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Sample records for fagus orientalis lipsky

  1. Effect of Altitude and Aspect on Wood-Water Relations of Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Topaloğlu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of altitude and aspect on wood-water relations in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. were studied. Study area divided into five altitude steps and two aspect groups, total of 20 trees were cut off. In order to determine the wood-water relations; volume density value, fiber saturation point, maximum moisture content, and shrinkage and swelling percentages were determined. According to results, with 95% significance level (p<0,05, altitude affects volume density value, shrinkage and swelling percentages, fiber saturation point and maximum moisture content; aspect affects volume density value, tangential and radial shrinkage percentages, volumetric shrinkage percentage, tangential and longitudinal swelling percentages, fiber saturation point and maximum moisture content while it has no effect on longitudinal shrinkage percentage, radial and volumetric swelling percentages. Results demonstrated that northern aspect and first altitude step has the lowest values, thus, this aspect and altitude step making a suitable place for this tree species to be used as solid wood.

  2. Impacts of repeated timber skidding on the chemical properties of topsoil, herbaceous cover and forest floor in an eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Murat; Makineci, Ender; Comez, Aydin; Yilmaz, Ersel

    2010-07-01

    In this study, long-term timber skidding effects on herbaceous understory forest floor and soil were investigated on a skid road in a stand of the eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky). For this purpose, herbaceous understory forest floor and soil samples were collected from the skid road and from an undisturbed area used as a control plot. The mass (kg ha(-1)) of herbaceous and forest floor samples was determined, and soil characteristics were examined at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm). We quantified sand, silt and clay content, as well as bulk density compaction, pH, and organic carbon content in soil samples. The quantities of N, K, P, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were determined in all herbaceous cover forest floor and soil samples. The quantities of Na, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in herbaceous understory samples from the skid road were considerably higher than those in the undisturbed area, while the quantity of Mg was considerably lower. These differences could have been caused by decreased herbaceous cover in addition to variations in the properties of the forest floor and soil after skidding. A lower amount of forest floor on the skid road was the result of skidding and harvesting activities. Mg and Zn contents in forest floor samples were found to be considerably lower for the skid road than for the undisturbed area. No significant differences were found in soil chemical properties (quantities of N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) at the 0-5 cm soil depth. Important differences exist between soil quantities of Mg at a 5-10 cm depth on the skid road and in undisturbed areas. Both 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil depths, the average penetrometer resistance values for the skid road was higher than for the undisturbed area. This result shows that the compaction caused by skidding is maintained to depth of 10 cm. Skid road soil showed higher bulk density values than undisturbed areas because of compaction.

  3. An investigation on roundwood extraction of Fagus orientalis lipsky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Turkish forestry, the most common harvesting method is cut-to-length system, which is carried out intensively during the late spring and summer, as well as during the winter with a limited extent. In this study ... The average total time of shift was measured as 13.10 min for uphill logging and 22.92 min for downhill logging.

  4. An investigation on roundwood extraction of Fagus orientalis lipsky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    . Ankara, Turkey. Anonymous (2006). Artvin Forest Regional Directorate. Artvin Forest. Enterprise Management Plan of Saçinka Forest planning Unit. Between 2006-2025, Artvin. Baumgras JE, Herar JR, LeDoux CB (1995).

  5. Pregermination Treatment and Germination Characteristics of Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky in the Caspian Region

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    REZAII, Afsaneh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oriental beech is one of the most important tree species in the Caspian region that regeneratesnaturally.Seed pretreatment plays an important role in beech reforestation .For this reason the seeds ofthree different provenances; Gilan (Asalem, Nowshahr (Makarood, Gorgan (Cheshmeh gholgholy,across the Caspian region, were collected and after viability test (TTC placed under cold stratification(for 8-19 weeks to overcome dormancy. The results have shown that pregermination treatments haddesirable effects on seed germination. There were significant variations between three origins anddifferent treatment duration and germination characterstics. The Nowshahr and Gilan origins showedmore similarity.

  6. Unexpected presence of Fagus orientalis complex in Italy as inferred from 45,000-year-old DNA pollen samples from Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffetti, Donatella; Vettori, Cristina; Caramelli, David; Vernesi, Cristiano; Lari, Martina; Paganelli, Arturo; Paule, Ladislav; Giannini, Raffaello

    2007-08-16

    Phylogeographic analyses on the Western Euroasiatic Fagus taxa (F. orientalis, F. sylvatica, F. taurica and F. moesiaca) is available, however, the subdivision of Fagus spp. is unresolved and there is no consensus on the phylogeny and on the identification (both with morphological than molecular markers) of Fagus Eurasiatic taxa. For the first time molecular analyses of ancient pollen, dated at least 45,000 years ago, were used in combination with the phylogeny analysis on current species, to identify the Fagus spp. present during the Last Interglacial period in Italy. In this work we aim at testing if the trnL-trnF chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) region, that has been previously proved efficient in discriminating different Quercus taxa, can be employed in distinguishing the Fagus species and in identifying the ancient pollen. 86 populations from 4 Western Euroasistic taxa were sampled, and sequenced for the trnL-trnF region to verify the efficiency of this cpDNA region in identifying the Fagus spp.. Furthermore, Fagus crenata (2 populations), Fagus grandifolia (2 populations), Fagus japonica, Fagus hayatae, Quercus species and Castanea species were analysed to better resolve the phylogenetic inference. Our results show that this cpDNA region harbour some informative sites that allow to infer relationships among the species within the Fagaceae family. In particular, few specific and fixed mutations were able to discriminate and identify all the different Fagus species. Considering a short fragment of 176 base pairs within the trnL intron, 2 transversions were found able in distinguishing the F. orientalis complex taxa (F. orientalis, F. taurica and F. moesiaca) from the remaining Fagus spp. (F. sylvatica, F. japonica, F. hayataea, F. crenata and F. grandifolia). This permits to analyse this fragment also in ancient samples, where DNA is usually highly degraded. The sequences data indicate that the DNA recovered from ancient pollen belongs to the F. orientalis complex since

  7. Unexpected presence of Fagus orientalis complex in Italy as inferred from 45,000-year-old DNA pollen samples from Venice lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paganelli Arturo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogeographic analyses on the Western Euroasiatic Fagus taxa (F. orientalis, F. sylvatica, F. taurica and F. moesiaca is available, however, the subdivision of Fagus spp. is unresolved and there is no consensus on the phylogeny and on the identification (both with morphological than molecular markers of Fagus Eurasiatic taxa. For the first time molecular analyses of ancient pollen, dated at least 45,000 years ago, were used in combination with the phylogeny analysis on current species, to identify the Fagus spp. present during the Last Interglacial period in Italy. In this work we aim at testing if the trnL-trnF chloroplast DNA (cpDNA region, that has been previously proved efficient in discriminating different Quercus taxa, can be employed in distinguishing the Fagus species and in identifying the ancient pollen. Results 86 populations from 4 Western Euroasistic taxa were sampled, and sequenced for the trnL-trnF region to verify the efficiency of this cpDNA region in identifying the Fagus spp.. Furthermore, Fagus crenata (2 populations, Fagus grandifolia (2 populations, Fagus japonica, Fagus hayatae, Quercus species and Castanea species were analysed to better resolve the phylogenetic inference. Our results show that this cpDNA region harbour some informative sites that allow to infer relationships among the species within the Fagaceae family. In particular, few specific and fixed mutations were able to discriminate and identify all the different Fagus species. Considering a short fragment of 176 base pairs within the trnL intron, 2 transversions were found able in distinguishing the F. orientalis complex taxa (F. orientalis, F. taurica and F. moesiaca from the remaining Fagus spp. (F. sylvatica, F. japonica, F. hayataea, F. crenata and F. grandifolia. This permits to analyse this fragment also in ancient samples, where DNA is usually highly degraded. The sequences data indicate that the DNA recovered from ancient pollen

  8. Non-linear height-diameter models for oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky in the Hyrcanian forests, Iran

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    Ahmadi, K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between tree height and diameter is an important element in growth and yield models, in carbon budget and timber volume models, and in the description of stand dynamics. Six non-linear growth functions (i.e. Chapman-Richards, Schnute, Lundqvist/Korf, Weibull, Modified Logistic and Exponential were fitted to tree height-diameter data of oriental beech in the Hyrcanian mixed hardwood forests of Iran. The predictive performance of these models was in the first place assessed by means of different model evaluation criteria such as adjusted R squared (adjR2, root mean square error (RMSE, Akaike information criterion (AIC, mean difference (MD, mean absolute difference (MAD and mean square (MS error criteria. Although each of the six models accounted for approximately 75% of total variation in height, a large difference in asymptotic estimates was observed. Apart from this, the predictive performance of the models was also evaluated by means of cross-validation and by splitting the data into 5-cm diameter classes. Plotting the MD in relation to these diameter at breast height (DBH classes showed for all growth functions, except for the Modified Logistic function, similar mean prediction errors for small- and medium-sized trees. Large-sized trees, however, showed a higher mean prediction error. The Modified Logistic function showed the worst performance due to a large model bias. The Exponential and Lundqvist/Korf models were discarded due to their showing biologically illogical behavior and unreasonable estimates for the asymptotic coefficient, respectively. Considering all the above-mentioned criteria, the Chapman-Richards, Weibull, and Schnute functions provided the most satisfactory height predictions. However, we would recommend the Chapman-Richards function for further analysis because of its higher predictive performance.

  9. Kdz. Ereğlisi - Kocaman Orman İşletme Şefliğinde Gerçekleştirilen Kayın (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) Yapay Gençleştirme Çalışmalarının Değerlendirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    TUNÇTANER, Prof. Dr. Korhan; ÖZEL, Arş. Gör. Halil Barış; UZUNER, Orm.Yük. Müh. Tuğba

    2006-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, Kdz. Ereğli-Kocaman Orman İşletme Şefliğinin bazı bölmelerinde, değişik yıllarda gerçekleştirilen Kayın yapay gençleştirme çalışmalarının başarı durumu değerlendirilmiştir. Yapılan ölçüm ve tespitler sonucunda, farklı yaşlarda bulunan Kayın bireylerinin gelişimlerinin genel olarak tatmin edici düzeyde olduğu, ancak sayılarının çok yetersiz olduğu belirlenmiştir. Diğer taraftan, Kayın bireylerinin mevcut gövde düzgünlüklerinin ve tepe formlarının iyi durumda olduğu söylenebilir. ...

  10. Fagus dominance in Chinese montane forests : natural regeneration of Fagus lucida and Fagus hayatae var. pashanica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, K.F.

    1995-01-01


    Fagus species are important components of certain mesic temperate forests in the Northern Hemisphere. Of eleven Fagus species distinguished, five are found in China. Chinese beeches are restricted to the mountains of southern China. In the montane

  11. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 15 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of impregnation with boron compounds on combustion properties of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and varnishes · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Atar, H Keskin, S Korkut, DS Korkut, 2867-2874. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJB10.

  12. Determination of native woody landscape plants in Bursa and Uludag

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    . Arbutus unedo L. 5.2. Arbutus andrachne L. 5.3. Erica arborea L. 5.4. Vaccinium myrtillus L. 5.5. Vaccinium uliginosum L. 5.6. Vaccinium arctostaphyllos L. 6. Fagaceae. 6.1. Fagus orientalis Lipsky. 6.2. Castanea sativa Mill.

  13. Impact of impregnation with boron compounds on combustion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the impacts of varnishing after impregnation with boron compounds on combustion properties of oriental beech. The test samples prepared from oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) wood were impregnated according to ASTM D 1413–76–99 with boric acid (Ba) or borax (Bx) using a vacuum ...

  14. Influence of xylem ray integrity and degree of polymerization on bending strength of beech wood decayed by Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan Bari; Reza Oladi; Olaf Schmidt; Carol A. Clausen; Katie Ohno; Darrel D. Nicholas; Mehrdad Ghodskhah Daryaei; Maryam Karim

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this research was to evaluate the influence of xylem ray (XR) and degree of polymerization (DP) of holocellulose in Oriental beech wood (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) on impact bending strength against two white-rot fungi. Beech wood specimens, exposed to Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor, were evaluated for...

  15. Mechanical properties and chemical composition of beech wood exposed for 30 and 120 days to white-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan Bari; Hamid Reza Taghiyari; Behbood Mohebby; Carol A. Clausen; Olaf Schmidt; Mohammad Ali Tajick Ghanbary; Mohammad Javad Vaseghi

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exposing specimens of Oriental beech [Fagus sylvatica subsp. orientalis (Lipsky) Greuter and Burdet] to the white-rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kummer and Trametes versicolor (L.: Fr.) Pilát strain 325 have been studied concerning the mechanical properties and...

  16. ORIENTALIS DAN PERANANNYA DALAM MEMPELAJARI BAHASA ARAB

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    Agustiar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientalisme is a knowledge about easterners which is important to we know. Because beside positive values consisting in it also there are negative values. That negative values represent noxious poison in effort paralyse Islam with understanding able to be groggy of clan belief in God of muslimin to al-Qur'an, Rasul, apocalypse and others. Clan of orientalis in general consist of people of Nasrani and Jew having hand in glove with Christian missionary mission and also colonist. They investigate and collect science coming eastward with various target and motiv which they wish. Even among all orientalis in its importance study Arab language there is with aim to be negative that is for the destroy of association of Islam, but there is also with aim to be positive that is devoted x'self solely for science by bearing its masterpieces in Arab language area and its literature. A lot of easting books written by clan of orientalis particularly about Islam concerning with problem of Alqur'an, Al-Hadist, Tarekh and Culture of Islam, Islam law and others. To investigate science above, Arab language is as especial bridge for them. The language of Arab which in advance they study to disclose the sciences to Europe language like Latin language, English, French, Germany , Dutch and others. Their ability study Arab language, making they ready to translate into their language and also write books in Arab language.

  17. Orientalis dan Peranannya dalam Mempelajari Bahasa Arab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustiar Agustiar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientalisme is a knowledge about easterners which is important to we know. Because beside positive values consisting in it also there are negative values. That negative values represent noxious poison in effort paralyse Islam with understanding able to be groggy of clan belief in God of muslimin to al-Qur’an, Rasul, apocalypse and others. Clan of orientalis in general consist of people of Nasrani and Jew having hand in glove with Christian missionary mission and also colonist. They investigate and collect science coming eastward with various target and motiv which they wish. Even among all orientalis in its importance study Arab language there is with aim to be negative that is for the destroy of association of Islam, but there is also with aim to be positive that is devoted x’self solely for science by bearing its masterpieces in Arab language area and its literature. A lot of easting books written by clan of orientalis particularly about Islam concerning with problem of Alqur’an, Al- Hadist , Tarekh and Culture of Islam, Islam law and others. To investigate science above, Arab language is as especial bridge for them. The language of Arab which in advance they study to disclose the sciences to Europe language like Latin language, English, French, Germany , Dutch and others. Their ability study Arab language, making they ready to translate into their language and also write books in Arab language.

  18. ORIENTALIS DAN PERANANNYA DALAM MEMPELAJARI BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    = Agustiar =

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientalisme is a knowledge about easterners which is important to we know. Because beside positive values consisting in it also there are negative values. That negative values represent noxious poison in effort paralyse Islam with understanding able to be groggy of clan belief in God of muslimin to al-Qur'an, Rasul, apocalypse and others. Clan of orientalis in general consist of people of Nasrani and Jew having hand in glove with Christian missionary mission and also colonist. They investigate and collect science coming eastward with various target and motiv which they wish. Even among all orientalis in its importance study Arab language there is with aim to be negative that is for the destroy of association of Islam, but there is also with aim to be positive that is devoted x'self solely for science by bearing its masterpieces in Arab language area and its literature. A lot of easting books written by clan of orientalis particularly about Islam concerning with problem of Alqur'an, Al-Hadist, Tarekh and Culture of Islam, Islam law and others. To investigate science above, Arab language is as especial bridge for them. The language of Arab which in advance they study to disclose the sciences to Europe language like Latin language, English, French, Germany , Dutch and others. Their ability study Arab language, making they ready to translate into their language and also write books in Arab language.

  19. Scleroderma areolatum ectomycorrhiza on Fagus sylvatica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrak, Tanja; Kühdorf, Katja; Grebenc, Tine; Štraus, Ines; Münzenberger, Babette; Kraigher, Hojka

    2017-04-01

    Despite its broad host range and distribution and its potential applications in commercial plantation forests, comprehensive descriptions of Scleroderma ectomycorrhizae are available only for Scleroderma citrinum, Scleroderma bovista and Scleroderma sinnamariense. This study provides a morphological and anatomical description of tree nursery derived ectomycorrhizae of Scleroderma areolatum on Fagus sylvatica, grown for several years in a climatized room. Ectomycorrhizae of S. areolatum were silvery white with abundant rhizomorphs; all mantle layers were plectenchymatous, rhizomorphs of type E, with prominent emanating hyphae with thick cell wall. The distal ends of emanating hyphae of rhizomorphs were inflated and often merged with other emanating hyphae. All parts of the mycorrhiza were clampless. In hyphae of the outer mantle layer, rhizomorphs and emanating hyphae, oily droplets were observed that did not stain in sulfo-vanillin and disappeared in lactic acid after a few hours. Although the phylogenetic analysis positioned the newly described ectomycorrhiza together with Scleroderma verrucosum and Scleroderma cepa in a single clade with a taxon name SH005470.07FU, the ectomycorrhizae of these three species can be morphologically well separated based on rhizomorph type.

  20. Effect of heat-treatment with raw cotton seed oil on decay resistance and dimensional stability of Beech (Fagus orientalis

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    مریم قربانی

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the effect of heat-treatment with raw cotton seed oil on decay resistance and dimensional stability of beech according to EN113 and ASTM-D1037 standards respectively. The heat treatment with raw cotton seed oil was carried out in the cylinder at the temperatures of 130 and 170oC for 30 and 60 minutes. Oil uptake, density, volumetric swelling, water absorption and weight loss exposed to decay were measured. Oil uptake at 30 and 60 min were determined 10.5 and 13.3 Kg/cm3 respectively. Oil-heat treated samples at 30min and 130°C indicated the maximum density with 87.7% increase. According to results, oil-heat treatment improved water repellency and dimensional stability. Water absorption in 130°C and 60 minutes decreased 76% in comparison with control. Decay resistance of oil soaked samples for 60minutes was 80.2% more than control samples. Oil-heat treatment compared with oil treatment improved decay resistance, this effect was significant at 30 min. The temperature rise of oil–heat treatment at 30 minutes improved decay resistance, but the improvement under same level of temperature with increase time was not significant.

  1. Effects of dry ice on gas permeability of nano-silver-impregnated Populus nigra and Fagus orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghiyari, H R; Layeghi, M; Aminzadeh Liyafooee, F

    2012-06-01

    Effects of dry-ice treatment (frozen CO(2) at -78.5°C) on gas permeability of untreated and nano-silver-impregnated poplar and beech specimens were studied here on the basis of their biological structure and woody mass as well as their vessel element types. A 200 ppm aqueous dispersion of silver nano-particles was used for impregnation; the size range of silver nano-particles was 20-80 nm. Dry-ice treatment increased gas permeability by 87 and 45% in poplar and beech, respectively. Nano-silver impregnation also increased gas permeability by 190 and 89% in poplar and beech, respectively. Dry-ice treatment on nano-silver-impregnated specimens increased gas permeability even more (31% increase in poplar but only 0.96% in beech). It may be concluded that dry-ice treatment on solid woods may be used as a practical method to increase permeability in species that because of their biological structures are impermeable; since this method alters the biological structure slightly and consequently decreases mechanical strength of solid woods insignificantly, it may substitute methods such as incising to increase permeability.

  2. Use of microsatellite markers in an American beech (Fagus grandifolia) population and paternity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Koch; Dave Carey; M.E. Mason

    2010-01-01

    Cross-species amplification of six microsatellite markers from European beech (Fagus sylvatica Linn) and nine markers from Japanese beech (Fagus crenata Blume) was tested in American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.). Three microsatellites from each species were successfully adapted for use in American beech...

  3. Nitrate transport processes in Fagus-Laccaria-mycorrhizae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreuzwieser, J; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, P; Vaalburg, W; Rennenberg, H

    2000-01-01

    The contribution of influx and efflux of NO3- on NO3- net uptake has been studied in excised mycorrhizae of 18-20 week old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees. Net uptake rates of NO3- followed uniphasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the concentration range between 10 mu M and 1.0 mM external NO3-, with

  4. [Quadratic Orthogonal Rotation Combination Design on Alisma orientalis of Fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Chen, Xing-fu; Peng, Shi-ming; Liang, Qin; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Chun

    2015-04-01

    To study the effects of combined N, P, K and micronutrient fertilizers on the yield of Alisma orientalis tuber, and to optimize the fertilizer application rate. Four factors five levels quadratic orthogonal rotation combination design was used. A function was established on nitrogen, phosphor, potassium and microelement fertilizer application rate with the yield of Alisma orientalis tuber. The established mathematical model was of high reliability for prediction with quadratic regression equation of R2 = 0. 8980. The order of increasing Alisma orientalis tuber yield was nitrogen > micronutrient fertilizer > potassium > phosphor. The results of the frequency analysis showed that for the target yield over 8 250 kg/hm2 and the confidence interval of 95%, the optimal fertilizer application rates were as follows :nitrogen of 241. 45 - 283. 55 kg/hm2, phosphor of 81. 14 - 208. 44 kg/hm2, potassium of 95. 57 - 239. 42 kg/hm2, and zinc fertilizer of 14. 32 - 16. 18 kg/hm2, boron fertilizer of 18. 84 - 19. 86 kg/hm2, and molybdenum fertilizer of 0. 151 -0. 159 kg/hm2 in micronutrient fertilizer. Nitrogen is related to the growth of Alisma orientalis, potassium promotes tuber bulking, micronutrient fertilizer consisted of zinc, boron and molybdenum fertilizer promotes Alisma orientalis growth and the absorption of nitrogen, phosphor and potassium. Moderate application of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, boron and molybdenum fertilizer can promote Alisma orientalis tuber yield. The nitrogen has the best effect.

  5. Biofilm formation of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Halliday-Wimmonds, Iona; Francis , Stewart; Kearney, Michael T.; Hansen, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen in both marine and fresh water environments. The bacterium is suspected to persist in the environment even without the presence of a suitable fish host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salinity and temperature were used to study the biofilm formation of different isolates of Fno including intracellular growth loci C (iglC)and pathogenicity determinant protein A (pdpA) knockout strains. Finally, we compared the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm to three disinfectants used in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry, namely Virkon®, bleach and hydrogen peroxide. The data indicates that Fno is capable of producing biofilms within 24 h where both salinity as well as temperature plays a role in the growth and biofilm formation of Fno. Mutations in theiglC or pdpA, both known virulence factors, do not appear to affect the capacity of Fno to produce biofilms, and the minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum biocidal concentration for the three disinfectants were lower than the minimum biofilm eradication concentration values. This information needs to be taken into account if trying to eradicate the pathogen from aquaculture facilities or aquariums.

  6. Estudio de tratamientos pregerminativos en semilla de Fagus sylvatica L.

    OpenAIRE

    Bilbao Larringan, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    La propuesta para llevar a cabo un estudio sobre la reproducción sexual de la especie Fagus sylvatica, vino de la mano de Asociación de Viveristas Forestales de Euskadi, motivada principalmente por un previsible aumento en la demanda de plantas de dicha especie y por la heterogeneidad en la obtención del material vegetal de propagación (vecería). Esta vecería tan acusada, obliga a realizar un buen manejo en general de la semilla que se recoge, para poder tener material de repro...

  7. Bioguided investigation of the antimalarial activities of Trema orientalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... intravenous injection with 1 × 107 parasitized red blood cells, they were administered with 100, 200, 400, 600, 800 mg/kg/day doses of the acetone extract of T. orientalis for four consecutive days or chloroquine 10 mg/kg/day for 3 days (Knight and Peters, 1980). Parasite count was estimated by microscopic ...

  8. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of Astrodaucus orientalis (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. Here, we report the antiproliferative and the mechanism of cell death exhibited by Astrodaucus orientalis in human breast carcinoma cell line,. T47D. The antiproliferative effect determined with MTT assay and the changes in cell cycle pattern ...

  9. Essential oil composition and bioactivity of Thuja orientalis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation using Clevenger apparatus from aerial parts of Thuja orientalis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis grown in Ondo State, Nigeria was analysed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry technique. Toxicity of the essential oils using anti-feedant and ...

  10. The Antimicrobial Activity of Aliquidambar orientalis mill. Against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medicinal plants are an important source of substances which are claimed to induce antimicrobial, antimutagenic and antioxidant effects. Many plants have been used due to their antimicrobial treatments. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of L. orientalis have not been reported to the present day. The aim ...

  11. In vitro propagation of Amsonia orientalis Decne (Apocynaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Istanbul University Botanic Garden, 34134, Süleymaniye, Istanbul Turkey. Accepted 16 September, 2008. In vitro plant regeneration was achieved from shoot explants of Amsonia orientalis Decne. The seeds were germinated aseptically in Petri dishes containing growth-regulator-free MS medium.

  12. Feeding Preferences of the Endangered Diving Beetle Cybister tripunctatus orientalis Gschwendtner (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ya Ohba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The numbers of Cybister tripunctatus orientalis Gschwendtner diving beetles are declining in most regions of Japan, and it is included in the Red Data List of species in 34 of 47 prefectures of Japan. However, basic ecological information about C. tripunctatus orientalis, such as its feeding habits, remains unknown. In order to elucidate the feeding habits of C. tripunctatus orientalis larvae, feeding preference experiments were carried out in 2nd and 3rd instar larvae. The number of Odonata nymphs consumed was significantly higher than the number of tadpoles consumed, indicating that C. tripunctatus orientalis larvae prefer Odonata nymphs to tadpoles. In addition, all the first instar larvae of C. tripunctatus orientalis developed into second instars when they were supplied with motionless Odonata nymphs, but their survival rate was lower when they were supplied with motionless tadpoles. These results suggest that C. tripunctatus orientalis larvae prefer insects to vertebrates.

  13. Large beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees as ‘lifeboats’ for lichen diversity in central European forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmeister, J.; Hošek, J.; Malíček, J.; Palice, Zdeněk; Syrovátková, L.; Steinová, J.; Černajová, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2016), s. 1073-1090 ISSN 0960-3115 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Fagus * forest management * Red-listed species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.265, year: 2016

  14. Hair growth-promoting activity of hot water extract of Thuja orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan-nan; Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-10

    Thuja orientalis has been traditionally used to treat patients who suffer from baldness and hair loss in East Asia. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth-promoting activity of T. orientalis hot water extract and the underlying mechanism of action. After T. orientalis extract was topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6 N mice, the histomorphometric analysis was employed to study induction of the hair follicle cycle. To determine the effect of T. orientalis extract on the telogen to anagen transition, the protein expression levels of β-catenin and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in hair follicles were determined by immunohistochemistry. We observed that T. orientalis extract promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6 N mice. Specifically, the histomorphometric analysis data indicates that topical application of T. orientalis extract induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the mature anagen phase, in contrast to either the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. We also observed increases in both the number and size of hair follicles of the T. orientalis extract-treated group. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis reveals earlier induction of β-catenin and Shh proteins in hair follicles of the T. orientalis extract-treated group, compared to the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. These results suggest that T. orientalis extract promotes hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in resting hair follicles and might therefore be a potential hair growth-promoting agent.

  15. Cloning and Expression of Cyclophilin from Platanus orientalis Pollens in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Sankian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergy is a clinical disorder affecting the human population with wide geographical distribution. Platanus orientalis (P. orientalis trees are planted in many countries and their pollen causes allergic reactions. Cyclophilin has recently been identified as one of the most important allergens of P. orientalis pollen. We aimed to clone and purify this allergen in Escherichia coli for further studies and therapeutic and diagnostic purposes for allergy to P. orientalis. Methods: RNA was extracted from P. orientalis. A full-length fragment encoding cyclophilin was prepared by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the first-strand cDNA synthesized from P. orientalis RNA. The cDNA was inserted into the pET32b (+ vector, and the construct transformed into E. coli Top10 and BL21 cells. The expressed protein was purified by the CuSO4 method. Results: The cDNA for the cyclophilin of P. orientalis pollen was cloned, and a specific reactivity of recombinant cyclophin was confirmed by immunoblotting using sera from patients allergic to P. orientalis pollen. Conclusion: The recombinant cyclophilin has a potential for immunologic assays for evaluation of allergy to P. orientalis pollen.

  16. Cloisonné kidney in mouflon sheep (Ovis orientalis musimon)

    OpenAIRE

    Hervás, J.; Chacón-M. de Lara, F.; Azorit, C.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes a case of cloisonné kidney associated with infection by Babesia ovis in a wild mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimonj found dead in year in eastern Sierra Morena (Andalusia, Spain). The major macroscopic lesions were a) icteric coloration in ocular and oral mucosa, and b) dark metal coloration on the kidneys' external surface. Intense dark coloration alternating with intense greyish strips was observed on renal cortex sections. Blood samples were collected for haematological a...

  17. Kirenol production in hairy root culture of Siegesbeckea orientalis and its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Ping; Zhou, Ya-Ming; Zhang, Yong-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite the excellent anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic efficacy associated with kirenol generation, the content of kirenol in Siegesbeckea orientalis is quite low. Objective: This study was designed to establish a reliable kirenol production protocol by transformed root cultures of S. orientalis and to investigate the antimicrobial activities of kirenol, hairy root, and S. orientalis. Materials and Methods: Transformed root cultures of S. orientalis were established by the transformation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4. Transgenic status of the roots was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using rolB specific primers. The biomass and kirenol accumulation of hairy root clones were assessed using four different culture media: MS, MS/2, B5, and white. The antimicrobial activities of kirenol, hairy root, and S. orientalis were evaluated by the disc diffusion method. Results: The optimum media for kirenol synthesis was MS. The content of kirenol in transformed hairy roots made up about 80% of that observed in natural leaves of S. orientalis (1.6 mg/g dry weight). All tested samples displayed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii, with MIC ranging from 78 to 625 μg/mL. Discussion and Conclusion: The high level of kirenol contents was obtained from hairy roots of S. orientalis. Kirenol was effective against gram-positive bacteria. Interestingly, the extract from hairy roots showed a diverse antimicrobial effect from that of kirenol and S. orientalis. PMID:22701289

  18. The effect of combined colloidal nano silver-hydrothermal treatment on weight changes and chemical structure of beech wood (Fagus orientalis

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    مریم قربانی

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of colloidal silver nano-particles, as well as the effect of combined colloidal nano-silver and hydrothermal modification, on weight and chemical changes of wood particles through spectroscopic FTIR were investigated. Treatment levels were divided in 4 groups namely, control, nano- impregnated, hydrothermal and nano-hydrothermal. Hydrothermal and nano-hydrothermal treatments were separated in two temperatures (150 and 170 °C and two times (30 and 45 min with total of 10 treatment levels. Colloidal Nano silver with 100 ppm concentration was prepared. The scanning electron microscope images proved the presence, size and appropriate distribution of colloidal nanoparticles silver in wood particles clearly. With regard to the results, increasing time and temperature hydrothermal treatment had significant effect on weight changes. Also, colloidal nano silver intensified weight loss, that maximum weight loss was measured at 170°C. The FTIR spectra indicated that increase in the temperature and time of hydrothermal treatment, declined absorbance intensities in wave numbers of 3422.25, 2922.38, 1740.55, 1330.50, 1243.39 and 1053.05cm-1 due to breakdown of acetyl groups in hemicelluloses and decrease in hydrophilic sites. These reduction in nano hydrothermal treatment were more obvious than those for hydrothermal.

  19. Pathogenic genotype of major piroplasm surface protein associated with anemia in Theileria orientalis infection in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhee; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Park, Bae-Keun; Chae, Joon-Seok; Park, Jinho

    2017-07-27

    Serious disease outbreaks in cattle caused by Theileria orientalis have emerged in the Asia-Pacific region. Genetic variables of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) expressed on the surface of the piroplasm inside T. orientalis-infected erythrocytes are considered to be associated with variation in the pathogenicity of T. orientalis. Our study describes the clinically relevant MPSP types associated with anemia in Theileria-infected cattle. These results revealed that MPSP expression plays an important role in hematological alterations in Theileria-infected cattle, and that MPSP type 1 is strongly associated with bovine anemia, which can be a potential target for the prevention of bovine theileriosis.

  20. Storage compounds, ABA and fumarase in Fagus sylvatica embryos during stratification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eliášová, Kateřina; Pešek, Bedřich; Vondráková, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 74, 10 March (2015), s. 25-33 ISSN 1641-1307 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI102A256 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Embryonic axis * Fagus sylvatica * Seed dormancy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.643, year: 2015

  1. Signals from beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in response to precipitation extremes - flowering induction and reduced foliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg

    Reduced foliation in older (but also young) beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands was observed in Denmark in the mid 1990ies and culminated with the 1996 summer drought and heat wave. Large differences in the degree of reduced foliation between regions and within stands were observed e.g. reflecting...

  2. Fine roots in stands of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies along a gradient of soil acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Sabine; Cantaluppi, Leonardo; Flueckiger, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Root length of naturally grown young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) was investigated in 26 forest plots of differing base saturation and nitrogen deposition. The relative length of finest roots (<0.25 mm) was found to decrease in soils with low base saturation. A similar reduction of finest roots in plots with high nitrogen deposition was masked by the effect of base saturation. The formation of adventitious roots was enhanced in acidic soils. The analysis of 128 soil profiles for fine roots of all species present in stands of either Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies [Karst.] L. or both showed a decreased rooting depth in soils with ≤20% base saturation and in hydromorphic soils. For base rich, well drained soils an average rooting depth of 108 cm was found. This decreased by 28 cm on acidic, well drained soils. The results suggest an effect of the current soil acidification in Switzerland and possibly also of nitrogen deposition on the fine root systems of forest trees. - Fine root length of Fagus sylvatica and fine root depth in stands of Fagus sylvatica and/or Picea abies were impaired in soils with low base saturation

  3. Optimization of lactobionic acid production by Acetobacter orientalis isolated from Caucasian fermented milk, "Caspian Sea yogurt".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Yamauchi, Kouhei; Masuyama, Araki; Ooe, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    We have reported that lactobionic acid is produced from lactose by Acetobacter orientalis in traditional Caucasian fermented milk. To maximize the application of lactobionic acid, we investigated favorable conditions for the preparation of resting A. orientalis cells and lactose oxidation. The resting cells, prepared under the most favorable conditions, effectively oxidized 2-10% lactose at 97.2 to 99.7 mol % yield.

  4. Molluscicidal activity of Saraca asoca and Thuja orientalis against the fresh water snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arundhati; Singh, V K

    2009-10-14

    The molluscicidal activity of bark powder of Saraca asoca, leaf powder of Thuja orientalis against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of all the plant products was found to be both time and concentration dependent. The 96 h LC(50) of T. orientalis leaf powder against L. acuminata was 250.5mg/l. Ethanol extracts were more toxic than other organic extracts. The ethanol extract of T. orientalis leaf (24h LC(50): 32.74 mg/l) was more effective than that of S. asoca bark (24h LC(50): 82.38 mg/l). The 24h LC(50) of column purified fraction of T. orientalis leaf and S. asoca bark powder was 29.25 and 64.89 mg/l, respectively. Saponin and thujone were identified as active molluscicide components in the bark of S. asoca and leaf of T. orientalis, respectively. The product of S. asoca and T. orientalis may be used as potent molluscicides.

  5. Evaluation of the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.

    2015-01-01

    Information on genetic diversity and gene conservation activities were combined with climatic data to evaluate the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster. Combinations of climatic variables explained much of the

  6. Symphurus orientalis (Bleeker) redefined based on morphological and molecular characters (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mao-ying; Munroe, Thomas A; Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2013-01-01

    Aphoristia (= Symphurus) orientalis Bleeker 1879, collected from an unspecified depth and location in Japanese waters, is the first described species of symphurine tonguefish from Indo-Pacific waters. The original description with accompanying illustration is based on the unique holotype specimen and provides limited diagnostic characters for this taxon. Subsequent to its description, the holotype of A. orientalis has been lost. Limited diagnostic information and loss of the holotype have caused considerable confusion to subsequent systematic studies regarding the identity of this and similar tonguefish species occurring in the Indo-West Pacific region. Several, often-cited, taxonomic accounts purportedly redescribing S. orientalis are erroneous because they include more than one species in these redescriptions. These erroneous redescriptions not only confused the species concept of S. orientalis (Bleeker), but also confounded the systematics of similar Indo-West Pacific tonguefishes. Symphurus novemfasciatus Shen and Lin, described on two specimens collected in southern Taiwan, shares many morphological and pigmentation features similar to those of S. orientalis. Morphological data from a large series of tonguefishes collected in Taiwanese and Japanese waters, as well as molecular data from a smaller number of specimens from these locations, including the type locality of S. novemfasciatus, confirm the presence of only one species, S. orientalis (Bleeker), among these specimens. Symphurus novemfasciatus Shen and Lin is therefore regarded as ajunior subjective synonym of S. orientalis. Symphurus orientalis is redefined based on a large series of specimens identified by a consistent set of morphological criteria, and a neotype is designated to stabilize nomenclature and systematics of this species. Symphurus orientalis differs from congeners by its combination of: a predominant 1-2-2-2-2 pattern of interdigitation of proximal dorsal-fin pterygiophores and neural

  7. Thermal behavior of Liquidambar orientalis mill wood before and after extraction processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Terzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extractives on the thermal behavior of Liquidambar orientalis Mill. (storax wood is studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. To evaluate the effects of polar and apolar extractives on the thermal behavior of wood, sawdust samples from the heartwood of L. orientalis are extracted with either cold water (48 h, hot water (48 h, or ethanol/toluene (1:2 v/v (6 h prior to thermal analysis. Thermogravimetry (TG curves show that polar and apolar extractives promote char formation, increase the amount of residue, and improve the thermal behavior of L. orientalis wood. In addition, derivative thermogravimetry (DTG curves demonstrate that thermal degradation of un-extracted and cold water-extracted wood samples occurs in a single step, while a two-step degradation pattern is seen for hot water- and ethanol/toluene-extracted wood samples. It is also observed that first degradation reactions in hot water and ethanol/toluene-extracted wood samples occur faster than those in unextracted and cold water-extracted wood samples. Although there are approximately half the number of extracted apolar compounds compared to polar compounds, the removal of both types of compounds affect the thermal properties of L. orientalis wood to the same degree. It is thus deduced that apolar extractives significantly affect the thermal behavior of L. orientalis wood.

  8. Emergence of new types of Theileria orientalis in Australian cattle and possible cause of theileriosis outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinyanjui Peter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Theileria parasites cause a benign infection of cattle in parts of Australia where they are endemic, but have, in recent years, been suspected of being responsible for a number of outbreaks of disease in cattle near the coast of New South Wales. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the species of Theileria in cattle on six farms in New South Wales where disease outbreaks have occurred, and compare with Theileria from three disease-free farms in Queensland that is endemic for Theileria. Special reference was made to sub-typing of T. orientalis by type-specific PCR and sequencing of the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene, and sequence analysis of the gene encoding a polymorphic merozoite/piroplasm surface protein (MPSP that may be under immune selection. Nucleotide sequencing of SSU rRNA and MPSP genes revealed the presence of four Theileria genotypes: T. orientalis (buffeli, T. orientalis (ikeda, T. orientalis (chitose and T. orientalis type 4 (MPSP or type C (SSU rRNA. The majority of animals showed mixed infections while a few showed single infection. When MPSP nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids, base transition did not change amino acid composition of the protein product, suggesting possible silent polymorphism. The occurrence of ikeda and type 4 (type C previously not reported to occur and silent mutation is thought to have enhanced parasite evasion of the host immune response causing the outbreak.

  9. Isolation of high-quality RNA from Platycladus orientalis and other Cupressaceae plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermei Chang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Platycladus orientalis has a lifespan of several thousand years in China, making it a good plant in which to study aging at the molecular level, but this requires sufficient quantities of high-quality P. orientalis RNA. However, no appropriate methods have been reported for total RNA isolation from P. orientalis leaves. The TRIzol method did not extract RNA, while cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, sodium dodecyl sulfate-phenol, and plant RNAout kit (Tianz, Inc., China protocols resulted in low yields of poor quality RNA. Isolating total RNA using the Spectrum™ Plant Total RNA Kit (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA resulted in a high-quality product but a low yield. However, the two-step removal of polyphenols and polysaccharides in the improved plant RNAout kit protocol resulted in the isolation of RNA with a 28S:18S rRNA ratio of band intensities that was ~2:1, the A260/A280 absorbance ratio was 2.03, and the total RNA yield from P. orientalis leaves was high. This protocol was tested on different P. orientalis tissues of different ages and on leaves of five other Cupressaceae plants. The total RNAs were successfully used in complementary DNA synthesis for transcriptome sequencing and would be suitable to use in additional experiments. The results of this study will benefit future studies in Cupressaceae plants.

  10. EPG monitoring of the probing behaviour of the common brown leafhopper Orosius orientalis on artificial diet and selected host plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebicki, P.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Harding, R.M.; Rodoni, B.C.; Powell, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    The common brown leafhopper Orosius orientalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is a polyphagous vector of a range of economically important pathogens, including phytoplasmas and viruses, which infect a diverse range of crops. Studies on the plant penetration behaviour by O. orientalis were conducted using

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a lysozyme cDNA from the mole cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyojung; Bang, Kyeongrin; Lee, Minsup; Cho, Saeyoull

    2014-09-01

    A full-length lysozyme cDNA from Gryllotalpa orientalis was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the lysozyme protein was 143 amino acids in length, with a calculated molecular mass of 15.84 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.74. Sequence motifs, together with alignment and phylogenetic results, confirmed that G. orientalis lysozyme belongs to the C (chicken)-type lysozyme family of proteins. The protein sequence of lysozyme from G. orientalis showed high identity to that of Drosophila melanogaster (51.7 %); however, in contrast to D. melanogaster lysozyme, G. orientalis lysozyme was immune inducible and expressed in a wide range of tissues. Expression of G. orientalis lysozyme mRNA was highest at 8 h post-infection and subsequently decreased with time after bacterial infection. We also expressed G. orientalis lysozyme protein in vitro using the pET expression system. Compared with the negative control, over-expressed G. orientalis lysozyme showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis by radial diffusion assay, with minimal inhibitory concentration values of 30.3 and 7.55 µM, respectively. These results indicate that G. orientalis lysozyme may have stronger antimicrobial activity than other lysozymes against a broad range of microorganisms.

  12. A study on inhibitory effects of Siğla tree (Liquidambar orientalis Mill. var. orientalis) storax against several bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağdiç, Osman; Ozkan, Gülcan; Ozcan, Musa; Ozçelik, Sami

    2005-06-01

    In this study, Siğla (Liquidambar orientalis Mill.) storax (styrax) was investigated for antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. brevis, B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, Corynebacterium xerosis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. The storax was dissolved in absolute ethanol and was tested at concentrations of 10.0%, 1.0%, 0.4%, 0.2% and 0.1%. Pure ethanol was used for the control. The antibacterial activity of the Siğla storax was determined by using the agar diffusion method. The growths of A. hydrophila, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. megaterium, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica were not inhibited by any of the concentrations of Siğla storax. The results showed that Siğla storax has antibacterial activity against many bacteria at concentrations of 10.0% and against some bacteria at concentrations of 1.0%, 0.4% and 0.2%. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Liquidambar Orientalis Mill. Various Extracts Against Bacterial Pathogens Causing Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülten Ökmen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is being constantly developed worldwide. Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS and Staphylococcus aureus are common causes of bovine subclinical mastitis. Bioactive compound of medicinal plants shows anti-microbial, anti-mutagenic and anti-oxidant effects. The anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activities of Liquidambar orientalis (L. orientalis extracts on subclinical mastitis causing bacteria in cows have not been reported to date. The aim of the present study was to examine anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant effects of L. orientalis leaf extracts on S. aureus and CNS isolated from cows with subclinical mastitis symptoms. In this study, 3.2 mg/mL minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of ethanol extracts of L. orientalis has shown to be a most potent anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant for all isolated bacterial species from mastitis cows. In this study, it was investigated anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant potentials of acetone, methanol and ethanol extracts of the L. orientalis. The acetone extract showed maximum inhibition zone against S. aureus numbered 17 (12 mm. In addition to anti-bacterial properties, anti-oxidant activity of L. orientalis extract was examined by ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] free radical assay. Trolox was used as a positive control anti-oxidant. Ethanol extract exhibited a strong anti-oxidant activity like Trolox anti-oxidant which was effective at 2.58 mM concentration. Bioactive compounds of sweet gum may be useful to screening mastitis causing bacteria for clinical applications.

  14. A new record for Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Muscidae) from peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, W K; Kurahashi, H; Nazni, W A; Heo, C C; Heah, S K; Jeffery, J; Lee, H L

    2012-09-01

    Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 is recorded for the first time in peninsular Malaysia. Specimens were collected from a mushroom cultivation farm in Genting Highlands, Pahang (3°25'18"N 101°47'48"E). Previously, this species had been recorded from Azerbaijin, India, Russia, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey and South Korea. The male of Lispe orientalis can be determined by the following characteristics: body non-metallic, ashy gray, third antennal segment black, R5 cell not narrow apically, hind metatarsus normal, legs entirely black, femora with long bristle-like hairs on av and pv surfaces, hind tibia without av and pv seta and the palpi orangish in colour.

  15. Fungi isolated from phyllosphere of fodder galega (Galega orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambrozik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the experiment was fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam. cultivated in 2001-2003 as field crop on three plots: 1. without fertilization, 2. 40 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 80 kg K2O × ha-1, 3. 80 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 160 kg K2O × ha-1. During the dry and warm vegetation season of 2002 almost two times fewer isolates were obtained from the leaves than in 2003 that was the most abundant in fungi. Yeasts-like fungi (30% of the total number of isolates and saprotrophic fungi with dominated species: Acremonium strictum (8.5%, genus Epicoccum (7.8%, Humicola (9.5% and Penicillium (18.9% were the fungi most frequently populating the leaves of galega. The share of pathogens in the total number of isolates obtained from the phyllosphere was 10.6%. They were represented by fungi of Ascochyta spp., Botrytis cinerea, genus Fusarium, Phoma medicaginis and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Reduction by 1.9 to 4.6% in the number of fungi isolated from the phyllosphere of galega without fertilization as compared to galega cultivated in combinations with fertilization was recorded. Generally, the smallest number of pathogens was recovered from galega fertilized with 40 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 80 kg K2O × ha-1. B. cinerea most frequently populated galega in combination without fertilization, genus Fusarium fungi in combination without fertilization and with fertilization with 80 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 160 kg K2O × ha-1, while Ascochyta spp. were isolated from galega with fertilization only.

  16. Crescimento de Siegesbeckia orientalis sob diferentes condições de luminosidade Growth of Siegesbeckia orientalis under different light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Aguilera

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, objetivou-se contrastar os efeitos de sombreamento sobre o crescimento de S. orientalis, utilizando a análise de crescimento. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em vasos, a pleno sol (A e sob sombrite 50% (B. As plantas tiveram seus índices de crescimento determinados aos 14, 28, 42, 56, 80, 94 e 108 dias após o transplante (DAT, para A; e aos 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 108, 122 e 136 DAT, para B. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os dados foram analisados por meio de análise de regressão. Os modelos foram escolhidos com base na significância dos coeficientes de regressão, utilizando-se o teste t até 10%, no coeficiente de determinação e no fenômeno em estudo. As plantas apresentaram comportamento semelhante em A e B para a maioria das variáveis analisadas, embora as plantas sombreadas (radiação média de 218 µmol m-² s-¹ tivessem maior duração do ciclo cultural, cerca de 140 DAT, retardando os valores máximos e/ou mínimos, em relação às plantas a luz plena (média de 658 µmol m-² s-¹, com aproximadamente 110 DAT. Em B, foram obtidas também as maiores médias para a maioria dos índices avaliados - área foliar, altura, números de folhas e capítulos florais, biomassa seca total, taxa de crescimento absoluto, taxa de crescimento relativo, razão de peso foliar, razão de área foliar e área foliar específica -, sugerindo que a espécie é favorecida pelo sombreamento.This study aimed to contrast the effects of shading on the growth of S. orientalis by applying growth analysis. The experiments were conducted in pots under full sunlight (A and 50% shading (B. Plant growth indices were determined at 14, 28, 42, 56, 80, 94 and 108 days after transplant (DAT for A and at 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 108, 122, 136 DAT for B. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four repetitions. Data were analyzed by means of regression analysis. The models were

  17. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Nigella orientalis L. seeds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kokoška, L.; Havlík, J.; Valterová, Irena; Nepovím, Aleš; Rada, V.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 20, - (2005), s. 419-420 ISSN 0882-5734 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/02/0257 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Nigella orientalis L. * ranunculaceae * essential oil composition Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.718, year: 2005

  18. Second species of tree frog, Hyla orientalis (formely H. arborea) from Iran confirmed by acoustic data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gvoždík, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2010), s. 41-44 ISSN 2071-5773 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Hyla orientalis * Hyla savignyi * Distribution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. The antimicrobial activity of Liquidambar orientalis mill. against food pathogens and antioxidant capacity of leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okmen, G; Turkcan, O; Ceylan, O; Gork, G

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are an important source of substances which are claimed to induce antimicrobial, antimutagenic and antioxidant effects. Many plants have been used due to their antimicrobial treatments. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of L. orientalis have not been reported to the present day. The aim of this work was to investigate of the antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of different extracts from L. orientalis. The extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity against different food pathogens. These bacteria include 4 Gram positive and 3 Gram negative bacteria and one fungi. The leaf extracts of plant were tested by disc diffusion assay. The MIC was evaluated on plant extracts as antimicrobial activity. In addition to, the plant extracts were tested against the stable DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazylhydrate) free-radical. The acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of L. orientalis showed maximum inhibition zone of 12 mm against Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition to, the methanol extract displayed a strong antioxidant activity (trolox equivalent = 2.23 mM). L. orientalis extracts have antimicrobial, and antioxidant potential. Our results support the use of this plant in traditional medicine and suggest that some of the plant extracts possess compounds with good antibacterial properties that can be used as antibacterial agents in the search for new drugs.

  20. Emergence of new genotype and diversity of Theileria orientalis parasites from bovines in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Neena; Bhandari, Vasundhra; Reddy, D Peddi; Sharma, Paresh

    2015-12-01

    Bovine theileriosis is a serious threat to livestock worldwide. Uncertainty around species prevalence, antigenic diversity and genotypes of strains make it difficult to assess the impact of this parasite and to provide necessary treatment. We aimed to characterize genotypic diversity, phylogeny and prevalence of Theileria orientalis parasites from the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, India by collecting bovine blood samples from the major districts of the two states. Bioinformatic analysis identified antigenic diversity among the prevalent parasite strains using major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene. Our study revealed a prevalence rate of 4.8% (n=41/862) of T. orientalis parasites in bovine animals and a new genotype of T. orientalis parasite which was not previously reported in India. The emergence of these new genotypes could be an explanation for the frequent outbreaks of bovine theileriosis. Further, whole genome sequencing of T. orientalis strains will help to elucidate the genetic factors relevant for transmissibility and virulence as well as vaccine and new drug development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Oriental Hornet, Vespa orientalis F. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal; Al-Nakeeb, Kosai Ali Ahmed; Petersen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    energy. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the Oriental Hornet, Vespa orientalis F., which may play a vital role in understanding this wasp biology, light trapping and generation of electricity. The mitochondrial genome of this hornet is 16,099 bp in length, containing 13 protein...

  2. Evaluation of Fungal Deterioration in Liquidambar orientalis Mill. heartwood by FT-IR and light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nural Yilgor; Dilek Dogu; Roderquita Moore; Evren Terzi; S. Nami Kartal

    2013-01-01

    The chemical and morphological changes in heartwood specimens of Liquidambar orientalis Mill. caused by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor and the brown-rot fungi Tyromyces palustris and Gloeophyllum trabeum were studied by wet chemistry, FT-IR, GC-MS analyses, and photo-...

  3. First identification of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis causing mortality in Mexican tilapia Oreochromis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Cesar; Mancera, Gerardo; Enríquez, Ricardo; Vargas, Augusto; Martínez, Simón; Fajardo, Raúl; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Navarrete, María José; Romero, Alex

    2016-08-09

    Francisellosis, an emerging disease in tilapia Oreochromis spp., is caused by the facultative, intracellular bacterium Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis, which is present in various countries where tilapia farming is commercially important. We confirmed the presence of francisellosis in Mexican tilapia cultures in association with an outbreak during the second semester of 2012. Broodstock fish presented a mortality rate of approximately 40%, and disease was characterized by histologically classified granulomas, or whitish nodules, in different organs, mainly the spleen and kidney. Through DNA obtained from infected tissue and pure cultures in a cysteine heart medium supplemented with hemoglobin, F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis was initially confirmed through the amplification and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes demonstrated close similarity with previously reported F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis sequences obtained from infected tilapia from various countries. The identification of this subspecies as the causative agent of the outbreak was confirmed using the iglC gene as a target sequence, which showed 99.5% identity to 2 F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis strains (Ethime-1 and Toba04). These findings represent the first documented occurrence of francisellosis in Mexican tilapia cultures, which highlights the importance of establishing preventative measures to minimize the spread of this disease within the Mexican aquaculture industry.

  4. In vitro propagation of Amsonia orientalis Decne (Apocynaceae) | Öz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro plant regeneration was achieved from shoot explants of Amsonia orientalis Decne. The seeds were germinated aseptically in Petri dishes containing growth-regulator-free MS medium. The shoot explants of 30-day-old grown seedlings were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l indole- 3- butryric acid ...

  5. Composition and Biological Activity of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis Seed and Cone Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2017-03-01

    The increasing consumption of natural products lead us to discover and study new plant materials, such as conifer seeds and cones, which could be easily available from the forest industry as a waste material, for their potential uses. The chemical composition of the essential oils of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis was fully characterized by GC and GC/MS methods. Seed and cone oils of both tree species were composed mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, among which limonene, α- and β-pinene were the major, but in different proportions in the examined conifer essential oils. The levorotary form of chiral monoterpene molecules was predominant over the dextrorotary form. The composition of oils from P. pungens seeds and cones was similar, while the hydrodistilled oils of P. orientalis seeds and cones differed from each other, mainly by a higher amount of oxygenated derivatives of monoterpenes and by other higher molar mass terpenes in seed oil. The essential oils showed mild antimicrobial action, however P. orientalis cone oil exhibited stronger antimicrobial properties against tested bacterial species than those of P. pungens. Effects of the tested cone essential oils on human skin fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were similar: in a concentration of 0 - 0.075 μl/ml the oils were rather safe for human skin fibroblasts and 0 - 0.005 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. IC 50 value of Picea pungens oils was 0.115 μl/ml, while that of Picea orientalis was 0.105 μl/ml. The value of IC 50 of both oils were 0.035 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. The strongest effect on cell viability had the oil from Picea orientalis cones, while on DNA synthesis the oil from Picea pungens cones. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. [Effect of byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengqin; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Hui; Song, Andong

    2014-05-01

    Byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, namely sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2-2 g/L), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 1 to 1.0 g/L) or vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) were used to evaluate their effects on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 using single factor test and the response surface central composite experiment. Results showed that most of the byproducts had no obvious inhibition on the production of ethanol, except for the addition of 2 g/L vanillin or 1 g/L of 5-HMF, which reduced the ethanol production by 20.38% and 11.2%, respectively. However, high concentration of some byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, such as sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2 to 2 g/L) and vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) inhibited the growth of I. orientalis HN-1 significantly. Compared with the control, the dry cell weight of I. orientalis HN-1 decreased by 25.04% to 37.02%, 28.83% to 43.82%, 20.06% to 37.60% and 26.39% to 52.64%, respectively, when the above components were added into the fermentation broth and the fermentation lasted for 36 h. No significant interaction effect of the various inhibitors (sodium formate, sodium acetic, furfural and vanillin) except for vanillin single factor on the ethanol production was observed based on the central composite experiments. The concentrations of byproducts in most lignocellulose hydrolysates were below the initial inhibition concentration on ethanol production by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1, which indicated that Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 can be used for ethanol production from lignocellulose hydrolysates.

  7. [Construction and immunoscreening of cDNA library of Babesia orientalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin; Zhou, Dan-Na; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhang, Ying; He, Lan; Yao, Bao-An; Zhao, Jun-Long

    2009-06-01

    To construct a cDNA library for Babesia orientalis and screen immunologically positive clones. Total RNA of B. orientalis in red blood cells from an infected calf was isolated. cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcriptase, amplified by PCR and ligated into lambdaTriplEx2 vector. The recombined vectors were packaged and the unamplified cDNA library was constructed. The cDNA library was then amplified and immunologically screened with rabbit anti-B. orientalis serum. The recombinant lambdaTriplEx2 of positive clones were converted to the corresponding recombinant pTriplEx2. The inserted fragments were identified by PCR amplification. The plasmids were sequenced and compared against GenBank database by Blast. The titer of the unamplified library was 2.0 x 10(6) pfu/ml. The inserted fragment length of the library ranged from 500 to 3,000 bp, and the recombination efficiency accounted for 98.8%. The titer of the amplified library was 5.8 x 10(8) pfu/ml. Three positive clones were selected by serum immunological screening and named B04, B05, and B41, respectively. The inserted fragments of the B04, B05 and B41 were about 1,300 bp, 1,000 bp, and 2,400 bp, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that the 3 clones contained open reading frames. Blast results showed that they were highly homologous to the nuclear movement protein gene, the hypothetical protein gene and the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of B04, B05 and B41 contained 310, 192 and 647 amino acid residues, with Mr of 34,000, 21,000, and 70,700, respectively. A qualified cDNA library of B. orientalis has been constructed and three positive clones of B. orientalis discovered.

  8. KAYIN, KAVAK VE HUŞ SOYMA KAPLAMALARINDAN FARKLI KOMBİNASYONLARDA ATIK NAYLON İLE ÜRETİLEN KONTRPLAKLARIN BAZI TEKNOLOJİK ÖZELLİKLERİ

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİR, Aydın; ÖZTÜRK, Hasan; ÇOLAK, Semra

    2017-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, kontrplaksektöründe kullanılan formaldehit esaslı reçineler yerine bağlayıcı olarak atıknaylonların (polietilen) kullanılmasıyla kayın (Fagus Orientalis Lipsky), kavak (Populus deltoides)  ve huş (Betula pendula)  soyma kaplamalarının kombinasyonlarındanüretilmiş levhaların bazı teknolojik özelliklerinin araştırılması amaçlanmış veüretilmiş levha kombinasyonları için optimum naylon miktarları belirlenmeyeçalışılmıştır. Bu amaçla, üç farklı naylon miktarı seçilm...

  9. CULTIVATION OF P. FLORIDA SUPLEMENTED OF RICE BRAIN ON BEECH WOOD WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin SİVRİKAYA

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of Pleurotus spp. reached to the second largest in amount after Agaricus bisporus (Lange sing. in the world. There recently has also been growing interest to cultivate them on wastes of forest and agricultural plants in Turkey. In the scope of study Pleurotus florida was produced on beech wood sawmill waste and rice brain. Beech wood sawmill waste (Fagus orientalis Lipsky were used as main substrate and supplemented with rice brain as co-substrate by 10 % W/W, 0 % W/W, 40 % W/W mixing ratios based on dry weights. To produce P. florida substrates were ground, air dried, moistured up to 70-80 % by tap water, supplemented, pasteurized with live steam and spawned. Highest yields (440 gr/kg of P. florida were obtained by supplementing wood waste and rice brain (% 80 + % 20. Furthermore, the best mycelia development were obtained by % 90 + % 10.

  10. Bacterial wetwood detection in Fagus grandifolia and Prunus serotina sapwood using a conducting polymer electronic-nose device

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    New electronic gas-detection methods were developed and tested for the diagnosis of bacterial wetwood disease in Fagus grandifolia (American beech) and Prunus serotina (black cherry) using a Conducting Polymer (CP)-type electronic nose (e-nose), the Aromascan A32S, based on detection of headspace...

  11. The formation of a ligno-suberised layer and necrophylactic periderm in beech bark (Fagus sylvatica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primoz Oven; Niko Torelli; Walter C. Shortle; Martin Zupancic

    1999-01-01

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) bark was wounded in early April of 1993 and tissue changes followed on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 84, 112, and 140. In 7 days, tissue at the wound surface became necrotic and discoloured. In 14 days the walls of the parenchyma cells immediately underneath the necrotic tissue became thickened and after 21 days...

