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Sample records for faecal fat excretion

  1. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm

    2009-01-01

    Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal...... fat excretion, we performed a systematic review with meta-analysis. We included randomized, controlled trials of calcium (supplements or dairy) in healthy subjects, where faecal fat excretion was measured. Meta-analyses used random-effects models with changes in faecal fat excreted expressed...

  2. Importance of the fat content within the cheese-matrix for blood lipid profile, faecal fat excretion, and gut microbiome in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja K.; Raben, Anne; Bendsen, Nathalie T.

    2016-01-01

    and energy excretion and gut microbiome in pigs. A 14-d run-in period was followed by 14-d interventions with macronutrient-matched diets. Fasting total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol after 14 days were higher in REG compared with BUT, but only tended to be higher in RED. Compared with BUT, REG and RED had......Cheese and butter have been shown to affect blood lipids differently. This parallel-arm, randomised, controlled study in 36 crossbred growing sows compared the effect of diets with either regular-fat cheese (REG), reduced-fat cheese + butter (RED) or butter (BUT) on blood lipids, faecal fat...... higher faecal fat excretion. Faecal energy excretion was only higher in REG, and this correlated with a lower microbiome Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio. In conclusion, dairy fat consumed as cheese or butter caused different metabolic effects. Differences between reduced-fat cheese+butter and butter...

  3. Psyllium husk fibre supplementation to soybean and coconut oil diets of humans: effect on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1994-08-01

    The effects of psyllium fibre supplementation to polyunsaturated fatty acid rich soybean oil and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil diets on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion were investigated in healthy humans. The study consisted of four 7-day experimental periods. Participants consumed soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (SO+PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (CO+PF) diets. Laboratory diet provided 30% calories from fat (20% from test oils and 10% from basal diet), 15% calories from protein and 55% calories from carbohydrate. Fat digestibility was significantly lower and faecal fat excretion was significantly higher with SO+PF diet than SO diet and with CO+PF diet than CO diet. Faecal excretion of myristic and lauric acids was not affected by test diets. Percent faecal palmitic acid excretion was significantly higher during psyllium supplementation periods. Higher faecal linoleic acid excretion was observed with soybean oil diets compared with coconut oil diets. Increased faecal fat loss, decreased fat digestibility and increased faecal palmitic acid excretion with psyllium supplementation may partly explain the hypocholesterolaemic action of psyllium fibre.

  4. Calcium intake and the associations with faecal fat and energy excretion, and lipid profile in a free-living population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølbæk, Louise; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2017-01-01

    registration (days 1–7), a 5-d faeces collection (days 3–7), a 2-d urine collection (days 5–7), and anthropometric measurements and a fasting blood sample (day 8) were collected. Analyses showed that dietary Ca intake (g/10 MJ per d) was positively associated with excretion of faecal fat (P = 0·004) and energy......·96, −0·28) mmol/l, P food products in a habitual diet was associated with reduced total CHOL and LDL-CHOL concentrations, which may lower...

  5. Near infrared spectrometry for faecal fat measurement: comparison with conventional gravimetric and titrimetric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, L; Caliari, S; Guidi, G C; Vaona, B; Talamini, G; Vantini, I; Scuro, L A

    1989-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at comparing a new method for measuring faecal fat excretion, carried out with a semi-automated instrument by using near infrared analysis (NIRA), with the traditional titrimetric (Van de Kamer) and gravimetric (Sobel) methods. Near infrared analysis faecal fat was assayed on the three day stool collection from 118 patients (68 chronic pancreatitis, 19 organic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, 19 alcoholic liver disease, 12 functional gastrointestinal disorders). A strict linear correlation was found between NIRA and both the titrimetric (r = 0.928, p less than 0.0001) and the gravimetric (r = 0.971, p less than 0.0001) methods. On homogenised faeces, a mean coefficient of variation of 2.1 (SD 1.71)% was found. Before homogenisation (where a mean coefficient of variation of 7% was found) accurate results were obtained when the mean of five measurements was considered. In conclusion, the assay of faecal fat excretion by the near infrared reflessometry appears a simple, rapid and reliable method for measuring steatorrhoea. PMID:2583563

  6. Urinary, biliary and faecal excretion of rocuronium in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proost, JH; Eriksson, LI; Mirakhur, RK; Wierda, JMKH

    2000-01-01

    The excretion of rocuronium and its potential metabolites was studied in 38 anaesthetized patients, ASA I-III and 21-69 yr old. Rocuronium bromide was administered as an i.v. bolus dose of 0.3 or 0.9 mg kg(-1). in Part A of the study, the excretion into urine and bile, and the liver content were

  7. Faecal excretion of brush border membrane enzymes in patients with clostridium difficile diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katyal R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To look for the presence of intestinal brush border membrane (BBM enzymes in the faecal samples of patients with Clostridium difficile association. METHODS: One hundred faecal samples were investigated for C.difficile toxin (CDT. Simultaneous assays for faecal excretion of intestinal BBM enzymes viz., disaccharidases, alkaline phosphatase (AP and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP were also done. RESULTS: C.difficile toxin was detected in 25 (25% of the samples with a titre ranging from 10 to 160. No significant difference (p>0.05 was seen between the CDT positive and negative groups with any of the disaccharidases studied. However, significant increase (pC.difficile diarrhoea.

  8. Impact of faecal DM excretion on faecal calcium losses in dogs eating complete moist and dry pet foods - food digestibility is a major determinant of calcium requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzle, Ellen; Brenten, Thomas; Dobenecker, Britta

    2017-01-01

    The recommendations for the Ca supply for maintenance of dogs have been reduced by about 75 % in the last decades. An important factor for Ca requirements is faecal Ca losses. In previous studies with experimental diets faecal Ca losses depended on Ca intake and on faecal DM excretion. A predictive equation for faecal Ca losses in mg/kg body weight (BW) developed in a fibre model is: faecal losses = -33·8 + (13·6 faecal DM excretion (g/kg BW)) + (0·78 Ca intake (mg/kg BW)). The present study aimed at testing this equation in pet food with material from trials carried out for other purposes. Digestion trials with twenty-five dry and fifteen moist foods (326 observations in total) were evaluated retrospectively. Faecal DM excretion and faecal Ca losses were significantly correlated ( r 2  0·86; P  losses in a practical feeding situation. In conclusion, Ca requirements for maintenance may vary with food DM intake and digestibility.

  9. Appraisal of the 14C-glycocholate acid test with special reference to the measurement of faecal 14C excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpello, J.H.B.; Sladen, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The 14 C-glycocholate test, including the measurement of marker corrected faecal 14 C, has been assessed in the following groups of subjects: normal controls (18), patients with diarrhoea not attributable to altered bile acid metabolism (21), patients with diverticula of the small intestine (12), patients with previous resection of ileum and often proximal colon (34), and established ileostomists (10). Patients with diverticular disease had increased breath 14 CO 2 excretion, but normal faecal excretion of 14 C, and this test was more frequently abnormal than the Schilling test. Ileostomists excreted increased amounts of faecal 14 C, even when the ileum was intact and apparently normal. The pattern after resection was complex. Breath 14 C output was normal if the ileal resection was less than 25 cm in length, although some of these patients had increased faecal 14 C excretion if, in addition, at least 15 cm of proximal colon had been resected or by-passed. Longer ileal resections were associated with increased breath and/or faecal 14 C excretion, depending in part on the length of colon resected or by-passed and the 24 hour faecal volume. Fewer than half these patients had both increased breath and faecal excretion of isotope and faecal 14 C alone was occasionally normal with an ileal resection of 50 cm or more. The 14 C-glycocholate test was more frequently abnormal than the Schilling test in this group. The use of faecal marker correction had only a minor impact on the results. These data suggest that, in patients with ileal resection, faecal 14 C, like faecal weight, is determined by the extent of colonic resection as well as by the amount of ileum resected. (author)

  10. Determination of the faecal excretion of labelled bile salts after i.v. administration of 14 C-cholic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, H.; Filipsson, S.; Hulten, L.

    1978-01-01

    By measuring total faecal radioactivity, correlated to 24-hour enterohepatic circulation following i.v. administration of 14 C-cholic acid, bile salt malabsorption was evaluated before and/or after surgery in 80 patients with Crohn's disease localized to the ileum and/or the colon and the results related to the length of ileum diseased or resected. Before operation bile salt malabsorption was observed only in patients with inflammation of the terminal ileum, but no significant correlation was found between bile salt excretion and the extent of ileal disease. In patients subjected to ileal resection with sacrifice of the ileocaecal valve, bile salt malabsorption correlated strongly to the length of ileum resected. This correlation was about the same in ileostomy patients and in patients subjected to restorative operation. It is concluded that determination of 14 C in faeces is a more sensitive test than the Schilling test and the faecal fat excretion test in reflecting ileal dysfunction, at least in patients with ileal resections. (Auth.)

  11. Faecal nitrogen excretion as an approach to estimate forage intake of wethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozloski, G V; Oliveira, L; Poli, C H E C; Azevedo, E B; David, D B; Ribeiro Filho, H M N; Collet, S G

    2014-08-01

    Data from twenty-two digestibility trials were compiled to examine the relationship between faecal N concentration and organic matter (OM) digestibility (OMD), and between faecal N excretion and OM intake (OMI) by wethers fed tropical or temperate forages alone or with supplements. Data set was grouped by diet type as follows: only tropical grass (n = 204), only temperate grass (n = 160), tropical grass plus supplement (n = 216), temperate grass plus supplement (n = 48), tropical grass plus tropical legume (n = 60) and temperate grass with ruminal infusion of tannins (n = 16). Positive correlation between OMD and either total faecal N concentration (Nfc, % of OM) or metabolic faecal N concentration (Nmetfc, % of OM) was significant for most diet types. Exceptions were the diet that included a tropical legume, where both relationships were negative, and the diet that included tannin extract, where the correlation between OMD and Nfc was not significant. Pearson correlation and linear regressions between OM intake (OMI, g/day) and faecal N excretion (Nf, g/day) were significant for all diet types. When OMI was estimated from the OM faecal excretion and Nfc-based OMD values, the linear comparison between observed and estimated OMI values showed intercept different from 0 and slope different from 1. When OMI was estimated using the Nf-based linear regressions, the linear comparison between observed and estimated OMI values showed neither intercept different from 0 nor slope different from 1. Both linear comparisons showed similar R(2) values (i.e. 0.78 vs. 0.79). In conclusion, linear equations are suitable for directly estimating OM intake by wethers, fed only forage or forage plus supplements, from the amount of N excreted in faeces. The use of this approach in experiments with grazing wethers has the advantage of accounting for individual variations in diet selection and digestion processes and precludes the use of techniques to estimate forage

  12. Plasma disposition and faecal excretion of oxfendazole, fenbendazole and albendazole following oral administration to donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokbulut, Cengiz; Akar, Ferda; McKellar, Quintin A

    2006-07-01

    Fenbendazole (FBZ), oxfendazole (fenbendazole sulphoxide, FBZSO), and albendazole (ABZ) were administered orally to donkeys at 10mg/kg bodyweight. Blood and faecal samples were collected from 1 to 120 h post-treatment. The plasma and faecal samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The parent molecule and its sulphoxide and sulphone (FBZSO(2)) metabolites did not reach detectable concentrations in any plasma samples following FBZ administration. ABZ was also not detected in any plasma samples, but its sulphoxide and sulphone metabolites were detected, demonstrating that ABZ was completely metabolised by first-pass mechanisms in donkeys. Maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)) of FBZSO (0.49microg/mL) and FBZSO(2) (0.60microg/mL) were detected at (t(max)) 5.67 and 8.00h, respectively, following administration of FBZSO. The area under the curve (AUC) of the sulphone metabolite (10.33microg h/mL) was significantly higher than that of the parent drug FBZSO (5.17microg h/mL). C(max) of albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) (0.08g/mL) and albendazole sulphone (ABZSO(2)) (0.04microg/mL) were obtained at 5.71 and 8.00h, respectively, following ABZ administration. The AUC of the sulphoxide metabolite (0.84microg h/mL) of ABZ was significantly higher than that of the sulphone metabolite (0.50microg h/mL). The highest dry-faecal concentrations of parent molecules were detected at 32, 34 and 30h for FBZSO, FBZ and ABZ, respectively. The sulphide metabolite was significantly higher than the parent molecule after FBZSO administration. The parent molecule was predominant in the faecal samples following FBZ administration. After ABZ administration, the parent molecule was significantly metabolised, probably by gastrointestinal microflora, to its sulphoxide metabolite (ABZSO) that showed a similar excretion profile to the parent molecule in the faecal samples. The AUC of the parent FBZ was significantly higher than that of FBZSO and ABZ in faeces. It is

  13. Appraisal of the /sup 14/C-glycocholate acid test with special reference to the measurement of faecal /sup 14/C excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpello, J H.B.; Sladen, G E [Royal Hospital, Sheffield (UK). Academic Div. of Medicine

    1977-09-01

    The /sup 14/C-glycocholate test, including the measurement of marker corrected faecal /sup 14/C, has been assessed in the following groups of subjects: normal controls (18), patients with diarrhoea not attributable to altered bile acid metabolism (21), patients with diverticula of the small intestine (12), patients with previous resection of ileum and often proximal colon (34), and established ileostomists (10). Patients with diverticular disease had increased breath /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ excretion, but normal faecal excretion of /sup 14/C, and this test was more frequently abnormal than the Schilling test. Ileostomists excreted increased amounts of faecal /sup 14/C, even when the ileum was intact and apparently normal. The pattern after resection was complex. Breath /sup 14/C output was normal if the ileal resection was less than 25 cm in length, although some of these patients had increased faecal /sup 14/C excretion if, in addition, at least 15 cm of proximal colon had been resected or by-passed. Longer ileal resections were associated with increased breath and/or faecal /sup 14/C excretion, depending in part on the length of colon resected or by-passed and the 24 hour faecal volume. Fewer than half these patients had both increased breath and faecal excretion of isotope and faecal /sup 14/C alone was occasionally normal with an ileal resection of 50 cm or more. The /sup 14/C-glycocholate test was more frequently abnormal than the Schilling test in this group. The use of faecal marker correction had only a minor impact on the results. These data suggest that, in patients with ileal resection, faecal /sup 14/C, like faecal weight, is determined by the extent of colonic resection as well as by the amount of ileum resected.

  14. Reduced biliary sterol output with no change in total faecal excretion in mice expressing a human apolipoprotein A-I variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Cinzia; Caligari, Silvia; Gilio, Donatella; Manzini, Stefano; Busnelli, Marco; Montagnani, Marco; Locatelli, Marcello; Diani, Erika; Giavarini, Flavio; Caruso, Donatella; Roda, Enrico; Roda, Aldo; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia

    2012-10-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo)A-I(M) (ilano), is a molecular variant of apoA-I(wild-type), associated with dramatically low HDL-cholesterol levels, but no increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In view of the present uncertainties on the role of apoA-I in liver cholesterol removal by way of bile acids and neutral sterols, and of the greater capacity of apoA-I(M) (ilano) to remove arterial cholesterol, biliary sterol metabolism was evaluated in transgenic mice expressing apoA-I(M) (ilano). ApoA-I(M) (ilano) mice were fed a high-cholesterol/high-fat diet, and compared with human apoA-I(wild-type) mice. Plasma lipid levels, hepatic bile flow and composition, hepatic and intestinal cholesterol and bile acid content, and faecal sterol content were measured. Moreover, the expression of hepatic ABCA1, SR-B1 and that of hepatic and intestinal genes involved in bile acid metabolism were evaluated. The dietary treatment led to a strong elevation in HDL-cholesterol levels in A-I(M) (ilano) mice, associated with an increased expression of hepatic ABCA1. ApoA-I(M) (ilano) mice showed lower cholesterol output from the liver compared with apoA-I(wild-type) mice, in the absence of liver sterol accumulation. Faecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids was similar in the two mouse lines. In spite of a different response to the dietary challenge, with an increased ABCA1 expression and a lower hepatic cholesterol output in apoA-I(M) (ilano) mice, the net sterol excretion is comparable in the two transgenic lines. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Assessment of faecal glucocorticoid metabolite excretion in captive female fishing cats (Prionailurus viverinus) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonmee, Jaruwan; Vorawattanatham, Narathip; Pinyopummin, Anuchai; Thitaram, Chatchote; Somgird, Chaleamchat; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Brown, Janine L

    2016-01-01

    There is little information on the endocrinology of fishing cats (Prionailurus viverinus), an endangered species in Southeast Asia, especially that pertaining to adrenal function. This study characterized faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in female fishing cats housed at Chiang Mai Night Safari to investigate seasonal and age relationships in hormone patterns. Faecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from seven females ranging in age from 4.5 to 9.6 years. A corticosterone enzyme immunoassay was validated for fishing cats by showing increases (∼60%) in faecal glucocorticoid immunoactivity above pre-treatment baseline levels within 1-2 days after an adrenocorticotrophic hormone injection. Faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were not related to age (P > 0.05), but there was a seasonal effect, with concentrations being higher (P fishing cats, and we found that glucocorticoid metabolite production was influenced by seasonal factors, but not by age. We conclude that weather patterns should be taken into consideration in future studies of glucocorticoid activity in this endangered species, especially those studies aimed at improving captive management to create self-sustaining and healthy populations.

  16. Assessment of faecal glucocorticoid metabolite excretion in captive female fishing cats (Prionailurus viverinus) in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonmee, Jaruwan; Vorawattanatham, Narathip; Pinyopummin, Anuchai; Thitaram, Chatchote; Somgird, Chaleamchat; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Brown, Janine L.

