, Johan; Hedenrud, Tove
Following a large regulatory reform in 2009, which ended the state's pharmacy monopoly, non-pharmacy retailers in Sweden today sell certain over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate consumer preferences regarding OTC drug retailers and the reasons for choosing a pharmacy versus non-pharmacy retailer. We conducted a web survey aimed at Swedish adults. Out of a stratified sample of 4058 persons, 2594 agreed to take part (48% women; mean age: 50.3 years). Questions related to OTC drug use, retailer choice and factors affecting the participants' preferences for OTC drug retailers. Logistic regression was conducted to analyse OTC drug use and reasons for retailer choice in relation to sex, age and education. Nine in ten participants reported OTC drug use in the 6 months prior to the study. For their last OTC purchase, 76% had gone to a pharmacy, 20% to a grocery shop and 4% to a convenience store, gas station or online. Geographic proximity, opening hours and product range were reported as the most important factors in retailer choice. Counselling by trained staff was important to 57% of participants. The end of the state's pharmacy monopoly and the increase in number of pharmacies seem to have impacted more on Swedish consumers' purchase behaviours compared with the deregulation of OTC drug sales. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bechoff, Aurélie; Tomlins, Keith; Fliedel, Geneviève; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Westby, Andrew; Hershey, Clair; Dufour, Dominique
Breeding efforts have focused on improving agronomic traits of the cassava plant however little research has been done to enhance the crop palatability. This review investigates the links between cassava traits and end-user preference in relation with sensory characteristics. The main trait is starch and its composition related to the textural properties of the food. Pectin degradation during cooking resulted in increased mealiness. Nutritional components such as carotenoids made the cassava yellow but also altered sweetness and softness; however, yellow cassava was more appreciated by consumers than traditional (white) varieties. Components formed during processing such as organic acids gave fermented cassava products an acidic taste that was appreciated but the fermented smell was not always liked. Anti-nutritional compounds such as cyanogenic glucosides were mostly related to bitter taste. Post-harvest Physiological Deterioration (PPD) affected the overall sensory characteristics and acceptability. Genes responsible for some of these traits were also investigated. Diversity in cassava food products can provide a challenge to identifying acceptance criteria. Socio-economic factors such as gender may also be critical. This review leads to questions in relation to the adaptation of cassava breeding to meet consumer needs and preference in order to maximize income, health and food security.
Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Plumejeau, François; Maury, Chantal; Versari, Andrea
The main objective of this study was to improve the structure of a Cabernet Sauvignon red wine in a short period of time by micro-oxygenation (MOX) at high rates (25 and 50 mL L(-1) month(-1) ), the effects of which were evaluated based on sensory characteristics and consumer preference. Sensory data were analysed by principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and ordinal logistic regression (OLR). MOX led to significant differences in the colour, colour stability and phenolic compounds of wine. Sensory characteristics also changed through MOX treatment, and wine experts were able to discriminate between MOX-treated and untreated samples, with olfactory intensity, complexity, astringency and roundness being the main discriminating characteristics. Ordinal logistic regression enabled identification of the sensory characteristics that drove consumer preference. MOX at high rates improved the sensory characteristics of wine and may therefore be considered a valid technique for obtaining structured wines in a short period of time, i.e. within just a few months after the vintage. The results highlight the need for (i) careful selection of the MOX dosage rate and duration (the 25 mL L(-1) month(-1) dose for 6 days provided the best result) and (ii) continuous monitoring of the MOX treatment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth
demand as this would determine the success of product development. In this study, we present one of the first thorough assessments of consumer demand for an insect-based food. We assessed the demand in terms of Kenyan consumer preferences and willingness to pay for buns containing varying amounts...
Consumers and growers in China sometime complain that Kiwifruits treated with an ethylene action inhibitor 1-MCP are difficult to ripen and show poor eating quality. This study addresses the quality parameters affecting consumer preferences and reevaluates the necessity of 1-MCP application for stor...
Full Text Available Assesment aim to represent information about preferences of consumption in decided chosing of farming system of vegetables. Methode: combination of desk study assesment and QSA (Quick Simple Assessment, July 2015. Getting datas rendomizely at traditional market in Sentani and super market, 25 respondes at each market. Observations to: (i taste/preference; (ii product price; (iii long natural freshment security; (iv Amount/nutrition value/vitamine, (v quality. Main Parameter done by producer; (i product price degree ; (ii opportunity of benefit; (iii Risk of failure; (iv applicated of technology; (v Needed for capital/cost of pruduction; (vi degree of viability of culture. Analize data of scoring system and completed with describetively analize.Assesment result: main choice vegetables by comsumer in Sentani: (1 egg plants, spinachs, kangkungs, cucumbers; (2 tomatoes, stringbean, hot chilis, sawi and cabbages; (3 onions and big chilies. Main factors decided of choice kind of vegetables planted: (i easy culivating, (ii needed capital or low input relatively;(iii low risk of failure (iv good price relatively. Kinds of vegetables priority cultivated:(1 longbeans,egg plants,cucumbers,kangkung and spinachs (2 sawis, hot chilies, tomatoes, straightbeans. All kind others vegetable ,even if high price and high benefit, but farmers don’t like cultivate because needs high capital and high risk. Farmers vegetabels with weakness capital need regulation: (i fund finnacial credit, (ii giving credit selectively.
Convenience, taste, and prices are the main determinants of food choices. Complying with dietary recommendations therefore imposes a “taste cost” on consumers, potentially hindering adoption of those recommendations. The study presents and applies a new methodology, based on economic theory, to quantify this taste cost and assess the health and welfare effects of different dietary recommendations. Then, by comparison of those effects, we identify socially desirable recommendations that are most compatible with consumer preferences (i.e., that best balance health benefits against”taste cost”) and should be prioritized for promotion. The methodology proceeds in three-steps: first, an economic-behavioral model simulates how whole diets would change if consumers complied with dietary recommendations; second, an epidemiological model estimates the number of deaths avoided (DA) due to the dietary change; third, an efficiency analysis weighs the health benefits against the taste and policy costs of each recommendation. The empirical model is calibrated using French data. We find that recommendations to reduce consumption of red meat and soft-drinks, or raise consumption of milk products and fish/seafood impose relatively moderate taste costs. By comparison, recommendations related to F&V consumption and, to a lesser extent, butter/cream/cheese, snacks, and all meats impose larger taste costs on consumers. The F&V recommendation is the costliest for consumers to comply with, but it also reduces diet-related mortality the most, so that a large budget could be allocated to promoting F&V consumption while keeping this policy cost-beneficial. We conclude that promotion of most dietary recommendations improves social welfare. Our framework complements the programming models available in nutrition and public health: those models are best used to identify dietary targets, following which our framework identifies cost-beneficial ways of moving towards those targets. PMID
Irz, Xavier; Leroy, Pascal; Réquillart, Vincent; Soler, Louis-Georges
Convenience, taste, and prices are the main determinants of food choices. Complying with dietary recommendations therefore imposes a "taste cost" on consumers, potentially hindering adoption of those recommendations. The study presents and applies a new methodology, based on economic theory, to quantify this taste cost and assess the health and welfare effects of different dietary recommendations. Then, by comparison of those effects, we identify socially desirable recommendations that are most compatible with consumer preferences (i.e., that best balance health benefits against"taste cost") and should be prioritized for promotion. The methodology proceeds in three-steps: first, an economic-behavioral model simulates how whole diets would change if consumers complied with dietary recommendations; second, an epidemiological model estimates the number of deaths avoided (DA) due to the dietary change; third, an efficiency analysis weighs the health benefits against the taste and policy costs of each recommendation. The empirical model is calibrated using French data. We find that recommendations to reduce consumption of red meat and soft-drinks, or raise consumption of milk products and fish/seafood impose relatively moderate taste costs. By comparison, recommendations related to F&V consumption and, to a lesser extent, butter/cream/cheese, snacks, and all meats impose larger taste costs on consumers. The F&V recommendation is the costliest for consumers to comply with, but it also reduces diet-related mortality the most, so that a large budget could be allocated to promoting F&V consumption while keeping this policy cost-beneficial. We conclude that promotion of most dietary recommendations improves social welfare. Our framework complements the programming models available in nutrition and public health: those models are best used to identify dietary targets, following which our framework identifies cost-beneficial ways of moving towards those targets.
Full Text Available Convenience, taste, and prices are the main determinants of food choices. Complying with dietary recommendations therefore imposes a "taste cost" on consumers, potentially hindering adoption of those recommendations. The study presents and applies a new methodology, based on economic theory, to quantify this taste cost and assess the health and welfare effects of different dietary recommendations. Then, by comparison of those effects, we identify socially desirable recommendations that are most compatible with consumer preferences (i.e., that best balance health benefits against"taste cost" and should be prioritized for promotion. The methodology proceeds in three-steps: first, an economic-behavioral model simulates how whole diets would change if consumers complied with dietary recommendations; second, an epidemiological model estimates the number of deaths avoided (DA due to the dietary change; third, an efficiency analysis weighs the health benefits against the taste and policy costs of each recommendation. The empirical model is calibrated using French data. We find that recommendations to reduce consumption of red meat and soft-drinks, or raise consumption of milk products and fish/seafood impose relatively moderate taste costs. By comparison, recommendations related to F&V consumption and, to a lesser extent, butter/cream/cheese, snacks, and all meats impose larger taste costs on consumers. The F&V recommendation is the costliest for consumers to comply with, but it also reduces diet-related mortality the most, so that a large budget could be allocated to promoting F&V consumption while keeping this policy cost-beneficial. We conclude that promotion of most dietary recommendations improves social welfare. Our framework complements the programming models available in nutrition and public health: those models are best used to identify dietary targets, following which our framework identifies cost-beneficial ways of moving towards those
Cale Reeves, D.; Rai, Varun; Margolis, Robert
Residential adoption of solar photovoltaics (PV) is spreading rapidly, supported by policy initiatives at the federal, state, and local levels. Potential adopters navigate increasingly complex decision-making landscapes in their path to adoption. Much is known about the individual-level drivers of solar PV diffusion that steer adopters through this process, but relatively little is known about the evolution of these drivers as solar PV markets mature. By understanding the evolution of emerging solar PV markets over time, stakeholders in the diffusion of solar PV can increase policy effectiveness and reduce costs. This analysis uses survey data to compare two adjacent markets across a range of relevant characteristics, then models changes in the importance of local vs cosmopolitan information sources by combining theory relating market maturity to adopter behavior with event-history techniques. In younger markets, earlier, innovative adoptions that are tied to a preference for cosmopolitan information sources are more prevalent than expected, suggesting a frustrated demand for solar PV that segues into adoptions fueled by local information preferences contemporary with similar adoptions in older markets. The analysis concludes with policy recommendations to leverage changing consumer information preferences as markets mature.
Kortesniemi, Maaria; Rosenvald, Sirli; Laaksonen, Oskar; Vanag, Anita; Ollikka, Tarja; Vene, Kristel; Yang, Baoru
The sensory-chemical profiles of Finnish honeys (labeled as buckwheat, cloudberry-bog, lingonberry, sweet clover, willowherb and multifloral honeys) were investigated using a multi-analytical approach. The sensory test (untrained panel, n = 62) was based on scaling and check-all-that-apply (CATA) methods accompanied with questions on preference and usage of honey. The results were correlated with corresponding profiles of odor-active compounds, determined using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O). Botanical origins and chemical compositions including sugars were evaluated using NMR spectroscopy. A total of 73 odor-active compounds were listed based on GC-O. Sweet and mild honeys with familiar sensory properties were preferred by the panelists (PCA, R 2 X(1) = 0.7) while buckwheat and cloudberry-bog honeys with strong odor, flavor and color were regarded as unfamiliar and unpleasant. The data will give the honey industry novel information on honey properties in relation to the botanical origin, and consumer preference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Christensen, Bryan J.; Bailey, DeeVon; Hunnicutt, Lynn; Ward, Ruby A.
Focus groups and street surveys are used in the US and the UK to determine consumer perceptions of the ability of different agencies, associations, and groups to certify beef products for quality, food safety, animal welfare, social responsibility, and environmental responsibility. US consumers see the role of the federal government primarily as assuring food safety but desire the private sector to make other types of certifications. UK consumers prefer the private sector to assure food safet...
Medvedeva, E.; Blyumina, A.; Piskunov, V.
Availability of qualitative water - the minimum guarantee of health of the person water or to use it only for cleaning and ware washing. The growing demand and change of consumer preferences causes relevance and timeliness of the organization and carrying out the research "Consumer Behaviour in the Market of Household Filters for Water Purification". As the main instrument of obtaining information the method of focus groups was chosen. In article criteria of a consumer choice are defined, to ...
Full Text Available The research examines the influence of price as product cues on consumer’s perception and evaluation by using the application of electroencephalogram (EEG. This method can give objective information about consumer reactions towards product cues that will drive consumer’s choice. The main research objective was to observe and evaluate consumer’s brain activity in different brain regions while they were being exposed by several price levels (low, medium, high of underwear as stimuli and focused mainly on liking/disliking the stimuli. The participants consist of 10 female and 10 male consumers within 18-24 years old, have normal vision, right handed, and considered as potential purchasers of underwear. The participant’s brain activity was collected using Emotiv EPOC neuroheadset (EEG with international 10/20 system and was obtained in Beta frequency bands (13–30 Hz. The result indicated that there was a clear and significant change (p<0.05 in the EEG brain spectral activities of right and left hemisphere in the frontal (F3 & F4, temporal (T7 & T8, and parietal (P7 & P8 regions when participants indicated their attentiveness towards each price level stimulus. The results show, the male and female participant’s tactile sensations in parietal lobe does not give more favorable attention towards particular price stimulus, but the difference price perceptions in parietal lobe can lead to rational preference and give most favored response towards high price stimulus. Analyzing of price perception may help to understand the differences in price-related emotions and preference, which can gain insights into an alternative pricing strategy that can lead to influence consumers buying decision.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the integrated marketing tactic and strategies based on the main factors affecting the preferences and purchase patterns related to Karnavas Mullberry Molasses with PDO of the consumers dwelling in Erzurum. The main material of the study was provided by the primary data obtained from a survey conducted on 401 households residing in Erzurum during 2015, and consuming Karnavas Mullberry Molasses. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Two-step Cluster Analysis were used to determine the main factors impacting on their purchase decisions, and then to segment homogenous clusters according to their purchase frequencies by taking into consideration the data, respectively. The results of the study indicated that the heavy and medium users who consume Karnavas Mullberry Molasses pointed out the necessity of the augmented and actual product image positioning at retail level under local individual brands considering the attributes of the holistic quality with PDO label and those of the sensory quality obtained from traditional production methods to contribute to rural development under the direct marketing approaches, respectively. On the other hand, the light users also focused on the increase of market penetration effect via promotion mix and the product positioning under the local branded actual product image implementing traditional production method and hedonic quality approaches. It could be applied the positioning and promotion strategies according to the consumers’ utility expectation and the product images, therefore, by considering their requirements and desires in each segment.
This paper aims to investigate the influential factors of Chinese young consumers’ rent-versus-buy housing decisions before marriage, and thus to explain why most Chinese consumers prefer housing ownership to renting or even regard an own-occupied housing as a prerequisite of marriage. The research was based on rich literatures concerning rent-versus-buy housing decisions and consumer decision making theory. A qualitative approach was adopted to conduct the research to gain in-depth insight o...
Bernabéu, Rodolfo; Rabadán, Adrián; El Orche, Nour E; Díaz, Mónica
Analysis of the attributes determining the formation of consumers' preferences when buying lamb meat is a key aspect in increasing the demand for this product. To this end, by means of conjoint analysis, we determined lamb meat consumers' preferences according to their frequency of consumption, and we used logistic simulation to analyse market shares of the most valued attributes. After segmenting the market into habitual and occasional consumers of lamb meat, our results seem to suggest that while regular consumers base their preferences mostly on origin, occasional consumers take other attributes into account, such as Protected Geographical Origin (PGI) and organic production. An analysis of market shares shows that PGI significantly influences consumer preferences, while ecological production has a less marked impact. This finding confirms the usefulness of PGI in the lamb meat market and highlights the urgent need to improve the communication strategy of the organic production sector as a synergistic effect to increase its acceptance among consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Czoli, Christine D; Goniewicz, Maciej; Islam, Towhidul; Kotnowski, Kathy; Hammond, David
E-cigarettes present a formidable challenge to regulators given their variety and the rapidly evolving nicotine market. The current study sought to examine the influence of e-cigarette product characteristics on consumer perceptions and trial intentions among Canadians. An online discrete choice experiment was conducted with 915 Canadians aged 16 years and older in November 2013. An online commercial panel was used to sample 3 distinct subpopulations: (1) non-smoking youth and young adults (n=279); (2) smoking youth and young adults (n=264) and (3) smoking adults (n=372). Participants completed a series of stated-preference tasks, in which they viewed choice sets with e-cigarette product images that featured different combinations of attributes: flavour, nicotine content, health warnings and price. For each choice set, participants were asked to select one of the products or indicate 'none of the above' with respect to the following outcomes: interest in trying, less harm and usefulness in quitting smoking. The attributes' impact on consumer choice for each outcome was analysed using multinomial logit regression. Health warning was the most important attribute influencing participants' intentions to try e-cigarettes (42%) and perceived efficacy as a quit aid (39%). Both flavour (36%) and health warnings (35%) significantly predicted perceptions of product harm. The findings indicate that consumers make trade-offs with respect to e-cigarette product characteristics, and that these trade-offs vary across different subpopulations. Given that health warnings and flavour were weighted most important by consumers in this study, these may represent good targets for e-cigarette regulatory frameworks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
McCarthy, K S; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A
Milk consumption in the United States has been in decline since the 1960s. Milk fat plays a critical role in sensory properties of fluid milk. The first objective of this study was to determine the change in percent milk fat needed to produce a detectable or just noticeable difference (JND) to consumers in skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks. The second objective was to evaluate how milk fat affected consumer preferences for fluid milk. Threshold tests were conducted to determine the JND for each reference milk (skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milk), with a minimum of 60 consumers for each JND. The JND was determined for milks by visual appearance without tasting and tasting without visual cues. Serving temperature effect (4, 8, or 15°C) on tasting JND values were also investigated. The established JND values were then used to conduct ascending forced-choice preference tests with milks. Consumers were assigned to 3 groups based on self-reported milk consumption: skim milk drinkers (n = 59), low-fat milk drinkers (consumed 1% or 2% milk, n = 64), and whole milk drinkers (n = 49). Follow-up interviews were conducted where consumers were asked to taste and explain their preference between milks that showed the most polarization within each consumer segment. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed on the milks used in the follow-up interviews to quantify sensory differences. Visual-only JND were lower than tasting-only JND values. Preference testing revealed 3 distinct preference curves among the consumer segments. Skim milk drinkers preferred skim milk and up to 2% milk fat, but disliked milk higher in fat due to it being "too thick," "too heavy," "flavor and texture like cream," "too fatty," and "looks like half and half." Low-fat milk drinkers preferred 2% milk up to 3.25% (whole milk), but then disliked higher milk fat content. Whole milk drinkers preferred whichever milk was higher in milk fat regardless of how high the fat content was, distinct from skim and low-fat milk
Full Text Available Paper discusses Polish consumers’ behaviour and preferences for retail channel and format choice on the background of relevant literature. Results include perception maps created using multidimensional scaling (MDS on data from two studies: in 2008 and 2012, giving possibility to assess changes at the economic slowdown. Two-dimensional solutions are fitting the data very well and allow to describe compared formats in terms of perceived level of personal interactions with the sales personnel, and perceived total cost for consumer. During analysed period perception of discount stores substantially changed – previously perceived as similar to marketplace, now they are closer convenience stores. Virtual channel formats are still perceived as separate cluster in comparison to physical ones. Declared shopping frequency for 15 formats from both channels is compared with emotional attitudes toward them. Inaddition, UNIANOVA procedure has been used to find connections with shopping frequency and demographic variables as well as decision-making styles.
Begen, Fiona M; Barnett, Julie; Payne, Ros; Roy, Debbie; Gowland, M Hazel; Lucas, Jane S
Avoiding food allergens when eating outside the home presents particular difficulties for food allergic (FA) and intolerant (FI) consumers and a lack of allergen information in restaurants and takeaways causes unnecessary restrictions. Across Europe, legislation effective from December 2014, aims to improve allergen information by requiring providers of non-prepacked foods to supply information related to allergen content within their foods. Using in-depth interviews with 60 FA/FI adults and 15 parents/carers of FA/FI children, we aimed to identify FA/FI consumers' preferences for written and/or verbal allergen information when eating out or ordering takeaway food. A complex and dynamic set of preferences and practices for written and verbal allergen information was identified. Overwhelmingly, written information was favoured in the first instance, but credible personal/verbal communication was highly valued and essential to a good eating out experience. Adequate written information facilitated implicit trust in subsequent verbal information. Where written information was limited, FA/FIs depended on social cues to assess the reliability of verbal information resources, and defaulted to tried and tested allergen avoidance strategies when these were deemed unreliable. Understanding the subtle negotiations and difficulties encountered by FA/FIs when eating out can serve as a guide for legislators and food providers; by encouraging provision of clear written and verbal allergen information, and training of proactive, allergen-aware staff. This, in tandem with legal requirements for allergen information provision, paves the way for FA/FIs to feel more confident in eating out choices; and to experience improved eating out experiences.
De Steur, Hans; Feng, Shuyi; Xiaoping, Shi; Gellynck, Xavier
Despite public health efforts, folate deficiency is still largely prevalent in poor, rural populations and continues to cause a large burden of disease. The present paper determines and compares consumer preferences for two folate strategies: folic acid supplementation v. folate biofortification, i.e. the enhancement of the folate content in staple crops. Experimental auctions with non-repeated information rounds are applied to rice in order to obtain willingness-to-pay for folate products. Thereby, GM or non-GM folate-biofortified rice (FBR) is auctioned together with rice that is supplemented with free folic acid pills (FAR). Shanxi Province (China) as a high-risk region of folate deficiency. One hundred and twenty-six women of childbearing age, divided into a school (n 60) and market sample (n 66). Despite differences according to the targeted sample, a general preference for folate biofortification is observed, regardless of the applied breeding technology. Premiums vary between 33·9 % (GM FBR), 36·5 % (non-GM FBR) and 19·0 % (FAR). Zero bidding behaviour as well as the product choice question, respectively, support and validate these findings. The targeted sample, the timing of the auction, the intention to consume GM food and the responsibility for rice purchases are considered key determinants of product choice. A novel ex-post negative valuation procedure shows low consistency in zero bidding. While the low attractiveness of FAR provides an additional argument for the limited effectiveness of past folic acid supplementation programmes, the positive reactions towards GM FBR further support its potential as a possible complementary micronutrient intervention.
... voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by the Commission under section 9 of the CPSA. 1115.5 Section 1115.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.5 Reporting of failures to comply...