  12. Variation in annual pollen accumulation rates of Fagus along a N-S transect in Europe based on pollen traps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pidek, I. A.; Svitavská-Svobodová, Helena; van der Knaap, W. O.; Noryskiewicz, A. M.; Filbrandt-Czaja, A.; Noryskiewicz, B.; Latalova, M.; Zimny, M.; Swieta-Musznicka, J.; Bozilova, E.; Tonkov, S.; Filipova-Marinova, M.; Poska, A.; Giesecke, T.; Gikov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2010), s. 259-270 ISSN 0939-6314 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00130801; GA AV ČR IAAX00050801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Fagus * Europe * pollen monitoring Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.656, year: 2010

  13. Fast wood decay in a mountain Mediterranean area having Fagus sylvatica forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fravolini, Giulia; Egli, Markus; Cherubini, Paolo; Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Marchetti, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Deadwood and litter act as important linkages between recent productivity and current community, and ecosystem processes. The increasing interest in the quantity and properties of coarse woody debris (CWD) and litter is relevant both to maintaining biodiversity and to global C dynamics. Mountain and Mediterranean areas, furthermore, are considered to be especially sensitive to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, a need exists to understand more in detail the interplay between soils, forests, deadwood and climate in general and in particular in mountain Mediterranean areas such as the Appenine. Due to the fact that linkages between climate, coarse woody decay and soils in mountain Mediterranean areas are only poorly understood, we aimed at investigating the decay mechanism of Fagus silvatica as a function of altitude and exposure. Furthermore, the effects of exposure on the decay dynamics of dead wood and soils were compared along a altitudinal sequence in an Appenine mountain forest (Majella Mountain). Ten sites, five of which having north and the other 5 having south exposure, were investigated, ranging from 1000 m to 1650 m asl. All sites have a Fagus sylvatica forest. In addition to this, experimental plots were installed at each site. In May 2014 standardised wood blocks (5 x 5 x 2 cm) of local Fagus sylvatica were placed at each site inside PVC tubes ('mesocosms') that was filled with undisturbed soil material. The sampling design foresees that three replicates of such mesocosms per site will be sampled after 8 , 16, 52 and 104 weeks. After 8 weeks three tubes were removed from the sites (sampled soil and dead wood blocks) and the wood blocks analysed for cellulose, lignin and density. At each site, three cores were taken to analyse soil properties. The soil cores were subdivided in 0 - 5, 5 - 10 and 10 - 15 cm depth and measured for organic carbon, carbonates and pH. In addition, the humus forms at each site were determined. Already after 8 weeks

  14. Bunias orientalis L. as a natural overwintering host OF Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kobyłko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A virus was isolated, using mechanical inoculation, from hill mustard (Bunias orientalis L. plants exhibiting yellow mottling and blistering on leaves, which were frequently accompanied by asymmetric leaf narrowing. It systemically infected certain plants from the family Brassicaceae (Brassica rapa, Bunias orientalis, Hesperis matronalis, Sinapis alba as well as Cleome spinosa and Nicotiana clevelandii, and locally Atriplex hortensis, Chenopodium quinoa, Ch. amaranticolor, N. tabacum. In the sap, it maintained infectivity for 3-4 days and lost it after heating for 10 min. at a temperature of 55 - 60oC or when diluted with water at 10-3. Virus particles were thread- like with a length of 675 - 710 nm. Based on an analysis of biological properties of the pathogen, serological response, particle morphology and data from field observations, it was identified as an isolate of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, and hill mustard was recognised as a natural overwintering host for this pathogen.

  15. Cloisonné kidney in mouflon sheep (Ovis orientalis musimon)

    OpenAIRE

    Hervás, J.; Chacón-M. de Lara, F.; Azorit, C.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes a case of cloisonné kidney associated with infection by Babesia ovis in a wild mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimonj found dead in year in eastern Sierra Morena (Andalusia, Spain). The major macroscopic lesions were a) icteric coloration in ocular and oral mucosa, and b) dark metal coloration on the kidneys' external surface. Intense dark coloration alternating with intense greyish strips was observed on renal cortex sections. Blood sampl...

  16. Redescription de l'holotype de Ephemera orientalis Mclachlan, 1875 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoulin, G.

    1965-01-01

    En 1875, R. McLachlan décrivit Ephemera orientalis d'après un unique exemplaire ♂, capturé au Japon par P. F. von Siebold. Depuis lors, l'espèce a été signalée à nouveau, non seulement du Japon, mais de Sibérie orientale, et ce par divers auteurs. Mais aucune iconographie n'en a été donnée. En 1952,

  17. Stygophrynus orientalis sp. nov. (Amblypygi: Charontidae) from Indonesia with the description of a remarkable spermatophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, Michael; Wolff, Jonas O

    2017-02-16

    Here Stygophrynus orientalis sp. nov. is described, a new charontid whip spider from Banggai Island, Indonesia, representing the most eastern record of the genus exceeding the formerly postulated restriction of its distribution western of the Wallace Line. In addition, the third known spermatophore of a Stygophrynus species is presented, which differs remarkably from those previously described from the genus. Finally, the cerotegument structure of the new species is depicted and compared with that of other Charontidae and Charinidae.

  18. Importance of molehill disturbances for invasion by Bunias orientalis in meadows and pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełtyk, Piotr; Mirek, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    Small-scale soil disturbances by fossorial animals can change physical and biotic conditions in disturbed patches and influence spatial and temporal dynamics, and the composition of plant communities. They create regeneration niches and colonization openings for native plants and, according to the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, they are expected to increase plant community diversity. However, it also has been reported that increased disturbance resource availability and decreased competition with native species may result in the invasion of communities by alien plant species, as predicted by the fluctuating resources theory of invasibility. In this study, we investigated the importance of European mole disturbances for the invasion of semi-natural fresh meadows and pastures by the alien plant, Bunias orientalis, which has mainly spread throughout Central Europe on anthropogenically disturbed sites. We hypothesized that the invader, being particularly well adapted to anthropogenic disturbances, enters into dense vegetation of meadows and pastures mainly on mole mounds. To assess the seedling recruitment of B. orientalis in relation to disturbance, we counted the number of seedlings that emerged on molehills and control plots in meadows and pastures. The establishment of juvenile (0-1 year) rosette plants on and off molehills was surveyed on 5 × 5 m plots. In accordance with our hypothesis, mole disturbances were found to serve as a gateway for B. orientalis by which the invader may colonize semi-natural grasslands. The seedlings of the species emerged almost solely on molehills and the young rosettes were established predominantly on mole mounds. Although the seedling density did not differ significantly between the meadows and pastures, the number of established plants in the pastures was considerably higher. We suggest that the invasion by B. orientalis in pastures may be facilitated by vegetative regeneration following root fragmentation by sheep pasturing.

  19. Pseudomonas orientalis F9: A Potent Antagonist against Phytopathogens with Phytotoxic Effect in the Apple Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Zengerer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of public concerns over the use of pesticides and antibiotics in plant protection and the subsequent selection for spread of resistant bacteria in the environment, it is inevitable to broaden our knowledge about viable alternatives, such as natural antagonists and their mode of action. The genus Pseudomonas is known for its metabolic versatility and genetic plasticity, encompassing pathogens as well as antagonists. We characterized strain Pseudomonas orientalis F9, an isolate from apple flowers in a Swiss orchard, and determined its antagonistic activity against several phytopathogenic bacteria, in particular Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. P. orientalis F9 displayed antagonistic activity against a broad suite of phytopathogenic bacteria in the in vitro tests. The promising results from this analysis led to an ex vivo assay with E. amylovora CFBP1430Rif and P. orientalis F9 infected detached apple flowers. F9 diminished the fire blight pathogen in the flowers but also revealed phytotoxic traits. The experimental results were discussed in light of the complete genome sequence of F9, which revealed the strain to carry phenazine genes. Phenazines are known to contribute to antagonistic activity of bacterial strains against soil pathogens. When tested in the cress assay with Pythium ultimum as pathogen, F9 showed results comparable to the known antagonist P. protegens CHA0.

  20. Pseudomonas orientalis F9: A Potent Antagonist against Phytopathogens with Phytotoxic Effect in the Apple Flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengerer, Veronika; Schmid, Michael; Bieri, Marco; Müller, Denise C; Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N P; Ahrens, Christian H; Pelludat, Cosima

    2018-01-01

    In light of public concerns over the use of pesticides and antibiotics in plant protection and the subsequent selection for spread of resistant bacteria in the environment, it is inevitable to broaden our knowledge about viable alternatives, such as natural antagonists and their mode of action. The genus Pseudomonas is known for its metabolic versatility and genetic plasticity, encompassing pathogens as well as antagonists. We characterized strain Pseudomonas orientalis F9, an isolate from apple flowers in a Swiss orchard, and determined its antagonistic activity against several phytopathogenic bacteria, in particular Erwinia amylovora , the causal agent of fire blight. P. orientalis F9 displayed antagonistic activity against a broad suite of phytopathogenic bacteria in the in vitro tests. The promising results from this analysis led to an ex vivo assay with E. amylovora CFBP1430 Rif and P. orientalis F9 infected detached apple flowers. F9 diminished the fire blight pathogen in the flowers but also revealed phytotoxic traits. The experimental results were discussed in light of the complete genome sequence of F9, which revealed the strain to carry phenazine genes. Phenazines are known to contribute to antagonistic activity of bacterial strains against soil pathogens. When tested in the cress assay with Pythium ultimum as pathogen, F9 showed results comparable to the known antagonist P. protegens CHA0.

  1. Volumen y transparencia. AEG, Fagus, Bauhaus, evolución de un tema de esquina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael García

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Los edificios objeto de este estudio forman un conjunto ya clásico en su consideración como hitos en el proceso de la arquitectura moderna. Existe a este respecto una larga tradición historiográfica, comenzada por Pevsner', en la que se los presenta como eslabones de una misma cadena. Especialmente en los dos primeros, la fábrica de turbinas de la AEG y la Fagus, la comparación básica y casi ya tópica, se ha centrado en el carácter de sus esquinas, con alguna referencia ulterior al tratamiento de este mismo tema en el pabellón de talleres de la Bauhaus en Dessau, de gran afinidad con los anteriores.

  2. Drought-adaptation potential in Fagus sylvatica: linking moisture availability with genetic diversity and dendrochronology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea R Pluess

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microevolution is essential for species persistence especially under anticipated climate change scenarios. Species distribution projection models suggested that the dominant tree species of lowland forests in Switzerland, European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., might disappear from most areas due to expected longer dry periods. However, if genotypes at the moisture boundary of the species climatic envelope are adapted to lower moisture availability, they can serve as seed source for the continuation of beech forests under changing climates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With an AFLP genome scan approach, we studied neutral and potentially adaptive genetic variation in Fagus sylvatica in three regions containing a dry and a mesic site each (n(ind. = 241, n(markers = 517. We linked this dataset with dendrochronological growth measures and local moisture availabilities based on precipitation and soil characteristics. Genetic diversity decreased slightly at dry sites. Overall genetic differentiation was low (F(st = 0.028 and Bayesian cluster analysis grouped all populations together suggesting high (historical gene flow. The Bayesian outlier analyses indicated 13 markers with three markers differing between all dry and mesic sites and the others between the contrasting sites within individual regions. A total of 41 markers, including seven outlier loci, changed their frequency with local moisture availability. Tree height and median basal growth increments were reduced at dry sites, but marker presence/absence was not related to dendrochronological characteristics. CONCLUSION AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE: The outlier alleles and the makers with changing frequencies in relation to moisture availability indicate microevolutionary processes occurring within short geographic distances. The general genetic similarity among sites suggests that 'preadaptive' genes can easily spread across the landscape. Yet, due to the long live span of

  3. Host choice of Phlebotomus orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in animal baited experiments: a field study in Tahtay Adiyabo district, northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresilassie, Araya; Yared, Solomon; Aklilu, Essayas; Kirstein, Oscar David; Moncaz, Aviad; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-03-31

    Host choice and feeding success of sand fly vectors of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are important factors in understanding the epidemiology and for developing efficient control strategies. The aim of the present study was to determine the host preference of Phlebotomus orientalis in the VL focus of Tahtay Adiyabo district, northern Ethiopia. Two separate experiments were conducted testing attraction of P. orientalis to humans, domestic animals, and small wild animals. The host choice of P. orientalis and other sand fly species was assessed using tent traps baited with seven different animals (human, cow, sheep, goat, donkey, dog and chicken) and a blank control. Baited traps were rotated every night in a Latin square design for two consecutive full rounds totaling 16 trap-nights. The second set of experiments tested attraction to small wild animals including; ground squirrel (Xerus rutilus), hare (Lepus sp.), gerbil (Tatera robusta) and spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus). Animals were caged in standard rodent traps or cylindrical wire-mesh cages. The bait animals were placed in agricultural field and the attracted sand flies were collected using unlit CDC traps for 10 trapping nights. Sand fly specimens collected from each of the experiments were identified to species level and counted. Significant difference (P flies). The engorgement rate of P. orientalis on donkey was the highest followed by cow, and much lower on goat, sheep, dog and chicken. In the case of smaller wild animals, more numbers of P. orientalis females were attracted to squirrels followed by hares, gerbils and the spiny rat. However, the engorgement rates for P. orientalis in the smaller animals were very low (1.08%) compared with larger domestic animals (30.53%). The tendency of female P. orientalis to engorge in large numbers on certain species of domestic as well as wild animals strongly indicated that the species is primarily zoophilic in its host preference with feeding habits that may vary

  4. Holocene expansions of Fagus silvatica and Abies alba in Central Europe: where are we after eight decades of debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinner, Willy; Lotter, André F.

    2006-03-01

    During the past eight decades contrasting hypotheses have been put forward to explain the Holocene expansions of Fagus silvatica (beech) and Abies alba (fir) in Central Europe. The hypotheses can be referred to as: (1) climatic change; (2) migrational lag; (3) delay in population increase; (4) human disturbance; and (5) fire disturbance. High-resolution pollen and charcoal records from three sites in lowland Switzerland and southern Germany allow testing the human vs. fire-disturbance hypotheses by means of time-series analysis. Cross-correlations between pairs of pollen as well as between microscopic charcoal and pollen suggest that neither human nor fire disturbance substantially promoted the expansion of Fagus and Abies. We address the remaining hypotheses (climatic change, migrational lag, delay of population increase) by a combined interpretation of our data with independent climatic records and other evidence of past environmental dynamics (e.g. dynamic vegetation modelling) for southern Central Europe. Rapid population expansions in response to cooling and precipitation increase suggest that climatic change was the main forcing factor and that migrational lags were not effective since at least 8200 cal. yr ago. On the basis of this conclusion we propose an explanatory model for the Holocene expansion of Fagus and Abies in Central Europe: Both trees expanded stepwise across the continent during favourable 8200-type events, which were characterized by changes towards wetter and cooler conditions and corresponded to previously recognized Holocene cold phases in Central Europe as well as in the North Atlantic realm. Asynchronous expansions across continental Europe are explained by analogy to today's precipitation gradients resulting from orographic effects. Response lags of Fagus and Abies to climatic change reached a few decades at most, whereas population expansion in response to climatic change lasted for several centuries, probably as a consequence of

  5. Molecular epidemiology of bovine Babesia spp. and Theileria orientalis parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Cao, Shinuo; Iguchi, Aiko; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Zhou, Mo; Vudriko, Patrick; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Wongsawang, Witsanu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle production represents the largest cattle population in Thailand. Their productivity is constrained by tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria orientalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic markers that were used for detection of the above parasites were sequenced to determine identities and similarity for Babesia spp. and genetic diversity of T. orientalis. Furthermore the risk factors for the occurrence of the above protozoan parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern parts of Thailand were assessed. A total of 329 blood samples were collected from beef cattle in 6 provinces. The study revealed that T. orientalis was the most prevalent (30.1%) parasite in beef cattle followed by B. bigemina (13.1%) and B. bovis (5.5%). Overall, 78.7% of the cattle screened were infected with at least one of the above parasites. Co-infection with Babesia spp. and T. orientalis was 30.1%. B. bigemina and T. orientalis were the most prevalent (15.1%) co-infection although triple infection with the three parasites was observed in 3.0% of the samples. Sequencing analysis revealed that B. bigemina RAP1 gene and B. bovis SBP2 gene were conserved among the parasites from different cattle samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the T. orientalis MPSP gene from parasites isolated from cattle in north and northeast Thailand was classified into types 5 and 7 as reported previously. Lack of tick control program was the universal risk factor of the occurrence of Babesia spp. and T. orientalis infection in beef cattle in northern and northeastern Thailand. We therefore recommend training of farmers on appropriate tick control strategies and further research on potential vectors for T. orientalis and elucidate the effect of co-infection with Babesia spp. on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis infection on beef in northern and northeastern Thailand

  6. Seasonal changes of Rubisco content and activity in Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies affected by elevated CO2 concentration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrstka, M.; Urban, Otmar; Babák, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 9 (2012), s. 836-841 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600870701; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Rubisco content * Rubisco activity * seasonal changes * elevated CO2 concentrations * Fagus sylvatica * Picea abies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2012

  7. Physiological integration ameliorates negative effects of drought stress in the clonal herb Fragaria orientalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchun Zhang

    Full Text Available Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems--effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group. Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast.

  8. Monitoring Theileria orientalis (Ikeda)-associated bovine anaemia in affected cattle over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Amj; Hart, M; Bueno, I M; Ha, H J; Heath, Acg; Pulford, D J

    2017-10-15

    The aim of the study was to observe changes in haematocrit (HCT) over time in a New Zealand South Island dairy herd affected by an outbreak of Theileria-associated bovine anaemia (TABA; Ikeda). A secondary aim was to relate individual cow HCTs to the amount of Theileria orientalis Ikeda DNA present in the blood, as measured by cycle threshold values, using a quantitative PCR (qPCR). Over a 6 month period, blood samples from 19 randomly selected cattle were monitored from a herd of 600 dairy cows. The sampling interval was approximately fortnightly for the first six weeks, followed by sampling at between four and six week intervals. At the initial report of the outbreak, two from six cattle were anaemic (HCTcows tested was relatively high (Cq median=24). Levels of all 19 cows monitored continued to remain moderately high through the period of testing (Cq median=29). This was despite a general improvement in the HCT of affected cattle. In four of the 15 cattle positive to T. orientalis Ikeda where blood fractions (plasma and whole blood) were tested, it appeared that T. orientalis Ikeda (as measured by qPCR) dropped more rapidly in plasma fractions than in whole blood at the point that HCT started to return to normal levels. Despite the assumption that tick populations were low in the Canterbury region of the South Island the impact of TABA (proportion of herd affected and the average period that animals remained anaemic) on the case herd was still relatively high. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hair growth promoting activity of cedrol isolated from the leaves of Platycladus orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Han, Ling; Chen, Shan-Shan; Guan, Jian; Qu, Fan-Zhi; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2016-10-01

    Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco is traditionally known to potentiate hair growth promotion. However, there has been no report on its main active ingredient responsible for the hair growth activity. In the current work, cedrol as a major constituent from P. orientalis was evaluated for its potential on hair growth in vivo. Different concentrations of cedrol (10, 20 and 30mg/mL) were applied topically over the shaved skin of C57BL/6 mice and monitored for 21days. Results indicated that cedrol significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, particularly for the female mice. Both male and female mice groups treated with 30mg/mL cedrol required shorter time than the blank control and 2% minoxidil groups at different growth stages. Compared with the blank control (8.87mm) and 2% minoxidil (9.94mm) groups at 21days, the hair length of female mice treated with 30mg/mL cedrol showed a remarkable increase with the value of 11.07mm. Hair in male and female mice groups treated with 30mg/mL cedrol was heavier than the 2% minoxidil (38.2 and 35.9mg, respectively) groups with the weight of 42.6 and 45.2mg, respectively. Further observation of the hair follicle demonstrated that cedrol exerted a remarkable effect on the hair follicle length. These findings suggested that cedrol may be the main active ingredient of P. orientalis and have the potential of becoming a new hair growth promoter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVING PULP FROM TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA) BY PREHYDROLYSIS KRAFT AND SODA-ETHYLENEDIAMINE (EDA) PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Quaiyyum; A. Noori; Labooni Ahsan; M. Sarwar Jahan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study for the production of dissolving pulp from Trema orientalis (Nalita). Water prehydrolysis kraft and soda-ethylenediamine (EDA) pulping for the production of dissolving pulp from T. orientalis was investigated. Prehydrolysis at 150 and 170 oC did not produce pulp with high α-cellulose content when using the kraft process. But addition of 0.25 % H2SO4 in prehydrolysis liquor increased the purity of the pulp with the sacrifice of pulp yield and viscosity. ...

  11. Modelling the Effects of Radioactive Effluent on Thunnus orientalis and Oncorhynchus gorbuscha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of the Pacific Ocean by the radioactive pollutants released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has raised legitimate concerns over the viability of marine wildlife. We develop a modified Crank-Nicholson method to approximate a solution to the diffusion-advection-decay equation in time and three spatial dimensions to explore the extent of the effects of the radioactive effluent on two marine species: the Pacific Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus orientalis and the Pacific Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha.

  12. STUDY OF THE FLAVOUR PROFILES OF THE FRUITS AND TERMINAL BRANCHLETS OF PLATYCLADUS ORIENTALIS (L. FRANCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S AFSHARIPOOR

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, is a native plant growing wild in Iran. Methods. The essential oils of fresh fruits and terminal branch lets with adherent leaves of this plant were obtained by means of steam distillation method and analysed by GC-MS. Results and Discussion. Eighty components were identified in the investigated essential oils. The essential oil obtained from the branchlets of this plant contained 21 monoterpenoids, 28 sesquiterpenoids and 3 diterpenoids, while the essential oil of the fruits contianed 27 monoterpenoids, 12 sesquiterpenoids and 3 diterpenoids. The major constituent of both oils was ?-3-Carene

  13. IRON CHELATING AND ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY OF KAYU MANIK LEAVES (Trema orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salprima Yudha S.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A methanol soluble fraction extracted from Kayu Manik leaves (Trema orientalis from Seluma, Bengkulu, exhibited an antiradical activity 69.73% (scavenging activity of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH free radical that was almost similar to that of 1 mM ascorbic acid. On the other hand, the iron chelating activity was 40.74%. We believe that it would be useful to take the results as an alternative for processing industries and can be observed as a good source of new agent for iron chelator.

  14. Variation in Ecophysiological Traits and Drought Tolerance of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Seedlings from Different Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Claudia; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, L'ubica; Marino, Stefano; Maiuro, Lucia; Alvino, Arturo; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Bolte, Andreas; Tognetti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Frequency and intensity of heat waves and drought events are expected to increase in Europe due to climate change. European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is one of the most important native tree species in Europe. Beech populations originating throughout its native range were selected for common-garden experiments with the aim to determine whether there are functional variations in drought stress responses among different populations. One-year old seedlings from four to seven beech populations were grown and drought-treated in a greenhouse, replicating the experiment at two contrasting sites, in Italy (Mediterranean mountains) and Germany (Central Europe). Experimental findings indicated that: (1) drought (water stress) mainly affected gas exchange describing a critical threshold of drought response between 30 and 26% SWA for photosynthetic rate and Ci/Ca, respectively; (2) the Ci to Ca ratio increased substantially with severe water stress suggesting a stable instantaneous water use efficiency and an efficient regulation capacity of water balance achieved by a tight stomatal control; (3) there was a different response to water stress among the considered beech populations, differently combining traits, although there was not a well-defined variability in drought tolerance. A combined analysis of functional and structural traits for detecting stress signals in beech seedlings is suggested to assess plant performance under limiting moisture conditions and, consequently, to estimate evolutionary potential of beech under a changing environmental scenario. PMID:27446118

  15. Gap formation in Danish beech (Fagus sylvatica) forests of low management intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Vesterdal, Lars

    2006-01-01

    -based managed forest, soil solution was collected for 5 years and soil moisture measured in the fourth year after gap formation. Average NO3-N concentrations were significantly higher in the gaps (9.9 and 8.1 mg NO3-N l(-1), respectively) than under closed canopy (0.2 mg l(-1)). In the semi-natural forest....... In the semi-natural forest, advanced regeneration and lateral closure of the gap affected soil moisture levels in the gap in the last year of the study. Author Keywords: gaps; drainage fluxes; Fagus sylvatica L.; nitrate; soil moisture; soil solution; unmanaged forest ecosystems; WATBAL......Soil moisture content (0-90 cm depth) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations in soil solution (90 cm depth) were monitored after gap formation (diameter 15-18 m) in three Danish beech-dominated forests on nutrient-rich till soils. NO3-N drainage losses were estimated by the water balance model...

  16. Fine root dynamics of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) as influenced by elevated ozone concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainiero, Raphael; Kazda, Marian; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Nikolova, Petia Simeonova; Matyssek, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Fine root dynamics (diameter < 1 mm) in mature Fagus sylvatica, with the canopies exposed to ambient or twice-ambient ozone concentrations, were investigated throughout 2004. The focus was on the seasonal timing and extent of fine root dynamics (growth, mortality) in relation to the soil environment (water content, temperature). Under ambient ozone concentrations, a significant relationship was found between fine root turnover and soil environmental changes indicating accelerated fine root turnover under favourable soil conditions. In contrast, under elevated ozone, this relationship vanished as the result of an altered temporal pattern of fine root growth. Fine root survival and turnover rate did not differ significantly between the different ozone regimes, although a delay in current-year fine root shedding was found under the elevated ozone concentrations. The data indicate that increasing tropospheric ozone levels can alter the timing of fine root turnover in mature F. sylvatica but do not affect the turnover rate. - Doubling of ozone concentrations in mature European beech affected the seasonal timing of fine root turnover rather than the turnover rate.

  17. Variation in biogenic volatile organic compound emission pattern of Fagus sylvatica L. due to aphid infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joó, É.; Van Langenhove, H.; Šimpraga, M.; Steppe, K.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Müller, J.-F.; Dewulf, J.

    2010-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been the focus of interest to understand atmospheric processes and their consequences in formation of ozone or aerosol particles; therefore, VOCs contribute to climate change. In this study, biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) emitted from Fagus sylvatica L. trees were measured in a dynamic enclosure system. In total 18 compounds were identified: 11 monoterpenes (MT), an oxygenated MT, a homoterpene (C 14H 18), 3 sesquiterpenes (SQT), isoprene and methyl salicylate. The frequency distribution of the compounds was tested to determine a relation with the presence of the aphid Phyllaphis fagi L. It was found that linalool, (E)-β-ocimene, α-farnesene and a homoterpene identified as (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), were present in significantly more samples when infection was present on the trees. The observed emission spectrum from F. sylvatica L. shifted from MT to linalool, α-farnesene, (E)-β-ocimene and DMNT due to the aphid infection. Sabinene was quantitatively the most prevalent compound in both, non-infected and infected samples. In the presence of aphids α-farnesene and linalool became the second and third most important BVOC emitted. According to our investigation, the emission fingerprint is expected to be more complex than commonly presumed.

  18. A regulatory gene (ECO-orf4) required for ECO-0501 biosynthesis in Amycolatopsis orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Huang, He; Zhu, Li; Luo, Minyu; Chen, Daijie

    2014-02-01

    ECO-0501 is a novel linear polyene antibiotic, which was discovered from Amycolatopsis orientalis. Recent study of ECO-0501 biosynthesis pathway revealed the presence of regulatory gene: ECO-orf4. The A. orientalis ECO-orf4 gene from the ECO-0501 biosynthesis cluster was analyzed, and its deduced protein (ECO-orf4) was found to have amino acid sequence homology with large ATP-binding regulators of the LuxR (LAL) family regulators. Database comparison revealed two hypothetical domains, a LuxR-type helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding motif near the C-terminal and an N-terminal nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) binding motif included. Deletion of the corresponding gene (ECO-orf4) resulted in complete loss of ECO-0501 production. Complementation by one copy of intact ECO-orf4 restored the polyene biosynthesis demonstrating that ECO-orf4 is required for ECO-0501 biosynthesis. The results of overexpression ECO-orf4 on ECO-0501 production indicated that it is a positive regulatory gene. Gene expression analysis by reverse transcription PCR of the ECO-0501 gene cluster showed that the transcription of ECO-orf4 correlates with that of genes involved in polyketide biosynthesis. These results demonstrated that ECO-orf4 is a pathway-specific positive regulatory gene that is essential for ECO-0501 biosynthesis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Platycladus orientalis leaves: a systemic review on botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ming-Qiu; Shang, Jing; Ding, An-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Platycladus orientalis leaves (Cebaiye) have been used for thousands of years as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). According to the theory of TCM, they are categorized as a blood-cooling and hematostatic herb. In clinical practice, they were usually prescribed with heat-clearing herbs to reinforce the efficacy of hemostasis. The review provides the up-to-date information from 1980 to present that is available on the botany, processing research, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the leaves. The information is collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via library and electronic search (Google Scholar, Pubmed and CNKI). Through literature reports, we can find that the leaves show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, disinsection, anticancer, diuretic, hair growth-promoting, neuroprotective and antifibrotic activities. Diterpene and flavonoids would be active constituents in P. orientalis leaves. Many studies have provided evidence for various traditional uses. However, there is a great need for additional studies to elucidate the mechanism of blood-cooling and hematostatic activity of the leaves. Therefore, the present review on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and toxicity has provided preliminary information for further studies of this herb.

  20. Essential Oil Composition of Ferula Orientalis L. from Different Localities of Turkey and a Chemotaxonomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer KILIÇ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma Türkiye’nin üç farklı lokasyonundan toplanan Ferula orientalis L. türünün uçucu yağ kompozisyonunun kemotaksonomik özelliklerini belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Bu amaçla, bitkinin topraküstü kısımları HS-SPME/GC-MS tekniği ile analiz edilmiştir. Sonuçta, Bingöl, Elazığ ve Malatya lokasyonlarından sırasıyla toplam yağ miktarları olan %92.2, %96.9 ve %96.3’ lük değerlerden 33, 29 ve 30 bileşen tespit edilmiştir. Tüm lokasyonlarda α-pinen, kamfen, β-pinen, sabinen, naftalen ve β-fellandren ana bileşenler olarak tespit edilmiş olup, tüm lokasyonlarda α-pinen ve β-fellandren en yüksek oranlarda [Bingöl (%28.4-%5.6, Elazığ (%35.5-%6.4, Malatya (%27.7-%7.4] bulunmuştur. α-pinen ve β-fellandren F. orientalis ‘in kemotipleri olarak tespit edilmiştir

  1. Physiological Age Structure and Leishmania spp. Detection in Phlebotomus (Larroussius) orientalis (Parrot, 1936) (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresilassie, Araya; Abbasi, Ibrahim; Kirstein, Oscar David; Aklilu, Essayas; Yared, Solomon; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani is endemic in northern Ethiopia, where P. orientalis is the most important presumed vector. This study was designed to determine the physiological age structure and the occurrence of Leishmania infection in the vector of VL in Tahtay Adiyabo district, northern Ethiopia. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps from peridomestic and agricultural fields between May 2011 and April 2012 and P. orientalis females were dissected for age determination and detection of Leishmania promastigotes. Sand flies were also analyzed for L. donovani detection using molecular methods. Of 1,282 P. orientalis examined for abdominal stages and age characterization, 66.2%, 28.2%, 4.1%, and 1.6% were unfed, freshly fed, half-gravid, and gravid. Parous rate in unfed females was 34.1% and 35.4% in peridomestic and agricultural fields, respectively. Out of 921 P. orientalis females dissected, one specimen (0.1%) was found naturally infected with promastigotes. Five pools (25 females) of unfed P. orientalis were also found with DNA of Leishmania spp. In particular, a single P. orientalis was positive for L. donovani (0.5%). Based on this and other evidences (abundance, human blood feeding, and xenodiagnostic studies), P. orientalis is the principal vector of VL in this endemic focus.

  2. Efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in Nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. Although it is considered one of the most pathogenic bacteria in fish, there are no commercially available treatments of vaccines. The objective of this project was ...

  3. Development of Mamestra brassicae and its solitary endoparasitoid Microplitis mediator on two populations of the invasive weed, Bunias orientalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Gols, R.

    2011-01-01

    The warty cabbage Bunias orientalis is an invasive pest in much of central Europe, including much of Germany since the 1980s, whereas in other countries, such as The Netherlands, it is a less common exotic species. Here, healthy larvae of Mamestra brassicae, which has been found feeding on B.

  4. Larval morphology of Atherigona orientalis (Schiner) (Diptera: Muscidae) - a species of sanitary and forensic importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Larval morphology is documented using both light and scanning electron microscopy for all three instars of the muscid fly Atherigona orientalis (Schiner), which is a species of known sanitary and forensic importance found in tropical and subtropical areas of all biogeographic regions. The unpaire...

  5. Genetically modified yeast of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely relates species, and fermentation processes using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Highland Ranch, CO; Pentilla, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI; Koivuranta, Kari [Vantaa, FI; Roberg-Perez, Kevin [Minneapolis, MN

    2012-01-17

    Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.

  6. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

    2012-03-01

    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species ( Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from native species.

  7. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Sima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species.Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera.Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody-mediated reactions also in other host species.

  8. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Michal; Ferencova, Blanka; Warburg, Alon; Rohousova, Iva; Volf, Petr

    2016-03-01

    Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species. Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera. Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody-mediated reactions also in other host species.

  9. Mechanical transfer of Theileria orientalis: possible roles of biting arthropods, colostrum and husbandry practices in disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Jade Frederick; Jenkins, Cheryl; Bogema, Daniel; Emery, David

    2016-01-22

    The intracellular protozoal parasite Theileria orientalis has rapidly spread across South-eastern Australia, substantially impacting local cattle industries since 2006. Haemaphysalis longicornis appears to be a biological vector in the endemic regions. Mechanical transfer of blood by biting arthropods, in colostrum or iatrogenic transmission though husbandry procedures is another possible mode of transmission. This study assesses the risk of these mechanical modes of transmission. Blood was collected from a T. orientalis Ikeda positive Angus steer, and was inoculated into the jugular vein of 9 calves in 3 treatment groups, each with 3 animals. Calves in Group 1 received 10 ml of cryopreserved blood, while those in Groups 2 and 3 received 1 ml (fresh blood) and 0.1 ml (cryopreserved), respectively. An additional three animals remained as negative controls and the donor calf was also followed as a positive control. Blood was collected over 3 months, and analysed via qPCR for the presence of the parasite. Samples of the sucking louse Linognathus vituli were collected opportunistically from calves 5 months after inoculation and tested for T. orientalis. For the colostral transmission study, 30 samples of blood and colostrum were collected from cows at calving in an endemic herd. These samples along with blood from their calves were tested by qPCR for T. orientalis and for antibodies to the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP). Eight of the nine inoculated calves became positive for T. orientalis. The prepatent period of these infections was inversely correlated with inoculation dose. All negative control calves remained negative and the positive control calf remained positive. Samples of L. vituli tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda, while some samples of colostrum were also shown to be qPCR and anti-MPSP positive. All calves in the colostral study tested qPCR negative although one was antibody-positive. T. orientalis is capable of being mechanically transferred

  10. Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition alters growth responses of European beech (Fagus sylvativa L.) to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Carsten; Niemeyer, Thomas; Fichtner, Andreas; Jansen, Kirstin; Kunz, Matthias; Maneke, Moritz; von Wehrden, Henrik; Quante, Markus; Walmsley, David; von Oheimb, Goddert; Härdtle, Werner

    2018-02-01

    Global change affects the functioning of forest ecosystems and the services they provide, but little is known about the interactive effects of co-occurring global change drivers on important functions such as tree growth and vitality. In the present study we quantified the interactive (i.e. synergistic or antagonistic) effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition and climatic variables (temperature, precipitation) on tree growth (in terms of tree-ring width, TRW), taking forest ecosystems with European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) as an example. We hypothesised that (i) N deposition and climatic variables can evoke non-additive responses of the radial increment of beech trees, and (ii) N loads have the potential to strengthen the trees' sensitivity to climate change. In young stands, we found a synergistic positive effect of N deposition and annual mean temperature on TRW, possibly linked to the alleviation of an N shortage in young stands. In mature stands, however, high N deposition significantly increased the trees' sensitivity to increasing annual mean temperatures (antagonistic effect on TRW), possibly due to increased fine root dieback, decreasing mycorrhizal colonization or shifts in biomass allocation patterns (aboveground vs. belowground). Accordingly, N deposition and climatic variables caused both synergistic and antagonistic effects on the radial increment of beech trees, depending on tree age and stand characteristics. Hence, the nature of interactions could mediate the long-term effects of global change drivers (including N deposition) on forest carbon sequestration. In conclusion, our findings illustrate that interaction processes between climatic variables and N deposition are complex and have the potential to impair growth and performance of European beech. This in turn emphasises the importance of multiple-factor studies to foster an integrated understanding and models aiming at improved projections of tree growth responses to co-occurring drivers

  11. Faunal diversity of Fagus sylvatica forests: A regional and European perspective based on three indicator groups

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    H. Walentowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the postglacial history of European beech (Fagus sylvatica and the plant species composition of beech forests in  Central Europe are fairly well understood, the faunal biodiversity has been less well investigated. We studied three groups of  mostly sedentary organisms in beech forest at regional and European scales by combining field studies with a compilation of existing literature and expert knowledge. Specifically, we examined the relationship between host tree genera and saproxylic  beetles, and the diversity and composition of forest ground-dwelling molluscs and ground beetles in relation to the abundance  of beech. At a west central European scale (Germany, where beech has a “young” ecological and biogeographical history,  we found 48 primeval forest relict species of saproxylic beetles associated with beech, 124 ground beetles and 91 molluscs  inhabiting beech forest, yet none exclusive of west central European beech forests. High levels of faunal similarity between beech and other woodland trees suggested that many of the beech forest dwelling species are euryoecious and likely to  originate from mid-Holocene mixed broadleaf forests. Beech forests of the mountain ranges in southern and east central  Europe, which are ecologically and biogeographically “old”, were found to harbour distinct species assemblages, including  beech forest specialists (such as 10 carabid species in the Carpathians and narrow-range endemics of broadleaf forest. The  observed biodiversity patterns suggest differentiated conservation priorities in “young” and “old” European beech forest  regions.

  12. Root biomass of Fagus sylvatica L. stands depending on the climatic conditions

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    Grygoruk Dorota

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fine root biomass of forest trees is a recognised indicator of environmental changes in the conditions of global climate change. The present study was carried out in six old-growth beech forests (112-140 years located in different climatic conditions on the range border of Fagus sylvatica L. in Poland. The root biomass was investigated by soil coring method in the upper soil layers (0-5 cm, 5-15 cm and total layer 0-15 cm. The significantly greater total root biomass was found in the beech stands, which characterised by higher average precipitation and lower average annual temperatures in the period 2000-2005. The share of roots of diameter > 5 mm increased with increasing depth of top soils. Biomass of fine roots (diameter ≤ 2 mm decreased with increasing depth of upper soil layers. The average biomass of fine roots ranged from 175.36 to 418.16 g m-2 in the soil layer 0-15 cm. The significant differences of fine root biomass were found between studied stands in the soil layers 0-5 cm and 0-15 cm. Also, it was found significant positive correlation between fine root biomass in the soil layer 0-15 cm and precipitation during the growing season in 2006. Precipitation in the study period was connected with very high rainfall in August 2006, repeatedly exceeding the long-term monthly levels. Regional climatic conditions, in that extreme weather events in growing seasons can significantly to affect changes of fine root biomass of forest trees, consequently, changes of relationships between the growth of above- and below-ground of the old-growth forest stands.

  13. Early Events in Populus Hybrid and Fagus sylvatica Leaves Exposed to Ozone

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    R. Desotgiu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate early responses to ozone in leaves of Fagus sylvatica (beech and Populus maximowiczii x Populus berolinensis (poplar. The experimental setup consisted of four open-air (OA plots, four charcoal-filtered (CF open-top chambers (OTCs, and four nonfiltered (NF OTCs. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out on nonsymptomatic (CF and symptomatic (NF and OA leaves of both species. Qualitative analyses were performed applying microscopic techniques: Evans blue staining for detection of cell viability, CeCl3 staining of transmission electron microscope (TEM samples to detect the accumulation of H2O2, and multispectral fluorescence microimaging and microspectrofluorometry to investigate the accumulation of fluorescent phenolic compounds in the walls of the damaged cells. Quantitative analyses consisted of the analysis of the chlorophyll a fluorescence transients (fast kinetics. The early responses to ozone were demonstrated by the Evans blue and CeCl3 staining techniques that provided evidence of plant responses in both species 1 month before foliar symptoms became visible. The fluorescence transients analysis, too, demonstrated the breakdown of the oxygen evolving system and the inactivation of the end receptors of electrons at a very early stage, both in poplar and in beech. The accumulation of phenolic compounds in the cell walls, on the other hand, was a species-specific response detected in poplar, but not in beech. Evans blue and CeCl3 staining, as well as the multispectral fluorescence microimaging and microspectrofluorometry, can be used to support the field diagnosis of ozone injury, whereas the fast kinetics of chlorophyll fluorescence provides evidence of early physiological responses.

  14. Living on the edge: contrasted wood-formation dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean conditions

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    Edurne eMartinez Del Castillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e. in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48–75 days. In contrast, the growing season for Pinus sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for Pinus sylvestris.

  15. Production and turnover of organic matter in three southern European Fagus sylvatica L

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    Santa Regina, I.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Above-ground biomass, litterfall and litter accumulation and decomposition at the soil surface were studied within three Mediterranean beech forests from Italy, France and Spain in order to better understand the recycling of elements associated with the turnover organic matter Above-ground tree biomass amounted to 131.9 Mg ha-1 at Etna (Italy, 134.2 Mg ha-1 at Sierra de la Demanda (Spain and 223.9 Mg ha-1 at Mont Lozère (France. The highest amount of total litterfall was observed at Sierra de la Demanda (4.7 Mg ha-1 year-1, followed by the Mont Lozère (4.4 Mg ha-1 year-1 and Etna (3.9 Mg ha-1 year-1. Total organic matter accumulated on the soil surface in the three beech forests amounted to 25.8 Mg ha-1 at Mont Lozère, 14.4 Mg ha-1 at Sierra de la Demanda and 12.6 Mg ha-1 at Etna. The relative proportions of leaf litter versus total litter were nearly the same in the Etna and Sierra de la Demanda forests (72 - 70%, and close to these values for Mont Lozère (65%. All the studied Mediterranean Fagus sylvatica stands appeared very similar concerning the organic matter distribution and fluxes, even if local climate and soil differences can be noticed.

    [fr] Les biomasses aériennes, les retombées de litières, leur accumulation à la surface du sol et leur décomposition, ont été étudiées dans trois hêtraies méditerranéennes d'Italie, de France et d'Espagne, pour mieux connaître la restitution au sol des bioéléments par l'intermédiaire de la matière organique. Les biomasses aériennes s'élevaient respectivement à 131.9 Mg ha-1 dans la hêtraie de l'Etna (Italie, 134.2 Mg ha-1 dans celle de Sierra de la Demanda (Espagne et à 223.9 Mg ha-1 au Mont Lozère (France. Les retombées de litière les plus fortes sont observées dans la hêtraie de la Sierra de la

  16. Nickel affects gill and muscle development in oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan, E-mail: mcgye@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Nickel inhibited the development of external gill in B. orientalis embryos. • The 168 h LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} values of nickel were 33.8 and 5.4 μM, respectively, in embryos. • Nickel induced abnormal tail development of embryos. • NF stage 26–31 was the most sensitive window for embryos to nickel exposure. • Nickel affected the calcium-dependent myogenic gene expression in embryos. - Abstract: The developmental toxicity of nickel was examined in the embryos of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian in Korea. Based on a standard frog embryo teratogenesis assay, the LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} for malformation of nickel after 168 h of treatment were 33.8 μM and 5.4 μM, respectively. At a lethal concentration (100 μM), nickel treatment decreased the space between gill filaments and caused epithelial swelling and abnormal fusion of gill filaments. These findings suggest that nickel affects the functional development of gills, leading to embryonic death. At sublethal concentrations (1–10 μM), nickel produced multiple embryonic abnormalities, including bent tail and tail dysplasia. At 10 μM, nickel significantly decreased tail length and tail muscle fiber density in tadpoles, indicating inhibition of myogenic differentiation. Before hatching, the pre-muscular response to muscular response stages (stages 26–31) were the most sensitive period to nickel with respect to tail muscle development. During these stages, MyoD mRNA was upregulated, whereas myogenic regulatory factor 4 mRNA was downregulated by 0.1 μM nickel. Calcium-dependent kinase activities in muscular response stage embryos were significantly decreased by nickel, whereas these activities were restored by exogenous calcium. In tadpoles, 10 μM nickel significantly decreased the expression of the myosin heavy chain and the 12/101 muscle marker protein in the tail. Expression was restored by exogenous calcium. Our results indicate that nickel affects muscle development by

  17. GENERAL ASSESMENT OF SEED STANDS OF ORIENTAL SPRUCE (Picea orientalis L. Link.

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    İbrahim Turna

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The seeds for afforestation studies with oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L.Link. populations are usually gathered from already established seed stands. This study showed that most of the seed stands were not selected appropriately and some of them were not properly protected and maintained when evaluated according to the “criteria for selection and management of seed stands”. The average slope of seed stands was as high as 43% and the average size varied from 33.5 ha to 147.5 ha Since the stands were open to social disturbances and wind effects, the number of trees per ha decreased 51% and the number of seed trees dropped to a level of 56%. In conclusion, seeds collected from poorly established seed stands will likely jeopardize the success in reforestation studies in the future.

  18. Bioactive new metabolites from the green alga Udotea orientalis growing on the Gorgonian coral Pseudopterogorgia rigida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Omar M M; Goeger, Douglas E; Gerwick, William H

    2017-06-01

    As part of our continued search for bioactive secondary metabolites from marine sources using a bioassay-guided fractionation technique (Cytotoxic and anti-trypanosome activities), we have examined the organic extract of Papua New Guinean collection of the green alga Udotea orientalis growing on the Gorgonian coral Pseudopterogorgia rigida. Successive HPLC investigations resulted in isolation of three new compounds, (+) curcuepoxide A, (+) curcuepoxide B and (+)-10α-hydroxycurcudiol. Analysis of different spectroscopic data e.g. UV, IR, LRMS, HRMS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR on the isolated compounds allowed for construction of the planar structures. Stereochemistry assignment at C-7 and C-10 in the new compounds was discussed. Isolated compounds were found to be active in an in vitro assay of antitrypanosome activity. The isolated compounds were found to have variable cytotoxic activity in human lung cancer cell lines.

  19. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Characterization for the Widespread and Stress-Tolerant Conifer Platycladus orientalis.

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    Xian-Ge Hu

    Full Text Available Platycladus orientalis, of the family Cupressaceae, is a widespread conifer throughout China and is extensively used for ecological reforestation, horticulture, and in medicine. Transcriptome assemblies are required for this ecologically important conifer for understanding genes underpinning adaptation and complex traits for breeding programs. To enrich the species' genomic resources, a de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. In total, 104,073,506 high quality sequence reads (approximately 10.3 Gbp were obtained, which were assembled into 228,948 transcripts and 148,867 unigenes that were longer than 200 nt. Quality assessment using CEGMA showed that the transcriptomes obtained were mostly complete for highly conserved core eukaryotic genes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 62,938 (42.28% of all unigenes, 42,158 (28.32%, and 23,179 (15.57% had homologs in the Nr, GO, and KOG databases, 25,625 (17.21% unigenes were mapped to 322 pathways by BLASTX comparison against the KEGG database and 1,941 unigenes involved in environmental signaling and stress response were identified. We also identified 43 putative terpene synthase (TPS functional genes loci and compared them with TPSs from other species. Additionally, 5,296 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified in 4,715 unigenes, which were assigned to 142 motif types. This is the first report of a complete transcriptome analysis of P. orientalis. These resources provide a foundation for further studies of adaptation mechanisms and molecular-based breeding programs.

  20. Species composition of phlebotomine sand flies and bionomics of Phlebotomus orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Tahtay Adiyabo district, Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebresilassie, Araya; Kirstein, Oscar David; Yared, Solomon; Aklilu, Essayas; Moncaz, Aviad; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease, which is strongly associated with poverty. VL caused by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by Phlebotomus orientalis is endemic in various remote areas of north and north-west Ethiopia. The present study was designed to determine the sand fly fauna and bionomics of P. orientalis in the VL endemic focus of Tahtay Adiyabo district. Methods Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps (n?=?602), sticky traps (n?=?9,350) ...

  1. Resilient Leaf Physiological Response of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. to Summer Drought and Drought Release

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    Ellen E. Pflug

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major environmental constraint to trees, causing severe stress and thus adversely affecting their functional integrity. European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. is a key species in mesic forests that is commonly expected to suffer in a future climate with more intense and frequent droughts. Here, we assessed the seasonal response of leaf physiological characteristics of beech saplings to drought and drought release to investigate their potential to recover from the imposed stress and overcome previous limitations. Saplings were transplanted to model ecosystems and exposed to a simulated summer drought. Pre-dawn water potentials (ψpd, stomatal conductance (gS, intercellular CO2 concentration (ci, net-photosynthesis (AN, PSII chlorophyll fluorescence (PItot, non-structural carbohydrate concentrations (NSC; soluble sugars, starch and carbon isotope signatures were measured in leaves throughout the growing season. Pre-dawn water potentials (ψpd, gS, ci, AN, and PItot decreased as drought progressed, and the concentration of soluble sugars increased at the expense of starch. Carbon isotopes in soluble sugars (δ13CS showed a distinct increase under drought, suggesting, together with decreased ci, stomatal limitation of AN. Drought effects on ψpd, ci, and NSC disappeared shortly after re-watering, while full recovery of gS, AN, and PItot was delayed by 1 week. The fast recovery of NSC was reflected by a rapid decay of the drought signal in δ13C values, indicating a rapid turnover of assimilates and a reactivation of carbon metabolism. After recovery, the previously drought-exposed saplings showed a stimulation of AN and a trend toward elevated starch concentrations, which counteracted the previous drought limitations. Overall, our results suggest that the internal water relations of beech saplings and the physiological activity of leaves are restored rapidly after drought release. In the case of AN, stimulation after drought may partially

  2. A unique Middle Pleistocene beech (Fagus)-rich deciduous broad-leaved forest in the Yangtze Delta Plain, East China: Its climatic and stratigraphic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jun-wu; Wang, Wei-ming

    2012-08-01

    Pollen analysis of Middle Pleistocene sediments from the Yangtze Delta Plain provides a paleoecological reconstruction and has implications for stratigraphic correlation in East China. The pollen assemblage is characterized by high values of Fagus (16.8% on average), which is unusual because Fagus is generally present only sporadically in other lowland Quaternary pollen records from the region. In addition to Fagus, the assemblage has a rich diversity of broad-leaved deciduous trees, including Quercus, Ulmus, Carpinus/Ostrya, Juglans, Betula, and Liquidambar, as well as conifers, including Pinus, Picea, Abies, Larix, and Tsuga. Thus, the pollen flora suggests a broad-leaved deciduous forest mixed with abundant conifers, which developed under cooler and more humid conditions than present. The stable pollen sequence throughout the studied section suggests a stable environment. Beech forests also characterize the Middle Pleistocene of Taiwan and Japan, and thus may be a stratigraphic indicator of the Middle Pleistocene in East Asia. The Yangtze Delta Plain may have been an important refugium for the last survival of Fagus in the lowlands.

  3. Long-term UV-B exposure effects in early senescent leaves of Fagus sylvatica seedlings grown in vegetation pots: gas exchange analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blujdea, V.; Urban, Otmar

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2002), s. 39-42. ISBN 80-7157-297-7 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6087005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Fagus sylvatica * photosynthesis * UV radiation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  4. Interactive effects of juvenile defoliation, light conditions, and interspecific competition on growth and ectomycorrhizal colonization of Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocha, Lidia K; Weiser, Ewa; Robakowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Seedlings of forest tree species are exposed to a number of abiotic (organ loss or damage, light shortage) and biotic (interspecific competition) stress factors, which may lead to an inhibition of growth and reproduction and, eventually, to plant death. Growth of the host and its mycorrhizal symbiont is often closely linked, and hence, host damage may negatively affect the symbiont. We designed a pot experiment to study the response of light-demanding Pinus sylvestris and shade-tolerant Fagus sylvatica seedlings to a set of abiotic and biotic stresses and subsequent effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root tip colonization, seedling biomass, and leaf nitrogen content. The light regime had a more pronounced effect on ECM colonization than did juvenile damage. The interspecific competition resulted in higher ECM root tip abundance for Pinus, but this effect was insignificant in Fagus. Low light and interspecific competition resulted in lower seedling biomass compared to high light, and the effect of the latter was partially masked by high light. Leaf nitrogen responded differently in Fagus and Pinus when they grew in interspecific competition. Our results indicated that for both light-demanding (Pinus) and shade-tolerant (Fagus) species, the light environment was a major factor affecting seedling growth and ECM root tip abundance. The light conditions favorable for the growth of seedlings may to some extent compensate for the harmful effects of juvenile organ loss or damage and interspecific competition.

  5. Effect of lignocellulosic inhibitory compounds on growth and ethanol fermentation of newly-isolated thermotolerant Issatchenkia orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Jin; Ma, An-Zhou; Li, Qian; Wang, Feng; Zhuang, Guo-Qiang; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2011-09-01

    A newly isolated thermotolerant ethanologenic yeast strain, Issatchenkia orientalis IPE 100, was able to produce ethanol with a theoretical yield of 85% per g of glucose at 42°C. Ethanol production was inhibited by furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural and vanillin concentrations above 5.56 gL(-1), 7.81 gL(-1), and 3.17 gL(-1), respectively, but the strain was able to produce ethanol from enzymatically hydrolyzed steam-exploded cornstalk with 93.8% of theoretical yield and 0.91 gL(-1)h(-1) of productivity at 42°C. Therefore, I. orientalis IPE 100 is a potential candidate for commercial lignocelluloses-to-ethanol production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phytochemical characterization of phenolics by LC-MS/MS and biological evaluation of Ajuga orientalis from Turkey

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    Fatih Göger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reveal the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Ajuga orientalis. According to the antimicrobial results, the methanol extract of A. orientalis showed a MIC value of 312.5 µg/mL against the tested pathogenic bacterial strains. Anticandidal activity of extract was found as 156.3 µg/mL both against Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis strains. Whereas the extract was more effective against C. tropicalis with the MIC value of 78.1 µg/mL. The in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extract was determined as IC50=0.4 ± 0.02 mg/mL whereas the standard BHT IC50 was 0.01 ± 0.00 mg/mL. Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC of extract was determined 1.3 mM TEAC, while BHT, 1.9 mM TEAC.

  7. Plant Species Recovery on a Compacted Skid Road

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    Beyza Sat Gungor

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was executed to determine the plant species of herbaceous cover in a skid road subjected to soil compaction due to timber skidding in a beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. stand. Our previous studies have shown that ground based timber skidding destroys the soils extremely, and degradations on ecosystem because of the timber skidding limit recovery and growth of plant cover on skid roads. However, some plant species show healthy habitat, recovery and they can survive after the extreme degradation in study area. We evaluated composition of these plant species and their cover-abundance scales in 100 m x 3 m transect. 15 plant species were determined belongs to 12 plant families and Liliaceae was the highest representative plant family. Smilax aspera L., Epimedium pubigerum (DC. Moren et Decaisne, Carex distachya Desf. var. distachya Desf., Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn., Trachystemon orientalis (L. G. Don, Hedera helix L. have the highest coverabundance scale overall of determined species on compacted skid road.

  8. Studies on sand fly fauna and ecological analysis of Phlebotomus orientalis in the highland and lowland foci of kala-azar in northwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklilu, Esayas; Gebresilassie, Araya; Yared, Solomon; Kindu, Mizan; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) also known as kala-azar is a growing health problem in Ethiopia with an estimated annual VL incidence between 3700 and 7400. The disease is mainly endemic in northwestern parts of the country. The aim of the current study was to determine the sand fly fauna and ecology of Phlebotomus orientalis in two endemic and ecologically distinct areas of northwestern Ethiopia. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps, sticky traps and pyrethrum spray catches from peri-domestic, mixed forest, farm field and indoor habitats from both Libo-Kemkem (May 2011-April 2012) and Metema (October 2012-September 2013) districts. A total of 51,411 sand fly specimens were collected and identified (10,776 from highland and 40, 635 from the lowland areas). Seven species were found in the highland area: two Phlebotomus spp. (P. orientalis and P. rodhaini) and five Sergentomyia species. Whereas 19 species were found in the lowland area: six Phlebotomus (P. orientalis, P. rodhaini, P. bergeroti, P. duboscqi, P. papatasi and P. martini) and 13 Sergentomyia species. Of the Phlebotomus spp., P. orientalis was the predominant species in both the highland (99.9%) and lowland (93.7%) areas. Indoor collections using pyrethrum spray catches and sticky traps indicated that P. orientalis has a strong exophilic and exophagic behaviors in both districts. In both areas, this species showed seasonal occurrence and showing abundance during the dry months (March-May/June) of the year and increasing in numbers till the rain season, when numbers dropped dramatically. Mean density of P. orientalis in the two areas had positive and significant correlation with mean temperature in light trap collections (P0.05). Regarding the rainfall pattern, density of P. orientalis had negative and statistically insignificant correlation (for light trap collections for both areas) and significant correlation (for sticky trap collections for lowland area). The current study indicated the

  9. Studies on sand fly fauna and ecological analysis of Phlebotomus orientalis in the highland and lowland foci of kala-azar in northwestern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esayas Aklilu

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL also known as kala-azar is a growing health problem in Ethiopia with an estimated annual VL incidence between 3700 and 7400. The disease is mainly endemic in northwestern parts of the country. The aim of the current study was to determine the sand fly fauna and ecology of Phlebotomus orientalis in two endemic and ecologically distinct areas of northwestern Ethiopia.Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps, sticky traps and pyrethrum spray catches from peri-domestic, mixed forest, farm field and indoor habitats from both Libo-Kemkem (May 2011-April 2012 and Metema (October 2012-September 2013 districts.A total of 51,411 sand fly specimens were collected and identified (10,776 from highland and 40, 635 from the lowland areas. Seven species were found in the highland area: two Phlebotomus spp. (P. orientalis and P. rodhaini and five Sergentomyia species. Whereas 19 species were found in the lowland area: six Phlebotomus (P. orientalis, P. rodhaini, P. bergeroti, P. duboscqi, P. papatasi and P. martini and 13 Sergentomyia species. Of the Phlebotomus spp., P. orientalis was the predominant species in both the highland (99.9% and lowland (93.7% areas. Indoor collections using pyrethrum spray catches and sticky traps indicated that P. orientalis has a strong exophilic and exophagic behaviors in both districts. In both areas, this species showed seasonal occurrence and showing abundance during the dry months (March-May/June of the year and increasing in numbers till the rain season, when numbers dropped dramatically. Mean density of P. orientalis in the two areas had positive and significant correlation with mean temperature in light trap collections (P0.05. Regarding the rainfall pattern, density of P. orientalis had negative and statistically insignificant correlation (for light trap collections for both areas and significant correlation (for sticky trap collections for lowland area.The current study indicated the

  10. Prevalence and spatial distribution of cattle herds infected with Theileria orientalis in New Zealand between 2012 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Amj; Gias, E; Heuer, C; Stevens McFadden, F J; Pulford, D J

    2016-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and spatial distribution of cattle herds infected with Ikeda and non-Ikeda types of Theileria orientalis in New Zealand between November 2012 and June 2013. Pooled serum samples collected historically between November 2012 and June 2013 were obtained from cattle herds throughout New Zealand. Each pooled sample consisted of approximately 20 individual cattle samples from that herd, and was provided with details of the spatial location of the herd (n=722). DNA from all samples was tested using two quantitative PCR assays for the detection of T. orientalis (all types) and the Ikeda type. The proportion of herds that were positive for T. orientalis and Ikeda type, or that were positive for T. orientalis but negative for Ikeda type (non-Ikeda positive) was determined for different regions of New Zealand. The highest prevalence of herds infected with Ikeda type was detected in the Northland (33/35; 94%) and Auckland and the Waikato (63/191; 33%) regions. Only 2/204 (1%) herds were positive for the Ikeda type in the South Island. A high percentage of herds that were positive for non-Ikeda types was detected in the Gisborne and Hawkes Bay (23 (95%CI=13-37)%), Auckland and Waikato (22 (95%CI=16-29)%) and Bay of Plenty (24 (95%CI=10-44)%) regions. The high prevalence of Ikeda type detected in cattle herds in the Northland, Auckland and Waikato regions represents a risk to naive cattle being introduced into these regions. There is also the potential for resident cattle herds in the Gisborne and Hawkes Bay, Auckland, Waikato and Bay of Plenty regions to experience increased infection with the Ikeda type. The overall impact experienced by regions will depend on other factors such as the number of herds present and the predominant type of farming, as well as the interplay between tick ecology, cattle immunity and movement patterns of cattle.