    2016-01-01

    There is little information on the endocrinology of fishing cats (Prionailurus viverinus), an endangered species in Southeast Asia, especially that pertaining to adrenal function. This study characterized faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in female fishing cats housed at Chiang Mai Night Safari to investigate seasonal and age relationships in hormone patterns. Faecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from seven females ranging in age from 4.5 to 9.6 years. A corticosterone enzyme immunoassay was validated for fishing cats by showing increases (∼60%) in faecal glucocorticoid immunoactivity above pre-treatment baseline levels within 1–2 days after an adrenocorticotrophic hormone injection. Faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were not related to age (P > 0.05), but there was a seasonal effect, with concentrations being higher (P < 0.05) during the winter (1.54 ± 0.04 µg/g) and rainy season (1.43 ± 0.04 µg/g) compared with the summer (1.22 ± 0.05 µg/g). Significant relationships were found between faecal glucocorticoids and rainfall (positive) and day length (negative), but not a temperature–humidity index. This is the first study to assess adrenal steroidogenic activity in female fishing cats, and we found that glucocorticoid metabolite production was influenced by seasonal factors, but not by age. We conclude that weather patterns should be taken into consideration in future studies of glucocorticoid activity in this endangered species, especially those studies aimed at improving captive management to create self-sustaining and healthy populations. PMID:27293767

  17. A diet high in fat and meat but low in dietary fibre increases the genotoxic potential of 'faecal water'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieger, Martin A.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice

    1999-01-01

    To determine the effects of different diets on the genotoxicity of human faecal water, a diet rich in fat, meat and sugar but poor in vegetables and free of wholemeal products (diet 1) was consumed by seven healthy volunteers over a period of 12 days. One week after the end of this period......, the volunteers started to consume a diet enriched with vegetables and wholemeal products but poor in fat and meat (diet 2) over a second period of 12 days. The genotoxic effect of faecal waters obtained after both diets was assessed with the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) using the human colon...... and purine bases revealed no differences after pretreatment with both types of faecal water. The results indicate that diets high in fat and meat but low in dietary fibre increase the genotoxicity of faecal water to colonic cells and may contribute to an enhanced risk of colorectal cancer....

  18. Efficacy, distribution and faecal excretion of copper oxide wire particles in a novel bolus in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Alcala, F; Wilson, P R; Molenaar, R; Lopez-Villalobos, N

    2007-04-01

    tested resulted in elevated mean liver Cu concentrations for at least 60 days compared with control animals. The majority of COWP were found in the rumen/ reticulum, where recovery was possible for at least 60 days. About 10% of particle weight was excreted in the faeces within 4 days of administration. The test bolus was efficacious in deer, elevating mean liver and serum Cu concentrations 30 and 60 days after treatment. Variation in faecal excretion may explain between-animal differences in efficacy.

  19. The effects of low levels of dietary trace minerals on the plasma levels, faecal excretion health and performance of pigs in a hot African climate

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    M.H. Boma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed in order to evaluate the effects of lower than usual industry levels of dietary trace minerals on plasma levels, faecal excretion, performance, mortality and morbidity in growing-finishing pigs in a hot African climate. Group 1 (n =100 pigs received a diet with common industry levels of trace minerals. Group 2 (n =100 pigs received reduced dietary trace mineral levels but were fed the same basic diet as Group 1. Mortality, morbidity, pig performance and carcass measurements were evaluated. Two pigs in Group 1 and three pigs in Group 2 died. Thirteen pigs in Group 1 and 27 pigs in Group 2 were medically treated (P 0.05 by the dietary levels of these trace minerals. Plasma trace mineral concentrations were not affected by the dietary treatment.

  20. Colesevelam attenuates cholestatic liver and bile duct injury in Mdr2-/- mice by modulating composition, signalling and excretion of faecal bile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Claudia Daniela; Paumgartner, Gustav; Mlitz, Veronika; Kunczer, Victoria; Halilbasic, Emina; Leditznig, Nadja; Wahlström, Annika; Ståhlman, Marcus; Thüringer, Andrea; Kashofer, Karl; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Trauner, Michael

    2018-04-10

    Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids (BAs) may protect against BA-mediated cholestatic liver and bile duct injury. BA sequestrants are established to treat cholestatic pruritus, but their impact on the underlying cholestasis is still unclear. We aimed to explore the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of the BA sequestrant colesevelam in a mouse model of sclerosing cholangitis. Mdr2 -/- mice received colesevelam for 8 weeks. Gene expression profiles of BA homeostasis, inflammation and fibrosis were explored in liver, intestine and colon. Hepatic and faecal BA profiles and gut microbiome were analysed. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels in portal blood were measured by ELISA. Furthermore, Mdr2 -/- mice as well as wild-type 3,5-diethoxy-carbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine-fed mice were treated with GLP-1-receptor agonist exendin-4 for 2 weeks prior to analysis. Colesevelam reduced serum liver enzymes, BAs and expression of proinflammatory and profibrogenic markers. Faecal BA profiling revealed increased levels of secondary BAs after resin treatment, while hepatic and biliary BA composition showed a shift towards more hydrophilic BAs. Colonic GLP-1 secretion, portal venous GLP-1 levels and intestinal messenger RNA expression of gut hormone Proglucagon were increased, while ileal Fgf15 expression was abolished by colesevelam. Exendin-4 treatment increased bile duct mass without promoting a reactive cholangiocyte phenotype in mouse models of sclerosing cholangitis. Microbiota analysis showed an increase of the phylum δ-Proteobacteria after colesevelam treatment and a shift within the phyla Firmicutes from Clostridiales to Lactobacillus . Colesevelam increases faecal BA excretion and enhances BA conversion towards secondary BAs, thereby stimulating secretion of GLP-1 from enteroendocrine L-cells and attenuates liver and bile duct injury in Mdr2 -/- mice. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  1. Plasma pharmacokinetics, faecal excretion and efficacy of pyrantel pamoate paste and granule formulations following per os administration in donkeys naturally infected with intestinal strongylidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokbulut, Cengiz; Aksit, Dilek; Smaldone, Giorgio; Mariani, Ugo; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2014-09-15

    The plasma disposition, faecal excretion and efficacy of two formulations of pyrantel pamoate in donkeys were examined in a controlled trial. Three groups of seven donkeys received either no medication (control) or pyrantel paste or granule formulations at horse dosage of 20mg/kg B.W. (equals 6.94 mg/kg PYR base) of body weight. Heparinized blood and faecal samples were collected at various times between 1 and 144 h after treatment. The samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The last detectable plasma concentration (tmax) of paste formulation was significantly earlier (36.00 h) compared with granule formulation (46.29 h). Although, there was no significant difference on terminal half lives (t1/2: 12.39 h vs. 14.86 h), tmax (14.86 h vs. 14.00) and MRT (24.80 h vs. 25.44 h) values; the Cmax (0.09 μg/ml) AUC (2.65 μgh/ml) values of paste formulation were significantly lower and smaller compared with those of granule formulation (0.21 μg/ml and 5.60 μgh/ml), respectively. The highest dry faecal concentrations were 710.46 μg/g and 537.21 μg/g and were determined at 48 h for both paste and granule formulation of PYR in donkeys, respectively. Pre-treatment EPG of 1104, 1061 and 1139 were observed for the control, PYR paste and PYR granule groups, respectively. Pre-treatment EPG were not significantly different (P>0.1) between groups. Post-treatment EPG for both PYR treatment groups were significantly different (P95% efficacy) until day 28. In all studied donkeys, coprocultures performed at day-3 revealed the presence of Cyathostomes, S. vulgaris. Faecal cultures performed on different days from C-group confirmed the presence of the same genera. Coprocultures from treated animals revealed the presence of few larvae of Cyathostomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Cactus Fiber on the Excretion of Dietary Fat in Healthy Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Investigation

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    Ralf Uebelhack, MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Cactus fiber has been shown to significantly promote fecal fat excretion in healthy adults. The results of our study support the hypothesis that cactus fiber helps in reducing body weight by binding to dietary fat and increasing its excretion, thus reducing dietary fat available for absorption. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01590667.

  3. Faecal excretion of total and acid extractable phosphorus in dairy cows fed rations with different levels of phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordqvist, Maria; Spörndly, Rolf; Holtenius, Kjell

    2016-03-15

    The phosphorus (P) originating from livestock operations causes eutrophication. Determination of acid extractable P (AEP) in cattle faeces has been proposed as a tool to identify excessive P feeding. The method has not yet been evaluated in controlled studies with cows subjected to individual recording of P intake. Thus the present study focused on investigating the relationship between different P fractions in faeces from cows fed rations with varying P content. The study also investigated whether AEP in faeces could be used to estimate dietary P intake in relation to the P requirement. The results showed that acid extractable P predicted P overfeeding. P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as acid extractable P. The unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed. This study demonstrates in experimental studies a positive relationship between measured AEP and indirectly calculated regulated P. Any P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as AEP. This fraction is thought to be the most mobile P fraction with regard to potential runoff losses. However, the unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effects of administration of potassium- and sodiumchlorides on faecal excretions and salivary and alimentary concentrations of, Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg and P in reindeer fed a lichen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the effects of administration of 350 mmol d-1 of KC1 or NaCl on faecal excretions, salivary concentrations and concentrations and pools of Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg, P, and water in the alimentary tract of reindeer was carried out using three groups of three 10 months old reindeer fed a lichen diet. One group was used as a control group with no mineral supplementation. The level of K supplementation mimicked K intakes from summer pastures. NaCl was given at a rate which would mimic intake from salt licks by domestic ruminants of similar body size. Treatment with KC1 increased the salivary and alimentary concentrations and the alimentary pool sizes of K and faecal excretion of K increased. A decrease in l34Cs concentrations in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract indicated greater absorption of 134Cs during the KC1 treatment than in NaCl treated and control animals. Increased intake of Na or K had no significant effect on the digestibility of the lichen diet, but urine production increased. Little effects on pools or concentrations of Ca, Mg and P were observed. NaCl treatment increased urinary and faecal excretion of Na, but did not affect the metabolism of any of the other studied minerals.

  5. Comparison of the endogenous ileal and faecal amino acid excretion in the dog (Canis familiaris) and the rat (Rattus rattus) determined under protein-free feeding and peptide alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, W H; Sritharan, K; Hodgkinson, S M

    2002-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and compare the endogenous ileal excretions of nitrogen and amino acids under protein-free and peptide alimentation by the dog and rat. Two diets were prepared, one that was devoid of protein and the other containing 23% enzyme hydrolysed casein. Chromic oxide was included in the diets as an indigestible marker. A total of 10 mixed breed dogs were fed hourly either a protein-free or enzymatically hydrolysed casein diet for a total of 10 days. A faecal sample was obtained from each dog on day 9 while digesta was obtained from the terminal 20 cm of the ileum directly after euthanasia on day 10. A total of 12 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats received the same diets as the dogs. A faecal sample from each rat was obtained on day 7 while ileal digesta samples were obtained on day 8. The endogenous ileal excretions of most amino acids were greater in the dogs and rats that received the enzymatically hydrolysed casein diet compared with those receiving the protein free diet. Whereas the pattern of endogenous amino acid excretion was similar in the rats and dogs, the dogs excreted a significantly greater amount of nitrogen (1.91 vs. 2.27 and 1.63 vs. 4.12 g/kg dry matter intake for the protein-free and peptide alimentation method, respectively) and all amino acids except for glycine, isoleucine and leucine. Endogenous ileal amino acid excretions are higher in dogs compared to omnivorous animals such as rats and pigs but similar to the carnivorous cat.

  6. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Mette

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control, a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day (Flax drink, and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day (Flax bread. Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p Conclusion Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004

  7. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Orta-Flores, Z.; Nolasco-Hipólito, C.; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses were similar to SD15, with the exception of food consumption. In both SDC and SD5 groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents. PMID:19756159

  8. Effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® on faecal excretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin 2 in healthy adult volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabeerdoss Jayakanthan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics are used to provide health benefits. The present study tested the effect of a probiotic yoghurt on faecal output of beta-defensin and immunoglobulin A in a group of young healthy women eating a defined diet. Findings 26 women aged 18-21 (median 19 years residing in a hostel were given 200 ml normal yoghurt every day for a week, followed by probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® (109 in 200 ml for three weeks, followed again by normal yoghurt for four weeks. Stool samples were collected at 0, 4 and 8 weeks and assayed for immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin-2 by ELISA. All participants tolerated both normal and probiotic yoghurt well. Human beta-defensin-2 levels in faeces were not altered during the course of the study. On the other hand, compared to the basal sample, faecal IgA increased during probiotic feeding (P = 0.0184 and returned to normal after cessation of probiotic yoghurt intake. Conclusions Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® increased secretory IgA output in faeces. This property may explain the ability of probiotics to prevent gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections.

  9. Supplementation with dairy calcium and/or flaxseed fibers in conjunction with orlistat augments fecal fat excretion without altering ratings of gastrointestinal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Juul, Signe Rømer; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum

    2017-01-01

    -in and week 4. The primary end-point, gastrointestinal symptoms, was assessed biweekly. At baseline and after 12 weeks, cardiometabolic risk markers and anthropometrics were evaluated as secondary end-points. RESULTS: Both FF and Ca increased fecal fat excretion (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively). Although...... circumference was most reduced in the FF+/Ca + group. No effects of dietary supplements on cardiometabolic risk factors were observed, except a slight increase in diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.03) with FF, but not Ca. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not support an improvement in orlistat-induced gastrointestinal...

  10. Epicardial, pericardial and total cardiac fat and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Regitse H.; Von Scholten, Bernt J.; Hansen, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    of 200 patients with type 2 diabetes and elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER). Methods Cardiac adipose tissue was measured from baseline echocardiography. The composite endpoint comprised incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Coronary artery calcium, carotid intima media.......7, p = 0.017) models. Cardiac adipose tissue (p = 0.033) was associated with baseline coronary artery calcium (model 1) and interleukin-8 (models 1-3, all p type 2 diabetes patients without coronary artery disease, high cardiac adipose tissue levels were associated...

  11. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD supplement with perilla oil (POH for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion.

  12. Uncertainty on faecal analysis on dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juliao, Ligia M.Q.C.; Melo, Dunstana R.; Sousa, Wanderson de O.; Santos, Maristela S.; Fernandes, Paulo Cesar P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Salvador Allende s/n. Via 9, Recreio, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Monitoring programmes for internal dose assessment may need to have a combination of bioassay techniques, e.g. urine and faecal analysis, especially in workplaces where compounds of different solubilities are handled and also in cases of accidental intakes. Faecal analysis may be an important data for assessment of committed effective dose due to exposure to insoluble compounds, since the activity excreted by urine may not be detectable, unless a very sensitive measurement system is available. This paper discusses the variability of the daily faecal excretion based on data from just one daily collection; collection during three consecutive days: samples analysed individually and samples analysed as a pool. The results suggest that just 1 d collection is not appropriate for dose assessment, since the 24 h uranium excretion may vary by a factor of 40. On the basis of this analysis, the recommendation should be faecal collection during three consecutive days, and samples analysed as a pool, it is more economic and faster. (authors)

  13. Ursodeoxycholic acid improves insulin sensitivity and hepatic steatosis by inducing the excretion of hepatic lipids in high-fat diet-fed KK-Ay mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Takuma; Shiraishi, Muneshige; Ohta, Tetsuya; Sakai, Kaoru; Ishii, Shinichi

    2012-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is frequently accompanied by fatty liver/nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hence, accumulation of lipids in the liver is considered to be one of the risk factors for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is widely used for the treatment of liver dysfunction. We investigated the therapeutic effects of UDCA on type 2 diabetes mellitus exacerbating hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanisms of its action using KK-A(y) mice fed a high-fat diet. KK-A(y) mice were prefed a high-fat diet; and 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg of UDCA was orally administered for 2 or 3 weeks. Administration of UDCA decreased fasting hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analyses showed that UDCA improved hepatic (but not peripheral) insulin resistance. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents were significantly reduced by treatment with UDCA, although the genes involved in the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, including fatty acid synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, were upregulated. Fecal levels of bile acids, neutral sterols, fatty acids, and phospholipids were significantly increased by UDCA treatment. The gene expression levels and protein phosphorylation levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers were not changed by UDCA treatment. These results indicate that UDCA ameliorates hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia by improving hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis in high-fat diet-fed KK-A(y) mice. Reduction of hepatic lipids might be due to their excretion in feces, followed by enhanced utilization of glucose for the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. Ursodeoxycholic acid should be effective for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus accompanying hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Critical study of absorption tests based on the measurement of breath 14CO2 after administration of 14C-labelled fats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, J.F.; Dauchel, J.; Eloy, M.R.; Mendel, C.; Privat, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Oral administration of 14 C-labelled triolein is a useful technique for studying absorption of fats if faecal excretion of the label is observed. However, the difficulties of complete collection and reliable assay of faeces discourage use of this technique, and suggestions have been made that quantitation of absorption by assay of 14 CO 2 exhalation rate might be simpler and adequately reliable. We have compared in 25 subjects the exhalation of 14 CO 2 with the blood activity levels and with the faecal excretion of unabsorbed fat. Our results indicate that the exhalation rate of 14 CO 2 is so poorly correlated with the other indices of absorption that the amount of 14 CO 2 exhaled is not a useful measure of 14 C-triolein absorption. This fact is presumably explained by the variability in the rate of metabolism of absorbed fat, a process that intervenes between absorption and exhalation. (author)

  15. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  16. Faecal microbiota transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Simon M D; Hansen, Mette Mejlby; Erikstrup, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently being established as a second-line treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. FMT is further being considered for other infectious and inflammatory conditions. Safe and reproducible methods for donor screening, laborat......BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently being established as a second-line treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. FMT is further being considered for other infectious and inflammatory conditions. Safe and reproducible methods for donor screening...

  17. Interpretation of uranium and thorium excretion data taking into account excretion data caused by natural sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahre, P.; Schoenmuth, Th.; Helling, K.