Taylor, Susan; Hourihan, Fleur; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol
Evaluation of a community pharmacy disease management program for type 2 diabetes, ‘SugarCare’, was conducted. Compared with the standard care offered by pharmacists, this enhanced program offered patients closer monitoring of blood glucose levels, counselling about lifestyle, etc. The SugarCare study was funded by a grant but if the care is to continue some other method of financing must be found. Objectives: This study aimed to measure consumer preference for one of the two types of care offered in the SugarCare study, the control/standard and the intervention/enhanced service; the strength of that preference; and participants’ willingness to pay (WTP) for their preferred care. Methods: SugarCare was a parallel groups, control versus intervention, repeated measures design conducted in three areas of NSW, Australia. Patients in the Intervention group (enhanced care) had one initial visit to the pharmacy with six follow up visits over approximately 9 months. At these visits blood glucose was downloaded and patient care issues addressed. At the end of the service, a survey instrument was mailed to the intervention and control participants who were asked to read it and then expect a telephone call within 2 weeks of receipt. Responses were requested over the phone and the survey instrument completed by the researcher. WTP data were collected using a modified payment card method. Results: Overall, 44/75 (59%; 47%-70% 95%CI) respondents expressed a preference for Scenario B (the enhanced care) while 31/75 (41%; 31%-52% 95%CI) preferred Scenario A (standard care) however, the difference was not statistically significant. The median maximum WTP was AUD10 for the enhanced care and AUD3.50 for the standard care (p<0.03). Conclusions: While the WTP values expressed were significantly higher for the enhanced care they did not match with the cost providing that diabetes care. Discrete choice analysis has the potential to overcome some of the difficulties encountered with
Full Text Available Evaluation of a community pharmacy disease management program for type 2 diabetes, ‘SugarCare’, was conducted. Compared with the standard care offered by pharmacists, this enhanced program offered patients closer monitoring of blood glucose levels, counselling about lifestyle, etc. The SugarCare study was funded by a grant but if the care is to continue some other method of financing must be found. Objectives: This study aimed to measure consumer preference for one of the two types of care offered in the SugarCare study, the control/standard and the intervention/enhanced service; the strength of that preference; and participants’ willingness to pay (WTP for their preferred care. Methods: SugarCare was a parallel groups, control versus intervention, repeated measures design conducted in three areas of NSW, Australia. Patients in the Intervention group (enhanced care had one initial visit to the pharmacy with six follow up visits over approximately 9 months. At these visits blood glucose was downloaded and patient care issues addressed. At the end of the service, a survey instrument was mailed to the intervention and control participants who were asked to read it and then expect a telephone call within 2 weeks of receipt. Responses were requested over the phone and the survey instrument completed by the researcher. WTP data were collected using a modified payment card method.Results: Overall, 44/75 (59%; 47%-70% 95%CI respondents expressed a preference for Scenario B (the enhanced care while 31/75 (41%; 31%-52% 95%CI preferred Scenario A (standard care however, the difference was not statistically significant. The median maximum WTP was AUD10 for the enhanced care and AUD3.50 for the standard care (p<0.03.Conclusions: While the WTP values expressed were significantly higher for the enhanced care they did not match with the cost providing that diabetes care. Discrete choice analysis has the potential to overcome some of the difficulties
Taylor, Susan; Hourihan, Fleur; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol
Evaluation of a community pharmacy disease management program for type 2 diabetes, 'SugarCare', was conducted. Compared with the standard care offered by pharmacists, this enhanced program offered patients closer monitoring of blood glucose levels, counselling about lifestyle, etc. The SugarCare study was funded by a grant but if the care is to continue some other method of financing must be found. This study aimed to measure consumer preference for one of the two types of care offered in the SugarCare study, the control/standard and the intervention/enhanced service; the strength of that preference; and participants' willingness to pay (WTP) for their preferred care. SugarCare was a parallel groups, control versus intervention, repeated measures design conducted in three areas of NSW, Australia. Patients in the Intervention group (enhanced care) had one initial visit to the pharmacy with six follow up visits over approximately 9 months. At these visits blood glucose was downloaded and patient care issues addressed. At the end of the service, a survey instrument was mailed to the intervention and control participants who were asked to read it and then expect a telephone call within 2 weeks of receipt. Responses were requested over the phone and the survey instrument completed by the researcher. WTP data were collected using a modified payment card method. Overall, 44/75 (59%; 47%-70% 95%CI) respondents expressed a preference for Scenario B (the enhanced care) while 31/75 (41%; 31%-52% 95%CI) preferred Scenario A (standard care) however, the difference was not statistically significant. The median maximum WTP was AUD10 for the enhanced care and AUD3.50 for the standard care (p<0.03). While the WTP values expressed were significantly higher for the enhanced care they did not match with the cost providing that diabetes care. Discrete choice analysis has the potential to overcome some of the difficulties encountered with the contingent valuation technique used here
Chorus, Caspar G.; Koetse, Mark J.; Hoen, Anco
This paper presents a utility-based and a regret-based model of consumer preferences for alternative fuel vehicles, based on a large-scale stated choice-experiment held among company car leasers in The Netherlands. Estimation and application of random utility maximization and random regret minimization discrete choice models shows that while the two models achieve almost identical fit with the data and differ only marginally in terms of predictive ability, they generate rather different choice probability-simulations and policy implications. The most eye-catching difference between the two models is that the random regret minimization model accommodates a compromise-effect, as it assigns relatively high choice probabilities to alternative fuel vehicles that perform reasonably well on each dimension instead of having a strong performance on some dimensions and a poor performance on others. - Highlights: • Utility- and regret-based models of preferences for alternative fuel vehicles. • Estimation based on stated choice-experiment among Dutch company car leasers. • Models generate rather different choice probabilities and policy implications. • Regret-based model accommodates a compromise-effect
Batavio, A. B.; Tripiawan, W.; Amani, H.
Internet has become a necessity for society in Indonesia, is seen with the internet impact for the development of information technology in the environment of the community, one of which is E-commerce (electronic commerce) or commonly referred to as the shopping activity is done online, e-commerce is one of the utilization of internet technology is done by the community. With e-commerce, the community may make purchases or sales in accordance with his wishes. Bukalapak one of the companies in Indonesia who stand as an e-commerce company that offers a community to be able to make purchases or sales on his website for free. Bukalapak has competitors to continue to compete in the world of e-commerce in Indonesia. This research aims to know the preferences of consumers in using the services of the site Bukalapak. This research includes the types of descriptive and exploratory research, using the technique of Non-probability sampling and purposive sampling that are specific to the community of Bandung city ever doing online shopping at Bukalapak as a criterion of the respondents in this study, with the number of samples as many as 100 respondents in Bandung. The analysis of the data used is conjoint analysis. The results of this study showed that overall the respondents made the attribute method of the payment as the main preference in using the services of the site Bukalapak, and then followed by the attribute display websites, products and features.
Full Text Available The current research aimed at investigating the brain lateralization effect in response to TV advertising of different commercial sectors. This study explored the effects of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC stimulation on subjective evaluation (semantic differential, in response to some consumer goods. We adopted rTMS (low-frequency 1Hz on left and right DLPFC to modulate the consumers’ (N=thirty-three response during the vision of five commercials. After three hours from the first evaluation of TV commercials without stimulation, rTMS was delivered in brain frontal areas (F3 and F4 areas before the vision of each stimulus. Following the stimulation, subjects evaluated advertising a second time by using the same semantic differential. An increase of TV commercials preference occurred in subjects who were inhibited on right DLPFC; while a decrease of advertising preference was shown in subjects who were inhibited on left DLPFC. These results reveal the important role of DLPFC for emotions’ elaboration. In particular, the left and right DLPFC seem to be related respectively to positive and negative evaluation of emotional stimuli.
Cuevas, Rosa Paula; Pede, Valerien O; McKinley, Justin; Velarde, Orlee; Demont, Matty
Hedonic pricing analysis is conducted to determine the implicit values of various attributes in the market value of a good. In this study, hedonic pricing analysis was applied to measure the contribution of grain quality search and experience attributes to the price of rice in two rural towns in the Philippines. Rice samples from respondents underwent quantitative routine assessments of grain quality. In particular, gelatinization temperature and chalkiness, two parameters that are normally assessed through visual scores, were evaluated by purely quantitative means (differential scanning calorimetry and by digital image analysis). Results indicate that rice consumed by respondents had mainly similar physical and chemical grain quality attributes. The respondents' revealed preferences were typical of what has been previously reported for Filipino rice consumers. Hedonic regression analyses showed that grain quality characteristics that affected price varied by income class. Some of the traits or socioeconomic factors that affected price were percent broken grains, gel consistency, and household per capita rice consumption. There is an income effect on rice price and the characteristics that affect price vary between income classes.
Rosa Paula Cuevas
Full Text Available Hedonic pricing analysis is conducted to determine the implicit values of various attributes in the market value of a good. In this study, hedonic pricing analysis was applied to measure the contribution of grain quality search and experience attributes to the price of rice in two rural towns in the Philippines. Rice samples from respondents underwent quantitative routine assessments of grain quality. In particular, gelatinization temperature and chalkiness, two parameters that are normally assessed through visual scores, were evaluated by purely quantitative means (differential scanning calorimetry and by digital image analysis. Results indicate that rice consumed by respondents had mainly similar physical and chemical grain quality attributes. The respondents' revealed preferences were typical of what has been previously reported for Filipino rice consumers. Hedonic regression analyses showed that grain quality characteristics that affected price varied by income class. Some of the traits or socioeconomic factors that affected price were percent broken grains, gel consistency, and household per capita rice consumption. There is an income effect on rice price and the characteristics that affect price vary between income classes.
Scozzafava, Gabriele; Boncinelli, Fabio; Contini, Caterina; Romano, Caterina; Gerini, Francesca; Casini, Leonardo
The wine-growing sector is probably one of the agricultural areas where the ties between product quality and territory are most evident. Geographical indication is a key element in this context, and previous literature has focused on demonstrating how certification of origin influences the wine purchaser's behavior. However, less attention has been devoted to understanding how the value of a given name of origin may or may not be determined by the various elements that characterize the typicality of the wine product on that territory: vines, production techniques, etc. It thus seems interesting, in this framework, to evaluate the impacts of several characteristic attributes on the preferences of consumers. This paper will analyze, in particular, the role of the presence of autochthonous vines in consumers' choices. The connection between name of origin and autochthonous vines appears to be particularly important in achieving product "recognisability", while introducing "international" vines in considerable measure into blends might result in the loss of the peculiarity of certain characteristic and typical local productions. A standardization of taste could thus risk compromising the reputation of traditional production areas. The objective of this study is to estimate, through an experimental auction on the case study of Chianti, the differences in willingness to pay for wines produced with different shares of typical vines. The results show that consumers have a willingness to pay for wine produced with typical blends 34% greater than for wines with international blends. However, this difference is not confirmed by blind tasting, raising the issue of the relationship between exante expectations about vine typicality and real wine sensorial characteristics. Finally, some recent patents related to wine testing and wine packaging are reviewed.
Full Text Available Aim of the current research was to evaluate milk and dairy derived consumer’s behaviour and preferences in Vojvodina (Central Banat District from the Republic of Serbia, in order to be able to further formulate advice and strategies to farmers, farm-advisors and policy makers, to help improve the overall farmer’s competiveness and increase the economic returns of dairy enterprises. Data was collected following questionnaire based-interviews, between January and June 2016. There were 76 persons who answered a face-to-face interview, and had to answer to a 15 questions based questionnaire, all respondents were from Vojvodina (Central Banat District, Republic of Serbia. The main five categories of products purchased were pasteurized milk (11.33%, yogurts (23.44%, sour cream (18.75%, butter (10.55% and cheeses (21.48%. The least dairy derived products categories purchased and consumed were UHT milk (4.30%, refrigerated milk (3.91%, raw milk (5.86% and frozen milk (0.00%. The most important selection criterions of the surveyed consumers were ‘freshness’ (21.72%, expiring date (13.64%, taste characteristics (10.10%, price/quality ratio (13.13% and nutritive value (16.16%. Results of the current study should be taken into consideration by both farmers and dairy factories, in order to possible identify niche markets, in order to add value to the food chain and improve their economic returns by producing and selling products that have among higher demands from consumers.
Consumers have been found to majorly prefer ‘optimal’ food over ‘suboptimal’ when purchasing food. To provide an incentive for consumers to select suboptimal food and thus decrease food waste in the supply chain, expiration date based pricing is suggested and increasingly applied. However......, it is unclear which contextual, individual, and product-related factors impact consumer likelihood of choice and thus acceptance of the practice in the long run. The study aimed at exploring the effect of communicating different motives for purchase, the product being organic, familiarity with the practice......, individual preferences, and product-related factors. An online survey experiment among 842 Danish consumers realistically mimicked the current market context. Findings reveal that neither communicating budget saving or food waste avoidance nor the product being organic has an influence. However...
question. The components used were: satisfaction, safety, socialization, and sustainability, as well as government policies which could open markets. The respondents were 408 potential consumers in Jakarta and its surroundings. The method used was purposive and convenience sampling, in which the survey was conducted at exhibitions and showrooms. Ward Method, Stepwise Discriminant Analysis and Biplot Analysis were used to generate consumer stratifications. Before that, reliability tests were conducted using Crombach Alpha method. In addition, data was explored and reduced using Component Principle Analysis. Preference analysis was performed using the method proposed by Thurston Case V. This study results four stratifications of green consumers. There were similarities and differences in preference on each of the stratification of the component of green marketing strategy as well as the marketing strategies of furniture-certified ecolabel for the targeted consumers.
Kaenzig, Josef; Heinzle, Stefanie Lena; Wüstenhagen, Rolf
In liberalized electricity markets, residential customers can choose their preferred provider and select among a variety of different electricity products, including green power options. Successful product design and marketing strategies for green electricity may provide electricity providers with a competitive advantage, while at the same time contributing to energy policy objectives. This requires, however, a thorough understanding of customer preferences. We investigate the relative importance of different product attributes in creating customer value, and find that price and electricity mix are the two most important attributes. The German electricity customers we surveyed in 2009 expressed an implicit willingness to pay a premium of about 16% for electricity from renewable sources. We conclude that consumers are willing to pay a significant price premium for an upgrade from the current default electricity mix in Germany to a more environmentally friendly default electricity mix, and discuss implications for marketing strategy and energy policy. Our findings are based on a dataset of 4968 experimental choices made by 414 German residential consumers, collected in a stated preference survey. - Highlights: ► Study is based on 4968 experimental choices made by 414 German retail consumers. ► Apart from price, the electricity mix is the most important product attribute. ► Majority of consumers prefer nuclear-free electricity. ► Respondents are willing to pay a premium for green electricity. ► German default electricity mix does not correspond to current customer preferences.
Yılmaz, Emin; Öǧütcü, Mustafa; Arifoglu, Nazan
In this study, strawberry and lemon flavored fish oil organogels (FOO) were prepared with beeswax as the organogelator. The physical, thermal and textural characteristics as well as the consumer preferences of the flavored organogels were determined in comparison with fish oil and FOO containing no flavor. Furthermore, the stability of the organogels was evaluated during 90 day storage at 4°C. The results revealed that, structurally stable fish oil organogels as spreadable products might be formed and that flavoring of the gels enhances consumer preference. Thus, flavoring of fish oil organogels could be a challenge in increasing the consumption of fish oil.
Samant, Shilpa S; Chapko, Matthew J; Seo, Han-Seok
Traditional methods of sensory testing focus on capturing information about multisensory perceptions, but do not necessarily measure emotions elicited by these food and beverages. The objective of this study was to develop an optimum model of predicting overall liking (rating) and preference (choice) based on taste intensity and evoked emotions. One hundred and two participants (51 females) were asked to taste water, sucrose, citric acid, salt, and caffeine solutions. Their emotional responses toward each sample were measured by a combination of a self-reported emotion questionnaire (EsSense25), facial expressions, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. In addition, their perceived intensity and overall liking were measured. After a break, participants re-tasted the samples and ranked them according to their preference. The results showed that emotional responses measured using self-reported emotion questionnaire and facial expression analysis along with perceived taste intensity performed best to predict overall liking as well as preference, while ANS measures showed limited contribution. Contrary to some previous research, this study demonstrated that not only negative emotions, but also positive ones could help predict consumer liking and preference. In addition, since there were subtle differences in the prediction models of overall liking and preference, both aspects should be taken into account to understand consumer behavior. In conclusion, combination of evoked emotions along with sensory perception could help better understand consumer acceptance as well as preference toward basic taste solutions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bridges, John F P; Lataille, Angela T; Buttorff, Christine; White, Sharon; Niparko, John K
Low utilization of hearing aids has drawn increased attention to the study of consumer preferences using both simple ratings (e.g., Likert scale) and conjoint analyses, but these two approaches often produce inconsistent results. The study aims to directly compare Likert scales and conjoint analysis in identifying important attributes associated with hearing aids among those with hearing loss. Seven attributes of hearing aids were identified through qualitative research: performance in quiet settings, comfort, feedback, frequency of battery replacement, purchase price, water and sweat resistance, and performance in noisy settings. The preferences of 75 outpatients with hearing loss were measured with both a 5-point Likert scale and with 8 paired-comparison conjoint tasks (the latter being analyzed using OLS [ordinary least squares] and logistic regression). Results were compared by examining implied willingness-to-pay and Pearson's Rho. A total of 56 respondents (75%) provided complete responses. Two thirds of respondents were male, most had sensorineural hearing loss, and most were older than 50; 44% of respondents had never used a hearing aid. Both methods identified improved performance in noisy settings as the most valued attribute. Respondents were twice as likely to buy a hearing aid with better functionality in noisy environments (p < .001), and willingness to pay for this attribute ranged from US$2674 on the Likert to US$9000 in the conjoint analysis. The authors find a high level of concordance between the methods-a result that is in stark contrast with previous research. The authors conclude that their result stems from constraining the levels on the Likert scale.
Gidlöf, Kerstin; Anikin, Andrey; Lingonblad, Martin; Wallin, Annika
There is a battle in the supermarket isle, a battle between what the consumer wants and what the retailer and others want her to see, and subsequently to buy. Product packages and displays contain a number of features and attributes tailored to catch consumers' attention. These are what we call external factors comprising the visual saliency, the number of facings, and the placement of each product. But a consumer also brings with her a number of goals and interests related to the products and their attributes. These are important internal factors, including brand preferences, price sensitivity, and dietary inclinations. We fit mobile eye trackers to consumers visiting real-life supermarkets in order to investigate to what extent external and internal factors affect consumers' visual attention and purchases. Both external and internal factors influenced what products consumers looked at, with a strong positive interaction between visual saliency and consumer preferences. Consumers appear to take advantage of visual saliency in their decision making, using their knowledge about products' appearance to guide their visual attention towards those that fit their preferences. When it comes to actual purchases, however, visual attention was by far the most important predictor, even after controlling for all other internal and external factors. In other words, the very act of looking longer or repeatedly at a package, for any reason, makes it more likely that this product will be bought. Visual attention is thus crucial for understanding consumer behaviour, even in the cluttered supermarket environment, but it cannot be captured by measurements of visual saliency alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dominika Agnieszka Maison
Full Text Available The goal of this project was to investigate whether consumer ethnocentrism is purely conscious mechanism based on ideology, as suggested by Shimp and Sharma (1987, or rather is an automatic, unconscious process. The aim of the project was an introduction of the Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism (ICE concept, measured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT. The goal of the four studies conducted was to investigate the following issues: (a whether ICE – an automatic mechanism underlying the preference for local products over foreign – this could be observed next to the more ideologically based classic consumer ethnocentrism; (b what happens when the consumer’s automatic preference for local products (ICE is confronted by objective evidence of the superiority of foreign products or by the inferiority of local products. It was assumed that Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism could be reduced when foreign products were associated with a higher level of competence than local products, and this could explain the preference for foreign products over local often observed in less developed countries. In study 1 the ICE for different product categories of existing brands was tested, and in study 2 the ICE was measured in the context of nonexistent brands. Both studies showed a strong in-group brand preference and confirmed the existence of new phenomena – Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism. The results of study 3 and 4 again indicated a strong, automatic in-group brand favoritism effect as measured by IAT – participants preferred local brands over foreign. However, the inclusion of well-known foreign brands associated with high competence reduced the IAT effect (in-group preference.
DiFranco, Evelina; Bressi, Sara K; Salzer, Mark S
People with serious mental illnesses experience increased rates of physical illnesses. Drop-in centers and psychosocial rehabilitation programs can serve as important settings for health promotion efforts, but such efforts should utilize communication strategies that are used by consumers and are perceived to be reliable. Focus groups involving 23 consumers at drop-in centers in Philadelphia were conducted to assess the perceived usefulness of health information from a variety of sources. Consumers especially liked getting information from other people, including health care professionals, friends, and family, and found the information to be reliable and useful. Print literature, the Internet, and a library had various limitations. Respondents were generally unfamiliar with community health fairs and related events. Consumers considered trustworthiness, proximity and availability, and the specificity and depth of information provided by a communication source when getting health information. Implications for health promotion efforts are discussed.
Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.
Objective: For more effective nutrition communication, it is crucial to identify sources from which consumers seek information. Our purpose was to assess perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics, and preferred information sources by means of quantitative consumer research.
Reijgwart, Marsinah Lusanne; Vinke, C.M.; Hendriksen, C.F.M.; Van Der Meer, Miriam; Schoemaker, N.J.; van Zeeland, Y.R.A.
Knowledge of species-specific motivation and preferences for enrichment options is necessary to put in place an appropriate enrichment plan. This knowledge is currently lacking for ferrets. Therefore, seven female ferrets were consecutively housed in a seven-chamber closed economy consumer demand
Voordouw, J.; Antonides, G.; Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Pfaff, S.; Niemietz, D.; Frewer, L.J.
In this study, the preferences of food allergic consumers for different prototype information delivery tools was examined, with the aim of improving informed product choices. Sixty-two self-reported food allergic participants from the Netherlands and Germany were included in the study. Each tested
, it is unclear which contextual, individual, and product-related factors impact consumer likelihood of choice and thus acceptance of the practice in the long run. The study aimed at exploring the effect of communicating different motives for purchase, the product being organic, familiarity with the practice...... and the interaction with gender is observed for milk in particular. Overall, perceived quality and estimated likelihood of consumption at home majorly determine likelihood of choice. Consumer acceptance of expiration date based pricing of suboptimal food can be increased through furthering consumer familiarity......Consumers have been found to majorly prefer ‘optimal’ food over ‘suboptimal’ when purchasing food. To provide an incentive for consumers to select suboptimal food and thus decrease food waste in the supply chain, expiration date based pricing is suggested and increasingly applied. However...
In a hypothetical choice experiment consumers were given the option of purchasing burgers that were made from beef, plant-based protein, or cultured meat. Willingness to purchase plant-based and cultured meat burgers is linked to age, sex, views of other food technologies, and attitudes towards the environment and agriculture. Although consumers were told that all burgers tasted the same, there was a marked preference for beef burgers. A mixed-logit model predicts that, if prices were equal, 65% of consumers would purchase the beef burger, 21% would purchase the plant-based burger, 11% would purchase the cultured meat burger, and 4% would make no purchase. Preferences for plant-based and cultured meat burgers are found to be highly, but not perfectly, correlated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maison, Dominika; Maliszewski, Norbert
The goal of this project was to investigate whether consumer ethnocentrism is purely conscious mechanism based on ideology, as suggested by Shimp and Sharma (1987), or rather is an automatic, unconscious process. The aim of the project was an introduction of the Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism (ICE) concept, measured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The goal of the four studies conducted was to investigate the following issues: (a) whether ICE - an automatic mechanism underlying the preference for local products over foreign - this could be observed next to the more ideologically based classic consumer ethnocentrism; (b) what happens when the consumer's automatic preference for local products (ICE) is confronted by objective evidence of the superiority of foreign products or by the inferiority of local products. It was assumed that ICE could be reduced when foreign products were associated with a higher level of competence than local products, and this could explain the preference for foreign products over local often observed in less developed countries. In study 1 the ICE for different product categories of existing brands was tested, and in study 2 the ICE was measured in the context of non-existent brands. Both studies showed a strong in-group brand preference and confirmed the existence of new phenomena - ICE. The results of studies 3 and 4 again indicated a strong, automatic in-group brand favoritism effect as measured by IAT - participants preferred local brands over foreign. However, the inclusion of well-known foreign brands associated with high competence reduced the IAT effect (in-group preference).
Stenström, Helena; Li, Xin; Hunt, Melvin C; Lundström, Kerstin
The objective of this study was to determine which ageing treatment of beef was sensorially preferred by consumers and how their preference changed when given information about the ageing treatment used. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum from four young bulls were randomly assigned three ageing treatments: dry ageing, vacuum ageing and ageing in a highly moisture permeable bag (bag dry-ageing); each was aged at 1.6 °C for another 13 days. A preference test (171 consumers) with questions about overall liking, tenderness, and juiciness was performed. Thereafter, a deceptive test (61 consumers) was performed with two taste samples, the first taste sample with correct information about ageing treatment and the second with false information. In the preference test, consumers preferred dry ageing and bag dry-ageing to vacuum ageing. In the deceptive test, dry ageing was preferred, but the information given influenced preference. © 2013.