  11. Population structure and reproductive biology of Mesopodopsis orientalis (Crustacea: Mysida) in a tropical mangrove ecosystem in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biju, A.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    version: Mar. Biodivers. Rec.: 4(e43); 2011; 9 pp; doi:10.1017/S1755267211000273. Population structure and reproductive biology of Mesopodopsis orientalis (Crustacea: Mysida) in a tropical mangrove ecosystem in India A. Biju *, S.U. Panampunnayil... mangrove habitat. MATERIALS AND METHODS Description of study area Mangroves are salt tolerant forest ecosystem of tropical and subtropical intertidal regions. Where conditions are sheltered and suitable, the mangroves may form extensive and productive...

  12. Essential Oil Composition of Centaurea atropurpurea and Centaurea orientalis Inflorescences from the Central Balkans - Ecological Significance and Taxonomic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaković, Jelica; Rajčević, Nemanja; Milanovici, Sretco; Marin, Petar D; Janaćković, Pedja

    2016-09-01

    The essential oil composition of Centaurea atropurpurea and Centaurea orientalis flowering heads (capitula) from Central Balkans have been determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 121 compounds were identified, representing on average 97.7% of the oil composition. In all samples, sesquiterpenes were most abundant group, representing 53.9 - 74.0% of the total oil. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons dominated in all studied populations of C. orientalis and C. atropurpurea, except C. atropurpurea f. flava in which essential oil was characterized with high level of oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The dominant components differed between species, and also between typical C. atropurpurea and C. atropurpurea f. flava. The most abundant compounds of essential oil of C. orientalis were germacrene D and α-cadinol. In C. atropuruprea, germacrene D and β-caryophyllene were the most abundant, while caryophyllene oxide and β-caryophyllene were dominant in C. atropurpurea f. flava oil. Taxonomical and ecological implications are further discussed. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  13. KERAGAMAN PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT GEMPOL(Nauclea orientalis L. DARI BEBERAPA POHON INDUK

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    Kurniawati Purwaka Putri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gempol (Nauclea orientalis L. is one of the fast growing species that potential to be developed in agroforestry system. These species used as wood production and also Jabon, which is the alternative for sengon wood. Gempol adapted growth at wet and drylands such as at riverbanks, rice fields and yards. The constrained of the development of community forests of gempol for high productivity is the availability of good quality seed sources. Seeds and seedlings are largely determined by the quality of the parent tree, hence the diversity of the mother plant will affect the seeds it produces. The purpose of this study was to determine the diversity of the growth of seedlings in the nursery gempol of 64 parent trees from Majalengka and Banten. The study design used was completely randomized design consisting of 64 trees parent gempol, with three replications and each replication consisted of six seedlings. The variables measured were the diameter and height of seedlings. The results showed that significantly affected the parent tree diameter and height of seedlings gempol. Growth in diameter is the best demonstrated by the parent tree 16 at 5.4 cm. The high growth (32.88 cm produced by seeds from the parent tree 10. Gempol (Nauclea orientalis L. merupakan salah satu tanaman cepat tumbuh yang potensial untuk dikembangkan dengan pola agroforestry.. Jenis tanaman ini dimanfaatkan khususnya masyarakat Jawa Barat sebagai pohon penghasil kayu pertukangan selain sengon dan jabon.Gempol mampu beradaptasi pada lahan basah maupun kering seperti di bantaran sungai, pematang sawah, tegalan dan pekarangan.  Pengembangan hutan rakyat gempol yang produktifitas tinggi terkendala ketersediaan sumber benih yang berkualitas. Benih dan bibit yang berkualitas sangat ditentukan oleh pohon induknya, oleh karena itu keragaman pada pohon induk akan berpengaruh terhadap bibit yang dihasilkannya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui keragaman pertumbuhan bibit gempol di

  14. Effect of CO2 enhancement on beech (Fagus sylvatica L. seedling root rot due to Phytophthora plurivora and Phytophthora cactorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkaczyk Miłosz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change is associated with higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2. The ongoing changes are likely to have significant, direct or indirect effects on plant diseases caused by many biotic agents such as phytopathogenic fungi. This study results showed that increased CO2 concentration did not stimulate the growth of 1-year-old beech Fagus sylvatica L seedlings but it activated pathogenic Phytophthora species (P. plurivora and P. cactorum which caused significant reduction in the total number of fine roots as well as their length and area. The results of the greenhouse experiment indicated that pathogens once introduced into soil survived in pot soil, became periodically active (in sufficient water conditions and were able to damage beech fine roots. However, the trees mortality was not observed during the first year of experiment. DNA analyses performed on soil and beech tissue proved persistence of introduced Phytophthora isolates.

  15. Species composition of phlebotomine sand flies and bionomics of Phlebotomus orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Tahtay Adiyabo district, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresilassie, Araya; Kirstein, Oscar David; Yared, Solomon; Aklilu, Essayas; Moncaz, Aviad; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-04-25

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease, which is strongly associated with poverty. VL caused by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by Phlebotomus orientalis is endemic in various remote areas of north and north-west Ethiopia. The present study was designed to determine the sand fly fauna and bionomics of P. orientalis in the VL endemic focus of Tahtay Adiyabo district. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps (n = 602), sticky traps (n = 9,350) and indoor pyrethrum spray catches (n = 578 house visits) from indoor, peri-domestic and agricultural field habitats between May 2011 to April 2012. All sand fly specimens collected were identified to species level and counted. In total, 100,772 sand fly specimens, belonging to 25 sand fly species (nine Phlebotomus and sixteen Sergentomyia) were collected and identified. S. africana and P. orientalis made up 59.1% and 23.5% of the collected sand flies, respectively. As it could be determined from the proportion of collections from outdoor (peri-domestic and agricultural fields) and indoor locations, P. orientalis appears to exhibit increased exophilic behavior. The outdoor to indoor index was 79:1 on m(2) of sticky traps. Mean density of P. orientalis caught was significantly higher on horizontally placed sticky traps (mean = 60 ± 14.56/m(2)/night) than vertically deployed sticky traps (12 ± 3.57/m(2)/night). The highest abundance of P. orientalis occurred between March and April. Through July to September, there was a sharp decline in abundance of P. orientalis population. Regarding climatic variables, P. orientalis density in light traps and on sticky traps showed a significant positive and negative association with temperature and relative humidity, respectively. However, non-significant negative correlation was observed with rainfall pattern. Overall, P. orientalis was found to be the most abundant Phlebotomus species, showing marked seasonal abundance that mainly

  16. Genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jussila, Minna M.; Jurgens, German; Lindstroem, Kristina; Suominen, Leena

    2006-01-01

    A collection of 50 indigenous meta-toluate tolerating bacteria isolated from oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis on selective medium was characterized and identified by classical and molecular methods. 16S rDNA partial sequencing showed the presence of five major lineages of the Bacteria domain. Gram-positive Rhodococcus, Bacillus and Arthrobacter and gram-negative Pseudomonas were the most abundant genera. Only one-fifth of the strains that tolerated m-toluate also degraded m-toluate. The inoculum Pseudomonas putida PaW85 was not found in the rhizosphere samples. The ability to degrade m-toluate by the TOL plasmid was detected only in species of the genus Pseudomonas. However, a few Rhodococcus erythropolis strains were found which were able to degrade m-toluate. A new finding was that Pseudomonas migulae strains and a few P. oryzihabitans strains were able to grow on m-toluate and most likely contained the TOL plasmid. Because strain specific differences in degradation abilities were found for P. oryzihabitans, separation at the strain level was important. For strain specific separation (GTG) 5 fingerprinting was the best method. A combination of the single locus ribotyping and the whole genomic fingerprinting techniques with the selective partial sequencing formed a practical molecular toolbox for studying genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere. - Bacterial diversity during rhizoremediation in oil-contaminated soil is characterized by a combination of molecular methods

  17. CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS IN A WILD FAR EASTERN LEOPARD ( PANTHERA PARDUS ORIENTALIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulikhan, Nadezhda S; Gilbert, Martin; Blidchenko, Ekaterina Yu; Naidenko, Sergei V; Ivanchuk, Galina V; Gorpenchenko, Tatiana Yu; Alshinetskiy, Mikhail V; Shevtsova, Elena I; Goodrich, John M; Lewis, John C M; Goncharuk, Mikhail S; Uphyrkina, Olga V; Rozhnov, Vyatcheslav V; Shedko, Sergey V; McAloose, Denise; Miquelle, Dale G

    2018-01-01

    The critically endangered population of Far Eastern leopards ( Panthera pardus orientalis) may number as few as 60 individuals and is at risk from stochastic processes such as infectious disease. During May 2015, a case of canine distemper virus (CDV) was diagnosed in a wild leopard exhibiting severe neurologic disease in the Russian territory of Primorskii Krai. Amplified sequences of the CDV hemagglutinin gene and phosphoprotein gene aligned within the Arctic-like clade of CDV, which includes viruses from elsewhere in Russia, China, Europe, and North America. Histologic examination of cerebral tissue revealed perivascular lymphoid cuffing and demyelination of the white matter consistent with CDV infection. Neutralizing antibodies against CDV were detected in archived serum from two wild Far Eastern leopards sampled during 1993-94, confirming previous exposure in the population. This leopard population is likely too small to maintain circulation of CDV, suggesting that infections arise from spillover from more-abundant domestic or wild carnivore reservoirs. Increasing the population size and establishment of additional populations of leopards would be important steps toward securing the future of this subspecies and reducing the risk posed by future outbreaks of CDV or other infectious diseases.

  18. Predicting Future Seed Sourcing of Platycladus orientalis (L. for Future Climates Using Climate Niche Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ge Hu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate niche modeling has been widely used to assess the impact of climate change on forest trees at the species level. However, geographically divergent tree populations are expected to respond differently to climate change. Considering intraspecific local adaptation in modeling species responses to climate change will thus improve the credibility and usefulness of climate niche models, particularly for genetic resources management. In this study, we used five Platycladus orientalis (L. seed zones (Northwestern; Northern; Central; Southern; and Subtropical covering the entire species range in China. A climate niche model was developed and used to project the suitable climatic conditions for each of the five seed zones for current and various future climate scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways: RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5. Our results indicated that the Subtropical seed zone would show consistent reduction for all climate change scenarios. The remaining seed zones, however, would experience various degrees of expansion in suitable habitat relative to their current geographic distributions. Most of the seed zones would gain suitable habitats at their northern distribution margins and higher latitudes. Thus, we recommend adjusting the current forest management strategies to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change.

  19. [Nest habitat quality evaluation for the oriental great reed warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) in Baiyangdian Wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Xuan; Yan, Deng-Hua; Geng, Lei-Hua; Lin, Jin; Feng, Hua-Li

    2014-05-01

    The Baiyangdian Wetland Natural Reserve is an important breeding habitat for oriental great reed warbler (OGRWs), Acrocephalus orientalis, in North China Plain. We investigated the nesting sites of OGRWs by line transect method during June-July, 2011, and 112 nests were found out in total. The ecological-niche factor analysis (ENFA) was applied in nesting habitat suitability assessment for OGRWs in Baiyangdian. The results showed that OGRWs in this reserve preferred nesting in dry land reed landscapes, which located at relatively high altitudes and away from anthropocentric disturbance. In 2011, the suitable and the most suitable nesting habitats of OGRWs in this reserve were 2474.69 hm2 and 1131.19 hm2, accounting 7.6% and 3.5% of the total reserve area, respectively. The most suitable nesting habitats shaped a circle-like structure, and they all clustered together around Damai and Shaoche core area, which located in the east part of the reserve. In order to protect the nesting habitats for OGRWs within Baiyangdian wetland reserve, it was suggested that the functional zone should be reorganized, and that the Damai and Shaoche core area should be integrated into one. This new core area would be bigger and more concentrated, at the same time the buffer zone should also be established appropriately, so as to protect the natural landscapes in this reserve as much as possible.

  20. Genetic evaluation of the breeding population of a valuable reforestation conifer Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuqing; Ma, Yongpeng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Xian-Ge; Huang, Li-Sha; Li, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng

    2016-10-10

    Platycladus orientalis, a widespread conifer with long lifespan and significant adaptability. It is much used in reforestation in north China and commonly planted in central Asia. With the increasing demand for plantation forest in central to north China, breeding programs are progressively established for this species. Efficient use of breeding resources requires good understanding of the genetic value of the founder breeding materials. This study investigated the distribution of genetic variation in 192 elite trees collected for the breeding program for the central range of the species. We developed first set of 27 polymorphic EST-derived SSR loci for the species from transcriptome/genome data. After examination of amplification quality, 10 loci were used to evaluate the genetic variation in the breeding population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average H e  = 0.348) and low population differentiation (Fst = 0.011). Extensive admixture and no significant geographic population structure characterized this set of collections. Our analyses of the diversity and population structure are important steps toward a long-term sustainable deployment of the species and provide valuable genetic information for conservation and breeding applications.

  1. Persulfate oxidation assisted hydrochar production from Platanus Orientalis Leaves: Physiochemical and combustion characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin; Wu, Sifan; Li, Binglian; Wen, Haifeng; Zhang, Daofang; Ye, Jianfeng; Wang, Liang

    2017-11-01

    Platanus Orientalis Leaves (POL), a widely planted tree in parks and along streets, was employed by sequential persulfate oxidation (Fe 2+ and persulfate) and hydrothermal treatment (HTC) to improve the thermal stability, energy yield and combustion behavior of hydrochars (HCs). Higher heating values (HHVs) of HCs derived from persulfate pretreated POL was increased by 30.5% at mild HTC temperature (i.e., 210°C) as compared to char without pretreatment. Elevating Fe 2+ /persulfate ratio to 0.2 enables HCs with high fractions of lignin, thus promoting the energy yield going up to 64.4%. The ultimate and proximate analysis, N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were conducted to probe into chars' physiochemical and combustion characteristics. Results indicated that persulfate pretreatment on POL strengthened efficient HTC conversion from volatile matter to fixed carbon, increasing the ignition temperature of HCs from 261.5 to 404.3°C as compared to the char obtained with only HTC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic evaluation of the breeding population of a valuable reforestation conifer Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuqing; Ma, Yongpeng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Xian-Ge; Huang, Li-Sha; Li, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Platycladus orientalis, a widespread conifer with long lifespan and significant adaptability. It is much used in reforestation in north China and commonly planted in central Asia. With the increasing demand for plantation forest in central to north China, breeding programs are progressively established for this species. Efficient use of breeding resources requires good understanding of the genetic value of the founder breeding materials. This study investigated the distribution of genetic variation in 192 elite trees collected for the breeding program for the central range of the species. We developed first set of 27 polymorphic EST-derived SSR loci for the species from transcriptome/genome data. After examination of amplification quality, 10 loci were used to evaluate the genetic variation in the breeding population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average He = 0.348) and low population differentiation (Fst = 0.011). Extensive admixture and no significant geographic population structure characterized this set of collections. Our analyses of the diversity and population structure are important steps toward a long-term sustainable deployment of the species and provide valuable genetic information for conservation and breeding applications.

  3. Removal of Chloramphenicol from Aqueous Solution Using Low-Cost Activated Carbon Prepared from Typha orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost and efficient activated carbon (AC was prepared from Typha orientalis via phosphoric acid activation for chloramphenicol (CAP removal. The adsorption capacity and mechanisms of CAP on AC were investigated. The physicochemical properties of AC were characterized by an N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, elemental analysis, Boehm’s titration and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The effects of experimental parameters were investigated to study the adsorption behaviors of CAP on AC, including contact time, initial concentration, ionic strength, and initial pH. AC had a micro-mesoporous structure with a relatively large surface area (794.8 m2/g. The respective contents of acidic and basic functional groups on AC were 2.078 and 0.995 mmol/g. The adsorption kinetic that was well described by a pseudo-second-order rate model implied a chemical controlling step. The adsorption isotherm was well fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model, and the maximum CAP adsorption capacity was 0.424 mmol/g. The ionic strength and pH had minimal effects on CAP adsorption. The dominant CAP adsorption mechanisms on AC were evaluated and attributed to π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA interaction, hydrophobic interaction, in conjunction with hydrogen-bonding interaction. Additionally, AC exhibited an efficient adsorption performance of CAP in a realistic water environment.

  4. Anti-Proliferative Effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis Ethanol Extract on Human Endometrial RL-95 Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is a common malignancy of the female genital tract. This study demonstrates that Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE significantly inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cells. Treating RL95-2 cells with SOE caused cell arrest in the G2/M phase and induced apoptosis of RL95-2 cells by up-regulating Bad, Bak and Bax protein expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression. Treatment with SOE increased protein expression of caspase-3, -8 and -9 dose-dependently, indicating that apoptosis was through the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, SOE was also effective against A549 (lung cancer, Hep G2 (hepatoma, FaDu (pharynx squamous cancer, MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer, and especially on LNCaP (prostate cancer cell lines. In total, 10 constituents of SOE were identified by Gas chromatography-mass analysis. Caryophyllene oxide and caryophyllene are largely responsible for most cytotoxic activity of SOE against RL95-2 cells. Overall, this study suggests that SOE is a promising anticancer agent for treating endometrial cancer.

  5. Detection of Theileria orientalis in mosquito blood meals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Marco, M; Brugman, V A; Hernández-Triana, L M; Thorne, L; Phipps, L P; Nikolova, N I; Fooks, A R; Johnson, N

    2016-10-15

    Theileria spp. are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of wild and domestic animals. In this study, the utility of xenosurveillance of blood-fed specimens of Culiseta annulata for detecting the presence of piroplasms in livestock was investigated. Blood-fed mosquitoes were collected at Elmley National Nature Reserve, Kent, United Kingdom. All specimens were morphologically identified, and DNA barcoding was used to confirm the morphological identification. Both the vertebrate host species and Theileria genome was detected within the bloodmeal by real-time PCR. Sequencing was used to confirm the identity of all amplicons. In total, 105 blood-fed mosquitoes morphologically identified as Cs. annulata were collected. DNA barcoding revealed that 102 specimens were Cs. annulata (99%), while a single specimen was identified as Anopheles messeae. Two specimens could not be identified molecularly due to PCR amplification failure. Blood meal analysis revealed that Cs. annulata fed almost exclusively on cattle at the collection site (n=100). The application of a pan-piroplasm PCR detected 16 positive samples (15.2%) and sequence analysis of the amplicons demonstrated that the piroplasms present in the blood meal belonged to the Theileria orientalis group. This study demonstrates how xenosurveillance can be applied to detecting pathogens in livestock and confirms the presence of Theileria species in livestock from the United Kingdom. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Heat inactivation kinetics of Hypocrea orientalis β-glucosidase with enhanced thermal stability by glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Qi; Shi, Yan; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Zhan, Xi-Lan; Zhou, Han-Tao; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2015-11-01

    Thermal inactivation kinetics of Hypocrea orientalis β-glucosidase and effect of glucose on thermostability of the enzyme have been determined in this paper. Kinetic studies showed that the thermal inactivation was irreversible and first-order reaction. The microscopic rate constants for inactivation of free enzyme and substrate-enzyme complex were both determined, which suggested that substrates can protect β-glucosidase against thermal deactivation effectively. On the other hand, glucose was found to protect β-glucosidase from heat inactivation to remain almost whole activity below 70°C at 20mM concentration, whereas the apparent inactivation rate of BG decreased to be 0.3×10(-3)s(-1) in the presence of 5mM glucose, smaller than that of sugar-free enzyme (1.91×10(-3)s(-1)). The intrinsic fluorescence spectra results showed that glucose also had stabilizing effect on the conformation of BG against thermal denaturation. Docking simulation depicted the interaction mode between glucose and active residues of the enzyme to produce stabilizing effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cretaceous and Paleogene Fagaceae from North America and Greenland: evidence for a Late Cretaceous split between Fagus and the remaining Fagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grímsson Friðgeir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern lineages of the beech family, Fagaceae, one of the most important north-temperate families of woody flowering plants, have been traced back to the early Eocene. In contrast, molecular differentiation patterns indicate that the Fagus lineage, Fagoideae, with a single modern genus, evolved much earlier than the remaining lineages within Fagaceae (Trigonobalanoideae, Castaneoideae, Quercoideae. The minimum age for this primary split in the Fagaceae has been estimated as 80 ± 20 Ma (i.e. Late Cretaceous in recently published, time-calibrated phylogenetic trees including all Fagales. Here, we report fagaceous fossils from the Campanian of Wyoming (82-81 Ma; Eagle Formation [Fm], the Danian of western Greenland (64-62 Ma; Agatdal Fm, and the middle Eocene of British Columbia (ca 48 Ma; Princeton Chert, and compare them to the Fagaceae diversity of the recently studied middle Eocene Hareøen Fm of western Greenland (42-40 Ma. The studied assemblages confirm that the Fagus lineage (= Fagoideae and the remainder of modern Fagaceae were diverged by the middle Late Cretaceous, together with the extinct Fagaceae lineage(s of Eotrigonobalanus and the newly recognised genus Paraquercus, a unique pollen morph with similarities to both Eotrigonobalanus and Quercus. The new records push back the origin of (modern Fagus by 10 Ma and that of the earliest Fagoideae by 30 Ma. The earliest Fagoideae pollen from the Campanian of North America differs from its single modern genus Fagus by its markedly thicker pollen wall, a feature also seen in fossil and extant Castaneoideae. This suggests that a thick type 1 foot layer is also the plesiomorphic feature in Fagoideae although not seen in any of its living representatives. The Danian Fagus pollen of Greenland differs in size from those of modern species but is highly similar to that of the western North American early Eocene F. langevinii, the oldest known beech so far. Together with the Quercus pollen record

  8. Developing high throughput quantitative PCR assays for diagnosing Ikeda and other Theileria orientalis types common to New Zealand in bovine blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, D J; Gias, E; Bueno, I M; McFadden, Amj

    2016-01-01

    To develop rapid, quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis and type-specific TaqMan assays for identifying the prevalent types of Theileria orientalis found in New Zealand cattle; and to evaluate their analytical and diagnostic characteristics compared with other assays for T. orientalis. Nucleotide sequences aligned with T. orientalis Buffeli, Chitose and Ikeda types, obtained from DNA extracted from blood samples from infected cattle, were used to design HRM and type-specific probe-based qPCR assays. The three type-specific assays were also incorporated into a single-tube multiplex qPCR assay. These assays were validated using DNA extracted from blood samples from cattle in herds with or without clinical signs of T. orientalis infection, other veterinary laboratory samples, as well as plasmids containing T. orientalis type-specific sequences. Diagnostic specificity (DSp) and sensitivity (DSe) estimates for the qPCR assays were compared to blood smear piroplasm results, and other PCR assays for T. orientalis. Copy number estimates of Ikeda DNA in blood were determined from cattle exhibiting anaemia using the Ikeda-specific qPCR assay. The T. orientalis type-specific and the HRM qPCR assays displayed 100% analytical specificity. The Ikeda-specific qPCR assay exhibited linearity (R(2) = 0.997) with an efficiency of 94.3%. Intra-assay CV were ≤0.08 and inter-assay CV were ≤0.095. For blood samples from cows with signs of infection with T. orientalis, the DSp and DSe of the multiplex probe qPCR assay were 93 and 96%, respectively compared with blood smears, and 97 and 100%, respectively compared with conventional PCR assays. For the Ikeda-specific qPCR assay, the number of positive samples (n=66) was slightly higher than a conventional PCR assay (n=64). The concentration of Ikeda genomes in blood samples from 41 dairy cows with signs of infection with T. orientalis ranged between 5.6 × 10(4) and 3.3 × 10(6) genomes per

  9. Cardicola opisthorchis n. sp. (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) from the Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844), cultured in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, K; Ishimaru, K; Shirakashi, S; Takami, I; Grabner, D

    2011-09-01

    A new aporocotylid blood fluke is described, based on specimens from the ventricle of the Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (Temminck et Schlegel), cultured in Wakayama and Nagasaki Prefectures, Japan. The new species is morphologically similar to the members of the genus Cardicola Short, 1953, but shows distinct differences in the body form, location of the testis and the orientation of the ootype. The body of the new species is long and slender, whereas other Cardicola species are small and generally lanceolate. The testis is mostly located posterior to the caeca and anterior to the ovary, occupying 31-45% of body length, in contrast to the known Cardicola species, whose testis is typically intercaecal. The ootype is oriented anteriorly, while in most congeners, it is directed posteriorly or horizontally. Phylogenetic analyses of this aporocotylid, together with Cardicola orientalis Ogawa, Tanaka, Sugihara et Takami, 2010 from the same host, were conducted based on DNA sequences of the ITS2 rDNA and the 28S region of ribosomal RNA. The analyses revealed that the new blood fluke belongs to the genus Cardicola despite the marked morphological differences. Thus, this aporocotylid is named Cardicola opisthorchis n. sp. and the generic diagnosis is emended in this paper. In addition, 100% identity among the ITS2 sequences from the present species, Cardicola sp. from T. orientalis in Mexico and Cardicola sp. from the northern bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) in Spain suggests that C. opisthorchis n. sp. has a broad geographical distribution and that it infects both the Pacific and northern bluefin tuna. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cluster analysis of the clinical histories of cattle affected with bovine anaemia associated with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K E; Forsyth, S F; Vaatstra, B L; McFadden, Amj; Pulford, D J; Govindaraju, K; Pomroy, W E

    2017-11-01

    AIM To determine the most commonly used words in the clinical histories of animals naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type; whether these words differed between cases categorised by age, farm type or haematocrit (HCT), and if there was any clustering of the common words in relation to these categories. METHODS Clinical histories were transcribed for 605 cases of bovine anaemia associated with T. orientalis (TABA), that were submitted to laboratories with blood samples which tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda type infection by PCR analysis, between October 2012 and November 2014. χ 2 tests were used to determine whether the proportion of submissions for each word was similar across the categories of HCT (normal, moderate anaemia or severe anaemia), farm type (dairy or beef) and age (young or old). Correspondence analysis (CA) was carried out on a contingency table of the frequency of the 28 most commonly used history words, cross-tabulated by age categories (young, old or unknown). Agglomerative hierarchical clustering, using Ward's method, was then performed on the coordinates from the correspondence analysis. RESULTS The six most commonly used history words were jaundice (204/605), lethargic (162/605), pale mucous membranes (161/605), cow (151/605), anaemia (147/605), and off milk (115/605). The proportion of cases with some history words differed between categories of age, farm type and HCT. The cluster analysis indicated that the recorded history words were grouped in two main clusters. The first included the words weight loss, tachycardia, pale mucous membranes, anaemia, lethargic and thin, and was associated with adult (pcluster included the words deaths, ill-thrift, calves, calf and diarrhoea, and was associated with young (pCluster analysis of words recorded in clinical histories submitted with blood samples from cases of TABA indicates that two potentially different disease syndromes were associated with T. orientalis Ikeda type

  11. Interaction of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis with Oreochromis mossambicus bulbus arteriosus cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Yun, Susan; Lewis, J.; Kearney, Michael T.; Hansen, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent warmwater fish pathogen and the causative agent of piscine francisellosis. Although Fno causes septicemia and can live extracellularly in infected tilapia (Oreochromis spp.), the early interaction of Fno with vasculature endothelium is unknown. In the present study, we examined the interaction of wild-type Fno (WT) and two Fno knockout [intracellular growth loci C (ΔiglC) and pathogenicity determinant protein A (ΔpdpA)] strains with the endothelial O. mossambicus bulbus arteriosus cell line (TmB) at 25 °C and 30 °C. Similar amounts of WT, ΔiglC, and ΔpdpA attached and were detected intracellularly after 5 h of incubation at both temperatures; however temperature affected attachment and uptake. While significantly greater amounts of Fno (WT, ΔiglC, and ΔpdpA) were detected intracellularly when TmB cells were incubated at 30 °C, bacteria attached to TmBs at greater levels at 25 °C. Only WT Fno was able to replicate intracellularly at 25 °C, which resulted in Fno mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis at 24 and 72 h post-infection. WT Fno incubated at 30 °C as well as ΔiglC,and ΔpdpA incubated at 25 °C and 30 °C were all defective for survival, replication, and the ability to cause cytotoxicity in TmB. Taken together, these results demonstrate that temperature plays a vital role for Fno intracellular survival, persistence and cytotoxicity.

  12. Identifying ecological corridors for Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelle, Dale G; Rozhnov, Vyachaslav V; Ermoshin, Victor; Murzin, Andre A; Nikolaev, Igor G; Hernandez-Blanco, Jose A; Naidenko, Sergie V

    2015-07-01

    The rapid explosion of human populations and the associated development of human-dominated landscapes have drastically reduced and fragmented habitat for tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus) across Asia, resulting in multiple small populations. However, Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) habitat in Russia has remained largely interconnected, except for a break between tigers in southwest Primorye and the southern Sikhote-Alin Mountains. This habitat patch in southwest Primorye also retains the last population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis). Genetic differentiation of tigers in southwest Primorye and the Sikhote-Alin Mountains along with survey data suggest that habitat fragmentation is limiting movement of tigers and leopards across the Razdolnaya River basin. We looked at historical and recent survey data on tigers and leopards and mapped existing cover types to examine land-use patterns of both large felids and humans in the development strip along the Razdolnaya River. We then used least-cost distance analyses to identify the most effective potential corridor to retain connectivity for large felids between Land of the Leopard National Park and Ussuriskii Zapovednik (Reserve). We identified a single potential corridor that still exists with a total distance of 62.5 km from Land of the Leopard National Park to Ussuriskii Zapovednik, mostly (93%) through forested habitat. We recommend formal recognition of a Razdolnaya ecological corridor and provide specific recommendations for each of 3 proposed management sections. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Amino acid isotope incorporation and enrichment factors in Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J Bradley

    Full Text Available Compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA of amino acids has received increasing attention in ecological studies in recent years due to its ability to evaluate trophic positions and elucidate baseline nutrient sources. However, the incorporation rates of individual amino acids into protein and specific trophic discrimination factors (TDFs are largely unknown, limiting the application of CSIA to trophic studies. We determined nitrogen turnover rates of individual amino acids from a long-term (up to 1054 days laboratory experiment using captive Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (PBFT, a large endothermic pelagic fish fed a controlled diet. Small PBFT (white muscle δ(15N∼11.5‰ were collected in San Diego, CA and transported to the Tuna Research and Conservation Center (TRCC where they were fed a controlled diet with high δ(15N values relative to PBFT white muscle (diet δ(15N∼13.9‰. Half-lives of trophic and source amino acids ranged from 28.6 to 305.4 days and 67.5 to 136.2 days, respectively. The TDF for the weighted mean values of amino acids was 3.0 ‰, ranging from 2.2 to 15.8 ‰ for individual combinations of 6 trophic and 5 source amino acids. Changes in the δ(15N values of amino acids across trophic levels are the underlying drivers of the trophic (15N enrichment. Nearly all amino acid δ(15N values in this experiment changed exponentially and could be described by a single compartment model. Significant differences in the rate of (15N incorporation were found for source and trophic amino acids both within and between these groups. Varying half-lives of individual amino acids can be applied to migratory organisms as isotopic clocks, determining the length of time an individual has spent in a new environment. These results greatly enhance the ability to interpret compound specific isotope analyses in trophic studies.

  14. Prevalence of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in cultured tilapia on the island of Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; McGovern-Hopkins, Kathleen; Klinger-Bowen, Ruth; Fox, Bradley K; Brock, James; Antonio, Nathene; Waal, Zelda van der; Rushton, Stephen; Mill, Aileen; Tamaru, Clyde S

    2013-06-01

    Francisellosis is an emergent disease in cultured and wild aquatic animals. The causative agent, Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno), is a gram-negative bacterium recognized as one of the most virulent pathogens of warmwater fish. The main objective of this project was to investigate the prevalence of Fno in cultured tilapia (specifically, Mozambique Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus, Koilapia [also known as Wami Tilapia] O. hornorum, Blue Tilapia O. aureus, and Nile Tilapia O. niloticus hybrids) on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, using conventional and real-time PCR assays followed by statistical modeling to compare the different diagnostic methods and identify potential risk factors. During 2010 and 2012, 827 fish were collected from different geographical locations throughout the island of Oahu. Upon collection of fish, the water temperature in the rearing system and the length of individual fish were measured. Extraction of DNA from different tissues collected aseptically during necropsy served as a template for molecular diagnosis. High correlation between both molecular methods was observed. Moreover, the bacterium was isolated from infected tilapia on selective media and confirmed to be Fno utilizing a species-specific Taqman-based real-time PCR assay. Although a direct comparison of the prevalence of Fno between the different geographical areas was not possible, the results indicate a high prevalence of Fno DNA in cultured tilapia throughout the farm sites located on Oahu. Of the different tilapia species and hybrids currently cultured in Hawaii, Mozambique Tilapia were more susceptible to infection than Koilapia. Water temperature in the rearing systems and fish size also had a strong effect on the predicted level of infection, with fish held at lower temperatures and smaller fish being more susceptible to piscine francisellosis.

  15. Amino Acid Isotope Incorporation and Enrichment Factors in Pacific Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Christina J.; Madigan, Daniel J.; Block, Barbara A.; Popp, Brian N.

    2014-01-01

    Compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) of amino acids has received increasing attention in ecological studies in recent years due to its ability to evaluate trophic positions and elucidate baseline nutrient sources. However, the incorporation rates of individual amino acids into protein and specific trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) are largely unknown, limiting the application of CSIA to trophic studies. We determined nitrogen turnover rates of individual amino acids from a long-term (up to 1054 days) laboratory experiment using captive Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (PBFT), a large endothermic pelagic fish fed a controlled diet. Small PBFT (white muscle δ15N∼11.5‰) were collected in San Diego, CA and transported to the Tuna Research and Conservation Center (TRCC) where they were fed a controlled diet with high δ15N values relative to PBFT white muscle (diet δ15N∼13.9‰). Half-lives of trophic and source amino acids ranged from 28.6 to 305.4 days and 67.5 to 136.2 days, respectively. The TDF for the weighted mean values of amino acids was 3.0 ‰, ranging from 2.2 to 15.8 ‰ for individual combinations of 6 trophic and 5 source amino acids. Changes in the δ15N values of amino acids across trophic levels are the underlying drivers of the trophic 15N enrichment. Nearly all amino acid δ15N values in this experiment changed exponentially and could be described by a single compartment model. Significant differences in the rate of 15N incorporation were found for source and trophic amino acids both within and between these groups. Varying half-lives of individual amino acids can be applied to migratory organisms as isotopic clocks, determining the length of time an individual has spent in a new environment. These results greatly enhance the ability to interpret compound specific isotope analyses in trophic studies. PMID:24465724

  16. Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Shahin

    Full Text Available Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno is the causative agent of piscine francisellosis in warm water fish including tilapia. The disease induces chronic granulomatous inflammation with high morbidity and can result in high mortality. Early and accurate detection of Fno is crucial to set appropriate outbreak control measures in tilapia farms. Laboratory detection of Fno mainly depends on bacterial culture and molecular techniques. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA is a novel isothermal technology that has been widely used for the molecular diagnosis of various infectious diseases. In this study, a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assay for rapid detection of Fno was developed and validated. The RPA reaction was performed at a constant temperature of 42°C for 20 min. The RPA assay was performed using a quantitative plasmid standard containing a unique Fno gene sequence. Validation of the assay was performed not only by using DNA from Fno, closely related Francisella species and other common bacterial pathogens in tilapia farms, but also by screening 78 Nile tilapia and 5 water samples. All results were compared with those obtained by previously established real-time qPCR. The developed RPA showed high specificity in detection of Fno with no cross-detection of either the closely related Francisella spp. or the other tested bacteria. The Fno-RPA performance was highly comparable to the published qPCR with detection limits at 15 and 11 DNA molecules detected, respectively. The RPA gave quicker results in approximately 6 min in contrast to the qPCR that needed about 90 min to reach the same detection limit, taking only 2.7-3 min to determine Fno in clinical samples. Moreover, RPA was more tolerant to reaction inhibitors than qPCR when tested with field samples. The fast reaction, simplicity, cost-effectiveness, sensitivity and specificity make the RPA an attractive diagnostic tool that will contribute to controlling the

  17. Late progamic phase and fertilization affect calreticulin expression in the Hyacinthus orientalis female gametophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedojadło, Katarzyna; Lenartowski, Robert; Lenartowska, Marta; Bednarska-Kozakiewicz, Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Calreticulin expression is upregulated during sexual reproduction of Hyacinthus orientalis, and the protein is localized both in the cytoplasm and a highly specialized cell wall within the female gametophyte. Several evidences indicate calreticulin (CRT) as an important calcium (Ca(2+))-binding protein that is involved in the generative reproduction of higher plants, including both pre-fertilization and post-fertilization events. Because CRT is able to bind and sequester exchangeable Ca(2+), it can serve as a mobile intracellular store of easily releasable Ca(2+) and control its local cytosolic concentrations in the embryo sac. This phenomenon seems to be essential during the late progamic phase, gamete fusion, and early embryogenesis. In this report, we demonstrate the differential expression of CRT within Hyacinthus female gametophyte cells before and during anthesis, during the late progamic phase when the pollen tube enters the embryo sac, and at the moment of fertilization and zygote/early endosperm activation. CRT mRNA and the protein localize mainly to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi compartments of the cells, which are involved in sexual reproduction events, such as those in sister synergids, the egg cell, the central cell, zygote and the developing endosperm. Additionally, immunogold research demonstrates selective CRT distribution in the filiform apparatus (FA), a highly specific component of the synergid cell wall. In the light of our previous data showing the total transcriptional activity of the Hyacinthus female gametophyte and the results presented here, we discuss the possible functions of CRT with respect to the critical role of Ca(2+) homeostasis during key events of sexual plant reproduction. Moreover, we propose that the elevated expression of CRT within the female gametophyte is a universal phenomenon in the cells involved in double fertilization in higher plants.

  18. Genotype and Phenotype of Echinococcus granulosus Derived from Wild Sheep (Ovis orientalis) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Ali; Meshgi, Behnam; Jalousian, Fatemeh; Rahmani, Shima; Salari, Mohammad Ali

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the characteristics of genotype and phenotype of Echinococcus granulosus derived from wild sheep and to compare them with the strains of E. granulosus sensu stricto (sheep-dog) and E. granulosus camel strain (camel-dog) in Iran. In Khojir National Park, near Tehran, Iran, a fertile hydatid cyst was recently found in the liver of a dead wild sheep (Ovis orientalis). The number of protoscolices (n=6,000) proved enough for an experimental infection in a dog. The characteristics of large and small hooks of metacestode were statistically determined as the sensu stricto strain but not the camel strain (P=0.5). To determine E. granulosus genotype, 20 adult worms of this type were collected from the infected dog. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 subunit (COX1) of the mitochondrial DNA were amplified from individual adult worm by PCR. Subsequently, the PCR product was sequenced by Sanger method. The lengths of ITS2 and COX1 sequences were 378 and 857 bp, respectively, for all the sequenced samples. The amplified DNA sequences from both ribosomal and mitochondrial genes were highly similar (99% and 98%, respectively) to that of the ovine strain in the GenBank database. The results of the present study indicate that the morpho-molecular features and characteristics of E. granulosus in the Iranian wild sheep are the same as those of the sheep-dog E. granulosus sensu stricto strain.

  19. Quantifying mercury isotope dynamics in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis

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    Sae Yun Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analyses of mercury (Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues are used increasingly to infer sources and biogeochemical processes of Hg in natural aquatic ecosystems. Controlled experiments that can couple internal Hg isotope behavior with traditional isotope tracers (δ13C, δ15N can improve the applicability of Hg isotopes as natural ecological tracers. In this study, we investigated changes in Hg isotope ratios (δ202Hg, Δ199Hg during bioaccumulation of natural diets in the pelagic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT. Juvenile PBFT were fed a mixture of natural prey and a dietary supplement (60% Loligo opalescens, 31% Sardinops sagax, 9% gel supplement in captivity for 2914 days, and white muscle tissues were analyzed for Hg isotope ratios and compared to time in captivity and internal turnover of δ13C and δ15N. PBFT muscle tissues equilibrated to Hg isotope ratios of the dietary mixture within ∼700 days, after which we observed a cessation in further shifts in Δ199Hg, and small but significant negative δ202Hg shifts from the dietary mixture. The internal behavior of Δ199Hg is consistent with previous fish studies, which showed an absence of Δ199Hg fractionation during Hg bioaccumulation. The negative δ202Hg shifts can be attributed to either preferential excretion of Hg with higher δ202Hg values or individual variability in captive PBFT feeding preferences and/or consumption rates. The overall internal behavior of Hg isotopes is similar to that described for δ13C and δ15N, though observed Hg turnover was slower compared to carbon and nitrogen. This improved understanding of internal dynamics of Hg isotopes in relation to δ13C and δ15N enhances the applicability of Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues for tracing Hg sources in natural ecosystems.

  20. Cloisonné kidney in mouflon sheep (Ovis orientalis musimon

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    Hervás, J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a case of cloisonné kidney associated with infection by Babesia ovis in a wild mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimonj found dead in year in eastern Sierra Morena (Andalusia, Spain. The major macroscopic lesions were a icteric coloration in ocular and oral mucosa, and b dark metal coloration on the kidneys' external surface. Intense dark coloration alternating with intense greyish strips was observed on renal cortex sections. Blood samples were collected for haematological and parasitological analyses, as well as samples from various organs for histopathological examination. Infection by B. ovis was confirmed by using the Polymerase Chain Reaction test (PCR. Histopathological examination revealed tubulonephrosis associated with thickening of the basal membrane of the convoluted portions of the renal tubules (both proximal and distal, which took on an intense brownish pigmentation. These renal lesions have been described as "cloisonné" kidney. Cloisonné kidneys show uncommon coloring of the renal tubular system, associated with ferritin and hemosiderin deposits in these structures resulting from a chronic hemolitic process (hemoparasites, toxins, etc.. In our case, hemolitic phenomena are associated with infection by B. ovis. The seroprevalence of this hemoparasite in wild mouflon populations in other regions of Spain (Catalonia is up to 15%.

    [fr]
    Nous étudions un cas de rein cloisonné associé à l'infection par Babesia ovis sur un mouflon sauvage (Ovis orientalis musimon qui a été trouvé la même année dans la partie orientale de la Sierra Morena (Andalousie, Espagne. Les principales lésions macroscopiques étaient: a coloration ictérique sur les muqueuses oculaire et orale, et b coloration métallique foncée sur la partie extérieure du rein. Cette coloration foncée intense alternait avec des bandes grisâtres dans les sections du cortex rénal. Nous avons pris

  1. CH_{4} production in the deep soil as a source of stem CH_{4} emission in Fagus sylvatica}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Martin; Machacova, Katerina; Urban, Otmar; Lang, Friederike

    2017-04-01

    Predicting greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes on a global scale requires understanding fluxes on the local scale. Understanding GHG processes in soil-plant-atmosphere systems is essential to understand and mitigate GHG fluxes on the local scale. Forests are known to act as carbon sink. Yet, trees at waterlogged sites are known to emit large amounts of CH4, what can offset the positive GHG balance due the CO2 that is sequestered as wood. Generally, upland trees like European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) are assumed not to emit CH4, and the upland forest soils are regarded as CH4 sinks. Soil-atmosphere fluxes and stem-atmosphere fluxes of CH4 were studied together with soil gas profiles at two upland beech forest sites in Germany and Czech Republic. Soil was a net CH4 sink at both sites. While most trees showed no or low emissions, one beech tree had exorbitant CH4 emissions that were higher than the CH4 sink capacity of the soil. A soil survey showed strong redoximorphic color patterns in the soil adjacent to this tree. Although the soil around the tree was taking up CH4, the soil gas profiles around this tree showed CH4 production at a soil depth >0.3 m. We interpret the coincidence of the production of CH4 in the deep soil below the beech with the large stem emissions as strong hint that there is a transport link between the soil and stem. We think that the root system represents a preferential transport system for CH4 despite the fact that beech roots usually do not have a special gas transport tissue. The observed CH4 stem emissions represent an important CH4 flux in this ecosystem, and, thus, should be considered in future research. Acknowledgement This research was supported by the Czech Academy of Sciences and the German Academic Exchange Service within the project "Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from Fagus sylvatica trees" (DAAD-15-03), the Czech Science Foundation (17-18112Y), National Programme for Sustainability I (LO1415) and project DFG (MA 5826

  2. Decomposition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and pine (Pinus nigra) litter along an Alpine elevation gradient: Decay and nutrient release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Torsten W; Duboc, Olivier; Djukic, Ika; Tatzber, Michael; Gerzabek, Martin H; Zehetner, Franz

    2015-08-01

    Litter decomposition is an important process for cycling of nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate direct and indirect effects of climate on litter decomposition along an altitudinal gradient in a temperate Alpine region. Foliar litter of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica ) and Black pine ( Pinus nigra ) was incubated in litterbags during two years in the Hochschwab massif of the Northern Limestone Alps of Austria. Eight incubation sites were selected following an altitudinal/climatic transect from 1900 to 900 m asl. The average remaining mass after two years of decomposition amounted to 54% (beech) and 50% (pine). Net release of N, P, Na, Al, Fe and Mn was higher in pine than in beech litter due to high immobilization (retention) rates of beech litter. However, pine litter retained more Ca than beech litter. Altitude retarded decay (mass loss and associated C release) in beech litter during the first year only but had a longer lasting effect on decaying pine litter. Altitude comprises a suite of highly auto-correlated characteristics (climate, vegetation, litter, soil chemistry, soil microbiology, snow cover) that influence litter decomposition. Hence, decay and nutrient release of incubated litter is difficult to predict by altitude, except during the early stage of decomposition, which seemed to be controlled by climate. Reciprocal litter transplant along the elevation gradient yielded even relatively higher decay of pine litter on beech forest sites after a two-year adaptation period of the microbial community.

  3. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5–17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations. PMID:27379105

  4. Growth of Fagus sylvatica saplings in an old-growth forest as affected by soil and light conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponge, J.F.; Ferdy, J.B. [Museum National d`Histoire Naturelle, Brunoy (France). Lab. d`Ecologie Generale

    1997-12-01

    Studies were conducted on 41 five yr-old common beech (Fagus sylvatica) saplings collected in an old-growth beech wood (Fontainbleau forest, biological reserve of La Tillaie, France), under varying humus and light conditions, following gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillar injuries. Aerial and subterranean parts of each sapling were described by means of 34 parameters and environmental conditions at the microsite, where each sapling was excavated, were characterized by 23 parameters. The development of beech saplings is strongly affected by microsite conditions. An increase in sapling size was associated with darkness of the A-horizon, typical of zones with poor mineralization of organic matter. Light conditions were more important in influencing the development of the root system than that of the aerial parts. Rooting depth was shallower and rate of mycorrhiza development by the black ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum was lower in microsites receiving incident light during the morning than in those never receiving incident light during this period. Results are discussed in the frame of survival of young beech individuals in varying environmental conditions, when submitted to competition by other vegetation and adverse climate conditions 41 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  5. Morphological and molecular identification of the ectomycorrhizal association of Lactarius fumosibrunneus and Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana trees in eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay-Serrano, Edith; Bandala, Victor Manuel; Montoya, Leticia

    2012-11-01

    A population of Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana (covering ca. 4.7 ha) is established in a montane cloud forest refuge at Acatlan Volcano in eastern Mexico (Veracruz State), and it represents one of only ten populations of this species known to occur in the country (each stand covers ca. 2-35 ha in extension) and one of the southernmost in the continent. Sporocarps of several ectomycorrhizal macrofungi have been observed in the area, and among them, individuals of the genus Lactarius are common in the forest. However, the morphological and molecular characterization of ectomycorrhizae is still in development. Currently, two species of Lactarius have been previously documented in the area. Through the phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region from basidiomes and ectomycorrhizae, we identified the Lactarius fumosibrunneus ectomycorrhiza. The host, F. grandifolia var. mexicana, was determined comparing the amplified ITS sequence from ectomycorrhizal root tips in the GenBank database with Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. The mycorrhizal system of L. fumosibrunneus is monopodial-pyramidal, characterized by its shiny, white to silver and pruinose surface, secreting a white latex when damaged, composed of three plectenchymatous mantle layers, with diverticulated terminal elements at the outer mantle. It lacks emanating hyphae, rhizomorphs, and sclerotia. A detailed morphological and anatomical description, illustrations, and photographs of the ectomycorrhiza are presented. The comparison of L. fumosibrunneus and other Lactarius belonging to subgenus Plinthogalus is presented.

  6. Genome-environment association study suggests local adaptation to climate at the regional scale in Fagus sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Andrea R; Frank, Aline; Heiri, Caroline; Lalagüe, Hadrien; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    The evolutionary potential of long-lived species, such as forest trees, is fundamental for their local persistence under climate change (CC). Genome-environment association (GEA) analyses reveal if species in heterogeneous environments at the regional scale are under differential selection resulting in populations with potential preadaptation to CC within this area. In 79 natural Fagus sylvatica populations, neutral genetic patterns were characterized using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and genomic variation (144 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) out of 52 candidate genes) was related to 87 environmental predictors in the latent factor mixed model, logistic regressions and isolation by distance/environmental (IBD/IBE) tests. SSR diversity revealed relatedness at up to 150 m intertree distance but an absence of large-scale spatial genetic structure and IBE. In the GEA analyses, 16 SNPs in 10 genes responded to one or several environmental predictors and IBE, corrected for IBD, was confirmed. The GEA often reflected the proposed gene functions, including indications for adaptation to water availability and temperature. Genomic divergence and the lack of large-scale neutral genetic patterns suggest that gene flow allows the spread of advantageous alleles in adaptive genes. Thereby, adaptation processes are likely to take place in species occurring in heterogeneous environments, which might reduce their regional extinction risk under CC. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Non-reducing sugar levels in beech (Fagus sylvatica) seeds as related to withstanding desiccation and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukacka, Stanisława; Ratajczak, Ewelina; Kalemba, Ewa

    2009-09-01

    Levels of sucrose and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) (raffinose and stachyose) were determined in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds during development, maturation, desiccation and storage. An increase in RFOs and a marked decrease in the S:(R+St) ratio (i.e. mass ratio of sucrose to the sum of RFOs) were observed at the time of desiccation tolerance (DT) acquisition by seeds. In seeds stored at -10 degrees C through 1, 4, 7, and 12 years, changes in sucrose, raffinose and stachyose levels and in alpha-galactosidase activity were noted. The S/R+St ratio and alpha-galactosidase activity significantly increased in seeds after 7 and 12 years of storage, when a marked decrease in viability, measured as germination capacity, was recorded. Germination capacity was found to be strongly correlated with sucrose content, the S:(R+St) ratio, and alpha-galactosidase activity. A strong positive correlation was found between germination capacity and stachyose content. The results clearly indicated that the composition of RFOs in beech seeds is closely related to DT acquisition and seed viability during storage.

  8. Root vitality of Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea Liebl. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in mature mixed forest stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygoruk Dorota

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main task of the present study was to investigate the root vitality of common beech Fagus sylvatica L., sessile oak Quercus petraea Liebl. and sycamore maple Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the optimal g rowth conditions in south-western Poland. The study was carried out in 130-year-old mixed stand located within natural range of studied tree species. The density of roots (g/100 cm3 of soil and biomass of fine roots (g/m2 in topsoil layers (0-5 cm, 5-15 cm were determined in the tree biogroups of the same species. The mean total root density ranged from 0.248 to 0.417 g/100 cm3 in the 0-5 cm soil layer, and it decreased in the deeper soil layer (5-15 cm. There were found no statistically significant differences of total root densities between tree biogroups in topsoil layers. Diversity of fine root biomass was comparable in the tree biogroups (H’ = 1.5, but common beech showed more intensive growth of fine roots in the topsoil 0-15 cm when compared to sessile oak and sycamore maple. The results of the study point out the stability of the multi-species structure of the mixed stand studied, and consequently - the ability of beech, sessile oak and sycamore maple trees to coexist in the mixed stands - in the area of natural range of these species.

  9. Phenotypic Plasticity Explains Response Patterns of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Saplings to Nitrogen Fertilization and Drought Events

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    Christoph Dziedek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Climate and atmospheric changes affect forest ecosystems worldwide, but little is known about the interactive effects of global change drivers on tree growth. In the present study, we analyzed single and combined effects of nitrogen (N fertilization and drought events (D on the growth of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. saplings in a greenhouse experiment. We quantified morphological and physiological responses to treatments for one‐ and two‐year‐old plants. N fertilization increased the saplings’ aboveground biomass investments, making them more susceptible to D treatments. This was reflected by the highest tissue dieback in combined N and D treatments and a significant N × D interaction for leaf δ13C signatures. Thus, atmospheric N deposition can strengthen the drought sensitivity of beech saplings. One‐year‐old plants reacted more sensitively to D treatments than two‐year‐old plants (indicated by D‐induced shifts in leaf δ13C signatures of one‐year‐old and two‐year‐old plants by +0.5‰ and −0.2‰, respectively, attributable to their higher shoot:root‐ratios (1.8 and 1.2, respectively. In summary, the saplings’ treatment responses were determined by their phenotypic plasticity (shifts in shoot:root‐ratios, which in turn was a function of both the saplings’ age (effects of allometric growth trajectories = apparent plasticity and environmental impacts (effects of N fertilization = plastic allometry.

  10. Improvement of Vase Life and Postharvest Factors of Lilium orientalis ‘Bouquet’ by Silver Nano Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein NEMATI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lily is one of the prominent cut flowers on the international markets, so that its longevity is an important post-storage attribute. Blockage of xylem vessels and insufficient water uptake contributes to the short vase life of cut flowers. Bacteria block stem xylem vessels and because of that reduce rates of water supply to flowers. Nano silver has antimicrobial effects at low concentration. Prolongation of vase life cut lilies (L. orientalis ‘Bouquet’ flowers by nano-silver particles was studied. Cut flowers were kept in vase containing 5, 15, 25, 30 ppm of nano-silver solutions and deionized water as control treatment under controlled conditions. During vase period, vase life, vase solution uptake, initial fresh and bacterial numbers were measured. According to the results, all nano-silver treatments extended the longevity of cut flowers compare to control. Among these treatments the concentration of 30 ppm of silver-nano showed the highest vase solution uptake, initial fresh weight and lowest bacteria colony during the first 2 days of vase life. It was concluded that nano silver particles had a high potential for eliminating of bacterial contaminants. These for suggest that application of solutions containing superior advantageous of nano-silver particles is recommended to improve postharvest of L. orientalis ‘Bouquet’.

  11. CITOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY THE ADMINISTRATION OF SUBSTANCES WITH REDUCTION POTENTIAL AT LARIX DECIDUA MILL. SSP. CARPATICA, PICEA ABIES (L. KARST. AND THUJA ORIENTALIS L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Anca Ieremia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, citric acid and sodium bisulphit upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica, Picea abies (L. Karst and Thuja orientalis L. The treatment was applied in one variant, germinated seeds in ascorbic acid, riboflavin, citric acid and sodium bisulphit in 3 concentrations.

  12. Effects of odors on behaviors of captive Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangying YU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Captive environments often fail to resemble the wild environment in respects of limited space, unchanging habitat, lack of stimulus and contingency. Common animal welfare problems which occur in captive animals include low behavioral diversity, abnormal behavior and excessive inactivity. Environmental enrichment, as an effective strategy to tackle these problems and promote mental health of captive animals, has been recognized as an important principal for captive animal management. Among all the enrichment techniques, olfactory enrichment is a simple and effective method for improving the well-being of the olfactory sensitive felids. Behavioral problems were observed in six Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis at Beijing Zoological Garden. These were held in the older type exhibits which have now been rebuilt. These behaviors include stereotypic behavior and excessive inactivity caused by the spatially limited enclosures with low levels of stimuli. To determine the effects of predator, prey, and herb odors as potential enrichment materials for captive leopards, we conducted olfactory enrichment experiments for the leopards and tested the effects of nutmeg Myristica fragrans, feces of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and urine of Amur tiger Panthera tigris altaica to test for an increase in behavioral repertoire and activity. Odors provided in this study were also believed to improve the psychological and physiological health of individuals. To standardize the method of presentation the odors were introduced to the enclosures by rubbing or spraying onto a clean towel. Our results show that the selected three odors effectively increased the behavioral diversity. Ten new behavior types were observed in the nutmeg experiment, eight in the feces of roe deer experiment and six in the tiger urine experiment. Among the three odors, cats responded to nutmeg for the longest duration, followed by tiger urine and feces of roe deer. Leopards showed more

  13. Source identification of heavy metals in atmospheric dust using Platanus orientalis L. leaves as bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Norouzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on atmospheric dust have been limited by the high cost of instrumental monitoring methods and also sampling difficulties. The use of organisms acting as bioaccumulators has recently been proposed. In this study, the leaves of Platanus orientalis L., as a possible biomonitor of heavy metals in atmospheric dust, were evaluated to understand the likely source(s of pollution in Isfahan, Iran. Concentration of Zn, Cu, Ni and Mn and Magnetic susceptibility (χlf were determined in washed (WL and unwashed leaves (UL, monthly sampled from May to Nov., 2012. By subtracting the amount of metal concentrations and χlf in UL and WL, the amount of these parameters in dust deposited on the leaves (UL-WL were calculated. Enrichment factor analysis (EF, correlation coeficient, principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA on the UL-WL data were employed to trace the heavy metals sources. Results showed that the metal concentration in UL and WL in primary sampling times was not statistically different. As time passed, this difference became more noticeable. Seasonal accumulation trends of elements concentration in UL-WL, referred to as accumulative biomonitors showing the accumulation of dust on the leaves are considerable and the contamination of plants by metal occurs mainly by retention of particulate matter. All the heavy metals are well correlated with χlf, indicating the potential of magnetic measurement as an inexpensive and less laborious method to estimate heavy metals. Cu and Zn exhibited a very strong correlation with each other and the highest correlation with χlf, suggesting an anthropogenic nature of these two metals. High EF of Cu and Zn showed that anthropogenic sources contribute a substantial amount of these metals to dust deposited on leaves. Whereas, less EF for Mn and Ni shows that natural source and local polluted soils might be the main origins of these metals. PCA results showed 2 principal components. Factor 1 with

  14. Lluvia de semillas y emergencia de plántulas de Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana en La Mojonera, Hidalgo, México Seed rain and seedling emergence of Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana at La Mojonera, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Godínez-Ibarra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana es una especie restringida a pequeñas poblaciones y sujeta a fuerte presión antropogénica. Con el objetivo de obtener información relevante que permita proponer alternativas de conservación, se analizó la producción de semillas y la demografía de plántulas de primer año en la Mojonera, Hidalgo. Se estableció una parcela de observación de 4 800 m² dividida en cuadrantes de 10 X 10 m. Se utilizaron trampas de 0.5 m² para estimar la producción de semillas, así como subparcelas de 1 m² para registrar la emergencia y supervivencia de plántulas. La producción fue de 521 667 semillas ha-1, de las que sólo el 24.44% estaban llenas; el 46.01% vanas, y el 29.55% dañadas. La densidad de plántulas emergidas varió de 1 a 33 plántulas por m². El porcentaje de supervivencia de plántulas de primer año fue de 2.8% después de 10 meses de observación, siendo las de mayor supervivencia las que emergieron durante las primeras fechas. El 34.44% de las plántulas murieron por herbivoría, el 24.07% por damping-off y 23.65% por causa desconocida. La especie presenta el patrón general de supervivencia de especies arbóreas con alta mortalidad durante el primer año de vida.Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana is a species restricted to small populations under high anthropogenic pressure. With the aim to attain information to propose conservation strategies of this species, the seed rain and demography of current-year seedlings were analyzed at La Mojonera, Hidalgo, Mexico. A 4 800 m² plot divided into 10 X 10 m quadrants was established. The seed rain, seedling emergence, and survival were analyzed using seed traps of 0.5 m² and adjacent 1 m² sub-plots. The total seed rain was 521 667 seeds ha-1. A high proportion of seeds were unsound (46.01%, followed by damaged seeds (29.5% and only 24.44% were sound. Emerged seedlings fluctuated from 1 to 33 seedlings m². Alter 10 months, 2.8% of emerged seedlings were

  15. The biotransformation of soil biocenosis by micromycetes under introduction of Fagus sylvatica L. to oak-hornbeam forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanov, Artur; Bilyera, Nataliya; Sedykh, Olena; Melnychuk, Maksym

    2017-04-01

    Keywords: micromycetes, beech, soil enzymes, illuminance, Penicillium canescens. European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is a commercially valuable tree species. As the potential distribution area for beech forest is restricted by Europe, planting of artificial stands is adopted in this region. Beech introduction can alter ecosystem considerably, but the mechanism of this transformation is not clear. We aimed to define abiotic and biotic parameters affecting floor development in beech stands introduced to the oak-hornbeam forest ecosystem ca.50 years ago in Eastern Europe (Ukraine). The daylight illuminace level was similar (2.9-6.5 klx) for both stands. However, grass cover in beech stands did not exceed 0.1-0.5 % even on sites with illuminace level 7.5-8.3 klx. It does not comply with the commonly used suggestion that shading is the main factor causes forest floor absence in the beech stands. We indicated predominantly biotic factors influencing forest floor formation. Thus, particular edaphon represented by micromycetes was able to inhibit plants and microorganisms. We isolated Penicillium canescens strains from soil under beech stands. These fungi utilized beech root exudates and phenol compounds of leaf litter, and produced biologically active substances caused cytostatic and mutagenic effects. They also accelerated (in 2-3.2 times) soil β-glucosidase activity, but had no effect on phosphatase. The biomass of fungi varied under cultivation of Penicillium canescens strains on Czapek medium with the addition of aqueous extracts of beech leaf litter. The biomass of micromycetes increased on 10-15 % at plant phenols concentrations up to 1 mg mL-1. On the contrary, increasing the concentration of phenols up to 4 mg mL-1resulted in a biomass decrease to 40%. The relationship between the concentration of plant phenols and rate of fungal biomass formation indicates that there is probably seasonal regulation of micromycetes activity in the forest biocenosis. The highest

  16. Amelioration of planting stress by soil amendment with a hydrogel–mycorrhiza mixture for early establishment of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Beniwal, Rajender; Hooda, Mahinder; Polle, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The mortality of nursery-grown beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings after out planting into the field is usually high.The goal of this study was to characterize the response of beech seedlings to planting stress and to test if soil amendment with a mixture of hydrogel and the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus could rescue the establishment of stressed plants. For this purpose, bare-rooted, dormant seedlings were exposed for 0, 2 and 6 h to air before planting.Water loss in response to...