    2000-01-01

    At the Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Inc. Rossendorf near Dresden (Germany) occupationally exposed persons are working with Uranium and Thorium. In accordance with German guides urine and faecal analysis is carried out. But for the interpretation the data in terms of dose or intake it is important to have knowledge about the portion of the activity measured caused by natural sources. For this reason 16 occupationally exposed persons who did not have any history of occupational exposure to Thorium or Uranium have been checked concerning the excretion data since 1994. The excretion data in mBq per day for all persons covers the following ranges: Faeces: U-234 1 to 310 mBq/d, U-235 0.2 to 3.7 mBq/d, U-238 1.3 to 72 mBq/d. Th-228 7 to 89 mBq/d, Th-230 0.7 to 19 mBq/d, Th-232 0.7 to 16 mBq/d. Urine: all values below the detection limits of about 1 mBq/l. The large variation results from differences between the individual excretion rates but also from the variation of the excretion rate of one person. For example, the U-234-faecal excretion of one person reaches from 77 to 310 mBq per day. In the paper the faecal excretion for some individuals in dependence on the time are given. These excretion date caused by natural sources are taken into account by interpreting faecal excretion data of occupationally exposed persons working with Uranium or Thorium. If the measured faecal excretion per day is within the range caused by natural sources no interpretation will be done. By exceeding these values additional faeces and urine samples will be collected and measured. In dependence on these additional results intake and dose will be assessed some times by using lung counter or whole body counter measuring results. In the paper some examples are described. (author)

  18. Study on the excretion of pb-210 and po-210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabayashi, Hiroyuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1982-06-01

    The amount of Po-210 excreted in urine and feces was more influenced by Po-210 that was taken with food and drink than taken through inhalation. The amount of Pb-210 in urine of mining workers among uranium mine workers was higher than that of the non-uranium mine workers. It was thought that this fact was due to the working environment in uranium mine the amount of Pb-210 being a few tens times higher than that in normal environment. The activity ratios of Po-210 of faecal to urinary excretion are widely distributed, however, the average value of many samples approached to 10. Urinary excretion of Po-210 was highest after 24 hours of ingestion, but for faecal excretion, it was highest after 3 day.

  19. Enhancing faecal sludge management in peri-urban areas of Lusaka through faecal sludge valorisation: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembo, J. M.; Nyirenda, E.; Nyambe, I.

    2017-03-01

    Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia, has two million inhabitants with 70% residing in peri-urban areas. Ninety (90) % of this population employ pit latrines for excretion generating approximately 22,680 tons of faecal sludge per annum. This sludge is inadequately managed hence of the generated amount, over 60% remains within the residential environment thereby compromising both the environment and public health. To foster a solution to this problem, a study was commissioned to assess faecal sludge valorisation potential and how it would impact on Faecal Sludge Management. The study evaluated policy, institutional and regulatory frameworks, sanitation practices including latrine construction and usage aspects and also characterised the faecal sludge for selected parameters relevant to valorisation. Four peri-urban areas were adopted as study sites. Policy issues together with existing institutional and regulatory frameworks were assessed through literature review. Sanitation practices were evaluated through physical observations, focus group discussions, interviews and questionnaire administration. Faecal sludge characterisation was through sampling and analysis. It was observed that there are policy gaps in fostering faecal sludge valorisation. Sanitation practices and latrines construction also do not favour valorisation. The quality of the raw sludge has potential for valorisation though again, some parameters like solid waste content require drastic changes in sanitation practices in order not to compromise the reuse potential of the sludge. It was concluded that if faecal sludge management is to be enhanced through valorisation, there is need to have policies promoting pit latrine faecal sludge reuse and strengthened regulatory and institutional frameworks in this respect.

  20. Promotive effect of Bofutsushosan (Fangfengtongshengsan) on lipid and cholesterol excretion in feces in mice treated with a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaki, Junji; Tachi, Shiori; Nakamura, Naoki; Arai, Tetsuya; Yamasaki, Hiroo; Inoue, Makoto; Makino, Toshiaki

    2018-06-28

    Bofutsushosan (fangfengtongshengsan in Chinese, BTS) is a formula in traditional Japanese Kampo medicine and Chinese medicine comprising 18 crude drugs that is used for treating obesity and metabolic syndrome. We evaluated the promotive effects of BTS on lipid and cholesterol elimination in mice. Mice were reared with a high-fat diet containing boiled water extract of BTS for 30 days, and their biochemical parameters as well as the weight and lipid content of feces were measured. We also measured cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells cultured with or without BTS extract. The body weight and amounts of visceral fat and subcutaneous fat on day 28; the weights of epididymal, perirenal, and mesenteric fat; and the serum concentrations of triglyceride, glucose, and hemoglobin A1c on day 30 were significantly lower in the BTS extract-treated groups than in the control in a dose-dependent manner. The amounts of lipid and cholesterol in the feces collected from day 6-23 were significantly greater than in the control. When Caco-2 cells were incubated with BTS extract, the uptake of cholesterol into cells was significantly reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the components of BTS, the methanol extracts of Platycodi Radix and Zingiberis Rhizoma contribute but the extracts of Ephedrae Herba and Rhei Rhizoma counteract the suppressive effect of BTS on cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells. BTS has beneficial effects on obesity and metabolic syndrome, and its mechanisms of action include the promotion of lipid elimination and the inhibition of cholesterol absorption in the intestine. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies of fat absorption using radioiodinated triolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelp, W.B.

    1976-01-01

    Fat absorption has been classically measured by comparing the fat content of the faeces with that of the diet, using chemical assay methods, and this procedure is usually assumed to give the ''right'' answer which the results of other methods should approach. The care and expense associated with the balance method, however, have led to the development of other methods, notably the use of 131 I-triolein as a tracer for fat. This technique has often given poor agreement with the chemical method, and the possible reasons therefore include: errors in the balance method, radiochemical impurity of the 131 I-triolein preparation, and faulty technique with 131 I-triolein. This paper reviews these sources of error and their importance in a series of tests on 44 subjects. It is concluded that the 131 I-triolein test does have diagnostic utility, and further studies may show this to be greatest when faecal excretion of 131 I activity is compared with that of a simultaneously administered non-absorbable marker such as 131 Ba. (author)

  2. Absorption and excretion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberich, R.

    1988-01-01

    The absorption and excretion of radiopharmaceuticals is still of interest in diagnostic investigations of nuclear medicine. In this paper the most common methods of measuring absorption and excretion are described. The performance of the different tests and their standard values are discussed. More over the basic possibilities of measuring absorption and excretion including the needed measurement equipments are presented. (orig.) [de

  3. Distribution and time course of corticosterone excretion in faeces and urine of female mice with varying systemic concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Hau, Jann; Jacobsen, Kirsten R

    2010-01-01

    distribution and time course of corticosterone excretion, after intravenous injection of varying corticosterone concentrations, was investigated in female mice. Female BALB/c mice excreted 60% of all corticosterone in the urine with an approximate delay of 5h from tail vein administration. The remaining 40......% were excreted in faeces, with an approximate delay of 9h from administration. The faecal/urinary excretion ratio, as well as time course of excretion, remained unaltered by administration of various doses of corticosterone covering the entire physiological range of serum corticosterone. Although...

  4. Interpreting faecal analysis results for monitoring exposure to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berard, P.; Rongier, E.; Faure, M.L.; Auriol, B.; Estrabaud, M.; Mazeyrat, C.

    1996-01-01

    Radiotoxicological monitoring of workers exposed to non-transferable forms of uranium requires six-monthly examinations. These examinations are prescribed according to the kind of product manipulated and tO the industrial risk attached to the workplace. The range of examinations that are useful for this kind of monitoring includes whole body counting examinations, urine analyses and in-line faecal sampling: whole body examinations, which are fundamental to monitoring, provide a lung retention value. However, the detection limit of lung examinations is not low enough for chronic operational monitoring; urine examinations are extremely sensitive to alpha activity (1 mBq per isotope) but the fraction detected in the urine after incorporation by inhalation is very small; in-line 24-hour faecal sampling allows avoiding any workplace exclusion. The authors intend to present their experience acquired over a six year period in the field of systematic faecal examinations after chronic inhalation of the different uranium compounds. They also present results of a study carried out to determine normal uranium concentrations in the faeces of a non-exposed population, the uranium content in drinking waters and the consequences on faecal excretion. Establishing the isotopic content of uranium in the faeces makes it possible to determine practical investigation levels for occupational monitoring. Even if faecal sampling may be critically perceived by the personnel, the authors' experience highlights the value of this kind of analysis which allows to track down the industrial reality of the exposure. Internal dosimetry calculations cannot, however, be carried out, because the physical parameters of the inhaled aerosols are not always known. (author)

  5. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition ...

  6. PHYSIOTHERAPY MANAGEMENT OF FAECAL IMPACTION:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.MrsOdebode

    bowel above the rectum) leading to serious discomfort. This accumulation can also lead to generalized abdominal distention. Faecal impaction is more common in elderly people with limited ability to move (Saddler, 2005). Among the causes are medications like antacids, which have aluminium as an ingredient; calcium ...

  7. Faecal incontinence in myotonic dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Abercrombie, J; Rogers, J; Swash, M

    1998-01-01

    Two siblings with myotonic dystrophy presented for treatment of faecal incontinence. The pathophysiology of this functional disorder is described with the results of anorectal manometry, EMG, and biopsy of smooth and striated muscle of the anorectal sphincters. Both medical and surgical management of the incontinence was unsatisfactory in the long term. Involvement of gastrointestinal musculature is a characteristic feature the disease.



  8. Linseed Dietary Fibers Reduce Apparent Digestibility of Energy and Fat and Weight Gain in Growing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Astrup

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibers (DF may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group: low DF control (C, 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL, CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL or ground linseed (5-GL, CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF, and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF. Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8% and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6% with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001. Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF. The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g, 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g, and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g (p < 0.05. The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01. In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

  9. The excretion of biotrace elements using the multitracer technique in tumour-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Tian, J; Yin, X M; Zhang, X; Wang, Q Z

    2000-12-01

    A radioactive multitracer solution obtained from the nuclear reaction of selenium with 25 MeV/nucleon 40Ar ions was used for investigation of trace element excretion into the faeces and urine of cancerous mice. The excretion rates of 22 elements (Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Mo, Nb, Tc, Ru, Ag and In) were simultaneously measured under strictly identical experimental conditions, in order to clarify the excretion behavior of these elements in cancerous mice. The faecal and urinary excretion rates of Mg, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Nb, Ru and Mo in cancerous mice, showed the in highest value at 0-8 hours. The accumulative excretion of Ca, Mo, Y and Zr was decreased and Na, Fe, Mn and Co increased in tumour-bearing mice, when compared to normal mice.

  10. The excretion of biotrace elements using the multitracer technique in tumour-bearing mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Tian, J. E-mail: tianjun@public.lz.gs.cn; Yin, X.M.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Q.Z

    2000-12-15

    A radioactive multitracer solution obtained from the nuclear reaction of selenium with 25 MeV/nucleon {sup 40}Ar ions was used for investigation of trace element excretion into the faeces and urine of cancerous mice. The excretion rates of 22 elements (Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Mo, Nb, Tc, Ru, Ag and In) were simultaneously measured under strictly identical experimental conditions, in order to clarify the excretion behavior of these elements in cancerous mice. The faecal and urinary excretion rates of Mg, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Nb, Ru and Mo in cancerous mice, showed the in highest value at 0-8 hours. The accumulative excretion of Ca, Mo, Y and Zr was decreased and Na, Fe, Mn and Co increased in tumour-bearing mice, when compared to normal mice.

  11. The excretion of biotrace elements using the multitracer technique in tumour-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Tian, J.; Yin, X.M.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Q.Z.

    2000-01-01

    A radioactive multitracer solution obtained from the nuclear reaction of selenium with 25 MeV/nucleon 40 Ar ions was used for investigation of trace element excretion into the faeces and urine of cancerous mice. The excretion rates of 22 elements (Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Mo, Nb, Tc, Ru, Ag and In) were simultaneously measured under strictly identical experimental conditions, in order to clarify the excretion behavior of these elements in cancerous mice. The faecal and urinary excretion rates of Mg, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Nb, Ru and Mo in cancerous mice, showed the in highest value at 0-8 hours. The accumulative excretion of Ca, Mo, Y and Zr was decreased and Na, Fe, Mn and Co increased in tumour-bearing mice, when compared to normal mice

  12. Assessing radiocaesium bioavailability in birds separation of urates from faecal pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapp, J.; Beresford, N.A [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Environment Centre, Lancaster (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Concomitant analyses of urine and faeces present a methodology whereby the bioavailability of dietary radionuclides can be estimated. Whilst the collection of urine from most wild animals is impractical, birds excrete urine in a semi-solid state making field collection possible. In birds the end product of nitrogen metabolism is uric acid which is combined with albumin, calcium and potassium cations as a laminated sphere 0.5 to 15 {mu}m in size. Urate spheres are passed as a colloidal suspension in a proteinaceous fluid composed predominantly of water, albumin and electrolytes giving the characteristic white dollop' to avian guano. Some herbivorous bird species (e.g. Lagopus spp.) excrete comparatively dry-pelleted guano with distinct urate (white) and faecal (brown) components. These are readily separable as they form the predominant constituents of the opposite ends of the cylindrically shaped pellet. This raises the hypothesis that the separation and analyses of the faecal and urate component of herbivorous bird pellets presents a possible methodology to estimate the bioavailability of ingested radionuclides (i.e. as the apparent absorption coefficient). Preliminary sampling and analyses determined that the radiocaesium content of the urate component of Lagopus spp. guano was consistently higher than the faecal tip. The results of a field sampling programme to test this hypothesis are discussed. Lagopus Lagopus scoticus (Red grouse) guano (separated into urate and faecal components), Calluna vulgaris (predominant dietary component of L. lagopus) and soil samples were collected over a period one year from an upland area in northern England. Comparison of the urate to faecal radiocaesium activity concentrations is used to investigate potential changes in the dietary radiocaesium of L. lagopus throughout the year. (author)

  13. Assessing radiocaesium bioavailability in birds separation of urates from faecal pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapp, J.; Beresford, N.A

    2004-01-01

    Concomitant analyses of urine and faeces present a methodology whereby the bioavailability of dietary radionuclides can be estimated. Whilst the collection of urine from most wild animals is impractical, birds excrete urine in a semi-solid state making field collection possible. In birds the end product of nitrogen metabolism is uric acid which is combined with albumin, calcium and potassium cations as a laminated sphere 0.5 to 15 μm in size. Urate spheres are passed as a colloidal suspension in a proteinaceous fluid composed predominantly of water, albumin and electrolytes giving the characteristic white dollop' to avian guano. Some herbivorous bird species (e.g. Lagopus spp.) excrete comparatively dry-pelleted guano with distinct urate (white) and faecal (brown) components. These are readily separable as they form the predominant constituents of the opposite ends of the cylindrically shaped pellet. This raises the hypothesis that the separation and analyses of the faecal and urate component of herbivorous bird pellets presents a possible methodology to estimate the bioavailability of ingested radionuclides (i.e. as the apparent absorption coefficient). Preliminary sampling and analyses determined that the radiocaesium content of the urate component of Lagopus spp. guano was consistently higher than the faecal tip. The results of a field sampling programme to test this hypothesis are discussed. Lagopus Lagopus scoticus (Red grouse) guano (separated into urate and faecal components), Calluna vulgaris (predominant dietary component of L. lagopus) and soil samples were collected over a period one year from an upland area in northern England. Comparison of the urate to faecal radiocaesium activity concentrations is used to investigate potential changes in the dietary radiocaesium of L. lagopus throughout the year. (author)

  14. New Insights into the Evolution of the Human Diet from Faecal Biomarker Analysis in Wild Chimpanzee and Gorilla Faeces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainara Sistiaga

    Full Text Available Our understanding of early human diets is based on reconstructed biomechanics of hominin jaws, bone and teeth isotopic data, tooth wear patterns, lithic, taphonomic and zooarchaeological data, which do not provide information about the relative amounts of different types of foods that contributed most to early human diets. Faecal biomarkers are proving to be a valuable tool in identifying relative proportions of plant and animal tissues in Palaeolithic diets. A limiting factor in the application of the faecal biomarker approach is the striking absence of data related to the occurrence of faecal biomarkers in non-human primate faeces. In this study we explored the nature and proportions of sterols and stanols excreted by our closest living relatives. This investigation reports the first faecal biomarker data for wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes and mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei. Our results suggest that the chemometric analysis of faecal biomarkers is a useful tool for distinguishing between NHP and human faecal matter, and hence, it could provide information for palaeodietary research and early human diets.

  15. New Insights into the Evolution of the Human Diet from Faecal Biomarker Analysis in Wild Chimpanzee and Gorilla Faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistiaga, Ainara; Wrangham, Richard; Rothman, Jessica M; Summons, Roger E

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of early human diets is based on reconstructed biomechanics of hominin jaws, bone and teeth isotopic data, tooth wear patterns, lithic, taphonomic and zooarchaeological data, which do not provide information about the relative amounts of different types of foods that contributed most to early human diets. Faecal biomarkers are proving to be a valuable tool in identifying relative proportions of plant and animal tissues in Palaeolithic diets. A limiting factor in the application of the faecal biomarker approach is the striking absence of data related to the occurrence of faecal biomarkers in non-human primate faeces. In this study we explored the nature and proportions of sterols and stanols excreted by our closest living relatives. This investigation reports the first faecal biomarker data for wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei). Our results suggest that the chemometric analysis of faecal biomarkers is a useful tool for distinguishing between NHP and human faecal matter, and hence, it could provide information for palaeodietary research and early human diets.