Babaskin, D V; Babaskina, L I; Pavlova, A V
The development of modern technologies in physiotherapy with the use of mineral waters, the expansion of the assortment of the medicinal and medicinal table waters as well as increasing the competitive advantages of domestic products require the more extensive marketing survey of the consumers' preferences in the market of mineral waters. The objective of the present study was the marketing evaluation of the consumers' preference in the segment of medicinal and medicinal table mineral waters in the city of Moscow. The survey involved 697 consumers of medicinal and medicinal table mineral waters. The sampling was carried out by the deterministic quota method. The field research was conducted by means of personal verbal interviews (32%) and the CATI to Web method (phone recruiting and on-line questioning) (68%) with the use of the structured questionnaire. Positioning was carried out making use of the two-dimensional schematic map and scoring assessment on an individual basis with calculation of integrated indicators. The marketing evaluation has demonstrated that the principal motive for purchasing mineral waters in more than 40% of respondents was the treatment and prevention of various diseases including disturbances in the urogenital system as well as digestive and respiratory disorders that appear to be the most frequent reasons for the consumption of mineral waters. The main factors that form the preferences of the consumers as regards the use of a concrete variety of mineral waters were elucidated. Of crucial importance for approximately 40% of the consumers (p<0.01) proved to be their health condition, the medical indications, and the available information about the therapeutic effectiveness of one or another type of mineral waters. Other factors were the quality of mineral water, its cost, the manufacturer and/or place of production, the attractiveness of the packaging, etc. The evaluation of the positioning of the mineral water consumers' preferences made
Meyerding, Stephan G H
In many studies, consumer preferences are determined by using direct surveys. For this method social desirability is problematic. This leads to the effect that participants answer in a way that they perceive as desired by society. This leads to the stated importance of certain features in these studies not being reflected in real purchasing decisions. Therefore, the aim of the study is to compare consumer preferences measured by a quasi-experiment to those quantified by direct questions. Another objective is to quantify the part-worth utilities of product characteristics such as origin, price and food labels. Part-worth utilities are estimated on an interval scale with an arbitrary origin and are a measure for preferences. The real purchasing situation was simulated in a quasi-experiment using a choice-based conjoint analysis. The part-worth utilities were then compared with the results of a conventional preference assessment (Likert scale). For this purpose, 645 consumers from all over Germany were surveyed in 2014. The participants were on average 44 years old and 63% were women. The results of the conjoint analysis report the highest part-worth utility (2.853) for the lowest price (1.49€), followed by the characteristic "grown locally" (2.157). For the labels, the German organic label shows the highest part-worth utility (0.785) followed by Fairtrade/"A heart for the producer" (0.200). It is noticeable that the carbon footprint labels have negative part-worth utilities compared to tomatoes without a label (-0.130 with CO2 indication, -0.186 without CO2 indication). The price is ranked 12th in the importance of the characteristics of purchasing tomatoes in the survey with a Likert scale, whereas it is first in the evaluation of the quasi-experiment (conjoint analysis), which supports the assumption of a social desirability bias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coker, Joshua; Castiglioni, Analia; Kraemer, Ryan R; Massie, F Stanford; Morris, Jason L; Rodriguez, Martin; Russell, Stephen W; Shaneyfelt, Terrance; Willett, Lisa L; Estrada, Carlos A
Current evaluation tools of medical school courses are limited by the scope of questions asked and may not fully engage the student to think on areas to improve. The authors sought to explore whether a technique to study consumer preferences would elicit specific and prioritized information for course evaluation from medical students. Using the nominal group technique (4 sessions), 12 senior medical students prioritized and weighed expectations and topics learned in a 100-hour advanced physical diagnosis course (4-week course; February 2012). Students weighted their top 3 responses (top = 3, middle = 2 and bottom = 1). Before the course, 12 students identified 23 topics they expected to learn; the top 3 were review sensitivity/specificity and high-yield techniques (percentage of total weight, 18.5%), improving diagnosis (13.8%) and reinforce usual and less well-known techniques (13.8%). After the course, students generated 22 topics learned; the top 3 were practice and reinforce advanced maneuvers (25.4%), gaining confidence (22.5%) and learn the evidence (16.9%). The authors observed no differences in the priority of responses before and after the course (P = 0.07). In a physical diagnosis course, medical students elicited specific and prioritized information using the nominal group technique. The course met student expectations regarding education of the evidence-based physical examination, building skills and confidence on the proper techniques and maneuvers and experiential learning. The novel use for curriculum evaluation may be used to evaluate other courses-especially comprehensive and multicomponent courses.
Giraud, Georges; Amblard, Corinne; Thiel, Elise; Zaouche-Laniau, Martine; Stojanović, Zaklina; Pohar, Jure; Butigan, Ružica; Cvetković, Miljan; Mugosa, Boban; Kendrovski, Vladimir; Mora, Cristina; Barjolle, Dominique
Western Balkan countries (WBCs) have a long-standing culinary tradition. The promotion of traditional foods may be a tool for coping with modernisation trends in such transition economies. This paper explores consumer preferences toward food in this region, focusing on a traditional fresh cow cheese locally called 'Mladi Sir'. This product was quoted in all the preliminary focus groups as a common traditional product present in the six WBCs studied: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. After a literature review investigating the concept of traditional food in WBCs and the implementation of focus groups, a survey including a conjoint analysis on preferences for fresh cow cheese was carried out in 2011 to collect data from 1200 respondents. Four clusters of consumers were identified: one focused more on the local origin; one oriented more toward the scale of production (on-farm and small dairy); the third favouring low prices and the fourth preferring high prices and industrial products. Policy makers and the supply chain could take these differences in consumer preferences regarding traditional food products into account in order to develop specific strategies. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
O'Quinn, T G; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Chapman, P L; Legako, J F; Brooks, J C; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D
Sensory analysis of ground LL samples representing 12 beef product categories was conducted in 3 different regions of the U.S. to identify flavor preferences of beef consumers. Treatments characterized production-related flavor differences associated with USDA grade, cattle type, finishing diet, growth enhancement, and postmortem aging method. Consumers (N=307) rated cooked samples for 12 flavors and overall flavor desirability. Samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid content. Volatile compounds produced by cooking were extracted and quantified. Overall, consumers preferred beef that rated high for beefy/brothy, buttery/beef fat, and sweet flavors and disliked beef with fishy, livery, gamey, and sour flavors. Flavor attributes of samples higher in intramuscular fat with greater amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and lesser proportions of saturated, odd-chain, omega-3, and trans fatty acids were preferred by consumers. Of the volatiles identified, diacetyl and acetoin were most closely correlated with desirable ratings for overall flavor and dimethyl sulfide was associated with an undesirable sour flavor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hendriks, M.J.; Frewer, L.J.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.
This article reviews current European legislation concerning allergens and their labelling, in particular in relation to the need to optimise consumer protection and improve the quality of life of food allergic consumers. Adequate communication concerning the presence of (potentially) allergenic
Cavaliere, Alessia; De Marchi, Elisa; Banterle, Alessandro
Individual time preference has been recognized as key driver in explaining consumers' probability to have a healthy weight or to incur excess weight problems. The term time preference refers to the rate at which a person is disposed to trade a current satisfaction for a future benefit. This characteristic may affect the extent at which individuals invest in health and may influence diet choices. The purpose of this paper is to analyse which could be the role of time preference (measured in terms of diet-related behaviours) in explaining consumers' healthy or unhealthy body weight. The analysis also considers other drivers predicted to influence BMI, specifically information searching, health-related activities and socio-demographic conditions. The survey was based on face-to-face interviews on a sample of 240 consumers living in Milan. In order to test the hypothesis, we performed a set of seven ORM regressions, all having consumers' BMI as the dependent variable. Each ORM contains a different block of explanatory variables, while time preference is always included among the regressors. The results suggest that the healthy weight condition is associated with a high orientation to the future, with a high interest in nutrition claims, a low attention to health-related claims, and a high level of education. On the opposite, the probability to be overweight or obese increases when consumers are less future-concerned and is associated with a low searching for nutrition claims and to a high interest in health claims. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Detailed exploration of sensory perception as well as preference across gender and age for a certain food is very useful for developing a vendible food commodity related to physiological and psychological motivation for food preference. Sensory tests including color, sweetness, bitterness, fried peanut aroma, textural preference and overall liking of deep-fried peanuts with varying frying time (2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 15 min) at 150 °C were carried out using 417 healthy Japanese consumers. To determine the influence of gender and age on sensory evaluation, systematic statistical analysis including one-way analysis of variance, polynomial regression analysis and multiple regression analysis was conducted using the collected data. The results indicated that females were more sensitive to bitterness than males. This may affect sensory preference; female subjects favored peanuts prepared with a shorter frying time more than male subjects did. With advancing age, textural preference played a more important role in overall preference. Older subjects liked deeper-fried peanuts, which are more brittle, more than younger subjects did. In the present study, systematic statistical analysis based on collected sensory evaluation data using deep-fried peanuts was conducted and the tendency of sensory perception and preference across gender and age was clarified. These results may be useful for engineering optimal strategies to target specific segments to gain greater acceptance in the market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Onyango, Benjamin M.; Govindasamy, Ramu; Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.
Food biotechnology promises to deliver a wide range of enhanced consumer benefits. This study models consumer's willingness to trade-off the potential risks of GM foods with the possibility of extracting significant benefits. It estimates the marginal effects and relationships between product characteristics and consumer attributes on acceptance of GM foods.
Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo
Roasted peanuts are a popular snack in Europe, but their drivers of liking and perceived freshness have not been previously studied with European consumers. Consumer research to date has been focused on U.S. consumers, and only on specific peanut cultivars. In this study, 26 unique samples were
Sudha, Vasudevan; Spiegelman, Donna; Hong, Biling; Malik, Vasanti; Jones, Clara; Wedick, Nicole M.; Hu, Frank B.; Willett, Walter; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Ponnalagu, Muthu Mariyammal; Arumugam, Kokila; Mohan, Viswanathan
Objectives To study consumer acceptance of unmilled brown and under milled rice among urban south Indians. Methods Overweight and normal weight adults living in slum and non-slum residences in Chennai participated (n=82). Bapatla (BPT) and Uma (red pigmented) rice varieties were chosen. These rice varieties were dehusked (unmilled, 0% polish) and further milled to 2.3% and 4.4% polishing (under milled). Thus nine rice samples in both raw and parboiled forms were provided for consumer tasting over a period of three days. A hedonic 7-point scale was used to rate the consumer preferences. A validated questionnaire was used to collect demographic, anthropometric, medical history, physical activity, dietary intake data and willingness of the consumers to switch over to brown rice. Results Consumers reported that the color, appearance, texture, taste and overall quality of the 4.4% polished rice was strongly preferred in both varieties and forms. Ratings for 0% polished (brown rice) were substantially lower than those of 2.3% polished rice, which were intermediate in ratings between 0% and 4.4% polishing. However, most of the consumers (93%) expressed willingness to substitute brown or 2.3% polished rice if affordable after the taste tests and education on nutritional and health benefits of whole grains. Conclusion While most consumers’ preferred polished white rice, education regarding health benefits may help this population switch to brown or under milled rice. Cooking quality and appearance of the grains were perceived as the most important factors to consider when purchasing rice among Chennai urban adults. PMID:24015699
Hinkes, Cordula; Schulze-Ehlers, Birgit
The majority of farmed fish produced in Bangladesh is consumed domestically, while global demand for fish is increasing. Non-tariff barriers resulting from consumers' concerns about sustainability and food safety or attitudes towards the country of origin might be one reason for limited export. The purpose of this study is to analyze consumer preferences for frozen pangasius and tilapia fillets from Bangladesh in order to explore market opportunities in Germany. A discrete choice experiment was conducted to estimate marginal utilities and willingness-to-pay for different product attributes, focusing on sustainability certification and the country of origin. Vietnam as a major exporter of pangasius to Germany was selected as a reference country for the analysis. The results of fitted mixed logit models indicate that German consumers are price-sensitive and prefer fish produced in Germany over fish farmed in either Bangladesh or Vietnam. While this finding seems not to be attributable to consumer ethnocentrism, country image constructs might play a role. A significant positive utility was identified for both sustainability and fair trade certification. The overall opt-out rate of the choice experiment was relatively high, indicating a general reluctance to consume pangasius and tilapia. Older respondents as well as those concerned about sustainability and those having less positive attitudes towards aquaculture were more likely to opt out. Overall, concerns about sustainability and the country of origin are relevant factors influencing purchase decisions, but aspects of taste and preferences for certain fish species might be even more significant in this context, limiting the market potential of pangasius and tilapia in Germany. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mauracher, C; Tempesta, T; Vecchiato, D
The introduction of new products on the market poses several challenges; in particular, whether the characteristics of the proposed product will be judged positively by potential consumers. This paper analyses the preferences of consumers regarding the introduction on the Italian market of a new product: organic Mediterranean sea bass. The aim of this study is to assess the importance given by consumers to four main characteristics of sea bass (country of origin, size, production method - organic or conventional - and price) so as to be able to formulate marketing strategies. We applied a choice experiment (CE) in order to define not only the ordinal ranking of preferences but also the willingness to pay (WTP) for the key characteristics of the newly-introduced product. We found that consumers show a higher WTP for the sea bass country of origin than for the breeding method used. Our results suggest that while organic aquaculture might be a new and important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication, either from a public policy or commercial perspective, and labelling/certification are not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by the final consumers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a marketing study aimed at discovering consumer preferences for the e-services in European cultural destinations. Our results are central to eliciting potential consumers’ preferences for tourism and cultural heritage-related e-services. The paper is based on the analysis of user surveys conducted by the authors within the ISAAC EU-funded project in Amsterdam, Genoa and Leipzig in 2007-2009. Three types of consumers were contacted: residents, visitors and (cultural heritage service providers. Our results provide a number of important recommendations for the design of e-tourism ICT platforms in European cities. The ICT platforms constitute a new market product, representing a novel approach to increasing the revenues from incoming tourism. The recommendations suggest priorities to ensure that the information system will most readily meet potential consumers’ needs.
Full Text Available Basing on the survey of respondents, a marketing research was carried out on military service people’s consumer motivations and benefits for the existing dry product package and ways to improve it, as well as on the attitude towards the consumption of instant cereals. The results of the survey showed that military service people were not satisfied with the existing daily field product package; the majority were not comfortable with the sameness of the assortment, cooking time, inconvenient packaging, and lack of individual flatware. It is found that the most important factors for military service people when choosing instant cereals are taste, composition/safety, nutritional and energy value, and the least important are the shape and design of packaging. The analysis of the responses about the nature of the most common negative body changes resulting from the respondents’ professional activity indicates that the development of instant cereals on the basis of natural components is promising, as these components can prevent fatigue and certain diseases. 68% of the people interviewed are already comfortable with the inclusion of instant cereals with improved consumer properties into the daily field product package, and other consumers’ attitude to them can be significantly improved by explaining to them the benefits of this product. A potential consumer wants to get a product that has a meat and fruit flavor with improved consumer properties, and what is the most important, the product should be tasty, of high quality, and harmless. Military service people will be the main consumers, regardless of their age, occupation, and education.The application of the marketing research on servicemen’s consumer preferences made it possible to identify those consumer preferences that must be taken into account when improving the set of dry products and developing new instant cereals in order to meet the potential consumers’ demand for these products
Zhang, Yan; Leach, Matthew J; Bishop, Felicity L; Leung, Brenda
To determine whether acupuncture use, sociodemographic characteristics, and existing health conditions differ between acupuncture-preferred consumers (i.e., those who deem acupuncture to be one of the three most important complementary and alternative medicine [CAM] modalities used) and non-acupuncture-preferred consumers who used acupuncture in the past 12 months This is a secondary analysis of the National Health Interview Survey Sample Adult File and Adult Alternative Medicine datasets collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during 2012. The sample was drawn from the noninstitutionalized civilian population of the United States. The datasets yielded 34,525 respondents aged 18 years and older. Measures included in the analysis were acupuncture use in the past 12 months, sociodemographic characteristics, and existing health conditions. Analyses were performed by using Stata software, version 9.0 (Stata Corp., College Station, TX). Of the 10,158 adults who responded to the question regarding the "three most important" CAM modalities used, 572 (5.6%) had used acupuncture in the past 12 months. Of these, 456 (79.7%) chose acupuncture as one of the top three CAM modalities most important to their health. Acupuncture-preferred consumers reported significantly more visits to acupuncturists (7.46 versus 3.99 visits; p < 0.001), as well as higher out-of-pocket costs ($342.8 versus $246.4; p < 0.001), compared with non-acupuncture-preferred consumers. The logistic regression model revealed that with every additional CAM modality used, the likelihood of deeming acupuncture as one of the three CAM modalities most important to one's health decreased by 39% (odds ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.71; p < 0.001). Health conditions were not statistically significant predictors. A consumer's preference for acupuncture appeared not to be driven by health conditions but rather was related to sociodemographic factors. This suggests that
Wang, Hainan; McCluskey, Jill J.
Wine is a product whose value largely depends on the reputation associated with its region of production. China is a newcomer and latecomer to wine production and consumption. Wine consumption, especially imported wine, rarely exists outside of major urban areas. Therefore, understanding the Chinese local markets and consumer preference for wine products is important for foreign wine producers. WTP (Willingness-to-Pay), in economics, is the maximum amount a person would be willing to pay for ...
Teng, Ching-I; Tseng, Hsu-Min; Wu, Heng-Hui
This study of how positive mood mediates the influences of musical preference and postconsumption product evaluation on consumer satisfaction focuses specifically on a model in which positive mood fully mediates the influences. The proposed model is compared with two competing models, and a structural equation model is used to test and compare the three theory-driven models. This study sampled 247 students majoring in management at a single university. They had mean age of 23 yr. (SD=2.5). This study used questionnaires to measure subjects' evaluations of a cup of coffee, preference for the music broadcast in the coffee shop, positive mood, and satisfaction after they had the coffee. Analysis indicated that the proposed model outperformed the two competing models in describing the data using chi-square difference tests. Positive mood was identified as a full mediator of the relationship between musical preference and consumer satisfaction. Moreover, the results demonstrate for service managers the importance of creating positive consumer mood.
Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove
and high level animal welfare pork will have to be quite narrow. In addition, full willingness-to-pay of consumers who want to buy high level welfare pork cannot be relied upon to incentivise new consumers to buy medium welfare pork. Further, raising brand awareness in the shopping situation and improving...... consumer's understanding of brand attributes for high level welfare brands were found to be vital....
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Maroschek, Nicole; Hamm, Ulrich
consumer purchase motives in common. Organic food and functional food are, however, often described as contradictory rather than complementary in amongst others the concept of health. Functional food tends to be perceived as ‘unnatural’ by consumers. So far, it has not been researched how consumers react...... to a combination of both product concepts. A realistically designed purchase simulation was conducted with 210 organic consumers in Germany. Five organic products in three different categories were offered, unobtrusively altered so that they showed a nutrition, health or risk reduction claim on two products...
Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of the sub-dimension of consumer-based brand equity which are called brand awareness, perceived quality, brand associations and brand loyalty on brand preference and the second goal is to find out the mediating role of family on these relations. For this purpose, a study was conducted with the participation of 295 people in Ankara. According to the research result, perceived quality and brand loyalty positively effects on brand preferences but there is no significant effect of brand awareness and brand association on these preferences. And also it is observed that family does not have any mediating role on these relations.
Driscoll, Andrea; Davidson, Patricia; Clark, Robyn; Huang, Nancy; Aho, Zoe
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with high hospitalisation and mortality rates and debilitating symptoms. In an effort to reduce hospitalisations and improve symptoms individuals must be supported in managing their condition. Patients who can effectively self-manage their symptoms through lifestyle modification and adherence to complex medication regimens will experience less hospitalisations and other adverse events. The purpose of this paper is to explain how providing evidence-based information, using patient education resources, can support self-care. Self-care relates to the activities that individuals engage in relation to health seeking behaviours. Supporting self-care practices through tailored and relevant information can provide patients with resources and advice on strategies to manage their condition. Evidence-based approaches to improve adherence to self-care practices in patients with heart failure are not often reported. Low health literacy can result in poor understanding of the information about CHF and is related to adverse health outcomes. Also a lack of knowledge can lead to non-adherence with self-care practices such as following fluid restriction, low sodium diet and daily weighing routines. However these issues need to be addressed to improve self-management skills. Recently the Heart Foundation CHF consumer resource was updated based on evidence-based national clinical guidelines. The aim of this resource is to help consumers improve understanding of the disease, reduce uncertainty and anxiety about what to do when symptoms appear, encourage discussions with local doctors, and build confidence in self-care management. Evidence-based CHF patient education resources promote self-care practices and early detection of symptom change that may reduce hospitalisations and improve the quality of life for people with CHF.
Tucker, Jalie A; Foushee, H Russell; Simpson, Cathy A
A large gap exists in the United States between population need and the utilization of treatment services for substance-related problems. Surveying consumer preferences may provide valuable information for developing more attractive services with greater reach and impact on population health. A state-level telephone survey using random digit dialling sampling methods assessed preferences for available professional, mutual help, and lay resources, as well as innovative computerized and self-help resources that enhance anonymity (N=439 households in Alabama). Respondents preferred help that involved personal contact compared to computerized help or self-help, but were indifferent whether personalized help was dispensed by professional or lay providers. Attractive service features included lower cost, insurance coverage, confidentiality, rapid and convenient appointments, and addressing functional problems and risks of substance misuse. Respondents in households with a member who misused substances rated services more negatively, especially if services had been used. The findings highlight the utility of viewing substance misusers and their social networks as consumers, and the implications for improving the system of care and for designing and marketing services that are responsive to user preferences are discussed.
Risius, Antje; Janssen, Meike; Hamm, Ulrich
Fish from aquaculture is becoming more important for human consumption. Sustainable aquaculture procedures were developed as an alternative to overcome the negative environmental impacts of conventional aquaculture procedures and wild fisheries. The objective of this contribution is to determine what consumers expect from sustainable aquaculture and whether they prefer sustainable aquaculture products. A combination of qualitative research methods, with think aloud protocols and in-depth interviews, as well as quantitative methods, using choice experiments and face-to-face interviews, was applied. Data was collected in three different cities of Germany. Results revealed that sustainable aquaculture was associated with natural, traditional, local, and small scale production systems with high animal welfare standards. Overall, participants paid a lot of attention to the declaration of origin; in particular fish products from Germany and Denmark were preferred along with local products. Frequently used sustainability claims for aquaculture products were mostly criticized as being imprecise by the participants of the qualitative study; even though two claims tested in the choice experiments had a significant positive impact on the choice of purchase. Similarly, existing aquaculture-specific labels for certified sustainable aquaculture had an impact on the buying decision, but were not well recognized and even less trusted. Overall, consumers had a positive attitude towards sustainable aquaculture. However, communication measures and labelling schemes should be improved to increase consumer acceptance and make a decisive impact on consumers' buying behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schleider, Jessica L; Weisz, John R
Because parents are primary gatekeepers to mental health care for their children, parental expectations that mental health treatment is ineffective may undermine treatment seeking, retention, and response. Thus, a need exists to understand parents' expectations about treatment and to develop scalable interventions that can instill more favorable views. We examined parents' treatment expectancies and preferences for their offspring and themselves in relation to two global beliefs: mind-sets (malleability beliefs) of emotions and anxiety, and views of failure as enhancing versus debilitating. Study 1 (N = 200; 49.5% fathers; 70.4% Caucasian) examined associations among parents' emotion mind-sets, anxiety mind-sets, failure beliefs, and treatment expectancies and preferences. Study 2 (N = 430; 44.70% fathers; 75.80% Caucasian) tested whether online inductions teaching "growth emotion mind-sets" (viewing emotions as malleable), adaptive failure beliefs, or both improved parents' treatment expectancies and hypothetical preferences for treatment (vs. no-treatment). Participants received one of three 8- to 15-min inductions or a psychoeducation control, rating treatment expectancies. and preferences pre- and postinduction. In Study 1, fixed emotion mind-sets and failure-is-debilitating beliefs were associated with lower parent psychotherapy expectancies for offspring and themselves and stronger "no-treatment" preferences for offspring. In Study 2, inductions teaching (a) growth emotion mind-sets only and (b) growth emotion mind-sets and failure-is-enhancing beliefs improved parents' psychotherapy expectancies for themselves (ds = .38, .51) and offspring (ds = .30, .43). No induction increased parents' hypothetical preferences for treatment (vs. no-treatment). Findings suggest scalable strategies for strengthening parents' psychotherapy effectiveness beliefs for themselves and their children.
Reynolds, Travis; Kolodinsky, Jane; Murray, Byron
This article examines consumer willingness to pay for energy-saving compact fluorescent light bulbs using the results of a stated preferences study conducted in the Caribbean island nation of Saint Lucia. Geographic location, low income status, and age are found to affect willingness-to-pay for compact fluorescent lighting, while higher income status and other demographic variables appear to have minimal or no significant impacts. Energy efficiency knowledge is associated with increased willingness-to-pay for energy-efficient bulbs and with increased use of compact fluorescent lighting. Contrary to theoretical expectations, past purchase of compact fluorescent bulbs is found to have no impact on self-reported willingness to pay. We hypothesize that this null result is due to the recent emergence of low-cost, low-quality compact fluorescent bulbs in the Saint Lucian lighting market, which may be negatively influencing consumers' preferences and expectations regarding energy-efficient lighting. Findings support the argument that government-sponsored education and subsidy programs will likely result in increased use of energy-saving technologies in Saint Lucia. But such behavioral changes may not be sustained in the long run unless low quality bulbs – the “lemons” of the compact fluorescent lighting market – can be clearly identified by consumers. - Highlights: ▶ We model how knowledge, attitudes, and past purchase affect CFL adoption. ▶ Saint Lucian consumers have some knowledge of and favorable attitudes toward CFLs. ▶ Energy efficiency knowledge increases stated willingness-to-pay (WTP) for CFLs. ▶ Past purchase does not increase WTP; low-quality ‘lemons’ may influence consumers. ▶ Policy can lower consumer risks in lighting markets where low quality bulbs exist.