  17. Native lignin for bonding fiber boards - evaluation of bonding mechanisms in boards made from laccase-treated fibers of beech (Fagus sylvatica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Sanadi, Anand

    2004-01-01

    The auto-adhesion of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) fibers can be enhanced by a pretreatment of the fibers with a phenol oxidase enzyme. The mechanism of enzymatic catalyzed bonding is linked to the generation of stable radicals in lignin by oxidation. Fiberboards made from laccase-treated fibers...... indicate that lignin extractives are precipitated on the fiber surfaces. The improved bonding may be related to several factors, linked to a more lignin rich fiber surface, such as surface molecular entanglements and covalent bonding between fibers through cross-linking of radicals. (C) 2004 Published...

  18. Serapan Logam Berat oleh Fungi Mikoriza Arbuskula Lokal pada Nauclea orientalis L. dan Potensial untuk Fitoremediasi Tanah Serpentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Danu Tuheteru

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on growth and metal uptake of Nauclea orientalis L. plants, has been investigated. Plants were grown in greenhouse conditions on serpentine soil media without and with the AMF (Glomus sp., Acaulospora tuberculata, and mix for two months. Lonkida roots was colonized by AMF because it was found structures of AMF: internal hyphae>external hypae>coil>vesicles>arbuscule. Colonization A. tuberculata and Glomus sp. significantly increased dry weight of root (P65. Transport Factor value (TF Mn>Ni>Cr. Glomus sp reduced Fe and Ni uptake on roots by 13% and 3%, respectively. A. tuberculata increased the uptake of all metals. Metal uptake ability was difference among types of AMF.

  19. On the movements, aggregations and the foraging habitat of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus orientalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walli, Andreas G.

    To exploit the ocean's patchy resources, large open ocean fish species have evolved highly migratory foraging strategies. In this thesis, a synoptic study of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and their environment was conducted to identify feeding behavior and foraging related horizontal and vertical movements, and to elucidate foraging habitat. First, electronic archival tags (n=561) were used to examine seasonal movements (1996-2005), aggregations and diving behaviors of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT) to better understand their migration ecology and oceanic habitat utilization. Throughout the North Atlantic mean diving depth was significantly correlated with thermocline depth and dive behavior changed in relation to the stratification of the water column. Distribution behavior was characterized by seasonal aggregations and rapid movement phases. Throughout the North Atlantic, high residence times (167 +/- 33 days) were identified in four spatially confined regions on a seasonal scale. In these regions, mean diving depths were significantly shallower and dive frequency and internal temperature variance were significantly higher than during transit movements between the regions, suggesting foraging behavior. Residence time in high-use areas was correlated to primary productivity in northern latitudes and these areas represent critical foraging habitats with seasonally abundant prey. To be able to study feeding in wild bluefin tunas, the heat increment of feeding (HIF) in response to known quantities and caloric value of food ingested by captive individuals was evaluated. Feeding experiments were conducted using stomach and peritoneal placed archival tags in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT, n=31). Peritoneal temperature measurements indicate a significant correlation between food energy content and the duration from the start of post-grandial heat increment to the maximum thermal excess (TXmax ) in all ambient

  20. Composición, estructura y diversidad de la comunidad de Ácaros Mesostigmata de un hayedo natural (Fagus sylvatica del sur de Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraza, M. L.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, structure and diversity of the soil Mesostigmatid mite’s community was studied in European beech forest (Fagus sylvatica L. in Navarra (Spain, southern Europe. Twelve samples were taken and 653 mites were identified. They represented to 41 species from 14 families, the most abundant species being Paragamasus ponantinus Athias-Henriot, 1967; Veigaia nemorensis (C. L. Koch, 1839; Paragamasus rothamstedensis Bhattacharyya, 1963 and Rhodacarus coronatus Berlese, 1921. Haft part of the mites community inhabits the humic layer of the soil. The value of the Shannon’s diversity index (H´ log2 in the forest studied is 4,42, and the equitability (J´ is 0,82.Se estudia la composición específica de la comunidad de ácaros Mesostigmata en una hayedo (Fagus sylvatica L. de Navarra (España, Sur de Europa. Se han identificado 653 ácaros procedentes de 12 muestras. Estos representan a 41 especies de 14 familias y las especies más abundantes son Paragamasus ponantinus Athias-Henriot, 1967; Vegaia nemorensis (C. L. Koch, 1839; Paragamasus rothamstedensis Bhattacharyya, 1963 y Rhodacarus coronatus Berlese, 1921. La mitad de la comunidad habita en el horizonte húmico del suelo. En este hayedo el valor de la diversidad de Shannon (H´ log2 es 4,42 y el de la equitabilidad (J´ 0,82.

  1. Changes in susceptibility of beech (Fagus sylvatica) seedlings towards Phytophthora citricola under the influence of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and nitrogen fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischmann, F., E-mail: fleischmann@wzw.tum.d [Phytopathology of Woody Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Raidl, S. [Department Biology I and GeoBioCenterLMU, Systematic Mycology, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Menzinger Strasse 67, 80638 Muenchen (Germany); Osswald, W.F. [Phytopathology of Woody Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH) predicts changes in susceptibility of plants against herbivores with changing resource availability. In the presented study we tested the validity of the GDBH for trees infected with a root pathogen. For this purpose Fagus sylvatica seedlings grown under different atmospheric CO{sub 2}- and soil nitrogen regimes were infected with the root pathogen Phytophthora citricola. High nitrogen supply increased total biomass of beech regardless of the CO{sub 2}-treatment, whereas elevated CO{sub 2} enhanced biomass only in the high nitrogen treatment. The responses of beech under the different growing regimes to the Phytophthora root infection were not in line with the predictions of the GDBH. Enhanced susceptibility of beech against P. citricola was found in seedlings grown under elevated CO{sub 2} and low nitrogen supply. Fifteen months after inoculation these plants were characterized by enhanced water use efficiency, by altered root-shoot ratios, and by enhanced specific root tip densities. - Susceptibility of Fagus sylvatica to the root pathogen Phytophthora citricola increased under elevated CO{sub 2}

  2. Changes in susceptibility of beech (Fagus sylvatica) seedlings towards Phytophthora citricola under the influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, F.; Raidl, S.; Osswald, W.F.

    2010-01-01

    The growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH) predicts changes in susceptibility of plants against herbivores with changing resource availability. In the presented study we tested the validity of the GDBH for trees infected with a root pathogen. For this purpose Fagus sylvatica seedlings grown under different atmospheric CO 2 - and soil nitrogen regimes were infected with the root pathogen Phytophthora citricola. High nitrogen supply increased total biomass of beech regardless of the CO 2 -treatment, whereas elevated CO 2 enhanced biomass only in the high nitrogen treatment. The responses of beech under the different growing regimes to the Phytophthora root infection were not in line with the predictions of the GDBH. Enhanced susceptibility of beech against P. citricola was found in seedlings grown under elevated CO 2 and low nitrogen supply. Fifteen months after inoculation these plants were characterized by enhanced water use efficiency, by altered root-shoot ratios, and by enhanced specific root tip densities. - Susceptibility of Fagus sylvatica to the root pathogen Phytophthora citricola increased under elevated CO 2

  3. Modelling individual tree height to crown base of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram P Sharma

    Full Text Available Height to crown base (HCB of a tree is an important variable often included as a predictor in various forest models that serve as the fundamental tools for decision-making in forestry. We developed spatially explicit and spatially inexplicit mixed-effects HCB models using measurements from a total 19,404 trees of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. on the permanent sample plots that are located across the Czech Republic. Variables describing site quality, stand density or competition, and species mixing effects were included into the HCB model with use of dominant height (HDOM, basal area of trees larger in diameters than a subject tree (BAL- spatially inexplicit measure or Hegyi's competition index (HCI-spatially explicit measure, and basal area proportion of a species of interest (BAPOR, respectively. The parameters describing sample plot-level random effects were included into the HCB model by applying the mixed-effects modelling approach. Among several functional forms evaluated, the logistic function was found most suited to our data. The HCB model for Norway spruce was tested against the data originated from different inventory designs, but model for European beech was tested using partitioned dataset (a part of the main dataset. The variance heteroscedasticity in the residuals was substantially reduced through inclusion of a power variance function into the HCB model. The results showed that spatially explicit model described significantly a larger part of the HCB variations [R2adj = 0.86 (spruce, 0.85 (beech] than its spatially inexplicit counterpart [R2adj = 0.84 (spruce, 0.83 (beech]. The HCB increased with increasing competitive interactions described by tree-centered competition measure: BAL or HCI, and species mixing effects described by BAPOR. A test of the mixed-effects HCB model with the random effects estimated using at least four trees per sample plot in the validation data confirmed

  4. Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junheon; Seo, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2008-08-27

    Commercial essential oils from 28 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of 26, 11, and 4 major compounds from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) oils, respectively. Compounds from each plant essential oil were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode. Among the compounds, benzaldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, octanal, nonanal, decanal, trans-2-decenal, undecanal, dodecanal, decanol, and trans-2-decen-1-ol showed strong nematicidal activity. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode.

  5. Type II thioesterase gene (ECO-orf27) from Amycolatopsis orientalis influences production of the polyketide antibiotic, ECO-0501 (LW01).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Huang, He; Zhu, Li; Luo, Minyu; Chen, Daijie

    2012-11-01

    ECO-orf27 associated with the cluster of ECO-0501 (LW01) from Amycolatopsis orientalis is deduced to encode a type II thioesterase. Disruption of ECO-orf27 reduced LW01 production by 95 %. Complementation of the disrupted mutant with intact ECO-orf27 restored the production of LW01 suggesting that ECO-orf27 is crucial for LW01 biosynthesis. ECO-TE I, the gene encoding type I thioesterase from LW01 polyketide synthases, cannot complement ECO-orf27 deficient mutant distinguishing ECO-orf27 from type I thioesterase gene. Type II thioesterase gene pikAV from Streptomyces venezuelae could complement ECO-orf27 in A. orientalis indicating that the two genes are equivalent in their function. Overexpression of ECO-orf27 resulted in a 20 % increase in LW01 production providing an alternative approach for yield improvement.

  6. Locus-specific EPIC-PCR primers for four distinct calmodulin genes of the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nucleotide sequences of four distinct calmodulin genes (designated as CaM-A to -D of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis were compared. Nucleotide sequence divergence between the coding regions of four genes ranged from 16.0 to 21.6%, and locus-specific eight primer pairs targeting introns were designed. These primer pairs amplified expected size of fragments in five congeneric tuna species, and utility of these primer pairs was investigated using distant fish species.

  7. Fumigant Toxicity of Oriental Sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and Valerian (Valeriana wallichii) Essential Oils and Their Components, Including Their Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity, against Japanese Termites (Reticulitermes speratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days), and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental...

  8. Enrichment of a continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the yeast Issatchenkia orientalis in the production of ethanol at increasing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, J C M; Souza, C S; Cicarelli, R M B; Oliveira, K F; Morais, M R; Laluce, C

    2011-03-01

    A fermentation system was continuously fed with sugar-cane syrup and operated with recycling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells at temperatures varying from 30 to 47 °C. The aim of the present work was to obtain and study the colonies of isolates showing elongated cells of yeasts which were sporadically observed at the end of this continuous process. Based on a sequence of assays involving methods of classical taxonomy and RAPD-PCR, two groups of isolates showing characteristics of non-Saccharomyces yeasts were identified in the yeast population where S. cerevisiae was the dominant yeast. The largest group of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, resulting from a slow proliferation over the 2 months, reached a final level of 29.6% at the end of the process. RAPD-PCR profiles obtained for the isolates of this dominant non-Saccharomyces yeast indicated that they were isolates of Issatchenkia orientalis. Pichia membranifaciens was the only species of non-Saccharomyces yeast detected together with I. orientalis but at a very low frequency. The optimum temperature for ethanol formation shown by the isolate 195B of I. orientalis was 42 °C. This strain also showed a faster ethanol formation and biomass accumulation than the thermotolerant strain of S. cerevisiae used as the starter of this fermentation process. Some isolates of I. orientalis were also able to grow better at 40 °C than at 30 °C on plates containing glycerol as carbon source. Yeasts able to grow and produce ethanol at high temperatures can extend the fermentation process beyond the temperature limits tolerated by S. cerevisiae.

  9. Discovery of intermediate hosts for two species of blood flukes Cardicola orientalis and Cardicola forsteri (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) infecting Pacific bluefin tuna in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Shin, Sang Phil; Honryo, Tomoki; Uchida, Hiro'omi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Fish blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) are important pathogens of farmed finfish around the world. Among them, Cardicola spp. infecting farmed tuna are considered to be serious threats to tuna farming and have received tremendous attention. We conducted periodical samplings at a tuna farming site in Japan between January and May, 2015 to determine the life cycle of Cardicola spp. We collected over 4700 terebellid polychaetes from ropes, floats and frames of tuna culture cages and found nearly 400 infected worms. Sporocysts and cercariae found in Nicolea gracilibranchis were genetically identified as Cardicola orientalis by 28S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA sequences. This was the first discovery of the intermediate host for this parasite species. Infection prevalence and the abundance of N. gracilibranchis significantly varied between sampling points and the highest number of infected terebellids were collected from ropes. We also demonstrated morphologically and molecularly that asexual stages found in a single Amphitrite sp. (Terebellidae) and adult worms isolated from farmed juvenile tuna were Cardicola forsteri. This is the first report of C. forsteri in Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT) Thunnus orientalis in Japan. Our results demonstrated that all three species of Cardicola orientalis, C. forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis exist in Japanese farmed PBTs and that they all use terebellid polychaetes as the intermediate hosts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of geology and human activity on the genetic structure and demography of the Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jonathan J; Li, Pi-Peng; Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Zheng-Yan; Leaché, Adam D; Min, Mi-Sook; Waldman, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    The Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) is a commonly used study organism, but knowledge of its evolutionary history is incomplete. We analyze sequence data from four genetic markers (mtDNA genes encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome b, and 12S-16S rRNA; nuDNA gene encoding recombination activating gene 2) from 188 individuals across its range in Northeast Asia to elucidate phylogeographic patterns and to identify the historic events that shaped its evolutionary history. Although morphologically similar across its range, B. orientalis exhibits phylogeographic structure, which we infer was shaped by geologic, climatic, and anthropogenic events. Phylogenetic and divergence-dating analyses recover four genetically distinct groups of B. orientalis: Lineage 1-Shandong Province and Beijing (China); Lineage 2-Bukhan Mountain (Korea); Lineage 3-Russia, Northeast China, and northern South Korea; and Lineage 4-South Korea. Lineage 2 was previously unknown. Additionally, we discover an area of secondary contact on the Korean Peninsula, and infer a single dispersal event as the origin of the insular Jeju population. Skyline plots estimate different population histories for the four lineages: Lineages 1 and 2 experienced population decreases, Lineage 3 remained stable, while Lineage 4 experienced a sharp increase during the Holocene. The timing of the population expansion of Lineage 4 coincides with the advent of rice cultivation, which may have facilitated the increase in population size by providing additional breeding habitat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative study on the nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sand flies in a highland and lowland foci of visceral leishmaniasis in north-western Ethiopia with special reference to Phlebotomus orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklilu, Esayas; Gebresilassie, Araya; Yared, Solomon; Kindu, Mizan; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2017-08-23

    Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is most probably vectored by Phlebotomus orientalis in north-western Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the nocturnal activity patterns of Ph. orientalis in VL endemic foci of Libo-Kemkem (highland) and Metema (lowland) districts of north-western Ethiopia. Sampling of sand flies was conducted bimonthly from January-May 2012 in the highland and from March-June 2013 in the lowland. Sand flies were sampled using two CDC light traps placed in compounds occupied by both cattle and humans. Sampling of sand flies started at 18:00 h and ended at 06:00 h. Every hour, a cage was replaced by another cage. In total, 9479 nocturnally active sand flies were collected from both study areas. Six Phlebotomus species (Ph. orientalis, Ph. duboscqi, Ph. papatasi, Ph. bergeroti, Ph. rodhaini and Ph. martini) and several Sergentomyia spp. were identified. In both areas, of the six Phlebotomus spp., Ph. orientalis was the preponderate. In the highland, the hourly activity pattern of Ph. orientalis females was higher before midnight with a peak in density between 22:00-23:00 h, whereas in the lowland after midnight between 03:00-04:00 h. The present study showed that Ph. orientalis females exhibited different nocturnal activity patterns with a peak in the early part of the night in the highland and in the latter part of the night in the lowland areas. As the risk of acquiring L. donovani infections vary in the two areas, appropriate control strategies should be developed according to the activity of Ph. orientalis in the respective areas.

  12. Leaf morphology and phenology of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) are linked to environmental conditions depending on the altitudinal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdevielle-Vargas, Renee; Schuster, Christina; Estrella, Nicole; Menzel, Annette

    2014-05-01

    One of the principal responses of temperate climate trees to climate warming, besides migration, will be in-situ adaptation/evolution. For both, germination and growth rates can have a strong impact on survival and long-term recruitment and establishment of a species. Leaf morphology traits, together with phenology, are relevant to the study of inherent capacities of plants to adapt to an ever changing climate, especially in alpine regions, where a rapid warming has been observed in the last decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in possible adaptive traits (e.g. leaf morphology and phenology) of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and to asses a decisive component of the survival strategy of this important broadly distributed Central European tree species. We collected beech seeds at six sites along two transects of a south- (900, 1000 and 1100-1400 m.a.s.l.) and a north-facing slope (800, 900 and 1100 m.a.s.l.) in 2011 (mast year) near Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. All the seeds were stratified before sowing; 150 seeds were selected from each site and sowed (at the beginning of the spring) in square containers in a greenhouse under the same climatic conditions; seven phenological stages were defined following a modified beech germination key and the phenology of every seed was recorded three times a week. Harvesting took place 38/42 days after sowing and the specific leaf area (SLA), biomass, and leaf morphology (lamina length and width) were recorded for each seedling. Seeds from lower sites of the two transects presented a poorer germination rates (e.g. 30% for the south 900 m.a.s.l. site) and (75% for the north 800 m.a.s.l. site) when compared to seeds originating from higher elevations within the same transect. The highest germination percentages (98 and 85%) were observed in seeds originating from the highest elevations (e.g. 1100-1400 m.a.s.l. of the south site and 1100 m.a.s.l. of the north site, respectively). Although no significant

  13. Chilling and forcing requirements for foliage bud burst of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) differ between provenances and are phenotypically plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Koen; Ducousso, Alexis; Gömöry, Dušan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The timing of foliar budburst is an important component of the fitness of trees. Adaptation of budburst to local temperatures and phenotypic plasticity in the date of budburst to changes in temperature can therefore be expected. In this study, we analysed provenance trials of European...... beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) established over a wide geographic and climatic range in Europe. The analysis was based on a phenological model that represents the key processes at budburst phenology of temperate- and boreal zone deciduous trees. We conclude that adaptive differences exist between...... provenances in the critical chilling- and forcing requirements triggering budburst. Moreover, it is likely that these provenances show a plastic response to local environmental conditions for these two factors. Chilling- and forcing temperature requirements are key traits determining a tree’s response...

  14. Native lignin for bonding fiber boards - evaluation of bonding mechanisms in boards made from laccase-treated fibers of beech (Fagus sylvatica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Sanadi, Anand

    2004-01-01

    The auto-adhesion of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) fibers can be enhanced by a pretreatment of the fibers with a phenol oxidase enzyme. The mechanism of enzymatic catalyzed bonding is linked to the generation of stable radicals in lignin by oxidation. Fiberboards made from laccase-treated fibers...... have a high wet strength compared to boards made from untreated fibers. This indicates better fiber-fiber interactions and improved fiber-fiber stress transfer. The surface of laccase-treated fibers shows a markedly increased hydrophobicity as well as a change in the chemical composition, which...... indicate that lignin extractives are precipitated on the fiber surfaces. The improved bonding may be related to several factors, linked to a more lignin rich fiber surface, such as surface molecular entanglements and covalent bonding between fibers through cross-linking of radicals. (C) 2004 Published...

  15. Macroporous resin purification and characterization of flavonoids from Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco and their effects on macrophage inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiaoyan; Zheng, Yamei; Lin, Zehua; Han, Xin; Liao, Wenzhen

    2017-01-25

    The flavonoids (POFs) from the leaves of Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco were purified using six different macroporous adsorption resins including polar resins NKA-9 and ADS-F8, semi-polar resins ADS-17 and AB-8, and non-polar resins D101 and ADS-5. Among semi-polar resins, AB-8 demonstrated the best adsorption and desorption capacities with an adsorption ratio of 86% and a desorption ratio of 52%. According to the Simultaneous Thermogravimetry-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (STA/TG-DSC) analysis, POFs showed three thermally decomposed temperatures (347.6 °C, 437.5 °C and 494.8 °C). The main flavonoids in POFs were identified as esculin, amentoflavone, glabridin, and afromosin. Meanwhile, POFs in the dosage range of 25 to 400 μg mL -1 showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells, which could inhibit the secretion of NO, IL-6, and TNF-α through the inhibition of inflammatory-related gene expressions.

  16. Effects of EDTA on lead uptake by Typha orientalis Presl: a new lead-accumulating species in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong Li; Liu, Yun Guo; Liu, Jing Ling; Zeng, Guang Ming; Li, Xin

    2008-07-01

    A series of field investigations have been conducted at Yongzhou Pb/Zn/Cu mine tailings, Hunan Province, southern China. The specific aim was to search for new lead accumulators with fast growth rate and large biomass. The results of tissue analyses identified Typha orientalis Presl has a strong accumulation of lead. The average lead concentrations in the leaves and roots are 619 and 1,233 mg/kg, respectively. The growth and Pb content of the plant were also studied by hydroponic culture with different concentrations of Pb(NO(3))(2). Growth of the plant was not affected by Pb up to 300 mg/L. The Pb concentrations in the leaves and roots increased with increasing of Pb level in the modified Hoagland's nutrient solution. The maximum concentrations of Pb in the leaves and roots were 16,190 and 64,405 mg/kg, respectively. The study also demonstrated that EDTA not only increased the amount of Pb taken up by plants but also speeded up the metal translocation from roots to leaves.

  17. Mapping the climatic suitable habitat of oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) for introduction and cultivation at a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqing; Du, Sheng; Wen, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    Oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) is an important afforestation and ornamental tree species, which is native in eastern Asian. Therefore, a global suitable habitat map for oriental arborvitae is urgently needed for global promotion and cultivation. Here, the potential habitat and climatic requirements of oriental arborvitae at global scale were simulated using herbariums data and 13 thermal-moisture variables as input data for maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). The simulation performance of MaxEnt is evaluated by ten-fold cross-validation and a jackknife procedure. Results show that the potential habitat and climate envelop of oriental arborvitae can be successfully simulated by MaxEnt at global scale, with a mean test AUC value of 0.93 and mean training AUC value of 0.95. Thermal factors play more important roles than moisture factors in controlling the distribution boundary of oriental arborvitae’s potential ranges. There are about 50 countries suitable for introduction and cultivation of oriental arborvitae with an area of 2.0 × 107 km2, which occupied 13.8% of land area on the earth. This unique study will provide valuable information and insights needed to identify new regions with climatically suitable habitats for cultivation and introduction of oriental arborvitae around the world. PMID:27443221

  18. The Effectiveness of Crataegus orientalis M Bieber. (Hawthorn) Extract Administration in Preventing Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Mükerrem; Sağlam, Mehmet; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Köksal, Ekrem; Keleş, Ali; Esen, Hacı Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn (Crataeus orientalis M Bieber.) extract on serum oxidative status and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: non- ligated+placebo (saline) (NL, n = 9), ligature only+placebo (saline) (LO, n = 9), and ligature and treated with hawthorn extract in saline (H, n = 9) (100 mg/kg orogastrically, once a day for 11 days). Periodontitis was induced by submerging a 4/0 silk ligature in the sulcus of the mandibular right first molars of rats, and the animals were sacrificed after 11 days. Micro-CT examinations were performed for linear and volumetric parameter assessment of alveolar bone. Periodontal tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS)/total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced by hawthorn administration compared to LO group (pHawthorn extract showed inhibitory effect on periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss by regulating TAS, TOS and OSI levels in periodontal disease in rats when administered systemically.

  19. Expansion of the known distribution of Asiatic mouflon (Ovis orientalis) in the Late Pleistocene of the Southern Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Lisa; Martin, Louise; Richter, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Wild sheep (Ovis orientalis) bones recovered from the Natufian site of Shubayqa 1 demonstrate a wider distribution of mouflon in the Late Pleistocene of the Southern Levant than previously known. Early Epipalaeolithic sites are common in the limestone steppe region of eastern Jordan but have yielded only a handful of caprine bones that cannot be identified to species level and few faunal remains from excavated Late Epipalaeolithic sites have been reported. Analysis of animal bone from Shubayqa 1 suggests a significant population of wild sheep could be found concentrated in the basalt desert environment of eastern Jordan during the Late Pleistocene, especially where higher rainfall over the Jebel Druze provided more water. A population of wild sheep was still present in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A when the nearby site of Shubayqa 6 was occupied. Hunting of diverse, locally available resources including wild sheep at the end of the Pleistocene illustrates the flexible and adaptive exploitation strategies that hunter-forager groups engaged in. This provides further evidence to the increasing body of data showing the creative and opportunistic approach of terminal Pleistocene groups allowing continued occupation even in more marginal environments in a period of environmental change.

  20. Quantification of Pla or 3, aPlatanus orientalisAllergen, Grown under Different Environmental Conditions, by Sandwich ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghy, Farnaz; Sankian, Mojtaba; Moghadam, Maliheh; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2016-10-01

    Platanus species are widely cultured around the world and considered an important cause of allergic reactions. In the present study, we developed a sandwich ELISA to quantify Pla or 3 allergen in P. orientalis pollen extracts grown near high-traffic roads and compared it to pollen extracts collected from rural areas as control. Pollen samples were collected from three polluted and two unpolluted sites in Mashhad, northeast Iran. Recombinant Pla or 3 was expressed and used for polyclonal antibody production in rabbit. A sandwich ELISA was developed and validated to quantify Pla or 3 levels in pollen extracts from the different sites. The coefficients of variation (CVs) for the intra- and inter- day assays were less than 5 and 18%, respectively. The working range of the standard curve was between 0.1 and 25 ng/ml, with the detection limit being 0.037 ng/ml. The recovery percentage was 88-106.4% at working concentrations from 0.31 to 26.5 ng/ml. Pla or 3 levels were significantly greater in pollens grown near high-traffic roads than in those grown in rural regions (p Pla or 3 in pollen extracts. Using this validated ELISA, we showed a substantial difference between the amounts of Pla or 3 in pollens grown in different environments. This finding should be considered in developing public policies to reduce traffic pollution, which leads to reduced allergic reactions in atopic subjects.

  1. The influence of moonlight and lunar periodicity on the efficacy of CDC light trap in sampling Phlebotomus (Larroussius) orientalis Parrot, 1936 and other Phlebotomus sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresilassie, Araya; Yared, Solomon; Aklilu, Essayas; Kirstein, Oscar David; Moncaz, Aviad; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-02-15

    Phlebotomus orientalis is the main sandfly vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the north and northwest of Ethiopia. CDC light traps and sticky traps are commonly used for monitoring sandfly populations. However, their trapping efficiency is greatly influenced by various environmental factors including moonlight and lunar periodicity. In view of that, the current study assessed the effect of moonlight and lunar periodicity on the performance of light traps in collecting P. orientalis. Trapping of P. orientalis and other Phlebotomus spp. was conducted for 7 months between December 2012 and June 2013 using CDC light traps and sticky traps from peri-domestic and agricultural fields. Throughout the trapping periods, collections of sandfly specimens were carried out for 4 nights per month, totaling 28 trapping nights that coincided with the four lunar phases (viz., first quarter, third quarter, new and full moon) distributed in each month. In total, 13,533 sandflies of eight Phlebotomus species (P. orientalis, P. bergeroti, P. rodhaini, P. duboscqi, P. papatasi, P. martini, P. lesleyae and P. heischi) were recorded. The predominant species was P. orientalis in both trapping sites and by both methods of collection in all lunar phases. A significant difference (P sandflies were attracted to light traps during a full moon. However, the number of P. orientalis and the other Phlebotomus spp. from sticky traps did not differ in their density among the four lunar phases (P = 0.122). Results of the current study demonstrated that the attraction and trapping efficiency of CDC light traps is largely influenced by the presence moonlight, especially during a full moon. Therefore, sampling of sandflies using light traps to estimate population density and other epidemiological studies in the field should take the effect of moonlight and lunar periodicity into account on the trapping efficacy of light traps.

  2. Selection strategy and the design of hybrid oligonucleotide primers for RACE-PCR: cloning a family of toxin-like sequences from Agelena orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipkin Alexey

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background the use of specific but partially degenerate primers for nucleic acid hybridisations and PCRs amplification of known or unknown gene families was first reported well over a decade ago and the technique has been used widely since then. Results here we report a novel and successful selection strategy for the design of hybrid partially degenerate primers for use with RT-PCR and RACE-PCR for the identification of unknown gene families. The technique (named PaBaLiS has proven very effective as it allowed us to identify and clone a large group of mRNAs encoding neurotoxin-like polypeptide pools from the venom of Agelena orientalis species of spider. Our approach differs radically from the generally accepted CODEHOP principle first reported in 1998. Most importantly, our method has proven very efficient by performing better than an independently generated high throughput EST cloning programme. Our method yielded nearly 130 non-identical sequences from Agelena orientalis, whilst the EST cloning technique yielded only 48 non-identical sequences from 2100 clones obtained from the same Agelena material. In addition to the primer design approach reported here, which is almost universally applicable to any PCR cloning application, our results also indicate that venom of Agelena orientalis spider contains a much larger family of related toxin-like sequences than previously thought. Conclusion with upwards of 100,000 species of spider thought to exist, and a propensity for producing diverse peptide pools, many more peptides of pharmacological importance await discovery. We envisage that some of these peptides and their recombinant derivatives will provide a new range of tools for neuroscience research and could also facilitate the development of a new generation of analgesic drugs and insecticides.

  3. Heavy metals (Hg,Cd,Pb,Ni,Cu) concentrations in Euryglossa orientalis and sediments from Khur-e-Musa Creek in Khuzestan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Parvaneh, M.; Khaivar, N.; Nikpour, Y.; Nabavi, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metals contamination (Hg,Cd,Pb,Ni,Cu) in muscle of the fish Euryglossa orientalis and in sediments was assessed in 2007 in Khur-e-Musa Creek (Ahmadi and Ghanam). In total, 30 fish specimens and 18 sediment samples were collected and analyzed. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used to determine contamination of the specimens with Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, and cold vapor method was applied for Hg. Results showed 2.35, 0.99, 1.32, 14.48 and 5.71µg/g dry weight of the fish for Hg, Cd, Pb,...

  4. Tissue turnover rates and isotopic trophic discrimination factors in the endothermic teleost, pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Madigan

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis (SIA of highly migratory marine pelagic animals can improve understanding of their migratory patterns and trophic ecology. However, accurate interpretation of isotopic analyses relies on knowledge of isotope turnover rates and tissue-diet isotope discrimination factors. Laboratory-derived turnover rates and discrimination factors have been difficult to obtain due to the challenges of maintaining these species in captivity. We conducted a study to determine tissue- (white muscle and liver and isotope- (nitrogen and carbon specific turnover rates and trophic discrimination factors (TDFs using archived tissues from captive Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT, Thunnus orientalis, 1-2914 days after a diet shift in captivity. Half-life values for (15N turnover in white muscle and liver were 167 and 86 days, and for (13C were 255 and 162 days, respectively. TDFs for white muscle and liver were 1.9 and 1.1‰ for δ(15N and 1.8 and 1.2‰ for δ(13C, respectively. Our results demonstrate that turnover of (15N and (13C in bluefin tuna tissues is well described by a single compartment first-order kinetics model. We report variability in turnover rates between tissue types and their isotope dynamics, and hypothesize that metabolic processes play a large role in turnover of nitrogen and carbon in PBFT white muscle and liver tissues. (15N in white muscle tissue showed the most predictable change with diet over time, suggesting that white muscle δ(15N data may provide the most reliable inferences for diet and migration studies using stable isotopes in wild fish. These results allow more accurate interpretation of field data and dramatically improve our ability to use stable isotope data from wild tunas to better understand their migration patterns and trophic ecology.

  5. Impacts of environmental variability and global warming scenario on Pacific bluefin tuna ( Thunnus orientalis) spawning grounds and recruitment habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shingo; Kato, Yoshiki; Kitagawa, Takashi; Yamaoka, Naoki

    2010-07-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna ( Thunnus orientalis) have spawning grounds in waters stretching from south of Okinawa to east of Taiwan. This species is typical of fishes that spawn seasonally in small, limited areas. Any marked change in the marine environment of the spawning grounds is likely to have a direct impact on larval survival and growth. We conducted rearing experiments on larvae to investigate these impacts and found that a reduction in temperature resulted in poor growth during the juvenile stage, even if larval survival rates did not change. In the wild, this reduced growth rate is likely to reduce survival rates because smaller juveniles have poorer swimming ability and their ability to avoid predators is also reduced. This is especially important since the Kuroshio current, which connects the spawning grounds to the nursery grounds, transports larvae rapidly because of its faster surface current (the western boundary current), thus larvae arriving too quickly in coastal waters can be exposed to very cold temperatures. An ocean model (MIROC) simulation under a climate warming scenario ( IPCC, 2007) predicted that the temperature in the spawning ground would be 3 °C higher in 2100 than in present time, while the transport to nursery grounds would also be faster. In this case, the combination of several mechanisms would control the recruitment of juvenile bluefin. On the spawning grounds, high temperatures exceeding the optimal range would increase larvae mortality and any surviving larvae would reach the nursery grounds more quickly, but warmer coastal waters would have less negative impact on their growth. We forced a model of larval drift with MIROC output fields to study the complex response of bluefin tuna recruitment. As a result, the predicted survival rates of larvae arriving in Japanese coastal waters in 2100 would decline to 36% of present recruitment levels.

  6. Evaluating the species- and site-specific differences in the physiological response of Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Larix decidua to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl-Meier, Claudia; Rothe, Andreas; Treydte, Kerstin

    2013-04-01

    Sensitive regions like the Alps are very vulnerable to climate change. Especially warmer temperatures and a higher frequency of drought periods may imply strong effects on mountain ecosystems. In the Northern Limestone Alps, temperatures were already 1 °C higher (compared to the reference period 1941-1970) in the last two decades. Within a Bavarian-Austrian EU-project (INTERREG program) we investigated long-term growth patterns of mountain tree species and a possible growth effect caused by climate change using a dendroecological approach. In total we measured the ring widths of ~1300 living, on average 180 year old trees. The samples were taken along altitudinal gradients, ranging from 500 up to 1700 m a.s.l., in five different regions in the Northern Austrian and Bavarian Limestone Alps, covering the most prevalent coniferous (Picea abies, Abies alba, Larix decidua, Pinus sylvestris) and broad-leafed (Fagus sylvatica, Acer pseudoplatanus) mountain forest species. To get more detailed information about the physiological response to climate and especially drought events of different tree species, an additional study was conducted in the Kalkalpen Nationalpark, Austria. Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) of Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Larix decidua tree-rings (8 trees per species and site) were analysed at three different sites. The sites are located at the montane elevation level (900 m a.s.l.) on a south-facing and a north-facing slope as well on a plateau situation with deeper soils. Our main focus deals with the following questions: i) Is it possible to identify "drought events" in a region like the Alps with generally humid precipitation conditions (1400 mm/a), by analysing stable isotopes in tree rings? ii) Are there species- and/or site-specific differences in the isotopic signatures - also with respect to the trees' climate response? We will present (i) the isotopic signatures for the common period 1970-2010, (ii) their response to climate conditions

  7. COMPARISON OF CHITIN STRUCTURES DERIVED FROM THREE COMMON WASP SPECIES (Vespa crabro LINNAEUS, 1758, Vespa orientalis LINNAEUS, 1771 and Vespula germanica (FABRICIUS, 1793)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Murat; Bağrıaçık, Nil; Seyyar, Osman; Baran, Talat

    2015-08-01

    There has been no study on the chitin structure of wasp species. Here, we selected the three most common wasp species belonging to the family Vespidae for chitin extraction and characterization. Chitin was isolated from each wasp species and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), elemental analysis (EA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chitin contents of Vespa crabro, Vespa orientalis, and Vespula germanica were 8.3, 6.4, and 11.9%, respectively. The crystalline index (CrI) values for the chitin extracted from each species were 69.88, 53.92, and 50%, respectively. The most important finding of the study is that although the same method was used to extract chitin from each of the three wasp species, the degree of acetylation was different: for V. crabro and V. orientalis it was 96.85 and 99.82% (the chitin was extremely pure), respectively, whereas that for V. germanica the chitin was 79.83%. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Polyphasic Approach for Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of the Fastidious Aquatic Pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Ramírez-Paredes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno is the causative agent of piscine francisellosis, an emerging infectious disease in Asia and Latin America. In this study two outbreaks of francisellosis were diagnosed in the UK on the basis of histopathology, electron microscopy, PCR, bacterial isolation and fulfillment of Koch's postulates. Furthermore, a phenotypic fingerprint based on biochemical analyses, metabolic activity, chemotaxonomic composition, and antimicrobial assays was generated for the novel isolates, the Fno type strain Ehime-1 from Asia and other Fno from Latin America. The genetic relatedness between the novel Fno and other Francisellaceae species was investigated by sequencing and comparing the 16SrRNA gene, 8 housekeeping genes (individually and concatenated and the 16SrRNA-ITS-23SrRNA sequence. The phenotypic profiling indicated a high degree of similarity among the Fno strains as all were able to metabolize dextrin, N-acetyl-D glucosamine, D-fructose, α-D-glucose, D-mannose, methyl pyruvate, acetic acid, α-keto butyric acid, L-alaninamide, L-alanine, L-alanylglycine, L-asparagine, L-glutamic acid, L-proline, L-serine, L-threonine, inosine, uridine, glycerol, D L-α-glycerol phosphate, glucose-1-phosphate, and glucose-6-phosphate. The chemotaxonomic analyses indicated that 24:1 (20.3%, 18:1n-9 (16.9%, 24:0 (13.1% 14:0 (10.9%, 22:0 (7.8%, 16:0 (7.6%, and 18:0 (5.5% were the predominant structural fatty acids in Fno. The antimicrobial assays showed little variation between the isolates and high susceptibility to enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, streptomycin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, nitrofurantoin, tobramycin, kanamycin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, florfenicol, oxolinic acid, and streptomycin in all the Fno analyzed. In all the phylogenetic trees the Fno strains clustered together in independent branches confirming a high degree of homogeneity. Interestingly in five of the 11 trees i.e., mutS, putA, rpo

  9. Inhibitory Effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis Extracts on Advanced Glycation End Product Formation and Key Enzymes Related to Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chin Hung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome typically includes Type 2 diabetes associated with hyperglycemia, central obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension. It is highly related to oxidative stress, formation of advanced glycated end products (AGEs and key enzymes, such as carbohydrate digesting enzymes like pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE. This study used an in vitro approach to assess the potential of four extracts of Siegesbeckia orientalis linne on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome. In this research, S. orientailis was firstly extracted by ethanol. The ethanol extract (SE was then partitioned sequentially with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol, and these extracts were named SE-Hex, SE-EA and SE-MeOH, respectively. The experimental results showed that SE-EA had the highest total phenolic content (TPC, 76.9 ± 1.8 mg/g and the total flavonoids content (TFC, 5.3 ± 0.3 mg/g. This extract exhibited the most significant antioxidant activities, including DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 = 161.8 ± 2.4 μg/mL, ABTS radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 = 13.9 ± 1.5 μg/mL and reducing power. For anti-glycation activities, SE-EA showed the best results in the inhibition of AGEs, as well as inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase (IC50 = 362.3 ± 9.2 μg/mL and α-amylase (IC50 = 119.0 ± 17.7 μg/mL. For anti-obesity activities, SE-EA indicated the highest suppression effect on pancreatic lipase (IC50 = 3.67 ± 0.52 mg/mL. Finally, for anti-hypertension activity, SE-EA also demonstrated the strongest inhibitory activity on ACE (IC50 = 626.6 ± 15.0 μg/mL. Close relationships were observed among the parameters of TPC, antioxidant activities, inhibitory activities on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase and ACE (R > 0.9. Moderate correlations were found among the parameters of TFC, antioxidant activities, and suppression of dicarbonyl compounds formation (R = 0.5–0.9. Taken

  10. Identification of stress biomarkers for drought and increased soil temperature in seedlings of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popović, Milica [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.; Laboratory for Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Nova Gorica, Glavni Trg 9 – SI-5261, Vipava, Slovenia.; Gregori, Marco [Laboratory for Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Nova Gorica, Glavni Trg 9 – SI-5261, Vipava, Slovenia.; Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche Chirurgiche e della Salute Trieste, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy.; Vodnik, Dominik [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Agronomy, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.; Ferlan, Mitja [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.; Mrak, Tanja [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.; Štraus, Ines [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.; McDowell, Nathan G. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354, USA.; Kraigher, Hojka [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.; de Marco, Ario [Laboratory for Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Nova Gorica, Glavni Trg 9 – SI-5261, Vipava, Slovenia.

    2017-11-01

    Drought is an environmental stress that impacts plant productivity. Projections show both an increase in intense rain events and a reduction in the number of rain days, conditions that leads to increased risk of drought. Consequently, the identification of molecular biomarkers suitable for evaluating the impact of water deprivation conditions on forest plant seedlings is of significant value for monitoring purposes and forest management. In this study, we evaluated a biochemical methodology for the assessment of drought stress coupled with variable soil temperature in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings by analyzing a set of metabolites and enzymes involved in free radical scavenging and cell wall synthesis. The results indicate that the specific activities and isoform profile of superoxide dismutases and glutathione peroxidases together with the variation of phenolic compounds enable discrimination between seedlings with different degrees of photosynthetic activity. This approach represents a promising platform for the assessment of drought stress in forest trees and could serve for enhancing selection and breeding practices, allowing for plants that are more tolerant of abiotic stress.

  11. Major Changes in Growth Rate and Growth Variability of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Related to Soil Alteration and Climate Change in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Latte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Global change—particularly climate change, forest management, and atmospheric deposition—has significantly altered forest growing conditions in Europe. The influences of these changes on beech growth (Fagus sylvatica L. were investigated for the past 80 years in Belgium, using non-linear mixed effects models on ring-width chronologies of 149 mature and dominant beech trees (87–186 years old. The effects of the developmental stage (i.e., increasing tree size were filtered out in order to focus on time-dependent growth changes. Beech radial growth was divided into a low-frequency signal (=growth rate, mainly influenced by forest management and atmospheric deposition, and into a high-frequency variability (≈mean sensitivity, mainly influenced by climate change. Between 1930 and 2008, major long-term and time-dependent changes were highlighted. The beech growth rate has decreased by about 38% since the 1950–1960s, and growth variability has increased by about 45% since the 1970–1980s. Our results indicate that (1 before the 1980s, beech growth rate was not predominantly impacted by climate change but rather by soil alteration (i.e., soil compaction and/or nitrogen deposition; and (2 since the 1980s, climate change induced more frequent and intense yearly growth reductions that amplified the growth rate decrease. The highlighted changes were similar in the two ecoregions of Belgium, although more pronounced in the lowlands than in the uplands.

  12. Microscopic identification of changes in beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and pine (Pinus sylvestris L. cell structure after drying using high-frequency energy of the microwave band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Nasswettrová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency energy transfer represents a progressive technology with an increasing range of industrial application. One of the main advantages of microwave technology is the volumetric principle of energy transfer. Based on this fact, the gradients of moisture content and temperature are identical and when the wood is dried it helps transport moisture from porous material and it also helps and transport free water whit lumen of cells. From a practical viewpoint, microwave heating increases the quality of the dried material and reduces the necessary processing. The quality of a dry material is an essential input parameter for other technological procedures and it depends on the deformations created in its cell structure. Therefore, the monitoring of changes brought about during the drying process is necessary. The aim of this study was to identify the changes in the microscopic structure of the wood of beech (Fagus Sylvatica L. and pine (Pinus Sylvestris L. dried using the high-frequency energy of the microwave band. The microscopic structure of a material modified by microwaves was photographed by means of a low-vacuum microscope and then visually compared with the native structure. The results show that the structure of beech and pine wood during the time of the proposed drying regime does not differ considerably from the native structure. This outcome is documented in a digital form and it confirms the harmless character of microwave heating towards wood structure in the conditions of optimum drying parameters.

  13. Detecting short spatial scale local adaptation and epistatic selection in climate-related candidate genes in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csilléry, Katalin; Lalagüe, Hadrien; Vendramin, Giovanni G; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Fady, Bruno; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie

    2014-10-01

    Detecting signatures of selection in tree populations threatened by climate change is currently a major research priority. Here, we investigated the signature of local adaptation over a short spatial scale using 96 European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) individuals originating from two pairs of populations on the northern and southern slopes of Mont Ventoux (south-eastern France). We performed both single and multilocus analysis of selection based on 53 climate-related candidate genes containing 546 SNPs. FST outlier methods at the SNP level revealed a weak signal of selection, with three marginally significant outliers in the northern populations. At the gene level, considering haplotypes as alleles, two additional marginally significant outliers were detected, one on each slope. To account for the uncertainty of haplotype inference, we averaged the Bayes factors over many possible phase reconstructions. Epistatic selection offers a realistic multilocus model of selection in natural populations. Here, we used a test suggested by Ohta based on the decomposition of the variance of linkage disequilibrium. Overall populations, 0.23% of the SNP pairs (haplotypes) showed evidence of epistatic selection, with nearly 80% of them being within genes. One of the between gene epistatic selection signals arose between an FST outlier and a nonsynonymous mutation in a drought response gene. Additionally, we identified haplotypes containing selectively advantageous allele combinations which were unique to high or low elevations and northern or southern populations. Several haplotypes contained nonsynonymous mutations situated in genes with known functional importance for adaptation to climatic factors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The comparison of properties of European beech Fagus sylvatica (L. in different stage of degradation caused by wood-decay fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Holan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focus on comparison of biological degradation of wood caused by wood-decay fungi (white and brown rot. Test samples were made of European Beech Fagus sylvatica (L.. As wood-decay fungi were used Trametes versicolor (L. Lloyd (white rot and Serpula lacrymans (Wulf. Ex Fr. Schroet (brown rot. Aim of this work was comparison of rate of propagation of wood-decay fungus and degradation of wood in time. After termination of the test was made comparison of intensity of degradation between both fungi species. Weights of test samples were diminishing for both groups of wood-decay fungi during three months. Moisture content increased in direct proportion with time. Compression strength in direction of wood fibers of tested samples was diminishing. Samples tested by Serpula lacrymans had the fastest decrease of compression strength after first and second week of degradation. Samples tested by Trametes versicolor had different course. Compression strength significantly decreased after first month and third month of degradation. On the other hand module of elasticity of both tested groups was diminishing already during first and second week of degradation. Generally, it is possible to say that Trametes versicolor has more significant impact on changes of mechanical characteristic of wood, because it causes degradation of all chemical constituents of wood.

  15. Beech wood Fagus sylvatica dilute-acid hydrolysate as a feedstock to support Chlorella sorokiniana biomass, fatty acid and pigment production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazek, Krystian; Remacle, Claire; Richel, Aurore; Goffin, Dorothee

    2017-04-01

    This work evaluates the possibility of using beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) dilute-acid (H 2 SO 4 ) hydrolysate as a feedstock for Chlorella sorokiniana growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Neutralized wood acid hydrolysate, containing organic and mineral compounds, was tested on Chlorella growth at different concentrations and compared to growth under phototrophic conditions. Chlorella growth was improved at lower loadings and inhibited at higher loadings. Based on these results, a 12% neutralized wood acid hydrolysate (Hyd12%) loading was selected to investigate its impact on Chlorella growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Hyd12% improved microalgal biomass, fatty acid and pigment productivities both in light and in dark, when compared to photoautotrophic control. Light intensity had substantial influence on fatty acid and pigment composition in Chlorella culture during Hyd12%-based growth. Moreover, heterotrophic Chlorella cultivation with Hyd12% also showed that wood hydrolysate can constitute an attractive feedstock for microalgae cultivation in case of lack of light. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modelling Facilitates Silvicultural Decision-Making for Improving the Mitigating Effect of Beech (Fagus Sylvatica L. Dominated Alpine Forest against Rockfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kajdiž

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In southeast Europe, silvicultural measures for improving forest protective effects against rockfall are often based on unsystematic observation and experience. We compared formalised expert assessment of forest protective effects and silvicultural decision-making with an approach supported by modelling (Rockyfor3D, Rockfor.NET, shadow angle method. The case study was conducted in Fagus sylvatica dominated Alpine forests above the regional road leading to the Ljubelj pass, in Slovenia. We analysed rock sources, silent witnesses, forest structure and regeneration. Expert assessment indicated acceptable protection effects of the forest and their decline in the future. Modelling revealed several road sections endangered by rockfalls. It also indicated subtle differences between silvicultural alternatives: current forest, current forest with cable crane lines, selection forest and non-forested slope. This outcome may be due to short transition zones, small rock sizes, low rock source heights and low resolution of the digital elevation model. Modelling requires more initial input than formalised expert assessment but gives spatially explicit results that enable comparison of silvicultural alternatives, coordination of silviculture and forest operations, and delineation of protection forests. Modelling also supported prioritising of silvicultural measures, where the necessity of silvicultural measures increases with increasing rockfall susceptibility and decreasing long-term stability of stands.

  17. Stand structure and regeneration of a mixed forest (Abies alba-Fagus sylvatica in the Central Pyrenees, Ordesa National Park, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doležal, J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The locations and biometrical characteristics of 2391 living and dead trees > 1.3 m tall of Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica, and the 378 understory shrubs o/Buxus sempervirens, were mapped in a 1.4 ha plot on the northern slope of Ordesa Valley to evaluate several hypotheses about stand structural development, tree species regeneration and coexistence. The plot is located in relatively undisturbed old-growth forest, but contains areas at low elevation which were formerly pasture. Abies is typically represented by many young trees and gradually declining numbers of trees in successively older size classes, whereas Fagus has greater numbers of trees in larger size and older age classes. This would imply a shift in dominance from beech to fir if the two species have similar mortality rates. We tested two hypotheses about the coexistence of ecologically similar species: (1 based on differentiation of regeneration niches, and (2 by means of different life history strategies (preference for survivorship or fecundity. Redundancy analysis (RDA was used to determine if the two species prefer different habitats. The analysis of spatial patterns and interspecific associations by Ripley's K-function was used to estimate the role of competition among trees in forest dynamics. The data provide empirical support for both tested hypotheses, although it has been shown that their importance varies depending on the degree of environmental heterogeneity along the slope across the plot. Different life history strategies appear critical to the success of coexistence in moderate environment at lower elevations, where co-dominant species have overlapping regeneration niches.

    [fr] Dans une parcelle de 1, 4 Ha au versant nord de la vallée d'Ordesa nous avons cartographie à petite échelle et pris des données biométriques sur 2391 hêtres (Fagus sylvatica et sapins (Abies alba vivants ou morts mais tous s'élevant à plus de 1,3 m, ainsi

  18. Assessing the performance of multiplexed tandem PCR for the diagnosis of pathogenic genotypes of Theileria orientalis using pooled blood samples from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Gasser, Robin B; Stevenson, Mark A; McGrath, Sean; Jabbar, Abdul

    2017-02-01

    Oriental theileriosis caused by multiple genotypes of Theileria orientalis is an important tick-borne disease of bovines. Here, we assessed the performance of an established multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) for the diagnosis of the two recognized, pathogenic genotypes (chitose and ikeda) of T. orientalis in cattle using pooled blood samples. We used a total of 265 cattle blood samples, which were divided into two groups according to previous MT-PCR results for individual samples. Samples in group 1 (n = 155) were from a herd with a relatively high prevalence of T. orientalis infection; and those in group 2 (n = 110) were from four herds with a low prevalence. For group 1, 31 and 15 batches of five- and ten-pooled samples (selected at random), respectively, were formed. For group 2, 22 and 11 batches of five- and ten-pooled samples (selected at random), respectively, were formed. DNAs from individual pooled samples in each batch and group were then tested by MT-PCR. For group 1, the apparent prevalences estimated using the 31 batches of five-pooled samples (97%) and 15 batches of ten-pooled samples (100%) were significantly higher compared with individual samples (75%). For group 2, higher apparent prevalences (9% and 36%) were also recorded for the 22 and 11 batches of pooled samples, respectively, compared with individual samples (7%). Overall, the average infection intensity recorded for the genotypes of chitose and ikeda were considerably lower in pooled compared with individual samples. The diagnostic specificities of MT-PCR were estimated at 95% and 94%, respectively, when batches of five- and ten-pooled samples were tested, and 94% for individual samples. The diagnostic sensitivity of this assay was estimated at 98% same for all individual, five- and ten-pooled samples. This study shows that screening batches of five- and ten-pooled blood samples from cattle herds are similar to those obtained for individual samples, and, importantly, that the reduced cost

  19. Liquidambar orientalis Mill.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... diversity in its geomorphology, topography and climate. (Kaya et al., 1997). Continuity of variation genetically is very important in terms of conservation of biodiversity. Various biochemical and molecular marker techniques have been used in order to determine the variation in nature. Random amplified ...

  20. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of the three cysteine and glycine-rich protein genes in the Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yalong; Feng, Juantao; Zheng, Hanxue; Wang, Wenjun; Chen, Fulin; Yu, Yuan; Cui, Jihong

    2018-03-20

    The cysteine- and glycine-rich protein (CRP) family members, including the cysteine- and glycine-rich protein 1 (CSRP1), cysteine- and glycine-rich protein 2 (CSRP2), and the cysteine- and glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3), have exhibited various cellular functions during cell development and differentiation. However, the sequences of the three CSRP genes and their functions are still poorly understood in newts. In this study, we cloned the complete open reading frame (ORF) sequences of the three CSRP genes from the Chinese fire-bellied newt, Cynops orientalis (C. orientalis). The complete ORF sequences of Co-CSRP1, Co-CSRP2, and Co-CSRP3 were 582, 582, and 576bp, respectively, and encoded 193, 193, and 191 amino acids, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the three CRP members showed high similarities with that of other species, particularly, with amphibians. Co-CSRP1 was highly expressed in the kidney, limb, and stomach, however, the expression was low in the spleen, heart, intestine, liver, and tail (P<0.05). The mRNA expression of Co-CSRP2 was higher in the kidney and heart than that in other organs (P<0.05). It was observed that Co-CSRP3 was only expressed in the heart, limb, and tail. The mRNA expression of Co-CSRP1 and Co-CSRP3 was lower in the digits in comparison to other limb segments. However, there was no significant difference of Co-CSRP2 mRNA expression in the four limb segments. The Co-CSRP1 and Co-CSRP2 mRNA expressions were significantly increased, whereas the expression of Co-CSRP3 was remarkably decreased during the limb regeneration. This study will provide useful information for further elucidating the role of Co-CSRP genes during newt limb regeneration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interannual variation in leaf photosynthetic capacity during summer in relation to nitrogen, leaf mass per area and climate within a Fagus crenata crown on Naeba Mountain, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Atsuhiro; Yokoyama, Akira; Takano, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Tetsurou; Fukasawa, Hisakazu; Nose, Yachiho; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2008-09-01

    During the summers (July and August) of 2002-2005, we measured interannual variation in maximum carboxylation rate (V(cmax)) within a Fagus crenata Blume crown in relation to climate variables such as air temperature, daytime vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and daily photosynthetic photon flux, leaf nitrogen per unit area (N(a)) and leaf mass per unit area (LMA). Climatic conditions in the summers of 2002-2004 differed markedly, with warm and dry atmospheric conditions in 2002, cool, humid and cloudy conditions in 2003, and warm clear conditions in 2004. Conditions in summer 2005 were intermediate between those of summers 2002 and 2003, and similar to recent (8-year) means. In July, marked interannual variation in V(cmax) was mainly observed in leaves in the high-light environment (relative photon flux > 50%) within the crown. At the crown top, V(cmax) was about twofold higher in 2002 than in 2003, and V(cmax) values in 2004 and 2005 were intermediate between those in 2002 and 2003. In August, although interannual variation in V(cmax) among the years 2003, 2004 and 2005 was less, marked variation between 2002 and the other study years was evident. Multiple regression analysis of V(cmax) against the climate variables revealed that VPD of the previous 10-30 days had a significant influence on variability in V(cmax). Neither N(a), LMA nor leaf CO(2) conductance from the stomata to the carboxylation site explained the variability in V(cmax). Our results indicate that the long-term climatic response of V(cmax) should be considered when estimating forest carbon gain across the year.