  16. Fat absorption in cystic fibrosis mice is impeded by defective lipolysis and post-lipolytic events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvelds, MJC; Bronsveld, [No Value; Havinga, R; Sinaasappel, M; de Jonge, HR; Verkade, HJ

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is frequently associated with progressive loss of exocrine pancreas function, leading to incomplete digestion and absorption of dietary fat. Supplementing patients with pancreatic lipase reduces fat excretion, but it does not completely correct fat malabsorption, indicating that

  17. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  18. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus absorption and excretion in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz; Vitti, Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Nutricao Animal]. E-mails: icsbueno@cena.usp.br; abdalla@cena.usp.br; dovitti@cena.usp.br; Furtado, Carlos Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Zootecnia]. E-mail: cefurtado@uem.br

    2007-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most polluting nutrients because of high husbandry concentrations in restricted areas. The present study compiles data from previous studies dealing with true digestibility of different P levels in diets for horses. Database consisted of results from two experiments carried out at the Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), using horses fed different levels of P (n=28). True absorption of phosphorus was determined by isotopic dilution technique, using {sup 32}P as tracer. All parameters (P{sub ING}: ingested P; P{sub ABS}: absorbed P; P{sub FECTOT}: total faecal P excretion; P{sub FECENDO}: endogenous faecal P; P{sub URI}: total urinary excretion; and P{sub RET}: retained P) were normalized according to body weight (BW) and linear and quadratic regressions between P{sub ING} and the other parameters were tested. No quadratic effect was observed. P{sub ING} ranged from 41 to 264 mg/kg BW. Faecal P excretion was affected by intake, analysing by total (P{sub FECTOT} = 0.888 (S.E. 0.058) P{sub ING} - 29.40 (S.E. 8.14) (P<0.0001; RMSE=20.37; R{sup 2}=0.90) or by endogenous fraction (P{sub FECENDO} = 0.095 (S.E. 0.029) P{sub ING} + 12.10 (S.E. 4.16) (P=0.0034; RMSE=10.41; {sup R}2=0.29). Urinary P excretion was not affected by intake (P=0.35), although ranging from 0.06 to 59.20 mg/kg BW. The same occurred for P{sub RET} (P=0.25) ranging from -13.69 to 88.78 mg/kg BW. P absorption also was affect by P intake (P{sub ABS} = 0.195 (S.E. 0.060) P{sub ING} + 42.19 (S.E. 8.45) (P=0.0031; RMSE=21.15; R{sup 2}=0.29). The present study showed that only a small part of ingested P was absorbed, i.e. most of ingested P was excreted via faeces, contributing for environmental pollution. (author)

  19. Monitoring bacterial faecal contamination in waters using multiplex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring of sanitary quality or faecal pollution in water is currently based on quantifying some bacterial indicators such as Escherichia coli and faecal enterococci. Using a multiplex real-time PCR assay for faecal enterococci and Bacteroides spp., the detection of faecal contamination in non-treated water can be done in a ...

  20. Urinary prostaglandin E and vasopressin excretion in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1983-01-01

    excretion of prostaglandin E (PGE), immunoreactive arginine vasopressin (iA VP), and kallikrein were determined. PGE was quantitated with a radioimmunoassay having 4.9% cross-reactivity with prostaglandin E (PGE). After 4 weeks on the diet, water consumption and urinary iAVP excretion increased....... Increased water consumption and increased urinary iAVP excretion seem to be early symptoms (after 4 weeks) of EFA deficiency, whereas decreased urine output and decreased urinary PGE excretion occur much later (after 10 weeks). Two energy% linolenate supplementation to a fat-free diet did not change...

  1. A triple isotope technique for estimation of fat and vitamin B12 malabsorption in Chrohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, N.T.; Rannem, T.

    1991-01-01

    A test for simultaneous estimation of vitamin B 12 and fat absorption from stool samples was investigated in 25 patients with severe diarrhoea after operation for Chrohn's disease. 51 CrCl 3 was ingested as a non-absorbable marker, 58 Co-cyanocobalamin as vitamin B 12 tracer, and 14 C-triolein as lipid tracer. Faeces were collected separately for three days. Some stool-to-stool variation in the 58 Co/ 51 Cr and 14 C/ 51 Cr ratios was seen. When the 58 Co-B 12 and 14 C-triolein excretion was estimated in samples of the two stools with the highest activities of 51 Cr, the variations of the estimates were less than ±10% and ±15% of the doses ingested, respectively. 12 of the 25 patients were not able to collect faeces and urine quantitatively and separately. However, in all patients faeces with sufficient radioactivity for simultaneous estimation of faecal 58 Co-B 12 and 14 C-triolein excretion from stool samples were obtained. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Intake and excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi

    1979-01-01

    Of radioiodine metabolism in man, the relations between intake, thyroidal uptake and excretion are explained. The internal radiation dose to the thyroid for public population is mainly given through the intake of contaminated food in all the ages. In the gestation, the fetus is exposed most to radioiodine immediately before delivery and the dose is estimated to amount a few times higher than the maternal thyroid. Importance of both the cow's milk and the breast milk as the sources of contaminant, is emphasized. Babyhood for 6 months after delivery, in this age are estiperiod as to the thyroidal exposure by radioiodine because the dose in his age are estimated to be over 30 times for 131 I and about 9 times for 129 I as compared with that to the adult. Because of its long-term residence in the environment, 129 I is incorporated into cereals, leafy vegetables and meat besides milk. However, the critical age is still in the babyhood for 6 months after birth. Radioiodine given in a form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroidal uptake rate and the biological half-life are depresesed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine given in the form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroids uptake rate and the biological half-life are depressed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine both in the protein-binding fraction and in the total fraction of metabolised cow's milk, reaches the thyroid in the same manner as that given in a form of inorganic iodide. While, rats given radioiodine incorporated into seaweed, excreted tremendous amount of the nuclide into feces which resulted in very low uptake of the nuclide by the thyroid. To estimate population dose from radioiodine, the absorption rate of radioiodine may be one of the most important parameters. (author)

  3. Transintestinal cholesterol excretion in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskamp, Laurens F.; Meessen, Emma C. E.; Groen, Albert K.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss recent insights into the measurement and cellular basis of transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) in humans and to explore TICE as a therapeutic target for increasing reverse cholesterol transport. Recent findings TICE is the net effect of cholesterol excretion by

  4. Endogenous cholesterol synthesis, fecal steroid excretion and serum lanosterol in subjects with high or low response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.; Gent, van C.M.

    1986-01-01

    In this study we addressed the question whether hypo- and hyper-responders to dietary cholesterol differ with regard to the flexibility of endogenous cholesterol synthesis after changes in cholesterol intake. Whole-body cholesterol synthesis was measured as faecal excretion of neutral steroids and

  5. Using faecal profiling to assess the effects of different management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used faecal profiling to assess diet quality of animals under three different management types in a semi-arid savanna, northwest of Kimberley, Northern Cape, South Africa. The levels of faecal crude protein (FCP) and faecal phosphorus (FP) of freeranging springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) and blue wildebeest ...

  6. Faecal shedding of canine parvovirus after modified-live vaccination in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisl, M; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Reese, S; Proksch, A-L; Hartmann, K

    2017-01-01

    Since little is known about the persistence and faecal shedding of canine parvovirus (CPV) in dogs after modified-live vaccination, diagnostic tests for CPV can be difficult to interpret in the post-vaccination period. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence, duration and extent of CPV vaccine virus shedding in adult dogs and to investigate related factors, including the presence of protective antibodies, increase in anti-CPV antibody titres and development of any gastrointestinal side-effects. A secondary objective was to assess prevalence of CPV field virus shedding in clinically healthy dogs due to subclinical infections. One hundred adult, healthy privately owned dogs were vaccinated with a commercial CPV-2 modified-live vaccine (MLV). Faeces were tested for the presence of CPV DNA on days 0 (prior to vaccination), 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 by quantitative real-time PCR. Pre- and post-vaccination serum titres were determined by haemagglutination inhibition on days 0, 7 and 28. Transient excretion of CPV DNA was detected in 2.0% of dogs before vaccination. About one quarter of dogs (23.0%) shed CPV DNA during the post-vaccination period, but field and vaccine virus differentiation by VP2 gene sequencing was only successful in few samples. Faecal CPV excretion occurred despite protective serum antibody titres. Post-vaccination CPV shedding was not related to adequate antibody response after vaccination or to the occurrence of gastrointestinal side-effects. Despite individual differences, CPV DNA was detectable for up to 28 days after vaccination, although the faecal CPV DNA load in these clinically healthy dogs was very low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlation of bowel symptoms with colonic transit, length, and faecal load in functional faecal retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahave, Dennis; Christensen, Elsebeth; Loud, Franck B.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Abdominal pain, bloating, and defecation disturbances are common complaints in gastrointestinal functional disorders. This study explores whether bowel symptoms are correlated to colon transit time (CTT), faecal loading (coprostasis), and colon length; and whether prokinetic interve...

  8. Nocturnal faecal soiling and anal masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A F; Tayler, P J; Bhate, S R

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of late onset faecal soiling as a result of anal masturbation in children who were neither mentally handicapped nor psychotic were studied. The role of soiling in aiding the young person and his family to avoid separating and maturing is highlighted. We suggest that the association of anal masturbation and resistant nocturnal soiling may be unrecognised. PMID:2270946

  9. Faecal soiling: pathophysiology of postdefaecatory incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciani, F

    2013-08-01

    Passive postdefaecatory incontinence is poorly understood and yet is an important clinical problem. The aim of this study was to characterize the pathophysiology of postdefaecatory incontinence in patients affected by faecal soiling. Seventy-two patients (30 women, age range 49-79 years; 42 men, age range, 53-75 years) affected by faecal passive incontinence with faecal soiling were included in the study. Two patient groups were identified: Group 1 comprised 42 patients with postdefaecatory incontinence and Group 2 had 30 patients without incontinence after bowel movements. After a preliminary clinical evaluation, including the Faecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI) score and the obstructed defaecation syndrome (ODS) score, all patients of Groups 1 and 2 were studied by means of endoanal ultrasound and anorectal manometry. The results were compared with those from 20 healthy control subjects. A significantly higher ODS score was found in Group 1 (P IAS) in Group 2 (P IAS atrophy and the FISI score (ρs 0.78; P < 0.03). Anal resting pressure (Pmax and Pm ) was significantly lower in Group 2 (P < 0.04). The straining test was considered positive in 30 (71.4%) patients in Group 1, significantly greater than in Group 2 (P < 0.01). A significantly higher conscious rectal sensitivity threshold (CRST) was found in Group 1 patients (P < 0.01). The ODS score, a positive straining test and high CRST values suggest that postdefaecatory incontinence is secondary to impaired defaecation. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Excretion of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sodium in Lactating Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novotný J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the excretion of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg and sodium (Na via milk, urine and faeces during the lactation period of sows. Six clinically healthy lactating sows (crossbreed Large White × Landrace were selected for these experiments and were housed in standard conditions and fed with commercially prepared dry mixture for this category of sows. The blood serum, milk, urine and faecal samples were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of lactation. During four weeks of lactation, we recorded the relatively stable and physiological concentrations of Ca, P, Mg and Na in blood serum. The analysis of the sow’s milk showed the highest concentration of Ca and P at the end of lactation, while the highest concentration of Mg and Na was observed on the 7th lactation day. The following macro-mineral excretion was recorded in urine: 98.83-194.00 mg.l-1 for Ca; 11.88- 53.09 mg.l-1 for P; 171.67-344.05 mg.l-1 for Mg; and 56.50-74.83 mg.l-1 for Na; and in the faeces, 1824.5- 3045.5 mg.kg-1 for Ca; 1566.93-2483.2 mg.kg-1 for P; 1916.2-2505.2 mg.kg-1 for Mg; and 516.8-748.2 mg. kg-1 for Na.

  11. Verteerbaarheid (ileaal en faecaal) van biologisch geteelde eiwitrijke voedergrondstoffen bij varkens = Digestibility (ileal and faecal) of organically-grown protein-rich raw materials in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Diepen, van J.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this research the ileal digestibility of nitrogen and amino acids and the faecal digestibility of organic matter, nitrogen, fat, non-starch polysaccharides, energy and phosphorus of protein-rich organicallygrown feed raw materials were evaluated in pigs. The products were rapeseed meal expeller,

  12. Faecal D/L lactate ratio is a metabolic signature of microbiota imbalance in patients with short bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Mayeur

    Full Text Available Our objective was to understand the functional link between the composition of faecal microbiota and the clinical characteristics of adults with short bowel syndrome (SBS. Sixteen patients suffering from type II SBS were included in the study. They displayed a total oral intake of 2661±1005 Kcal/day with superior sugar absorption (83±12% than protein (42±13% or fat (39±26%. These patients displayed a marked dysbiosis in faecal microbiota, with a predominance of Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc group, while Clostridium and Bacteroides were under-represented. Each patient exhibited a diverse lactic acid bacteria composition (L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. johnsonii, L. reuteri, L. mucosae, displaying specific D and L-lactate production profiles in vitro. Of 16 patients, 9/16 (56% accumulated lactates in their faecal samples, from 2 to 110 mM of D-lactate and from 2 to 80 mM of L-lactate. The presence of lactates in faeces (56% patients was used to define the Lactate-accumulator group (LA, while absence of faecal lactates (44% patients defines the Non lactate-accumulator group (NLA. The LA group had a lower plasma HCO3(- concentration (17.1±2.8 mM than the NLA group (22.8±4.6 mM, indicating that LA and NLA groups are clinically relevant sub-types. Two patients, belonging to the LA group and who particularly accumulated faecal D-lactate, were at risk of D-encephalopathic reactions. Furthermore, all patients of the NLA group and those accumulating preferentially L isoform in the LA group had never developed D-acidosis. The D/L faecal lactate ratio seems to be the most relevant index for a higher D-encephalopathy risk, rather than D- and L-lactate faecal concentrations per se. Testing criteria that take into account HCO3(- value, total faecal lactate and the faecal D/L lactate ratio may become useful tools for identifying SBS patients at risk for D-encephalopathy.

  13. Detection of picobirnavirus and rotavirus in diarrhoeic faecal samples of cattle and buffalo calves in Mumbai metropolis, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mondal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study 113 diarrhoeic faecal samples obtained from buffalo (n = 68 and cattle (n = 45 calves under 1 years of age were analysed in order to determine the presence of rotavirus infection and the frequency of picobirnavirus excretion. Eleven (9.73% samples positive for group A rotavirus were identified through RNA-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (RNA-PAGE, while 4 (3.53% samples showed a bisegmented genome with a typical picobirnavirus pattern. This is the first report of picobirnavirus in cattle and buffalo calves from Western India.

  14. Digestive physiology of captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla): determinants of faecal dry matter content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, J M; Stahl, M; Osmann, C; Ortmann, S; Kreuzer, M; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2015-06-01

    Giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) are specialized insectivores and consume mainly ants and termites in the wild. In captivity, giant anteaters are either fed a complete diet, or a combination of a domestic carnivore diet with leaf eater pellets, or a traditional gruel-type diet. Soft faeces are a frequently encountered problem with this type of feeding. In the present study, we analysed diet and faeces composition, calculated digestibility and measured mean retention time on various diets in eight giant anteaters (total of n = 64 experiments). The results suggest that the digestive physiology of giant anteaters is similar to that of domestic dogs and cats in terms of nutrient digestibility and digesta retention. When testing correlations between faecal dry matter content and other variables, no relationship with dietary crude fibre content or mean digesta retention time could be detected. However, acid insoluble ash intake was significantly and positively correlated with faecal dry matter content. The amount of acid insoluble ash excreted with the faeces was higher than that ingested with the diet offered, indicating that the giant anteaters ingested soil from their enclosure of up to 93 g per day. This finding is consistent with observation of faeces of wild giant anteaters that contain soil or sand most likely due to indiscriminate feeding. It also corresponds to reports that indigestible materials such as peat, soil, chitin or cellulose contribute to a firmer faecal consistency in various carnivore species. Therefore, offering giant anteaters the opportunity to voluntarily ingest soil from their enclosure might be beneficial. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Variation in siderophore biosynthetic gene distribution and production across environmental and faecal populations of Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Searle

    Full Text Available Iron is essential for Escherichia coli growth and survival in the host and the external environment, but its availability is generally low due to the poor solubility of its ferric form in aqueous environments and the presence of iron-withholding proteins in the host. Most E. coli can increase access to iron by excreting siderophores such as enterobactin, which have a very strong affinity for Fe3+. A smaller proportion of isolates can generate up to 3 additional siderophores linked with pathogenesis; aerobactin, salmochelin, and yersiniabactin. However, non-pathogenic E. coli are also able to synthesise these virulence-associated siderophores. This raises questions about their role in the ecology of E. coli, beyond virulence, and whether specific siderophores might be linked with persistence in the external environment. Under the assumption that selection favours phenotypes that confer a fitness advantage, we compared siderophore production and gene distribution in E. coli isolated either from agricultural plants or the faeces of healthy mammals. This population-level comparison has revealed that under iron limiting growth conditions plant-associated isolates produced lower amounts of siderophores than faecal isolates. Additionally, multiplex PCR showed that environmental isolates were less likely to contain loci associated with aerobactin and yersiniabactin synthesis. Although aerobactin was linked with strong siderophore excretion, a significant difference in production was still observed between plant and faecal isolates when the analysis was restricted to strains only able to synthesise enterobactin. This finding suggests that the regulatory response to iron limitation may be an important trait associated with adaptation to the non-host environment. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the ability to produce multiple siderophores facilitates E. coli gut colonisation and plays an important role in E. coli commensalism.

  16. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil A; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively. IO reduced plasma concentrations of free fatty acids by 26·2 % and TAG by 75·8 % in HIO rats. IO increased faecal output by 93·2 %, faecal lipid excretion by 37·9 % and weight of caecum by 23·4 % and colon by 41·5 % in HIO rats. IO improved ileal morphology by reducing inflammation and improving the density of crypt cells in HIO rats. IO attenuated H diet-induced increases in abdominal fat pads (C 275 (sem 19), CIO 264 (sem 40), H 688 (sem 55), HIO 419 (sem 32) mg/mm tibial length), fasting blood glucose concentrations (C 4·5 (sem 0·1), CIO 4·2 (sem 0·1), H 5·2 (sem 0·1), HIO 4·3 (sem 0·1) mmol/l), systolic blood pressure (C 124 (sem 2), CIO 118 (sem 2), H 152 (sem 2), HIO 123 (sem 3) mmHg), left ventricular diastolic stiffness (C 22·9 (sem 0·6), CIO 22·9 (sem 0·5), H 27·8 (sem 0·5), HIO 22·6 (sem 1·2)) and plasma alanine transaminase (C 29·6 (sem 2·8), CIO 32·1 (sem 3·0), H 43·9 (sem 2·6), HIO 33·6 (sem 2·0) U/l). IO attenuated H-induced increases in inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver, lipid droplets in the liver and plasma lipids as well as impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. These results suggest that increasing soluble fibre intake with IO improves signs of the metabolic syndrome by decreasing gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid uptake.

  17. Assessment of helminth load in faecal samples of free range ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helminths load in faecal sample of free range indigenous chicken in Port Harcourt Metropolis was examined. Faecal samples were collected from 224 birds in 15 homesteads and 4 major markets - Mile 3, Mile 1, Borokiri and Eneka Village market where poultry birds are gathered for sale. 0.2-0.5g of feacal sample was ...