Bejaei, M; Wiseman, K; Cheng, K M
In addition to regular (white and brown) eggs, alternative types of table eggs (e.g., free-run, free-range, organic) are available in the Canadian market, and their market growth rate has been high during the last decade in British Columbia (BC). The objective of our research was to identify associations between consumers' attitudes, preferences, and demographic characteristics with their consumption of different types of table eggs. An online survey was conducted in June 2009 to gather information from adult BC residents. Sixty-eight percent of the 1,027 randomly selected subjects completed the survey. Our survey indicated that the consumption of cage-free specialty eggs (free-run, free-range, and organic) has strongly increased in BC to 32.9% free-range eggs, 11.93% organic eggs, and 7.6% free-run eggs in 2009 compared with a Print Measurement Bureau consumer survey that showed combined 8% consumption of cage-free specialty eggs in 2007. Results of our survey indicated that, compared with consumers of white regular eggs, consumers of free-range eggs came from smaller households and had a higher education level and income. These consumers indicated that factors of health, nutritional value, environmental issues, and animal welfare were important in egg type selection. Although most consumers rated the specialty eggs as having a higher nutritional value than white regular eggs, price became the most important deciding factor for those consumers who selected white regular eggs. Our findings indicate that increased consumption and increased differentiation exist in the table egg market and this in turn provides support for more research to increase the efficiency of cage-free egg production systems and for better consumer education.
pref- erences, which ensures equivalence of the market equilibrium and the social planner solution. For other preferences this equivalence is broken and trade liberalization may reduce welfare by magnifying market failures. An exact condition for trade liberalization to reduce overall welfare...
Xu, Shuai; Kwa, Michael; Lohman, Mary E; Evers-Meltzer, Rachel; Silverberg, Jonathan I
, $0.35-$0.91). Lotions (median, $0.49; IQR, $0.31-0.68) were statistically less expensive per ounce than butters (median, $1.20; IQR, $0.76-$1.63), creams (median, $0.80; IQR, $0.69-$1.25) and oils (median, $1.30; IQR, $0.64-$2.43). For products with a claim of "fragrance free," 18 (45%) had at least 1 fragrance cross-reactor or botanical ingredient. Products without any ingredients in the NACDG (median, $0.83; IQR, $0.47-$1.69) were not statistically more expensive per ounce than products with 1 or more allergens (median, $0.60; IQR, $0.35-$1.06). Best-selling moisturizers vary widely by price and product characteristics. Given the lack of readily available comparison data on moisturizer efficacy, dermatologists should balance consumer preference, price, and allergenicity in their recommendations.
Schmidt, T B; Schilling, M W; Behrends, J M; Battula, V; Jackson, V; Sekhon, R K; Lawrence, T E
Consumer research was conducted to evaluate the acceptability of choice and select steaks from the Longissimus lumborum that were cooked to varying degrees of doneness using demographic information, cluster analysis and descriptive analysis. On average, using data from approximately 155 panelists, no differences (P>0.05) existed in consumer acceptability among select and choice steaks, and all treatment means ranged between like slightly and like moderately (6-7) on the hedonic scale. Individual consumers were highly variable in their perception of acceptability and consumers were grouped into clusters (eight for select and seven for choice) based on their preference and liking of steaks. The largest consumer groups liked steaks from all treatments, but other groups preferred (Pconsumers could be grouped together according to preference, liking and descriptive sensory attributes, (juiciness, tenderness, bloody, metallic, and roasted) to further understand consumer perception of steaks that were cooked to different end-point temperatures.
Procopio, Mary Elizabeth
The fresh meat industry is changing the way it markets its products. The decline in red meat consumption that has resulted from greater consumer concerns about the "healthfulness" of red meat, coupled with changes in consumer lifestyles emphasizing a need for convenience is contributing to the diminishment of "commodity selling" in favor of a true "marketing" approach (Pierson and Allen, 1986). In a traditional industry such as meats, the shift from a commodity-selling perspective (i.e., sell...
Mukhamejanova, Zukhra; Korbo, Kristie L.
Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management As the hospitality industry grows, so does the number of consumers booking hotels online. These consumers choose hotels based on webpage information such as hotel pictures and other promotional media. Given the importance of visual stimuli displayed on hotel webpages, little research effort has been devoted to the guests’ emotional response to hotel design. The aim of this study is to measure consumer’s emotional responses an...
Full Text Available In the free market consumers are faced with a different variation while they making purchase decision. Brand as a term, name, and symbol gives quality and satisfy needs of consumers and on that way assure self recognition. Main objective of this study is to determine the factors which influence consumers to buy international brands rather than national brands. This study has four independent variables and one dependent variable. Data for this study will be collected using online surveys based on the previous researches about brand equity and its dimensions. Sample for this study were 214 respondents form the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Using descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple regression analyses these data are measured. Results of this research will give benefits to marketing professionals in Bosnian industries where they can try to understand consumers- whether brand equity and its dimensions affect their purchasing decision and does that effect have negative or positive impact. Contribution of this study is reflected in that Bosnian manufacturers and sellers can better meet consumer’s wishes and needs, possibilities of potential consumers in this strained economy.
Full Text Available Sustainability is becoming an increasingly important consideration for consumers when purchasing food. As meat production has a significant impact on the environment, meat substitutes are becoming more and more popular in Europe. However, consumers who regularly buy meat substitutes are still the exception. Although there are some initial results indicating why this proportion is still low, most research has been concentrated in the Netherlands. This paper aims to compare reasons for consuming or not consuming meat substitutes in three European countries—Germany, the Netherlands and France. As very little is known about the underlying reasons, an explorative approach was chosen. Focus group discussions were carried out in all three countries, six altogether. The results show that all participants can enumerate meat substitutes. The main reason for not consuming meat substitutes is the taste of meat. Further, eating habits seem to be fixed and convenience might also be an impediment to reducing meat consumption in favour of meat substitutes, as is confusion regarding healthy eating.
Full Text Available The interaction that occurs between a service provider and a customer has received a significant amount of attention in the services research stream. However, there is still little knowledge with regards to how consumers assess service encounters, and even less about what is important to consumers in different countries other than the U.S. Using Mexican consumers, a group of behaviors (caring, courtesy, friendliness, and promptness was investigated to determine their relative importance in interactions with medical and restaurant service encounters and their impact on satisfaction with those providers. Promptness was the only behavior that did not have an effect on satisfaction reflecting a society with a higher orientation for people-oriented behaviors.
Full Text Available The final result of milk quality management is a superior product with high quality levels of all intrinsic and extrinsic components. To achieve this, most activities in the management process should be directed towards the quality components that are recognized by the average consumer of milk. To determine these factors, an indicative research was carried out on a sample of 1,157 respondents among the young population. Regarding the intrinsic components, the results indicate that young consumers mostly appreciate the taste and milk fat content in the range 2.8-3.2 %, whereas regarding the extrinsic components they value price and the origin of products, that is, the origin of milk. The last component has not been fully used in promotional efforts of producers in their advertising of milk, especially in a sub segment of urban young consumers. A stronger emphasis of this would help producers to differentiate themselves, and achieve competitive advantage on domestic and international markets.
Heid, Astrid; Hamm, Ulrich
Surgical piglet castration without pain relief has been banned in organic farming in the EU since the beginning of 2012. Alternative methods therefore need to be implemented that improve animal welfare and solve the underlying problem of boar taint. This paper explores German organic consumers' preferences for piglet castration without pain relief and three alternative methods. In an innovative approach using a multi-criteria decision making procedure, qualitative data from focus group discussions were compared with quantitative results from Vickrey auctions. Overall, participants preferred all alternatives to castration without pain relief. Different aspects influenced willingness-to-pay for the methods. Animal welfare was important for the evaluation of castration without pain relief and castration with anaesthesia. Food safety played a major role for willingness-to-pay for immunocastration, while taste and, to some extent, animal welfare were dominant factors for fattening of boars. These differences should be considered when communicating the alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ares, Gastón; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Curutchet, María Rosa; Antúnez, Lucía; Machín, Leandro; Vidal, Leticia; Giménez, Ana
The reformulation of the food products available in the marketplace to improve their nutritional quality has been identified as one of the most cost-effective policies for controlling the global obesity pandemic. Front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling is one of the strategies that has been suggested to encourage the food industry to reformulate their products. However, the extent to which certain FOP labels can encourage product reformulation is dependent on consumer reaction. The aim of the present work was to assess consumers' perception towards product reformulation in the context of the implementation of nutritional warnings, an interpretive FOP nutrition labelling scheme. Three product categories were selected as target products: bread, cream cheese and yogurt, each associated with high content of one target nutrient. For each category, six packages were designed using a 3 × 2 experimental design with the following variables: product version (regular, nutrient-reduced and nutrient-free) and brand (market leader and non-market leader). A total 306 Uruguayan participants completed a choice experiment with 18 choice sets. Reformulated products without nutritional warnings were preferred by participants compared to regular products with nutritional warnings. No apparent preference for products reformulated into nutrient-reduced or nutrient-free product versions was found, although differences depended on the product category and the specific reformulation strategy. Preference for reformulated products without nutritional warnings was more pronounced for non-market leaders. Results from the present work suggest that reformulation of foods in the context of the implementation of nutritional warnings holds potential to encourage consumers to make more healthful food choices and to cause a reduction of their intake of nutrients associated with non-communicable diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A.S. Grustam (Andrija); Vrijhoef, H.J.M. (Hubertus J. M.); R. Koymans (Ron); Hukal, P. (Philipp); J.L. Severens (Hans)
textabstractBackground: The purpose of this study is to assess the Business-to-Consumer (B2C) model for telemonitoring patients with Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) by analysing the value it creates, both for organizations or ventures that provide telemonitoring services based on it, and for society.
Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Leif Jonas
The motivation for the present study is to understand food choice in relation to animal food production and to study how preferences are influenced by information. To do this, we carried out a choice experiment. In the analysis, we focus on chickens reared indoors and outdoors and chicken labelled...
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hamm, U.
This contribution reports findings of a close-to-realistic purchase simulation for foods labelled with nutrition and health claims. The results show that products with a claim are clearly preferred, but that the determining factors of choice differ between the food categories. Choice was positively...
Futris, Ted G.; Nielsen, Robert B.; Barton, Allen W.
The study reported here explored level of interest and preferred delivery method of Extension programming related to financial management and relationship skills education. These two subjects comprise areas of Extension that often receive less recognition but appear as pertinent issues in the lives of many individuals. Using a diverse sample of…
Full Text Available International trade has a significant role in the world economy. That is why it is a challenging task to understand the consumers’ minds, particularly when the consumption of imported products is regarded. This article attempts to explore Moldovan consumer ethnocentric tendencies. For attaining this goal, a self-administered questionnaire was delivered, using CETSCALE. There were obtained 113 complete and usable responses. The data from the study point out that the Moldovan consumers tend to be moderately ethnocentric. This tendency is distributed uniformly amongst socio-demographic groups selected for this research.
Harkreader, S.A.; Hattrup, M.P.
In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two follow up market research projects: Phase 2 in 1985, and Phase 3, in 1988. In this report the respondents' perceptions, preferences, and fuel switching possibilities of fuels for home heating and major appliances are examined. To aid in effective target marketing, the report identifies market segments according to consumers' demographics, life-cycle, attitudes, and opinions.
Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Green-Petersen, D.; Hyldig, G.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.
Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was used to analyse the sensory quality of eight cod products, different with regard to origin (wild/farmed), storage time (short/extended) and storage method (fresh/frozen/packed in modified atmosphere). At the same time, 378 consumers in four European
Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove
The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the market potential of pork labelled to indicate medium and high levels of animal welfare. The paper asks, in particular, whether there is a risk that Danish consumers will abandon high level welfare pork if less expensive products with a medium level of animal welfare became available. The study was based on an online questionnaire with a choice experiment involving 396 Danish respondents. The results indicated that the Danish market could accommodate more than one pork product with a welfare label but the price differential separating medium and high level animal welfare pork will have to be quite narrow. In addition, full willingness-to-pay of consumers who want to buy high level welfare pork cannot be relied upon to incentivise new consumers to buy medium welfare pork. Further, raising brand awareness in the shopping situation and improving consumer's understanding of brand attributes for high level welfare brands were found to be vital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
From 2000 to 2006, per capita consumption of fresh citrus fruit increased by 11.0%, but the relative shares of types of citrus consumed changed. Per capita consumption of the historically dominant citrus fruit, fresh oranges, experienced a continuous decline from 12.4 pounds to 7.4 pounds from 1990 ...
Fenko, Anna; Hogenkamp, Anoek; Galetzka, Mirjam
Recent studies emphasize positive effects of congruity in advertising on consumer responses, but the effects of different types of congruity remain unclear. This study investigated the effects of visual and ad/self-congruity on consumers’ attitudes toward the ad, perceived product quality and
Sciegaj, Mark; Capitman, John A.; Kyriacou, Corrine Kay
Purpose. Even though consumer-directed care models are being advocated for use among elder populations, there are few data on the extent of elder interest in participating in the management of community long-term-care services, who they want involved in making these decisions, or their perceptions regarding the relative importance of different…
Baker, Allison K; Vixie, Beata; Rasco, Barbara A; Ovissipour, Mahmoudreza; Ross, Carolyn F
Although caviar is a premium product which offers nutritional benefits, few studies have characterized its sensory properties. As such, this study sought to develop a lexicon for sensory evaluation of caviar appearance, texture, aroma, and flavor/taste and to relate these attributes to consumer acceptance. A trained panel identified 16 sensory attributes for evaluation along a 15-cm scale and used CATA (check all that apply) methodology to indicate the less frequently encountered off-aromas, appearance traits, and persistent flavors. Using this lexicon, the trained panel described differences among caviar samples harvested from sturgeon fed varying diets. Acceptance of the caviar was also evaluated by a consumer panel. As evaluated by the trained panelists, analysis of variance (ANOVA) results indicated differences among caviar in the sensory attributes of tactile firmness, mustard color, egg size, in-mouth firmness, seafood fresh flavor, fresh butter flavor, earthy flavor, yeasty flavor, and bitterness (P consumer and trained panel data, overall consumer acceptance of caviar was driven by tactile firmness, sea fresh flavor, fresh butter flavor, and black color. This overall acceptance was highly correlated with acceptance of texture (r = 0.867) and flavor/taste (r = 0.999). Overall, this lexicon allows for standardized sensory evaluation of caviar using a common set of descriptors. This lexicon and information regarding the drivers of caviar acceptance can be used by industry professionals to ensure optimal caviar quality. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®
Wibowo, Svetlania Wulan; Tielung, Maria
Franchise fast food restaurant has become one of the preferred restaurants in Manado City. There have been many outlets franchise fast food restaurant which opened its business in Manado City. The purpose of this research is to analyze the most preferred franchise fast food restaurant by consumer and to analyze the criteria that influence consumer in selecting franchise fast food restaurant. Researcher used Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare each franchise fast food restaurant as t...
The present dissertation aim a contributing to both agricultural economics and marketing literature by addressing specific issues related to discrete choice models and choice experiments. More precisely, this thesis focuses on two main issues: 1) new tools to tackle with preference heterogeneity; and 2) new response formats to allows researchers to take into account the information provided by no chosen profiles. These two issues have generated three studies, which form the main core of this ...
Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Guevara, Roger; Dirzo, Rodolfo
Positive density-dependent seed and seedling predation, where herbivores selectively eat seeds or seedlings of common species, is thought to play a major role in creating and maintaining plant community diversity. However, many herbivores and seed predators are known to exhibit preferences for rare foods, which could lead to negative density-dependent predation. In this study, we first demonstrate the occurrence of increased predation of locally rare tree species by a widespread group of insular seed and seedling predators, land crabs. We then build computer simulations based on these empirical data to examine the effects of such predation on diversity patterns. Simulations show that herbivore preferences for locally rare species are likely to drive scale-dependent effects on plant community diversity: at small scales these foraging patterns decrease plant community diversity via the selective consumption of rare plant species, while at the landscape level they should increase diversity, at least for short periods, by promoting clustered local dominance of a variety of species. Finally, we compared observed patterns of plant diversity at the site to those obtained via computer simulations, and found that diversity patterns generated under simulations were highly consistent with observed diversity patterns. We posit that preference for rare species by herbivores may be prevalent in low- or moderate-diversity systems, and that these effects may help explain diversity patterns across different spatial scales in such ecosystems.
Fernando César Akira Urbano Matsuura
Full Text Available O Brasil produz aproximadamente seis milhões de toneladas por ano de banana (Musa spp., com consumo médio da ordem de 35 kg/ habitante / ano. A aceitação da banana deve-se, principalmente, a seus aspectos sensoriais, valor nutricional e conveniência. A identificação das necessidades e desejos dos clientes consiste em uma atividade crítica do marketing. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de pesquisar as preferências do consumidor de um mercado local (município de Cruz das Almas - Estado da Bahia considerando os atributos de qualidade dos frutos frescos de banana madura. A metodologia utilizada foi a da pesquisa descritiva por método estatístico. Os dados foram coletados por questionário, na forma de entrevista pessoal com 400 pessoas. Os atributos de qualidade (variáveis questionados e avaliados foram relacionados com a aparência, cor, textura, aroma, sabor e vida útil esperada dos frutos de banana. De acordo com a preferência dos consumidores entrevistados, o fruto de banana maduro ideal deve apresentar características como: penca contendo 10 a 12 dedos (frutos, dedos de tamanho médio ou grande, diâmetro médio, quina presente, ausência de pintas pretas na casca, cor da polpa amarelo-clara ou média, textura firme, aroma e sabor de intensidade média, mediamente doce e vida útil de 7 a 10 dias em condição ambiente. O sabor, vida útil e aparência dos frutos de banana são considerados os mais importantes atributos na escolha ou compra da banana, segundo os consumidores entrevistados.Brazil has an approximate production of six million annual tons of banana (Musa spp., with a consumption close to 35 kg / inhabitant / year. The acceptance of the banana fruit is due, mainly, to its sensorial aspects, nutritional value and convenience. The identification of the customers' needs and desires consists of a critical activity of the marketing. The objective of this work was to research the consumer preferences of a local market (Cruz
Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Asche, Frank; Bronnmann, Julia; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus
Sustainably produced food products have rapidly grown in popularity within the last years. Eco-labeling systems to indicate the environmental sustainability of product have also been implemented in the seafood market, with the MSC label for wild fish as the leading one. However, it is not clear whether consumers really notice the values behind an eco-label and how important these attributes are in their purchasing decision. This study analyzes data from a large household scanner panel to inve...
Federica Leanza; Michela Balconi
The current research aimed at investigating the brain lateralization effect in response to TV advertising of different commercial sectors. This study explored the effects of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) stimulation on subjective evaluation (semantic differential), in response to some consumer goods. We adopted rTMS (low-frequency 1Hz on left and right DLPFC) to modulate the consumers’ (N=thirty-three) response during the vision of five commercials. After three hours from the first e...
Kallas, Zein; Gil Roig, José María
In this paper, we analyse the opinions, attitudes and willingness of consumers to pay for biodiesel as an alternative to diesel in Barcelona province. Data were gathered from face-toface structured questionnaires from 300 diesel car owners/users that regularly purchase fuel. A variation of the traditional choice experiments (CE) was used by excluding the price attribute from the design. In a subsequent contingent valuation (CV) exercise, respondents were asked to state their ma...
Kim Dang, Anh; Xuan Tran, Bach; Tat Nguyen, Cuong; Thi Le, Huong; Thi Do, Hoa; Duc Nguyen, Hinh; Hoang Nguyen, Long; Huu Nguyen, Tu; Thi Mai, Hue; Dinh Tran, Tho; Ngo, Chau; Thi Minh Vu, Thuc; Latkin, Carl A; Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ho, Roger C M
This study aimed to examine: (1) how the Internet has changed consumers food-buying behavior and identify its associated factors; (2) consumers' concern about food safety information of online food products. A cross-sectional study was performed from October to December 2015 in Hanoi-a Vietnamese epicenter of food service. One thousand seven hundred and thirty six (1736) customers were randomly chosen from food establishments of 176 communes. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires. The majority of participants reported using the Internet to search for food products (81.3%). The most crucial factors influencing food purchases through the Internet were convenience (69.1%) and price (59.3%). Only one-third of participants selected products based on accurate evidence about food safety certification or food origin. The majority of participants were concerned about the expiration date (51.6%), while brand (9.8%) and food licensing information (11.3%) were often neglected. People who were:(1) female, (2) highly influenced by online relationships, and (3) having difficulty in doing usual activities were more likely to look for online food products. These findings produce practical advice to consumers when purchasing their desired food products on the Internet, to online food retailers and to the Government of Vietnam to implement appropriate legislation regarding trading online food products.
E-Commerce on the basis of current Web technology has created fierce competition with a strong focus on price. Despite a huge variety of offerings and diversity in the individual preferences of consumers, current Web search fosters a very early reduction of the search space to just a few commodity makes and models. As soon as this reduction has taken place, search is reduced to flat price comparison. This is unfortunate for the manufacturers and vendors, because their individual value proposition for a particular customer may get lost in the course of communication over the Web, and it is unfortunate for the customer, because he/she may not get the most utility for the money based on her/his preference function. A key limitation is that consumers cannot search using a consolidated view on all alternative offers across the Web. In this talk, I will (1) analyze the technical effects of products and services search on the Web that cause this mismatch between supply and demand, (2) evaluate how the GoodRelations vocabulary and the current Web of Data movement can improve the situation, (3) give a brief hands-on demonstration, and (4) sketch business models for the various market participants.
Li, Xin; Babol, Jakub; Wallby, Anna; Lundström, Kerstin
This study investigated meat quality and consumer preference after ageing beef gluteus medius in a water vapour-permeable dry-ageing bag or in vacuum for 14 days. Higher ageing and trim losses but lower thawing loss, cooking loss and water content were found in samples aged in dry ageing bags compared to those aged in vacuum. Samples aged in dry ageing bags had higher total bacteria and yeast counts but lower lactic acid bacteria counts than those aged in vacuum, both before and after trimming. Meat aged in dry ageing bag was more tender and juicier and overall preferred by consumers compared with samples aged in vacuum. Female participants outperformed the males in detecting differences in palatability. No differences were found in pH, smell, shear force, colour, Enterobacteriaceae, and mould counts. Thus, by using a dry ageing bag, it is possible to produce dry-aged meat in a more controlled condition without negative effects on sensory or other quality attributes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ekanem, Enefiok; Mafuyai-Ekanem, Mary; Tagegne, Fisseha; Singh, Surendra; Favors, Delicia
Goat meat has become an increasingly good source of protein for meat eaters in the global marketplace. Goat meat constitutes about 63% of all red meat consumed worldwide. It is the main source of animal protein in many North African, Middle Eastern nations, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and other tropical regions. This notwithstanding, goat meat is yet to take such prominence in the U.S. diet. Despite the acknowledgement of the meat as lean, tasty and less fatty than other meats (USDA 2001),...
Grunert, Klaus G.; Esbjerg, Lars; Bech-Larsen, Tino
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how three dimensions of retailer brand architecture - share or retailer brands, quality of retailer brands and visibility of retailer brands - affect consumer intention to shop at stores Design/methodology/approach: A conjoint analysis......, with dominantly manufacturer brands, with quality of retailer brands at the same level as manufacturer brands, and with good visibility of retailer brands. Research limitations/implications: The results are based on the evaluation of hypothetical stores, and many additional factors affect store choice in the real...
Full Text Available Promoting environmentally friendly farming products is crucial to meeting consumer demand. Although governments implement policy measures to improve the environmental performance of the agriculture sector, theirimpacts are difficult to assess. This study analyses the performance of agri‐environmental policies in Japan, by using the OECD’s policy impact model and reference level framework. In particular, it identifies the environmental impacts of three simulated agri‐environmental policies based on farms’ characteristics. The results suggest that a policy mix of regulation and an incentive payment would reduce environmental impacts, suggesting that targeted approaches could improve the cost‐effectiveness of agri‐environmental policies.
Full Text Available Consumers are increasingly more interested in the issues associated with high-quality food (organic food; consequently, the number of organic farms and commercial establishments which off er organic products with quality certifi cates is growing. Podkarpackie voivodeship, thanks to certain advantages, is a favorable place for the development of organic farming. For the needs of this research, a survey was conducted in spring 2015 among 137 inhabitants of Rzeszów and the surrounding areas who declared to be consumers of organic food. An analysis of the results provides the conclusion that organic products are very positively evaluated by the respondents, since in their opinion they have a great impact on their health, which is the main reason for purchasing them. Sales and consumption growth of organic foods can be achieved by intensive advertising using the latest methods and techniques, as well as by educating society. These activities should be particularly targeted at the inhabitants of mediumsized towns, and a convincing argument should be made to draw attention to the ingredients in organic food.