  2. A Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG to Assess the BRDF of Materials. Presentation, Calibration and Implementation on Fagus sylvatica L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Coppin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The design and calibration of a new hyperspectral Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG is presented. CLabSpeG effectively measures the bidirectionalreflectance Factor (BRF of a sample, using a halogen light source and an AnalyticalSpectral Devices (ASD spectroradiometer. The apparatus collects 4356 reflectance datareadings covering the spectrum from 350 nm to 2500 nm by independent positioning of thesensor, sample holder, and light source. It has an azimuth and zenith resolution of 30 and15 degrees, respectively. CLabSpeG is used to collect BRF data and extract BidirectionalReflectance Distribution Function (BRDF data of non-isotropic vegetation elements suchas bark, soil, and leaves. Accurate calibration has ensured robust geometric accuracy of theapparatus, correction for the conicality of the light source, while sufficient radiometricstability and repeatability between measurements are obtained. The bidirectionalreflectance data collection is automated and remotely controlled and takes approximatelytwo and half hours for a BRF measurement cycle over a full hemisphere with 125 cmradius and 2.4 minutes for a single BRF acquisition. A specific protocol for vegetative leafcollection and measurement was established in order to investigate the possibility to extractBRDF values from Fagus sylvatica L. leaves under laboratory conditions. Drying leafeffects induce a reflectance change during the BRF measurements due to the laboratorySensors 2007, 7 1847 illumination source. Therefore, the full hemisphere could not be covered with one leaf. Instead 12 BRF measurements per leaf were acquired covering all azimuth positions for a single light source zenith position. Data are collected in radiance format and reflectance is calculated by dividing the leaf cycle measurement with a radiance cycle of a Spectralon reference panel, multiplied by a Spectralon reflectance correction factor and a factor to correct for the conical effect of the light

  3. Acclimation of fine root respiration to soil warming involves starch deposition in very fine and fine roots: a case study in Fagus sylvatica saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Antonino; Giacomuzzi, Valentino; Chiatante, Donato

    2016-03-01

    Root activities in terms of respiration and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) storage and mobilization have been suggested as major physiological roles in fine root lifespan. As more frequent heat waves and drought periods within the next decades are expected, to what extent does thermal acclimation in fine roots represent a mechanism to cope with such upcoming climatic conditions? In this study, the possible changes in very fine (diameter root morphology and physiology in terms of respiration rate and NSC [soluble sugars (SS) and starch] concentrations, were investigated on 2-year-old Fagus sylvatica saplings subjected to a simulated long-lasting heat wave event and to co-occurring soil drying. For both very fine and fine roots, soil temperature (ST) resulted inversely correlated with specific root length, respiration rates and SSs concentration, but directly correlated with root mass, root tissue density and starch concentration. In particular, starch concentration increased under 28 °C for successively decreasing under 21 °C ST. These findings showed that thermal acclimation in very fine and fine roots due to 24 days exposure to high ST (∼ 28 °C), induced starch accumulation. Such 'carbon-savings strategy' should bear the maintenance costs associated to the recovery process in case of restored favorable environmental conditions, such as those occurring at the end of a heat wave event. Drought condition seems to affect the fine root vitality much more under moderate than high temperature condition, making the temporary exposure to high ST less threatening to root vitality than expected. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Soil conditions under a Fagus sylvatica CONECOFOR stand in Central Italy: an integrated assessment through combined solid phase and solution studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido SANESI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available As soil solution represents the major phase of soil chemical reactions, its study is a powerful tool for ecological investigations. Soil solution chemical composition gives a realistic idea about the soil chemical components immediately available in the environment, mainly in relation to the soil ecosystem reaction to the disturbance due to acidifying loads. Within the CONECOFOR Program, the monitoring of forest soil conditions was performed in a level II plot (ABR I, under a Fagus sylvatica (European beech stand, through the study of throughfall and soil solutions collected from depths ranging between the base of the litter layers and 90 cm. To be able to investigate solution contents of nutrients, acidifying agents and DOC throughout the profile, both zero tension and tension lysimeters were used. The first ones were inserted below the organic horizons, while tension lysimeters were placed within the mineral horizons at 15, 25, 55 and 90 cm depth. Sampled solutions were analyzed for Na, K, Ca, Mg, NH4, Cl, F, NO3, SO4, and DOC. The results evidence a clear seasonal pattern, mainly for macronutrients and inorganic N components. Acidic pulses were mostly evident below the organic horizons, in relation to strong nitric N releases from litter; these last were not always immediately neutralized by basic cations. Acid solutions leaving the organic horizons were invariably neutralized in the surface mineral horizons, within 15 cm depth. Temporal patterns of sulphate retention and release suggest that the soil has low retention capability for this anion. Such behaviour can be explained by the composition of the solid phase, where potential anion adsorbants appear strongly linked with organic matter in long residence time complexes. Sulphate and nitrate loading of this soil appear, anyway, to be mostly non-anthropogenic, but rather linked to natural mineralization pulses and, for sulphate, to aeolian solid transport from the south.

  5. A Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG) to Assess the BRDF of Materials. Presentation, Calibration and Implementation on Fagus sylvatica L. Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biliouris, Dimitrios; Verstraeten, Willem W; Dutré, Phillip; Van Aardt, Jan A N; Muys, Bart; Coppin, Pol

    2007-09-07

    The design and calibration of a new hyperspectral Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG) is presented. CLabSpeG effectively measures the bidirectionalreflectance Factor (BRF) of a sample, using a halogen light source and an AnalyticalSpectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiometer. The apparatus collects 4356 reflectance datareadings covering the spectrum from 350 nm to 2500 nm by independent positioning of thesensor, sample holder, and light source. It has an azimuth and zenith resolution of 30 and15 degrees, respectively. CLabSpeG is used to collect BRF data and extract BidirectionalReflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) data of non-isotropic vegetation elements suchas bark, soil, and leaves. Accurate calibration has ensured robust geometric accuracy of theapparatus, correction for the conicality of the light source, while sufficient radiometricstability and repeatability between measurements are obtained. The bidirectionalreflectance data collection is automated and remotely controlled and takes approximatelytwo and half hours for a BRF measurement cycle over a full hemisphere with 125 cmradius and 2.4 minutes for a single BRF acquisition. A specific protocol for vegetative leafcollection and measurement was established in order to investigate the possibility to extractBRDF values from Fagus sylvatica L. leaves under laboratory conditions. Drying leafeffects induce a reflectance change during the BRF measurements due to the laboratorySensors 2007, 7 1847 illumination source. Therefore, the full hemisphere could not be covered with one leaf. Instead 12 BRF measurements per leaf were acquired covering all azimuth positions for a single light source zenith position. Data are collected in radiance format and reflectance is calculated by dividing the leaf cycle measurement with a radiance cycle of a Spectralon reference panel, multiplied by a Spectralon reflectance correction factor and a factor to correct for the conical effect of the light source. BRF results

  6. Investigating the European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) leaf characteristics along the vertical canopy profile: leaf structure, photosynthetic capacity, light energy dissipation and photoprotection mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scartazza, Andrea; Di Baccio, Daniela; Bertolotto, Pierangelo; Gavrichkova, Olga; Matteucci, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Forest functionality and productivity are directly related to canopy light interception and can be affected by potential damage from high irradiance. However, the mechanisms by which leaves adapt to the variable light environments along the multilayer canopy profile are still poorly known. We explored the leaf morphophysiological and metabolic responses to the natural light gradient in a pure European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest at three different canopy heights (top, middle and bottom). Structural adjustment through light-dependent modifications in leaf mass per area was the reason for most of the variations in photosynthetic capacity. The different leaf morphology along the canopy influenced nitrogen (N) partitioning, water- and photosynthetic N-use efficiency, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence and quali-quantitative contents of photosynthetic pigments. The Chl a to Chl b ratio and the pool of xanthophyll-cycle pigments (VAZ) increased at the highest irradiance, as well as lutein and β-carotene. The total pool of ascorbate and phenols was higher in leaves of the top and middle canopy layers when compared with the bottom layer, where the ascorbate peroxidase was relatively more activated. The non-photochemical quenching was strongly and positively related to the VAZ/(Chl a + b) ratio, while Chl a/Chl b was related to the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II. Along the multilayer canopy profile, the high energy dissipation capacity of leaves was correlated to an elevated redox potential of antioxidants. The middle layer gave the most relevant contribution to leaf area index and carboxylation capacity of the canopy. In conclusion, a complex interplay among structural, physiological and biochemical traits drives the dynamic leaf acclimation to the natural gradients of variable light environments along the tree canopy profile. The relevant differences observed in leaf traits within the canopy positions of the beech forest should be considered for

  7. Co-occurrence patterns of trees along macro-climatic gradients and their potential influence on the present and future distribution of Fagus sylvatica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, E.S.; Edwards, T.C.; Kienast, Felix; Dobbertin, M.; Zimmermann, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim During recent and future climate change, shifts in large-scale species ranges are expected due to the hypothesized major role of climatic factors in regulating species distributions. The stress-gradient hypothesis suggests that biotic interactions may act as major constraints on species distributions under more favourable growing conditions, while climatic constraints may dominate under unfavourable conditions. We tested this hypothesis for one focal tree species having three major competitors using broad-scale environmental data. We evaluated the variation of species co-occurrence patterns in climate space and estimated the influence of these patterns on the distribution of the focal species for current and projected future climates.Location Europe.Methods We used ICP Forest Level 1 data as well as climatic, topographic and edaphic variables. First, correlations between the relative abundance of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and three major competitor species (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur) were analysed in environmental space, and then projected to geographic space. Second, a sensitivity analysis was performed using generalized additive models (GAM) to evaluate where and how much the predicted F. sylvatica distribution varied under current and future climates if potential competitor species were included or excluded. We evaluated if these areas coincide with current species co-occurrence patterns.Results Correlation analyses supported the stress-gradient hypothesis: towards favourable growing conditions of F. sylvatica, its abundance was strongly linked to the abundance of its competitors, while this link weakened towards unfavourable growing conditions, with stronger correlations in the south and at low elevations than in the north and at high elevations. The sensitivity analysis showed a potential spatial segregation of species with changing climate and a pronounced shift of zones where co-occurrence patterns may play a major role

  8. Interaction Effect between Elevated CO2 and Fertilization on Biomass, Gas Exchange and C/N Ratio of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfiomran, Neda; Köhl, Michael; Fromm, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 and interaction effects between elevated CO2 and nutrient supplies on growth and the C/N ratio of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) saplings were studied. One-year-old beech saplings were grown in a greenhouse at ambient (385 ppm) and elevated CO2 (770 ppm/950 ppm), with or without fertilization for two growing seasons. In this study, emphasis is placed on the combined fertilization including phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen with two level of elevated CO2. The fertilized plants grown under elevated CO2 had the highest net leaf photosynthesis rate (Ac). The saplings grown under elevated CO2 had a significantly lower stomatal conductance (gs) than saplings grown under ambient air. No interaction effect was found between elevated CO2 and fertilization on Ac. A interaction effect between CO2 and fertilization, as well as between date and fertilization and between date and CO2 was detected on gs. Leaf chlorophyll content index (CCI) and leaf nitrogen content were strongly positively correlated to each other and both of them decreased under elevated CO2. At the end of both growing seasons, stem dry weight was greater under elevated CO2 and root dry weight was not affected by different treatments. No interaction effect was detected between elevated CO2 and nutrient supplies on the dry weight of different plant tissues (stems and roots). However, elevated CO2 caused a significant decrease in the nitrogen content of plant tissues. Nitrogen reduction in the leaves under elevated CO2 was about 10% and distinctly higher than in the stem and root. The interaction effect of elevated CO2 and fertilization on C/N ratio in plants tissues was significant. The results led to the conclusion that photosynthesis and the C/N ratio increased while stomatal conductance and leaf nitrogen content decreased under elevated CO2 and nutrient-limited conditions. In general, under nutrient-limited conditions, the plant responses to elevated CO2 were decreased. PMID

  9. O3 flux-related responsiveness of photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance of adult Fagus sylvatica to experimentally enhanced free-air O3 exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, M; Häberle, K-H; Warren, C R; Matyssek, R

    2007-03-01

    Knowledge of responses of photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance to cumulative ozone uptake (COU) is still scarce, and this is particularly the case for adult trees. The effect of ozone (O(3)) exposure on trees was examined with 60-year-old beech trees (FAGUS SYLVATICA) at a forest site of southern Germany. Trees were exposed to the ambient O(3) regime (1 x O(3)) or an experimentally elevated twice-ambient O(3) regime (2 x O(3)). The elevated 2 x O (3) regime was provided by means of a free-air O(3) canopy exposure system. The hypotheses were tested that (1) gas exchange is negatively affected by O(3) and (2) the effects of O(3) are dose-dependent and thus the sizes of differences between treatments are positively related to COU. Gas exchange (light-saturated CO(2) uptake rate A(max), stomatal conductance g (s), maximum rate of carboxylation Vc (max), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate turnover limited rate of photosynthesis J (max), CO(2) compensation point CP, apparent quantum yield of net CO(2) uptake AQ, carboxylation efficiency CE, day- and nighttime respiration) and chlorophyll fluorescence (electron transfer rate, ETR) were measured IN SITU on attached sun and shade leaves. Measurements were made periodically throughout the growing seasons of 2003 (an exceptionally dry year) and 2004 (a year with average rainfall). In 2004 Vc(max), J(max), and CE were lower in trees receiving 2 x O(3) compared with the ambient O(3) regime (1 x O(3)). Treatment differences in Vc (max), J (max), CE were rather small in 2004 (i.e., parameter levels were lower by 10 - 30 % in 2 x O(3) than 1 x O(3)) and not significant in 2003. In 2004 COU was positively correlated with the difference between treatments in A (max), g (s), and ETR (i.e., consistent with the dose-dependence of O(3)'s deleterious effects). However, in 2003, differences in A(max), g (s), and ETR between the two O(3) regimes were smaller at the end of the dry summer 2003 (i.e., when COU was greatest). The

  10. Assessing the Impact of Canopy Structure Simplification in Common Multilayer Models on Irradiance Absorption Estimates of Measured and Virtually Created Fagus sylvatica (L. Stands

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    Pol Coppin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer canopy representations are the most common structural stand representations due to their simplicity. Implementation of recent advances in technology has allowed scientists to simulate geometrically explicit forest canopies. The effect of simplified representations of tree architecture (i.e., multilayer representations of four Fagus sylvatica (L. stands, each with different LAI, on the light absorption estimates was assessed in comparison with explicit 3D geometrical stands. The absorbed photosynthetic radiation at stand level was calculated. Subsequently, each geometrically explicit 3D stand was compared with three multilayer models representing horizontal, uniform, and planophile leaf angle distributions. The 3D stands were created either by in situ measured trees or by modelled trees generated with the AMAP plant growth software. The Physically Based Ray Tracer (PBRT algorithm was used to simulate the irradiance absorbance of the detailed 3D architecture stands, while for the three multilayer representations, the probability of light interception was simulated by applying the Beer-Lambert’s law. The irradiance inside the canopies was characterized as direct, diffuse and scattered irradiance. The irradiance absorbance of the stands was computed during eight angular sun configurations ranging from 10° (near nadir up to 80° sun zenith angles. Furthermore, a leaf stratification (the number and angular distribution of leaves per LAI layer inside a canopy analysis between the 3D stands and the multilayer representations was performed, indicating the amount of irradiance each leaf is absorbing along with the percentage of sunny and shadow leaves inside the canopy. The results reveal that a multilayer representation of a stand, using a multilayer modelling approach, greatly overestimated the absorbed irradiance in an open canopy, while it provided a better approximation in the case of a closed canopy. Moreover, the actual stratification

  11. Climate variation and the stable carbon isotope composition of tree ring cellulose: an intercomparison of Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Pinus silvestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, D. L.; Switsur, V. R.; Waterhouse, J. S.; Heaton, T. H. E.; Carter, A. H. C.

    1998-02-01

    The relationship between climate parameters and the carbon stable isotope composition (δ13C), of annual tree ring cellulose is examined for three native British tree species; Common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The last 100 annual tree rings of six trees, two of each species, were cut into slivers and the a-cellulose extracted. Annual δ13C values of each species were averaged to produce three species δ13C chronologies. These were compared with climate parameters from a nearby meteorological station. The carbon stable isotope discrimination (Δ13C) of pine is consistently lower, by approximately 2.5‰, than that of beech and oak. Although the exact cause of this offset cannot be identified, similar differences in carbon isotope ratios have been noted between other gymnosperm and angiosperm species and attributed to inherent physiological differences. As this offset is consistent, once centred around the same mean δ13C and Δ13C chronologies from these 3 species can be combined. Δ13C chronologies of the three species demonstrate strong cross-correlations in both high and low frequency fluctuations. Low frequency fluctuations, although consistent between species, show no direct climate relationship, and may be linked with physiological responses to increasing CO2 concentrations. Significant correlations do exist between the high frequency δ13C fluctuations and climate parameters. The high frequency δ13C series of all three species are most significantly correlated with the same two climate parameters and have the same seasonal timing; July October average maximum temperature and June September average relative humidity. Pine δ13C is the most responsive species to climate changes and displays the most significant correlations with all the climate parameters studied. However, an average series of all three high frequency species δ13C series shows the most significant correlations with

  12. Effects of surface inactivation, high temperature drying and preservative treatment on surface roughness and colour of alder and beech wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ismail; Colakoglu, Gursel

    2005-10-01

    Although extensive research has been conducted in wood surface quality analysis, a unified approach to surface quality characterisation does not exist. Measurements of the variation in surface roughness and surface colour are used widely for the evaluation of wood surface quality. Colour is a basic visual feature for wood and wood-based products. Colour measurement is one of the quality control tests that should be carried out because the colour deviations are spotted easily by the consumers. On the other hand, a common problem faced by plywood manufacturers is panel delamination, for which a major cause is poor quality glue-bonds resulting from rough veneer. Rotary cut veneers with dimensions of 500 mm × 500 mm × 2 mm manufactured from alder ( Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata) and beech ( Fagus orientalis Lipsky) logs were used as materials in this study. Veneer sheets were oven-dried in a veneer dryer at 110 °C (normal drying temperature) and 180 °C (high drying temperature) after peeling process. The surfaces of some veneers were then exposed at indoor laboratory conditions to obtain inactive wood surfaces for glue bonds, and some veneers were treated with borax, boric acid and ammonium acetate solutions. After these treatments, surface roughness and colour measurements were made on veneer surfaces. High temperature drying process caused a darkening on the surfaces of alder and beech veneers. Total colour change value (Δ E*) increased linear with increasing exposure time. Among the treatment solutions, ammonium acetate caused the biggest colour change while treatment with borax caused the lowest changes in Δ E* values. Considerable changes in surface roughness after preservative treatment did not occur on veneer surfaces. Generally, no clear changes were obtained or the values mean roughness profile ( Ra) decreased slightly in Ra values after the natural inactivation process.

  13. Nonlinear mixed effect models for predicting relationships between total height and diameter of oriental beech trees in Kestel, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Ercanli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelos estadísticos no lineales de efectos mixtos se utilizaron para predecir las relaciones entre la altura total y el diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP en rodales de árboles de haya oriental (Fagus orientalis Lipsky en Kestel, Bursa, al noroeste de Turquía. Un total de 124 parcelas de muestreo se seleccionaron para representar la calidad de sitio, edad y densidad de rodal. Nueve modelos no lineales generalizados de altura-diámetro se ajustaron y evaluaron con base en el criterio de información de Akaike, el criterio de información bayesiana de Schwarz, la raíz del cuadrado medio del error (RMSE por sus siglas en inglés, el sesgo absoluto y el coeficiente de determinación ajustado (R2adj. El modelo no lineal de Schnute se seleccionó como el mejor modelo predictivo. El modelo de altura-diámetro basado en el enfoque del modelo no lineal de efectos mixtos representó 90.6 % de la varianza total en las relaciones de altura-diámetro y los valores de RMSE de 1.48 m. Varios escenarios que difieren en el diseño de muestreo y el tamaño de los árboles submuestra, seleccionados del conjunto de datos de validación, revelaron que cuatro árboles submuestra seleccionados al azar produjeron los mejores resultados predictivos (reducción de 43.3 % de la suma de errores cuadrados, 98.4 % del sesgo absoluto y 36.9 % de la RMSE en relación con las predicciones de los efectos fijos.

  14. The apoptotic function analysis of p53, Apaf1, Caspase3 and Caspase7 during the spermatogenesis of the Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis.

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    Da-Hui Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spontaneous and stress-induced germ cell apoptosis during spermatogenesis of multicellular organisms have been investigated broadly in mammals. Spermatogenetic process in urodele amphibians was essentially like that in mammals in spite of morphological differences; however, the mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in urodele amphibians remains unknown. The Chinese fire-belly newt, Cynops orientalis, was an excellent organism for studying germ cell apoptosis due to its sensitiveness to temperature, strong endurance of starvation, and sensitive skin to heavy metal exposure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: TUNEL result showed that spontaneous germ cell apoptosis took place in normal newt, and severe stress-induced apoptosis occurred to spermatids and sperm in response to heat shock (40°C 2 h, cold exposure (4°C 12 h, cadmium exposure (Cd 36 h, and starvation stress. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR showed that gene expression of Caspase3 or Caspase7 was obviously elevated after stress treatment. Apaf1 was not altered at its gene expression level, and p53 was significantly decreased after various stress treatment. Caspase assay demonstrated that Caspase-3, -8, -9 enzyme activities in newt testis were significantly elevated after heat shock (40°C 2 h, cold exposure (4°C 12 h, and cadmium exposure (Cd 36 h, while Caspase3 and Caspase8 activities were increased with Caspase9 significantly decreased after starvation treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Severe germ cell apoptosis triggered by heat shock, cold exposure, and cadmium exposure was Caspase3 dependent, which probably involved both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Apaf1 may be involved in this process without elevating its gene expression. But starvation-induced germ cell apoptosis was likely mainly through extrinsic pathway. p53 was probably not responsible for stress-induced germ cell apoptosis in newt testis. The intriguing high occurrence

  15. Chemical Constituents and Toxicity of Essential Oils of Oriental Arborvitae, Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, against Three Stored-Product Beetles Componentes Químicos y Toxicidad de Aceites Esenciales de Tuya Oriental, Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, contra Tres Escarabajos de Productos Almacenados

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    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in plant-insect interactions and therefore such compounds may have insecticidal or biological activity against insects. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils of leaves and fruits from oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco (Cupressaceae was investigated against adults of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab., rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L., and red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Fresh leaves and fruits were subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oils was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Twenty-six compounds (92.9% and 23 constituents (97.8% were identified in the leaf and the fruit oils, respectively. The major components of both leaves and fruits oils were α-pinene (35.2%, 50.7%, α-cedrol (14.6%, 6.9% and Δ-3-carene (6.3%, 13.8%, respectively. Both oils in the same concentration were tested for their fumigant toxicity on each species. Results showed that leaf oils were more toxic than fruit oils against three species of insects. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than S. oryzae and T. castaneum. LC510 values of the leaf and the fruit oils at 24 h were estimated 6.06 and 9.24 μL L¹ air for C. maculatus, 18.22 and 21.56 μL L-1 air for S. oryzae, and 32.07 and 36.58 μL L4 air for T. castaneum, respectively. These results suggested that P. orientalis oils may have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae, and T. castaneum.Los metabolitos secundarios de las plantas juegan un papel importante en las interacciones planta-insecto, y por lo tanto pueden tener actividad insecticida o biológica en los insectos. La toxicidad fumigante de los aceites esenciales de hojas y frutos del árbol oriental de la vida (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco (Cupressaceae fue investigada contra adultos de gorgojo del guisante (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab

  16. Fumigant toxicity of Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components, including their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, against Japanese termites (Reticulitermes speratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-08-19

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days), and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control.

  17. Intestinal absorption of amino acids in the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis): in vitro lysine-arginine interaction using the everted intestine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Montaño, Emmanuel; Peña, Emyr; Viana, María Teresa

    2013-04-01

    The interaction between lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg) in the proximal intestinal region of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) was evaluated using the everted intestine method. This in vitro intestinal system has been shown to be an effective tool for studying the nutrient absorption without the need to handle the tuna fish in marine cages as needed for digestibility and amino acid (AA) absorption. We used a factorial design with two sets of variables: low and high Lys concentration (10 and 75 mM) and four different Arg concentrations (3, 10, 20, and 30 mM). Both amino acids were dissolved in marine Ringer solution with a basal amino acidic composition consisting of a tryptone solution (9 mg mL(-1)). No interaction was observed between the absorption of Lys and Arg during the first 10 min of the experiment when low concentration of Lys and Arg was used in the hydrolyzate solution. However, there seemed to be a positive effect on Lys absorption when both amino acids were at high concentrations (30 and 75 mM, respectively). This type of studies will led us to test different formulations and/or additives to better understand the efficiency of AA supplementation as an alternative to in situ studies that are difficult to follow to design with the Pacific Bluefin Tuna.

  18. Fumigant Toxicity of Oriental Sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis and Valerian (Valeriana wallichii Essential Oils and Their Components, Including Their Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity, against Japanese Termites (Reticulitermes speratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Kwon Park

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis and valerian (Valeriana wallichii essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus. The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days, and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control.

  19. EXAMINING OF NATURAL REGENERATION IN A ORIENTAL SPRUCE (Picea orientalis L. Link – FIR (Abies nordmanniana subsp. nordmanniana Spach. MIXED STAND IN ARTVINKAFKASOR FOREST DISTRICT

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    Ali Ömer Üçler

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, naturally regenerated succesfull oriental spruce (Picea orientalis (L. Link and fir (Abies nordmanniana Spach. subsp. nordmanniana mixed stand which encompass 5.8 ha area was examined. For that, seedlings in the area were studied for their relationship between growth and age. In addition, the amount of seedlings reached to area after the cuttings with large shelterwood system were determined. The age and height of fir and oriental spruce seedlings in 24 sampling areas each covering 25 square meters are measured according to square method and sampling areas systematically distributed so that samples could represent the regeneration area. Evaluating gathered data, seedlings reached to the area orderly after 1975 preperation cutting. Measurements and counts showed that orieantal spruce hold rich seeds every 4 years, however, this differentiation is not evident for fir. Evaluating height growth depending on age, correlation coefficients are found 0.9993 for oriental spruce and 0.9973 for fir, therefore the seedlings of fir and oriental spruce realized similar growth during their regeneration stage

  20. Efficient expression of a soluble lipid transfer protein (LTP) of Platanus orientalis using short peptide tags and structural comparison with the natural form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Farhad; Vahedi, Fatemeh; Chamani, Jamshidkhan; Varasteh, Abdolreza; Ketabdar, Hanieh; Sankian, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Successful recombinant allergen-based immunotherapy has drawn a great deal of attention to use recombinant allergens for new therapeutic and/or diagnostic strategies. The Escherichia coli expression system is frequently used to produce recombinant allergens; however, protein expression in E. coli often results in inclusion bodies. Here, we focused on the expression of two recombinant soluble forms of Pla or 3 using solubility-enhancing peptide tags, human immune deficiency virus type 1 transactivator of transcription core domain and poly-arginine-lysine: rTAT-Pla or 3 and rPoly-Arg-Lys-Pla or 3. Structural characteristics and IgE reactivity of purified recombinant proteins were compared with natural Pla or 3 (nPla or 3) isolated from Platanus orientalis using circular dichroism spectra, fluorescence spectroscopy, and immunoblotting. Likewise, intrinsic viscosity and Stokes radius of the natural and recombinant Pla or 3 allergens were determined to analyze structural compactness in aqueous media. The results indicate high-level solubility and efficient expression of the fusion proteins (rTAT-Pla or 3 and rPoly-Arg-Lys-Pla or 3) compared with the wild-type recombinant. Furthermore, the similar structural characteristics and IgE-binding activities of the fusion proteins to nPla or 3 provide a promising tool for allergy diagnosis and treatment. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Carbon assimilation, translocation and respiration in Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba stands measured by gas exchange and isotopic techniques during two contrasting climatic years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrichkova, Olga; Scartazza, Andrea; Zampedri, Roberto; Cavagna, Mauro; Sottocornola, Matteo; Matteucci, Giorgio; Brugnoli, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Global warming is tremendously influencing the climate of mountain areas through constantly rising temperatures and changes in local hydrological cycle. Increase of precipitation extremes, seasonal shifts of rainfall regime, heat waves are becoming more and more frequent events here. Vulnerability and plasticity of the local individual tree species under changing climate has still to be evaluated under field conditions. Two consecutive years, 2012 and 2013 were quite distinct in the climatic conditions during the plant growing season. Summer 2012 was characterized by a prolonged summer drought with almost no precipitation in central Italy from the end of May up to the end of August. The situation was aggravated by a very dry winter during this year. Mean annual temperatures in 2012 were 2oC higher in respect to the temperatures measured in the last 10 years. Conversely, year 2013 was milder with occasional rain events also during the summer months and temperatures close to the average values. In the Alpine zone the difference between two years were less pronounced with 2012 being slightly warmer than average and 2013 was characterized by unusually abundant spring precipitations. Taking advantage of these two contrasting years, we have monitored a functional response of one deciduous and one coniferous mountain forest stands growing in different mountain climate zones to variations in the local climate. The first, a deciduous European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest, is located in the Appennine region of Italy at 1700 m height (Collelongo site, AQ) and characterized by a Mountain-Mediterranean climate. The second is a mixed forest dominated by Silver fir (Abies alba) which was chosen as a target species for our study. The site is located at 1350m height in the south-eastern Alps (Lavarone, TN) and is characterized by a mountain temperate climate. Sampling of plant material and point flux measurements were performed in the beginning, middle and the end of the growing

  2. Long-term growth trajectories in a changing climate: disentangling age from size effects in old Fagus trees from contrasting bioclimates

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    Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the drivers promoting exceptional longevity in trees and how their growth performances vary approaching maximum lifespan still represent intriguing challenges not only for tree biology, but also for modelling the long-term forest ecosystem functioning under a changing environment. Tree growth rate is expected to increase with increasing stem size, but higher risk of hydraulic failure and mortality can affect larger trees under increasingly dry conditions. In turn, very old trees are characterized by slow growth and smaller size, factors able to confer advantages against biotic and abiotic disturbances. Rising evidences that very old trees are negligibly affected by the progressive deterioration of physiological functions associated with age support the idea that size, not age, is the main constrain to tree lifespan, so that negative senescence has been proposed as a frequent phenomenon in trees. Additional empirical knowledge is needed to thoroughly assess how complex, uneven-aged old-growth forests cope under climate change in order to define their role in terrestrial carbon cycle. We used a tree-ring network of 8 European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) old-growth forests containing several of the oldest crossdated broadleaf trees of the Northern Hemisphere (400-600 years old) to analyse how their growth rates vary along age/size development. We sampled advanced old-growth stands, where canopy tree mortality is naturally occurring, divided among contrasting bioclimatic conditions: eastern Alps and central Apennines (rainy vs. dry summer). To disentangle the long-term effects of size and age on long-term tree growth history, we reconstructed Basal Area Increment (BAI) along size (DBH) development, grouping growth trajectories in different age classes. On average, BAI increased continuously as stem size increased, regardless of bioclimatic region and age class. Old trees grew the slowest and kept increasing BAI trends. In turn, especially on the drier

  3. Visualizing carbon and nitrogen transfer in the tripartite symbiosis of Fagus sylvatica, ectomycorrhizal fungi and soil microorganisms using NanoSIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhofer, Werner; Dietrich, Marlies; Schintlmeister, Arno; Gabriel, Raphael; Gorka, Stefan; Wiesenbauer, Julia; Martin, Victoria; Schweiger, Peter; Reipert, Siegfried; Weidinger, Marieluise; Richter, Andreas; Woebken, Dagmar; Kaiser, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Translocation of recently photoassimilated plant carbon (C) into soil via root exudates or mycorrhizal fungi is key to understand global carbon cycling. Plants support symbiotic fungi and soil microorganisms with recent photosynthates to get access to essential elements, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus. While a 'reciprocal reward strategy' (plants trade C in exchange for nutrients from the fungus) has been shown for certain types of mycorrhizal associations, only little is known about the mechanisms of C and N exchange between mycorrhizal fungal hyphae and soil bacteria. Our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is hampered by the fact that C and N transfer between plants, mycorrhizal fungi and soil bacteria takes place at the micrometer scale, which makes it difficult to explore at the macro scale. In this project we intended to analyse carbon and nitrogen flows between roots of beech trees (Fagus sylvatica), their associated ectomycorrhizal fungi and bacterial community. In order to visualize this nutrient flow at a single cell level, we used a stable isotope double labelling (13C and 15N) approach. Young mycorrhizal beech trees were transferred from a forest to split-root boxes, consisting of two compartments separated by a membrane (35 μm mesh size) which was penetrable for hyphae but not for plant roots. After trees and mycorrhizal fungi were allowed to grow for one year in these boxes, 15N-labelled nitrogen solution was added only to the root-free compartment to allow labelled nitrogen supply only through the fungal network. 13C- labelled carbon was applied by exposing the plants to a 13CO2 gas atmosphere for 8 hours. Spatial distribution of the isotopic label was visualised at the microscale in cross sections of mycorrhizal root-tips (the plant/mycorrhizal fungi interface) and within and on the surface of external mycorrhizal hyphae (the fungi/soil bacteria interface) using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Corresponding

  4. Altitudinal variation and bio-climatic variables influencing the potential distribution of Culicoides orientalis Macfie, 1932, suspected vector of Bluetongue virus across the North Eastern Himalayan belt of Sikkim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Emon; Hazra, Surajit; Saha, Goutam Kumar; Banerjee, Dhriti

    2017-12-01

    Culicoides orientalis was first recorded from Sikkim, in the year 1963, but no evidence based disease outbreak were available. In the last 50 years, 260 Bluetongue disease outbreaks caused by Culicoides species have been evidenced from India. Moreover, in recent years with increase of average temperature worldwide and increase in longevity of arthropod vectors like Culicoides along with a geographical range shift to new suitable warmer regions has increased the potentiality of vector borne disease outbreak throughout the world. The Himalayan range of Sikkim in India is a biodiversity hotspot and is extremely sensitive to such global climate changes. An attempt has been made to evaluate the altitude, climate and environmental data on selected study sites of Sikkim for a period of two years (2014-2015) for discerning potential distribution of C.orientalis in this region. The altitude, temperature, precipitation and potential distribution range maps of C. orientalis showed the areas of highest species abundance within the altitudinal range of 550-1830m, with some species extending its range up to 3750m, with average precipitation of 2010-2590mm and mean temperature of 11-18°C. The Maximum Entropy Modelling (MaxEnt) and the Jackknife test of the MaxEnt model further revealed that the major contributing factors governing C. orientalis distribution are annual precipitation (78.8%), followed by precipitation of driest quarter (8.3%) and mean temperature of the warmest quarter (3.3%). Accuracy of the study was evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC=0.860). The Biplot on F 1 -F 2 axes (N=16, α=0.05) in the PCA showed the linear depiction of all the variables considered in our study, major contributors were annual precipitation, precipitation of driest quarter and mean temperature of warmest quarter being the primary factors governing species distribution, as analogous to results of the MaxEnt model. This study would help in developing strategies for monitoring and

  5. Protective effect and antioxidant role of sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) oil against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzek, Huseyin; Celik, Ismail; Dogan, Abdulahad; Yildirim, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Sweetgum oil (SO) obtained from the Liquidambar orientalis Mill (Hamamelidaceae) tree has been used in Turkish folk medicine for centuries as an antiulcerigenic. Some studies have reported the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of SO; however, its effect on hepatic and oxidative stress complications is still unexplored. This study investigates the hepatoprotective effect and the antioxidant role of SO against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) toxicity. The experiment included control, CCl4, SO, and CCl4 + SO treatment groups. Control and SO group rats were fed a diet without CCl4. CCl4 and CCl4 + SO treatment groups received 0.5 mL/kg CCl4 diluted in olive oil (1:1 dilution) intraperitonally injection twice per week. The CCl4 + SO group also received 1000 mg/kg SO-supplemented feed for 50 d. Blood and tissue samples were used for the determination of hepatic damage serum biomarkers (HDSBs) levels, antioxidant defense system constituents (ADSCs), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. In addition, the liver was evaluated for histopathological changes. According to the results, the HDSBs levels of the CCl4 group were significantly (p < 0.05) increased compared with the control, whereas the HDSB levels of the CCl4 + SO group resulted in marked decreases (p < 0.05) compared with the CCl4 group. In addition, the results showed that SO-supplemented diet restored the CCl4-induced MDA and ADS towards to control. Hepatoprotection of SO is further substantiated by the almost normal histologic findings in the CCl4 + SO group against degenerative changes in the CCl4 group. It was concluded that SO has a hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant capacity against CCl4 toxicity.

  6. Comparative Agronomic Performance and Reaction to Fusarium wilt of Lens culinaris × L. orientalis and L. culinaris × L. ervoides derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohar Singh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of transgressive phenotype in the segregating populations has been speculated to contribute to niche divergence of hybrid lineages, which occurs most frequently at larger genetic distances. Wild Lens species are considered to be more resistant against major biotic and abiotic stresses than that of the cultivated species. In the present study, we assessed the comparative agronomic performance of lentil (Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris inter-sub-specific (L. culinaris subsp. orientalis and interspecific (L. ervoides derivatives, also discussed its probable basis of occurrence. The F3, F4, and F5 inter sub-specific and interspecific populations of ILL8006 × ILWL62 and ILL10829 × ILWL30, respectively revealed a substantial range of variation for majority of agro-morphological traits as reflected by the range, mean and coefficient of variation. A high level of fruitful heterosis was also observed in F3 and F4 progeny for important traits of interest. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV was higher in magnitude than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV in all generations for several quantitative characters. The results showed high heritability estimates for majority of traits in conjunction with low to high genetic advance in F3 and F4 generations. Further, F5 progeny of ILL10829 × ILWL30, manifested resistant disease reaction for fifteen recombinant inbred lines (RILs against (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis (Vasd. Srin. Gord.. The multilocation agronomic evaluation of both crosses showed better results for earliness, desirable seed yield and Fusarium wilt resistance under two agro-ecological regions of north-western India. These better performing recombinants of ILL8006 × ILWL62 and ILL10829 × ILWL30 can be advanced for further genetic improvement and developing high yielding disease resistant cultivars of lentil.

  7. Identification of Acetobacter strains isolated from Indonesian sources, and proposals of Acetobacter syzygii sp. nov., Acetobacter cibinongensis sp. nov., and Acetobacter orientalis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisdiyanti, Puspita; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Seki, Tatsuji; Yamada, Yuzo; Uchimura, Tai; Komagata, Kazuo

    2001-06-01

    Forty-six strains of acetic acid bacteria newly isolated from flowers, fruits, and fermented foods collected in Indonesia were taxonomically studied. They were Gram-negative rods, produced acetic acid from ethanol, oxidized acetate and lactate to CO(2) and H(2)O, and had Q-9 as the major ubiquinone system. On the basis of DNA-DNA similarity, all strains studied, including type strains and reference strains of the genus Acetobacter, were separated into eleven groups (Groups I to XI). Of the 46 isolates, two isolates were included in Group II and identified as Acetobacter pasteurianus, five in Group IV as A. orleanensis, 16 in Group V as A. lovaniensis, five in Group VII as A. indonesiensis, and three in Group VIII as A. tropicalis. The remaining 15 isolates constituted three new groups based on DNA-DNA similarity; four isolates were included in Group IX, two in Group X, and nine in Group XI. No isolates were identified as A. aceti (Group I), A. peroxydans (Group III), and A. estunensis (Group VI). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences of representative strains of the Groups indicated belonging to the strains of the genus Acetobacter. On the basis of DNA base composition, DNA-DNA similarity, and 16S rDNA sequences, three new species of the genus Acetobacter are proposed: Acetobacter syzygii sp. nov. for Group IX, Acetobacter cibinongensis sp. nov. for Group X, and Acetobacter orientalis sp. nov. for Group XI. The distribution of Acetobacter strains in Indonesia is discussed in light of isolation sources.

  8. Hibernation impact on the catalytic activities of the mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase in liver and brain tissues of jerboa (Jaculus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiani Assia

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jerboa (Jaculus orientalis is a deep hibernating rodent native to subdesert highlands. During hibernation, a high level of ketone bodies i.e. acetoacetate (AcAc and D-3-hydroxybutyrate (BOH are produced in liver, which are used in brain as energetic fuel. These compounds are bioconverted by mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH E.C. 1.1.1.30. Here we report, the function and the expression of BDH in terms of catalytic activities, kinetic parameters, levels of protein and mRNA in both tissues i.e brain and liver, in relation to the hibernating process. Results We found that: 1/ In euthemic jerboa the specific activity in liver is 2.4- and 6.4- fold higher than in brain, respectively for AcAc reduction and for BOH oxidation. The same differences were found in the hibernation state. 2/ In euthermic jerboa, the Michaelis constants, KM BOH and KM NAD+ are different in liver and in brain while KM AcAc, KM NADH and the dissociation constants, KD NAD+and KD NADH are similar. 3/ During prehibernating state, as compared to euthermic state, the liver BDH activity is reduced by half, while kinetic constants are strongly increased except KD NAD+. 4/ During hibernating state, BDH activity is significantly enhanced, moreover, kinetic constants (KM and KD are strongly modified as compared to the euthermic state; i.e. KD NAD+ in liver and KM AcAc in brain decrease 5 and 3 times respectively, while KD NADH in brain strongly increases up to 5.6 fold. 5/ Both protein content and mRNA level of BDH remain unchanged during the cold adaptation process. Conclusions These results cumulatively explained and are consistent with the existence of two BDH enzymatic forms in the liver and the brain. The apoenzyme would be subjected to differential conformational folding depending on the hibernation state. This regulation could be a result of either post-translational modifications and/or a modification of the mitochondrial membrane state

  9. Effects of essential oils from Liquidambar orientalis Mill. leaves on growth performance, carcass and some organ traits, some blood metabolites and intestinal microbiota in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altop, A; Erener, G; Duru, M E; Isik, K

    2018-02-01

    1. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of liquidambar essential oils (LEO) isolated from Turkish sweet gum (Liquidambar orientalis Mill.) leaves on growth performance, carcass, edible inner organs (EIO), gastrointestinal traits (gut), some blood metabolites and jejunum microbiota in broilers. 2. A total of 375 one-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 5 pens with 15 birds. The birds were fed on diets without antibiotics (CONT), with antibiotic (50 mg per kg, AB), with LEOs at 0.0405 (0.04LEO), 0.0811 (0.08LEO) or 0.1622 (0.16LEO) g/kg feed up to 42 d of age. The levels of LEOs included to diets were determined according to in vitro antimicrobial activity. 3. From d 1 to 42, the 0.08LEO treatment had higher live weight gain (LWG) compared to others. The 0.08LEO treatment increased feed intake (FI) compared to the CONT, AB and 0.04LEO. However, the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of these birds was lower than those in the AB and 0.16LEO treatments. From 1 to 42 d of age for LWG, the effects were quadratic and cubic, while those for FI and FCR were cubic and quadratic, respectively. Birds that fed 0.08LEO and AB diets had higher and lower carcass weights (CW) than those that fed other diets. The effect of LEO levels was cubic on the CW. The 0.08LEO and 0.16LEO decreased abdominal fat (AF) weight compared to the AB. The blood cholesterol decreased by the 0.04LEO and 0.08LEO treatments compared to the CONT. For the blood cholesterol, the effects of LEO levels were cubic. The 0.08LEO treatments decreased Escherichia coli counts in jejunum compared to the CONT and 0.16LEO. 4. Feeding a diet with LEO at 0.0811 g/kg might increase the LWG, FI and weights of carcass and AF, whereas it might decrease blood cholesterol and E. coli counts without affecting blood high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, glucose, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase concentrations.

  10. Michael Lipsky, 'Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Service'

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson, L

    2015-01-01

    This Handbook brings together a collection of leading international authors to reflect on the influence of central contributions, or classics, that have shaped the development of the field of public policy and administration. The Handbook reflects on a wide range of key contributions to the field, selected on the basis of their international and wider disciplinary impact. Focusing on classics that contributed significantly to the field over the second half of the 20th century, it offers insig...

  11. Rôle de l'intensité lumineuse sur les capacités parasitaires d'Eupelmus orientalis Crawford et d'Eupelmus vuilleti Crawford, parasitoïdes des Bruchidae ravageurs de graines de niébé (Vigna unguiculata Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndoutoume-Ndong A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Role of light intensity on parasitic capacities of Eupelmus orientalis Crawford and Eupelmus vuilleti Crawford, parasitoids of Bruchidae pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp. seeds. In tropical Africa, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius is a cowpea pest. After the harvest, the disappearance of one of C. maculatus parasitoids (Eupelmus orientalis Crawford limits the duration of stocks conservation. In this study, we used an experimental model imitating the traditional african granaries taking into account the lack of airtightness and the variability of the internal luminous intensity of the different types of granaries. Three kinds of cages were used: cages with an internal luminous intensity of 380 lux, cages with an internal luminous intensity of 3.5 lux, and some others with an internal luminous intensity of 0.2 lux. Four little holes are pierced on the sides of each cage. Each hole was provided with a trap to catch the insects that escaped. Inside each cage, 20 E. orientalis and Eupelmus vuilleti Crawford nymphs were placed. In adult stage, the insects faced a choice of either to escape, or to stay in the cage and then parasitize available hosts. The trapped individuals as well as those remaining in the cage are sorted out by species. Available hosts in the cage which had parasites are also sorted out. The results show that the E. orientalis females born in the cage hardly parasitize available hosts and escape in majority compared to E. vuilleti which stay in the cages. In 380 lux cages, 19% of E. orientalis females escape compared to 6% of E. vuilleti. This percentage of evasion increases with the darkning of the enclosure. Thus, 62% of E. vuilleti females escape from the cages of 3.5 lux and only 11% escape from the cages of 0.2 lux. The majority of E. orientalis individuals escape right from birth, which therefore explains their disappearance from storage. This escape behaviour constitutes a factor limiting the use of this parasitoid as

  12. Negative Regulation of Abscisic Acid Signaling by the Fagus sylvatica FsPP2C1 Plays A Role in Seed Dormancy Regulation and Promotion of Seed Germination1

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Mary Paz; Rodríguez, Dolores; Nicolás, Carlos; Rodríguez, Pedro Luis; Nicolás, Gregorio; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2003-01-01

    FsPP2C1 was previously isolated from beech (Fagus sylvatica) seeds as a functional protein phosphatase type-2C (PP2C) with all the conserved features of these enzymes and high homology to ABI1, ABI2, and PP2CA, PP2Cs identified as negative regulators of ABA signaling. The expression of FsPP2C1 was induced upon abscisic acid (ABA) treatment and was also up-regulated during early weeks of stratification. Furthermore, this gene was specifically expressed in ABA-treated seeds and was hardly detectable in vegetative tissues. In this report, to provide genetic evidence on FsPP2C1 function in seed dormancy and germination, we used an overexpression approach in Arabidopsis because transgenic work is not feasible in beech. Constitutive expression of FsPP2C1 under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter confers ABA insensitivity in Arabidopsis seeds and, consequently, a reduced degree of seed dormancy. Additionally, transgenic 35S:FsPP2C1 plants are able to germinate under unfavorable conditions, as inhibitory concentrations of mannitol, NaCl, or paclobutrazol. In vegetative tissues, Arabidopsis FsPP2C1 transgenic plants show ABA-resistant early root growth and diminished induction of the ABA-response genes RAB18 and KIN2, but no effect on stomatal closure regulation. Seed and vegetative phenotypes of Arabidopsis 35S:FsPP2C1 plants suggest that FsPP2C1 negatively regulates ABA signaling. The ABA inducibility of FsPP2C1 expression, together with the transcript accumulation mainly in seeds, suggest that it could play an important role modulating ABA signaling in beechnuts through a negative feedback loop. Finally, we suggest that negative regulation of ABA signaling by FsPP2C1 is a factor contributing to promote the transition from seed dormancy to germination during early weeks of stratification. PMID:12970481

  13. Species effect on the water use efficiency of a mixed forest of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Belgium Ardennes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubie, Rémy; Heinesch, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc; Vincke, Caroline

    2010-05-01

    Induced by climate change, intensity and frequency of droughts should be more important for the next century. How does water availability affect the physiology of woody plants at the species and stand scale? Carbon and water vapour fluxes measurements of a mixed forest (deciduous and coniferous) were performed for over ten years by the eddy covariance method in Belgian Ardennes (Aubinet et al, 2001) as a part of the CarboEurope project. Whereas carbon fluxes have been analyzed in detailed and good estimations of the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) and Gross Primary Production (GPP) were obtained, a thorough analysis of water vapour fluxes remains to be done. Improving analysis of water vapour fluxes and monitoring species transpiration will contribute to the estimation of the water use efficiency, WUE, at both the species and stand scale. The WUE well characterizes the vegetation productivity and ecosystem response to environmental factors. It also allows evaluating the sensitivity of temperate woody species to drought. The species concerned are beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). Since summer 2009 we monitor and analyze each species water use by measuring sap flow with the thermal dissipation method (Granier, 1987). Results at the species level will then be upscaled and compared to stand water vapour fluxes measurements obtained by the eddy covariance methodology. Transpiration of each species will be analyzed in relation with their own phenological and ecophysiological attributes, ecosystem soil and atmospheric conditions, to clarify among others their behaviour in case of water deficit. Data are actually analysed, the presented results will concern the 2009, and a part of 2010 growing season.

  14. Feleucin-BO1: a novel antimicrobial non-apeptide amide from the skin secretion of the toad, Bombina orientalis, and design of a potent broad-spectrum synthetic analogue, feleucin-K3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaojuan; Du, Qiang; Li, Renjie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Guo, Can; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Feleucins-BV1 and -BV2 are recently described prototypes of a novel antimicrobial non-apeptide (AMP) family identified in the skin secretion of the bombinid toad, Bombina variegata. They are encoded on different precursors that also encode a novel bombinin. Here we describe the identification of feleucin-BO1 (FLGLLGSLLamide) which is co-encoded with a different novel bombinin, named feleucin precursor-associated bombinin (FPA-bombinin-BO), from the skin secretion of Bombina orientalis. Synthetic feleucin-BO1 displayed activity against a reference Gram-positive bacterium. Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 34 μm) but was inactive (> 250 μm) against the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, and the yeast, Candida albicans. This pattern of activity was similar to that of the prototypes. Design and synthesis of a cationicity-enhanced analogue, feleucin-K3 (F-K3), in which the amino acid residues at positions 3 (G), 6 (G) and 7 (S) of feleucin-BO1 were substituted with Lys (K) residues, resulted in a peptide with significantly enhanced potency and spectrum of activity. The MICs of F-K3 against the reference micro-organisms were 7 μm (S. aureus), 14 μm (E. coli) and 7 μm (C. albicans). These data indicate that the skin secretions of amphibians can continue to provide novel peptide templates for the rational design of analogues with possible therapeutic utility. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Ecological species group—Environmental factors relationships in unharvested beech forests in the north of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Naghi Adel; Hassan Pourbabaei; Daniel C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Beech forests are the richest forest community in Iran because they are both economically and environmentally valuable. The greatest forest volume occurs in Iran's beech forests. Forests dominated by oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipskey) cover about 565,000 ha and represent the total area of indigenous forests in Guilan Province. A system...

  16. Ecological species group—Environmental factors relationships in unharvested beech forests in the north of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Naghi Adel; Hassan Pourbabaei; Daniel C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Beech forests are the richest forest community in Iran because they are both economically and environmentally valuable. The greatest forest volume occurs in Iran's beech forests. Forests dominated by oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipskey) cover about 565,000 ha and represent the total area of indigenous forests in Guilan Province. A system for classifying beech...

  17. Effects of application methods and species of wood on color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the color effects of wood materials to coloring with different application methods (brush, roller sponge and spray gun) and waterborne varnishes were investigated according to ASTM-D 2244. For this purpose, the experimental samples of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.), oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and ...

  18. Partitioning and analyzing temporal variability of wash and bed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    leads to reduction in storage capacity of dams, increases flood risk, deteriorates water quality and ultimately results .... results showed that the capacity of bed material load transport was controlled by hydraulic conditions ... oped mainly for livestock grazing in uplands. Land covers comprise Fagus orientalis, Alnus sp., Acer.

  19. Separation and purification of bovine serum albumin binders from Fructus polygoni orientalis using off-line two-dimensional complexation high-speed counter-current chromatography target-guided by ligand fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Shi, Shuyun; Liu, Liangliang; Yang, Hua; Su, Wen; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2013-08-23

    In this study, off-line two-dimensional (2D) complexation high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was developed for the separation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) binders from the ethyl acetate extract of Fructus polygoni orientalis. Target-guided strategy of BSA functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ((BSA-Fe3O4 MNPs)-HPLC-MS/MS) experiment was proposed. In the orthogonal separation system, a Normal-Phase HSCCC with 0.01mol/L copper ion as complexation agent in the aqueous phase was employed for the first dimension and Recycling HSCCC, Reverse-Phase HSCCC with 0.1mol/L copper ion were used for the second dimension in parallel. Including two pairs of cis-trans isomers, seven BSA binders including 3,5,7-Trihydroxychromone (1), taxifolin (2), N-cis-paprazine (3), N-cis-feruloyltyramine (4), N-trans-paprazine (5), N-trans-feruloyltyramine (6) and an unidentified compound (7) were obtained. The purities of these seven compounds were all over 95.0% as determined by HPLC. The complexation HSCCC behaviors of seven compounds were also investigated by studying their relationship with copper ion. Results showed that the combinative method using (BSA-Fe3O4 MNPs)-HPLC and HSCCC is a quick, efficient, and reproductive technique to isolate potentially bioactive compounds from the complex mixture system of natural products. And the usage of off-line 2D-HSCCC and introduction of chelating metal ion into solvent system are effective ways to implement HSCCC separations in complex samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pengaruh Orientalis terhadap Liberalisasi Pemikiran Islam

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    Abbas Mansur Tammam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization of Islamic thought, which is considered and proclaimed as “renewal of Islamic thought,” did not come from the core concepts of Islam, it came from the outside of Islamic concepts (read: Western. Initially, the Western-Christian liberalism is an extension of the sophism, with ever implicated in Greece. Among the important figures is Heraclitus, Democritos and Protagoras. Although they received fierce opposition from Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, but liberalism got a new fresh air in the heyday of the Roman. This sophism trend, later gave birth to the relativism of truth, which is also the spirit of liberalism itself. Worse, liberalism was brought to Islam, the emergence of which can be traced to the Arabian Peninsula, Albania, and Syria. While in Egypt, Sultan Abdul Hamid II gave a note that a few Egyptian stunned with Western ideas, taking liberalism as a way of salvation. By using justifications of Qur’anic verses and hadiths, interpreted unilaterally, the liberalist thought was a tajdid to Islamic thought. The spirit (power of liberalism is in the distribution process of using old methods, that is the tradition of orientalism, misionarism, and imperialism. The basis of liberalist support can be traced to some of the states concerned with it, such as the United States, Britain and France. Finally, this simple article will briefly try to uncover how this all happened.

  1. Kritik Makna Islam Perspektif Orientalis dan Liberal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsi Wal Qamar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Islam is a name religion with clear explanation based on the arguments that are normative and historically, the Qur’an, Hadith and history of preaching Prophet Muhammad when spread this religion. Of course this naming is permanent so it will not be changed until the end of time later. But for Wilfreid Cantwell Smith and Muhammad Shahrur which are the thinkers of the West and the Muslim Orientalist Liberals are trying to recontruction naming them. For Smith, Islam is only submission to God to be obedient and submissive to the shari’ah religion are shared by humans, as judging that the word Islam is derived from the word aslama means surrender or submission. Meanwhile, according Shahrur, Islam is taught by the shari’ah of the Prophet Muhammad who was also taught by the previous Prophets such as Abraham, Moses, Jesus and others. So according Shahrur Muslim person can be said without having to follow and believe in the Shari’ah as taught by the Prophet Muhammad. From this a second thought leaders cause various problems, such as Islamic religious truth is relative or inclusive or decontructed concept and the Shari’ah of Islam. So in this paper the authors will describe how Smith and Shahrur view of the meaning of Islam, the background of their thinking and their implications for the Islamic religion, and a refutation of their thinking.

  2. Smoke damage from the copper-smelting works in Murgul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acatay, A.

    1968-01-01

    As a result of studies in woodland near the source of pollution, species are ranged in order of increasing sensitivity: for hardwoods--Buxus sempervirens, Quercus sessiliflora, Ulmus campestris, Robinia pseudoacacia, Fagus orientalis, Diospyros lotus, Tilia sp., Populus tremula, Betula verrucosa, alnus glabra, Carpinus spp., Fraxinus spp, Sorbus aucuparia, Corylus avellana, Castanea sativa, Ostrya carpinifolia, and Juglans regia (very sensitive); and for conifers--Taxus baccata, Pinus spp., Picea spp., Cedrus spp., and Abies spp. 4 references, 11 figures.

  3. Effect of epoxy resin on bending momentum in L type corner joins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri Yıldırım

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the furniture industry, the joining points of frame and box construction furniture according to the loads to be affected by the use place is important for the security of the user and service life of the furniture element. In this direction, it is aimed to determine the diagonal compression and diagonal tensile moment values of "L" type corner joints of box framed construction furniture prepared from solid wood materials. The Pinus Nigra, Fagus Orientalis L and Populus Nigra were used as solid wood materials. Wood-based biscuit joining elements were used in corner joints of the test construction and epoxy resin was used as glue for materials. The static loads were applied to construction according to ASTM-D1037. The results show that, the highest tensile and compression values were obtained from Fagus Orientalis L and the lowest values were obtained from Populus Nigra specimens. In the statistical study, the difference between the tensile and compressive bending moment values of the biscuit connection element was found to be statistically significant. This study indicates that, it is suggested to use of L type joints prepared from Fagus Orientalis L by using epoxy resin and wood based biscuit joining element in frame constructions.

  4. Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, M.; Hahn, K.; Mountford, E.P.; Ódor, P.; Standovár, T.; Rozenbergar, D.; Diaci, J.; Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meyer, P.; Winter, S.; Vrska, T.

    2005-01-01

    Data were analysed on the volume of dead wood in 86 beech forest reserves, covering most of the range of European beech forests. The mean volume was 130 m3/ha and the variation among reserves was high, ranging from almost nil to 550 m3/ha. The volume depended significantly on forest type, age since

  5. Investigation of Different Forest Type’s Structure with Applying Nearest Neighbor Indices (Case Study: Gorazon District, Kheyrud Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Alijani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To implement correct management of forest ecosystems, enough information in relation to the structures of tree species is necessary. In this study, the structures of trees species in Fagus, Fagus-Carpinus, Carpinus-Fagus and Carpinus-Quercus types were investigated and compared in Hyrcanian forest. The data used in this study was collected from 239 plots with an area of 1000 m2 in Gorazbon district of Kheyrud forest, and Crancod (ver. 1.3 software was employed to calculate the uniform angle (Wi, Mingling (DMi, DBH dominance (TDi and Height dominance (THi indices. The result of uniform angle index showed a random positioning for the trees in the studied types. Also, the result of mingling index showed a low mixture for four studied types. The result of this index indicated an intra-specific competition for Fagus orientalis and Carpinus betulus and an inter-specific competition for other species. The average value of DBH and Height dominance indices showed a relative similarity among the studied types. The result of these indices showed that some species such as Acer velutinum,، Tilia begonifolia and Alnus subcordata are dominant and species including Ulmus glabra and Diospyros lotus are dominated. The comparing of similar species structure showed a non significant difference for positioning, DBH and height dominance features in different types. Also, this comparison showed a significant difference in mingling feature of Carpinus betulus, Fagus orientalis, Acer velutinum, Tilia begonifolia, and also deadwoods in the studied types. The utilized indices in this study had a high ability in the description of forest types' structures and also the ecological features of trees species.

  6. Variation of seed protein of Alkanna orientalis subpopulations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geographically, the first four sites are closed wadi systems (narrow wadi beds bounded by high mountains) and hence probably having very restricted gene flow with each other, while the last two sites (El-Rasis and El-Sheikh) are open flat areas expected to be subjected to occasional gene flow via seed transport from the ...

  7. Implikasi Sejarah Transmisi Al-Qur’an Terhadap kerja Orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mabrur Barizi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to explore and trace the history of the Qur'an especially regarding the transmission of the Qur'an in the perspective of insider (Muslim and outsider (orientalist. Both of these perspectives need to be studied deeply and proportionally in order to the horizon of the study of the Qur'an continue to be dynamic and progressive, although sometimes the study conducted by the outsider is not in line with the views of Muslim scholars. It can be seen from the thesis proposed by A. Jeffery and John Wansbrough. From the results of the study it could be concluded that both A. Jeffery and John Wansbrough read the Qur'an by the same method applied to the bible (bible criticism, such as historical criticism, source criticism, form criticism and textual criticism, this kind of perspective would have implications against the text of the Qur'an as plain text. Both A. Jeffery and John Wansbrough argued that they were not convinced of the existence of the Qur'anic set on the basis of the absence of the Prophet's attempt to gather until he died. While other orientalists like Angelika Neuwirth had a different perspective regarding the writing and codification of the Qur'an. She argued that since the time of the Prophet already contained the writing of the Qur'an. The differences of view among the orientalists became a proof that the study of the Qur’an among outsiders was not always negative and polemic.

  8. The Role of Cockroaches ( Blatta Orientalis and Periplaneta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the parasitic profile of cockroaches caught in various sections of many houses in Owerri. A total of 340 cockroaches trapped from different sites (toilet, kitchen, store room and living room) were examined using standard parasitological techniques which included washing and examination of the ...