  18. Diet, faecal pH and colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Boer, B.C.J. de; Faassen, A. van; Pikaar, N.A.; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1983-01-01

    We suggest that a lower faecal pH may be correlated with a lower mortality of large-bowel cancer and that faecal pH should always be considered in epidemiological studies on the role of diet in colon carcinogenesis.

  19. Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and their significance to public health are reviewed in this paper, to highlight their levels of general acceptability and suitability as safeguards against health hazards associated with water supplies. Regular bacteriological analysis with the sole aim of detecting faecal ...

  20. Spontaneous scrotal faecal fistula in a Nigerian adult: review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a 28-year-old Nigerian who presented with four days history of spontaneous scrotal ulceration and faecal discharge. This symptom was preceded by features of intestinal obstruction which got relieved after the faecal discharge from the scrotum. He was resuscitated and had segmental resection and anastomosis ...

  1. Faecal nitrogen of browser and mixed feeder game species during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faecal nitrogen of browser and mixed feeder game species during different seasons. ... A practical measure of assessing periods of potential nutritional stress of game species is needed in the management of ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts in Merinos divergently selected for reproduction. ... The fixed effect of birth year x sex interaction was significant, with rams showing higher mean values for FWEC than ewes ...

  3. The effect of varying physical and chemical characteristics of inhaled plutonium aerosols on metabolism and excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; McClellan, R.O.; Miglio, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of different chemical and physical parameters of plutonium aerosols on lung retention, tissue distribution and excretion patterns were evaluated in beagle dogs. Polydisperse aerosols of 239 Pu of different chemical form were produced by heating droplets nebulized from a solution of 239 PuIV in 1M HC1 to temperatures ranging from 325 0 C to 1150 0 C. Droplets containing 238 Pu(OH) 4 were treated at 1150 0 C and the resultant polydisperse aerosol used or separated into monodisperse size groups. Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to provide initial lung burdens in the range of 0.75 to 1.0μCi. The aerosols were characterized as to particle size and size distribution, and an in-vitro solubility measurement was made on samples of the aerosol from each animal exposure. Different production temperatures for the 239 Pu aerosols resulted in lung retention half-times that increased as the production temperature increased. The 239 Pu tissue distribution and urinary excretion patterns were correlated with lung retention. Faecal excretion was greater for aerosols produced at lower temperatures. Lung retention half-times for 238 Pu monodisperse aerosols were not greatly different from particle sizes of 0.8 and 1.9μm activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The third monodisperse aerosol intended to be 3.0μm AMAD had a bimodal particle size distribution and contained a significant fraction of readily soluble material. The 238 Pu polydisperse aerosol had a slightly lower lung retention, increased urinary excretion and translocation to tissues than the comparable 239 Pu polydisperse material. This study serves to emphasize the importance of complete analysis of the aerosol material as well as early excretion data following accidental human exposure to aerosols containing plutonium. The role of chemical form and aerosol particle size in evaluation of such cases is discussed. (author)

  4. [The artificial sphincter: therapy for faecal incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, U

    2012-08-01

    Faecal incontinence (FI) challenges a patient's professional, social and sexual life. Often the patient becomes depressive and socially isolated. If able to break open for therapy the patient should receive as first line a conservative treatment (like dietary measures, pelvic re-education, biofeedback, bulking agents, irrigation). When is the time to implant an artificial anal sphincter? If conservative therapy fails as well as surgical options (like a sphincteroplasty - if indicated a reconstruction of the pelvic floor if insufficient, or a sacral nerve stimulation) an ultimo surgical procedure should be offered to appropriate and compliant patients: an artificial anal sphincter. Worldwide, there are two established devices on the market: the artificial bowel sphincter® (ABS) from A. M. S. (Minnetonka, MN, USA) and the soft anal band® from A. M. I. (Feldkirch, Austria). How to implant the artificial anal sphincter? Both devices consist of a silicon cuff which can be filled with fluid. Under absolute aseptic conditions this cuff is placed in the lithotomy position by perianal incisions around the anal canal below the pelvic floor. A silicon tube connects the anal cuff with a reservoir (containing fluid) which is placed either behind the pubis bone in front of the bladder (ABS) or below the costal arch (anal band). With a pump placed in the scrotum/labia (ABS) or by pressing the balloon (anal band) in both types operated by the patient the fluid is shifted forth and back between the anal cuff and the reservoir closing or opening the anal canal. Both systems are placed completely subcutaneously. Both devices improve significantly the anal continence. Both systems have a high rate of reoperations. However, the causes for the redos are different. The ABS is associated with high infection and anal penetration rates of the cuff leading to an explantation rate to up to 60 % of the implants. This kind of complication seems to be much lower with the anal band. The major

  5. Plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol in chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekchay, S.; Apichartsrungkoon, T.; Pongpiachan, P.

    1996-01-01

    Identification of sex in some kind of fowls can not be done by using their external appearances. Sex steroid hormone levels may be used as an indicator of sexual dimorphism in birds. The objective of this investigation was to measure plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol concentrations in 8 male and 15 female chickens by using radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. The relationship between plasma and faecal testosterone, and plasma and faecal estradiol are positively correlated. The correlation coefficients (r 2 ) between plasma and faecal steroids concentration were 0.621 (p<0.05) for testosterone and 0.692 (p<0.05) for estradiol. The average plasma and faecal sex steroid concentrations in male and female chickens were 10.05 ± 1.97 ng/ml and 511.50 ± 95.89 ng/g (for male testosterone), 24.85 ± 1.60 pg/ml and 49.65 ± 6.01 ng/g (for male estradiol), 0.79 ± 0.05 ng/ml and 134.20 ± 14.70 ng/ml (for female testosterone), 129.91 ± 19.30 pg/ml and 334.80 ± 15.62 ng/g (for female estradiol), respectively. Plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol levels in male and female chickens are significant difference (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.001 and p<0.001 respectively). The results of this investigation suggested that plasma or faecal sex steroid concentrations can be used to discriminate sex of chicken which is show the possibility to use the plasma or faecal sex steroids for identification of sex in other bird species

  6. Faecal microbiota in lean and obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handl, Stefanie; German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Dowd, Scot E; Steiner, Jörg M; Heilmann, Romy M; Grant, Ryan W; Swanson, Kelly S; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2013-05-01

    Previous work has shown obesity to be associated with changes in intestinal microbiota. While obesity is common in dogs, limited information is available about the role of the intestinal microbiota. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alterations in the intestinal microbiota may be associated with canine obesity. Using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, we evaluated the composition of the faecal microbiota in 22 lean and 21 obese pet dogs, as well as in five research dogs fed ad libitum and four research dogs serving as lean controls. Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria were the predominant bacterial phyla. The phylum Actinobacteria and the genus Roseburia were significantly more abundant in the obese pet dogs. The order Clostridiales significantly increased under ad libitum feeding in the research dogs. Canine intestinal microbiota is highly diverse and shows considerable interindividual variation. In the pet dogs, influence on the intestinal microbiota besides body condition, like age, breed, diet or lifestyle, might have masked the effect of obesity. The study population of research dogs was small, and further work is required before the role of the intestinal microbiota in canine obesity is clarified. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...

  8. 3-Methylhistidine excretion in myotonic dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griggs, R.C.; Moxley, R.T. III; Forbes, G.B.

    1980-12-01

    3-Methylhistidine (3-MH) excretion reflects the rate of muscle protein catabolism, since 3-MH occurs almost exclusively in muscle actin and myosin and is not reutilized or catabolized. We studied 3-MH excretion in 9 patients with myotonic dystrophy, 8 normals, and 10 disease controls with Duchenne dystrophy and other disorders. 3-MH excretion was expressed relative to muscle mass as determined by both urinary creatinine and total body potassium (/sup 40/K method). Absolute 3-MH excretion was decreased in myotonic dystrophy patients but was normal when related to muscle mass. The finding of normal 3-MH excretion in myotonic dystrophy suggests that the muscle wasting in this disorder results from impaired anabolic processes rather than accelerated muscle destruction.

  9. 3-Methylhistidine excretion in myotonic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griggs, R.C.; Moxley, R.T. III; Forbes, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    3-Methylhistidine (3-MH) excretion reflects the rate of muscle protein catabolism, since 3-MH occurs almost exclusively in muscle actin and myosin and is not reutilized or catabolized. We studied 3-MH excretion in 9 patients with myotonic dystrophy, 8 normals, and 10 disease controls with Duchenne dystrophy and other disorders. 3-MH excretion was expressed relative to muscle mass as determined by both urinary creatinine and total body potassium ( 40 K method). Absolute 3-MH excretion was decreased in myotonic dystrophy patients but was normal when related to muscle mass. The finding of normal 3-MH excretion in myotonic dystrophy suggests that the muscle wasting in this disorder results from impaired anabolic processes rather than accelerated muscle destruction

  10. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...

  11. Effects of obesity, energy restriction and neutering on the faecal microbiota of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Manuela M; Kessler, Alexandre M; Kieffer, Dorothy A; Knotts, Trina A; Kim, Kyoungmi; Wei, Alfreda; Ramsey, Jon J; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2017-10-01

    Surveys report that 25-57 % of cats are overweight or obese. The most evinced cause is neutering. Weight loss often fails; thus, new strategies are needed. Obesity has been associated with altered gut bacterial populations and increases in microbial dietary energy extraction, body weight and adiposity. This study aimed to determine whether alterations in intestinal bacteria were associated with obesity, energy restriction and neutering by characterising faecal microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in eight lean intact, eight lean neutered and eight obese neutered cats before and after 6 weeks of energy restriction. Lean neutered cats had a bacterial profile similar to obese rodents and humans, with a greater abundance (Pcats was due to a bloom in Peptostreptococcaceae. Obese cats had an 18 % reduction in fat mass after energy restriction (Pcats. Additional work is needed to understand how neutering, obesity and weight loss are related to changes in feline microbiota and how these microbial shifts affect host physiology.

  12. Loss of deuterium in faecal solids and by sequestration in reindeer: effect on doubly labelled water studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Gotaas

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available An underlying assumption when estimating total energy expenditure (TEE using doubly labelled water (DLW is that the injected isotopes (lsO and 2H leave the body only in the form of CO, and H20. However, both isotopes have additional routes of loss. We quantified the loss of 2H (i attached to faecal solids and (ii by sequestration into newly synthesised fat in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus. Estimates of the errors caused by these processes were applied to data from DLW studies with reindeer in summer and in winter. Given the net rate of faecal dry matter output and lipid synthesis in the present study, ignoring both sources of error caused the TEE of reindeer to be underestimated by approximately 5% in winter and approximately 9% in summer. The separate effect of each source of error was evaluated in summer. If ignored, loss of 2H through sequestration alone caused TEE to be underestimated by approximately 3.7%. Similarly, if ignored, loss of 2H attached to faecal solids alone caused TEE to be underestimated by approximately 5.9%.

  13. Fat heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Katajainen, Jyrki

    This report is an electronic appendix to our paper \\Fat heaps without regular counters". In that paper we described a new variant of fat heaps that is conceptually simpler and easier to implement than the original version. We also compared the practical performance of this data structure...

  14. The effects of feeding resistant starch on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics and faecal fermentative end-products in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Alexander, Lucille G; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of whole grain consumption have been studied in human subjects, but little research exists on their effects in dogs. The objective of the present study was to test the effects of resistant starch (RS) in the diet of healthy adult dogs. Twelve adult Miniature Schnauzer dogs (eight males, four females; mean age: 3·3 (1·6) years; mean body weight: 8·4 (1·2) kg; mean body condition score: D/ideal) were randomly allotted to one of three treatment groups, which consisted of different amounts of RS supplied in a biscuit format. Dogs received either 0, 10 or 20 g biscuits per d (estimated to be 0, 2·5 or 5 g RS per d) that were fed within their daily energetic allowance. A balanced Latin square design was used, with each treatment period lasting 21 d (days 0-17 adaptation; days 18-21 fresh and total faecal collection). All dogs were fed the same diet to maintain body weight throughout the study. Dogs fed 5 g RS per d had lower (P = 0·03) fat digestibility than dogs fed 0 gRS per d, but DM, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were not affected. Faecal fermentative end-products, including SCFA and branched-chain fatty acids, ammonia, phenols and indoles, and microbial populations were not affected. The minor changes observed in the present study suggest the RS doses provided to the dogs were too low. Further work is required to assess the dose of RS required to affect gut health.

  15. Energy and nutrient deposition and excretion in the reproducing sow: model development and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A V; Strathe, A B; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2014-01-01

    requirements for maintenance, and fetal and maternal growth were described. In the lactating module, a factorial approach was used to estimate requirements for maintenance, milk production, and maternal growth. The priority for nutrient partitioning was assumed to be in the order of maintenance, milk...... production, and maternal growth with body tissue losses constrained within biological limits. Global sensitivity analysis showed that nonlinearity in the parameters was small. The model outputs considered were the total protein and fat deposition, average urinary and fecal N excretion, average methane...... emission, manure carbon excretion, and manure production. The model was evaluated using independent data sets from the literature using root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and concordance correlation coefficients. The gestation module predicted body fat gain better than body protein gain, which...

  16. Faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in animal shelters across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, A M; Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Hamer, S A; Lawhon, S D

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies on faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in the United States have been limited, despite evidence that the incidence of human campylobacteriosis has increased over the last decade. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among shelter dogs in Texas, to estimate the specific prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding, and to identify risk factors for Campylobacter-positive status. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs in six animal shelters across Texas between May and December, 2014. Quantitative PCR protocols were used to detect Campylobacter in samples and to specifically identify C. jejuni and C. coli. The prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among sampled dogs was 75.7% (140/185). Prevalence varied significantly by shelter (p = .03), ranging from 57% to 93%. There was a marginal association (p = .06) between abnormal faecal consistency and positive Campylobacter status, after controlling for shelter as a random effect. However, approximately 70% of Campylobacter-positive dogs had grossly normal faeces. Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly by age group or sex. The prevalence of C. jejuni-positive samples was 5.4% (10/185), but C. coli was not detected in any samples. Dogs are a potential source of zoonotic Campylobacter transmission. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Sewage reflects the distribution of human faecal Lachnospiraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Sandra L.; Newton, Ryan J.; Vandewalle, Jessica L.; Shanks, Orin C.; Huse, Susan M.; Eren, A. Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Faecal pollution contains a rich and diverse community of bacteria derived from animals and humans, many of which might serve as alternatives to the traditional enterococci and Escherichia coli faecal indicators. We used massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize microbial communities from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent sewage from 12 cities geographically distributed across the USA. We examined members of the Clostridiales, which included the families Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae for their potential as sewage indicators. Lachnospiraceae was one of the most abundant groups of faecal bacteria in sewage, and several Lachnospiraceae high-abundance sewage pyrotags occurred in at least 46 of 48 human faecal samples. Clone libraries targeting Clostridium coccoides (C. coccoides) in sewage samples demonstrated that Lachnospiraceae-annotated V6 pyrotags encompassed the previously reported C. coccoides group. We used oligotyping to profile the genus Blautia within Lachnospiraceae and found oligotypes comprised of 24 entropy components that showed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that indicators based on Blautia might have the capacity to discriminate between different faecal pollution sources. Development of source-specific alternative indicators would enhance water quality assessments, which leads to improved ecosystem health and reduced human health risk due to waterborne disease. PMID:23438335

  18. Plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of MnDPDP in the rat and dog after intravenous administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hustvedt, S.O.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate distribution and excretion of mangafodipir (MnDPDP, Teslascan) in the rat and dog. Material and Methods: Formulations of either 14 C-MnDPDP or 54 MnDPDP were injected intravenously at near clinical doses in rats and dogs. Results: The manganese (Mn) moeity is rapidly removed from plasma with an elimination half-life of less than 25 min in both species, reflecting a rapid distribution to the tissues and an early excretion. The plasma clearance of the DPDP moeity is slower than that of Mn and it appears to distribute into the extracellular fluid. Mn is distributed largely to the liver, pancreas and kidneys, and in pregnant rats, also to foetal liver and bones. No transplacental passage of DPDP could be detected. The metal is mainly excreted by the faecal route, with a small fraction eliminated early in the urine. DPDP is rapidly and essentially completely excreted in the urine, consistent with the glomerular filtration rate. (orig./AJ)

  19. Eimeriosis in Danish Dairy Calves – Correlation between Species, Oocyst Excretion and Diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg M Dehn

    2013-01-01

    The study collected up-to-date data on prevalence and importance of Eimeria infections in Danish dairy calves with suspected clinical eimeriosis and analysed correlation between Eimeria spp., oocyst excretion and diarrhoea. From October 2010 through August 2011, veterinarians collected faecal...... determined, along with opg values for the specific Eimeria spp. Association between opg and faeces consistency was evaluated in a multinomial, logistic regression model. Overall prevalence of Eimeria spp. was 96.2 % with a prevalence of 60.9 % in individual calves. E. zuernii and/or E. bovis were detected...... in 88.5 % of herds and 41.5 % of the calves. Mean opg was 2,040 (range 0–114,000) in the calves, of which 18.1 % had opg values ≥ 1,000. A total of 12 Eimeria spp. was found with the following calf prevalences: E. ellipsoidalis (37 %), E. zuernii (32 %), E. bovis (28 %), E. cylindrica (23 %), E...