Weiss, Stephanie; Davis, Erica; Wojtanowski, Alexis C; Foster, Gary D; Glanz, Karen; Karpyn, Allison
To explore shoppers' responses to the taste of different types of cow's milk in a blind taste test and to examine their willingness to purchase lower-fat milk as part of an in-store marketing intervention. Participants were recruited on-site in the supermarket to participate in a blind taste test of three varieties of cow's milk and asked to guess what type they sampled. The taste testing was conducted as part of the Healthy Retail Solution (HRS) intervention that took place in four large supermarkets in Philadelphia, PA, USA over the course of six months. Adults (n 444) at participating Philadelphia supermarkets. The majority of participants at all stores reported typically purchasing higher-fat milk. Forty per cent of participants reported buying whole milk, 38 % purchased milk with 2 % fat. Very few participants correctly identified all three milk samples during the taste test (6·9 %) and a majority of participants were unable to identify the type of milk they self-reported typically purchased. Most consumers could not accurately distinguish between various types of milk. Taste testing is a promising strategy to introduce lower-fat milks to consumers who have not tried them before. Campaigns to purchase skimmed, 1 % or 2 % milk may result in significant energy reduction over time and can serve as a simple way to combat overweight and obesity.
Kaplan, Robert M; Tally, Steven; Hays, Ron D; Feeny, David; Ganiats, Theodore G; Palta, Mari; Fryback, Dennis G
To compare the responsiveness to clinical change of five widely used preference-based health-related quality-of-life indexes in two longitudinal cohorts. Five generic instruments were simultaneously administered to 376 adults undergoing cataract surgery and 160 adults in heart failure management programs. Patients were assessed at baseline and reevaluated after 1 and 6 months. The measures were the Short Form (SF)-6D (based on responses scored from SF-36v2), Self-Administered Quality of Well-being Scale (QWB-SA), the EuroQol-5D developed by the EuroQol Group, the Health Utilities Indexes Mark 2 (HUI2) and Mark 3 (HUI3). Cataract patients completed the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25, and heart failure patients completed the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. Responsiveness was estimated by the standardized response mean. For cataract patients, mean changes between baseline and 1-month follow-up for the generic indices ranged from 0.00 (SF-6D) to 0.052 (HUI3) and were statistically significant for all indexes except the SF-6D. For heart failure patients, only the SF-6D showed significant change from baseline to 1 month, whereas only the QWB-SA change was significant between 1 and 6 months. Preference-based methods for measuring health outcomes are not equally responsive to change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Platikanov, Stefan; Hernández, Alejandra; González, Susana; Luis Cortina, Jose; Tauler, Roma; Devesa, Ricard
The overall liking for taste of water was correlated with the mineral composition of selected bottled and tap waters. Sixty-nine untrained volunteers assessed and rated twenty-five different commercial bottled and tap waters from. Water samples were physicochemical characterised by analysing conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS) and major anions and cations: HCO 3 - , SO 4 2- , Cl - , NO 3 - , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , and K + . Residual chlorine levels were also analysed in the tap water samples. Globally, volunteers preferred waters rich in calcium bicarbonate and sulfate, rather than in sodium chloride. This study also demonstrated that it was possible to accurately predict the overall liking by a Partial Least Squares regression using either all measured physicochemical parameters or a reduced number of them. These results were in agreement with previously published results using trained panellists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zide, Mary; Caswell, Kaitlyn; Peterson, Ellen; Aberle, Denise R; Bui, Alex At; Arnold, Corey W
eHealth apps have the potential to meet the information needs of patient populations and improve health literacy rates. However, little work has been done to document perceived usability of portals and health literacy of specific topics. Our aim was to establish a baseline of lung cancer health literacy and perceived portal usability. A survey based on previously validated instruments was used to assess a baseline of patient portal usability and health literacy within the domain of lung cancer. The survey was distributed via Amazon's Mechanical Turk to 500 participants. Our results show differences in preferences and literacy by demographic cohorts, with a trend of chronically ill patients having a more positive reception of patient portals and a higher health literacy rate of lung cancer knowledge (Pportals and higher level of health literacy within the domain of lung cancer.
Sherwood, N E; Morton, N; Jeffery, R W; French, S A; Neumark-Sztainer, D; Falkner, N H
The purpose of this study was to provide further information about preferences for types and formats (e.g., correspondence vs. face to face) of eating and exercise programs, actual participation rates in a variety of offered programs, and characteristics of program participants vs. nonparticipants. Over a 3-year period, a large sample of community volunteers was given the opportunity to participate in various forms of diet and exercise programs as part of a weight gain prevention study. The study was conducted at a university and three local health department sites. Subjects in the study were 616 individuals participating in the Pound of Prevention study (POP), a 3-year randomized evaluation of an intervention for preventing weight gain. The primary outcomes assessed were participation rates for each program offering. Program participants were also compared to those who did not participate on demographic characteristics, smoking, diet behavior, exercise behavior, and weight concern. Survey results indicated that correspondence formats for delivery of health education programs were rated as more desirable than face-to-face formats. Participation for program offering ranged from 0 to 16% of the study population. Participation data were consistent with survey results and showed participants' preference for correspondence formats even more strongly. Program offering attracted health-conscious participants with higher education and income levels. These data suggest that some community members will get interested and take part in low-cost, minimal contact programs for exercise and weight control. Future research efforts should focus on investigating ways to increase participation in brief or minimal contact programs, particularly among groups that may be difficult to reach and at high risk for the development of obesity.
T. F. Kiseleva
Full Text Available In this paper, studies on juice products market in Kemerovo, preferences of Kemerovo residents buying juice products were conducted. With the help of the data obtained, the characteristics of juice products market in Kemerovo with the identification of the main suppliers of products were given. The object of the study in thiswork was the residents of Kemerovo. The purpose of the work was to study juice products market in Kemerovo, to investigate the preferences of Kemerovo residents buying juice products. The objectives of this work werethe following: characteristics of juice products market in Kemerovo, determining of the potential of the juice products market, analysis of the division of the market between producers, processing of the data obtained concerning the state of the juice products market in Kemerovo. The survey method was used to study the goals. Questioning is a method of collecting primary material in the form of a written survey of a large number of respondents to collect information on the state of certain aspects of the process under study. The questionnaire can cover a wide range of people, which makes it possible to minimize atypical manifestations, while personal contact with the respondent is not necessary. Another important advantage of the method is the convenience of performing mathematical processing of questionnaires. According to the processed questionnaires, advice of recommendation character, which is not mandatory for use, was given to the producers of juice products. Taking these recommendations into account, the manufacturer will be able to determine the characteristic and inherent features of the juice market in Kemerovo. Kemerovo residents were asked to answer a number of questions. The survey was conducted anonymously. The answers are informative and will be used for further study.
Rai, Tage S; Holyoak, Keith J
We created paired moral dilemmas with minimal contrasts in wording, a research strategy that has been advocated as a way to empirically establish principles operative in a domain-specific moral psychology. However, the candidate "principles" we tested were not derived from work in moral philosophy, but rather from work in the areas of consumer choice and risk perception. Participants were paradoxically less likely to choose an action that sacrifices one life to save others when they were asked to provide more reasons for doing so (Experiment 1), and their willingness to sacrifice lives depended not only on how many lives would be saved, but on the number of lives at risk (Experiment 2). The latter effect was also found in a within-subjects design (Experiment 3). These findings suggest caution in the use of artificial dilemmas as a key testbed for revealing principled bases for moral judgment. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Cline, Richard R; Mott, David A
Several proposals for adding a prescription drug benefit to the Medicare program rely on consumer choice and market forces to promote efficiency. However, little information exists regarding: 1) the extent of price sensitivity for such plans among Medicare beneficiaries, or 2) the extent to which drug-only insurance plans using various cost-control mechanisms might experience adverse selection. Using data from a survey of elderly Wisconsin residents regarding their likely choices from a menu of hypothetical drug plans, we show that respondents are likely to be price sensitive with respect to both premiums and out-of-pocket costs but that selection problems may arise in these markets. Outside intervention may be necessary to ensure the feasibility of a market-based approach to a Medicare drug benefit.
Differences in consumers’ preferences for experiences have been suggested to be based on personality among other things. Personality in consumer research has primarily been operationalized as personality traits using the Five Factor theory. An old, re-emerged discussion in psychology is pointing...... at personality type rather than single personality traits to better understand behavior. Personality type represents “typical configurations of the dispositional attributes that define individuals” (Donnellan and Robins, 2010: 1). Type accounts for the necessity of understanding not only a person’s defining...... trait but also how this interacts with other traits providing a person centered rather than an attribute centered understanding. This allows for a classification of people rather than a classification of attributes of people. In the context of segmentation the objective is classifying people rather than...
Full Text Available Introduction: Continuing growth in human population and consumptionmeans that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years and that the world needs 70-100% more food by 2050. Environmental issues such as climate change, depletion of naturalresources and biodiversity loss increasingly threaten the welfare ofhuman civilization. Confronting these threats requires, among otherthings, behavioral changes in citizens, governments and companies.Farmers and other producers are responding to consumer concerns about pesticides by creating new marketing opportunities for products grown with environmentally sound practices. Environmental economists are increasingly interested in better understanding of how people cognitively organize their beliefs and attitudes towards environmental change in order to identify key motives and barriers that stimulate or prevent action.The purpose of the presentinvestigation is to evaluate the consumers’ preferences and factors affecting their choice for conventional, healthy and organic cucumbers in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: Data were collected on a sample of 230consumers in 2013 by using the proportionate stratification samplingmethod through face-to-face interviews based on a comprehensive structured questionnaire. Before the survey, the reliability and validity of the questionnaire were initially evaluated in a pre-test study, respectively, by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO criteria. Individual preferences were uncovered in choice experiment method (CEM by a contingent ranking experiment. In a contingent ranking experiment, respondents are required to rank a set of alternative options, characterized by a number of attributes, which are offered at different levels across the options.Data were analyzed by multinomial logit models. The approach consists of modeling utility, that isto say the net benefit a consumer obtains from selecting a
Marketing opening in the electric sector and green electricity products supply increase opportunity for households to voluntarily support renewable energy production. Despite the general development of committed actions, and in the lack of public intervention on prices, subscription rates are strongly below consumers' interest announcements and stated willingness to pay. This thesis analyses green electricity subscription factors: how to promote subscription in the case of individual sensitive and rather favourable attitude toward green electricity? Is it possible to encourage preference revelation? Answering these questions requires combining economics analysis and psychological concepts. In that aim, we employ the Theory of Planned Behavior, a social psychology model able to articulate theoretical analysis, psychological concepts and an empirical survey carried out in St Gallen (Switzerland). This survey is based on experimental method and commits, firstly, in testing our hypothesis, secondly in providing a method to influence individual beliefs in order to reinforce subscription intention. Finally, the survey is employed as an incentive tool for concretizing the intention and then promoting individual subscription. We determine that even though the premium to be paid may be an obstacle to subscription, other behavioral and attitudinal factors can explain the construction of individual preferences, intention and action. Analysing the various green electricity demand motivations as well as supply determinants enables to introduce the concept of 'certainty of subscription benefit'. The more the consciousness of personal benefit, the less price an obstacle to subscribe. As a result, our work aims firstly at providing analytical explanations to decision makers concerning the origin of the voluntary individual contribution to public goods as the environment, secondly, at developing green electricity preferences revelation mechanism. This kind of analysis is
Ferrazzi, Giovanni; Ventura, Vera; Ratti, Sabrina; Balzaretti, Claudia
Italy, with a cultivated area of 218,000 ha, is a European leader of rice production. In particular Lombardy region accounts for 40% of total rice cultivation and the case study in object accounts for 3.2% of Lombardy total rice area (2773 ha). Starting from 2012, through a regional project titled Buono, Sano e Vicino (good, healthy and close), Riso e Rane rural district supported local rice farmers in developing innovation in rice production and promoting an alternative supply chain to increase farmers bargaining power and promote new market strategies. More specifically, the innovation introduced is a new biotech method for variety certification, named DNA controllato (DNA tested). In the first step of the project, the attention was focused on an Italian traditional variety of rice: Carnaroli rice. Thanks to a commercial agreement with one of the most important large retailers in Lombardy, the Riso e Rane rice is offered for sale both in the traditional and wholegrain version. In this context, this work aims to evaluate the determinants of consumer's quality perception of this product, through a preference study of the commercial rice package. Preliminary results reveal that consumers perceive information about origin, local food-system and tradition more easily than DNA tested certification. In conclusion, this work contributes to evaluate the role of bio economy applications to the food sector and offers new insights for the debate about the relationships between tradition and innovation.
El-Gameel, E.A.; Elkhateeb, M.A.
Alongside traditional methods of processing and preserving food, the technology of food irradiation is gaining more and more attention around the world. In 1997/10/22, the Egyptian government issued clearance for irradiating certain items of food such as spices, herbs and dried onion and garlic. The approval of some other items of food such as poultry, fish and dried vegetables will issue in the near future. This study aims to know the opinion and attitude of the preference of the consuming Egyptian family to buy some dried food preserved by gamma radiation such as wheat, dried onion and garlic, dried date, dried legumes and yamish Ramadan when available on the market. A pool of 1160 sheets was collected randomly. The questionnaire was supported with simplified information about the use of atomic energy and radiation for peaceful purpose and other alternative methods to save food. The results obtained from this study showed that 67% of the total sample size accepted to buy irradiated fresh vegetables if its available in the markets while the objection was 15% and convinced were 17%. The model of the multi regression analysis was carried out between independent variables (the local consumer attitude towards buying some dried food preserved by gamma radiation) and dependent variables (technical, environmental, marketing and hygienic methods. The results were R2= 0.877 and F-test = 322 (significant). The model of the multi regression analysis was also carried out between dependent variables (the local consumer attitude towards buying some dried food preserved by gamma radiation) and independent variables (income, Education, age and governorates). The results were R2 = 0.53 and F-test12.64 (significant).
Owusu-Sekyere, Enoch; Jordaan, Henry
In recent years, governments, policy-makers, and managers of private food companies and agribusinesses are interested in understanding how consumers will react to environmentally sustainable attributes and information on food product labels. This study examines consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products from the viewpoint of black and white South Africans. Discrete choice experimental data was collected from black and white consumers to possibly assess cross-ethnic variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable products. Two widely purchased livestock products were chosen for the choice experiment. We found that consumers' preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes vary significantly between black and white South Africans. Our findings revealed that there are profound heterogeneous consumer segments within black and white respondents. The heterogeneity within both sub-samples is better explained at the segment level, rather than at individual level. For both product categories, the findings revealed that there are more distinct consumer segments among black respondents, relative to white respondents. The black respondents consist of water sustainability advocates, carbon reduction advocates, keen environmentalist and environmental neutrals. The white respondents entail keen environmentalist, environmental cynics, and environmental neutrals. The inherent significant variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes across segments and racial groups would help in formulating feasible, and segment-specific environmental sustainability policies and marketing strategies aimed at changing consumers' attitude towards environmentally sustainable products. Demographic targeting of consumer segments, sustainability awareness and segment-specific educational campaigns meant to enhance subjective and objective knowledge on environmental sustainability are important tools for food companies and
Apostolidis, Chrysostomos; McLeay, Fraser
This research builds upon existing theories of consumer behaviour, sustainable and ethical consumption and social marketing. It aims to improve academic and practical understanding of the effect of socio-environmental attributes on consumer preferences regarding meat and meat alternative products and examine how more sustainable consumption patterns can be achieved. It is based upon the idea that marketing strategies can be used with the ultimate aim of changing behavior in order to benefit t...
Kim, Min-A; Sim, Hye-Min; Lee, Hye-Seong
As reformulations and processing changes are increasingly needed in the food industry to produce healthier, more sustainable, and cost effective products while maintaining superior quality, reliable measurements of consumers' sensory perception and discrimination are becoming more critical. Consumer discrimination methods using a preferred-reference duo-trio test design have been shown to be effective in improving the discrimination performance by customizing sample presentation sequences. However, this design can add complexity to the discrimination task for some consumers, resulting in more errors in sensory discrimination. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of different types of test instructions using the preference-reference duo-trio test design where a paired-preference test is followed by 6 repeated preferred-reference duo-trio tests, in comparison to the analytical method using the balanced-reference duo-trio. Analyses of d' estimates (product-related measure) and probabilistic sensory discriminators in momentary numbers of subjects showing statistical significance (subject-related measure) revealed that only preferred-reference duo-trio test using affective reference-framing, either by providing no information about the reference or information on a previously preferred sample, improved the sensory discrimination more than the analytical method. No decrease in discrimination performance was observed with any type of instruction, confirming that consumers could handle the test methods. These results suggest that when repeated tests are feasible, using the affective discrimination method would be operationally more efficient as well as ecologically more reliable for measuring consumers' sensory discrimination ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose–Consumer researchers have become increasingly interested in the study of coping. This research contributes to this novel paradigm by investigating structural theories of coping with service failure using a hierarchical structure. Design/methodology/approach– For this purpose after an extensive review of related literature, the preliminary scale consist of 45 items was adopted and compiled from previous studies. The paper uses both exploratory (EFA and confirmatory (CFA factor analysis to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of these items. Findings– After a confirmatory factor analysis and reliability and validity tests, a hierarchal model with three higher order and nine lower order factor, was obtained. Originality/value– Despite the importance of coping strategies in service failure context, there isn't any considerable research in Iran to identify coping behaviors.
Mosca, A.C.; Bult, J.H.F.; Stieger, M.A.
Two sensory studies were carried out to compare the taste intensity, the perceived fluctuation of taste intensity and the consumer preference of food products with homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions of tastants using 2-alternative forced choice tests. The first study evaluated pairs of
The aims of this paper are twofold. The first is to analyze the interaction between R&D activities of firms and heterogeneous consumer preferences in structuring the evolution of an industry. The second is to explore the effects of patent length and breadth on market outcomes. To answer these
Gibert, Olivier; Dufour, Dominique; Giraldo, Andrés; Sánchez, Teresa; Reynes, Max; Pain, Jean-Pierre; González, Alonso; Fernández, Alejandro; Díaz, Alberto
The morphological, physical, and chemical characteristics of 23 unripe cultivated varieties of Colombian Musaceae were assessed. Fresh pulp dry matter helped to discriminate the following consumption subgroups: FHIA dessert hybrids (hydes: 24.6%) cook and hycook: 84% > des: 81.9% > hydes: 79.7% (p consumer preferences.
Pedersen, Susanne; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Thøgersen, John
and Germany: In-store interviews, focus groups and an online survey. A strong domestic country bias for organic food products is confirmed in Germany, and to a much lesser extent in China. German consumers prefer products imported from countries that are geographically and culturally close. Food safety...
Nguyen, Nga H; Hadgraft, Nyssa T; Moore, Melissa M; Rosenberg, Dori E; Lynch, Chris; Reeves, Marina M; Lynch, Brigid M
Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour are common amongst breast cancer survivors. These behaviours are associated with an increased risk of comorbidities such as heart disease, diabetes and other cancers. Commercially available, wearable activity trackers (WATs) have potential utility as behavioural interventions to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour within this population. The purpose of the study is to explore the acceptability and usability of consumer WAT amongst postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Fourteen participants tested two to three randomly assigned trackers from six available models (Fitbit One, Jawbone Up 24, Garmin Vivofit 2, Garmin Vivosmart, Garmin Vivoactive and Polar A300). Participants wore each device for 2 weeks, followed by a 1-week washout period before wearing the next device. Four focus groups employing a semi-structured interview guide explored user perceptions and experiences. We used a thematic analysis approach to analyse focus group transcripts. Five themes emerged from our data: (1) trackers' increased self-awareness and motivation, (2) breast cancer survivors' confidence and comfort with wearable technology, (3) preferred and disliked features of WAT, (4) concerns related to the disease and (5) peer support and doctor monitoring were possible strategies for WAT application. WATs are perceived as useful and acceptable interventions by postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Effective WAT interventions may benefit from taking advantage of the simple features of the trackers paired with other behavioural change techniques, such as specialist counselling, doctor monitoring and peer support, along with simple manual instructions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Communicating risk is part of primary prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke, collectively referred to as cardiovascular disease (CVD. In Australia, health organisations have promoted an absolute risk approach, thereby raising the question of suitable standardised formats for risk communication. Methods Sixteen formats of risk representation were prepared including statements, icons, graphical formats, alone or in combination, and with variable use of colours. All presented the same risk, i.e., the absolute risk for a 55 year old woman, 16% risk of CVD in five years. Preferences for a five or ten-year timeframe were explored. Australian GPs and consumers were recruited for participation in focus groups, with the data analysed thematically and preferred formats tallied. Results Three focus groups with health consumers and three with GPs were held, involving 19 consumers and 18 GPs. Consumers and GPs had similar views on which formats were more easily comprehended and which conveyed 16% risk as a high risk. A simple summation of preferences resulted in three graphical formats (thermometers, vertical bar chart and one statement format as the top choices. The use of colour to distinguish risk (red, yellow, green and comparative information (age, sex, smoking status were important ingredients. Consumers found formats which combined information helpful, such as colour, effect of changing behaviour on risk, or comparison with a healthy older person. GPs preferred formats that helped them relate the information about risk of CVD to their patients, and could be used to motivate patients to change behaviour. Several formats were reported as confusing, such as a percentage risk with no contextual information, line graphs, and icons, particularly those with larger numbers. Whilst consumers and GPs shared preferences, the use of one format for all situations was not recommended. Overall, people across groups felt that risk
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the structure of consumer preferences regarding information on farming system and nutritional enhancement of eggs to verify if consumers are willing to accept products combing sustainability and nutrition related claims. The data was collected within a CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interviews survey on a representative sample of 935 consumers responsible for food shopping. A discrete choice-based conjoint method was selected in eliciting consumer preferences among different product profiles with varying levels of attributes. A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify four distinct clusters that differed significantly in terms of importance attached to production system attributes and socio-demographic profiles. The results of the experiment showed that price and farming system had the most significant mean relative importance in shaping consumers’ preferences, while other attributes such as nutrition and health claims, egg size, package size and hen breed were far less important. Free range eggs had the highest relative importance for consumers despite the fact that organic egg production systems are governed by much stricter animal welfare standards. Our segmentation revealed that two of our four clusters may be more easily reached by information on animal welfare related attributes in egg production than the others. The results of our study provide the policy makers and marketing practitioners with insights applicable for communication and pricing strategies for eggs with sustainability claims.
Alessandra Gaspar SOUSA
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of consumers and non-consumers, the reasons and foods associated with coffee intake among adults from the Federal District, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional population-based survey conducted by telephone interview (n= 1,368. We collected information on detailed coffee intake, socio-demographic aspects and personal characteristics. The coffee had an average daily intake of 319 mL. Individuals were more likely to drink coffee at an older age (68% and with higher body mass index (58%. The most cited reason for consuming coffee was the “personal pleasure” (48%, followed by “habit / tradition” of consuming coffee. Among non-consumers of this beverage, the main reason was not liking the taste and / or aroma of coffee (62%. The method of coffee preparation used was by infusion (86% and sugar was the main sweetener used by 83% of consumers. The majority of consumers (59% reported consuming coffee with certain foods such as bakery products. The results from our study may suggest that the popularity of coffee can be attributed to its taste, personal pleasure and habit, and the consumption is more likely to occur with the advance of age and with intake of other foods.