  9. Species relationships and divergence times in beeches: new insights from the inclusion of 53 young and old fossils in a birth-death clock model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, S S; Grimm, Guido W; Kapli, Paschalia; Denk, Thomas

    2016-07-19

    The fossilized birth-death (FBD) model can make use of information contained in multiple fossils representing the same clade, and we here apply this model to infer divergence times in beeches (genus Fagus), using 53 fossils and nuclear sequences for all nine species. We also apply FBD dating to the fern clade Osmundaceae, with about 12 living species and 36 fossils. Fagus nuclear sequences cannot be aligned with those of other Fagaceae, and we therefore use Bayes factors to choose among alternative root positions. The crown group of Fagus is dated to 53 (62-43) Ma; divergence of the sole American species to 44 (51-39) Ma and divergence between Central European F. sylvatica and Eastern Mediterranean F. orientalis to 8.7 (20-1.8) Ma, unexpectedly old. The FBD model can accommodate fossils as sampled ancestors or as extinct or unobserved lineages; however, this makes its raw output, which shows all fossils on short or long branches, problematic to interpret. We use hand-drawn depictions and a bipartition network to illustrate the uncertain placements of fossils. Inferred speciation and extinction rates imply approximately 5× higher evolutionary turnover in Fagus than in Osmundaceae, fitting a hypothesized low turnover in plants adapted to low-nutrient conditions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Species relationships and divergence times in beeches: new insights from the inclusion of 53 young and old fossils in a birth–death clock model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapli, Paschalia; Denk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The fossilized birth–death (FBD) model can make use of information contained in multiple fossils representing the same clade, and we here apply this model to infer divergence times in beeches (genus Fagus), using 53 fossils and nuclear sequences for all nine species. We also apply FBD dating to the fern clade Osmundaceae, with about 12 living species and 36 fossils. Fagus nuclear sequences cannot be aligned with those of other Fagaceae, and we therefore use Bayes factors to choose among alternative root positions. The crown group of Fagus is dated to 53 (62–43) Ma; divergence of the sole American species to 44 (51–39) Ma and divergence between Central European F. sylvatica and Eastern Mediterranean F. orientalis to 8.7 (20–1.8) Ma, unexpectedly old. The FBD model can accommodate fossils as sampled ancestors or as extinct or unobserved lineages; however, this makes its raw output, which shows all fossils on short or long branches, problematic to interpret. We use hand-drawn depictions and a bipartition network to illustrate the uncertain placements of fossils. Inferred speciation and extinction rates imply approximately 5× higher evolutionary turnover in Fagus than in Osmundaceae, fitting a hypothesized low turnover in plants adapted to low-nutrient conditions. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325832

  11. POTENSI TUMBUHAN BANGKAL (Nauclea Orientalis UNTUK PENGENDALIAN BAKTERI Aeromonas Hydrophila (POTENTIAL PLANT BANGKAL (Nauclea orientalis FOR CONTROL Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisiah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah didapatkan metode pengendalian penyakit yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila pada budi daya ikan yang ramah lingkungan. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan uji sensitivitas terhadap bakteri A. hydrophila, uji minimal konsentrasi menghambat  bakteri A. hydrophila (uji MIC dan uji toksisitas terhadap ikan nila. Rancangan  yang digunakan untuk  uji toksisitas  adalah rancangan acak lengkap (RAL, dengan 4 perlakuan yaitu A  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak bangkal konsentrasi 20%, B  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak bangkal konsentrasi 40%,  C  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak bangkal konsentrasi 80%, dan D  = Kontrol (ikan tidak disuntik, diulang sebanyak 3 kali. Perlakuan ini didapat dari hasil uji sensitivitas antibakteri bangkal yang mempunyai daya hambat dan daya bunuh paling besar terhadap bakteri A. hydrophila yaitu ekstrak daun bangkal dengan pelarut akuades. Pengujian MIC menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak bangkal-akuades memiliki daya hambat minimal  20 % terhadap aktivitas bakteri A. hydrophila. Hasil uji toksisitas yang dilakukan terhadap ikan nila dengan konsentrasi 20%, 40% dan 80%  mortalitas ikan nila dibawah 50 %. Pengamatan hematologis yaitu eretrosit, leokosit, plasma darah, hematokrit dan leokokrit pada masing-masing perlakuan sebagian besar masih berada dalam kisaran yang normal. Parameter kualitas air yaitu, kadar oksigen terlarut,  pH, amoniak, CO2 dan suhu masih dapat mendukung kehidupan normal ikan nila. The purpose of this study was obtained method of controlling diseases caused by Aeromonas hydrophila in fish farming is environmentally friendly. In this study the sensitivity of the test  A. hydrophila, a minimum test konsentari inhibiting A. hydrophila (MIC test and toxicity test on  tilapia. The design used for toxicity tests is completely randomized design with 4 treatments it A = Fish injected with extracts bangkal concentration of 20 %,  B = Fish injected with extracts bangkal concentration of 40 %, C = Fish injected with extracts of 80 % concentration bangkal, and D = Control ( fish not injected , repeated 3 times. This treatment was obtained from the results of the sensitivity test antibacterial bangkal inhibition and has the power to kill most of the bacteria against A. hydrophila is bangkal leaf extract with distilled water solvent. MIC testing showed that the extract bangkal - distilled water has a minimum of 20 % inhibition of the bacterial activity A. hydrophila. Results of toxicity tests conducted on tilapia with a concentration of 20 %, 40 % and 80 % mortality of tilapia under 50 %. Haematological observation that eretrosit, leokosit, blood plasm, hematocrit and leokokrit in each treatment is still in the normal range. The water quality parameters, dissolved oxygen, pH, ammonia, CO2 and temperature can still support the normal life of tilapia.

  12. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARZAM TAVANKAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  13. Comparison of Pollen Production and Quality Characteristics of Cultivated and Wild Almond Species Comparación de Producción y Características de Calidad del Polen de Especies de Almendro Cultivadas y Silvestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safder Bayazit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There are several wild almond species in Turkey included Amygdalus orientalis (Mill., Amygdalus turcomanica (Lincz., Amygdalus fenzliana (Fritsch Lipsky, Amygdalus trichamygdalus (Hand.-Mazz. Woronow, Amygdalus arabica (Olivier, and Amygdalus webbii (Spach. These species offer a great value for the almond improvement; we studied the pollen viability, germination ratio and pollen yield for seven genotypes of A. orientalis, seven genotypes of A. turcomanica all growing under natural conditions in Southeastern Anatolia (Gaziantep and §anliurfa provinces, Turkey. Almond cultivars (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D.A. Webb obtained from Pozanti Agricultural Experimental Station, Cukurova University, were also used in the experiment. The pollen viabilities of various almond genotypes were determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC and fluorescein diacetate (FDA tests. At the end, pollen germination ratios were established according to Petri dishes method in vitro conditions (1% agar + 0, 10, 15 and 20% sucrose while pollen yield was estimated with hemacytometric methods. The results indicated that pollen viability ratios were close to each other in both methods for the genotypes A. orientalis and A. turcomanica. Pollen germination ratios were found to be dependent on the sucrose content as well as on the genotypes used. The pollen of almond cultivars showed similar germination ratios in all of the sucrose concentrations while those pollens of A. orientalis and A. turcomanica genotypes displayed higher germination ratios in 10% sucrose. The number of anthers in one flower was higher in cultivars whereas the number of pollen grains was lower in other almond species. While the number of pollen grains in one flower was relatively high in A. orientalis genotypes, pollen quality was high in all the three species under research. The results suggested that these two species, namely A. orientalis and A. turcomanica could be employed for future almond

  14. Comparisons of protein profiles of beech bark disease resistant and susceptible American beech (Fagus grandifolia

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    Mason Mary E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beech bark disease is an insect-fungus complex that damages and often kills American beech trees and has major ecological and economic impacts on forests of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canadian forests. The disease begins when exotic beech scale insects feed on the bark of trees, and is followed by infection of damaged bark tissues by one of the Neonectria species of fungi. Proteomic analysis was conducted of beech bark proteins from diseased trees and healthy trees in areas heavily infested with beech bark disease. All of the diseased trees had signs of Neonectria infection such as cankers or fruiting bodies. In previous tests reported elsewhere, all of the diseased trees were demonstrated to be susceptible to the scale insect and all of the healthy trees were demonstrated to be resistant to the scale insect. Sixteen trees were sampled from eight geographically isolated stands, the sample consisting of 10 healthy (scale-resistant and 6 diseased/infested (scale-susceptible trees. Results Proteins were extracted from each tree and analysed in triplicate by isoelectric focusing followed by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Gels were stained and protein spots identified and intensity quantified, then a statistical model was fit to identify significant differences between trees. A subset of BBD differential proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry and matched to known protein sequences for identification. Identified proteins had homology to stress, insect, and pathogen related proteins in other plant systems. Protein spots significantly different in diseased and healthy trees having no stand or disease-by-stand interaction effects were identified. Conclusions Further study of these proteins should help to understand processes critical to resistance to beech bark disease and to develop biomarkers for use in tree breeding programs and for the selection of resistant trees prior to or in early stages of BBD development in stands. Early identification of resistant trees (prior to the full disease development in an area will allow forest management through the removal of susceptible trees and their root-sprouts prior to the onset of disease, allowing management and mitigation of costs, economic impact, and impacts on ecological systems and services.

  15. Mapping beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest structure with airborne hyperspectral imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available improvement in estimating the beech forest structural attributes compared to NDVI using linear regression models. Mean DBH was the best predicted variable among the stand parameters (calibration R2 = 0.62 for an exponential model fit and standard error...

  16. Transfer Analysis of Provenance Trials Reveals Macroclimatic Adaptedness of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RASZTOVITS, Ervin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse provenance tests of beech situated close to theSoutheastern-continental limits of the species, in order to develop a response model of adaptation andplasticity of populations on evolutionary-ecological basis, following sudden climatic changes as aresult of transplanting. Modelling of juvenile height was performed with the help of ecodistancevariables. The concept of transfer analysis and ecodistance is based on the hypothesis that phenotypicresponse to macroclimatic changes depends on the inherited adaptive potential of the population andon the magnitude and direction of experienced environmental change. In common garden experiments,the transfer to the planting site is interpreted as simulation of environmental change. The applicationof ecodistance of transfer for evaluating common garden experiments provides much neededquantitative information about response of tree populations to predicted climatic changes.The analysis of three field experiments of European beech in SE Europe invalidate earlier doubtsabout the existence of macroclimatic adaptation patterns in juvenile growth and justify restrictions ofuse of reproductive material on the basis of evolutionary ecology. The presented model illustrates thatresponse to climatic change is regionally divergent, depending on testing conditions and on hereditarytraits. In particular, climatic warming in the central-northern part of the range may lead to productionincrease. However, under the stressful and uncertain conditions at the lower (xeric limit of thespecies, growth depression and vitality loss are predicted. The deviating behaviour of higher elevationprovenances support their separate treatment.The results may be utilised in climate change adaptation and mitigation policy in forestry andnature conservation, to revise rules for use of reproductive material and also for validatingevolutionary and ecological hypotheses related to climate change effects.

  17. Mapping beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest structure with airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, M.A.; Skidmore, A.K.; Sobhan, I.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating forest structural attributes using multispectral remote sensing is challenging because of the saturation of multispectral indices at high canopy cover. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral data in estimating and mapping forest structural parameters

  18. Fagus sylvatica L. provenances maintain different leaf metabolic profiles and functional response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Ismael; Sánchez-Gómez, David; de Miguel, Marina; Mancha, Jose Antonio; Guevara, María Angeles; Cadahía, Estrella; Fernández de Simón, María Brígida

    2017-07-01

    Most temperate forest tree species will suffer important environmental changes as result of the climate change. Adaptiveness to local conditions could change at different sites in the future. In this context, the study of intra-specific variability is important to clarify the singularity of different local populations. Phenotypic differentiation between three beech provenances covering a wide latitudinal range (Spain/ES, Germany/DE and Sweden/SE), was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Non-target leaf metabolite profiles and ecophysiological response was analyzed in well-watered and water stressed seedlings. There was a provenance-specific pattern in the relative concentrations of some leaf metabolites regardless watering treatment. The DE and SE from the center and north of the distribution area of the species showed a clear differentiation from the ES provenance in the relative concentration of some metabolites. Thus the ES provenance from the south maintained larger relative concentration of some organic and amino acids (e.g. fumaric and succinic acids or valine and isoleucine), and in some secondary metabolites (e.g. kaempferol, caffeic and ferulic acids). The ecophysiological response to mild water stress was similar among the three provenances as a consequence of the moderate water stress applied to seedlings, although leaf N isotope composition (δ15N) and leaf C:N ratio were higher and lower respectively in DE than in the other two provenances. This would suggest potential differences in the capacity to uptake and post-process nitrogen according to provenance. An important focus of the study was to address for the first time inter-provenance leaf metabolic diversity in beech from a non-targeted metabolic profiling approach that allowed differentiation of the three studied provenances.

  19. Photosynthetic UV-B response of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) samplings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šprtová, Miroslava; Špunda, V.; Kalina, J.; Marek, Michal V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (2003), s. 533-543 ISSN 0300-3604 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A141; GA AV ČR IBS6087005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : carotenoids * chlorophyll a fluorescence * photosystem 2 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.661, year: 2003

  20. The influence of regeneration fellings on the development of artificially regenerated beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) plantations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednář, Pavel; Černý, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 5 (2014), s. 859-867 ISSN 1211-8516 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : European beech * regeneration felling * artificial regeneration * height * DBH – the diameter at breast-height * quality * ISF – Indirect Site Factor Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  1. Competition for nitrogen between Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus seedlings depends on soil nitrogen availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Competition for nitrogen (N), particularly in resource-limited habitats, might be avoided by different N acquisition strategies of plants. In our study, we investigated whether slow-growing European beech and fast-growing sycamore maple seedlings avoid competition for growth-limiting N by different N uptake patterns and the potential alteration by soil N availability in a microcosm experiment. We quantified growth and biomass indices, 15N uptake capacity and N pools in the fine roots. Overall, growth indices, N acquisition and N pools in the fine roots were influenced by species-specific competition depending on soil N availability. With inter-specific competition, growth of sycamore maple reduced regardless of soil N supply, whereas beech only showed reduced growth when N was limited. Both species responded to inter-specific competition by alteration of N pools in the fine roots; however, sycamore maple showed a stronger response compared to beech for almost all N pools in roots, except for structural N at low soil N availability. Beech generally preferred organic N acquisition while sycamore maple took up more inorganic N. Furthermore, with inter-specific competition, beech had an enhanced organic N uptake capacity, while in sycamore maple inorganic N uptake capacity was impaired by the presence of beech. Although sycamore maple could tolerate the suboptimal conditions at the cost of reduced growth, our study indicates its reduced competitive ability for N compared to beech. PMID:25983738

  2. Ecological, Typological Properties and Photosynthetic Activity (FAPAR of Common Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Ecosystems in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pilaš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the structural and functional properties of common beech forest ecosystems in Croatia across a wide macro-climatic gradient (Mediterranean, Alpine and Continental and to gain insight into the ways they adapt to progressing short-term climatic extremes and anomalies. Material and Methods: Research was undertaken by integration of the expert based, country scale typological delineation of 13 beech ecosystem types, climatic and topographic grids and indices of ecosystem performances such as the JRC FAPAR (Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation. Results: This study reveals preferential environmental conditions for beech ecosystem types together with limiting conditions in three margins of the beech distribution area: highest altitudinal zone, south-eastern continental Pannonian zone and the Mediterranean. The results show that the common beech can adapt to a very wide range of environmental conditions: annual mean temperatures from 2.1oC to 13.5oC, annual precipitation from 739 mm to 3444 mm, and altitudinal range from 20.3 m up to 1576 m above sea level. FAPAR reveals some new insight into the adaptive potential and response mechanisms of the common beech to emerging climate change. Conclusion: The common beech has great potential to adapt to increasing spring warming by a preterm shift of phenology onset and retain relatively stable productivity during the phenology peak in July and August, unrelated to external climatic forcing. These findings indicate that the flexibility of phenological timing, especially during springtime, present one of the important mechanisms of adaptation and resilience of the common beech.

  3. Ecological, Typological Properties and Photosynthetic Activity (FAPAR of Common Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Ecosystems in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pilaš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the structural and functional properties of common beech forest ecosystems in Croatia across a wide macro-climatic gradient (Mediterranean, Alpine and Continental and to gain insight into the ways they adapt to progressing short-term climatic extremes and anomalies. Material and Methods: Research was undertaken by integration of the expert based, country scale typological delineation of 13 beech ecosystem types, climatic and topographic grids and indices of ecosystem performances such as the JRC FAPAR (Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation. Results: This study reveals preferential environmental conditions for beech ecosystem types together with limiting conditions in three margins of the beech distribution area: highest altitudinal zone, south-eastern continental Pannonian zone and the Mediterranean. The results show that the common beech can adapt to a very wide range of environmental conditions: annual mean temperatures from 2.1oC to 13.5oC, annual precipitation from 739 mm to 3444 mm, and altitudinal range from 20.3 m up to 1576 m above sea level. FAPAR reveals some new insight into the adaptive potential and response mechanisms of the common beech to emerging climate change. Conclusion: The common beech has great potential to adapt to increasing spring warming by a preterm shift of phenology onset and retain relatively stable productivity during the phenology peak in July and August, unrelated to external climatic forcing. These findings indicate that the flexibility of phenological timing, especially during springtime, present one of the important mechanisms of adaptation and resilience of the common beech.

  4. Colour and Form in Planting Design; Preferences of Landscape Architecture Students in the Use of Turkish Sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis and Oriental Plane (Platanus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Kösa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants are important elements in landscape design and add to different aesthetic and functional properties to spaces. Color and form are the most important and prior aesthetic properties of the plants that play greater role in plant related landscape designs. In this study, perception of Oriental Plane and Turkish Sweet gum trees by landscape architecture students was evaluated as well as the role of professional knowledge and experiences of the students in their perceptions that they have gain in 4 different classes during their education. Students were asked to assess the photos of two tree species taken in autumn and spring showing their forms and colors. Accordingly there were differences between perceptions of landscape architecture students and their state of being different classes which relates to their built knowledge on identifying plants and their use in planting design which also shown by statistical significance between lectures that the students were taken and perception they made.

  5. Study on Adhesion Strength of clear Coatings in Beech -Furfuryl alcohol wood polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisona Talaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the influence of Furfurylation treatment on adhesion strength of clear coatings and surface roughness of Beech (Fagus orientalis wood. Furfurylation of specimens were performed by impregnation and heat catalyze up to 20% and 65% weight percent gain. Half of the specimens coated with acid catalyst paint and half of them coated with polyurethane based paint. Surface roughness and adhesion strength (Pull-off and cross-hatch cutter test were analysed and compared to untreated specimens. Results revealed that 20% furfurylated specimens did not show significant difference in roughness and adhesion strength, compared to untreated control. But 65% furfurylated specimens caused decline in adhesion strength and raise in surface roughness. Polyurethane based paint had better efficiency and adhesion strength than acid catalyst paint. The highest adhesion strength observed in 20% furfurylated specimens coated with polyurethane and the least obtained in 65% furfurylated wood coated with acid catalyst paint.

  6. Effect furfurylation on physical properties and surface quality of two species of Beech and Fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aysona talai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was investigation of furfurylation effect on water absorption, thickness swelling, contact angle and surface roughness in two species such as beech (Fagus orientalis and fir (Abies alba. In this regard, two different values of furfurylation of beech and fir wood specimens in the form of low level and high level were carried out and compared with control specimens. The furfurylation was carried out with impregnation under pressure and polymerization of furfuryl alcohol monomer with heat catalyst. For evaluating the water absorption and thickness swelling, specimens were subjected to long-term water immersion, and their dimension changes were determined at different times. The surface roughness and contact angle testes were also carried out. Results indicated that water absorption and thickness swelling were reduced. Results also indicated that drop contact angles were decreased and surface roughness were increased by increasing of furfurylation level.

  7. La parabola: radici orientali ed echi occidentali di una forma narrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Lo Vecchio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The parable was born in the East among the Jews as a form of oral narrative, the māšāl, codified in writing in the Torah later and imported to the West by Christianity through the parables of Jesus. While Christian tradition was dogmatizing it, Jewish culture preserved the parable from the theological crystallization of the Holy Scriptures, using it both in a religious and secular context. The purpose of this article is to investigate the parable as borderform in its original structure, analyzing how it works through the tools of Biblical exegesis and literary philology. Examining the biblical māšāl, the paper reveals that, unlike how the Christian tradition intends the parables of Jesus, the Jewish parable is not a closed text, unintelligible without faith, but an example of the Benjamin’s Kunst des Erzählens, a text that is open and susceptible to amplification and change, deeply rooted in reality. A border culture between East and West, such as the Yiddish culture, has used the parable to tell of the rabbinic Wisdom, the experience of life accrued over the centuries by the Jews of Eastern Europe, and has handed this literary form down to the West through authors of Jewish heritage such as Kafka, thereby freeing it from its Christian dogma.

  8. Lysiphlebus orientalis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), a new invasive aphid parasitoid in Europe – evidence from molecular markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrović, A.; Mitrović, M.; Starý, Petr; Petrović-Obradović, O.; Žikić, V.; Tomanović, Ž.; Vorburger, C.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 4 (2013), s. 451-457 ISSN 0007-4853 Grant - others:Swiss National Science Foundation(CH) IZ73Z0_1_28174; Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia(RS) 43001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : new invasive species * Serbia * DNA barcoding Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.895, year: 2013

  9. Vestite alla turchesca. Travestimenti orientali nella drammaturgia italiana e francese tra Sei e Settecento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Agostino Moretti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Da secoli il Mar Mediterraneo rappresenta un confine tra due mondi. Gli orientalisti li chiamavano e continuano a chiamarli mondo “arabo” e mondo “cristiano”. Questo contributo vuole mostrare come, in tempi non sospetti, l’Italia rappresentasse un ponte tra queste due culture. Grazie agli strumenti della storiografia contemporanea, attenta alla vita quotidiana e agli “archivi del corpo”, scopriamo che durante il XVI e il XVII secolo gli incontri tra musulmani e cristiani fossero molto frequenti e spesso felici. Il teatro comico italiano fu il genere letterario che, prima e meglio di ogni altro, riuscì a cogliere e a descrivere tale fenomeno con tutte le implicazioni politiche, religiose e identitarie, restituendone in pieno uno degli elementi sovente sottaciuti e censurati, ovvero la perturbante carica erotica del “diverso”. Uno degli espedienti che riassumono con maggiore efficacia questo  rapporto identitario e culturale è rappresentato dall’uso del travestimento. Paragonando alcune commedie italiane della prima metà del Seicento con il teatro “orientalista” di Bonarelli, Molière e Goldoni, possiamo osservare la nascita e la crescita di una visione stereotipata e libresca dell’altro, là dove i “panni turcheschi” generavano negli spettatori paura e desiderio.

  10. Temperature effects on metabolic rate of juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Jason M; Morrissette, Jeffery M; Farwell, Charles J; Price, Matthew; Schallert, Robert J; Block, Barbara A

    2007-12-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna inhabit a wide range of thermal environments across the Pacific ocean. To examine how metabolism varies across this thermal range, we studied the effect of ambient water temperature on metabolic rate of juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, swimming in a swim tunnel. Rate of oxygen consumption (MO2) was measured at ambient temperatures of 8-25 degrees C and swimming speeds of 0.75-1.75 body lengths (BL) s(-1). Pacific bluefin swimming at 1 BL s(-1) per second exhibited a U-shaped curve of metabolic rate vs ambient temperature, with a thermal minimum zone between 15 degrees C to 20 degrees C. Minimum MO2 of 175+/-29 mg kg(-1) h(-1) was recorded at 15 degrees C, while both cold and warm temperatures resulted in increased metabolic rates of 331+/-62 mg kg(-1) h(-1) at 8 degrees C and 256+/-19 mg kg(-1) h(-1) at 25 degrees C. Tailbeat frequencies were negatively correlated with ambient temperature. Additional experiments indicated that the increase in MO2 at low temperature occurred only at low swimming speeds. Ambient water temperature data from electronic tags implanted in wild fish indicate that Pacific bluefin of similar size to the experimental fish used in the swim tunnel spend most of their time in ambient temperatures in the metabolic thermal minimum zone.

  11. Movements of pacific bluefin tuna ( Thunnus orientalis) in the Eastern North Pacific revealed with archival tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustany, Andre M.; Matteson, Robyn; Castleton, Michael; Farwell, Charles; Block, Barbara A.

    2010-07-01

    In this study, 253 Pacific bluefin tuna were archivally tagged off the coast of California, USA and Baja California, Mexico between August 2002 and August 2005. One hundred and fifty-seven fish were recaptured and 143 datasets were obtained and analyzed, yielding electronic tag datasets of up to 1203 days. Mean days at large for the 143 fish was 359 ± 248 (SD) days. A total of 38,012 geolocations were calculated from light-based longitude and SST-based latitude estimates, allowing us to examine the seasonal movement of juvenile bluefin tuna off the west coast of North America. Electronic tagged bluefin tuna showed repeatable seasonal movements along the west coast of North America. Bluefin tuna were found farthest south in the spring when they were located off southern Baja California, Mexico and farthest north in the fall when fish were found predominately off central and northern California. Fish showed latitudinal movement patterns that were correlated with peaks in coastal upwelling-induced primary productivity. Interannual variation in the locality of these productivity peaks was linked with a corresponding movement in the distribution of tagged fish. Overall geographical area occupied by tagged bluefin varied with primary productivity, with fish being more tightly clustered in areas of high productivity and more dispersed in regions of low productivity. In the spring through fall, bluefin tuna were located in areas with the highest levels of primary productivity available in the California Current ecosystem. However, in the winter months, tagged bluefin tuna were found in areas with lower productivity compared to other regions along the coast at that time of year suggesting that during the winter, bluefin tuna are feeding on aggregations of pelagic red crabs, sardines and anchovies that preferentially spawn in areas of reduced coastal upwelling.

  12. Ecological fits, mis-fits and lotteries involving insect herbivores on the invase plant, Bunias orientalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Biere, A.; Fortuna, T.F.M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Engelkes, T.; Morriën, W.E.; Gols, R.; Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Vogel, H.; Macel, M.; Heidel-Fischer, H.M.; Schramm, K.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Exotic plants bring with them traits that evolved elsewhere into their new ranges. These traits may make them unattractive or even toxic to native herbivores, or vice versa. Here, interactions between two species of specialist (Pieris rapae and P. brassicae) and two species of generalist (Spodoptera

  13. Exclusion performance in dwarf goats (Capra aegagrus hircus and sheep (Ovis orientalis aries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nawroth

    Full Text Available Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information or non-baited cup (indirect information. Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep.

  14. Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeshehy, Esam K F; Metwali, Ehab M R; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2015-03-01

    Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g(-1) fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L(-1) recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L(-1) as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus.

  15. Nutrient enrichment effects on photosynthesis in the wetland plants Typha orientalis and Phormium tenax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans; Tanner, Chris

    chlorophyll in its leaf tissue than flax. Photosynthetic rates were significantly higher in raupo than flax in both field and experimental situations, except at very low nutrient availability, where they were similar. Photosynthesis in raupo increased strongly with N availability, whereas there was only...... a weak relationship between N and photosynthesis in flax in experimental cultures, and no effect at all of N on flax photosynthesis in the field. Both species had significantly higher photosynthesis rates in experimental cultures than in the field; for raupo this was due to N limitation in the field......Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment can allow fast-growing species with high photosynthetic capacity to out-compete less vigorous species in freshwater wetlands. We compared the effect of nutrient enrichment on photosynthetic gas exchange in two tall canopy dominants, the inherently fast...

  16. Banded karyotype of the Konya wild sheep (Ovis orientalis anatolica Valenciennes, 1856) from Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arslan, A.; Zima, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2011), s. 81-89 ISSN 1993-0771 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chromosomes * sheep domestication * Turkey Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.595, year: 2011

  17. Increasing the permeability of spruce sapwood (Picea orientalis l. with enzymatic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Durmaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The spruce is the one of the refractory wood species. In this study, the spruce sapwood samples were treated with enzymes to improve its permeability. The pit membranes play an important role for water transporting between the adjacent cells. The spruce wood pit membranes are prone to close under the fiber saturated point. As a result of the liquid transportation is blocked, the impregnation process is getting difficult. The wood pits compose of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, and phenolic components. The torus surface is covered with pectin. Bioprep 3000 L, Viscozyme L, Texazym BFE, Texazym DLG are commonly used in the textile industry to remove lignocellulosic materials. It was aimed to destroy the closed pits via enzymatic treatment. At the end of the study, the retention and penetration increments were obtained after the enzymatic treatment. The wood samples treated with enzymes which are composed of enzymes mixtures gave more penetration and retention values.

  18. Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and mature spermatozoon of Breviscolex orientalis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yoneva, Aneta; Levron, Céline; Oros, M.; Orosová, M.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 4 (2011), 997-1005 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA ČR GAP506/10/1994; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : GLARIDACRIS-CATOSTOMI COOPER * WENYONIA-VIRILIS WOODLAND * SPERMATOLOGICAL CHARACTERS * SPERM ULTRASTRUCTURE * SPERMATOGENESIS * EUTETRARHYNCHIDAE Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2011

  19. Transcriptional signatures in leaves of adult European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) in an experimentally enhanced free air ozone setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbrich, Maren, E-mail: maren.olbrich@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Gerstner, Elke; Bahnweg, Guenther [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ecophysiology of Plants, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Welzl, Gerhard [Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Heller, Werner; Ernst, Dieter [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Tropospheric ozone causes severe oxidative stress in plants. To investigate the transcriptional responsiveness of adult trees to ozone, fully-expanded sun and shade leaves of mature beech trees were harvested at four time points over the entire vegetation period in 2005 and 2006. Microarray analyses were conducted on leaves from trees grown in the field under ambient and twice-ambient ozone concentrations at Kranzberger Forst (Bavaria). Beech trees changed their transcript levels in response to ozone. In the years 2005 and 2006 different transcription patterns were observed; this may have been a result of different weather conditions and ozone uptake. Furthermore, we obtained differences in mRNA expression patterns between shade and sun leaves. In the ozone-treated sun leaves of 2005, slightly up- and down-regulated transcript levels were detected, particularly in the spring and autumn, whereas shade leaves clearly exhibited reduced mRNA levels, particularly at the end of the vegetation period. In 2006, this pattern could not be confirmed, and in the autumn, four other transcripts were slightly up-regulated in ozone-treated shade leaves. In addition, two other transcripts were found to be influenced in sun leaves in the spring/summer. While we detected changes in the levels of only a few transcripts, the observed effects were not identical in both years. In conclusion, elevated ozone exhibited very small influence on the transcription levels of genes of mature beech trees. - At the transcriptional level, leaves of mature beech trees barely react to double ambient ozone concentrations; differences are detected primarily between sun/shade leaves and between different growing seasons.

  20. Transcriptional signatures in leaves of adult European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) in an experimentally enhanced free air ozone setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbrich, Maren; Gerstner, Elke; Bahnweg, Guenther; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer; Welzl, Gerhard; Heller, Werner; Ernst, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone causes severe oxidative stress in plants. To investigate the transcriptional responsiveness of adult trees to ozone, fully-expanded sun and shade leaves of mature beech trees were harvested at four time points over the entire vegetation period in 2005 and 2006. Microarray analyses were conducted on leaves from trees grown in the field under ambient and twice-ambient ozone concentrations at Kranzberger Forst (Bavaria). Beech trees changed their transcript levels in response to ozone. In the years 2005 and 2006 different transcription patterns were observed; this may have been a result of different weather conditions and ozone uptake. Furthermore, we obtained differences in mRNA expression patterns between shade and sun leaves. In the ozone-treated sun leaves of 2005, slightly up- and down-regulated transcript levels were detected, particularly in the spring and autumn, whereas shade leaves clearly exhibited reduced mRNA levels, particularly at the end of the vegetation period. In 2006, this pattern could not be confirmed, and in the autumn, four other transcripts were slightly up-regulated in ozone-treated shade leaves. In addition, two other transcripts were found to be influenced in sun leaves in the spring/summer. While we detected changes in the levels of only a few transcripts, the observed effects were not identical in both years. In conclusion, elevated ozone exhibited very small influence on the transcription levels of genes of mature beech trees. - At the transcriptional level, leaves of mature beech trees barely react to double ambient ozone concentrations; differences are detected primarily between sun/shade leaves and between different growing seasons.

  1. Fine-root trait plasticity of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) forests on two contrasting soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weemstra, M.; Sterck, F.J.; Visser, Eric J.W.; Kuyper, Thomas W.; Goudzwaard, L.; Mommer, L.

    2017-01-01

    Aim
    The fine roots of trees may show plastic responses to their resource environment. Several, contrasting hypotheses exist on this plasticity, but empirical evidence for these hypotheses is scattered. This study aims to enhance our understanding of tree root plasticity by examining

  2. Response of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies to the interactive effect of neighbor identity and enhanced CO2 levels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rolo, V.; Andivia, E.; Pokorný, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2015), s. 1459-1469 ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : mixed-forest * climate change * root morphology * growth * non-structural carbohydrates * CO2 fumigation * plant-to-plant interactions Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.706, year: 2015

  3. Biomass allocation and transpiration of the Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica cultivated under ambient and elevated [CO2] concentration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bužková, Romana; Pokorný, Radek

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 991, ISHS 2013 (2013), s. 157-162 ISSN 0567-7572 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600870701 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : sap flux density * Norway spruce * European beech * semi-opened glassdomes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. Sap flow for beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in a natural and a managed forest-effect of spatial heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Lise; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bastrup-Birk, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    using non-linear statistical methods with air vapour pressure deficit (D, hPa) and global radiation (R-g, J m(-2) day(-1)), along with constraints imposed by reductions in soil water content (SWC). SWC was measured as volumetric % using time domain reflectometry. The daily integrated J(s) (J...

  5. Photosynthetic induction in broadleaved Fagus sylvatica and coniferous Picea abies cultivated under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košvancová, Martina; Urban, Otmar; Šprtová, Miroslava; Hrstka, M.; Kalina, J.; Tomášková, Ivana; Špunda, V.; Marek, Michal V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 177, - (2009), s. 123-130 ISSN 1212-2580 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC08022; GA AV ČR IAA600870701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : gas exchange * photosynthetic limitations * photosynthetic down-regulation * Rubisco specific activity * stomatal conductance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  6. Tree Age Effects on Fine Root Biomass and Morphology over Chronosequences of Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur and Alnus glutinosa Stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Ziółkowski, Jędrzej; Warnkowska, Aleksandra; Prais, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    There are few data on fine root biomass and morphology change in relation to stand age. Based on chronosequences for beech (9-140 years old), oak (11-140 years) and alder (4-76 years old) we aimed to examine how stand age affects fine root biomass and morphology. Soil cores from depths of 0-15 cm and 16-30 cm were used for the study. In contrast to previously published studies that suggested that maximum fine root biomass is reached at the canopy closure stage of stand development, we found almost linear increases of fine root biomass over stand age within the chronosequences. We did not observe any fine root biomass peak in the canopy closure stage. However, we found statistically significant increases of mean fine root biomass for the average individual tree in each chronosequence. Mean fine root biomass (0-30 cm) differed significantly among tree species chronosequences studied and was 4.32 Mg ha(-1), 3.71 Mg ha(-1) and 1.53 Mg ha(-1), for beech, oak and alder stands, respectively. The highest fine root length, surface area, volume and number of fine root tips (0-30 cm soil depth), expressed on a stand area basis, occurred in beech stands, with medium values for oak stands and the lowest for alder stands. In the alder chronosequence all these values increased with stand age, in the beech chronosequence they decreased and in the oak chronosequence they increased until ca. 50 year old stands and then reached steady-state. Our study has proved statistically significant negative relationships between stand age and specific root length (SRL) in 0-30 cm soil depth for beech and oak chronosequences. Mean SRLs for each chronosequence were not significantly different among species for either soil depth studied. The results of this study indicate high fine root plasticity. Although only limited datasets are currently available, these data have provided valuable insight into fine root biomass and morphology of beech, oak and alder stands.

  7. Estimating the relative nutrient uptake from different soil depths in Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göransson, Hans; Wallander, Håkan; Ingerslev, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of fine roots and external ectomycorrhizal mycelium of three species of trees was determined down to a soil depth of 55 cm to estimate the relative nutrient uptake capacity of the trees from different soil layers. In addition, a root bioassay was performed to estimate the nutrient...... or spruce roots was not influenced by soil depth. In modelling the nutrient sustainability of forest soils, the utilization of nutrient resources in deep soil layers has been found to be a key factor. The present study shows that the more shallow-rooted spruce can have a similar capacity to take up...... nutrients from deeper soil layers than the more deeply rooted oak. The distribution of roots and mycelia may therefore not be a reliable parameter for describing nutrient uptake capacity by tree roots at different soil depths....

  8. Comparison of pollen gene flow among four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations characterized by different management regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotti, A.; Leonardi, S.; Buiteveld, J.; Geburek, T.; Gerber, S.; Kramer, K.; Vettori, C.; Vendramin, G.G.

    2012-01-01

    The study of the dispersal capability of a species can provide essential information for the management and conservation of its genetic variability. Comparison of gene flow rates among populations characterized by different management and evolutionary histories allows one to decipher the role of

  9. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration on dynamics of leaf photosynthesis in Fagus sylvatica is modulated by sky conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Otmar; Klem, Karel; Holišová, Petra; Šigut, Ladislav; Šprtová, Miroslava; Teslová-Navrátilová, P.; Zitová, Martina; Špunda, Vladimír; Marek, Michal V.; Grace, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 185, FEB 2014 (2014), s. 271-280 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0340 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : diurnal dynamics * DEPS * european beech * fluorescence * photorespiration * stomatal conductance * xanthophylls Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 4.143, year: 2014

  10. U.S. Teachers as Policy Protagonists in Digital Public Spaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers engage with policies far beyond the confines of their classroom and seemingly unrelated to their classroom practice, stretching the parameters of theories such as street-level bureaucracy (Lipsky, 2010; Weatherly & Lipsky, 1977) and doing policy in schools (Ball, Maguire, & Braun, 2012). This was observed in ethnographic studies…

  11. Spatial and temporal variability in the trans-Pacific migration of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) revealed by archival tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Ko; Fukuda, Hiromu; Tei, Yaoki; Okamoto, Suguru; Kiyofuji, Hidetada; Furukawa, Seishiro; Takagi, Junichi; Estess, Ethan; Farwell, Charles J.; Fuller, Daniel W.; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Ohshimo, Seiji; Kitagawa, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Archival electronic tags were internally implanted in 713 age-0 Pacific bluefin tuna (PBF) caught in their nursery waters off the southern coast of Japan and in the East China Sea over an extended study period (1995-2015) to clarify the spatial and temporal variability of their trans-Pacific migration. Two hundred twenty-five of these tagged tuna were recaptured by fisheries (31.6%), and we successfully retrieved tag data from 14 of 21 individuals recovered in the Eastern pacific. Furthermore, one archival tag recovered in the Western Pacific revealed that the individual had performed a trans-Pacific migration, so in total 21 tagged PBF were shown to have migrated to the Eastern Pacific (2.9% of the total tags released). We successfully downloaded data from 15 of these 21 archival tags, which revealed that some age-1 PBF migrate rapidly (123.9 ± 82.8 km day-1) and directly from waters offshore of Japan to the eastern Pacific (160.0°E to 130.0°W), a journey that takes an average of 2.5 months (ranging from 1.2 to 5.5 months) through relatively cool waters (14.7 ± 2.0 °C). All juvenile PBF began their trans-Pacific migration shortly after exposure to cooler water temperatures (physiological challenge for this age class. Three patterns were identified in the timing of the departure of juvenile PBF from the western Pacific: departing 12-14 months post-hatch (N = 7) in early summer (May-July), departing 17-19 months post-hatch (N = 7) in late autumn (October-December), and departing 21 months post-hatch (N = 1) in late winter (February). The PBF tagged along the southern coast of Japan (SCJ) arrived in the eastern Pacific earlier than those tagged in the East China Sea (ECS), most likely due to the shorter travel distance. Additionally, the PBF that began their trans-Pacific migration in the earlier period remained in an offshore foraging zone (the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition region) for shorter periods (2.8 months on average) and at lower latitudes (35.0°N) during the spring, while the PBF that delayed their migration spent more time (6.7 months on average) in the productive waters between 35.0 and 45.0°N during the spring-autumn months. The variability in the departure timing of the trans-Pacific migration of age-1 PBF may be related to geographic differences between nursery areas in addition to oceanographic conditions and foraging opportunities encountered by the tuna in the offshore waters of Japan during their first year.

  12. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites.

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Sima; Blanka Ferencova; Alon Warburg; Iva Rohousova; Petr Volf

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replaceme...

  13. The growth and flowering of Hyacinthus orientalis L. Forced in pots under fluorescent light of different colours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Śmigielska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Three hyacinth cultivars were forced under fluorescent lamps which emitted white, blue, green, yellow and red light. The plants started flowering in the first decade of February. The forcing period for two cultivars, ‘Anna Marie’ and ‘Blue Star’, was shortest under lamps emitting red light. The cultivar ‘White Pearl’ flowered equally early under lamps emitting red, white and blue light. The impact of light colour (wavelength on the leaf greenness index (SPAD was demonstrated. The photosynthetic activity of leaves was dependent on the cultivar. It was related both to the net rate of photosynthesis and the photosynthetic efficiency. Specific leaf area (SLA also depended on the cultivar. The level of SLA was related to the rate of photosynthesis and its efficiency. SLA was highest in all cultivars under green and yellow colour light. The chlorophyll content in the fresh and dry weight of leaves was highest under yellow light lamps.

  14. The Efficiency of Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth Characteristics and some Nutrients Uptake of Plane tree Seedling (Platanus orientalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alipour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses which significantly reduce yield and growth of most of plants. Plane tree is one of the important trees planted in the urban landscapes of Iran. One of the major limiting factors of landscapes development is providing water for plants. Deficit irrigation is a desirable method for saving water use in water deficit conditions and ultimately reducing necessary cost of water securement to landscape plants. Moreover, inoculation of plant root with mycorrhizal fungi can be considered as a method to reduce water demand of plants. In addition, mycorrhiza can increase plant resistance against environmental stress, such as salinity, temperature stress, drought stress and etc. Mycorrhiza can improve drought stress through enhancing water uptake as result of extra radical hyphae and stomatal regulation or transpiration. Increasing P concentration by mycorrhiza inoculation can be another mechansim for drought resistance in plants. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate two Glomus species in combination together on plane tree under water deficit for growth characteristics and nutrients uptake such as P, Fe and Zn concentration. Materials and Methods: This outdoor experiment was conducted at - Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, with average temperature 14.2 ºC and 27.9 ºC night/day, respectively and relative humidity 35-70% between Mar and Aug 2012 and repeated under the same condition in 2013. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of inoculation with mycorrhizal fungus on plane saplings response to different applicable water levels (50 and 100% of water needs based on a completely randomized design with 3 replications. The treatments were control (without fertilizer, Germans peat + fertilizer, Germans peat + fertilizer + mycorrhiza in 50% of field capacity and Germans peat + fertilizer + mycorrhizain 100% of field capacity. The Mycorrhiza fungi (mycorrhizal root, soil containing spore and extra radical mycelium were obtained from Institute of Soil and Water Research (Tehran, Iran. There were inoculums treatments: two AM fungus inoculums (G. intraradices and G. mosseae with combination of both. The inoculated dosage was approximately 80 spores g-1 for G. intraradices and 80 spores g-1 for G. mosseae, calculated by microscope before the experiment. Plants were irrigated daily base of 100% FC after the confidence of establishing plants about 2 months and then differential irrigations were applied. The amount of 100 and 50% ET was applied for full irrigation, moderate and serve deficit irrigation, respectively. To monitor the soil water content, tensiometry probe tubes were inserted into the soil in control pot around the root. Irrigation was performed whenever 40% of the available water was consumed. In order to calculate the amount of water necessary to bring each soil to FC, soil samples were collected and the water content determined by drying. Photosynthesis rate was measured with a LCI portable photosynthesis system. Soluble sugars measured according to Phenol–Sulfuric Acid method. Extraction of the Leaf chlorophyll pigments using with 100% acetone. The extraction of P, K, Fe, and Zn from the plant tissue material was performed by using dry ashing method. The mean data of two years were analyzed with SAS 9.1 software, the means were compared for significance by the least significant difference (LSD test at P < 0.05. Results and Discussion: Mycorrhiza inoculation significantly increased fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll content, total sugar, leaf area, photosynthesis rate and P and K concentration as compared to control. As compared to the 100 and 50% FC, total chlorophyll, fresh and dry weight and P concentration significantly was increased in 100% FC (Table 4 & 5. The results showed that inoculation of plants with mycorrhizal fungus significantly increased most growth parameters including leaf area, chlorophyll content and leaf fresh and dry weight of plane saplings. Phosphorus content significantly increased in inoculated plants as compared to non-inoculated plants. It is recommended that in dry regions and water shortage conditions, the deficit irrigation method accompanied with mycorrhizal fungus inoculation to save water. Conclusion: Our data showed that mycorrhiza inoculations increased most growth parameters including leaf area, chlorophyll content and leaf fresh and dry weight of plane saplings. In conclusion, mycorrhiza inoculations can increase plant tolerance against drought stress by increasing phosphorus concentration, chlorophyll content, and photosynthesis rate. Generally, results of this study revealed that inoculation of plane tress with mycorrhizal fungi, improved plant growth under stress conditions through its positive influence on nutrients uptake, chlorophyll content and other growth parameters.

  15. Study on the Effect of Combined Nanosilver- Hygrothermal Treatments on Wood Properties

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    Ghonche Rassam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the combined effect of impregnation of wood with nanosilver solution and hygrothermal treatment on some physical and mechanical properties of beech (Fagus orientalis Lipskey and spruce (Piceaabies woods was studied. Wood specimens, Initially, were impregnated in an impregnation cylinder for 20 minutes at the pressure of 0.25 MPa, with nanosilver solution. Then, hygrothermal treatment was carried out at the temperatures of 120, 150 and 180°C for 1, 3 and 5 hours. Control specimens, without any impregnation process, were hygrothermally treated. Volumetric Swelling after 2 and 24 hours soaking in water, bending strength, impact load resistance and compressive strength parallel to the grain of specimens were measured, according to ASTM D143 and all data were analyzed statistically. The results showed that swelling and mechanical properties were decreased by increasing the temperature and duration of hygrothermal treatment. Also, nanosilver impregnated specimens which were treated at 180 ˚C had lower swelling without Not clear and not seems. Consequently or it can be concluded that with nanosilver impregnation process of wood, hygrothermal treatment would be carried out at higher temperature (180 ˚C to obtain better dimensional stability with no more decrease in mechanical properties.

  16. Activation of wood surfaces for glue bonds by mechanical pre-treatment and its effects on some properties of veneer surfaces and plywood panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, İsmail

    2004-06-01

    Some chemical pre-treatments with chemical reagents are widely applied to wood surfaces in order to improve bonding ability, wettability and reactivate wood surfaces for glue-wood bonds. Besides these chemical treatments, some mechanical pre-treatments such as sanding and planing can be applied to get a fresh surface which eliminates bonding problems and improves glue bonding of wood. In this study, 2 mm thick rotary cut veneers obtained from steamed beech ( Fagus orientalis) logs were used as material. Both air-drying and oven-drying methods were used for drying veneer. After drying, the surfaces of some veneers were sanded with 100 and 180 grit sandpapers. Three-layer-plywood panels were produced from sanded and non-sanded veneers by using urea formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde glue resins to evaluate the effects of sanding some mechanical properties of plywood. Changes in pH, surface roughness and adhesive wettability of veneers were evaluated. Wettability of veneers was assessed with contact angle measurements according to the sessile drop method. Both veneer and plywood properties investigated in this study improved clearly after the sanding process. Shear and bending strength values of plywood panels manufactured from sanded and non-sanded veneers were vary depending on glue types and veneer drying methods.

  17. Beech forests of Azerbaijan: The modern condition, age structure and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M. Hasanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Azerbaijan is a country with low forest cover, only 11.8% of the territory is covered with forests. All forests perform important water-soil-protection functions. In forests, naturally grow 107 species of trees and 328 shrubs species. Despite the fact that there are many species in dendroflora, only 10 tree species have economic value for the forest sector of the country. Beech (31.68%, oak (27.40% and hornbeam (26.01% are growing in 85.09% of forested areas. Beech forests are spread on 327 thousand hectares from 989,5 of total forest lands of he Republic. Beech forests are a source of high-quality wood and beech nuts. All beech forests grow in mountains at heights of 600–800 and 1600–1800 m above the sea level and performing important ecological functions. Until recently there were no problems with natural renewal of the beech forests, but now the regeneration of beech forests is alarming. In recent years, the productivity and density of beech forests decreased substantially, the natural regeneration proceeds unsatisfactorily and, consequently, reduction of beech forests takes place. We have researched 33,8 thousand hectares of beech forests of the Lesser Caucasus, their natural regeneration and made analysis of age structure of forests. Keywords: Fagus orientalis, Beech forests, Silviculture, Natural regeneration, Age class

  18. Plant ecological groups and soil properties of common hazel (Corylus avellana L. stand in Safagashteh forest, north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourbabaei Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Safragashteh forest of Fuman in north of Iran, there is a hazel stand, which has grown naturally. The aim of this research was to evaluate the plant communities and soil characteristics in the area. This study included 50 ha of hazel protected area. A selective sampling method was utilized to record 30 400 m2 for tree and shrub layers, and sub-plots of 100 m2 for herbaceous species. Soil samples were collected at the 30 plots. We found three ecological species groups in the study area. Corylus avellana and Epimedium pinnatum in first group, Fagus orientalis, Asperula odorata, Euphorbia amygdaloides, Carex sp., Fragaria vesca and Viola sylvestris in second group, and Crataegus microphylla, Ilex spinigera, Primula heterochroma, Sedum stoloniferum and Vicia crocea in thirth group were the indicator species. Sand percent was significantly highest in Corylus avellana group, while clay, nutrients elements, pH and SP were significantly highest in the other groups. Biodiversity indices in Corylus avellana group were significantly less than other stands. We recommend to provide comprehensive conservation and management programs in order to protect of common hazel, associated plant species, and to prevent of human activities such as recreational use and livestock.

  19. Determination of Screw and Nail Withdrawal Strengths in Parallel and Perpendicular to Grain of some Hardwoods of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Maleki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, screw and nail withdrawal strengths parallel and perpendicular longitudinal to grain of some hardwoods; oak (Quercus castaneifolia, hornbeam (Carpinus betulus, beech (Fagus orientalis, Sycamore (Platanus oriantalis and poplar (Populus deltoids were investigated. The tests were conducted following ASTM D 1761 with specimen dimension of 15×5×5(T×R×L. Three kinds of screws namely sheet metal screw, wood screw and coarse drywall screw with diameter of 4 and 5 mm were used. Three different nails with nominal diameter of 2.5, 3.25 and 3.75 mm were also used. The highest screw withdrawal strengths parallel and perpendicular to grain were related to hornbeam, beech, oak, Sycamore and poplar respectively. Furthermore, the highest nail withdrawal strengths parallel and perpendicular to grain were related to hornbeam, oak, beech, Sycamore and poplar respectively for nails with 3.75 mm diameter. Higher density and shear strength of hornbeam compared to the other species accounts for its high screw and nail withdrawal strengths parallel and perpendicular to grain.

  20. Minimizing hot-press time in the manufacturing process of wood plastic composites

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    Nazanin Motie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the reduction in the hot press time using high thermally conductive fillers and the influenceof these fillers on physical and mechanical properties of end products was investigated. Variable factors in these treatments were type and content of fillers. Press time and other factors such as the amount of wood flour, board density, and other conditions of press were fixed. Composites were prepared from Beech (Fagus orientalis flour, Polypropylene, MAPP, and conductive fillers such as flake and powder graphite (carbonic fillers, and Alumina (ceramic filler. Fillers with contents of 5 and 10% in 15 and 20 minutes for press time were utilized. A thermocouple was utilized to measure the temperature in the core of composite and to determine the time being panel core as the same temperature as the hot press surface. It showed that fillers reduce press time as 2-4 minutes. Mechanical tests including tension, bending, impact and hardness were performed. Fillers except of flake graphite had no restriction in mechanical properties. Water uptake and swelling as physical properties were also measured and fillers didn’t have a significant effect on these tests. To validate the experimental results, thermal conductivity of composites was determined and the increase in this property was evaluated. The increase in samples contain flake and powder graphite was more remarkable than those contain Alumina.

  1. Transformation of even-aged European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) to uneven-aged management under changing growth conditions caused by climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Erik; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    robust, suggesting that a good policy would work well under different outcomes of climate change, i.e., acting under erroneous assumptions about change would not lead to major economic loss. For the chosen case stand, the net present value (NPV) of the transformation phase (first 100 years) contributed...... 80–90 % of the total expectation value at a 2 % discount rate. To assess the robustness of the optimisation procedure and understand the nature of the response surface, 100 replications per scenario were carried out. Variation between replications peaked during the later stages of the transformation...

  2. HOW ARE PLANT SPECIES IN CENTRAL EUROPEAN BEECH (FAGUS SYLVATICA L. FORESTS AFFECTED BY TEMPERATURE CHANGES? SHIFT OF POTENTIAL SUITABLE HABITATS UNDER GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Jantsch

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals which temperature range is favoured or avoided by 156 forest plant species and how the distribution of potential suitable habitats of species in beech forests may change in the future. We performed 140 phytosociological relevés along a temperature gradient (4.1 to 9.8 °C in Bavaria, southern Germany, on south exposed slopes. One half of the plots were located on acidic substrate, the other half on base-rich substrate. Generalized linear models (GLM were used to analyse species occurrence along the temperature gradient and to model habitats for species in beech forests under a present (1971-2000 and a future climate (2071-2100 scenario assuming a temperature increase of 1.8 °C. Herb species of beech forests are more adapted to lower temperatures and tree species more to higher temperatures. Current habitats will clearly change under increasing temperatures. We found large habitat losses for Luzula sylvatica (Huds. Gaudin, Maianthemum bifolium (L. F. W. Schmidt, Picea abies (L. H. Karst., Prenanthes purpurea L. and large habitat gains for Carpinus betulus L., Impatiens parviflora DC., Prunus avium (L. L. and Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. on both substrates. Forestry will be affected positively as well as negatively with a change in tree cultivation. Losses in biodiversity might be strong for mountainous forests and must also be considered in future conservation plans.

  3. Effects of crown architecture and stand structure on light absorption in mixed and monospecific Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris forests along a productivity and climate gradient through Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrester, David Ian; Ammer, Christian; Annighöfer, Peter J.; Barbeito, Ignacio; Bielak, Kamil; Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés; Coll, Lluis; Río, del Miren; Drössler, Lars; Heym, Michael; Hurt, Václav; Löf, Magnus; Ouden, den Jan

    2018-01-01

    When tree-species mixtures are more productive than monocultures, higher light absorption is often suggested as a cause. However, few studies have quantified this effect and even fewer have examined which light-related interactions are most important, such as the effects of species interactions on

  4. Tree- and Stand-Level Thinning Effects on Growth of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. on a Northeast- and a Southwest-Facing Slope in Southwest Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Diaconu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anticipated changes in climate and research findings on the drought sensitivity of beech have triggered controversial discussions about the future of European beech. We investigated the growth response of beech on the tree- and stand-level in mature stands to three different thinning intensities (no thinning, strong thinning, very strong thinning on a northeast- and southwest-facing slope in Southwest Germany. Linear mixed-effects models were formulated to describe effects on growth parameters on the tree- and stand-level (diameter, height, basal area, volume. At the stand-level, the stand basal area increment and stand volume increment were lower on the thinned plots. At the tree-level, the basal area increment significantly increased with increasing thinning intensity. The growth of individual trees was also influenced by initial tree size, the size-related rank of the tree within a stand, and by the aspect of the site. Our data indicate that growth of European beech is impaired on the southwest-facing slope with a warmer and drier climate and that a very strong thinning regime applied at advanced age can accelerate growth of European beech trees even on the warmer and drier site. Our findings, therefore, imply that in a warmer climate intensive thinning may also represent an important adaptive forest management measure in European beech stands.

  5. Pollen season of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and temperature trends at two German monitoring sites over a more than 30-year period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simoleit, A.; Wachter, R.; Gauger, U.; Werchan, M.; Werchan, Barbora; Zuberbier, T.; Bergmann, K.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2016), s. 489-497 ISSN 0393-5965 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : annual pollen index * mast year * climate change Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.202, year: 2016

  6. 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments and second structure information of Fag s 1: Fagales allergen from Fagus sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, A H; Asam, C; Batista, A; Almeida, F C L; Wallner, M; Ferreira, F; Valente, A P

    2016-04-01

    Fagales allergens belonging to the Bet v 1 family account responsible for the majority of spring pollinosis in the temperate climate zones in the Northern hemisphere. Among them, Fag s 1 from beech pollen is an important trigger of Fagales pollen associated allergic reactions. The protein shares high similarity with birch pollen Bet v 1, the best-characterized member of this allergen family. Of note, recent work on Bet v 1 and its homologues found in Fagales pollen demonstrated that not all allergenic members of this family have the capacity to induce allergic sensitization. Fag s 1 was shown to bind pre-existing IgE antibodies most likely primarily directed against other members of this multi-allergen family. Therefore, it is especially interesting to compare the structures of Bet v 1-like pollen allergens, which have the potential to induce allergic sensitization with allergens that are mainly cross-reactive. This in the end will help to identify allergy eliciting molecular pattern on Bet v 1-like allergens. In this work, we report the (1)H, (15)N and (13)C NMR assignment of beech pollen Fag s 1 as well as the secondary structure information based on backbone chemical shifts.

  7. Effects of simultaneous ozone exposure and nitrogen loads on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, growth, and nutrient concentrations of young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, V.F.D. [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstr. 25/27, 4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland)]. E-mail: vera.thomas@iap.ch; Braun, S. [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstr. 25/27, 4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland); Flueckiger, W. [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstr. 25/27, 4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland)

    2006-09-15

    Beech seedlings were grown under different nitrogen fertilisation regimes (0, 20, 40, and 80 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) for three years and were fumigated with either charcoal-filtered (F) or ambient air (O{sub 3}). Nitrogen fertilisation increased leaf necroses, aphid infestations, and nutrient ratios in the leaves (N:P and N:K), as a result of decreased phosphorus and potassium concentrations. For plant growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, a positive nitrogen effect was found, but only for fertilisations of up to 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. The highest nitrogen load, however, reduced leaf area, leaf water content, growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, whereas soluble carbohydrate concentrations were enhanced. The ozone fumigation resulted in reduced leaf area, leaf water content, shoot growth, root biomass accumulation, and decreased starch, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations, increasing the N:P and N:K ratios. A combined effect of the two pollutants was detected for the leaf area and the shoot elongation, where ozone fumigation amplified the nitrogen effects. - The effects of nitrogen and ozone on growth, carbohydrate concentrations, and nutrients are mainly additive.

  8. Declining atmospheric deposition of heavy metals over the last three decades is reflected in soil and foliage of 97 beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in the Vienna Woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türtscher, Selina; Berger, Pétra; Lindebner, Leopold; Berger, Torsten W

    2017-11-01

    Rigorous studies on long-term changes of heavy metal distribution in forest soils since the implementation of emission controls are rare. Hence, we resampled 97 old-growth beech stands in the Vienna Woods. This study exploits an extensive data set of soil (infiltration zone of stemflow and between trees area) and foliar chemistry from three decades ago. It was hypothesized that declining deposition of heavy metals is reflected in soil and foliar total contents of Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn and Fe. Mean soil contents of Pb in the stemflow area declined at the highest rate from 223 to 50 mg kg -1 within the last three decades. Soil contents of Pb and Ni decreased significantly both in the stemflow area and the between trees area down to 80-90 cm soil depth from 1984 to 2012. Top soil (0-5 cm) accumulation and simultaneous loss in the lower soil over time for the plant micro nutrients Cu and Zn are suggested to be caused by plant uptake from deep horizons. Reduced soil leaching, due to a mean soil pH (H 2 O) increase from 4.3 to 4.9, and increased plant cycling are put forward to explain the significant increase of total Mn contents in the infiltration zone of beech stemflow. Top soil Pb contents in the stemflow area presently exceed the critical value at which toxicity symptoms may occur at numerous sites. Mean foliar contents of all six studied heavy metals decreased within the last three decades, but plant supply with the micro nutrients Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe is still in the optimum range for beech trees. It is concluded that heavy metal pollution is not critical for the studied beech stands any longer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Inter-specific competition in mixed forests of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica) under climate change – a model-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyer, C.; Lasch, P.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Sterck, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Mixed forests feature competitive interactions of the contributing species which influence their response to environmental change. • We analyzed climate change effects on the inter-specific competition in a managed Douglas-fir/beech mixed forest. • Therefore, we initialised the process-based forest

  10. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation...... and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, 9PD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs...