  20. Po-210 excretion and radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, F.; Clemente, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model is given to describe the metabolism of the 210 Po introduced into the systemic compartiments of the human body. The model has been based on the experimental data referred to the 210 Pb- 210 Po intake, excretion and body burden of members of the general italian population. The model fits also very well the experimental data of 210 Pb- 210 Po intake and excretion reported by other authors. The retention function of 210 Po in total body, soft tissue and bone has been evaluated together with the urinary excretion function and the absorbed fraction by ingestion. The model is very valuable to evaluate the lung exposure to Radon decay products on the basis of the 210 Pb- 210 Po urinary excretions

  1. Identifying avian sources of faecal contamination using sterol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devane, Megan L; Wood, David; Chappell, Andrew; Robson, Beth; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Gilpin, Brent J

    2015-10-01

    Discrimination of the source of faecal pollution in water bodies is an important step in the assessment and mitigation of public health risk. One tool for faecal source tracking is the analysis of faecal sterols which are present in faeces of animals in a range of distinctive ratios. Published ratios are able to discriminate between human and herbivore mammal faecal inputs but are of less value for identifying pollution from wildfowl, which can be a common cause of elevated bacterial indicators in rivers and streams. In this study, the sterol profiles of 50 avian-derived faecal specimens (seagulls, ducks and chickens) were examined alongside those of 57 ruminant faeces and previously published sterol profiles of human wastewater, chicken effluent and animal meatwork effluent. Two novel sterol ratios were identified as specific to avian faecal scats, which, when incorporated into a decision tree with human and herbivore mammal indicative ratios, were able to identify sterols from avian-polluted waterways. For samples where the sterol profile was not consistent with herbivore mammal or human pollution, avian pollution is indicated when the ratio of 24-ethylcholestanol/(24-ethylcholestanol + 24-ethylcoprostanol + 24-ethylepicoprostanol) is ≥0.4 (avian ratio 1) and the ratio of cholestanol/(cholestanol + coprostanol + epicoprostanol) is ≥0.5 (avian ratio 2). When avian pollution is indicated, further confirmation by targeted PCR specific markers can be employed if greater confidence in the pollution source is required. A 66% concordance between sterol ratios and current avian PCR markers was achieved when 56 water samples from polluted waterways were analysed.

  2. Renal acid excretion in the domestic fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S; Skadhauge, E

    1983-05-01

    1. In order to assess the role of uricotelism in net renal acid excretion, blood and ureteral urine samples were collected from five hens fed a commercial poultry feed (Diet A) and five hens fed a protein-rich, Na-poor feed (Diet B). All samples were analysed for pH, PCO2, ammonium, phosphate, uric acid and urates (UA + U) and inulin. 2. On Diet A, average pH in venous blood was 7.42, while urinary pH (pHu) ranged from 4.74 to 7.25. At average pHu (6.10), uric acid accounted for 52% of total acid excreted, H2PO4 for 20% and NH4 for 28%. Net acid excretion in ureteral urine was 345 muequiv h-1 kg body weight-1, or 5-10 times that observed in ureotelic vertebrates (amphibians and mammals). 3. The relative contributions of these urinary buffers to net renal acid excretion changed with pHu. Significant negative correlations exist between pHu and both total phosphate and ammonium excretion rates (P less than 0.001). Excretion rates of (UA + U) showed a positive correlation (P less than 0.05) with pHu. 4. Feeding on Diet B revealed the homeostatic power of the avian kidney. Blood pH and PCO2 were not changed relative to values in hens fed the control diet while striking increases in excretion rates of all urinary buffers (except HCO3) were observed. Average pHu fell to 5.12, and the average net renal acid excretion rate doubled.

  3. Distribution and excretion of inhaled mercury vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gage, J C

    1961-01-01

    Rats have been exposed for varying periods to an atmosphere containing 1 mg/cu.m. mercury vapor. The toxic effects produced showed resemblances to signs of mercurialism in man. An attempt has been made to study the kinetics of absorption and excretion of mercury from measurements of the amounts excreted and stored in the tissues. The efficiency of absorption of mercury by the rat lung is about 50%. A small proportion is excreted into the gut. After about 10 days of continuous exposure a steady state is reached in which excretion balances absorption. During short exposures the turnover of mercury in all tissues except brain is fairly rapid and most of the mercury is cleared from the body within a week after exposure. The urinary excretion of mercury, during the initial stage of storage in the tissues and the final stage of clearance, shows divergencies from the simple exponential pattern; there appears to be a delay mechanism in the kidney which, in intermittent exposures, may result in the occurrence of peak excretion during periods of non-exposure. After more prolonged exposures the mercury in the kidney appears to be converted to a form which is only very slowly excreted. The significance of the urinary excretion of mercury by man after industrial exposure to mercury vapour is discussed. The rat experiments suggest that single measurements will give only limited information concerning industrial conditions, but that an approximate assessment of the total absorbed during a working week would be obtained if it were possible to make a seven-day collection of urine. Repeated measurements after exposure would yield information on the duration of exposure and would have some diagnostic value.

  4. Relation between creatinine and uric acid excretion.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishida, Y

    1992-01-01

    The relation between creatinine and uric acid metabolism was analysed in 77 male patients with primary gout and 62 healthy male subjects. Significant positive correlations between 24 hour urinary creatinine and uric acid excretion were shown in both groups. The mean urinary creatinine and uric acid excretions in the patients with gout were significantly increased as compared with those of normal male controls. These results suggest that there is a close correlation between creatinine and uric...

  5. Rectal motility after sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, H B; Worsøe, J; Krogh, K

    2010-01-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is effective against faecal incontinence, but the mode of action is obscure. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of SNS on fasting and postprandial rectal motility. Sixteen patients, 14 women age 33-73 (mean 58), with faecal incontinence of various...... contractions, total time with cyclic rectal contractions, the number of aborally and orally propagating contractions, the number of anal sampling reflexes or rectal wall tension during contractions. Postprandial changes in rectal tone were significantly reduced during SNS (P

  6. Faecal incontinence following radiotherapy for prostate cancer: A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Yasuko; Høyer, Morten; Lundby, Lilli

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Faecal incontinence (FI) after radiotherapy is a known phenomenon, but has received little attention to date. This article aimed to review current knowledge on faecal incontinence related to radiotherapy for prostate cancer. METHODS: PubMed was searched for English-language articles......-volume parameters and incidence is equivocal, although some studies suggest parameters confined to the lower rectum and/or anal canal may be of value to predict the extent of the injury and could be used as constraints in the dose planning process. CONCLUSIONS: Interpretation of data is limited due to lack of large...

  7. Sigmoid Colonic Perforation with Faecal Peritonitis due to Faecaloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Khalil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Colon perforation is an uncommon event usually caused by malignancy, diverticular disease, amoebic colitis, steroid therapy, trauma and ulcerative colitis, but stercoral perforation is very rare. Severe chronic constipation is considered to be the main causative factor in development of stercoral perforation of colon. Sometimes it can also produce catastrophic complications like colonic obstruction, faecal peritonitis and septicaemia. We report a rare case of sigmoid colonic perforation with faecal peritonitis and pneumoperitonium due to faecaloma which was diagnosed after exploratory laparotomy.

  8. Megarectumsigma underwent surgery for chronic faecal impact action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, C.; Gomez del Valle, M.; Caraballo, M.

    2002-01-01

    Seven patients with megarectumsigma underwent surgery for chronic faecal impaction,reviewing clinical diagnosis, aetiology and medical and surgical management.It is suggested medical management of chronic faecal impaction trying to achieve elective surgery.The curative surgery should include the resection of all pathologic bowel, but in Duhamel procedure and its modifications distal rectal tran section should be at the peritoneal reflection.Habr-Gama modification has shown to be technically easier and it has been communicated good functional results.Local unfavourable conditions may be resolve by staged surgery,which allows outline definitive bowel reconstruction after functional assessment

  9. Effect of fat intake on cholesterol turnover and bile acid formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iritani, Nobuko; Fukuda, Eiko; Ibamoto, Kazuko

    1977-01-01

    Three groups of male rats were maintained on diets containing different amounts of fat. After one week on such regimens, they were injected intraperitoneally with cholesterol- 3 H. During the following 28 days, the radioactivity and quantity of fecal cholesterol and its metabolites were determined. The coprostanol excretion was the about same in all groups and the bile acids excretion increased with increasing fat intake; however, compared to the fat-free group, the excretion of the injected cholesterol- 3 H was greater in the 3% fat group and less in the 10% fat group. Consequently, the specific radioactivity of bile acids was lower in the 10% group than in the others. The half-life of labelled cholesterol was 12.6, 16.0 and 22.2 days for the 3%, 10% fat and fat-free groups, respectively. Rather than a fat-free diet, a low-fat diet of 3% or so, would be of more advantage in eliminating cholesterol by increasing the formation of bile acids to emulsify the fat. In the 10% fat group, however, the enlarged pool size of bile acid probably delayed cholesterol metabolism to bile acids. (auth.)

  10. Biodistribution and excretion of radioactivity after the administration of 166Ho-chitosan complex (DW-166HC) into the prostate of rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Seung Kyoo; Ryu, Jei Man; Bae, Eun Jeong; Shin, Dong Hyuk; Shigematsu, Akiyo; Hatori, Yasuhiko; Nishigaki, Junko; Kwak, Cheol; Lee, Sang Eun; Park, Kyong Bae

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fate of the 166 Ho-chitosan complex (DW-166HC) in rats by examining its absorption, distribution and excretion after administration into the prostate. About 100 μCi of DW-166HC [containing 0.1875 mg of Ho(NO 3 ) 3 .5H 2 O and 0.25 mg of chitosan] was administered intraprostatically. The level of radioactivity in blood, urinary and faecal excretion, and radioactivity distribution were examined. To determine the effect of chitosan in DW-166HC, 166 Ho nitrate alone [0.1875 mg of Ho(NO 3 ) 3 .5H 2 O] was administered into the prostate of male rats, and radioactivity distribution was examined using whole-body autoradiography. After administration of DW-166HC into the prostate, cumulative urinary and faecal excretion over the period 0-72 h was 0.35% and 0.11%, respectively. The radioactivity at the administration site was extremely high at all time points up to 144 h (>98% of injected dose). The small amount of radioactivity which did transfer from the administration site distributed mainly to the liver, spleen, kidney cortex and bone. Compared with the DW-166HC group, the group that received 166 Ho nitrate alone displayed three- to fourfold higher levels of radioactivity in the main tissues, including liver, spleen, kidney cortex and bone, at 24 h after administration (P<0.05). (orig.)

  11. Pyrosequencing the Canine Faecal Microbiota: Breadth and Depth of Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Daniel; Wallis, Corrin; Colyer, Alison; Penn, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian intestinal microbiota remain poorly understood despite decades of interest and investigation by culture-based and other long-established methodologies. Using high-throughput sequencing technology we now report a detailed analysis of canine faecal microbiota. The study group of animals comprised eleven healthy adult miniature Schnauzer dogs of mixed sex and age, some closely related and all housed in kennel and pen accommodation on the same premises with similar feeding and exercise regimes. DNA was extracted from faecal specimens and subjected to PCR amplification of 16S rDNA, followed by sequencing of the 5′ region that included variable regions V1 and V2. Barcoded amplicons were sequenced by Roche-454 FLX high-throughput pyrosequencing. Sequences were assigned to taxa using the Ribosomal Database Project Bayesian classifier and revealed dominance of Fusobacterium and Bacteroidetes phyla. Differences between animals in the proportions of different taxa, among 10,000 reads per animal, were clear and not supportive of the concept of a “core microbiota”. Despite this variability in prominent genera, littermates were shown to have a more similar faecal microbial composition than unrelated dogs. Diversity of the microbiota was also assessed by assignment of sequence reads into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the level of 97% sequence identity. The OTU data were then subjected to rarefaction analysis and determination of Chao1 richness estimates. The data indicated that faecal microbiota comprised possibly as many as 500 to 1500 OTUs. PMID:23382835

  12. Pyrosequencing the canine faecal microbiota: breadth and depth of biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hand

    Full Text Available Mammalian intestinal microbiota remain poorly understood despite decades of interest and investigation by culture-based and other long-established methodologies. Using high-throughput sequencing technology we now report a detailed analysis of canine faecal microbiota. The study group of animals comprised eleven healthy adult miniature Schnauzer dogs of mixed sex and age, some closely related and all housed in kennel and pen accommodation on the same premises with similar feeding and exercise regimes. DNA was extracted from faecal specimens and subjected to PCR amplification of 16S rDNA, followed by sequencing of the 5' region that included variable regions V1 and V2. Barcoded amplicons were sequenced by Roche-454 FLX high-throughput pyrosequencing. Sequences were assigned to taxa using the Ribosomal Database Project Bayesian classifier and revealed dominance of Fusobacterium and Bacteroidetes phyla. Differences between animals in the proportions of different taxa, among 10,000 reads per animal, were clear and not supportive of the concept of a "core microbiota". Despite this variability in prominent genera, littermates were shown to have a more similar faecal microbial composition than unrelated dogs. Diversity of the microbiota was also assessed by assignment of sequence reads into operational taxonomic units (OTUs at the level of 97% sequence identity. The OTU data were then subjected to rarefaction analysis and determination of Chao1 richness estimates. The data indicated that faecal microbiota comprised possibly as many as 500 to 1500 OTUs.

  13. Haematology and faecal parasitic load of West African Dwarf goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematology and faecal parasitic load of West African Dwarf goats fed Panicum maximum supplemented with wheat offal. ... Total White Blood Cell (TWBC), L and N. There was an increased post-trial hematological over pre-trial hematological parameters for PCV, N and M while a decrease was observed for L in animals ...

  14. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human enteric viral infections are considered to be predominantly associated with human wastes, as opposed to animal wastes, and a distinction between these has benefits for water quality control and risk assessment. A variety of techniques have been described to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

  15. Removal of faecal bacteria and nutrients from domestic wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of faecal bacteria and nutrients from domestic wastewater, in surface flow wetlands vegetated with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Horizontal surface flow (HSF) wetlands were fed with primarily treated domestic wastewater at organic loading rates varying from 20.74 to 27.15 g ...

  16. Longitudinal prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia pecorum in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia spp. in sheep in Australia has not been well described. Two species-specific quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) targeting the chlamydial outer membrane protein cell surface antigen gene (ompA) were validated and used to determine the prevalence and faecal shedding of C. abortus and C. pecorum from faecal samples of lambs at three sampling times (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter) from eight farms in South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. A total of 3412 faecal samples were collected and screened from approximately 1189 lambs across the four states. C. abortus was not detected in any of the samples screened. The overall prevalence of C. pecorum was 1027/3412 (30.1%) and median bacterial concentrations at weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter were 1.8 × 10(7), 1.2 × 10(7) and 9.6 × 10(5)/g faeces, respectively. A subset of C. pecorum positive samples from each farm, (n = 48) was sequenced to confirm their identity. The present study demonstrates that C. pecorum is prevalent in Australian sheep, highlighting a need for further research on the impact of this bacterium on production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the application of F-RNA coliphages and faecal sterols to distinction between human and animal excreta has .... in a shaking water bath (LABOTEC) at 100 r·min-1. .... calibration standards that were plotted using Microsoft Excel.

  18. Performance of rats orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and simultaneously infected with Escherichia coli, while the control was challenged with E. coli alone. The treatment was repeated the second day and post ingestion period of 18 days follow. It was observed that rats ...

  19. Escherichia coli. A sanitary methodology for faecal water pollution tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonadonna, L.

    2001-01-01

    Among the traditional indictors of faecal water pollution, Escherichia coli has shown to fit better with the definition of indicator organism. Till now its recovery has been time-consuming and needs confirmation tests. In this report more rapid and direct methods, based on enzymatic reactions, are presented [it

  20. Nutritionally-related blood metabolites and faecal egg counts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritionally-related blood metabolites and faecal egg counts in indigenous Nguni goats of South Africa. ... It, therefore, is imperative to put measures in place to counteract the drop in any of these parameters, with season, if productivity of the indigenous goats is to be maintained. Further studies are required to determine the ...

  1. Ano-rectal tuberculous granulomapresenting with faecal incontinence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... present a case of a 68-year old man with a huge mass in the ano-rectum with faecal incontinence, which was clinically diagnosed as an advanced carcinoma of the ano-rectum for which the biopsy was reported as tuberculosis. He improved with anti-tuberculosis treatment. Keywords: Ano-rectum, tuberculosis, cancer.

  2. Faecal analysis suggests generalist diets in three species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overlap in other arthropod taxa ingested was low across species and seasons, suggesting an opportunistic component to their foraging behaviour. We distinguished plant matter in faecal samples of all species in all seasons, reflecting either voluntary or accidental ingestion. The results of this study suggest that the ...

  3. Performance of rats orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and challenged ... Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of Lactobacillus .... Chang et al. (2001) reported a similar observation in piglets fed probiotic strain, Lactobacillus reuteri BSA 131. Francisco et al. (1995) had earlier reported that selected ...

  4. Genetic parameters and relationships of faecal worm egg count with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The costs of internal parasite control and treatment are potentially very high in grazing sheep. Faecal worm egg count (FEC) has been suggested as a suitable criterion for selection for resistance to nematode infestation in livestock. Genetic parameter estimates for FEC and its relationship with wool traits were assessed in ...

  5. The relationships between faecal worm egg count and subjectively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjectively assessed wool and conformation traits form part of the selection objective in wool sheep enterprises. The present study investigated the genetic, phenotypic and environmental correlations for nematode resistance (using faecal worm egg count (FEC)) with subjectively assessed wool and conformation traits.

  6. [Studies with 15N-labeled lysine in colostomized hens. 2. 15N excretion in feces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, K; Wiefel, P

    1983-05-01

    Over a period of four days colostomised hens were given 15N-lysine, and the development of 15N-excretion both in the TCA-soluble and the TCA-precipitable fraction of the faeces was measured over eight days. In both fractions the total, lysine, histidine and arginine N and 15N-excess (15N') was determined. The average apparent digestibility of 14N was 81.2% +/- 1.1% and of 15N' 93.2% +/- 0.7%. Labelled N is already excreted in faeces 3 hours after its application. The TCA-precipitable N is less strongly labelled than the TCA-soluble N. During the application of 15N' the labelling in faecal lysine is nearly one power of ten higher than in total N. The atom-% 15N' of the lysine could also be distinctly detected in arginine and histidine. The quotas of the total 15N' in faeces were 3.5% for arginine-15N' and 0.8% for histidine 15N'; 15N' can mainly be detected in the soluble fraction.

  7. Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Thompson, Anu

    2004-02-01

    This study describes the distribution of sewage pollution markers (faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterols) in seawater and marine sediments around Rothera Research Station, Antarctic Peninsula. Untreated sewage waste has been released from this site since 1975, creating the potential for long-term contamination of the benthic environment. Faecal coliform concentrations in seawater reached background levels within 300 m of the outfall. In sediment cores, both C. perfringens and faecal coliform concentrations declined with distance from the outfall, though C. perfringens persisted at greater depths in the sediment. High concentrations of 5{beta}(H)-cholestan-3{beta}-ol (coprostanol) relative to the corresponding 5{alpha}-epimer (cholestanol), indicative of sewage pollution, were only found in sediments within 200 m of the sewage outfall. This study has shown that sewage contamination is limited to the immediate vicinity of the sewage outfall. Nevertheless, a sewage treatment plant was installed in February 2003 to reduce this contamination further. - Sewage contamination of seawater and marine sediments near Rothera Research Station (Antarctic Peninsula) was limited to the immediate vicinity of the outfall.