Tasie Nnenna G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of utilization of malaria treatment services will depend on provision of treatment services that different population groups of consumers prefer and would want to use. Treatment of malaria in Nigeria is still problematic and this contributes to worsening burden of the disease in the country. Therefore this study explores the socio-economic and geographic differences in consumers' preferences for improved treatment of malaria in Southeast Nigeria and how the results can be used to improve the deployment of malaria treatment services. Methods This study was undertaken in Anambra state, Southeast Nigeria in three rural and three urban areas. A total of 2,250 randomly selected householders were interviewed using a pre tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Preferences were elicited using both a rating scale and ranking of different treatment provision sources by the respondents. A socio-economic status (SES index was used to examine for SES differences, whilst urban-rural comparison was used to examine for geographic differences, in preferences. Results The most preferred source of provision of malaria treatment services was public hospitals (30.5%, training of mothers (19% and treatment in Primary healthcare centres (18.1%. Traditional healers (4.8% and patent medicine dealers (4.2% were the least preferred strategies for improving malaria treatment. Some of the preferences differed by SES and by a lesser extent, the geographic location of the respondents. Conclusion Preferences for provision of improved malaria treatment services were influenced by SES and by geographic location. There should be re-invigoration of public facilities for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria, in addition to improving the financial and geographic accessibility of such facilities. Training of mothers should be encouraged but home management will not work if the quality of services of patent medicine dealers and pharmacy
Maison, Dominika; Maliszewski, Norbert
The goal of this project was to investigate whether consumer ethnocentrism is purely conscious mechanism based on ideology, as suggested by Shimp and Sharma (1987), or rather is an automatic, unconscious process. The aim of the project was an introduction of the Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism (ICE) concept, measured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The goal of the four studies conducted was to investigate the following issues: (a) whether ICE – an automatic mechanism underlying the preference for local products over foreign – this could be observed next to the more ideologically based classic consumer ethnocentrism; (b) what happens when the consumer’s automatic preference for local products (ICE) is confronted by objective evidence of the superiority of foreign products or by the inferiority of local products. It was assumed that ICE could be reduced when foreign products were associated with a higher level of competence than local products, and this could explain the preference for foreign products over local often observed in less developed countries. In study 1 the ICE for different product categories of existing brands was tested, and in study 2 the ICE was measured in the context of non-existent brands. Both studies showed a strong in-group brand preference and confirmed the existence of new phenomena – ICE. The results of studies 3 and 4 again indicated a strong, automatic in-group brand favoritism effect as measured by IAT – participants preferred local brands over foreign. However, the inclusion of well-known foreign brands associated with high competence reduced the IAT effect (in-group preference). PMID:27920746
Shin, Jungwoo; Hwang, Won-Sik
Total energy consumption of oil in 2050 is expected to increase to 1.6 times its level in 2005, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector will be second only to the electricity sector. In order to reduce GHG emissions in transportation, leading countries have started to implement renewable fuel standard (RFS) policies. Other countries such as Korea have recently started implementing RFS policies in order to comply with the proposed global GHG reduction target. However, previous research did not consider the impact of RFS policy on consumer acceptance levels. Therefore, this study analyzes consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for RFS. To provide detailed policy strategies, this study conducts additional analysis using market segmentation and sensitivity analysis. The results indicate that consumers generally accept the cost of implementing an RFS policy if the cost falls between KRW 101.78/liter (USD 0.33/gal) and KRW 187.26/liter (USD 0.60/gal). In addition, consumer WTP for implementing an RFS policy changes when the income exceeds KRW 5 million (USD 4229.1) in driver group, and relatively lower-income groups tend not to support RFS policies. Based on the results of this study, we can suggest proper pricing policies for each income group and a public relations strategy to improve the level of policy acceptance. - Highlights: • We analyze consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay for Korea's RFS policy. • We also conduct market segmentation and sensitivity analysis. • Korean consumers will accept the cost between KRW 101.78/liter and KRW 187.26/liter. • Preference structure for RFS policy is changed when income exceeds KRW 5 million. • Relatively lower-income groups tend not to support RFS policies.
Steinhauser, Johann; Hamm, Ulrich
The research on nutrition, health, and risk reduction claims (NHR claims) shows a lack of consensus as to whether these claims have a positive or negative effect on consumer's preferences and purchase behavior. This issue has been highlighted by many authors. Therefore, a comprehensive literature review was performed to find reasons for contradictory results. First, a theoretical framework was developed which divided the determinants of the effects of NHR claims on consumers' preferences and purchase behavior into consumer and product-specific characteristics. Additionally, a categorization for the different NHR claim types was constructed to make the studies comparable. Afterwards, the scientific literature from the 1980s until May 2017 was scanned and 66 articles were found to be relevant. Consumer-specific characteristics such as nutrition knowledge, health motivation, familiarity, and socio-demographic characteristics were found to influence the NHR claim effect. Important product-specific characteristics were the perceived healthiness of the food product, the interaction between the product and the nutrient in the NHR claim, and the interaction between the claimed benefit and the NHR claim type. The consumer's nutrition knowledge and the product's perceived healthiness were deemed to be the most promising determinants for further investigation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miklavec, K; Pravst, I; Raats, Monique; Pohar, J
Many nutrition and/or health symbols were introduced in different countries in the past years and Slovenia is no exception. The objective of our study was to examine familiarity with and perception of the Protective Food symbol (PF symbol) in Slovenia and to investigate consumers' associations related to the symbol, and the influence of symbols' appearance on their preferences. The study was conducted through online questionnaire with incorporated word-association tasks and conjoint analysis;...
Grustam, Andrija S; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M; Koymans, Ron; Hukal, Philipp; Severens, Johan L
The purpose of this study is to assess the Business-to-Consumer (B2C) model for telemonitoring patients with Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) by analysing the value it creates, both for organizations or ventures that provide telemonitoring services based on it, and for society. The business model assessment was based on the following categories: caveats, venture type, six-factor alignment, strategic market assessment, financial viability, valuation analysis, sustainability, societal impact, and technology assessment. The venture valuation was performed for three jurisdictions (countries) - Singapore, the Netherlands and the United States - in order to show the opportunities in a small, medium-sized, and large country (i.e. population). The business model assessment revealed that B2C telemonitoring is viable and profitable in the Innovating in Healthcare Framework. Analysis of the ecosystem revealed an average-to-excellent fit with the six factors. The structure and financing fit was average, public policy and technology alignment was good, while consumer alignment and accountability fit was deemed excellent. The financial prognosis revealed that the venture is viable and profitable in Singapore and the Netherlands but not in the United States due to relatively high salary inputs. The B2C model in telemonitoring CHF potentially creates value for patients, shareholders of the service provider, and society. However, the validity of the results could be improved, for instance by using a peer-reviewed framework, a systematic literature search, case-based cost/efficiency inputs, and varied scenario inputs.
Johann F. Kirsten
Full Text Available The introduction of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO type certification schemes in countries outside Europe is a recent phenomenon as the philosophy of origin based foods obtains global traction. It is therefore interesting to understand whether consumers in these countries have a similar appreciation for these certification schemes and whether they are willing to pay a premium if the origin of the product is guaranteed. The Karoo Lamb case in South Africa provides an ideal opportunity to explore this question. At the same time the paper illustrates that the results and interpretation of consumer studies are sensitive to the methodology applied. We illustrate this argument by benefitting from a range of consumer studies that was undertaken over a period of five years in order to understand the South African consumers’ perceptions about the Karoo region and their preferences and willingness to pay for the meat product from the Karoo. The studies which we compare and synthesise in this paper used different techniques such as perception analysis; stated preference methods (through a conjoint analysis; and a range of revealed preference methods including, an experimental auction and a retail store experiment. In essence the paper synthesises and compares the results from the different studies and illustrates how different techniques bring different results and conclusions. We then try to establish whether there is consistency in the results across methods to help us getting to a conclusive position on the consumer value of this product. From these results we are able – in a more comprehensive way - to tell whether PDO-type products are likely to be of value to South African consumers.
Bindon, Keren; Holt, Helen; Williamson, Patricia O; Varela, Cristian; Herderich, Markus; Francis, I Leigh
A series of five Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wines were produced from sequentially-harvested grape parcels, with alcohol concentrations between 12% v/v and 15.5% v/v. A multidisciplinary approach, combining sensory analysis, consumer testing and detailed chemical analysis was used to better define the relationship between grape maturity, wine composition and sensory quality. The sensory attribute ratings for dark fruit, hotness and viscosity increased in wines produced from riper grapes, while the ratings for the attributes red fruit and fresh green decreased. Consumer testing of the wines revealed that the lowest-alcohol wines (12% v/v) were the least preferred and wines with ethanol concentration between 13% v/v and 15.5% v/v were equally liked by consumers. Partial least squares regression identified that many sensory attributes were strongly associated with the compositional data, providing evidence of wine chemical components which are important to wine sensory properties and consumer preferences, and which change as the grapes used for winemaking ripen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bech-Larsen, Tino; Poulsen, Jacob; Grunert, Klaus G.
Functional foods is a relatively new concept, which covers food products that are enriched with various kinds of (naturally occur-ring) components/substances (eg vitamins, minerals or probiotic cultures) or modified in a way so that the product provides an additional physio-lo-gical benefit...... that some consumers seem to approve of such manipu-lations whereas others don't. One possible explanation is differ-ences in con-sumers' values, especially the values pertaining to the relationship between man and nature. The aim of the study presented in this paper is, by means of conjoint analysis......, to study consumer acceptance of functional foods in Denmark, Finland and the United States and to investi-gate to which extent acceptance can be explained by consumer values. The three countries are selected due to differences in the importance attached to the value dimensions 'harmony' and 'mastery...
Ririn Wulandari; Budi Suharjo; Agus W. Soehadi; Herry Purnomo
International furniture markets certify ecolabel has been growing, but the domestic market has not yet developed. Unfortunate, because these products have two advantages that ensure environmental sustainability and promote a furniture market. This study was expected to open and developed the domestic market for ecolabel-certified furniture. The aim of this study was to develop marketing strategies for ecolabel-certified furniture on each of green consumer stratifications. Consumer stratificat...
Napolitano, F; Castellini, C; Naspetti, S; Piasentier, E; Girolami, A; Braghieri, A
Conventional chicken from a fast-growing strain (CC), organic chicken from a slow-growing strain (OSG), and organic chicken from a fast-growing strain (OFG) were used to assess descriptive sensory differences between organic and conventional breasts, to verify whether differences were perceived by consumers and to evaluate the effect of information about organic production on liking. A conventional quantitative-descriptive analysis was performed by a trained panel of 10 members on breast slices (1 cm thick) grilled at 300°C. A 150-member consumer panel (from southern, central, and northern Italy) rated CC, OSG, and OFG breasts according to 3 types of evaluation: tasting without information (perceived liking), information without tasting (expected liking), and tasting with information (actual liking). Breasts from different sources were clearly discriminated by the trained panel as meat from CC was perceived more tender than OFG (P consumers for perceived liking. However, consumer expected liking scores were higher for organic than for conventional products (P consumers were not. However, consumer liking was markedly affected by the information given on the organic production system, thus providing a tool to differentiate the product in an increasingly competitive market.
The concept of meal as eating a variety of kinds of food at regular intervals have now been replaced by breaks of fast individual eating, and mostly the young crowd nowadays do not have a proper eating pattern and prefer quick and tasty food. The fast food Industry identifies the preferences of adolescents and children, and targets a major part on their marketing schemes on them, since they have an important portion of their customer base. Young adults, another major important segment of thei...
Kim, Youngmok; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Mina K
Current study was designed to find out how tea harvesting time affects the volatile and non-volatile compounds profiles of green tea. In addition, correlation of instrumental volatile and non-volatile compounds analyses to consumer perception were analyzed. Overall, earlier harvested green tea had stronger antioxidant capacity (~61.0%) due to the polyphenolic compounds from catechin (23,164 mg/L), in comparison to later harvested green teas (11,961 mg/L). However, high catechin content in green tea influenced negatively the consumer likings of green tea, due to high bitterness (27.6%) and astringency (13.4%). Volatile compounds drive consumer liking of green tea products were also identified, that included linalool, 2,3-methyl butanal, 2-heptanone, (E,E)-3,5-Octadien-2-one. Finding from current study are useful for green tea industry as it provide the difference in physiochemical properties of green tea harvested at different intervals.
Full Text Available In this study, consumer’s demographic characteristics, the attitude of halal food and religious life styles aimed to investigate whether there is a significant relationship between preference of halal certified products. The target population of the study is the markets costumers, products are sold is halal certified in İstanbul. The sample of the study is 400 costumers over the age of 18, who agreed to participate in the study. The data collection technique used in the survey technique. Frequency distribution analysis of the data, descriptive statistic, t–test, one-factor analysis of variance and Pearson correlation matrix tests were used for analysis of the data. Of the analyzed demographic variables, gender and income level was found significant difference between religious life style. Marital status, job –carrier and income was a found significant difference between the attitude of halal food. Marital status, job –carrier, income and education was found significant difference between the preference of the halal-certified product. Also there are weak significant relationship between religious life styles and the attitude of halal food, there are very weak significant relationship between religious life styles and preference of halal certified products and there are weak significant relationship between the attitude of halal food and preference of halal certified products
Miklavec, Krista; Pravst, Igor; Raats, Monique M; Pohar, Jure
Many nutrition and/or health symbols were introduced in different countries in the past years and Slovenia is no exception. The objective of our study was to examine familiarity with and perception of the Protective Food symbol (PF symbol) in Slovenia and to investigate consumers' associations related to the symbol, and the influence of symbols' appearance on their preferences. The study was conducted through online questionnaire with incorporated word-association tasks and conjoint analysis; GfK consumer panel and social media (Facebook) were used for recruitment of Slovenian adults (n=1050; 534 men, 516 women). The majority (78%) of the participants reported they had previously seen the PF symbol, and 64% declared familiarity with it. Familiarity was verified using a word-association task in which we analysed the nature of the symbol's description, distinguishing the description of symbol's visual appearance or its meaning. In this task, 73% of the participants described the symbol's meaning with reference to health or a healthy lifestyle, confirming their familiarity with it. Women and those responsible for grocery shopping were significantly more familiar with the symbol. The impact of the symbol's appearance on consumers' preferences was investigated using conjoint analysis consisting of two attributes - three different symbols found on foods in Slovenia (PF symbol, Choices Programme symbol and Keyhole symbol), and accompanying worded claims. Although worded claims had less relative importance (29.5%) than the symbols (70.5%), we show that careful choice of the wording can affect consumers' preferences considerably. The lowest part-worth utility was observed without an accompanying claim, and the highest for the claim directly communicating health ("Protects your health"). The fact that most participants are well familiar with the PF symbol indicates the symbol's potential to promote healthier food choices, which could be further improved by an accompanying
Schnettler, Berta; Sepúlveda, Néstor; Sepúlveda, José; Orellana, Ligia; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán; Mora, Marcos
A study was carried out to evaluate preferences for two cuts, four countries of origin, two forms of presentation, brand and different prices of beef cattle among supermarket buyers in southern Chile, and to distinguish the existence of different market segments, through a survey of 800 people. Using a fractional factorial design for conjoint analysis, it was determined overall that the origin was more important (...
Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Gamborg, Christian; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark
Consumers are apprehensive about transgenic technologies, so cisgenics, which limit gene transfers to sexually compatible organisms, have been suggested to address consumer concerns. We study consumer preferences for rye bread alternatives based on transgenic or cisgenic rye, grown conventionally...
González-Viñas, M A; Caballero, A B; Gallego, I; García Ruiz, A
The physico-chemical, rheological and sensory characteristics of different commercially available Frankfurters were studied. Samples presented values of A(w) and pH from 0.954 to 0.972 and 5.88 to 6.43, respectively. Greater differences were observed in parameters such as fat and salt content, with values ranging from 10.83% to 21.92% and 1.85% to 3.01%, respectively. With regard to total nitrogen, all samples presented values close to 2%. Free-choice profiling and generalised procrustes analysis of the sensory data permitted differentiation between samples and provided information about the attributes responsible for the observed differences. All the frankfurters scored in the moderate range for overall acceptability. Consumers identified reasons for purchasing frankfurters when evaluating the product's packaging. The most important criterion for consumers when purchasing frankfurters was the appetising aspect of the product in the packaging's illustration.
Du Toit, Wilna Cornelia
Healthy food and/or supplements may be used in the context of a healthy lifestyle or as a means to compensate for an unhealthy lifestyle. Consumers are increasingly taking charge of their health and manipulate food choices or use dietary supplement regimes. By analysing usage across segments, marketers can determine the optimum audience for any specific health and wellness product. Marketers can develop marketing plans to the common motives, beliefs and behaviours of the opt...
Van Kempen, Luuk; Muradian, Roldan; Sandoval, Cesar; Castaneda, Juan-Pablo
The paper reports on a field experiment that investigates whether households in Guatemala are willing to surrender a small material gain in order to buy legal rather than illegal firewood. Given the ineffectiveness of command-and-control policies to curb the problem of illegal logging in Guatemala, the experiment assesses the potential viability of market-oriented solutions. Local consumers in developing countries are generally believed to be too poor to pay a premium for green/ethical products. Therefore, little information has been gathered on willingness-to-pay (WTP) for such products and its determinants in non-affluent consumer markets. While our experiment on firewood consumption in central Guatemala only implies a weak and indirect test of WTP for green products, the results indicate that it is premature, if not unwarranted, to assume that the poor are not ready to make pro-ethical choices in the marketplace. Moreover, we find that information on the legal procedures for firewood extraction significantly affects consumer choice between legal and illegal firewood. (author)
Li, Bangde; Hayes, John E; Ziegler, Gregory R
Designed experiments provide product developers feedback on the relationship between formulation and consumer acceptability. While actionable, this approach typically assumes a simple psychophysical relationship between ingredient concentration and perceived intensity. This assumption may not be valid, especially in cases where perceptual interactions occur. Additional information can be gained by considering the liking-intensity function, as single ingredients can influence more than one perceptual attribute. Here, 20 coffee-flavored dairy beverages were formulated using a fractional mixture design that varied the amount of coffee extract, fluid milk, sucrose, and water. Overall liking ( liking ) was assessed by 388 consumers using an incomplete block design (4 out of 20 prototypes) to limit fatigue; all participants also rated the samples for intensity of coffee flavor (coffee) , milk flavor (milk) , sweetness (sweetness) and thickness (thickness) . Across product means, the concentration variables explained 52% of the variance in liking in main effects multiple regression. The amount of sucrose (β = 0.46) and milk (β = 0.46) contributed significantly to the model (p's <0.02) while coffee extract (β = -0.17; p = 0.35) did not. A comparable model based on the perceived intensity explained 63% of the variance in mean liking ; sweetness (β = 0.53) and milk (β = 0.69) contributed significantly to the model (p's <0.04), while the influence of coffee flavor (β = 0.48) was positive but marginally (p = 0.09). Since a strong linear relationship existed between coffee extract concentration and coffee flavor, this discrepancy between the two models was unexpected, and probably indicates that adding more coffee extract also adds a negative attribute, e.g. too much bitterness. In summary, modeling liking as a function of both perceived intensity and physical concentration provides a richer interpretation of consumer data.
Carla Adriana Pizarro Schmidt
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as preferências dos consumidores de café da região oeste do Paraná, em relação ao ponto de torra e à granulometria de moagem. Foram realizadas análises sensoriais de preferência e físico-químicas. As análises físico-químicas foram utilizadas para monitorar as mudanças ocorridas nos produtos ao longo do processo de torra. Os cafés com torras mais leves foram pouco aceitos. O café que apresentou aparência global, aroma e sabor preferido foi o que apresentava uma torra média escura, mais próxima das torras tradicionais brasileiras. A torra mais escura foi bem aceita apenas em relação à aparência. A moagem fina foi preferida em relação à aparência global do produto, mas, apesar de ter apresentado maior acidez, os provadores não diferenciaram seu sabor.This study aimed the evaluation of the consumers preference for coffee in the west region of Paraná State, Brazil, in relation to the roasting degree and grinding granulometry. Sensorial preference and physical-chemichal analysis were made. The physical-chemichal analysis were used to monitor the changes that occurred in the products along the roasting process. The samples of coffee with light toasts were little accepted. The kind of coffee that presented preferred global appearance, aroma and taste was the one which presented average dark toasting, which is the one that is more similar to the traditional Brazilians toastings. The darkest toasting, was well-accepted in relation to appearance. The thin milling was preferred in relation to the global appearance of the product, but in spite of having presented major acidity the tasters did not make difference about its taste.
Full Text Available Given the debate generated by Genetically Modified (GM foods in developed and developing countries, the aim was to evaluate the importance of determining factors in the preference of consumers in Temuco and Talca in central-southern Chile for GM foods using conjoint analysis and to determine the existence of different market segments using a survey of 800 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was established that, in general, genetic modification was a more important factor than either brand or price in the consumer's decision to purchase either food. Cluster analysis identified three segments: the largest (51.4% assigned greatest importance to brand and preferred genetically modified milk and tomato sauce; the second group (41.0% gave greatest importance to the existence of genetic manipulation and preferred non-genetically modified foods; the smallest segment (7.6% mainly valued price and preferred milk and tomato sauce with no genetic manipulation. The three segments rejected the store brand and preferred to pay less for both foods. The results are discussed based on studies conducted in developed and developing countries.Com base no debate gerado pelos alimentos geneticamente modificados (GM, tanto em países desenvolvidos como em países em desenvolvimento, a partir do uso da conjoint analysis, o objetivo foi avaliar a importância dos fatores determinantes na preferência de alimentos GM pelos consumidores das cidades de Temuco e Talca, zona Centro-Sul do Chile, e a existência de diferentes segmentos de mercado, mediante uma enquete a 800 pessoas. Utilizando conjoint analysis, se determinou, em geral, que a existência de modificação genética foi mais importante que a marca e o preço na decisão de compra de ambos os alimentos. Mediante análise cluster, se distinguiram três segmentos, o mais numeroso (51,4% deu leve maior importância à marca e preferiu leite e molho de tomate geneticamente modificado. O segundo grupo (41,0% deu
Chail, A; Legako, J F; Pitcher, L R; Griggs, T C; Ward, R E; Martini, S; MacAdam, J W
Consumer liking, proximate composition, pH, Warner-Bratzler shear force, fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds were determined from the LM (longissimus thoracis) of cattle ( = 6 per diet) finished on conventional feedlot (USUGrain), legume, and grass forage diets. Forage diets included a condensed tannin-containing perennial legume, birdsfoot trefoil (; USUBFT), and a grass, meadow brome ( Rehmann; USUGrass). Moreover, representative retail forage (USDA Certified Organic Grass-fed [OrgGrass]) and conventional beef (USDA Choice, Grain-fed; ChGrain) were investigated ( = 6 per retail type). The ChGrain had the greatest ( 0.05) to that of both USUGrain and USUGrass. Both grain-finished beef treatments were rated greater ( Consumer liking of USUBFT beef tenderness, fattiness, and overall liking were comparable ( > 0.05) with that of USUGrain and ChGrain. Flavor liking was rated greatest ( 0.05) to those of ChGrain, USUGrass, and OrgGrass. Cumulative SFA and MUFA concentrations were greatest ( 0.05) to those of USUGrain and USUGrass. Each forage-finished beef treatment, USUGrass, OrgGrass, and USUBFT, had lower ( < 0.001) ratios of -6:-3 fatty acids. Hexanal was the most numerically abundant volatile compound. The concentration of hexanal increased with increasing concentrations of total PUFA. Among all the lipid degradation products (aldehydes, alcohols, furans, carboxylic acids, and ketones) measured in this study, there was an overall trend toward greater quantities in grain-finished products, lower quantities in USUGrass and OrgGrass, and intermediate quantities in USUBFT. This trend was in agreement with IMF content, fatty acid concentrations, and sensory attributes. These results suggest an opportunity for a birdsfoot trefoil finishing program, which results in beef comparable in sensory quality with grain-finished beef but with reduced -6 and SFA, similar to grass-finished beef.
Freedman, Stephen B; Willan, Andrew R; Boutis, Kathy; Schuh, Suzanne
Gastroenteritis is a common pediatric illness. Electrolyte maintenance solution is recommended to treat and prevent dehydration. Its advantage in minimally dehydrated children is unproven. To determine if oral hydration with dilute apple juice/preferred fluids is noninferior to electrolyte maintenance solution in children with mild gastroenteritis. Randomized, single-blind noninferiority trial conducted between the months of October and April during the years 2010 to 2015 in a tertiary care pediatric emergency department in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Study participants were children aged 6 to 60 months with gastroenteritis and minimal dehydration. Participants were randomly assigned to receive color-matched half-strength apple juice/preferred fluids (n=323) or apple-flavored electrolyte maintenance solution (n=324). Oral rehydration therapy followed institutional protocols. After discharge, the half-strength apple juice/preferred fluids group was administered fluids as desired; the electrolyte maintenance solution group replaced losses with electrolyte maintenance solution. The primary outcome was a composite of treatment failure defined by any of the following occurring within 7 days of enrollment: intravenous rehydration, hospitalization, subsequent unscheduled physician encounter, protracted symptoms, crossover, and 3% or more weight loss or significant dehydration at in-person follow-up. Secondary outcomes included intravenous rehydration, hospitalization, and frequency of diarrhea and vomiting. The noninferiority margin was defined as a difference between groups of 7.5% for the primary outcome and was assessed with a 1-sided α=.025. If noninferiority was established, a 1-sided test for superiority was conducted. Among 647 randomized children (mean age, 28.3 months; 331 boys [51.1%]; 441 (68.2%) without evidence of dehydration), 644 (99.5%) completed follow-up. Children who were administered dilute apple juice experienced treatment failure less often than those
Jassey, Vincent E J; Meyer, Caroline; Dupuy, Christine; Bernard, Nadine; Mitchell, Edward A D; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Metian, Marc; Chatelain, Auriel P; Gilbert, Daniel
Although microorganisms are the primary drivers of biogeochemical cycles, the structure and functioning of microbial food webs are poorly studied. This is the case in Sphagnum peatlands, where microbial communities play a key role in the global carbon cycle. Here, we explored the structure of the microbial food web from a Sphagnum peatland by analyzing (1) the density and biomass of different microbial functional groups, (2) the natural stable isotope (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) signatures of key microbial consumers (testate amoebae), and (3) the digestive vacuole contents of Hyalosphenia papilio, the dominant testate amoeba species in our system. Our results showed that the feeding type of testate amoeba species (bacterivory, algivory, or both) translates into their trophic position as assessed by isotopic signatures. Our study further demonstrates, for H. papilio, the energetic benefits of mixotrophy when the density of its preferential prey is low. Overall, our results show that testate amoebae occupy different trophic levels within the microbial food web, depending on their feeding behavior, the density of their food resources, and their metabolism (i.e., mixotrophy vs. heterotrophy). Combined analyses of predation, community structure, and stable isotopes now allow the structure of microbial food webs to be more completely described, which should lead to improved models of microbial community function.