  11. Assessing the use of delta C-13 natural abundance in separation of root and microbial respiration in a Danish beech (¤Fagus Sylvatica¤ L.) forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Formanek, P.; Ambus, P.

    2004-01-01

    on the root respiration contribution to total CO2 effluxes. The delta(13)C isotopic analyses Of CO2 were performed using a FinniganMAT Delta(PLUS) isotope-ratio mass spectrometer coupled in continuous flow mode to a trace gas preparation-concentration unit (PreCon). Gas samples in 2-mL crimp seal vials were...

  12. Fine-root carbon and nitrogen concentration of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. in Italy Prealps: possible implications of coppice conversion to high forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia eTerzaghi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fine-root systems represent a very sensitive plant compartment to environmental changes. Gaining further knowledge about their dynamics would improve soil carbon input understanding. This paper investigates C and N concentrations in fine roots in relation to different stand characteristics resulting from conversion of coppiced forests to high forests. In order to evaluate possible interferences due to different vegetative stages of vegetation, fine-root sampling was repeated 6 times in each stand during the same 2008 growing season. Fine-root sampling was conducted within three different soil depths (0-10; 10-20; and 20-30 cm. Fine-root traits were measured by means of WinRHIZO software which enable us to separate them into three different diameter classes (0-0.5, 0.5-1.0 and 1.0-2.0 mm. The data collected indicate that N concentration was higher in converted stands than in the coppiced stand whereas C concentration was higher in the coppiced stand than in converted stands. Consequently the fine-root C:N ratio was significantly higher in coppiced than in converted stands and showed an inverse relationship with fine-root turnover rate, confirming a significant change of fine-root status after the conversion of a coppice to high forest.

  13. Combining soil and tree-stem flux measurements and soil gas profiles to understand CH4 pathways in Fagus sylvatica forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maier, M.; Macháčová, Kateřina; Lang, F.; Svobodová, Kateřina; Urban, Otmar

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 1 (2018), s. 31-35 ISSN 1436-8730 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : ch4 * soil gas profile * gas flux * co2 * methanogenesis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Plant science s, botany Impact factor: 2.102, year: 2016

  14. Effect of the density of transplants in reforestation on the morphological quality of the above-ground part of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. six years after planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Houšková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of the above-ground part of European beech planted at different densities and spacing patterns for the purpose of artificial forest regeneration was monitored 3, 4 and 6 years after planting. The initial numbers of beech transplants were 5,000 pcs.ha−1, 10,000 pcs.ha−1, 15,000 pcs.ha−1 and 20,000 pcs.ha−1. The spacing pattern of transplants was either square or rectangular nearly in all variants: 1.4 × 1.4 m, 2 × 1 m, 1 × 1 m, 0.8 × 0.8 m, 1 ×0.65 m, 0.7 × 0.7 m and 1 × 0.5 m. Conclusions following out from the research are as follows: 1. neither the chosen density of transplants nor their spacing pattern had an essential influence on the after-planting loss or damage of trees; 2. through the planting of larger-diameter transplants it is possible to achieve canopy closure more rapidly as well as faster growth of the plantation; these beech plants keep the edge in growth and quality even 6 years after planting; 3. the higher is the beech plantation density, the less individuals occur in such a plantation with inappropriate stem form; 4. beech plants of the worst quality were found on plots with the lowest initial density of transplants (5,000 and 10,000 pcs.ha−1, yet the number of promising trees was sufficient even there. Thus, none of the experimental numbers of transplants per hectare or spacing arrangements of the European beech transplants can be claimed as inappropriate; however, further monitoring of the plots is necessary.

  15. Fungi colonising the above-ground parts of fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam. cultivated in pure sowing and mixed with smooth brome-grass (Bromus inermis Leyss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in 1999-2001 in the experimental field in Knopin near Dobre Miasto to determine the intensity of fodder galega diseases cultivated in pure sowing and mixed with smooth brome-grass (the Hillstrand and Auld' s modified scale, 1982. The fungi colonising the phyllosphere of fodder galega were analysed in a laboratory (Chruoeciak , 1974. The following symptoms were observed in fodder galega: ascochyta blight (Ascochyta sp., gray mould (Botrytis cinerea and plant wilting (Fusarium oxysporum.. The climatic conditions had an effect on the development of diseases. The greatest intensity of gray mould (Ii = 24.3% and plant wilting (17.9% of plants with the disease symptoms were observed in 2001. Ascochyta blight occurred with the lowest intensity and the highest infection index in 1999 in the cultivation of fodder galega mixed with smooth brome-grass was only 12.1%. The type of cultivation also modified fodder galega disease intensity. Gray mould and plant wilting developed better in pure sowing than in mixed sowing with smooth brome-grass. Throughout the entire experiment period the average infection index was 22.8% and 15.9% of plants with the wilt symptoms. Ascochyta blight found better conditions for development in plants cultivated in a mix with smooth brome-grass (average infection index - 10.0%. The fodder galega phyllosphere provided 4149 fungal isolates represented by 17 species and yeast-like fungi. Yeast-like fungi dominated (75.6% of the total isolates. The following species were less numerous: Botrytis cinerea, Humicola brevis, Acremonium strictum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. From the leaves of fodder galega cultivated in pure sowing, 3.8% more fungi were obtained than from the leaves of plants cultivated with a mix of smooth brome-grass, including more frequently isolated pathogenic fungi representing the genera of Fusarium and the species of Botrytis cinerea.

  16. Ciliary hair cells and cuticular photoreceptor of the hornet Vespa orientalis as components of a gravity detecting system : an SEM/TEM investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongebloed, WL; Rosenzweig, E; Kalicharan, D; van der Want, JJL; Ishay, JS

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes three types of hair cell configurations with stereo- and kinocilia in the head of the hornet; these were encountered at the vertex and frons regions adjacent to the three ocelli and are assumed to be part of the hornet's gravity detecting system together with cuticular

  17. The potential of mycorrhizal inoculation and organic amendment to increase yields of Galega orientalis and Helianthus tuberosus in a spoilbank substrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Püschel, David; Rydlová, Jana; Sudová, Radka; Gryndler, M.; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 4 (2011), s. 664-672 ISSN 1436-8730 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza * biomass crops * spoil-bank reclamation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.596, year: 2011

  18. Beneficial Effects of Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth Characteristics and Nutrients Uptake by Plane Tree (Platanus orientalis L, Subjected to Deficit Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alipour Amraie1

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plane tree is one of the important trees cultivated in urban landscapes of Iran and often suffers from different nutritional issues including deficiency and toxicity of mineral nutrients. Mycorrhizal fungi have been introduced to increase growth and quality of plants in horticulture. To study the combined effect of two mycorrhizal fungi (G. mosseae and G. intraradices on plane trees, an experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with 4 treatments and 6 replicates. Treatments included control (without fertilizer, livestock manure, complete fertilizer (20:5:10 and manure + fertilizer + mycorrhizal fungi. Some traits and indices including phosphorus, nitrogen, iron and zinc contents, leaf fresh weight, current year growth and total soluble carbohydrate and chlorophyll contents were evaluated. The results showed the positive effects of manure, fertilizer and mycorrhizal fungi on the plane tree, as these treatments significantly increased all examined parameters except for current year growth. Contents of phosphorus, nitrogen, zinc, iron, chlorophyll and total soluble sugar increased by 400%, 20%, 500%, 34%, 41% and 23%, in mycorrhizal-treated plants, respectively, as compared to the control trees. The results of this study showed a promising effect of the mycorrhizal fungi to be applied along with fertilizer and manure as an appropriate biological fertilizer for plane tree.

  19. Seasonal abundance, ecology, reproductive biology, and biochemical composition of Mesopodopsis orientalis W.M. Tattersall (Mysidacea) from a tropical estuary (Cochin Backwater) in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biju, A.; Gireesh, R.; Jayalakshmi, K.J.; Haridevi, C.K.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    -47. FAO, 1989. Nutrition y alimentacion de peces y camarones cultivados. Manual de capacitac. Proyectoion GCP/RLA/102/TTAL. Brasil,516pp. GAJBHIYE, S. N., V. R. NAIR & B. N. DESAI, 1980. Distribution and swarming of mysids in the near shore waters off...

  20. A review of the proposed reintroduction program for the Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) and the role of conservation organizations, veterinarians, and zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Paul; Stack, David; Harley, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    The Amur leopard is at the point of extinction. At present there are fewer than 35 in the wild. Their natural habitat ranges from China to the North Korean peninsula to Primorsky Krai in Russia. A reintroduction plan has been proposed to increase the population in the wild; however, this proposed plan still has many questions to be answered as to how effective it will be. The main objective is to reintroduce animals from a select group within the Far Eastern leopard programme or the Species Survival programme, which consist of leopards from select populations in the Northern Hemisphere. Zoos are central to the success of this plan, providing suitable breeding pairs to breed animals for reintroduction and also raising much needed funds to finance the project. Zoos are also central in educating the public about the critical status of the Amur leopard and other endangered animals of the world. Veterinary surgeons, by the very nature of their professional skills, are at the forefront of this seemingly endless battle against extinction of thousands of species that are critical to maintaining the balance of our fragile ecosystem. Veterinarians can analyze the health risks and health implications of reintroduction on the animals to be reintroduced and also on the native population. A world without large cats is a world hard to imagine. If we look closer at the implications of extinction, we see the domino effect of their loss and an ecosystem out of control. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Rezension zu: David T. Sugimoto (Hrsg.), Transformation of a Goddess. Ishtar – Astarte – Aphrodite, Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 263 (Fribourg – Göttingen 2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Bolder-Boos, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Das anzuzeigende Buch ist eine Aufsatzsammlung basierend auf einer internationalen Konferenz, die 2011 an der Keio Universität Tokio stattgefunden hat. Von den insgesamt elf Konferenzbeiträgen sind neun in dieser Sammlung vorgelegt. In seiner Einleitung gibt David Sugimoto die Beweggründe für die Wahl des Themas an und erklärt, weshalb die drei Göttinnen im Buchtitel als eine Göttin dargestellt werden, auch wenn er sogleich einräumt, dass noch weitere Göttinnen – Inanna, Isis, Hathor, Tanit u...

  2. Evaluation of the Potential Use of Agricultural and Forestial Waste in Spawn Production of Medicinal Mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tavana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Spawn quality plays an important role in successful production of medicinal mushrooms. In this study, firstly, to determine the optimum temperature for mycelia growth of G. lucidum, four basal media, including seeds of wheat, barley, millet and Abies sp. wood chip were studied separately at 25±1˚C and 29±1˚C. In the second section, in order to achieve suitable the mycelia growth, barley, wheat and millet seeds were mixed with different ratios of agriculture waste including wheat bran (10, 20 and 30% dry weight and millet peel (20, 40 and 60% dry weight and also Abies sp wood chips (20, 30, 50 and 60% dry weight as forestial waste. In the final section, several forestial waste including sawdusts (Platanus orientalis, Acer sp, Robinia peseudoacacia, Ailanthus altissima, Fagus orientals, Alnus subcordata and Populas alba were used as medium for spawn production. In the first experiment, a higher mycelia growth rate (8.92 mm/day was obtained by applying wheat seed at 29±1˚C. In the second experiment, the results showed that higher mycelia growth rate was obtained by using wheat with 10% wheat bran (9.66 mm/day. In the final section of spawn production, R. peseudoacacia sawdust (C/N=25.84 was generated higher growth rate (9.36 mm/day. Also, using supplements containing nitrogen (N such as sawdust and bran, encourage mycelium growth and with increasing C/N ratios more than 61.3 decreased growth rate due to reduce N amount.

  3. Adhesive bond performance of heat-treated wood at various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Hamiyet Sahin; Özbay, Günay

    2016-07-01

    Heat treatment of wood leads to chemical, structural and physical changes in wood constituents, which can significantly affect the bonding performance of wood in several ways depending on the adhesive type used. In the present study, fir (Abies bornmülleriana Mattf.) and beech (Fagus orientalis L.) were heat treated at 170 degrees C, 180 degrees C, 190 degrees C, 200 and 212 degrees C for 2 hours. Four different types of adhesives were used for bonding process: melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF), melamine formaldehyde (MF), phenol formaldehyde (PF), and polyurethane (PUR). For all the pretreatment conditions, highest shear strength of adhesive bonds of each adhesive system was observed for untreated samples and shear strength decreased with increasing heat treatment. The strength of each adhesive bond of samples which were soaked in water was much less than dry samples, approximately half of the dry strength. Generally, the shear strength of the adhesive bonds after boiling was smaller than or similar to the values obtained for soaking. The untreated samples lost more strength after soaking and boiling than heat treated samples. With increasing heat treatment severity, reduction in shear strength increased in dry samples while decreased in soaking and boiling samples. For instance, after soaking, the untreated samples lost more strength (almost 39%) than heat treated samples (almost 24% for most severely heat treated samples). The results showed that the shear strength of adhesive bonds was influenced by heat treatment and depended on pretreatment of samples prior to testing. In general, all adhesives used performed in quite a similar way for all pretreatment conditions, and the bonding performance of heat treated fir wood was less satisfactory than that of beech wood for all adhesive system and condition.

  4. A slight recovery of soils from Acid Rain over the last three decades is not reflected in the macro nutrition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) at 97 forest stands of the Vienna Woods✰

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Pétra; Lindebner, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    Rigorous studies of recovery from soil acidification are rare. Hence, we resampled 97 old-growth beech stands in the Vienna Woods. This study exploits an extensive data set of soil (infiltration zone of stemflow and between trees area at different soil depths) and foliar chemistry from three decades ago. It was hypothesized that declining acidic deposition is reflected in soil and foliar chemistry. Top soil pH within the stemflow area increased significantly by 0.6 units in both H2O and KCl extracts from 1984 to 2012. Exchangeable Ca and Mg increased markedly in the stemflow area and to a lower extent in the top soil of the between trees area. Trends of declining base cations in the lower top soil were probably caused by mobilization of organic S and associated leaching with high amounts of sulfate. Contents of C, N and S decreased markedly in the stemflow area from 1984 to 2012, suggesting that mineralization rates of organic matter increased due to more favorable soil conditions. It is concluded that the top soil will continue to recover from acidic deposition. However, in the between trees areas and especially in deeper soil horizons recovery may be highly delayed. The beech trees of the Vienna Woods showed no sign of recovery from acidification although S deposition levels decreased. Release of historic S even increased foliar S contents. Base cation levels in the foliage declined but are still adequate for beech trees. Increasing N/nutrient ratios over time were considered not the result of marginally higher N foliar contents in 2012 but of diminishing nutrient uptake due to the decrease in ion concentration in soil solution. The mean foliar N/P ratio already increased to the alarming value of 31. Further nutritional imbalances will predispose trees to vitality loss. PMID:27344089

  5. Spontaneous establishment of late successional tree species English oak (.i.Quercus robur./i.) and European beech (.i.Fagus sylvatica./i.) at reclaimed alder plantation and unreclaimed post mining sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Vobořilová, V.; Janoušová, I.; Kadochová, Štěpánka; Matějíček, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 77, April (2015), s. 1-8 ISSN 0925-8574 Grant - others:GAČR(CZ) GA13-10377S Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : restoration * tree colonisation * succession * disturbance * mycorrhiza * microhabitats Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.740, year: 2015

  6. Assessment of CH4 and N2O fluxes in a Danish Beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest and an adjacent N-fertilised barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Jensen, J.M.; Prieme, A.

    2001-01-01

    emissions immediately following soil applications of digested sewage sludge. Cumulated values for CH4 emissions over the course of 328 days after sludge applications indicated a small net source in sludge treated plots (7.6 mg C m(-2)) whereas sludge-free soil constituted a small sink (-0.9 mg C m(-2...... and independent of drainage status. Methane oxidation was observed all-year round in the forest cumulating to -225 mg C m(-2) and -84 mg C m(-2) in dry and wet areas. In a model experiment with incubated soil cores, nitrogen amendment (NH4Cl) and perturbation significantly reduced CH4 oxidation in the forest soil......, presumably as a result of increased nitrification activity. Sludge also induced net CH4 production in the otherwise strong CH4 oxidising forest soil. This emphasises the potential for CH4 emissions from sewage sludge applications onto land. The study shows, however, that emissions of N2O and CH4 induced...

  7. Klas puts imprint on 'signature piece' / Herman Trotter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trotter, Herman

    1996-01-01

    Kontserdiarvustus. Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra, külalisdirigent Eri Klas, solist Arie Lipsky (tšello). Kavas: D. Šostakovitš, Sümfoonia nr. 5; E. Dohnanyi, Konzertstück tšellole ja orkestrile ja W. A. Mozart, Divertisment keelpilliorkestrile, KV 136, D-duur

  8. Making Policy in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    The concept of street-level bureaucracy (Lipsky, 1980, 2010) examines the form and extent discretion takes in teachers' and other public policy enactors' work and how they negotiate their way through sometimes contradictory policy imperatives. It provides a framework for straddling top-down and bottom-up perspectives on policy making. In this…

  9. Cytogenetic study of Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in cultured human ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-04-01

    Apr 1, 2009 ... Lee D. E. and Xie C. Y. 1995 IgE regulation by nematodes: the body fluid of Ascaris contains a B-cell mitogen. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 96, 1246–1254. Lipski J. J., Berninger R. W., Hyman L. R. and Talama R. C. 1979. Presence of alpha-1-antitrypsin on mitogen-stimulated human lymphocytes. J. Immunol.

  10. Empathy, normality and responsiveness among street-level bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Nielsen, Vibeke Lehmann

    2014-01-01

    of whether they are interacting with and serviced by employee X or Y (Lipsky, 1980, Brodkin, 1997; Keiser & Soss, 1998). Hence, it is one of the fundamental ambitions of public administration studies to explain, understand and predict behavior in public organizations. As a contribution to that ambition...

  11. Working in a Merciful and Contested Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Dorte Boesby

    to improve the working environment for parking officers, and to employ diversity management. Regarding parking officers as street-level bureaucrats (Lipsky 2010), the paper addresses the characteristics of their work and the challenges posed to the individual employee and manager. Becoming a parking officer...

  12. Teaching Hispanic Linguistics: Strategies to Engage Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Stephanie M.; Gupton, Timothy; Abreau, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Even though many post-secondary institutions offer a variety of Hispanic linguistics classes (Hualde 2006; Lipski 2006), research on the pedagogy of Hispanic linguistics is an underdeveloped or non-existent area of the discipline. Courses in Hispanic linguistics can present not only linguistic challenges for non-native speakers of Spanish, but…

  13. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced oxidant injury”. Phytotherapy Re- search 8: 408—412. Zhang, S., Lipsky, M.M., Trump, BF. and Hsu, l. (I990). “Neutral Red. (NR) assays for cell viability and enobiotics induced cytotoxicity in primary cultures and rat hepatocytes”. Cell Biology and Toxicology 6: 219-234. “ journal of science and technology, volume 26 ...

  14. The Ineffectiveness of High School Graduation Credit Requirement Reforms: A Story of Implementation and Enforcement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Deven; Planty, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Graduation credit requirement reforms were expected to have a significant impact on the American educational landscape, but scholars have concluded that these reforms have exhibited less impact than expected on a wide range of educational outcomes. Drawing on Lipsky's theory of street-level bureaucracy, we hypothesize that graduation requirement…

  15. China's Beech Forests in the Pre-Quaternary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu-Sheng

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Fagus in China is never dominant in Late Cretaceous and Tertiary floras although it might reach its highest diversity in the Miocene. The genus Fagus was more widely distributed during the Palaeogene than in the Neogene. Furthermore, the ecological requirements of Fagus in the Palaeogene seem much broader than those in the Neogene onwards. This is because the Palaeogene floras containing Fagus lived in various conditions from an arid and hot climate to a humid and warm habitat. Additionally, Fagus then coexisted with many kinds of hygrophilous, thermophilous and xerophilous plants. However, the wide distribution, broad ecological adaptation and species composition changed greatly in the Neogene. The Neogene Fagus-containing floras are slightly more similar to the modern beech forests than the Palaeogene ones, although a big difference remains. Chinese fossil data document the post-Tertiary development of the modern beech forests. doi:10.1002/mmng.19980010111

  16. Spatial segregation and summer habitat use by alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra and mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon in the Dolomiti Bellunesi National Park, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanzin, M.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were undertaken on the spatial overlap and habitat selection of the introduced Mouflon and the autochthon Chamois population in the Dolomiti Bellunesi National Park (Eastern Italian Alps. Mouflon distribution within the Park showed a marked seasonal shift from winter (December-May range (400-800 m a. s. I. to the summer (June-November range (1600-1800 m a. s. /J. Consequently, significant overlap with Chamois occurred only in summer. Therefore, spatial overlap and habitat selection were studied in more detail in the summer range of Mouflon. The results showed that the areas most intensively used by the two species were distinct. Both species avoided areas with rock outcrops and dense forests, Mouflon used Pinus mugo stands and scree much more than Chamois, and conversely Chamois used more alpine pastures and Larix decidua stands. The results therefore indicate that Chamois and Mouflon segregate spatially and use different resources.

    [fr]
    Nous avons étudié la superposition spatiale et la sélection de l'habitat des populations de mouflons introduits et de chamois autochtones du Parc National des Dolomites Bellunesi (Alpes italiennes orientales. La distribution du mouflon dans le parc change clairement d'une saison à l'autre (en hiver : décembremai, entre 400-800 m d'altitude ; en été : juin-novembre, entre 1600-1800 m d'altitude. Par conséquent, la population se superpose avec celle du chamois seulement en été. Nous avons alors étudié la distribution estivale du mouflon à une échelle plus fine. Nous avons pu montrer que les territoires les plus utilisés par chacune des deux espèces étaient séparés. Les deux espèces évitaient les terrains avec des escarpements ou blocs rocheux et les forêts denses, toutefois le mouflon utilisait les bosquets de Pinus mugo et les éboulis beaucoup plus fréquemment que le chamois; ce dernier au contraire cherchait plus les pâturages alpins et les forêts de Larix decidua. En conclusion, nous observons une ségrégation spatiale des populations de chamois et de mouflons, de plus, elles utilisaient des ressources différentes.
    [es]
    En el Parque Nacional "Dolomiti Bellunesi" (Este de los Alpes italianos se estudió el solapamiento espacial y la selección de hábitat entre el muflón (introducido y la población autóctona de rebeco. La distribución del muflón en el Parque mostró una marcada estacionalidad: con un rango de 400 a 800 m de diciembre a mayo y de 1600 a 1800 de junio a noviembre. Solo existe solapamiento significativo con los rebecos en verano, por lo que el estudio en profundidad de la selección y solapamiento de hábitat del muflón se realizó durante esos meses. Los resultados mostraron una segregación entre las áreas más intensivamente usadas por las dos especies. Aunque ambas especies evitan zonas de afloramientos rocosos y bosque denso, el muflón usa las pedrizas y bosquetes de Pinus mugo más intensamente que el rebeco. Inversamente, el rebeco usa más pastos alpinos y bosquetes de Larix decidua. Por lo tanto, el rebeco y el muflón se segregan espacialmente y usan distintos recursos.

  17. Reliable molecular differentiation of Trichuris ovis and Trichuris discolor from sheep (Ovis orientalis aries) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and morphological characterisation of their females: morphology does not work sufficiently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejl, Pavel; Nechybová, Stanislava; Peřinková, Pavla; Melounová, Martina; Sedláková, Vladimíra; Vašek, Jakub; Čílová, Daniela; Rylková, Kateřina; Jankovská, Ivana; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Langrová, Iva

    2017-08-01

    The main aim of the study was to evaluate associations between morphological variability of Trichuris females from sheep and roe deer and their rDNA polymorphism in whipworm populations from the Czech Republic. The results introduced the use of new molecular markers based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-5.8S RNA-ITS2 region polymorphisms, as useful tools for the unambiguous differentiation of congeners Trichuris ovis and Trichuris discolor. These markers revealed both parasites in roe deer and in sheep; however, T. ovis females predominated in sheep while T. discolor females occurred mostly in roe deer. Additional analysis of ITS1-5.8 rRNA-ITS2 discovered the genetic uniformity of the analysed T. discolor but high haplotype variation of T. ovis. Simultaneously, molecularly designated female individuals of both species were categorised into four morphotypes (MT) on the basis of morphology of genital pore area. MT1 and MT4 (vulvar opening on everted vaginal appendage/on visible cuticular bulge) occurred only in T. ovis, MT2 (uneverted vagina-vulvar opening without any elevation) was identified only in T. discolor and MT3 (transient type of vulvar opening on a small swelling) was observed in both species. Statistical analysis of biometric data confirmed that morphology of vulva is not a reliable marker for the species determination. On the basis of the ITS1-5.8S RNA-ITS2 region variability, we carried out a phylogenetic analysis (maximum likelihood method, Hasegawa-Kishino-Yano model) which showed that T. ovis haplotypes from the Czech Republic and Ireland and T. discolor haplotypes from the Czech Republic, Spain, Iran and Japan are sister OTUs.

  18. Landscape variation in tree species richness in northern Iran forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P-A Bourque

    Full Text Available Mapping landscape variation in tree species richness (SR is essential to the long term management and conservation of forest ecosystems. The current study examines the prospect of mapping field assessments of SR in a high-elevation, deciduous forest in northern Iran as a function of 16 biophysical variables representative of the area's unique physiography, including topography and coastal placement, biophysical environment, and forests. Basic to this study is the development of moderate-resolution biophysical surfaces and associated plot-estimates for 202 permanent sampling plots. The biophysical variables include: (i three topographic variables generated directly from the area's digital terrain model; (ii four ecophysiologically-relevant variables derived from process models or from first principles; and (iii seven variables of Landsat-8-acquired surface reflectance and two, of surface radiance. With symbolic regression, it was shown that only four of the 16 variables were needed to explain 85% of observed plot-level variation in SR (i.e., wind velocity, surface reflectance of blue light, and topographic wetness indices representative of soil water content, yielding mean-absolute and root-mean-squared error of 0.50 and 0.78, respectively. Overall, localised calculations of wind velocity and surface reflectance of blue light explained about 63% of observed variation in SR, with wind velocity accounting for 51% of that variation. The remaining 22% was explained by linear combinations of soil-water-related topographic indices and associated thresholds. In general, SR and diversity tended to be greatest for plots dominated by Carpinus betulus (involving ≥ 33% of all trees in a plot, than by Fagus orientalis (median difference of one species. This study provides a significant step towards describing landscape variation in SR as a function of modelled and satellite-based information and symbolic regression. Methods in this study are sufficiently

  19. Compositions and methods for increased ethanol titer from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessen, Holly J.; Yi, Jian

    2016-11-15

    The present application discloses the identification of novel I. orientalis ADH1, ADHa, and ADHb genes, and the production and characterization of genetically modified yeast cells in which these genes were altered. Provided herein are isolated I. orientalis ADH1, ADHa, and ADHb polynucleotides and polypeptides, genetically modified yeast cells that overexpress I. orientalis ADH1 and/or contain deletions or disruptions of ADHa and/or ADHb, and methods of using culturing these modified cells to produce ethanol.

  20. Environ: E00603 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00603 Woodwardia rhizome Crude drug Woodwardia acid Woodwardia [TAX:29603], Woodwar...dia unigemmata [TAX:120732], Woodwardia orientalis [TAX:86683] ... Blechnaceae Woodwardia rhizome (dried) ...

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF GREEK FAG US WOODLANDS: A PRELIMINARY SURVEY

    OpenAIRE

    E. BERGMEIER; P. DIMOPOULOS

    1999-01-01

    Almost 1000 published and unpublished phytosociological relevés of Greek Fagus forests are classified and the clusters interpreted with respect to ecology and phytogeography. A synoptic table is presented. Three ecological groups of communities are distinguished, viz. mesophilous, acidic and xerothermic Fagus woodlands. Differentiation within each group reveals chiefly phytogeographical as well as further ecological patterns. Geographical distributions and ecological preferences of...

  2. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spotted owlet: Athene brama indica Franklin, a carnivorous. Green Bee-eater: Merops orientalis orientalis Latham, an insect eater. : Hoopoe: Upupa epops epops Linnaeus an insect eater—a Gaper. The tongue is sagittal and is sulcated along the median line in all the birds examined (Figs. 1–7). The tongue of Eudynamys ...

  3. 2028-IJBCS-Article-Stephen Samwell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    evidence and importance of plant-based natural products in the treatment and control of poultry viral diseases has ... of the red-listed endangered medicinal plant. Toussiantia orientalis Verdc. (EAM-CF-. CEPF-PAP, 2009) ..... chalcones from Toussaintia orientalis. Tanz. J. Sci., 38(3): 108-126. Odalo JO, Joseph CC, Nkunya ...

  4. キューバとドミニカ共和国のスペイン語

    OpenAIRE

    Lipski, John M.; 牛島, 万

    2003-01-01

    This work is a Japanese translation of two chapters of John M. Lipski's Latin American Spanish: "Spanish of Cuba" and "Spanish of the Dominican Republic." Each capter is composed of six parts: Historical overview, Extra-Hispanic linguistic influences, Phonetics and phonology, Morphological characteristics, Syntactic characteristics and Lexical characteristics. Currently in Japan, there are still few works related to Latin American Spanish. I therefore hope that this work will be a useful cont...

  5. Pollution Prevention in Air Force System Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    entire policy sector, spanning federal to local levels . A policy sector usually consists of a collection of many diverse governments, bureaucracies , courts...examine the variety of actors actually and potentially involved in addressing it; 2) street - level implementators are always important to implementation...34Implementing Pollution Prevention: Incentives and Irrationalities." J Air & Waste Management Association, 40, no. 9 (September 1990): 1227-1231. Lipsky , Michael

  6. A decadal analysis of bioeroding sponge cover on the inshore Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsby, Blake D; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Whalan, Steve; Webster, Nicole S; Thompson, Angus

    2017-06-02

    Decreasing coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) may provide opportunities for rapid growth and expansion of other taxa. The bioeroding sponges Cliona spp. are strong competitors for space and may take advantage of coral bleaching, damage, and mortality. Benthic surveys of the inshore GBR (2005-2014) revealed that the percent cover of the most abundant bioeroding sponge species, Cliona orientalis, has not increased. However, considerable variation in C. orientalis cover, and change in cover over time, was evident between survey locations. We assessed whether biotic or environmental characteristics were associated with variation in C. orientalis distribution and abundance. The proportion of fine particles in the sediments was negatively associated with the presence-absence and the percent cover of C. orientalis, indicating that the sponge requires exposed habitat. The cover of corals and other sponges explained little variation in C. orientalis cover or distribution. The fastest increases in C. orientalis cover coincided with the lowest macroalgal cover and chlorophyll a concentration, highlighting the importance of macroalgal competition and local environmental conditions for this bioeroding sponge. Given the observed distribution and habitat preferences of C. orientalis, bioeroding sponges likely represent site-specific - rather than regional - threats to corals and reef accretion.

  7. Archeological Test Excavations at the Proposed Dry Boat Storage Facility and Archeological Survey of the Neal Road Extension Corridor, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-19

    as beech, tuliptree, sugar maple, red oak (Q. borealis), shellbark hickory (Carya ovata), black walnut ( Juglans nigra), basswood (Tilia heterophylla...walnut ( Juglans ), sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), beech (Fagus grandifolia), black gum (Nyssa sylvatica), and hickories (Carya spp.) (Delcourt

  8. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    dominant on both (Malinowska 1979). ... grassland sites are dominated by perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with swards of white ... (Fraxinus excelsior): other species present include beech (Fagus sylvaticus), oak (Quercus robur), elder ...

  9. CLASSIFICATION OF GREEK FAG US WOODLANDS: A PRELIMINARY SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. BERGMEIER

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Almost 1000 published and unpublished phytosociological relevés of Greek Fagus forests are classified and the clusters interpreted with respect to ecology and phytogeography. A synoptic table is presented. Three ecological groups of communities are distinguished, viz. mesophilous, acidic and xerothermic Fagus woodlands. Differentiation within each group reveals chiefly phytogeographical as well as further ecological patterns. Geographical distributions and ecological preferences of each community are outlined and some syntaxonomic conclusions briefly discussed.

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF GREEK FAG US WOODLANDS: A PRELIMINARY SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. DIMOPOULOS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost 1000 published and unpublished phytosociological relevés of Greek Fagus forests are classified and the clusters interpreted with respect to ecology and phytogeography. A synoptic table is presented. Three ecological groups of communities are distinguished, viz. mesophilous, acidic and xerothermic Fagus woodlands. Differentiation within each group reveals chiefly phytogeographical as well as further ecological patterns. Geographical distributions and ecological preferences of each community are outlined and some syntaxonomic conclusions briefly discussed.

  11. Pulp and paper production from Spruce wood with kraft and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Picea orientalis) wood collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey. Fiber properties, carbohydrate contents, strength and optical properties of resultant paper were included to determine the properties of these pulp samples. Optimum kraft ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Octenyl Adipate and Bioactivity of Retro and Condensed Chalcones from Toussaintia Orientalis Abstract PDF · Vol 38, No 3 (2012) - Articles Effects of Temperature on the Physicochemical Properties of Traditionally Processed Vegetable Oils and ...

  13. Complete nucleotide sequence and gene rearrangement of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Species classification and sequence accession numbers of amphibian mt genomes used in phylogenetic analyses. Taxon. Species. Family. GenBank no. Archaeobatrachia. Bombina fortinuptialis. Bombinatoridae. AY458591. B. orientalis. Bombinatoridae. AY585338. B. variegata. Bombinatoridae. AY971143. B. maxima.

  14. Introduction of some Odonata species (Insecta from northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Elham Yoosefi Lafooraki

    2014-01-01

    *Anax parthenope, *Calopteryx splendens intermedia, Calopteryx splendens orientalis, *Coenagrion vanbrinckae, Crocothemis erythraea, *Epallage fatime, *Ischnura pumilio, *Lestes virevs, *Libellula depressa, *Orthetrum albistylum, Orthetrum sabina, *Platycnemis dealbata, Sympetrum fonscolombei and Sympetrum striolatum.

  15. A study on crown interception with four dominant tree species: a direct measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang Li; Jianzhi Niu; Linus Zhang; Qingfu Xiao; Gregory E. McPherson; Natalie van Doorn; Xinxiao Yu; Baoyuan Xie; Salli Dymond; Jiao Li; Chen Meng; Ziteng Luo

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to concentrate on the rainfall interception process of individual trees for four common species in Beijing, China, which included needle species (Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis) and broadleaf species (Quercus variabilis and Acer truncatum)....

  16. Review of Bickel, Bilder als Quellen (Fs. Keel)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpel, M.C.A.

    2012-01-01

    BICKEL, S. et al. (eds.) — Bilder als Quellen. Images as Sources. Studies on Ancient Near Eastern artefacts and the Bible inspired by the work of Othmar Keel. (Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, Sonderband).

  17. Analiza comparativă a răspunsului dendroclimatologic al molidului (Picea abies (L. Karst. şi bradului (Abies alba Mill. din nordul Carpaţiilor Orientali [Comparative analysis of the dendrochronological response of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. and Silver fir (Abies alba Mill., from the North of Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa I

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper present an exemple of the applicability of dendroclimatological research methods in the study of forest ecosystems, using the dendrochronological series from Giumalau Secular Forest (GIUA - Norway spruce, Slatioara Secular Forest (SLAA -Norway spruce, SLAB - Silver fir and Demacusa Basin (DEMA - Silver fir. In the case of the Norway spruce, respectively the GIUA and SLAA dendrochronological series, one can notice a significant negative correlation with the temperatures from the end of the previous vegetation season (July, August, and September and positive with the rainfalls from that period. The same type of reaction concerning the previous vegetation season is also present in the case of the Silver fir, but the intensity is lower. As far as the current vegetation season is concerned, the Norway spruce has a significant positive reaction (GIUA - February, March, SLAA - April, July to the regime of rainfalls. The thermal regime at the end of the season of vegetative repose and at the beginning of the vegetation season, months January - June induces a positive response from the Norway spruce. The Norway spruce’s response to modification of the thermal regime in the vegetation season, months July-August, is negative, the high temperatures directly and indirectly determining a decrease of the growth in diameter rhythm. In case of the dendrochronological series from Giumalau Secular Forest - GIUA - the temperature in August is negative and significantly correlated with the growth index. The end of the vegetation season, namely September, has a positive influence on growth, as far as the thermal regime is concerned, the reaction being negative to pluviometric regime. In the case of the Silver fir, there is a positive reaction, even very strong and significant in the case of Slatioara-s series of growth indexes - SLAB, to temperatures from the cold season (December-March. The same positive response can be noticed in the case of the temperatures from the vegetation season (July - August, for the series of indexes from Demacusa Basin, the correlation being significant in the case of the temperatures from August. The rainfalls at the beginning of vegetation season (April - June determine an acceleration of radial growth rhythm, but the correlation is insignificant from the statistical point of view. The comparative analysis of the series of real and estimated by statistical models growth indexes indicates a very good reliability of the response functions. Distribution of residual errors is random, except for the period 1985-1992 in the case of dendrochronological series from Slatioara (Norway spruce and Silver fir and Demacusa, when the statistic model systematically overestimates the growth indexes. The explanation can be found in the presence of a disturbance signal with intense manifestation in this period, the hypothesis issued being the presence of some phenomena of intense pollution. This manifestation is very obvious, especially in the case of the Norway spruce from Slatioara Secular Forest - SLAA.

  18. Der figurliche Motivschatz Phöniziens, Syriens und Transjordaniens vom 6. bis 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr. (Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis Series Archaeologica 18). Fribourg, Universität Verlag Friburg, 2000, XII-269 p., 78 pl., 1 carte.

    OpenAIRE

    Boucharlat, Rémy

    2010-01-01

    A.N., spécialiste des régions perses d’au-delà de l’Euphrate, a réuni la documentation iconographique provenant de cette Transeuphratène, la 5e satrapie achéménide qui compte nombre de cités anciennement indépendantes et de principautés. Traditions locales, forte­ment marquées par l’Égypte, ouverture vers le monde méditerranéen, hellénique en particu­lier, apport perse, tout cela constitue un milieu extrêmement complexe qui n’a guère d’équivalent dans les autres provinces de l’empire. De plus...

  19. Antibodies against sand flies saliva in domestic animals from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Košťálová, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to test sera of domestic animals from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis in north and northwest Ethiopia for antibodies against presumed vector P. orientalis salivary glands and to clarify behavior of the sand fly and the role of domestic animals in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis. Specific IgG antibodies against P. orientalis saliva were tested in dogs, cattle, goats, sheep and donkeys. Above the cut-off value there was 76 % analyzed dogs, 15 % cat...

  20. Anatomy and osteohistology of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon from the uppermost Santonian (Cretaceous) of southern Appalachia

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Prieto-Márquez; Gregory M. Erickson; Jun A. Ebersole

    2016-01-01

    The cranial and postcranial anatomy of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon orientalis, from the uppermost Santonian of southern Appalachia (southeastern U.S.A.), is described in detail. This animal is the only known pre-Campanian non-lambeosaurine hadrosaurid, and the most complete hadrosauroid known from Appalachia. E. orientalis possesses a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived characters in the context of Hadrosauroidea. Characters shared with basal hadrosauroids include a short and s...

  1. Bleaching and mortality of a photosymbiotic bioeroding sponge under future carbon dioxide emission scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, James K H; Schönberg, Christine H L; Mello-Athayde, Matheus A; Achlatis, Michelle; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2018-03-24

    The bioeroding sponge Cliona orientalis is photosymbiotic with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium and is pervasive on the Great Barrier Reef. We investigated how C. orientalis responded to past and future ocean conditions in a simulated community setting. The experiment lasted over an Austral summer under four carbon dioxide emission scenarios: a pre-industrial scenario (PI), a present-day scenario (PD; control), and two future scenarios of combined ocean acidification and ocean warming, i.e., B1 (intermediate) and A1FI (extreme). The four scenarios also simulated natural variability of carbon dioxide partial pressure and temperature in seawater. Responses of C. orientalis generally remained similar between the PI and PD treatments. C. orientalis under B1 displayed a dramatic increase in lateral tissue extension, but bleached and displayed reduced rates of respiration and photosynthesis. Some B1 sponge replicates died by the end of the experiment. Under A1FI, strong bleaching and subsequent mortality of all C. orientalis replicates occurred at an early stage of the experiment. Mortality arrested bioerosion by C. orientalis under B1 and A1FI. Overall, the absolute amount of calcium carbonate eroded by C. orientalis under B1 or A1FI was similar to that under PI or PD at the end of the experiment. Although bioerosion rates were raised by short-term experimental acidification in previous studies, our findings from the photosymbiotic C. orientalis imply that the effects of bioerosion on reef carbonate budgets may only be temporary if the bioeroders cannot survive long-term in the future oceans.

  2. Comparative genome analysis of three eukaryotic parasites with differing abilities to transform leukocytes reveals key mediators of Theileria-induced leukocyte transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kyoko; Hara, Yuichiro; Abe, Takashi; Yamasaki, Chisato; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kosuge, Takehide; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sato, Yoshiharu; Kawashima, Shuichi; Katayama, Toshiaki; Wakaguri, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Noboru; Homma, Keiichi; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Yagi, Yukio; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Habara, Takuya; Kanehisa, Minoru; Watanabe, Hidemi; Ito, Kimihito; Gojobori, Takashi; Sugawara, Hideaki; Imanishi, Tadashi; Weir, William; Gardner, Malcolm; Pain, Arnab; Shiels, Brian; Hattori, Masahira; Nene, Vishvanath; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2012-01-01

    We sequenced the genome of Theileria orientalis, a tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan parasite of cattle. The focus of this study was a comparative genome analysis of T. orientalis relative to other highly pathogenic Theileria species, T. parva and T. annulata. T. parva and T. annulata induce transformation of infected cells of lymphocyte or macrophage/monocyte lineages; in contrast, T. orientalis does not induce uncontrolled proliferation of infected leukocytes and multiplies predominantly within infected erythrocytes. While synteny across homologous chromosomes of the three Theileria species was found to be well conserved overall, subtelomeric structures were found to differ substantially, as T. orientalis lacks the large tandemly arrayed subtelomere-encoded variable secreted protein-encoding gene family. Moreover, expansion of particular gene families by gene duplication was found in the genomes of the two transforming Theileria species, most notably, the TashAT/TpHN and Tar/Tpr gene families. Gene families that are present only in T. parva and T. annulata and not in T. orientalis, Babesia bovis, or Plasmodium were also identified. Identification of differences between the genome sequences of Theileria species with different abilities to transform and immortalize bovine leukocytes will provide insight into proteins and mechanisms that have evolved to induce and regulate this process. The T. orientalis genome database is available at http://totdb.czc.hokudai.ac.jp/.

  3. Comparative genome analysis of three eukaryotic parasites with differing abilities to transform leukocytes reveals key mediators of theileria-induced leukocyte transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Hayashida, Kyoko

    2012-09-04

    We sequenced the genome of Theileria orientalis, a tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan parasite of cattle. The focus of this study was a comparative genome analysis of T. orientalis relative to other highly pathogenic Theileria species, T. parva and T. annulata. T. parva and T. annulata induce transformation of infected cells of lymphocyte or macrophage/monocyte lineages; in contrast, T. orientalis does not induce uncontrolled proliferation of infected leukocytes and multiplies predominantly within infected erythrocytes. While synteny across homologous chromosomes of the three Theileria species was found to be well conserved overall, subtelomeric structures were found to differ substantially, as T. orientalis lacks the large tandemly arrayed subtelomere-encoded variable secreted protein-encoding gene family. Moreover, expansion of particular gene families by gene duplication was found in the genomes of the two transforming Theileria species, most notably, the TashAT/TpHN and Tar/Tpr gene families. Gene families that are present only in T. parva and T. annulata and not in T. orientalis, Babesia bovis, or Plasmo-dium were also identified. Identification of differences between the genome sequences of Theileria species with different abilities to transform and immortalize bovine leukocytes will provide insight into proteins and mechanisms that have evolved to induce and regulate this process. The T. orientalis genome database is available at http://totdb.czc.hokudai.ac.jp/. 2012 Hayashida et al. T.

  4. Annual Progress Report of Research Activities that Occured in the Coordinated Science Laboratory for July 1, 1982 through Jun 30, 1983,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    for on-line two-dimensional packing algorithms," Acta Informatica . vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 207-225, 1982. • 12.8 H. Edelsbrunner, H. A. Maurer, F. P...34 Proc. 2nd World Conf. on Mathematics at the Service of Man. Las Palmas, Canary Islands, pp. 104-109, July 1982. 12.16 F. P. Preparata and W. Lipski...spectrum shaping versus the optimal linear state-space structure," IEEE Trans. Acoustics. Speech, and Signal Pro- • la cessing. vol. ASSP-30, pp. 963

  5. Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Kakati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks. Materials and Methods: For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal. Results: PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of B. bigemina (64.91%,T. orientalis(21.05% and A. marginale (14.03%, respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B.microplus tick collected from a T. orientalis positive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners. Conclusion: The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural

  6. Recherches sur les champignons supérieurs dans les hêtraies et les sapinières du Roztocze Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Sałata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of three-year investigations on the flora of higher fungi in beech- and first-forests of the Central Roztocze (south-eastern Poland. In this area there runs the north-eastern border of dense occurrence of Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica. The investigations were carried out on o17 fixed observational surfaces, each of 400m2 (the square of a side 20x20m. Inthe paper there were described the fungi inhabiting the wood of Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica, as well as trrestial fungi against the background of plant communities.

  7. A new species of iguanid lizard, genus Stenocercus (Squamata, Iguania), from the Central Andes in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Pablo J; Echevarría, Lourdes Y; García-Burneo, Karla; Koch, Claudia

    2016-12-04

    We describe a new species of Stenocercus from the montane forest of the right margin of the Marañón river in the northern portion of the Central Andes in northern Peru (Amazonas and La Libertad departments), at elevations ranging from 2300 to 3035 m. Stenocercus omari sp. nov. differs from other Stenocercus species, with the exception of S. amydrorhytus, S. chrysopygus, S. cupreus, S. johaberfellneri, S. latebrosus, S. melanopygus, S. modestus, S. ornatissimus, S. orientalis, and S. stigmosus, by having granular scales on the posterior surfaces of thighs, a conspicuous antehumeral fold and by lacking a vertebral crest. However, Stenocercus omari sp. nov. is easily distinguished from the aforementioned species, except S. orientalis, by the presence of prominently keeled dorsal head scales. The new species differs from S. orientalis by lacking a prominent oblique neck fold and by having a distinct deep postfemoral mite pocket.

  8. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in White Nile, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widaa, Sally Osman; Ahmed, Khalid Awadelkarim; Bari, Amel Ahmed Elsheikh; Ali, Mayada Mohmmedelhassan; Ibrahim, Mihad Abdelaal; Bashir, Mohammed Ahmed; Mastour, Ahmed Hamid Awadelkarim; Yagi, Zakkiah Algali; Hassan, Mo'awia Mukhtar

    2012-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been known to occur since the 1980s on the western bank of the White Nile River (Central Sudan), 150 km south of Khartoum, and has resulted in high mortality. The most recent outbreak of the disease in this area began in 2006. Entomological surveys were carried out during May 2008, June 2010 and May and July 2011 in the White Nile area. Sandflies were collected using Centers for Disease Control light traps and sticky oil traps in the village of Kadaba and the nearby woodland. Phlebotomus females were dissected for the presence of Leishmania promastigotes. A total of 17,387 sandflies, including six species of Phlebotomus and 10 species of Sergentomyia, were identified. The Phlebotomus species recorded were Phlebotomus orientalis, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus bergeroti, Phlebotomus duboscqi, Phlebotomus rodhaini and Phlebotomus saevus. P. orientalis was collected in both habitats. The relative abundance of P. orientalis in the woodland habitat was higher than that recorded in the village habitat. In the woodland habitat, there was a notable increase in the relative abundance of P. orientalis during the surveys conducted in 2008 and 2010 compared to 2011. None of the 311 P. orientalis females dissected were infected with Leishmania promastigotes, although relatively high parous rates were recorded in both habitats. Based on the distribution of P. orientalis recorded in this study, this species is the most likely vector of VL in the endemic focus in the White Nile area. Further investigation is required to elucidate the seasonal abundance and distribution of the vector, as well as the transmission season of VL in both habitats so that appropriate control strategies for the vector can be designed.

  9. Further studies on the phlebotomine sandflies of the kala-azar endemic lowlands of Humera-Metema (north-west Ethiopia) with observations on their natural blood meal sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been known to exist in northwest Ethiopia (Humera-Metema lowlands) since the early 1970s associated with large scale agricultural development activities, often resulting in outbreaks. The latest outbreak of the disease that has started around 1995 in both regions, has led to the present preliminary entomological surveys (1996-2005) the results of which are reported here. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps and Phlebotomus females were dissected for Leishmania detection and isolation; freshly fed Phlebotomus females collected were subsequently tested for their blood meal sources using ELISA. All Phlebotomus collections were identified to species. Results During the surveys (1996-2005), a total of 1963 sandflies of six Phlebotomus species (P. orientalis, P. papatasi, P. bergeroti, P. duboscqi, P. rodhaini and P. alexandri) were recorded from the study areas: the predominant species was P. orientalis in both localities. None of the total 618 P. orientalis females dissected (506 from Metema and 112 from Humera), nor the total 114 females of four other species dissected (P. papatasi, P. duboscqi, P. bergeroti and P. rodhaini) was infected with Leishmania promastigotes. ELISA-based blood meal analysis of 273 fresh fed P. orientalis females collected from Metema revealed a remarkably high bovine blood feeds (92%) with only 2.2% of human blood feeds. Conclusion Based on abundance and other circumstantial evidences (its proven role in Sudan), P. orientalis is the most likely vector of VL in northwest Ethiopia, pending further clarifications. The zoophagic feeding behaviour of P. orientalis detected in the present study could have epidemiological significance, but more investigations are required in this and other behavioural characteristics towards appropriate management of the vector. PMID:20181077

  10. Further studies on the phlebotomine sandflies of the kala-azar endemic lowlands of Humera-Metema (north-west Ethiopia with observations on their natural blood meal sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailu Asrat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL has been known to exist in northwest Ethiopia (Humera-Metema lowlands since the early 1970s associated with large scale agricultural development activities, often resulting in outbreaks. The latest outbreak of the disease that has started around 1995 in both regions, has led to the present preliminary entomological surveys (1996-2005 the results of which are reported here. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps and Phlebotomus females were dissected for Leishmania detection and isolation; freshly fed Phlebotomus females collected were subsequently tested for their blood meal sources using ELISA. All Phlebotomus collections were identified to species. Results During the surveys (1996-2005, a total of 1963 sandflies of six Phlebotomus species (P. orientalis, P. papatasi, P. bergeroti, P. duboscqi, P. rodhaini and P. alexandri were recorded from the study areas: the predominant species was P. orientalis in both localities. None of the total 618 P. orientalis females dissected (506 from Metema and 112 from Humera, nor the total 114 females of four other species dissected (P. papatasi, P. duboscqi, P. bergeroti and P. rodhaini was infected with Leishmania promastigotes. ELISA-based blood meal analysis of 273 fresh fed P. orientalis females collected from Metema revealed a remarkably high bovine blood feeds (92% with only 2.2% of human blood feeds. Conclusion Based on abundance and other circumstantial evidences (its proven role in Sudan, P. orientalis is the most likely vector of VL in northwest Ethiopia, pending further clarifications. The zoophagic feeding behaviour of P. orientalis detected in the present study could have epidemiological significance, but more investigations are required in this and other behavioural characteristics towards appropriate management of the vector.

  11. Effects of ocean warming and acidification on the energy budget of an excavating sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, James K H; Schönberg, Christine H L; Mello-Athayde, Matheus A; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2014-04-01

    Recent research efforts have demonstrated increased bioerosion rates under experimentally elevated partial pressures of seawater carbon dioxide (pCO2 ) with or without increased temperatures, which may lead to net erosion on coral reefs in the future. However, this conclusion clearly depends on the ability of the investigated bioeroding organisms to survive and grow in the warmer and more acidic future environments, which remains unexplored. The excavating sponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, is a widely distributed bioeroding organism and symbiotic with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Using C. orientalis, an energy budget model was developed to calculate amounts of carbon directed into metabolic maintenance and growth. This model was tested under a range of CO2 emission scenarios (temperature + pCO2 ) appropriate to an Austral early summer. Under a pre-industrial scenario, present day (control) scenario, or B1 future scenario (associated with reducing the rate of CO2 emissions over the next few decades), C. orientalis maintained a positive energy budget, where metabolic demand was likely satisfied by autotrophic carbon provided by Symbiodinium and heterotrophic carbon via filter-feeding, suggesting sustainability. Under B1, C. orientalis likely benefited by a greater supply of photosynthetic products from its symbionts, which increased by up to 56% per unit area, and displayed an improved condition with up to 52% increased surplus carbon available for growth. Under an A1FI future scenario (associated with 'business-as-usual' CO2 emissions) bleached C. orientalis experienced the highest metabolic demand, but carbon acquired was insufficient to maintain the sponge, as indicated by a negative energy budget. These metabolic considerations suggest that previous observations of increased bioerosion under A1FI by C. orientalis may not last through the height of future A1FI summers, and survival of individual sponges may be dependent on the energy reserves

  12. ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF STREPTOMYCES SPP. PRODUCING VANCOMYCIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-KABBANY, H.M.I.

    2008-01-01

    Soil samples obtained from different governments in Egypt were analyzed to determine the presence of types of antibiotic producing actinomycetes using starch-nitrite agar, starch-casein nitrate agar and Czapek's Dox agar as culture media. Different Streptomyces spp. were isolated. The Streptomyces (S.) isolates encountered were S. violochromogens, S. violaceus-nigar and S. orientalis and known as standard Vancomycin producers. The optimum conditions of S. orientalis; incubation period, initial pH and incubation temperature, were determined. In addition, physical properties; appearance, melting point, solubility, mass spectrophotometer of ultra violet (UV) and the effect of gamma rays, were also determined

  13. A comparison of two stem injection treatments applied to American beech in central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; Gary W. Miller; James N. Kochenderfer

    2012-01-01

    Efficacies for two herbicide stem injection treatments on American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and impacts to nontarget residual trees were evaluated in central West Virginia. The treatments consisted of hack-and-squirt injection of all beech stems ≥1.0 in. to 9.9 in. diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) with either imazapyr as Arsenal...

  14. Pathogenicity of Phytophthora isolates originating from several woody hosts in Bulgaria and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubenova Aneta B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to examine the virulence of eight Phytophthora isolates belonging to three species (Phytophthora cryptogea, Phytophthora plurivora and Phytophthora quercina obtained from diverse European ecosystems (in Bulgaria, Poland and Germany towards three forest tree hosts – English oak (Quercus robur L., Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L..

  15. Host preferences and differential contributions of deciduous tree species shape mycorrhizal species richness in a mixed Central European forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Christa; Seven, Jasmin; Polle, Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Mycorrhizal species richness and host ranges were investigated in mixed deciduous stands composed of Fagus sylvatica, Tilia spp., Carpinus betulus, Acer spp., and Fraxinus excelsior. Acer and Fraxinus were colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizas and contributed 5% to total stand mycorrhizal fungal species richness. Tilia hosted similar and Carpinus half the number of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal taxa compared with Fagus (75 putative taxa). The relative abundance of the host tree the EM fungal richness decreased in the order Fagus > Tilia > Carpinus. After correction for similar sampling intensities, EM fungal species richness of Carpinus was still about 30-40% lower than that of Fagus and Tilia. About 10% of the mycorrhizal species were shared among the EM forming trees; 29% were associated with two host tree species and 61% with only one of the hosts. The latter group consisted mainly of rare EM fungal species colonizing about 20% of the root tips and included known specialists but also putative non-host associations such as conifer or shrub mycorrhizas. Our data indicate that EM fungal species richness was associated with tree identity and suggest that Fagus secures EM fungal diversity in an ecosystem since it shared more common EM fungi with Tilia and Carpinus than the latter two among each other.

  16. 76 FR 69693 - Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... following 12 commodities: Almond, Prunus dulcis; Beechnut, Fagus spp.; Brazil nut, Bertholletia excelsa... nut-tree (Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) Heckel) Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) Beechnut... following 11 commodities: Apricot, Prunus armeniaca; Cherry, sweet, Prunus avium; Cherry, tart, Prunus...

  17. Effect of environmental variables and stand structure on ecosystem respiration components in a Mediterranean beech forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guidolotti, G.; Rey, A.; D'Andrea, E.; Matteucci, G.; De Angelis, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 9 (2013), s. 960-972 ISSN 0829-318X Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : ecosystem respiration * Fagus sylvatica * leaf respiration * soil CO2 efflux * stem CO2 efflux * total non-structural carbohydrates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.405, year: 2013

  18. Qualitative survey of five beech damaging Coleoptera (Scolytidae and Lymexylonidae) in Wallonia (Southern Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Marc Henin; Olivier Huart; Phillipe Lejeune; Jacques Rondeux

    2003-01-01

    In 2000 and 2001, Trypodendron domesticum L. and T. signatum (F.) (Col.: Scolytidae) were one of the main causes of the depreciation of more than 1,600,000 m³ of standing beech trees, Fagus sylvatica L., in Wallonia (Southern Belgium). In 2001, a survey aiming at assessing the range of those indigenous...

  19. Modelling and economic evaluation of forest biome shifts under climate change in Southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc Hanewinkel; Susan Hummel; Dominik. Cullmann

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the economic effects of a predicted shift from Norway spruce (Picea abies) to European beech (Fagus sylvatica) for a forest area of 1.3 million ha in southwest Germany. The shift was modelled with a generalized linear model (GLM) by using presence/absence data from the National Forest Inventory in Baden-Wurttemberg...

  20. Mechanism of antibacterial activity of the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare colonizing wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, W.; Folman, L.B.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Svensson, T.; Bastviken, D.; Oberg, G.; Del Rio, J.C.; Boddy, L.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study it was shown that the number of wood-inhabiting bacteria was drastically reduced after colonization of beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood blocks by the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare, or sulfur tuft (Folman et al. 2008). Here we report on the mechanisms of this fungal-induced

  1. Performance of base hydrolysis methods in extracting bound lipids from plant material, soils, and sediments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angst, Gerrit; Cajthaml, T.; Angst, Šárka; Mueller, K.E.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Beggel, S.; Kriegs, S.; Mueller, C.W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 113, November (2017), s. 97-104 ISSN 0146-6380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015075 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cutin * suberin * soil organic matter * biomarkers * Fagus sylvatica L. * Zea mays L. Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry OBOR OECD: Soil science Impact factor: 3.081, year: 2016

  2. Preliminary report of ecological factors influencing incidence and severity of beech bark disease in the Appalachian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. McCann; William L. MacDonald

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to Cryptococcus fagisuga, a primary component of the beech bark disease (BBD) complex, is heritable. Reportedly about 1-2 percent of American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) are genetically resistant to C. fagisuga. This project is designed to identify environmental factors contributing to BBD...

  3. Assessing native small mammals' responses to an incipient invasion of beech bark disease through changes in seed production of American beech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin N. Rosemier; Andrew J. Storer

    2011-01-01

    Exotic tree diseases have direct impacts on their host and may have indirect effects on native fauna that rely on host tree species. For example, American beech (Fagus grandifolia [Ehrh.]) is a dominant overstory component throughout its range and, like all tree species, is vulnerable to a broad array of insects and pathogens. These pests include...

  4. Výskyt buku a jedle v horských polohách Šumavy a jejich význam pro obnovu a management lesních porostů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neuhäuslová, Zdenka; Zatloukal, V.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 19, - (2001), s. 87-100 ISSN 1211-3603 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Fagus sylvatica * Abies alba * management Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  5. Vegetation of loess bluff ravines in the Jackson Purchase Region of Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    William S. Bryant

    1993-01-01

    Forest vegetation of some loess bluff ravines in the Jackson Purchase Region of Kentucky was sampled. A total of 27 tree species comprised the mixed mesophytic association with Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia and Liquidambar styraciflua as the dominants. This assemblage of species agrees with that reported for...