  8. Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Thompson, Anu

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the distribution of sewage pollution markers (faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterols) in seawater and marine sediments around Rothera Research Station, Antarctic Peninsula. Untreated sewage waste has been released from this site since 1975, creating the potential for long-term contamination of the benthic environment. Faecal coliform concentrations in seawater reached background levels within 300 m of the outfall. In sediment cores, both C. perfringens and faecal coliform concentrations declined with distance from the outfall, though C. perfringens persisted at greater depths in the sediment. High concentrations of 5β(H)-cholestan-3β-ol (coprostanol) relative to the corresponding 5α-epimer (cholestanol), indicative of sewage pollution, were only found in sediments within 200 m of the sewage outfall. This study has shown that sewage contamination is limited to the immediate vicinity of the sewage outfall. Nevertheless, a sewage treatment plant was installed in February 2003 to reduce this contamination further. - Sewage contamination of seawater and marine sediments near Rothera Research Station (Antarctic Peninsula) was limited to the immediate vicinity of the outfall

  9. Maggot excretions inhibit biofilm formation on biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; van de Veerdonk, Mariëlle C; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Schreurs, Marco W J; Jukema, Gerrolt N

    2010-10-01

    Biofilm-associated infections in trauma surgery are difficult to treat with conventional therapies. Therefore, it is important to develop new treatment modalities. Maggots in captured bags, which are permeable for larval excretions/secretions, aid in healing severe, infected wounds, suspect for biofilm formation. Therefore we presumed maggot excretions/secretions would reduce biofilm formation. We studied biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterobacter cloacae on polyethylene, titanium, and stainless steel. We compared the quantities of biofilm formation between the bacterial species on the various biomaterials and the quantity of biofilm formation after various incubation times. Maggot excretions/secretions were added to existing biofilms to examine their effect. Comb-like models of the biomaterials, made to fit in a 96-well microtiter plate, were incubated with bacterial suspension. The formed biofilms were stained in crystal violet, which was eluted in ethanol. The optical density (at 595 nm) of the eluate was determined to quantify biofilm formation. Maggot excretions/secretions were pipetted in different concentrations to (nonstained) 7-day-old biofilms, incubated 24 hours, and finally measured. The strongest biofilms were formed by S. aureus and S. epidermidis on polyethylene and the weakest on titanium. The highest quantity of biofilm formation was reached within 7 days for both bacteria. The presence of excretions/secretions reduced biofilm formation on all biomaterials. A maximum of 92% of biofilm reduction was measured. Our observations suggest maggot excretions/secretions decrease biofilm formation and could provide a new treatment for biofilm formation on infected biomaterials.

  10. Intestinal excretion of metals by rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    The excretion of 65 Zn, sup(115m)Cd, 203 Hg, 207 Bi, 210 Pb, 60 Co, 64 Cu, 85 Sr and 86 Rb in the perfused sections of the intestinal tract in vivo was investigated by the pendular perfusion method. After intravenous administration the excretion of metals was investigated in the jejunum, in the colon and in some experiments also in the ileum. The fluid net movement in the jejunum and colon was measured in dependency on the energy spectrum of the applied metal isotope by means of 14 C or 3 H-polyethylene glycol 2000. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...

  12. Survival and transport of faecal bacteria in agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina Bundgaard

    Today, there is yearly applied 34 million tonnes of animal waste to arable land in Denmark. This waste may contain pathogenic zoonotic bacteria and/or antibiotic resistant bacteria, and when applied to arable land there is a risk of contaminating groundwater, surface water, feeding animals or fresh...... produce. Prediction of faecal bacterial survival and transport in the soil environment will help minimize the risk of contamination, as best management practices can be adapted to this knowledge. The aim of this Ph.D. is to study factors influencing faecal bacteria survival and transport in soil...... – it is based on both field scale and lab scale experiments. The influence of application method and slurry properties has been tested on both survival and transport....

  13. Implementation of immunochemical faecal occult blood test in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jakob Søgaard; Bro, Flemming; Hornung, Nete

    2016-01-01

    anvendelsen af immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) i almen praksis. iFOBT detekterer humant globin i fæces og indikerer gastrointestinal blødning. Studiet udgør en del af et ph.d.-studie, der bidrager med ny viden til at optimere udredningen af patienter med tarmkræft. Der er et stort behov...

  14. Intestinal Farnesoid X Receptor Controls Transintestinal Cholesterol Excretion in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J.F. de; Schonewille, M.; Boesjes, M.; Wolters, H.; Bloks, V.W.; Bos, T.; Dijk, T.H. van; Jurdzinski, A.; Boverhof, R.; Wolters, J.C.; Kuivenhoven, J.A.; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Elferink, R.P.; Moschetta, A.; Kremoser, C.; Verkade, H.J.; Kuipers, F.; Groen, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of the intestine in the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis increasingly is recognized. Fecal excretion of cholesterol is the last step in the atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport pathway, to which biliary and transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE)

  15. Method for obtaining more precise measures of excreted organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A new method for concentrating and measuring excreted organic carbon by lyophilization and scintillation counting is efficient, improves measurable radioactivity, and increases precision for estimates of organic carbon excreted by phytoplankton and macrophytes

  16. Dietary fibre, transit-time, faecal bacteria, steroids, and colon cancer in two Scandinavian populations. Report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer Intestinal Microecology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, R; Jensen, O M

    1977-07-30

    A comparison of dietary intake and faecal characteristics in population samples from two areas of Denmark and Finland with 4-fold variation in colon-cancer incidence suggests that the aetiology of colon cancer may be multifactorial and is not associated in a simple manner with dietary fat, neutral steroids, acid steroids, or their bacterial metabolites. However, meat consumption was greater in the high-incidence areas. Higher intakes of dietary fibre and milk in the low-incidence area suggest a possible protective effect, unrelated to mouth-anus transit-time. Further careful dietary and metabolic studies are needed to clarify the relationships between possible carcinogenic and protective effects of diet.

  17. Monitoring ovarian cycle and pregnancy in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) by faecal progestagen and oestrogen analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzl, M; Schwarzenberger, F; Osmann, C; Bamberg, E; Bartmann, W

    1998-10-01

    Oestrogen and progestagen metabolites were measured in the faeces of five female giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), to characterise the oestrous cycle and pregnancy. Faecal samples were collected twice weekly for a minimum of 6 months, and immunoreactive progestagens and oestrogens were analysed using enzyme immunoassays (EIA). For progestagens, two antibodies that cross-reacted with 20alpha-hydroxy- or 20-oxo-progestagens were used. Both assays effectively monitored ovarian cyclicity; however, the concentrations obtained using the antibody for 20alpha-hydroxy-progestagens were higher, and the hormonal changes were more pronounced. Regular ovarian cycles were identified in three of the five females. Average (+/-SEM) length of the oestrous cycle (n=10) was 51.4+/-5.6 days. Peak concentrations of 20alpha-hydroxy-progestagens ranged from 80-660 ng/g of faeces and those of oestrogens from 20-100 ng/g. Hormone concentrations were measured during parts of two pregnancies and during four post-partum periods. The length of one gestation (from oestrous oestrogen peak until parturition) was 184 days. In the second half of gestation, progestagen concentration started to increase above luteal phase values; in the week before parturition it was approximately 20 times higher than those during the luteal phase. Concentrations of excreted oestrogens began to increase after two thirds of gestation and exceeded that of the follicular phase by approximately 2.5-fold in the week before parturition. Onset of ovarian cyclicity after parturition varied from 4-11 weeks. In conclusion, the measurement of faecal immunoreactive progestagens and oestrogens in the giant anteater indicated an ovarian cycle of approximately 7 weeks in length and provided potentially useful data for successful breeding management.

  18. Animal-sediment interactions: the effect of ingestion and excretion by worms on mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Needham

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available By controlled experiments that simulate marine depositional environments, it is shown that accelerated weathering and clay mineral authigenesis occur during the combined process of ingestion, digestion and excretion of fine-grained sediment by two species of annelid worms. Previously characterized synthetic mud was created using finely ground, low-grade metamorphic slate (temperature approximately 300°C containing highly crystalline chlorite and muscovite. This was added to experiment and control tanks along with clean, wind-blown sand. Faecal casts were collected at regular intervals from the experimental tanks and, less frequently, from the control tanks. Over a period of many months the synthetic mud (slate proved to be unchanged in the control tanks, but was significantly different in faecal casts from the experimental tanks that contained the worms Arenicola marina and Lumbricus terrestris. Chlorite was preferentially destroyed during digestion in the gut of A. marina. Both chlorite and muscovite underwent XRD peak broadening with a skew developing towards higher lattice spacing, characteristic of smectite formation. A neoformed Fe-Mg-rich clay mineral (possibly berthierine and as-yet undefined clay minerals with very high d-spacing were detected in both A. marina and L. terrestris cast samples. We postulate that a combination of the low pH and bacteria-rich microenvironment in the guts of annelid worms may radically accelerate mineral dissolution and clay mineral precipitation processes during digestion. These results show that macrobiotic activity significantly accelerates weathering and mineral degradation as well as mineral authigenesis. The combined processes of sediment ingestion and digestion thus lead to early diagenetic growth of clay minerals in clastic sediments.

  19. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624

  20. Urinary porphyrin excretion in hepatitis C infection

    OpenAIRE

    Vogeser, Michael; Jacob, Karl; Zachoval, Reinhart

    1999-01-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in porphyria cutanea tarda in some populations suggests a close link between viral hepatitis and alteration of porphyrin metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence of a role of porphyrinopathies in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to obtain data on the prevalence and patterns of heme metabolism alterations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Urinary porphyrin excretion was prospectively studied in 100 consecutive ou...

  1. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  2. Examination of anonymous canine faecal samples provides data on endoparasite prevalence rates in dogs for comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinney, Barbara; Gottwald, Michaela; Moser, Jasmine; Reicher, Bianca; Schäfer, Bhavapriya Jasmin; Schaper, Roland; Joachim, Anja; Künzel, Frank

    2017-10-15

    Several endoparasites of dogs cannot only be detrimental to their primary host but might also represent a threat to human health because of their zoonotic potential. Due to their high dog population densities, metropolitan areas can be highly endemic for such parasites. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of endoparasites in dogs in the Austrian capital of Vienna by examining a representative number of canine faecal samples and to compare the prevalences with two neighbouring peri-urban and rural regions. In addition we analysed whether the density of dog populations and cleanliness of dog zones correlated with parasite occurrence. We collected 1001 anonymous faecal samples from 55 dog zones from all 23 districts of the federal state of Vienna, as well as 480 faecal samples from the Mödling district and Wolkersdorf with a peri-urban and rural character, respectively. Faeces were examined by flotation and by Baermann technique. Additionally we evaluated 292 Viennese, 102 peri-urban and 50 rural samples for Giardia and Cryptosporidium by GiardiaFASTest ® and CryptoFASTest ® . Samples from "clean" dog zones were compared to samples from "dirty" zones. The infection rate of Toxocara was surprisingly low, ranging from 0.6% to 1.9%. Trichuris was the most frequent helminth (1.8-7.5%) and Giardia the most frequent protozoan (4.0-10.8%). Ancylostomatidae, Crenosoma, Capillaria, Taeniidae, Cystoisospora and Sarcocystis were found in 1.8-2.2%, 0-0.9%, 0-0.9%, 0-0.6%, 0.3-3.1% and 0-0.6% of the samples, respectively. Samples from "dirty" dog zones in Vienna showed a significantly higher rate of parasites overall (p=0.003) and of Trichuris (p=0.048) compared to samples from "clean" dog zones. There were no statistically significant differences in densely vs. less densely populated areas of Vienna. Samples from the rural region of Wolkersdorf had significantly higher overall parasite, Trichuris and Cystoisospora prevalences than the peri-urban Mödling district and Vienna (p

  3. Models to quantify excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in growing pigs fed regional diets

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Henry; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Vu, Van Thi Khanh; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2013-01-01

    Modern pig production contributes to many environmental problems that relate to manure, especially in areas with highly intensive production systems and in regions like Asia where the regulative control is not effective. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use three different pig diets varying in dietary protein, fibre and fat as representative for Danish (DK), Thai (TH) and Vietnamese (VN) pig production to develop and evaluate different approaches to predict/calculate excretion fr...

  4. Faecal loading in the cecum as a new radiological sign of acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroianu, Andy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Although the radiological features of acute appendicitis have been well documented, the value of the plain radiography has not been fully appreciated. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the association of acute appendicitis and images of faecal loading in the cecum. Methods: Plain abdominal radiographs of 100 consecutive adult patients operated on acute appendicitis were assessed. The presence of faecal loading was registered. Results: The presence of faecal loading in the cecum occurred in 97 of the cases of acute appendicitis. Conclusion: This study seems to demonstrate that the presence of radiological images of faecal loading in the cecum may be a useful sign of acute appendicitis

  5. The effect of a fenbendazole treatment on cyst excretion and weight gain in calves experimentally infected with Giardia duodenalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Vandenhoute, Els; Pohle, Herbert; Casaert, Stijn; De Wilde, Nathalie; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2010-04-19

    A total of 28 Holstein-Friesian calves were experimentally infected with 10(5)Giardia duodenalis cysts. Eleven days later, all animals were allocated into two groups of 14 animals each, based on the average pre-treatment cyst counts. Treatment was randomly assigned to one of the two groups, and all animals in the treatment group received a daily oral dosage of 15mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight during 3 consecutive days. The calves in the control group received a placebo (water). From 3 days after treatment onwards, cyst excretion was determined three times a week during 4 consecutive weeks. The faecal consistency and general health were recorded on a daily basis, and all animals were weighed prior to treatment and weekly thereafter. At the end of the experimental period, there was a significant (Pfenbendazole treated and untreated calves experimentally infected with G. duodenalis, although additional data need to confirm the need for treatment in natural conditions.

  6. A simple breath test for fat malabsorption in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.N.; Coutris, G.; Milhaud, G.

    1980-01-01

    The metabolic pathway of 14 C-labeled oleic acid leads to the formation and the breath excretion of 14 CO 2 . This behavior can be used for measuring lipid absorption. The simple, accurate screening test includes the ingestion of 14 C-labeled triolein and the intermittent collection of breath 14 CO 2 in a trapping solution. The results are strongly correlated to the measurement of fecal fat. The use of carbon-14 in man should not be restricted, provided the labeled substrates are converted into rapidly excreted metabolites [fr

  7. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyong Joo; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Park, Hong Jun; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jae Woo; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Sang Ok; Baik, Soon Koo

    2015-01-01

    Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI). BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P sodium values. High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

  8. Facts about trans fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trans fat is a type of dietary fat . Of all the fats, trans fat is the worst for your health. Too much ... from solid margarine to soft margarine. Ask what type of fats foods are cooked in when you eat out ...

  9. Biliary motor function evaluated with MRI after administration of a fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Ryuji; Abe, Kimihiko; Saito, Kazuhiro; Kotake, Fumio

    2006-01-01

    Subjects were given a fat diet and dynamic magnetic resonance cholangiography (dynamic MRC) studies were performed. Gallbladder contractile ratio and bile excretion capacity were evaluated as indices of bile stasis, by correlation with the biochemical examination data. The effectiveness of dynamic MRC examination was discussed. The subjects included 10 healthy volunteers and 40 gallstone patients. Before and after loading with the fat diet, gallbladder volume was measured by US and MRI. Further, the number of bile excretion episodes was measured by dynamic MRC. We evaluated whether a significant difference was seen in gallbladder contraction ratios and change in number of bile excretion episodes between examinations in the presence or absence of gallstones. We also investigated whether there was a correlation among the gallbladder contraction ratios and change in number of bile excretion episodes between examination vs. T-Bil value, γ-GTP value and ALP value respectively. The gallbladder contraction ratios and change in number of bile excretion episodes between examinations were significantly reduced in gallstone patients in comparison to healthy subjects. There was no correlation among the gallbladder contraction ratios and change in number of bile excretion episodes between examinations vs. T-Bil, γ-GTP and ALP. Dynamic MRC enabled noninvasive calculation of the gallbladder contraction ratios under conditions similar to physiological conditions and also evaluation of the bile flow in a dynamic manner. The gallbladder contraction ratios and bile excretion capacity measured by MRI can evaluate biliary motor function which indicated another aspect of the biochemical examination. (author)

  10. Impact of diets with a high content of greaves-meal protein or carbohydrates on faecal characteristics, volatile fatty acids and faecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hang, I.; Heilmann, R.M.; Grützner, N.; Suchodolski, J.S.; Steiner, J.M.; Atroshi, F.; Sankari, S.; Kettunen, A.; Vos, de W.M.; Zentek, J.; Spillmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research suggests that dietary composition influences gastrointestinal function and bacteria-derived metabolic products in the dog colon. We previously reported that dietary composition impacts upon the faecal microbiota of healthy dogs. This study aims at evaluating the dietary

  11. Generic Modelling of Faecal Indicator Organism Concentrations in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl M. Stapleton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To meet European Water Framework Directive requirements, data are needed on faecal indicator organism (FIO concentrations in rivers to enable the more heavily polluted to be targeted for remedial action. Due to the paucity of FIO data for the UK, especially under high-flow hydrograph event conditions, there is an urgent need by the policy community for generic models that can accurately predict FIO concentrations, thus informing integrated catchment management programmes. This paper reports the development of regression models to predict base- and high-flow faecal coliform (FC and enterococci (EN concentrations for 153 monitoring points across 14 UK catchments, using land cover, population (human and livestock density and other variables that may affect FIO source strength, transport and die-off. Statistically significant models were developed for both FC and EN, with greater explained variance achieved in the high-flow models. Both land cover and, in particular, population variables are significant predictors of FIO concentrations, with r2 maxima for EN of 0.571 and 0.624, respectively. It is argued that the resulting models can be applied, with confidence, to other UK catchments, both to predict FIO concentrations in unmonitored watercourses and evaluate the likely impact of different land use/stocking level and human population change scenarios.