Clough, Bonnie A; Zarean, Mostafa; Ruane, Ilse; Mateo, Niño Jose; Aliyeva, Turana A; Casey, Leanne M
e-Mental health services have the capacity to overcome barriers to care and reduce the unmet need for psychological services, particularly in developing countries. However, it is unknown how acceptable e-mental health interventions may be to these populations. The purpose of the current study was to examine consumer attitudes and perceived barriers to e-mental health usage across four countries: Australia, Iran, the Philippines and South Africa. An online survey was completed by 524 adults living in these countries, assessing previous contact with e-mental health services, willingness to use e-mental health services, and perceived barriers and needs for accessing e-mental health services. Although previous contact with e-mental health services was low, the majority of respondents in each sample reported a willingness to try e-mental health services if offered. Barriers toward e-mental health usage were higher among the developing countries than Australia. The most commonly endorsed barriers concerned needing information and assurances regarding the programmes. Across countries, participants indicated a willingness to use e-mental health programmes if offered. With appropriate research and careful implementation, e-mental health has the potential to be a valuable part of mental healthcare in developing countries.
Levy, Ifat; Lazzaro, Stephanie C; Rutledge, Robb B; Glimcher, Paul W
Decision-making is often viewed as a two-stage process, where subjective values are first assigned to each option and then the option of the highest value is selected. Converging evidence suggests that these subjective values are represented in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). A separate line of evidence suggests that activation in the same areas represents the values of rewards even when choice is not required, as in classical conditioning tasks. However, it is unclear whether the same neural mechanism is engaged in both cases. To address this question we measured brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging while human subjects passively viewed individual consumer goods. We then sampled activation from predefined regions of interest and used it to predict subsequent choices between the same items made outside of the scanner. Our results show that activation in the striatum and MPFC in the absence of choice predicts subsequent choices, suggesting that these brain areas represent value in a similar manner whether or not choice is required.
Buttorff, Christine; Trujillo, Antonio J; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime
Many low-income individuals from around the world rely on local food vendors for daily sustenance. These small vendors quickly provide convenient, low-priced, tasty foods, however, they may be low in nutritional value. These vendors serve as an opportunity to use established delivery channels to explore the introduction of healthier products, e.g. fresh salad and fruits, to low-income populations. We sought to understand preferences for items prepared in Comedores Populares (CP), government-supported food vendors serving low-income Peruvians, to determine whether it would be feasible to introduce healthier items, specifically fruits and vegetables. We used a best-worst discrete choice experiment (DCE) that allowed participants to select their favorite and least favorite option from a series of three hypothetical menus. The characteristics were derived from a series of formative qualitative interviews conducted previously in the CPs. We examined preferences for six characteristics: price, salad, soup, sides, meat and fruit. A total of 432 individuals, from two districts in Lima, Peru responded to a discrete choice experiment and demographic survey in 2012. For the DCE, price contributed the most to individual's utility relative to the other attributes, with salad and soup following closely. Sides (e.g. rice and beans) were the least important. The willingness to pay for a meal with a large main course and salad was 2.6 Nuevos Soles, roughly a 1 Nuevo Sol increase from the average menu price, or USD $0.32 dollars. The willingness to pay for a meal with fruit was 1.6 Nuevo Soles. Overall, the perceived quality of service and food served in the CPs is high. The willingness to pay indicates that healthier additions to meals are feasible. Understanding consumer preferences can help policy makers design healthier meals in an organization with the potential to scale up to reach a considerable number of low-income families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Marketing strategies and consumer preferences for fertilizers and soils from organic residues of biogas production; Vermarktungsstrategien und Konsumentenpraeferenzen fuer Duenger und Erden aus organischen Reststoffen der Biogasproduktion
The aim of this thesis is to show marketing possibilities for fermentation products and to generate sepcific recommendations for potential producers and marketers of fermentation products. Since the marketing of fermenting products is largely unexplored and a research gap, this project was launched with an exploratory phase. After the exploratory phase, private gardeners were identified as a promising customer group. Knowledge about the preferences of private gardeners when purchasing soil and fertilizer are crucial for the market success of processed fermentation products. In order to fathom the decision-making behavior of this potential customer group, personal interviews were conducted with private gardeners. These results enable potential producers and marketers of fermentation products to create a product that is in demand on the market because it meets the needs of potential consumers. The personal preferences, however, can be very different, for which reason a segmentation into different groups with similar preferences is made. [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, Vermarktungsmoeglichkeiten fuer Gaerprodukte aufzuzeigen und konkrete Empfehlungen fuer potenzielle Hersteller und Vermarkter von Gaerprodukten zu generieren. Da die Vermarktung von Gaerprodukten weitestgehend unerforscht ist und eine Forschungsluecke darstellt, wurde dieses Vorhaben mit einer explorativen Phase gestartet. Nach der explorativen Phase wurden Privatgaertner als vielversprechende Kundengruppe identifiziert. Kenntnisse ueber die Praeferenzen von Privatgaertnern beim Kauf von Erden und Duengern sind entscheidend fuer den Markterfolg von aufbereiteten Gaerprodukten. Um das Entscheidungsverhalten dieser potenziellen Kundengruppe naeher zu ergruenden, wurden persoenliche Interviews mit Privatgaertnern durchgefuehrt. Diese Ergebnisse ermoeglichen es potenziellen Herstellern und Vermarktern von Gaerprodukten ein Produkt zu kreieren, das auf dem Markt nachgefragt wird, da es den Wuenschen der
Full Text Available As yoghurt is a health food assessment of quality of commercialized yoghurt during storage period in refrigerator is needed. Lack of data on quality parameters of yoghurt brands in Sri Lanka is impediment to consumer health. This study is an attempt to fill that gap by providing data on evaluation of the changes of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of some plain set yoghurt sold in Matara municipal area of Sri Lanka. Five different brands of plain set yoghurt samples were collected on the basis of consumer preference for the present study. From each brand fifteen samples were analyzed by means of their physico-chemical syneresis effect pH titratable acidity total protein content and microbiological composition total plate count total yeast and mould count by using three replicates of each sample at 4 7 14 21 and 28 days intervals from production date under refrigerated condition 4 amp61616C and compared against local and international standards. All microbiological parameters and total protein content of all plain set yoghurt brands were not within the permissible range for local and international standards. Titratable acidity was only in the permissible range of local standards. All the physico-chemical parameters and microbiological parameters of collected samples were significantly affected by storage period. Good quality yoghurt of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters with hygiene conditions during processing and storage should be encouraged for consumption.
Fradgley, Elizabeth A; Paul, Christine L; Bryant, Jamie; Roos, Ian A; Henskens, Frans A; Paul, David J
With increasing attention given to the quality of chronic disease care, a measurement approach that empowers consumers to participate in improving quality of care and enables health services to systematically introduce patient-centered initiatives is needed. A Web-based survey with complex adaptive questioning and interactive survey items would allow consumers to easily identify and prioritize detailed service initiatives. The aim was to develop and test a Web-based survey capable of identifying and prioritizing patient-centered initiatives in chronic disease outpatient services. Testing included (1) test-retest reliability, (2) patient-perceived acceptability of the survey content and delivery mode, and (3) average completion time, completion rates, and Flesch-Kincaid reading score. In Phase I, the Web-based Consumer Preferences Survey was developed based on a structured literature review and iterative feedback from expert groups of service providers and consumers. The touchscreen survey contained 23 general initiatives, 110 specific initiatives available through adaptive questioning, and a relative prioritization exercise. In Phase II, a pilot study was conducted within 4 outpatient clinics to evaluate the reliability properties, patient-perceived acceptability, and feasibility of the survey. Eligible participants were approached to complete the survey while waiting for an appointment or receiving intravenous therapy. The age and gender of nonconsenters was estimated to ascertain consent bias. Participants with a subsequent appointment within 14 days were asked to complete the survey for a second time. A total of 741 of 1042 individuals consented to participate (71.11% consent), 529 of 741 completed all survey content (78.9% completion), and 39 of 68 completed the test-retest component. Substantial or moderate reliability (Cohen's kappa>0.4) was reported for 16 of 20 general initiatives with observed percentage agreement ranging from 82.1%-100.0%. The majority of
Paul, Christine L; Bryant, Jamie; Roos, Ian A; Henskens, Frans A; Paul, David J
Background With increasing attention given to the quality of chronic disease care, a measurement approach that empowers consumers to participate in improving quality of care and enables health services to systematically introduce patient-centered initiatives is needed. A Web-based survey with complex adaptive questioning and interactive survey items would allow consumers to easily identify and prioritize detailed service initiatives. Objective The aim was to develop and test a Web-based survey capable of identifying and prioritizing patient-centered initiatives in chronic disease outpatient services. Testing included (1) test-retest reliability, (2) patient-perceived acceptability of the survey content and delivery mode, and (3) average completion time, completion rates, and Flesch-Kincaid reading score. Methods In Phase I, the Web-based Consumer Preferences Survey was developed based on a structured literature review and iterative feedback from expert groups of service providers and consumers. The touchscreen survey contained 23 general initiatives, 110 specific initiatives available through adaptive questioning, and a relative prioritization exercise. In Phase II, a pilot study was conducted within 4 outpatient clinics to evaluate the reliability properties, patient-perceived acceptability, and feasibility of the survey. Eligible participants were approached to complete the survey while waiting for an appointment or receiving intravenous therapy. The age and gender of nonconsenters was estimated to ascertain consent bias. Participants with a subsequent appointment within 14 days were asked to complete the survey for a second time. Results A total of 741 of 1042 individuals consented to participate (71.11% consent), 529 of 741 completed all survey content (78.9% completion), and 39 of 68 completed the test-retest component. Substantial or moderate reliability (Cohen’s kappa>0.4) was reported for 16 of 20 general initiatives with observed percentage agreement
Full Text Available Sudah sejak lama%2C masyarakat mengkonsumsi mie instant. Di Korea mi instan yang disebut Ramyon%2C adalah salah satu makanan yang popular dan banyak dijual di toko-toko kecil%2C supermarket%2C restoran dan kantin. Mi instan yang terkenal di Korea diproduksi oleh Nong Shim Co.%2C Ltd. Di Indonesia%2C kebanyakan orang mengkonsumsi mi instan dengan alasan praktis%2C cepat saji dan lain sebagainya. Indomie%2C yang diproduksi oleh PT. Indofood adalah merk nomor satu dan menjadi pemimpin pasar pada pasar mi instan. Dalam studi komparasi antara dua merk terkenal ini%2C perlu diketahui seberapa jauh peran desain kemasan dalam menarik minat konsumen terhadap pilihan merk. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : For a long time%2C people have consumed the instant noodle. In Korea%2C instant noodle%2C which is called Ramyon%2C is one of popular food and it is often seen in the retail shop%2C supermarket%2C restaurant and cafeteria. Instant noodle that has a famous brand in Korea is produce by Nong Shim Co.%2C Ltd. In Indonesia%2C many people have consumed the instant noodle with practice reason%2C fast serving%2C and etc. Indomie%2C produced by PT. Indofood%2C is the number one brand and become the market leader of instant noodle. Comparing at two famous brand of instant noodle%2C it is needed to be known how far the effect of packaging design can attract the consumer brand preference. desain kemasan%2C pilihan merk%2C mi instan.
I. P. Shchetilina
Full Text Available The last decade, the negative trend related to the health status of the population. In the structure of power a significant part of the population are violations. According to scientific research Institute of nutrition in our country commonplace latent forms of vitamin deficiency combined with lack of calcium, iron, iodine. With the aim of increasing the production of food products of mass consumption enriched with minerals and vitamins, the use of vegetable raw materials of the Voronezh region is a priority. The human body for normal functioning requires regular consumption of micronutrients. An important role in biological processes in which food is converted into energy, play a micro- and macroelements and vitamins. They provide the protective functions of the body are involved in tissue renewal. However, micronutrients are not synthesized in the body, and water-soluble vitamins, unlike fat-soluble are easily excreted from the body, so they should regularly come directly from food. In the works of foreign and domestic scientists the development of product functionality has received considerable attention. Special contribution study of academicians V. M. Bosnakovski, V. A. Tutelyan, professor B. P. Sukhanov and others In the development of new types of foods must take into account the views of consumers about new products. The paper presents marketing research of the market of Voronezh the survey. The aim of the study was to identify preferences of consumers of functional products. Analyzed socio-demographic profile of respondents the distribution of respondents by education, age of the interviewee, the frequency of consumption by respondents functional products, the preferences of respondents by frequency of consumption depending on the sex of the respondents. The analysis of preferences for specific groups of products, places to purchase products functional purpose, the reasons that motivate respondents to purchase products of functional
Cheung, Stephanie G; Mishkin, Adrienne D; Shapiro, Peter A
In the United States, people with limited English proficiency (LEP) receive poorer medical care than those proficient in English. Few studies demonstrate how linguistic barriers complicate psychiatric care; in consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatry, there are no published data about care disparities for patients with LEP or for whom English is not the preferred language (PL). We sought to determine if PL affects the psychiatric consultation rate. Among adult patients admitted during 1 year to a large urban academic medical center, we compared psychiatric consultation rates in English PL patients with non-English PL patients. PL was ascertained from demographics during the medical record. The occurrence of psychiatric consultation was ascertained from C-L service logs. There were 54,534 admissions: the no-consultation group (N = 53,196) and the consultation group (N = 1,398). English as PL was more common in the consult group (72.0% of consult group, 62.0% of no-consult group, χ 2 = 92.98, p < 0.0001). Spanish speakers were underrepresented in the consult group (14.2% of consult, 25.8% of no-consult, χ 2 = 98.78, p < 0.0001). Primary teams requested more consultations for patients whose PL was English than for patients with other PLs, suggesting that psychiatric needs of patients with non-English PL may be unaddressed. This is the first study to demonstrate a disproportionately low rate of general hospital psychiatric consultations in this population. Further study is necessary to confirm and understand this disparity. We recommend routine use of professional interpreters and low threshold for consultation in patients with non-English PL. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S
This study aimed to determine whether the negative effects of maternal 'junk food' feeding on food preferences and gene expression in the mesolimbic reward system could be reversed by weaning the offspring onto a low-fat diet. Offspring of control (n = 11) and junk food-fed (JF, n = 12) dams were weaned onto a standard rodent chow until 6 weeks (juvenile) or 3 months (adult). They were then given free access to both chow and junk food for 3 weeks and food preferences determined. mRNA expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward system was determined by qRT-PCR at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months of age. In the juvenile group, both male and female JF offspring consumed more energy and carbohydrate during the junk food exposure at 6 weeks of age and had a higher body fat mass at 3 months (P junk food; however, female JF offspring had a higher body fat mass at 6 months (P junk food exposure on food preferences and fat mass can be reversed by consuming a low-fat diet from weaning to adulthood in males. Females, however, retain a higher propensity for diet-induced obesity even after consuming a low-fat diet for an extended period after weaning. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Juhl, Hans Jørn
In the EU, alcoholic beverages are exempt from Regulation 1169/2011 on the provision of food information to consumers (FIC) that requires food labels to contain both ingredient information and information on key nutrients. We investigate to which extent consumers want and use information...... and the Netherlands. The results have implications for both marketers of alcoholic drinks and for policies regarding information provision....
O. Bar-Gill (Oren)
textabstractConsumers make mistakes. Imperfect information and imperfect rationality lead to misperception of benefits and costs associated with a product. As a result, consumers might fail to maximise their preferences in product choice or product use. A proposed taxonomy of consumer mistakes draws
Fenger, Morten H. J.; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hansen, Flemming
related to stimulation seeking and hedonism and with a tendency towards variety seeking – reacted positively to the new product, others were less interested. The introduction of elements of storytelling, however, had a favorable effect on choice for the segment previously less interested. Thus......Continuous food product improvements require communication that induces consumers to test the new products. The paper presents an experiment that investigated the characteristics of consumers who reacted positively to variations of a new meat product, and explores the effect of short storytelling...... messages on choice. 1087 Danish consumers were presented with binary choice sets consisting of conventional and new variations of a cubed ham product; half of the respondents in addition saw short storytelling messages. It was found that while some consumers – especially those characterized by values...
Ma, Xiu Q; Verkuil, Julia M; Reinbach, Helene C; Meinert, Lene
Due to the economic growth achieved by China over the past 20 years, Chinese consumers have changed their purchasing behavior regarding meat. Instead of buying locally produced pork, they are increasingly willing to purchase imported pork. A conjoint analysis investigated how intrinsic pork attributes ( fat content and processing) and extrinsic pork attributes ( origin , price , and packaging ) relate to the perceived quality of pork and the choices made by Chinese consumers. A questionnaire distributed among a sample of Chinese consumers ( n = 81) revealed that processing (fresh/frozen) is the most important determinant of pork choice (36%), followed by fat content (27%), origin (18%), price (12%), and packaging (6.6%). Estimates of utility showed that Chinese consumers value fresh pork highly (0.147), followed by lean pork (0.111) and pork imported from countries other than China (0.073). The findings indicate that Chinese consumer's value both intrinsic and extrinsic attributes, and these results may help the meat industry improve China's competitive meat market by developing new and more products that are tailored to the needs of the consumer.
Bettman, James R; Luce, Mary Frances; Payne, John W
Consumer decision making has been a focal interest in consumer research, and consideration of current marketplace trends ( e.g., technological change, an information explosion) indicates that this topic will continue to be critically important. We argue that consumer choice is inherently constructive. Due to limited processing capacity, consumers often do not have well-defined existing preferences, but construct them using a variety of strategies contingent on task demands. After describing c...
Comparative analyses of the chemical and sensory parameters and consumer preference of a semi-dried smoked meat product (cabanossi) produced with warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) and domestic pork meat.
Swanepoel, Monlee; Leslie, Alison J; Hoffman, Louwrens C
The study compared the chemical and sensory characteristics and consumer preference of a semi-dried, cured meat product, cabanossi, produced with warthog meat and with domestic pork. The warthog and pork cabanossi had similar total moisture (59.0%±2.07 and 54.3%±1.26) and protein (26.3%±2.20 and 24.2%±2.15) contents, while the warthog cabanossi was lower in total fat content (6.9%±1.01) compared to pork cabanossi (13.7%±1.77, P=0.007). Descriptive sensory analysis found that the warthog cabanossi appeared darker red (P=0.001) and less fatty (P=0.001), while the pork cabanossi had a higher overall pork flavour (P=0.001). There were no differences in consumer preference of the appearance and taste between the two types of cabanossi, while the majority of consumers (91%) supported the use of game meat in meat products. The study concluded that warthog meat can be used in processed products without compromising the associated technical or organoleptic properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anastasiou, Charalampia N.; Keramitsoglou, Kiriaki M.; Kalogeras, N.; Tsagkaraki, Maria I.; Kalatzi, Ioanna; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.
The "Euro-leaf" organic certification logo was adopted and made compulsory by the European Union (EU) a few years ago; the level of consumers' recognition of this logo has been explored. This paper provides important insights into the effectiveness of the logo in the Greek market. The "Euro-leaf"
D'Amico, Richard A; Saltz, Renato; Rohrich, Rod J; Kinney, Brian; Haeck, Phillip; Gold, Alan H; Singer, Robert; Jewell, Mark L; Eaves, Felmont
The American Society of Plastic Surgeons and the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery launched a joint Cosmetic Medicine Task Force to address the growing trend of non-plastic surgeons entering the cosmetic medicine field. The task force commissioned two surveys in 2007 to determine consumer attitudes about choosing cosmetic medicine providers and to learn about the cosmetic services that plastic surgeons offer. The first survey obtained responses from 1015 women who had undergone a cosmetic procedure or were considering having one within 2 years. The second survey obtained responses from 260 members of the two societies. Compared with other practitioners, plastic surgeons enjoy higher rates of satisfaction among their patients who undergo noninvasive procedures. Injectables present a particularly promising market for plastic surgeons. Half of consumers surveyed said they were very concerned about complications associated with injectables, and generally, the higher the perceived risk of the procedure, the higher the likelihood that a patient would choose a plastic surgeon to perform it. In addition, injectables were among the noninvasive treatments most frequently being considered by consumers. However, almost half of consumers said that if they had a positive experience with a non-plastic surgeon core provider for a noninvasive procedure, that physician would likely be their first choice for a surgical procedure. These findings suggest that plastic surgeons, and especially those who are building young practices, must expand their offerings of nonsurgical cosmetic services to remain at the core of the cosmetic medicine field.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of methadone detoxification with traditional method of gradual decrement in the abused amount of the refined opium dross (Shireh to control withdrawal syndrome in Shireh-addicted patients. Methods: In this study, two groups of Shireh addicts were compared. The first group was treated by methadone and the second group by gradual decrement in the amount of consumed Shireh. Those experiencing the adverse effects of the treatment were excluded from the study. Methadone dose was calculated based on the amount of the Shireh consumed and detoxification was performed during a 21-day period. In the second group, the amount of the consumed Shireh was gradually decreased within 21 days and some of the withdrawal symptoms were selected as indicators for patient evaluation. Results: A total of 35 patients (16 versus 19 patients in the first and second groups were evaluated. Their mean age was 43 ± 4 years and all were male. A statistically significant difference was found between these two groups in terms of severity and duration of withdrawal symptoms within the first five days and their duration after the 21st day of the onset of detoxification (P< 0.05. Conclusion: In comparison with methadone detoxification, traditional method of gradually decreasing the consumed amount of Shireh controls the severity and duration of withdrawal symptoms better in the course of detoxification.
This article reviews the role played by a producer of goods and services in consumer life. But because the manufacturer can achieve its purpose, to obtain profit and to attract more clients, he needs to know the consumer’s needs and preferences. Equally important for the producer is to find solutions for his products and services to be developed in conditions of maximum efficiency and become more aware of why they are buying, find out who, what, from where, when, how and how much to buy and h...
Westerlund, Tommy; Barzi, Sahra; Bernsten, Cecilia
The availability of over-the-counter drugs (OTCs) has increased in Sweden since a re-regulation of the pharmacy market in 2009, through which non-pharmacy retailers became permitted to provide certain OTCs. To examine the adult general public's views on safety, purchasing and information channels, storage and disposal of OTCs in Sweden, three years after the re-regulation of the pharmacy market. A questionnaire study in 2012-13 in a stratified, random sample of all inhabitants in Sweden ≥ 18 years old. Totally 8,302 people (42%) answered the questionnaire. Seven percent found OTCs completely harmless regardless of how they are being used, 18% felt they should be used only on health professionals' recommendation. Differences in how OTCs are perceived were however found with regards to respondents' country of birth, family type, educational level and income. The pharmacy was still the preferred OTC drug retailer by 83% of the respondents and preferred information source by 80% Reasons for preferred retailers were primarily due to out of habit (45%), counseling provided (35%), the product range (34%) and the confidence in staff (27%). Analgesics are the most common OTCs to have at home (90%). The bathroom cabinet is the primary site for storage (42%) and 16% throw their OTC leftovers in the trash. The study population does not consider OTCs as harmless regardless of how they are used, but on the other hand feels they should not be taken on health professionals' recommendation only. The pharmacy is still the preferred retailer and information source, and there is room for further improvement in the storage and disposal of OTCs. A return of OTC drug leftovers to the pharmacy should be further encouraged. Due to several limitations, great caution should however be observed when generalizing the results to the adult population of Sweden.