  6. Spatiotemporal variability of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) growth response to climate across the Iberian Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Natalini, F.; Alejano, R.; Vazquez-Pique, J.; Pardos, M.; Calama, R.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 40, dec (2016), s. 72-84 ISSN 1125-7865 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : tree-rings * genetically depauperate * mediterranean climate * phenotypic plasticity * cambial activity * fagus-sylvatica * spain * drought * widespread * halepensis * Climate change * Dendroecology * Growth plasticity * Mediterranean * Tree rings * Drought Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.259, year: 2016

  7. Conservation genetics of the European beech in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Ducousso; B. Musch; S. Irola; A. Quenu; A. Hampe; R.J. Petit

    2017-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica) is one of the most abundant tree species in Europe. Its genetic structure and diversity have been investigated using both molecular markers and adaptive traits as assessed in field and laboratory experimental tests looking at adaptative traits. A great deal of information also exists on the Quaternary history of the...

  8. Wind characteristics of CzeCOS’s ecosystem station Štítná

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guerra Torres, Patricio Carlos; Nguyen, Vinh Xuan; Pavelka, Marian; Yadav, Shilpi; Marek, Michal V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 1-2 (2017), s. 27-32 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : European beech * Fagus sylvatica * wind analysis Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences

  9. Carbon and Nitrogen Pools and Fluxes in Adjacent Mature Norway Spruce and European Beech Forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oulehle, Filip; Růžek, M.; Tahovská, K.; Bárta, J.; Myška, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2016), č. článku 282. ISSN 1999-4907 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Fagus sylvatica * Picea abies * carbon * nitrogen * budget * respiration * productivity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.951, year: 2016

  10. Measurement of Moisture Content in Seeds of Some North American Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner

    1972-01-01

    Current International rules (International Seed Testing Association, 1966) for determination of moisture content specify the air-oven method at 105 °C for all tree seeds except those of Ables, Cedrus. Fagus, Picea, and Tsuga, for which the toluene distillation method must be used. Calibration of air-oven methods against a good reference method, such as toluene...

  11. Effects of litter quality and parent material on organic matter characteristics and N-dynamics in Luxembourg beech and hornbeam forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.; Martinez-Hernandez, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    To test effects of litter quality and soil conditions on N-dynamics, we selected seven forests in Luxembourg dominated by beech (Fagus sylvatica, L.) and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), and located on acid loam, decalcified marl or limestone, and measured organic matter characteristics, microbial C

  12. Shading and root-shoot relations in saplings of silver birch, pedunculate oak and beech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, van A.F.M.; Clerkx, A.P.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) can regenerate successfully under a canopy of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Shading reduces plant growth and modifies plant form, two related aspects. This study focuses on the effects of

  13. Aluminum solubility and mobility in relation to organic carbon in surface soils affected by six tree species of the northeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Fitzhugh, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We compared Al solubility and mobility in surface soils among six tree species (sugar maple [Acer saccharum], white ash [Fraxinus americana], red maple [Acer rubrum, L.], American beech [Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh.], red oak [Quercus rubra, L.], and hemlock [Tsuga canadensis, Carr.]) in a mixed

  14. The colonisation of woodland gaps by ferns and horsetails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, P.

    2010-01-01

    In the Voorsterbos, a planted woodland on a former sea-floor (the Netherlands), artificial gaps within stands of Fagus sylvatica on boulder clay were monitored for five or six years after cutting. Ten fern species and three species of horsetail established in these gaps, with Dryopteris cristata,

  15. Implementation of municipal health promoting projects in primary schools: teachers perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordin, Lone Lindegard

    2013-01-01

    the absence of disease, lifestyle and behavior change .To understand teachers' practices in relation to the policy objectives in relation to diet, physically activity and action competence the research are based on theory on implementation especially Lipskys' theory of street-level bureaucracy...... on diet and physically activity, and how factors related to individual and institutional factors, according to the teachers, affected the implementation process. The research is linked to a health-promotion intervention project The School Health Project in a Danish municipality in the province...... and the routines and simplifications of street-level bureaucrats. The research discussed in this paper focuses on teachers' perspective on, reflections about and interpretations the implementation process in school based health promoting projects. Specifically, the research generates insight into: • How teachers...

  16. Failure Recovery via RESTART: Wallclock Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Rønn-Nielsen, Anders

    different models: 1: a time-dependent failure rate $\\mu(t)$ and a constant work rate $r(t)\\equiv 1$; 2: Poisson failures and a time-dependent deterministic work rate $r(t)$; 3: as 2, but $r(t)$ is random and a function of a finite Markov process. Also results close to being necessary and sufficient...... are presented for $X$ to be finite a.s. The results complement those of Asmussen, Fiorini, Lipsky, Rolski & Sheahan [Math. Oper. Res. 33, 932--944, 2008] who took $r(t)\\equiv 1$ and assumed the failure rate to be a function of the time elapsed since the last restart rather than wallclock time....

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sattler, I. Vol 38, No 3 (2012) - Articles New Glucopyranosylglyceryl-N-Octenyl Adipate and Bioactivity of Retro and Condensed Chalcones from Toussaintia Orientalis Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2507-7961. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  18. New Glucopyranosylglyceryl-N-Octenyl Adipate and Bioactivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1-(3-β-D-Glucopyranosylglycer-2-yl)-6-N-(oct-2-enyl)-adipate, [orientalin, 1] was isolated as a new metabolite from the polar leaf extracts of Toussaintia orientalis Verdc (Annonaceae), together with the glycoflavonoids afzelin and quercitrin, and the indolidinoids toussaintines A-C. The reversed chalcones 2-hydroxy-3,4 ...

  19. Tanzania Journal of Science - Vol 38, No 3 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organochlorine Pesticides and Degradation Products in Soil around a Former Formulation Plant in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL ... New Glucopyranosylglyceryl-N-Octenyl Adipate and Bioactivity of Retro and Condensed Chalcones from Toussaintia Orientalis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 273 ... Vol 38, No 3 (2012), New Glucopyranosylglyceryl-N-Octenyl Adipate and Bioactivity of Retro and Condensed Chalcones from Toussaintia Orientalis ... Vol 38, No 3 (2012), Organochlorine Pesticides and Degradation Products in Soil around a Former Formulation Plant in Morogoro Municipality, ...

  1. Determination of similarity among Turkish sweet gum ( Liquidambar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... genetic relationships among five native populations of Liquidambar orientalis Mill. Eighty-four oligonucleotide primers were used in PCR and 782 RAPD markers were evaluated for statistical analysis. Generated Nei-Li's coefficient indicated that the highest similarity was 83.1% between samples from Koycegiz and Cine

  2. The relationship between ancient trees health and soil properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... This study focuses on the representative ancient trees including Pinus bungeana Zucc.ex Endl.,. Platycladus orientalis (Linn.) Franco, Pinus tabulaeformis Carr., Sophora japonica Linn. in the Beijing. City as these trees have increasingly high cultural and aesthetic values. We employed tree visual.

  3. Bioguided investigation of the antimalarial activities of Trema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acetone extract of T. orientalis leaves was investigated for its antimalarial activity in a mouse model of Plasmodium berghei using the 4 day suppressive test. Bioguided investigation was carried out by using column chromatographic fractions for in-vivo antiplasmodial screening. Preliminary spectroscopic profile of the most ...

  4. Gall production on hawthorns caused by Gymnosporangium spp.in Hatay province, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three hawthorn and related rust diseases caused by Gymnosporangium confusum on Crataegus monogyna, G. clavariiforme on C. orientalis, and G. sabinae on Pyrus communis were detected in Hatay province, Turkey. Gymnosporangium confusum was also found causing telial galls on Juniperus communis. Gymnospo...

  5. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology - Vol 32, No 2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of Cockroaches (Blatta Orientalis and Periplaneta Americana) in Mechanical Transmission of Parasites in Households in Owerri, South East Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. CMU Ajero, CN Ukaga, C Ebirim ...

  6. Determination of physiological responses on hyacinth ( Hyacinthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the physiological responses of hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis) exposed to different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mM) were investigated. The stomata status, osmotic potential, proline content, chlorophyll and caretonoid contents and protein variances were examined in the plants exposed to salt.

  7. Phylogeography of the Middle Eastern tree frogs (Hyla, Hylidae, Amphibia) as an inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation, with a description of a new species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gvoždík, Václav; Moravec, J.; Klütsch, C.; Kotlík, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2010), s. 1146-1166 ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Hyla savignyi * Hyla felixarabica sp. nov. * Hyla orientalis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.889, year: 2010

  8. Species diversity and abundance of wild birds in Dagona-Waterfowl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    Seventy-four percent were found in site1, sixty-three percent in Site 2 and seventy-one percent in site 3. ... mostly depended upon as source of protein and at the ..... Little bee-eater. Merops orientalis. Little green bee-eater. Musophagidae. Crinifer piscator. Western grey plantain-eater. Crinifer piscator. Plantain eater.

  9. The inhibition and adaptability of four wetland plant species to high concentration of ammonia wastewater and nitrogen removal efficiency in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhui; Wang, Junfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Song, Xinshan; Gong, Juan

    2016-02-01

    Four plant species, Typha orientalis, Scirpus validus, Canna indica and Iris tectorum were selected to assess their physiological response and effects on nitrogen and COD removal to high total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) in constructed wetlands. Results showed that high TAN caused decreased relative growth rate, net photosynthetic rate, and leaf transpiration. C. indica and T. orientalis showed higher TAN adaptability than S. validus and I. tectorum. Below TAN of 200 mg L(-1), growth of C. indica and T. orientalis was less affected or even stimulated at TAN range 100-200 mg L(-1). However, S. validus and I. tectorum was obviously suppressed when TAN was above 100 mg L(-1). High TAN generated obvious oxidative stress showing increased proline and malondialdehyde contents, and superoxide dismutase was inhibited. It indicated that the threshold for plant self-bioremediation against high TAN was 200 mg L(-1). What's more, planted CWs showed higher nitrogen and COD removal. Removal rate of C. indica and T. orientalis was higher than S. validus and I. tectorum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Brief Survey of the Mosquitoes of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, with Special Reference to the Identity of ’Anopheles barbirostris’ (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Margolembo Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-20

    Bonne-Wepster, 1947 : 187. Culex (Culex) tritaeniorhyuchus summ orosus Dyar , 1920 As Cr. ttitneniorhync&, Brug, 1931: 35.-Barraud, 1934: 406...Swellengrebel de Graaf, 1919 ( 1920 ) As An. tesselatus var. orientalis, Brug & Bonne-Wepster, 1947: 181.-Bonne-Wepster & Swellengrebel, 1953: 279.-Waktoedi

  11. Microbiological and physico-chemical characteristic of Rwandese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The yeast was identified by API 20 C test and confirmed by PCR-Sequencing of ITS-5.8S region of rDNA. Seventy yeasts isolated in the samples were found to belong to either Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida inconspicua, Issatchenkia orientalis, Candida magnolia and Candida humilis. Lactic acid bacteria were ...

  12. The relationship between ancient trees health and soil properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on the representative ancient trees including Pinus bungeana Zucc.ex Endl., Platycladus orientalis (Linn.) Franco, Pinus tabulaeformis Carr., Sophora japonica Linn. in the Beijing City as these trees have increasingly high cultural and aesthetic values. We employed tree visual assessment to evaluate the ...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Review on the Adaptation Strategies to the Impact of Climate Change on Health: A Key to Achieving Millennium Development Goals Abstract · Vol 32, No 2 (2011) - Articles The Role of Cockroaches (Blatta Orientalis and Periplaneta Americana) in Mechanical Transmission of Parasites in Households in Owerri, South East ...

  14. Laboratory evaluation of azadirachtin against the oriental cockroach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the toxicity of azadirachtin applied topically at various doses (300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800 and 9000 ng/ insect) was evaluated against newly emerged adults of the oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis L. (Dictyoptera, Blattellidae) under laboratory conditions. Results show that treated insects exhibited toxic ...

  15. Ecological studies of some insects associated with Bedouin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological studies of some insects associated with Bedouin settlements in St Katherine Protectorate, South Sinai, Egypt. ... Cockroaches were very abundant in houses, peaking in August, and reaching a minimum in winter. The abundance of Vespa orientalis has important implications for wild bees, and the huge numbers ...

  16. A new genus of Blacinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester P. Gibson

    1977-01-01

    A new genus, Canalicephalus, of the subfamily Blacinae is described along with 4 new species, C. orientalis from Borneo, C. novus from New Guinea, and C. bakeri and C. mindanao, both from the Philippines. Keys are included to separate these 2 genera and the 4...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdolmohammadi, M.H. Vol 8, No 17 (2009) - Articles Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of Astrodaucus orientalis (L.) drude on T47D human breast cancer cell line: Potential mechanisms of action. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1684-5315. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  18. A new species of Lysiphlebus Förster 1862 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) attacking soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, Petr; Rakhshani, E.; Tomanović, Ž.; Hoelmer, K.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Yu, J.; Wang, M.; Heimpel, G. E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2010), s. 179-186 ISSN 1070-9428 Grant - others:Ministry of Science and Technological Developments of the Republic of Serbia(SR) 143006B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lysiphlebus orientalis sp. n. * aphid parasitoids * Glycine max Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2010

  19. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Malek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8% rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

  20. Morphological characterisation and identification of four species of Cardicola Short, 1953 (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) infecting the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (L.) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Abella, José F; Rodríguez-Llanos, Javier; Mele, Salvatore; Montero, Francisco E

    2015-06-01

    Blood flukes of the genus Cardicola Short, 1953 are considered the most potentially pathogenic parasites in bluefin tuna cultures. Morphological study and genetic analyses of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer ITS-2 and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) gene fragments revealed the occurrence of four aporocotylid species (C. forsteri Cribb, Daintith & Munday, 2000, C. orientalis Ogawa, Tanaka, Sugihara & Takami, 2010, C. opisthorchis Ogawa, Ishimaru, Shirakashi, Takami & Grabner, 2011 and Cardicola sp.) in 421 Thunnus thynnus (L.) from the Western Mediterranean (274 fished from the wild and 147 from sea-cages). Cardicola opisthorchis was the most abundant species, with higher prevalence in the cage-reared fish than in those fished in the wild (21 vs 6%, p < 0.05). Adults of three species were recovered: C. forsteri from both gills and heart, C. opisthorchis from heart and C. orientalis from gills. The secondary gill lamellae were profusely infected by eggs of C. orientalis. A fourth species was found in four tunas, based on the molecular analyses of eggs apparently indistinguishable in size and shape from the eggs of C. orientalis. The findings provided evidence that infections with Cardicola spp. differed in relation to locality, host origin (wild vs cage-reared) and site of infection. It is necessary to estimate the possible different pathogenic effects of each species of Cardicola in order to take appropriate control measures.

  1. Reclassification of the larval pathogen for marine bivalves Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus as Vibrio europaeus sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, Javier; Romalde, Jesús L; Spinard, Edward J; Nelson, David R; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Barja, Juan L

    2016-11-01

    The Orientalis clade has a relevant significance for bivalve aquaculture since it includes the pathogens Vibrio bivalvicida, Vibrio tubiashii subsp. tubiashii and Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus. However, the previous taxonomic description of the subspecies of V. tubiashii shows some incongruities that should be emended. In the genomic age, the comparison between genome assemblies is the key to clarify the taxonomic position of both subspecies. With this purpose, we have tested the ability of multilocus sequence analysis based on eight housekeeping gene sequences (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and topA), different in silico genome-to-genome comparisons, chemotaxonomic features and phenotypic traits to reclassify the subspecies V. tubiashii subsp. europaeus within the Orientalis clade. This polyphasic approach clearly demonstrated that this subspecies is phylogenetically and phenotypically distinct from V. tubiashii and should be elevated to the rank of species as Vibrio europaeus sp. nov. This reclassification allows us to update the Orientalis clade (V. bivalvicida,V. brasiliensis, V. crosai, V. hepatarius, V. orientalis, V. sinaloensis, V. tubiashii and V. europaeus sp. nov.) and reconstruct a better phylogeny of the genus Vibrio. An emended description of V. tubiashii is provided. Finally, the proposed novel species is represented by emergent bivalve pathogens [type strain PP-638T (=CECT 8136T=DSM 27349T), PP2-843 and 07/118 T2] responsible for high mortalities in Spanish and French hatcheries.

  2. Parnassiana nova : LVIII. Parnassiidae varia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1983-01-01

    Kürzlich erhielten wir mehrere Exemplare von Parnassius nomion Hübner, die in Asia orientalis, Mongolia borealis, 150 km südlich Ulan-Bator an einigen Flugplätzen erbeutet wurden. Davon zeigt eine Serie aus Bajon Samon, Culut, 1300 m, 25.viii. 1980, konstante und einheitliche Merkmale, die die

  3. Hornets yellow cuticle microstructure : A photovoltaic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishay, JS; Goldstein, O; Rosenzweig, E; Kalicharan, D; Jongebloed, WL

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes cuticular structures on the abdomen of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis, Vespinae, Hymenoptera) in the region of the yellow stripes. A cross section in this region reveals the cuticle to resemble a notebook with more than 30 pages, the topmost pages (analogous to layers)

  4. Kritik otoritas pemaknaan hadis menuju masyarakat Islam berkemajuan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Helmy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sepeninggal Rasulullah Saw. perdebatan seputar keabsahan hadis sebagai sumber hukum Islam tampaknya tidak akan menemukan akhir. Bahkan, kecenderungan dalam hal ini mengarah kepada semakin tingginya intensitas perdebatan seputar keabsahan dan keotentikan hadis. Ini tidak hanya terjadi di kalangan ulama hadis yang muslim, tetapi juga di kalangan orientalis Barat non muslim yang menaruh perhatian kepada studi hadis.

  5. Okmen et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(5):28 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    have medicinal and cosmetic properties and is widely used in phytotherapy in the Mediterranean region. The storax produced by injuring L. orientalis has good antiseptic properties (Fernandez, 2005; Lee et al., 2009). Also it is used as a topical parasiticide, expectorant and for the treatment of some skin diseases in Turkish ...

  6. Impact of the invasive parasitic copepod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Bedolfe; Drent, J.; van der Meer, J.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2018-01-01

    Invasive species can indirectly affect native species by modifying parasite–host dynamics and disease occurrence. This scenario applies to European coastal waters where the invasive Pacific oyster (Magallana gigas) co-introduced the parasitic copepod Mytilicola orientalis that spills

  7. Late-Holocene dynamics of sea-surface temperature and terrestrial hydrology in southwestern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granger, R.; Meadows, M.E.; Hahn, A.; Zabel, M.; Stuut, J-B W.; Herrmann, N.; Schefuß, E.

    2018-01-01

    Invasive parasites can spill over to new hosts in invaded ecosystems with often unpredictable trophic relationships in the newly arising parasite-host interactions. In European seas, the intestinal copepod Mytilicola orientalis was co-introduced with Pacific oysters (Magallana gigas) and spilled

  8. 5 Is the Bird Population in the Hadejia-Nguru.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    resources due to increasing human populations, has led to reclamation of vast wetland areas and loss of ..... Little Green Bee-eaterMerops orientalis. –. –. 5.0. 0.08. Motacillidae Yellow WagtailMotacilla flava. 289.0 .... diversion of water and use of nets for fishing, could have severely affected waterbirds and fish-eating birds.

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Octenyl Adipate and Bioactivity of Retro and Condensed Chalcones from Toussaintia Orientalis Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2507-7961. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  10. Optimization of protein extraction from fern frond using Response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein extractability from Nephrolepis biserrata and Arthropteris orientalis was studied under various conditions. The extraction of fern protein was conducted using alkaline, alcohol and saline treatments under various conditions of treatment concentrations and time of agitation. Central composite design of Response ...

  11. Tissue localization and partial characterization of pheromone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    reported in the head of cockroaches Blatta orientalis and cricket Gryllus bimaculatus (Sreng and Roelofs 1988;. Sreng et al 1990). PBAN-like peptides were ... Achaea janata Linn (Noctuidae) larvae were maintained in individual plastic cups supplied with fresh castor leaves until pupation under a 16 L : 8 D photoperiod and ...

  12. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Erythrina variegata var.orientalis (L.)Merr.(Indian Coral Tree;Hindi:Pangra)of Leguminosae is a small, quick-growing deciduous tree with a small crown. Branches are covered with dark conical prickles, which fall off after some time. The leaves are compound with three leaflets. Bright red or scarlet flowers which.

  13. new glucopyranosylglyceryl-n-octenyl adipate and bioactivity of retro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    accumulating structurally varied natural products, some of them having unprecedented structures. Keywords: Toussaintia orientalis; Annonaceae; ... band due to nitrogen-hydrogen bond deformation at 1458 cm-1 (Kemp 1991). ...... compounds were assayed on cell lines K-. 562 (human chronic myeloid leukaemia) and.

  14. Molecular detection and characterization of Theileria infection in cattle and yaks from Tibet Plateau Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Gege; Li, Youquan; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Guangyuan; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Theileriosis continues to threaten the livestock industry worldwide, but comprehensive epidemiological surveys for this disease have not been conducted in the Tibet Plateau Region, China. In this study, we screened 154 cattle blood samples from the Tibet Plateau Region (Lhasa, Lhoka, and Tianzhu), China, for detection of Theileria pathogens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with species-specific primers. The results revealed that the prevalence was 6.9 % (2/29) for Theileria orientalis and 27.6 % (8/29) for Theileria sinensis in Lhasa, 0 % (0/30) for T. orientalis and 26.7 % (8/30) for T. sinensis in Lhoka, and 0 % (0/95) for T. orientalis and 30.5 % (29/95) for T. sinensis in Tianzhu. Interestingly, Theileria luwenshuni, which was a previously reported pathogenic Theileria sp. in sheep and goats, was detected in blood samples from cattle and yaks for the first time, with a prevalence of 10 % (3/30) in Lhoka and 1.1 % (1/95) in Tianzhu. No other Theileria sp. was detected in these samples. T. sinensis and T. orientalis infections were detected in cattle and yaks, and T. luwenshuni was discovered for the first time in cattle and yaks in the Tibet Plateau Region, China.

  15. Olonisakin et al (15)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    of a small probe were considered death (Su, 1976). Filter paper test. Bioassay on the toxicity of T. orientalis and E. camaldulensis essential oils against adult C. maculates was similar to the method described in Ukeh et al.,. 2012) in Pyrex glass Petri dishes (10 cm diameter). Different doses of each essential oil (0.01, 0.02,.

  16. Breeding biology of the Black-bellied Sandgrouse Pterocles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of the breeding biology of the Black-bellied Sandgrouse Pterocles orientalis were investigated in an arid area of west-central Morocco in the 2003 and 2004 seasons. Back-dating clutches and broods indicated that successful nesting lasted 13–18 weeks from mid-April to late August. The clutch frequency ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 208 of 208 ... Nahla S El-Shenawy, Richard Greenwood, Zohour I Nabil, Ismail M Abdel-Nabi, Raafat A Hanna. Vol 5 (2003), Variation of seed protein of Alkanna orientalis subpopulations in relation to geographical isolation in St Katherine Protectorate, Sinai, Egypt, Abstract. Somia S El-Akkad, Mona M Ali.

  18. Usos americanos de su merced en el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Álvarez López

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste trabajo de carácter empírico documenta la presencia de la forma de tratamiento su merced durante el siglo XIX, en particular, en textos literarios latinoamericanos que representan el habla de africanos y de sus descendientes, tomados de Lipski (2005a, 2005b, y en textos literarios presentes en CORDE. El texto muestra también otros usos de su merced ligados a contextos de comunicación oficial escrita a partir de estudios anteriores. Asimismo, en este trabajo, se revisa la bibliografía sobre la forma en cuestión, se documenta el uso de su merced y se concluye que esta forma de tratamiento aparece en el contexto de relaciones sociales asimétricas y, muy marcadamente, en variedades de español habladas por africanos o descendientes de africanos en el siglo XIX.AbstractThis paper is an empirical study of the presence of the address form su merced in the XIX century, particularly in Latin American literary texts representing the speech of Africans and their descendants, based on examples taken from Lipski (2005a, 2005b and texts included in CORDE. Based on data found in other corpora, the discussion also includes uses of su merced in official written communication. It reviews earlier studies about su merced in Latin America and concludes that this address form appears in the context of asymmetrical social relations between groups and especially in the speech of Africans and their descendants.Keywords: su merced – Bozal Spanish – XIX century – language contact

  19. Evaluation of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of seed extracts from six Nigella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Premysl; Marsik, Petr; Havlik, Jaroslav; Kloucek, Pavel; Vanek, Tomas; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2009-04-01

    Seed extracts from six species of the genus Nigella (Family Ranunculaceae)-Nigella arvensis, Nigella damascena, Nigella hispanica, Nigella nigellastrum, Nigella orientalis, and Nigella sativa-obtained by successive extraction with n-hexane, chloroform, and methanol, were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 10 strains of pathogenic bacteria and yeast using the microdilution method as well as for anti-inflammatory properties by in vitro cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 assay. Chemical characterization of active extracts was carried out including free and fixed fatty acid analysis. Comparison of antimicrobial activity showed that N. arvensis chloroform extract was the most potent among all species tested, inhibiting Gram-positive bacterial and yeast strains with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.25 to 1 mg/mL. With the exception of selective inhibitory action of n-hexane extract of N. orientalis on growth of Bacteroides fragilis (MIC = 0.5 mg/mL), we observed no antimicrobial activity for other Nigella species. Anti-inflammatory screening revealed that N. sativa, N. orientalis, N. hispanica, N. arvensis n-hexane, and N. hispanica chloroform extracts had strong inhibitory activity (more than 80%) on COX-1 and N. orientalis, N. arvensis, and N. hispanica n-hexane extracts were most effective against COX-2, when the concentration of extracts was 100 microg/mL in both COX assays. In conclusion, N. arvensis, N. orientalis, and N. hispanica seeds, for the first time examined for antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects, revealed their significant activity in one or both assays.

  20. Anatomy and osteohistology of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon from the uppermost Santonian (Cretaceous) of southern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Márquez, Albert; Erickson, Gregory M; Ebersole, Jun A

    2016-01-01

    The cranial and postcranial anatomy of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon orientalis, from the uppermost Santonian of southern Appalachia (southeastern U.S.A.), is described in detail. This animal is the only known pre-Campanian non-lambeosaurine hadrosaurid, and the most complete hadrosauroid known from Appalachia. E. orientalis possesses a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived characters in the context of Hadrosauroidea. Characters shared with basal hadrosauroids include a short and sloping maxillary ectopterygoid shelf, caudally prominent maxillary jugal process, one functional tooth per alveolus on the maxillary occlusal plane, a jugal rostral process with a shallow caudodorsal margin and medioventrally facing articular facet, a vertical dentary coronoid process with a poorly expanded apex, and tooth crowns with accessory ridges. Derived characters shared with other hadrosaurids include a circumnarial depression compartmented into three fossae (as in brachylophosaurins and Edmontosaurus), a thin everted premaxillary oral margin (as in Gryposaurus, Prosaurolophus, and Saurolophus), and a maxilla with a deep and rostrocaudally extensive rostrodorsal region with a steeply sloping premaxillary margin (as in Gryposaurus). Eotrachodon orientalis differs primarily from the other hadrosauroid from the Mooreville Chalk of Alabama, Lophorhothon atopus, in having a slender and crestless nasal whose caudodorsal margin is not invaded by the circumnarial depression. Hadrosaurus foulkii, the only other known hadrosaurid from Appalachia, is distinct from E. orientalis in having dentary teeth lacking accessory ridges and a dorsally curved shaft of the ischium. A histological section of the tibia of the E. orientalis holotype (MSC 7949) suggests that this individual was actively growing at the time of death and, thus, had the potential to become a larger animal later in development.

  1. Anatomy and osteohistology of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon from the uppermost Santonian (Cretaceous of southern Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Prieto-Márquez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cranial and postcranial anatomy of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon orientalis, from the uppermost Santonian of southern Appalachia (southeastern U.S.A., is described in detail. This animal is the only known pre-Campanian non-lambeosaurine hadrosaurid, and the most complete hadrosauroid known from Appalachia. E. orientalis possesses a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived characters in the context of Hadrosauroidea. Characters shared with basal hadrosauroids include a short and sloping maxillary ectopterygoid shelf, caudally prominent maxillary jugal process, one functional tooth per alveolus on the maxillary occlusal plane, a jugal rostral process with a shallow caudodorsal margin and medioventrally facing articular facet, a vertical dentary coronoid process with a poorly expanded apex, and tooth crowns with accessory ridges. Derived characters shared with other hadrosaurids include a circumnarial depression compartmented into three fossae (as in brachylophosaurins and Edmontosaurus, a thin everted premaxillary oral margin (as in Gryposaurus, Prosaurolophus, and Saurolophus, and a maxilla with a deep and rostrocaudally extensive rostrodorsal region with a steeply sloping premaxillary margin (as in Gryposaurus. Eotrachodon orientalis differs primarily from the other hadrosauroid from the Mooreville Chalk of Alabama, Lophorhothon atopus, in having a slender and crestless nasal whose caudodorsal margin is not invaded by the circumnarial depression. Hadrosaurus foulkii, the only other known hadrosaurid from Appalachia, is distinct from E. orientalis in having dentary teeth lacking accessory ridges and a dorsally curved shaft of the ischium. A histological section of the tibia of the E. orientalis holotype (MSC 7949 suggests that this individual was actively growing at the time of death and, thus, had the potential to become a larger animal later in development.

  2. Le site de Meatse (Itxassou, Pays Basque : prémiers résultats anthracologiques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Heinz

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis antracológico del sitio de Meatse (alt.716 m., Itxassou, Pays Basque está basado en el estudio de dos muestras inferiores a 150 fragmentos, datadas de 2960 +50 BP (Gif 9573. La lista taxonómica está compuesta solamente de 4 taxones : Fagus sylvatica, Quercus (de hoja caduca, Corylus avellana y Fraxinus excelsior. Dado los argumentos metodológicos desarrollados interiormente sería delicado aventurar una interpretación paleocológica cuantitativa. Los cuatro taxones identificados son representativos de 3 diferentes biotopos forestales : el robledal Quercus (de hoja caduca, el bosque de haya (Fagus sylvatica en altitudes supeiores y las formaciones riberenas. Aun cuando no existe la presencia de marcadores netos de la antropización, es frecuente en la región atlántica, que el bosque de haya explotado sea sustituido por un robleda (Quercus pedunculata

  3. An epidemiological survey of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsify, Ahmed; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Nayel, Mohammed; Salama, Akram; Elkhtam, Ahmed; Rizk, Mohamed; Mosaab, Omar; Sultan, Khaled; Elsayed, Shimaa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2015-02-01

    Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the infection rates of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific PCR assays in blood-DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in Menoufia, Behera, Giza, and Sohag provinces of Egypt. In cattle, the positive rates of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. annulata, and T. orientalis were 3.18%, 7.97%, 9.56%, and 0.68%, respectively. On the other hand, B. bovis and T. orientalis were the only parasites detected in buffaloes and each of these parasites was only found in two individual DNA samples (both 2%), while one (0.95%) and two (1.90%) of the sheep samples were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the B. bovis Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 and the B. bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1 genes were highly conserved among the samples, with 99.3-100% and 95.3-100% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Egyptian T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 gene sequences were relatively diverse (87.8-100% identity values), dispersing themselves across several clades in the phylogenetic tree containing sequences from other countries. Additionally, the T. orientalis Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) gene sequences were classified as types 1 and 2. This is the first report of T. orientalis in Egypt, and of type 2 MPSP in buffaloes. Detection of MPSP type 2, which is considered a relatively virulent genotype, suggests that T. orientalis infection may have veterinary and economic significance in Egypt. In conclusion, the present study, which analyzed multiple species of Babesia and Theileria parasites in different livestock animals, may shed an additional light on the epidemiology of hemoprotozoan parasites in Egypt. Copyright

  4. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Imported Woods and their Degradation by Termites

    OpenAIRE

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R.; Sundararaj, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (L...

  5. Ecological indicators of Tuber aestivum habitats in temperate European beech forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moser, B.; Büntgen, Ulf; Molinier, V.; Peter, M.; Sproll, L.; Stobbe, U.; Tegel, W.; Egli, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, oct (2017), s. 59-66 ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Burgundy truffle * Carpinus betulus forest * Ecological indicator values * Fagus sylvatica forest * Potential distribution of Tuber aestivum * Truffle ecology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 3.219, year: 2016

  6. Drought-induced weakening of growth-temperature associations in high-elevation Iberian pines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Diego Galvan, J.; Büntgen, Ulf; Ginzler, Ch.; Grudd, H.; Gutierrez, E.; Labuhn, I.; Julio Camarero, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 124, JAN (2015), s. 95-106 ISSN 0921-8181 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : tree-ring chronologies * regional curve standardization * pinus-uncinata * european alps * spatial variability * summer temperatures * divergence problem * spanish pyrenees * fagus-sylvatica * large-scale * Climate change * Drought * Growth response * High-elevation forest * Pyrenees * Summer temperature Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.548, year: 2015

  7. Dinàmica dels micronutrients en la caiguda i descomposició de la virosta de tres sistemes forestals del Montseny

    OpenAIRE

    Caritat, Antònia

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics of Mn, Fe and Zn has been studiedin the litterfall and in the decomposition process in individual monospecific stands of holm oak (Quercus ilex), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and fir (Abies alba) in the Montseny mountains. Usually, micronutrient concentrations in different litterfall fractions are higher than those in biomass due to the increase in dead organs. Beech is the forest with the highest manganese and iron return in litterfall. It has been observed that the maximum micronutr...

  8. Simultánní stanovení obsahu nestrukturních 867 sacharidů a škrobu v listech vyšších rostlin metodou využívající anthronového činidla

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Teslová, P.; Kalina, J.; Urban, Otmar

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 9 (2010), s. 867-870 E-ISSN 1213-7103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/06/0930 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : anthron reagent * spectrophotometry * calibration factor * non-structural saccharides * starch * norway spruce * carbon dioxide * picea abies * european beech * fagus sylvatica Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  9. Response of the leaf phenology and tree-ring width of European beech to climate variability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Tomáš; Giagli, K.; Trnka, Miroslav; Bednářová, E.; Vavrčík, H.; Rybníček, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2016), č. článku 1520. ISSN 0037-5330 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-04291S Grant - others:EHP(CZ) EHP-CZ02-OV-1-014-2014 Program:CZ02 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : dendroclimatology * Fagus sylvatica * temperature * radial increment * soil moisture Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.495, year: 2016

  10. Leaf litter degradation in the wave impact zone of a pre-alpine lake

    OpenAIRE

    Pabst, Simone; Scheifhacken, Nicole; Hesselschwerdt, John; Wantzen, Karl M.

    2008-01-01

    Contrary to streams, decomposition processes of terrestrial leaf litter are still poorly understood in lakes. Here, we examined the decomposition of two leaf species, beech (Fagus sylvatica) and poplar (Populus nigra italica ) in the littoral zone of a large pre-alpine lake at a wave exposed site. We focussed on the shredding impact of benthic invertebrates in a field experiment and on the effects of wave-induced disturbances under field and mesocosm conditions. In contrast to our expectatio...

  11. Are optical indices good proxies of seasonal changes in carbon fluxes and stress-related physiological status in a beech forest?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nestola, E.; Scartazza, A.; Di Baccio, D.; Castagna, A.; Ranieri, A.; Cammarano, M.; Mazzenga, F.; Matteucci, G.; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 612, jan (2018), s. 1030-1041 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : photochemical reflectance index * gross primary production * sub-alpine grassland * higher-plant leaves * leaf-area index * vegetation indexes * chlorophyll content * remote estimation * spectral indexes * canopy-scale * Chlorophyll fluorescence * Fagus sylvatica L. * Heat stress * Net ecosystem exchange Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  12. Do ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal temperate tree species systematically differ in root order-related fine root morphology and biomass?

    OpenAIRE

    Kubisch, Petra; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    While most temperate broad-leaved tree species form ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses, a few species have arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM). It is not known whether EM and AM tree species differ systematically with respect to fine root morphology, fine root system size and root functioning. In a species-rich temperate mixed forest, we studied the fine root morphology and biomass of three EM and three AM tree species from the genera Acer, Carpinus, Fagus, Fraxinus, and Tilia searching for principal dif...

  13. Decomposition, nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization from beech leaf litter colonized with ectomycorrhizal or litter decomposing basidiomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    COLPAERT, Jan; VAN TICHELEN, Katia

    1996-01-01

    The decomposition and the nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization of fresh beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) leaf litter are described. Leaves were buried for up to 6 months in plant containers in which Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were cultivated at a low rate of nutrient addition. The saprotrophic abilities of three ectomycorrhizal fungi, Thelephora terrestris Ehrh.: Fr., Suillus bovinus (L.: Fr.) O. Kuntze and Paxillus involutes (Batsch: Fr) Fr., were compared with the degradation ca...

  14. The importance of biotic factors in predicting global change effects on decomposition of temperate forest leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouifed, Soraya; Handa, I Tanya; David, Jean-François; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO(2) and temperature are predicted to alter litter decomposition via changes in litter chemistry and environmental conditions. The extent to which these predictions are influenced by biotic factors such as litter species composition or decomposer activity, and in particular how these different factors interact, is not well understood. In a 5-week laboratory experiment we compared the decomposition of leaf litter from four temperate tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Carpinus betulus and Tilia platyphyllos) in response to four interacting factors: elevated CO(2)-induced changes in litter quality, a 3 degrees C warmer environment during decomposition, changes in litter species composition, and presence/absence of a litter-feeding millipede (Glomeris marginata). Elevated CO(2) and temperature had much weaker effects on decomposition than litter species composition and the presence of Glomeris. Mass loss of elevated CO(2)-grown leaf litter was reduced in Fagus and increased in Fagus/Tilia mixtures, but was not affected in any other leaf litter treatment. Warming increased litter mass loss in Carpinus and Tilia, but not in the other two litter species and in none of the mixtures. The CO(2)- and temperature-related differences in decomposition disappeared completely when Glomeris was present. Overall, fauna activity stimulated litter mass loss, but to different degrees depending on litter species composition, with a particularly strong effect on Fagus/Tilia mixtures (+58%). Higher fauna-driven mass loss was not followed by higher C mineralization over the relatively short experimental period. Apart from a strong interaction between litter species composition and fauna, the tested factors had little or no interactive effects on decomposition. We conclude that if global change were to result in substantial shifts in plant community composition and macrofauna abundance in forest ecosystems, these interacting biotic factors could have

  15. Growth under elevated CO2 concentration affects the temperature response of photosynthetic rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holišová, Petra; Šigut, Ladislav; Klem, Karel; Urban, Otmar

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2013), s. 43-52 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0340; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA ČR GA13-28093S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : CO2 assimilation rate * Fagus sylvatica * chlorophyll fluorescence * Picea abies * Rubisco Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://dx.doi.org/10.11118/beskyd201306010043

  16. A global change-induced biome shift in the Montseny mountains (NE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Peñuelas, Josep

    2003-01-01

    Shifts in plant species and biome distribution in response to warming have been described in past climate changes. However, reported evidence of such shifts under current climate change is still scarce. By comparing current and 1945 vegetation distribution in the Montseny mountains (Catalonia, NE Spain), we report here a progressive replacement of cold-temperate ecosystems by Mediterranean ecosystems. Beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest has shifted altitudinally upwards by ca. 70 m at the highest ...

  17. Contrasting effects of environmental change on the radial growth of co-occurring beech and fir trees across Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bošela, M.; Lukac, M.; Castagneri, D.; Sedmák, R.; Biber, P.; Carrer, M.; Konopka, B.; Nola, P.; Nagel, T.; Popa, I.; Roibu, C. C.; Svoboda, M.; Trotsiuk, V.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 615, feb (2018), s. 1460-1469 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : fagus-sylvatica l. * abies-alba * silver fir * climate-change * site productivity * summer drought * norway spruce * bark beetle * range core * forests * Dendroecology * Climate change * Growth sensitivity * Mixed forests * Plant-climate interactions * Tree rings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental science s (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  18. Effects of Extrusion Pretreatment Parameters on Sweet Sorghum Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Its Subsequent Conversion into Bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Olea, Erick; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O.

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse first extruded at different conditions and then treated with cell wall degrading enzymes and fermented with I. orientalis was determined. The twin extruder parameters tested were barrel temperature, screws speed, and feedstock moisture content using surface response methodology. The best extrusion conditions were 100°C, 200 rpm, and 30% conditioning moisture content. This nonchemical and continuous pretreatment did not generate inhibitory compounds. The extruded feedstocks were saccharified varying the biocatalysis time and solids loading. The best conditions were 20% solids loading and 72 h of enzymatic treatment. These particular conditions converted 70% of the total fibrous carbohydrates into total fermentable C5 and C6 sugars. The extruded enzymatically hydrolyzed sweet sorghum bagasse was fermented with the strain I. orientalis at 12% solids obtaining a yield of 198.1 mL of ethanol per kilogram of bagasse (dw). PMID:25866776

  19. Studies on monitoring of river water quality by neutron activation analysis of aquatic biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Masao; Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki; Shimokawa, Toshinari (Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan))

    1990-02-01

    In order to clarify the possibility of a new method to monitor the river water quality by neutron activation analysis of aquatic biota, the followings were investigated: (1) the species of fish, water plants and aquatic insects which we can collect easily in Tamagawa River basin, (2) problems in pre-treatment of biological samples, and (3) relationship between elemental concentrations in biological samples and in river water. We found that the biological species suitable for the analytical investigation are Carassius auratus langsdorfii (GINBUNA), Pseudorasbora parva (MOTSUGO), Potamageton orientalis Hagst. (AINOKOITOMO), Elodea nuttalli (Planch.) St. John (KOKANADAMO), Cheuma-topsyche brevilineata (Iwata) (KOGATASHIMATOBIKERA) and Hydropsyche orientalis Martynov (URUMASHIMATOBIKERA). Fish samples showed apparently different concentrations of elements in each part of their bodies. Simple washing of water plants and aquatic insects was found not to be enough to eliminate rock-oriented particles. Such elements as Ag, Mn and Zn showed relationships of their concentrations between in biological samples and in river water. (author).

  20. Effects of Extrusion Pretreatment Parameters on Sweet Sorghum Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Its Subsequent Conversion into Bioethanol

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    Erick Heredia-Olea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Second-generation bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse first extruded at different conditions and then treated with cell wall degrading enzymes and fermented with I. orientalis was determined. The twin extruder parameters tested were barrel temperature, screws speed, and feedstock moisture content using surface response methodology. The best extrusion conditions were 100°C, 200 rpm, and 30% conditioning moisture content. This nonchemical and continuous pretreatment did not generate inhibitory compounds. The extruded feedstocks were saccharified varying the biocatalysis time and solids loading. The best conditions were 20% solids loading and 72 h of enzymatic treatment. These particular conditions converted 70% of the total fibrous carbohydrates into total fermentable C5 and C6 sugars. The extruded enzymatically hydrolyzed sweet sorghum bagasse was fermented with the strain I. orientalis at 12% solids obtaining a yield of 198.1 mL of ethanol per kilogram of bagasse (dw.

  1. Genetic relationships among some hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) species and genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kadir Ugurtan; Yanar, Makbule; Ercisli, Sezai; Sahiner, Hatice; Taskin, Tuncer; Zengin, Yasar

    2010-10-01

    The genus Crataegus is well distributed in Turkey as a wild plant, with numerous, inherently variable species and genotypes. RAPD markers were used to study 17 hawthorn genotypes belonging to Crataegus monogyna ssp. monogyna Jacq (2 genotypes), C. monogyna ssp. azarella Jacq (1), Crataegus pontica K.Koch (3), Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis Pallas Ex Bieb (3), Crataegus pseudoheterophylla Pojark (1), Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz (1), C. aronia var. aronia Browicz (4), and Crateagus x bornmuelleri Zabel (2). The 10 RAPD primers produced 72 polymorphic bands (88% polymorphism). A dendrogram based on Jaccard's index included four major groups and one outgroup according to taxa. The lowest genetic variability was observed within C. aronia var. aronia genotypes. The study demonstrated that RAPD analysis is efficient for genotyping wild-grown hawthorns.

  2. ¹³⁷Cs concentrations in foliose lichens within Tsukuba-city as a reflection of radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Yoshihito; Matsukura, Kimiyo; Abe, Jun-ichi P; Hosaka, Kentaro; Tamaoki, Masanori; Dohi, Terumi; Kakishima, Makoto; Seaward, Mark R D

    2015-03-01

    (137)Cs concentrations in ten species of foliose lichens collected within Tsukuba-city in August 2013 ranged from 1.7 to 35 kBq/kg. The relationships between (137)Cs in two dominant species, Dirinaria applanata and Physcia orientalis, and the air dose rate (μSv/h) at the sampling sites were investigated. (137)Cs in P. orientalis measured about 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident was correlated (r(2) = 0.80) more closely with the air dose rate than those measured after about 2 years (r(2) = 0.65), possibly demonstrating its continued value as a biomonitor to reflect ambient fall-out levels. In contrast, those of Dirinaria applanata were not correlated with the air dose rate in either year. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution of Erysiphe platani (Erysiphales in Ukraine

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    Vasyl P. Heluta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Information is provided on Erysiphe platani, a newly invasive fungus in Ukraine. The anamorph of this North American powdery mildew was first recorded in Ukraine in 1986 on Platanus orientalis in the Nikita Botanical Garden (Crimea. Later, it was found in other localities of the Crimean peninsula, and in Odessa and Odessa region on three species of plane, namely P. × hispanica, P. occidentalis and P. orientalis. Spread of the fungus was epiphytotic. This mildew significantly reduces the ornamental value of plane trees, which are often planted in public open spaces within urban areas of southern Ukraine. Recently, E. platani has formed the teleomorph in this region. Morphologically, the Ukrainian material is slightly different from the species description, viz. appendages are longer (up to 3 times the chasmothecial diam., often with less compact apices.

  4. Water wave communication in the genus Bombina (amphibia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, B.; Yamashita, M.; Choi, I.-H.; Dittami, J.

    2001-01-01

    Amphibians were phylogenetically the first vertebrates to leave the aquatic environment and cope with terrestrial conditions including effects of gravity and substrate on movement and communication. Studies of extant primitive amphibians, which have conserved ancestral morphology and behavior, may help us to understand how gravitational adaptation from aquatic to terrestrial environments occurred. The anuran genus Bombina is a candidate for this type of investigation. In particular, a member of this genus, B. orientalis, is known for its low reaction threshold to minor changes of angular acceleration. We hypothesize that a heightened sensitivity to angular and mechanical accelerations evolved with wave communication. Comparisons of such behavior among B. variegata, B. bombina and B. orientalis may shed light on the evolution of reproductive systems based on water wave communication and relevant vestibular sensitivity. This may represent a transition to derived vocalization modes, which is seen in B. bombina to a certain degree.

  5. Lithobius (Chinobius) yuchernovi, a new lithobiid species from northeastern Siberia and the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia (Chilopoda, Lithobiomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzalieva, Gyulli Sh; Nefediev, Pavel S; Tuf, Ivan H

    2017-01-01

    Lithobius yuchernovi sp. n. is described, based on type material from the Ola Plateau, Magadan Region, Russia. The new species is widely distributed in northeastern Siberia, ranging from the Magadan Region, until the eastern Chukot Autonomous Region and the Kamchatka Peninsula in the southeast, whence non-type material is documented. This species belongs to the subgenus Chinobius Matic, 1973 based on the structure of the female gonopodal claw (more than two denticles on the internal ridge). It differs from all Palearctic species of the genus Lithobius by the following apomorphy: distoventral tubercle supporting a cluster of long and curved setae situated on the last male tibia. In addition, it shows dorsal and ventral sulci on the last legs. New replacement names are introduced: Lithobius zachiui nom. n. for Lithobius (Chinobius) orientalis (Matic, 1973) and Lithobius carli nom. n. for Lithobius (Alokobius) orientalis Attems, 1953.

  6. [The Effect of Cadmium on the Efficiency of Development of Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuhukova, O V; Postrigan, B N; Baimiev, A Kh; Chemeris, A V

    2015-01-01

    Screening of nodule bacteria (rhizobia) forming symbiotic relationships with legumes has been performed in order to isolate strains resistant to cadmium ions in a wide range of concentrations (6-132 mg/kg). The effect ofcadmium salts (6, 12, 24 mg/kg) on the legume-rhizobium symbiosis ofthe pea Pisum sativum L. with Rhizobium leguminosarum and of the fodder galega Galega orientalis Lam. with Rhizobium galegae has been studied under experimental laboratory conditions. No statistically significant differences have been revealed in the growth and biomass of plants with regard to the control in the range of concentrations given above. However, it was found that cadmium inhibited nodulation in P. sativum and stimulated it in G. orientalis.

  7. Classification of varieties of pasteurella pestis strains isolated in the interior of the state of Pernambuco-Brazil

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    Dalva A. Mello

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were made on the biochemical behavior of 100 strains of P.pestis isolated in Northeastern Brazil with regard to production of nitrous acid, reduction of nitrates to nitrltes, and aciáification of glycerol. Results showed that 98 strains can be classified as "orientalis variety", while the remaining two could not be included in any of the existing "varieties".

  8. Species Diversity and Distributional Pattern of Cockroaches in Lahore, Pakistan

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    Hafsa Memona

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cockroaches are found as the most common urban pests of tropical countries, prompting economic and serious health risk problem for humans by carrying microbes and allergens, acting as vector for various patho­gens of diseases. The present study was conducted from April 2013 to March 2014 in various human dwelling local­ities of urban area of district Lahore, Pakistan.Methods: Cockroaches were collected randomly by hand, food baited and sticky traps throughout the year. Four species of cockroaches (Periplaneta Americana (P. amercana, Blattella germanica (B. germanica, Blatta orientalis (B. orientalis, and Blatta lateralis (B. lateralis were collected and identified from the study site.Results: B. germanica was the most dominant indoor species with highest diversity indices in study areas. Overall cockroach species diversity was highest in July–September, 2013 with highest Simpson index of diversity and Shan­non index as well. P. americana was found second broadly distributed in the study area followed by B. orientalis and B. lateralis were intermediately distributed in residential areas and narrowly distributed in hospitals. Residential ar­eas and hospitals were highly infested with B. germanica followed by P. americana. Population index of B. ger­manica for hospitals was double than residential areas. B. lateralis was observed as displacing B. orientalis in out­door habitat through competing with its habitat and food sources.Conclusion: The infestation rate of different species depends on availability of food sources, sanitary conditions and climatic conditions. Cockroach infestation can be controlled with knowledge about their biology and behavior, at­tention to sanitation and effective use of commercial insecticides.

  9. Notes on Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera) Species Collected by Bait Traps in OrganicVineyard and Orchards of Kemalpaşa (İzmir), Western Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÜZÜM, Ahu; TANYERİ, Rukiye; GÜLPERÇİN, Nilay; TEZCAN, Serdar; YILDIRIM, Erol

    2010-01-01

    Hymenoptera species collected by bait traps during the months of June-October in organic vineyard and orchards in Kemalpaşa district, (İzmir) of Western Turkey were evaluated in this study. As a result, six species belonging 2007 to two families of Hymenoptera were determined. Those were Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, Vespula germanica (Fabricius, 1793), Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758, Vespa orientalis Linnaeus, 1771, Polistes dominulus (Christ, 1791) and Polistes gallicus (Linnaeus, 1767). Amon...

  10. Toxicity of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi with plant molluscicides against Lymnaea acuminata

    OpenAIRE

    Kanchan Lata Singh; D. K. Singh; Vinay Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Molluscicidal activity of binary combination of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi with other plant molluscicides Saraca asoca and Thuja orientalis against snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that toxicity of binary combinations of plant molluscicides with other plant molluscicides were toxic against fresh water snail L. acuminata. Among all combinations of toxicity Mimusops elengi leaf + Saraca asoca bark (24h LC50: 98.25 mg/l; 96h LC50: 40.40 mg/l) and Bauhinia...

  11. Stanislaw Widlak (ed.), Italianità ed Italianistica nell'Europa Centrale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    quello dell'italiano, in Polonia, e che la città, capitale del regno polacco nei secoli passati, si presta ad essere un favorevole punto d'incontro e di incrocio degli itinerari europei nordici ed orientali. Il convegno ha risposto alle necessità, sempre più urgenti, di un contatto e di uno scambio e di un incontro tra i discendenti.

  12. Helmintofauna de cavalas, Scomber japonicus Houtt, do Rio de Janeiro

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    A. Arandas Rêgo

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores identificaram as seguintes espécies de helmintos, coletados de 50 cavalas, Scomber japonicus, no Rio de Janeiro: Kuhnia scombri (Kuhn, 1829 e Grubea cochlear (Diesing, 1858 (Monogenea; Opechona orientalis (Layman, 1930, Lecithocladium harpodontis Srivastava, 1942 e Nematobothrium scombri (Taschenberg, 1879 (Digenea; plerocercos de Trypanorhyncha Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788 e Rhinebothrium sp. (Cestoda; Bolbosoma sp. (Acanghocephala e Anisakidae larvares (Nematoda, identificados aos tipos larvares Raphidascaris, Phocanema, Contracaecum e Anisakis tipo 1. Os digenéticos foram os de maior incidência, 84% dos peixes mostraram-se parasitados por uma ou mais espécies. Quanto às espécies, a de maior incidência foi Nematobothrium scombri (Digenea, Didymozoidae, em 46% dos peixes. São pela primeria vez assinalados Scomber japonicus larvas de Phillobothiidae, possivelmente Rhinebothrium, além de larvas de Anisakis do tipo 1. São pela primeira vez assinaladas no Brasil as espécies, Grubea cochlear, Kuhnia scombri, Nematobothrium scombri e Opechona orientalis.There were identified twelve species of helminths from fifty "Spanish Mackerel", Scomber japonicus Houtt, in Rio de Janeiro; Kuhnia scombri (Kuhn, 1829, and Grubea cochlear (Diesing, 1859 (Monogenea; Opechona orientalis (Layman, 1930, Lecithocladium harpodontis Srivastava, 1942 e Nematobothrium scombri (Taschengerg, 1879 (Digenea; plerocercus of Trypanorhyncha, Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788 and Rhinebothrium sp. (Cestoda; Bolbosoma sp. (Acanthocephala and larval Anisakidae (Nematoda, types Raphidascaris, Phocanema, Contracaecum and Anisakis I. Larval Phillobothriid, following species are referred in Brazil for the first time: Grubea cochlear, Kuhnia scombri, Nematobothrium scombri and Opechona orientalis.

  13. Phlebotomus Sandflies of the Paloich Area in the Sudan (Diptera, Psychodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-10-01

    Phlebotomes du Cameroun . Bull. Soc. Path. Exot. 44: 793-800. Rageau, J. & J. P. Adam. 1953. Note sur les Phle- botomes d’Evodoula ( Cameroun Franc;ais...1957). This is a dry season species mainly found in grassland villages; mixed populations of it and orientalis are found in old, established...persist longer at the end of the season. Almost nothing is known of population fluctuation of the mammals which may serve as hosts of the s~asonal

  14. Optimization of air-blast drying process for manufacturing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeast as industrial wine starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sae-Byuk; Choi, Won-Seok; Jo, Hyun-Jung; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Park, Heui-Dong

    2016-12-01

    Wine yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae D8) and non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum S6 and Issatchenkia orientalis KMBL5774) were studied using air-blast drying instead of the conventional drying methods (such as freeze and spray drying). Skim milk-a widely used protective agent-was used and in all strains, the highest viabilities following air-blast drying were obtained using 10% skim milk. Four excipients (wheat flour, nuruk, artichoke powder, and lactomil) were evaluated as protective agents for yeast strains during air-blast drying. Our results showed that 7 g lactomil was the best excipient in terms of drying time, powder form, and the survival rate of the yeast in the final product. Finally, 7 types of sugars were investigated to improve the survival rate of air-blast dried yeast cells: 10% trehalose, 10% sucrose, and 10% glucose had the highest survival rate of 97.54, 92.59, and 79.49% for S. cerevisiae D8, H. uvarum S6, and I. orientalis KMBL5774, respectively. After 3 months of storage, S. cerevisiae D8 and H. uvarum S6 demonstrated good survival rates (making them suitable for use as starters), whereas the survival rate of I. orientalis KMBL5774 decreased considerably compared to the other strains. Air-blast dried S. cerevisiae D8 and H. uvarum S6 showed metabolic activities similar to those of non-dried yeast cells, regardless of the storage period. Air-blast dried I. orientalis KMBL5774 showed a noticeable decrease in its ability to decompose malic acid after 3 months of storage at 4 °C.

  15. A review of the broodstock management and larviculture of the Pacific northern bluefin tuna in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Masuma, Shukei; Takebe, Takayuki; Sakakura, Yoshitaka

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed research on the broodstock management and larviculture of the Pacific northern bluefin tuna (PBT) Thunnus orientalis in Japan. Japan has been at the forefront of PBT research since 1970 due to the participation by federal and prefectural governments and universities in a national project aimed to optimize productivity of the sea around Japan. In 1979, scientists at Kinki University succeeded in the first spontaneous spawning in captivity by the broodstock of 5 year-old PBT. Succes...

  16. Potential of the Galega – Rhizobium galegae System for Bioremediation of Oil-Contaminated Soil

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    Minna M. Jussila

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation potential of the nitrogen-fixing leguminous plant Galega orientalis Lam. and its microsymbiont Rhizobium galegae was evaluated in microcosm and mesocosm scale in oil and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene contaminated soils, with m-toluate serving as a model for the latter group. G. orientalis and Rhizobium galegae remained viable in m-toluate fractions up to 3000 ppm. Plant growth and nodulation were inhibited in 500 ppm m-toluate, but were restored when plants were transferred to clean medium. In soil, G. orientalis nodulated and showed good growth in 2000 ppm m-toluate as well as in diesel-contaminated soil in the field, where the plant was stimulating bacterial growth in the rhizosphere. A collection of 52 indigenous m-toluate-tolerating bacteria isolated from oil-contaminated rhizosphere of G. orientalis was characterised and identified by classical and molecular biological methods. 16SrDNA PCR-RFLP and (GTG5-PCR genomic fingerprinting combined with partial sequencing indicated the presence of five major lineages of the Bacteria domain. A TOL plasmid-specific xylE-PCR was developed in order to detect both active and potential degraders of m-toluate. The ability to degrade m-toluate in the presence of the gene xylE was detected only within the genus Pseudomonas. The isolates were tested for capacity to grow on m-toluate as their sole carbon and energy source. In laboratory experiments, the best rhizosphere isolates performed equally well to the positive control strain and are good candidates for inoculant production in the future. They have been tagged with marker genes for further studies on colonisation and persistence.

  17. New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Lazkov, Georgy; Sennikov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica ( Asteraceae ), Crambe orientalis ( Brassicaceae ) and Salvia aethiopis ( Lamiaceae ) in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria ( Amaranthaceae ) from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia...

  18. Taxonomic corrections and new records in vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan, 4

    OpenAIRE

    Lazkov, Georgy; Sennikov, Alexander Nikolaevich

    2015-01-01

    A new series of notes on distribution, taxonomy, morphology and nomenclature of some vascular plants in Kyrgyzstan is presented. Carex subphysodes Popov ex V.Krecz., Astragalus sogdianus Bunge, Oxytropis ferganensis Vass. and Iris maracandica (Vved.) Wendelbo (all native), and also Delphinium orientalis J.Gay (alien) are reported as new to Kyrgyzstan. Sedum tetramerum Trautv. is new to Northern Tian-Shan, and Scirpoides holoschoenus (L.) Soják is new to Chatkal Range and Western Tian-Shan wit...

  19. Calyptrate diptera (Muscidae and Anthomyidae of the state of Rio de Janeiro: I. Synanthropy

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    José Mario D'Almeida

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available The synanthropy of Muscidae and Anthomyidae was studied in three ecologically distinct areas of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro. Using baits such row fish, decomposing bovine liver, fresh human faeces and mashed banana it was found that Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Atherigona orientalis, and Musca domestica are highly synanthropic in contrast with Neomuscina pictipenis, Phaonantho devia and Morellia maculipenis found exclusively in the forest.

  20. Seminavis atlantica Garcia, a new psammic diatom (Bacillariophyceae from southern Brazilian sandy beaches

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    M Garcia

    Full Text Available The paper presents the description of Seminavis atlantica Garcia, a psammic marine diatom from dissipative sandy beaches from southern Brazil. It is characterized by its convex linear dorsal margin (37 to 50% of its length is in a straight line, linear ventral margin and raphe located very close to the ventral margin. Its morphology is compared to similar species such as Amphora clevei Grunow, Amphora angusta (Greg. Cleve var. orientalis Allem, Amphora ventricosa Gregory and Amphora eulesteinii Grunow.