Full Text Available Background: The availability of over-the-counter drugs (OTCs has increased in Sweden since a re-regulation of the pharmacy market in 2009, through which non-pharmacy retailers became permitted to provide certain OTCs. Objective: To examine the adult general public’s views on safety, purchasing and information channels, storage and disposal of OTCs in Sweden, three years after the re-regulation of the pharmacy market. Methods: A questionnaire study in 2012-13 in a stratified, random sample of all inhabitants in Sweden ≥ 18 years old. Results: Totally 8,302 people (42% answered the questionnaire. Seven percent found OTCs completely harmless regardless of how they are being used, 18% felt they should be used only on health professionals’ recommendation. Differences in how OTCs are perceived were however found with regards to respondents’ country of birth, family type, educational level and income. The pharmacy was still the preferred OTC drug retailer by 83% of the respondents and preferred information source by 80% Reasons for preferred retailers were primarily due to out of habit (45%, counseling provided (35%, the product range (34% and the confidence in staff (27%. Analgesics are the most common OTCs to have at home (90%. The bathroom cabinet is the primary site for storage (42% and 16% throw their OTC leftovers in the trash. Conclusions: The study population does not consider OTCs as harmless regardless of how they are used, but on the other hand feels they should not be taken on health professionals’ recommendation only. The pharmacy is still the preferred retailer and information source, and there is room for further improvement in the storage and disposal of OTCs. A return of OTC drug leftovers to the pharmacy should be further encouraged. Due to several limitations, great caution should however be observed when generalizing the results to the adult population of Sweden.
The study depicts the various tools of online advertising and their effects on customers, in particular tourists to the Algarve region in Portugal. The purpose of this study is to find out about the degree of Internet usage of travelers and tourists as well as their preferences in online advertising. Furthermore, modern online marketing methods are researched and compared in order to find the most successful ones. Current trends and most effective online advertising methods are researched thr...
Kallas, Zein; Borrisser-Pairó,, Francesc; Martínez, Beatriz; Vieira, Ceferina; Panella-Riera, Nuria; Olivar, Maria Angels; Gil Roig, José María
The European societies are requiring that animals to be raised as closely as possible to their natural conditions. The growing concerns about animal welfare is resulting in continuous modifications of regulations and policies that led to ban of a number of intensive farming methods. The European authorities consider the pig welfare as a priority issue. They are studying to ban surgical pig castration by 2018, which may seriously affect markets and consumers due to boar tainted-meat. This stud...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of chronic disease represents a significant burden on most health systems. This paper explores the market failures and policy failures that exist in the management of chronic diseases. Discussion There are many sources of market failure in health care that undermine the efficiency of chronic disease management. These include incomplete information as well as information asymmetry between providers and consumers, the effect of externalities on consumer behaviour, and the divergence between social and private time preference rates. This has seen government and policy interventions to address both market failures and distributional issues resulting from the inability of private markets to reach an efficient and equitable distribution of resources. However, these have introduced a series of policy failures such as distorted re-imbursement arrangements across modalities and delivery settings. Summary The paper concludes that market failure resulting from a preference of individuals for 'immediate gratification' in the form of health care and disease management, rather than preventative services, where the benefits are delayed, has a major impact on achieving an efficient allocation of resources in markets for the management of chronic diseases. This distortion is compounded by government health policy that tends to favour medical and pharmaceutical interventions further contributing to distortions in the allocation of resources and inefficiencies in the management of chronic disease.
Irena Vida; Mojca Maher Pirc
The study examines the phenomenon of national identity and economic ethnocentrism in consumer buying behavior. Analysis of data collected from a representative sample of adult Slovenian consumers reveals only moderately expressed ethnocentric tendencies. Similar moderation was revealed in the preferences of Slovenian consumers for patriotic purchasing behavior, whereby the domestic origin of products was more important in the case of nondurable goods and services than in the case of durable g...
ABSTRACT: The main objective of this research is to conduct a study to analyse service failure categories and service recovery strategies used and future customer behaviorin the context of hotelrestaurants in Mashhad, Iran. Also to evaluate the impact of demographic characteristics of customers on service failure, service recovery and customer intention. The Thesis involves 300 respondents from Mashhad, Iran. The sampling unit is hotel restaurant customers and the data needed for the researc...
V. A. Anischenko
Full Text Available Reliability Analysis of nonrestorable redundant power Systems of industrial plants and other consumers of electric energy was carried out. The main attention was paid to numbers failures influence, caused by failures of all elements of System due to one general reason. Noted the main possible reasons of common failures formation. Two main indicators of reliability of non-restorable systems are considered: average time of no-failure operation and mean probability of no-failure operation. Modeling of failures were carried out by mean of division of investigated system into two in-series connected subsystems, one of them indicated independent failures, but the other indicated common failures. Due to joined modeling of single and common failures resulting intensity of failures is the amount incompatible components: intensity statistically independent failures and intensity of common failures of elements and system in total.It is shown the influence of common failures of elements on average time of no-failure operation of system. There is built the scale of preference of systems according to criterion of average time maximum of no-failure operation, depending on portion of common failures. It is noticed that such common failures don’t influence on the scale of preference, but change intervals of time, determining the moments of systems failures and excepting them from the number of comparators. There were discussed two problems of conditionally optimization of systems’ reservation choice, taking into account their reliability and cost. The first problem is solved due to criterion of minimum cost of system providing mean probability of no-failure operation, the second problem is solved due to criterion of maximum of mean probability of no-failure operation with cost limitation of system.
Keiding, Hans; Tvede, Mich
In the present paper, we are concerned with the behavioural consequences of consumers having nontransitive preference relations. Data sets consist of ﬁnitely many observations of price vectors and consumption bundles. A preference relation rationalizes a data set provided that for every observed...... consumption bundle, all strictly preferred bundles are more expensive than the observed bundle. Our main result is that data sets can be rationalized by a smooth nontransitive preference relation if and only if prices can normalized such that the law of demand is satisﬁed. Market data sets consist of ﬁnitely...... many observations of price vectors, lists of individual incomes and aggregate demands. We apply our main result to characterize market data sets consistent with equilibrium behaviour of pure-exchange economies with smooth nontransitive consumers....
赵江; 梅姝娥; 仲伟俊
To explore the effects of consumer's preference on product pricing and targeted advertising,the mathematical model with asymmetric duopolist using targeted advertising and price discrimination on firm's profit is established,and related case study is performed.The results indicate that consumer's preference directly affects the firm's profit.More targeted advertising are sent to the firm's strong market for higher benefits even the price discrimination is not allowed.However,when the price discrimination is permitted,both firms will send more ads in their strong market and provide a high price to the consumer.Otherwise,the strategy of price discrimination and targeted advertising can be used as the effective tool for firm's marketing strategy.When the firm has the imperfect targeting precision,the strategy of targeted advertising and price discrimination might intensify market competition.%为了研究消费者偏好对产品定价和定向广告策略的影响,构建非对称双寡头企业联用定向广告和价格歧视策略对企业利润影响的数学模型,并进行案例分析.研究表明:1)消费者偏好属性直接影响企业利润.当不允许价格歧视时,企业总在优势市场投放更高强度的定向广告以获得更高利润.2)当允许价格歧视时,企业将在优势市场投放定向广告并制定较高价格,而在竞争市场给予消费者较低价格以获得最优利润.3)定向广告和价格歧视联用成为企业定向营销的有效工具.当企业不具备完全定向精度时,同时采取定向广告和价格歧视策略有可能加剧市场竞争.
Tversky, Amos; Slovic, Paul; Kahneman, Daniel
Observed preference reversal cannot be adequately explained by violations of independence, the reduction axiom, or transitivity. The primary cause of preference reversal is the failure of procedure invariance, especially the overpricing of low-probability, high-payoff bets. This result violates regret theory and generalized (nonindependent) utility models. Preference reversal and a new reversal involving time preferences are explained by scale compatibility, which implies that payoffs are wei...
Jacoby, J; Johar, G V; Morrin, M
Consumer behavior continued to attract additional researchers and publication outlets from 1993 through 1996. Both general interest and domain-specific scholarly contributions are discussed, along with limitations and suggested areas for future research. A concluding section observes that the integrity of consumer research is unnecessarily compromised by the failure of the major scholarly association in the field to develop and adopt a code of researcher ethics.
Morrison, Mark; Murphy, Tom; Nalder, Craig
This study focuses on segmenting the market for General Practitioner services in a regional setting. Using factor analysis, five main service attributes are identified. These are clear communication, ongoing doctor-patient relationship, same gender as the patient, provides advice to the patient, and empowers the patient to make his/her own decisions. These service attributes are used as a basis for market segmentation, using both socio-demographic variables and cluster analysis. Four distinct market segments are identified, with varying degrees of viability in terms of target marketing.
Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.
A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...
Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA
The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...
Bonany, J.; Buehler, A.; Carbó, J.; Codarin, C.; Donati, F.; Echeverria, G.; Egger, S.; Guerra, W.; Hilaire, C.; Höller, I.; Iglesias, I.; Jesionkowska, K.; Konopacka, D.; Kruczynska, D.; Martinelli, A.; PItiot, C.; Sansavini, S.; Stehr, R.; Schoorl, F.W.
A consumer test carried out in 7 different European countries compared 3 standard apple varieties to 8 new ones. A total of 4290 consumers took part in the test. Data from this test was used to develop a preference map for apple. The preference map was constructed with 3 main dimensions (1 –
The water resistance of sunscreen products has taken more importance for the UV protection of consumers involved in water activities and sports. The present work introduces a new in vivo approach to measure the water resistance of sunscreens on the actual skin of subjects, which can be easily applied to salt, chlorine and tap waters. The stress sources of sunscreen films on skin originate from two phenomena: high surface tension stress as the skin transits through the air/water interface and water diffusion into the film immersed in bulk water. The water resistance of sunscreen products is measured on the forearms of subjects by means of a new layered water bath approach that physically separates both stresses. Tape strips are subsequently taken and analysed for UV-A and UV-B optical densities via (1) imaging for remaining filters and (2) in vitro SPF absorption spectra. Water-resistant sunscreens generally perform well when immersed in bulk water even subjected to agitation, but they show a wide range of performances when considering their behaviour at the air/water interface. The differences are more pronounced in salt water than tap water. The results confirm 2 stress origins in sunscreen exposure to water: interfacial surface tension and bulk water diffusion. Polymers bring improvements to the resistance of sunscreens to bulk water but show wide latitude in performances when subject to the water surface tension stress. Globally, a higher loss of filters is observed in the UV-A than in the UV-B, which is attributed to more UV-A filter loss or degradation and thus resulting in a decreased protection in the UV-A. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.
Hannig, Jürgen; Siekmeier, Rüdiger
The current European system governed by the three EC directives 93/42/EEC (Medical Device Directive), 98/79/EC (In-Vitro Diagnostic Directive) and 90/385/EEC (Active Implantable Medical Device Directive) regulates marketing and post-market surveillance of medical devices in the European Economic Area (EEA). In cases of incidents raising the field safety corrective actions (FSCA), manufacturers have to inform the responsible Competent Authority (CA; in Germany this is the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, BfArM) and the public by field safety notices (FSN). In this study we analyzed FSN of respirators and consumables directly required for their function, whereas devices for anesthesia and gas delivery were excluded. FSCA and FSN of 2005-2013 publicized by BfArM for the included products were analyzed with respect to the MEDDEV 2.12-1 rev. 8. In total, 60 FSCA were publicized. German and English FSN were found in 59/53 cases, respectively. FSN were clearly characterized as FSN in 44/38 cases and declaration of the type of action in 45/44 cases, respectively. Product names were provided in all cases. Lot numbers or other information for product characterization were available in 7/7 and 43/40 cases, respectively. Detailed information regarding FSCA and product malfunction was found in all cases. Information on product related risks with previous use of affected devices was provided in 42/38 cases. In 53/53 cases manufacturers provided information to mitigate product related risks. Requests to pass FSN to persons needing awareness in the organization were found in 27/24 cases. Contact data were provided in 53/48 cases, respectively. Confirmation that a CA was informed was found in 28/26 cases and in 19/15 cases a customer confirmation was included. The identified risks were: total loss of function (19/16), short circuit (1/1) and burn (3/3), and inhalation of foreign particles (1/1) which might cause severe risk to patients and users. The most frequent
Engström, Per; Forsell, Eskil
Knowledge of how consumers react to different quality signals is fundamental for understanding how markets work. We study the online market- place for Android apps where we compare the causal effects on demand from two quality related signals; other consumers' stated and revealed preferences toward an app. Our main result is that consumers are much more responsive to other consumers' revealed preferences, compared to others' stated preferences. A 10 percentile increase in displayed average ra...
Jungwoo Shin; Yuri Park; Daeho Lee
Traditional television (TV) has evolved into smart TV in terms of both hardware and software. However, compared with smart phones and tablet PCs, which are huge successes in the market, smart TV has grown more slowly than the market expected and has not really changed the TV market. In this study, we investigate reasons for the failure of smart TV from consumer perspectives. We use conjoint analysis to collect stated preference data from consumers. Our analysis consists of two parts: analyzin...
highlighted that consumers’ preferences for beers are highly heterogeneous, and segments based on preferences for specific sensory characteristics and beer styles were identified. It was further hypothesized that consumers’ preferences may be jointly determined by the presence of novel sensory elements......, and the way these fit with consumer’s previous experiences with beer. Empirical evidence gathered during the work generally supported this hypothesis, indicating that consumers prefer beers with novel flavors that are not perceived as too novel or discontinuous with their sensory expectations. The last part...
This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of the evolution of consumer brand preference under incomplete information and the effect of time on consumer purchase behavior. The first essay studies the evolution of consumer brand
Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...
Arnould, Eric; Cayla, Julien
in the organizational fetishization of consumers, that is, how in the process of understanding and managing markets, a quasimagical fascination with amalgams of consumer voices, images, and artefacts comes about. We offer several contributions. First, we demonstrate the pertinence of (primarily anthropological...
Howells, Mark I.; Jonsson, Sandra; Kaeck, Emilia; Lloyd, Philip; Bennett, Kevin; Leiman, Tony; Conradie, Beatrice
This paper describes how management and information failures can retard transitions from the traditional use of biomass fuel by low income rural consumers and micro-producers. In general, societies move away from traditional biomass use as economic development takes place. If one accepts the doctrine of revealed preference (built on the initial work of), then these trends imply that such transitions provide net gains in utility. This paper shows how various 'failures' entrench existing fuel use patterns - hindering the transition to new fuel use patterns. In order to qualitatively discuss how these transitions may take place, an indicative neo-classical description of consumer and producer behavior is used. Three types fuel-transition 'driver' are identified. The effect of information and management failures on these drivers, and thus the energy transition, is discussed. Reference is made to a specific case study in which a partial transition from biomass occurred in response to an intervention to address an environmental management failure (the deforesting of a carbon sink.) It is concluded that interventions to encourage transitions to cleaner sustainable fuel use may need to recognize and address management and information failures in a systematic manner. (author)
Chen, M T; Guo, H L; Tseng, T F; Roan, S W; Ngapo, T M
Digital photographs of pork chops varying systematically in appearance were presented to 716 Taiwanese consumers in a study that aimed to identify the most important characteristics of fresh pork which determine consumer choice in Taiwan. Relationships between consumer segmentation in choice and socio-demographic and cultural differences were also investigated. Colour and fat cover were the most frequently chosen of the four characteristics studied. Dark red colour was preferred by 64% of consumers and lean fat cover by 44%. Marbling and drip were less important in the decision making process being used by less than a half of consumers. The four preference-based clusters of consumers showed no correlation with socio-demographic-based consumer clusters, but did show significant links with possession of a refrigerator, age at which schooling was completed, liking pork for its price and gender of consumer. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Beef Consumer Preferences in Chile: Importance of Quality Attribute Differentiators on the Purchase Decision Preferencias del Consumidor de Carne de Vacuno en Chile: Importancia de Atributos de Calidad Diferenciadores en la Decisión de Compra
Pablo Villalobos; Carlos Padilla; Cristian Ponce; Álvaro Rojas
Agrifood markets worldwide have focused on searching for new quality attribute differentiators, which capture the attention of consumers and meet their needs. The purpose of this research was to determine the importance of a set of quality attribute differentiators associated with a beef cut on the choice behavior of the Chilean consumer. The evaluated differentiating characteristics were: price, origin, production method, and quality assurance. A total of 750 subjects were surveyed in the fo...
Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.
Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer...... ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence....
Taylor, Chloe; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna
Claims of universality pervade color preference research. It has been argued that there are universal preferences for some colors over others (e.g., Eysenck, 1941), universal sex differences (e.g., Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), and universal mechanisms or dimensions that govern these preferences (e.g., Palmer & Schloss, 2010). However, there have been surprisingly few cross-cultural investigations of color preference and none from nonindustrialized societies that are relatively free from the common influence of global consumer culture. Here, we compare the color preferences of British adults to those of Himba adults who belong to a nonindustrialized culture in rural Namibia. British and Himba color preferences are found to share few characteristics, and Himba color preferences display none of the so-called "universal" patterns or sex differences. Several significant predictors of color preference are identified, such as cone-contrast between stimulus and background (Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), the valence of color-associated objects (Palmer & Schloss, 2010), and the colorfulness of the color. However, the relationship of these predictors to color preference was strikingly different for the two cultures. No one model of color preference is able to account for both British and Himba color preferences. We suggest that not only do patterns of color preference vary across individuals and groups but the underlying mechanisms and dimensions of color preference vary as well. The findings have implications for broader debate on the extent to which our perception and experience of color is culturally relative or universally constrained. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Iván Salvador Romero A.
Full Text Available In this paper, the subject is discussed from neoclassical concepts that explain consumer behavior by a utility function, taking into account budgetary constraints that determine it, as consumer behavior as revealed preferences are based on the transitivity also addresses variables to explain consumer final choice. It also integrates the innovative neuroeconomics approach, which explains the issue beyond budgetary constraints, delegating special interest in the study of cognitive aspects or brain impulses, as finally determined by consumer behavior.
Mathieu Alemany Oliver
Full Text Available This research explores childlike consumer behavior from an evolutionary perspective. More specifically, it uses the concept of neoteny to show that the retention of ancestors’ juvenile characteristics is related to specific behaviors. The results of factor analyses conducted on a UK sample (n = 499 and a French sample (n = 292 7 years later indicate four dimensions of childlike consumer behavior, namely, stimulus seeking, reality conflict, escapism, and control of aggression.
Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.; Mani, A.
We develop a theoretical framework to study the psychology of poverty and 'aspirations failure'. In our framework, the rich and the poor share the same preferences - and also a behavioral bias in setting aspirations. Greater downside risks imposed by poverty exacerbates the effects of this
Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.; Mani, A.
We develop a theoretical framework to study the psychology of poverty and ‘aspirations failure’, defined as the failure to aspire to one’s own potential. In our framework, rich and the poor persons share the same preferences and same behavioral bias in setting aspirations. We show that poverty can
Almenar, Eva; Samsudin, Hayati; Auras, Rafael; Harte, Janice
Instrumental analyses have shown that non-vented bio-based containers made from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) have the capability to enhance blueberry shelf life as compared with commercial vented petroleum-based clamshell containers. However, consumer preference has not been explored so far. In this study, two sensory evaluations, triangle and paired preference tests, were performed after storing fruit in both containers at 3 and 10 degrees C for 7 and 14 days. In addition, physicochemical analyses were performed after each tasting in order to correlate instrumental findings with consumer preference. The results of the triangle test showed the capability of the consumer to differentiate (P consumer preference for flavour, texture, external appearance and overall quality (P Consumers distinguished between blueberries from different packages and preferred those packaged in the PLA containers. The instrumental analyses showed that the usable life of the berries was extended in the PLA containers. A correlation between consumer preference and instrumental evaluations was found.
Goldsmith, Ronald Earl; Clark, Ronald A
Materialism influences many people. We focus on two aspects of this influence: reactions to prestige products and to the influence of others. A study of 187 U.S. student consumers shows that materialism is positively related to buying products that confer status. In contrast, materialism is negatively related to consumer independence, an enduring tendency to pay minimal attention to the prescribed norms of other consumers and to make product and brand decisions according to personal preferences. Consuming products for status is also negatively related to consumer independence. Moreover, the association between materialism and consumer independence is completely mediated by consuming for status. Materialism urges consumers to be status conscious so that they follow social norms in purchasing, but seeking status through goods is avoided by less materialistic, independent consumers. A second study (n = 258) also using student consumers confirmed these results.
Dijksterhuis, Garmt Bernard
When new consumer products are developed and later launched, 50 to 75 percent of them are removed from the market far short of meeting their projected financial targets. In short: they fail. We conclude that this failure is due to institutionalized insufficiencies in the use of the sciences...... that are best geared to understand and predict consumer behaviour, viz. the behavioural sciences. These are not necessarily the same as the marketing science that is performed by marketing departments. A scientific approach to understanding consumer behaviour appears to be lacking in many corporate research...
Boethius, O. [Volvo Car Corporation, Goeteborg (Sweden)
The paper relates to market mechanisms and customer preferences regarding alternative fuels for road transports. Globally, road transports are to 99% dependent on crude oil. According to the author, one third of the crude oil is consumed for road transports. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is discussed in this connection
S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)
textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.
Smart, Denise T.; Martin, Charles L.
Evaluation of manufacturers' responses to 300 consumer letters of praise or complaint as well as consumer's reactions to responses concluded that (1) businesses should tell consumers their input is appreciated; (2) sincere, personal responses are preferred; and (3) coupons, refunds, or similar gifts should be sent with letters. (SK)
van Trijp, Hans C.M.; Grunert, Klaus G
New product development is a necessary activity for a company’s competitiveness, profitability and growth. However, new product development is a risky activity as a large percentage of new product introductions fail to achieve their commercial targets. The present chapter reviews the existing evi...... evidence on new product success and failure factors. From that it introduces the perspective of consumer-oriented new product development as a way to balance new technological opportunity against identified consumer needs and desires....
The focus of this article is social divisions among preschool children in daycare centers. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three daycare centers in Denmark, the analysis concerns young children’s social preferences. The ethnographic material shows that despite an explicit political ambition...... of daycares as means for social and cultural integration, lines of division do exist amongst the children. Such divisions are established in the daily interactions of the daycare, but they also reflect those of the broader society. With a focus on children’s interactions and social preferences, the material...... indicates that children’s choices of playmates run along lines of ethnic and class divisions. The article will address this pattern and analyze its causes in order to understand why such lines of divisions are to be found in an institutional context designed to overcome social inequality and prevent social...
Farmers, consumers and gatekeepers and their attitudes towards ... Almost all consumers were willing to purchase GM maize meal at the same price. ... thirds, were hesitant to use them preferring to make the decision on a case-by-case basis.
Kuada, John Ernest; Bujac, Andreea Ioana
Recent economic growth trends in Africa have raised awareness among businesses about the attractiveness of its market potential. There is therefore an increasing academic interest in understanding the attitudes, preferences and behavior of African consumers. This chapter reviews some...
preferred teaching-learning strategies utilised internationally in subjects related to Consumer. ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 42, 2014. 48. Pedagogical guidance for South African Consumer Studies education. 1 The seven theory content topics contained in the Consumer Studies ...
Audrin, Catherine; Brosch, Tobias; Chanal, Julien; Sander, David
Consumers use extrinsic and intrinsic cues to set preferences and make purchase decisions. However, the extent to which luxury-related extrinsic cues determine consumer preferences and whether the relative weighting of extrinsic vs. intrinsic cues depends on consumers' values is still unclear. We investigated how luxury vs. non-luxury brands affect consumer preferences, and how this impact is moderated by consumers' materialistic values. Results from Experiment 1 showed that materialistic and...
Hoyer, W.D.; MacInnis, D.J.; Pieters, R.
CONSUMER BEHAVIOR combines a foundation in key concepts from marketing, psychology, sociology, and anthropology with a highly practical focus on real-world applications for today's business environment. The new edition of this popular, pioneering text incorporates the latest cutting-edge research
Morales, R; Guerrero, L; Aguiar, A P S; Guàrdia, M D; Gou, P
The objectives of the present study were (1) to compare the relative importance of price, processing time, texture and intramuscular fat in purchase intention of dry-cured ham through conjoint analysis, (2) to evaluate the effect of dry-cured ham appearance on consumer expectations, and (3) to describe the consumer sensory preferences of dry-cured ham using external preference mapping. Texture and processing time influenced the consumer preferences in conjoint analysis. Red colour intensity, colour uniformity, external fat and white film presence/absence influenced consumer expectations. The consumer disliked hams with bitter and metallic flavour and with excessive saltiness and piquantness. Differences between expected and experienced acceptability were found, which indicates that the visual preference of consumers does not allow them to select a dry-cured ham that satisfies their sensory preferences of flavour and texture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.