  12. Detection of Campylobacter in human faecal samples in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Aruna; Wilkinson, Jenny; Mahony, Timothy; Vanniasinkam, Thiru

    2014-01-01

    Data on campylobacteriosis in developed countries are well documented; in contrast, few studies on campylobacteriosis have been conducted in developing countries. This study was undertaken to test for Campylobacter in human faecal samples sent to the two major pathology laboratories in Fiji. A total of 408 diarrhoeal faecal samples were collected from the two major hospital pathology laboratories in Central Fiji (Suva) and Western Fiji (Lautoka) between December 2012 and February 2013 and from June to July 2013. Samples were analysed for the presence of Campylobacter using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods. Campylobacter was detected in 241/408 (59.1%) of samples tested using PCR. Samples from children aged less than five accounted for 21.6% of positive cases. Campylobacter was detected in 59.1% of diarrhoeal samples collected from the two main laboratories in Fiji. A high proportion of children under five years with Campylobacter has been reported in other countries and could be due to parents being more likely to seek medical attention. Further studies are required to confirm the species of Campylobacter that are predominantly associated with gastroenteritis in Fiji.

  13. Water potential changes in faecal matter and Escherichia coli survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, L M; Walker, M J

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of a range of evaporation rates (2.0, 5.3 and 7.4 mm day(-1)) on degradation of E. coli (ATCC Strain 25922) inoculated in canine faeces. Experiments were carried out in an environmental chamber and a first order exponential decay function (Chick's Law) was used to estimate degradation rates. We estimated die-off coefficients using linear regression. Die-off rates were -0.07, -0.22 and -0.23 h(-1), respectively, for evaporation rates of 2.0, 5.3 and 7.4 mm day(-1) (P = 0.000+, for each model). Nearly complete die-off was found within 15-60 h (7.4-2.0 mm day(-1) evaporation rates), which corresponds with a water potential of approximately -22.4 MPa. This study indicates that canine faeces need not be desiccated to achieve complete loss of indicator organisms. Water potential, which is a combination of osmotic and matric potential, is a key stress that increases as evaporation removes water from the faecal matrix and increases concentration of the remaining faecal solution. Evaporation may remove populations of indicator organisms in faeces relatively quickly, even though faeces are not completely dehydrated. This research may be used as the foundation for studies more closely resembling real-world evaporation conditions including diurnal fluctuations, rewetting and freezing.

  14. The Neanderthal meal: a new perspective using faecal biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainara Sistiaga

    Full Text Available Neanderthal dietary reconstructions have, to date, been based on indirect evidence and may underestimate the significance of plants as a food source. While zooarchaeological and stable isotope data have conveyed an image of Neanderthals as largely carnivorous, studies on dental calculus and scattered palaeobotanical evidence suggest some degree of contribution of plants to their diet. However, both views remain plausible and there is no categorical indication of an omnivorous diet. Here we present direct evidence of Neanderthal diet using faecal biomarkers, a valuable analytical tool for identifying dietary provenance. Our gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results from El Salt (Spain, a Middle Palaeolithic site dating to ca. 50,000 yr. BP, represents the oldest positive identification of human faecal matter. We show that Neanderthals, like anatomically modern humans, have a high rate of conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol related to the presence of required bacteria in their guts. Analysis of five sediment samples from different occupation floors suggests that Neanderthals predominantly consumed meat, as indicated by high coprostanol proportions, but also had significant plant intake, as shown by the presence of 5β-stigmastanol. This study highlights the applicability of the biomarker approach in Pleistocene contexts as a provider of direct palaeodietary information and supports the opportunity for further research into cholesterol metabolism throughout human evolution.

  15. Experimental study of faecal continence and colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bichere, A; Sibbons, P; Doré, C; Green, C; Phillips, R K

    2000-07-01

    Colostomy irrigation is a useful method of achieving faecal continence in selected conditions, but remains largely underutilized because it is time consuming. This study investigated the effect of modifying irrigation technique (route, infusion regimen and pharmacological manipulation) on colonic emptying time in a porcine model. An end-colostomy and caecostomy were fashioned in six pigs. Twenty markers were introduced into the caecum immediately before colonic irrigation. Irrigation route (antegrade or retrograde), infusion regimen (tap water, polyethylene glycol (PEG), 1.5 per cent glycine) and pharmacological agent (glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) 0.25 mg/kg, diltiazem 3.9 mg/kg, bisacodyl 0.25 mg/kg) were assigned to each animal at random. Colonic transit was assessed by quantifying cumulative expelled markers (CEM) and stool every hour for 12 h. Mean CEM at 6 h for bisacodyl, GTN and diltiazem were 18.17, 12.17 and zero respectively; all pairwise differences in means were significant (P irrigation. PEG and glycine enhance emptying similar to bisacodyl and GTN solution. These findings show promise for improved faecal continence by colostomy irrigation and may justify construction of a Malone conduit at the time of colostomy in selected patients who wish to irrigate. Presented in part to the British Society of Gastroenterology in Glasgow, UK, March 1999, and published in abstract form as Gut 1999; 44(Suppl 1): A135

  16. Mediterranean diet and faecal microbiota: a transversal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Díaz, I; Fernández-Navarro, T; Sánchez, B; Margolles, A; González, S

    2016-05-18

    Despite the existing evidence on the impact of olive oil and red wine on the intestinal microbiota, the effect of the global Mediterranean Diet (MD) has not been sufficiently studied. We explored the association between the adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern, and its components, with faecal microbiota in a cohort of adults with non-declared pathology. This transversal study involved 31 adults without a previous diagnosis of cancer, autoimmune or digestive diseases. Based on the data obtained by means of an annual food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and the information existing in the literature, a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was calculated. Dietary fibre was obtained from Marlett et al. tables and Phenol-Explorer Database was used for phenolic compounds intake. Quantification of microbial groups was performed by Ion Torrent 16S rRNA gene-based analysis and quantification of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS). MDS was associated with a higher abundance of Bacteroidetes (p = 0.001), Prevotellacea (p = 0.002) and Prevotella (p = 0.003) and a lower concentration of Firmicutes (p = 0.003) and Lachnospiraceae (p = 0.045). Also, in subjects with MDS ≥ 4, higher concentrations of faecal propionate (p = 0.034) and butyrate (p = 0.018) were detected. These results confirm the complexity of the diet-microbiota interrelationship.

  17. The core faecal bacterial microbiome of Irish Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Donnell, M M; Harris, H M B; Jeffery, I B; Claesson, M J; Younge, B; O' Toole, P W; Ross, R P

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we characterized the gut microbiota in six healthy Irish thoroughbred racehorses and showed it to be dominated by the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Euryarchaeota, Fibrobacteres and Spirochaetes. Moreover, all the horses harboured Clostridium, Fibrobacter, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, Oscillospira, Blautia Anaerotruncus, Coprococcus, Treponema and Lactobacillus spp. Notwithstanding the sample size, it was noteworthy that the core microbiota species assignments identified Fibrobacter succinogenes, Eubacterium coprostanoligenes, Eubacterium hallii, Eubacterium ruminantium, Oscillospira guillermondii, Sporobacter termiditis, Lactobacillus equicursoris, Treponema parvum and Treponema porcinum in all the horses. This is the first study of the faecal microbiota in the Irish thoroughbred racehorse, a significant competitor in the global bloodstock industry. The information gathered in this pilot study provides a foundation for veterinarians and other equine health-associated professionals to begin to analyse the microbiome of performance of racehorses. This study and subsequent work may lead to alternate dietary approaches aimed at minimizing the risk of microbiota-related dysbiosis in these performance animals. Although Irish thoroughbreds are used nationally and internationally as performance animals, very little is known about the core faecal microbiota of these animals. This is the first study to characterize the bacterial microbiota present in the Irish thoroughbred racehorse faeces and elucidate a core microbiome irrespective of diet, animal management and geographical location. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Pattern of faecal 20-oxopregnane and oestrogen concentrations during pregnancy in wild plains zebra mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Hlengisizwe; Duncan, Patrick; Grange, Sophie; Cameron, Elissa Z; Barnier, Florian; Ganswindt, Andre

    2011-07-01

    Regulative endocrine mechanisms influence the reproductive behaviour and success of mammals, but they have been studied predominantly in domestic and captive animals. The study aims at describing the pattern of faecal 20-oxopregnane and oestrogen concentrations during pregnancy in wild plains zebra Equus quagga chapmani. Data were collected during wet and dry seasons 2007-2009. Enzyme Immunoassays were used to determine 20-oxopregnane and oestrogen concentrations in faecal samples (n=74) collected from individual mares (n=32) whose dates of foaling were known through long-term monitoring. Hormonal profiles were described with a General Additive Model (GAM: Hormone ∼ Days to Foaling). Faecal 20-oxopregnanes have a complex cycle during pregnancy (GAM, n=70, R(2)=0.616, p200 ng/g DW) of faecal 20-oxopregnanes associated with high (>160 ng/g DW) faecal oestrogen levels indicate mid-pregnancy in c.90% of cases (16/17). High faecal 20-oxopregnanes (>200 ng/g DW) and low faecal oestrogen levels (<160 ng/g DW) indicate late pregnancy, again in c.90% of cases. Two faecal samples would allow the stage of pregnancy to be determined with confidence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rectal intussusception and unexplained faecal incontinence: findings of a proctographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, R; Cunningham, C; D'Costa, H; Lindsey, I

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of faecal incontinence is multifactorial, yet there remains an approach to assessment and treatment that focusses on the sphincter. Rectal intussusception (RI) is underdiagnosed and manifests primarily as obstructed defecation. Yet greater than 50% of these patients admit to faecal incontinence on closer questioning. We aimed to evaluate the incidence of RI at evacuation proctography selectively undertaken in the evaluation of patients with faecal incontinence. Patients with faecal incontinence seen in a pelvic floor clinic were evaluated with anorectal physiology and ultrasound. Where the faecal incontinence was not fully explained by physiology and ultrasound, evacuation proctography was undertaken. Studies were classified as 'normal', 'low-grade RI' (recto-rectal), 'high-grade RI' (recto-anal) or 'anismus'. Forty patients underwent evacuation proctography (33 women, 83%). Median age was 63 years (range 34-77 years). Seven patients (17%) had a normal proctogram. Three (8%) had recto-rectal RI. Twenty-five (63%) demonstrated recto-anal RI. Five patients (12%) had anismus. Recto-anal intussusception is common in patients undergoing selective evacuation proctography for investigation of faecal incontinence. The role of recto-anal intussusception in the multifactorial aetiology of faecal incontinence has been largely overlooked. Evacuation proctography should be considered as part of routine work-up of patients with faecal incontinence.

  20. Measurement of faecal sludge in-situ shear strength and density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various mechanised technologies have been developed to facilitate pit emptying, which are currently either tested on faecal sludge or an 'ad-hoc' simulant that (in the opinion of the tester) approximately replicates the behaviour of faecal sludge. This ranges from a watery consistency in some pour-flush latrines to the strong ...

  1. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P calves for better performance.

  2. Fluorescence hyper-spectral imaging to detecting faecal contamination on fresh tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Romaniello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faecal contamination of fresh fruits represents a severe danger for human health. Thus some techniques based on microbiological testing were developed to individuate faecal contaminants but those tests do not results efficient because their non-applicability on overall vegetable unity. In this work a methodology based on hyper-spectral fluorescence imaging was developed and tested to detecting faecal contamination on fresh tomatoes. Two image-processing methods were performed to maximise the contrast between the faecal contaminant and tomatoes skin: principal component analysis and band image ratio (BRI. The BRI method allows classifying correctly 70% of contaminated area, with no false-positives in all examined cases. Thus, the developed methodology can be employed for a fast and effective detection of faecal contamination on fresh tomatoes.

  3. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  4. Late excretion of plutonium following acquisition of known amounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.

    1981-01-01

    The urinary and fecal excretion rates of plutonium 10,000 days after intravenous injection of known amounts are compared with the predictions of various models. Both Langham's and Durbin's equations underestimated the urinary excretion by about an order of magnitude; the observed fecal excretion rates were also higher than the predictions. The total excretion rate predicted by the ICRP model was in quite good agreement with the observed rate, but it overestimated it at early times ( 239 Pu of former Manhattan Project plutonium workers, as calculated from the measured urinary excretion an application of Langham's equation. In one of these subjects the urinary excretion rate started to increase at about 6000 days, reached a maximum at about 9500 days, and declined for the next 2700 days

  5. Pharmacokinetics and Biliary Excretion of Fisetin in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Miao-Chan; Hsueh, Thomas Y; Cheng, Yung-Yi; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2018-06-14

    The hypothesis of this study is that fisetin and phase II conjugated forms of fisetin may partly undergo biliary excretion. To investigate this hypothesis, male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the experiment, and their bile ducts were cannulated with polyethylene tubes for bile sampling. The pharmacokinetic results demonstrated that the average area-under-the-curve (AUC) ratios ( k (%) = AUC conjugate /AUC free-form ) of fisetin, its glucuronides, and its sulfates were 1:6:21 in plasma and 1:4:75 in bile, respectively. Particularly, the sulfated metabolites were the main forms that underwent biliary excretion. The biliary excretion rate ( k BE (%) = AUC bile /AUC plasma ) indicates the amount of fisetin eliminated by biliary excretion. The biliary excretion rates of fisetin, its glucuronide conjugates, and its sulfate conjugates were approximately 144, 109, and 823%, respectively, after fisetin administration (30 mg/kg, iv). Furthermore, biliary excretion of fisetin is mediated by P-glycoprotein.

  6. Fat absorption in germ-free and conventional rats artificially deprived of bile secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Demarne, Y.; Corring, T.; Pihet, A.; Sacquet, E.

    1982-01-01

    Bile duct ligation was performed in germ-free and conventional rats in order to study the effects of bile deprivation on the absorption of dietary lipids and the excretion of faecal lipids in the presence or the absence of gastrointestinal flora. The main consequence of bile duct ligation in conventional rats was decrease of about 50% in the apparent absorption of dietary lipids (peanut oil). In germ-free rats, absorption decreased by only about 25%.In conventional as well as in germ-free con...

  7. Excretion of biotrace elements using the multitracer technique in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Wu, M.; Yin, X.M.; Zhang, X.; Li, Z.W.; Tian, J.; Sheng, X.L.

    1999-01-01

    A radioactive multitracer solution obtained from the nuclear reaction of selenium with 25 MeV/nucleon 40 Ar ions was applied to the investigation of the trace elements behavior in feces and urine of mouse. The excretion rates of 23 elements, Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Nb, Tc, Ru, Ag and In were simultaneously detected under strictly identical experimental conditions, in order to clarify the excretion behavior of the elements in Mice. Fecal and urinary excretion rates of the elements in mice reached the highest value separately at 48 and 24 hours. The total excretion of Mo, Tc and Co within 96 hours were all larger, more than 60%. Accumulative excretion rates of Ca, Nb, Mg, Sr, V, Sc, Na, Cr, Fe, Ag, Mn and Zr were 60-30%. The total rates of Ru, K, As, Zn, Rb, Y, Ga and In were less than 30%, and low excretion. The main excretion pathway of Mo, Co, Mg, Fe and Ag was through urine, and Na, K, As and Rb were eliminated from the body also in urine. But fecal excretion of Tc, Nb, Sr, Y, Ru, and In were larger than urinary excretion, and Ca, Sc, Mn, Zr, Zn were eliminated from the body in feces. (author)

  8. Estimation of Body Composition from Urinay Creatinine Excretion

    OpenAIRE

    小室, 史恵; 小宮, 秀一

    1982-01-01

    Simultaneous determinations of total body water, using the deuterium oxide dilution method, and urinary creatinine excretion have been carried out in 26 males and females. Total body water and FFM may be predicted from urinary creatinine excretion by T.B.W.=0.0165 Cr. +17.773. FFM=0.0225 Cr. +17.446. In this subjects a high correlation (r=0.874) was found between T.B.W, FFM and urinary creatinine excretion. It appears that FFM can be predicted from urinary creatinine excretion.

  9. Dietary structured lipids for post-weaning piglets: fat digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Danielsen, V.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    In four groups of post-weaning piglets the effects of triacylglycerol structure and fatty acid profiles of four dietary fats on apparent faecal nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of platelet and erythrocyte membranes, liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were...... examined. Dietary fats included as 10% (w/w) of the diets were two structured fats of rapeseed oil interesterified with tridecanoin (R1) or coconut oil (R2), respectively, one mixture of rapeseed oil and coconut oil (R3) and rapeseed oil as control (R4). Faeces and urine from piglets weaned at 28 days...

  10. Comparative effectiveness of faecal microbiota transplant by route of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundacker, N D; Tamhane, A; Walker, J B; Morrow, C D; Rodriguez, J M

    2017-08-01

    The optimal route of delivery for faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is unknown. This observational single-centre study analysed the two-week cure rates for all patients who received FMT from 2013 to 2016 according to route of delivery. Overall, nasogastric delivery of FMT was less effective than lower endoscopic delivery. When patients were stratified by illness severity, nasogastric delivery achieved similar cure rates in healthier individuals, whereas lower endoscopic delivery was preferred for relatively ill individuals. Nasogastric delivery may be less effective than lower endoscopic delivery; however, when taking the cost, preparation and potential risk into account, this difference may not be clinically significant for patients with mild disease. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of clinical and laboratory variables on faecal antigen ELISA results in dogs with canine parvovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Unterer, S; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Hartmann, K

    2015-06-01

    False negative faecal canine parvovirus (CPV) antigen ELISA results in dogs with CPV infection are common, but the factors that lead to these false negative results are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dogs with a false negative faecal CPV antigen ELISA result have milder clinical signs and laboratory changes, a lower faecal virus load, higher faecal and serum CPV antibody titres and a faster recovery than dogs with a positive result. Eighty dogs with CPV infection, confirmed by the presence of clinical signs and a positive faecal CPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were assigned to two groups according to their faecal antigen ELISA result. Time until presentation, severity of symptoms, laboratory parameters, faecal virus load, faecal and serum antibody titres, and CPV sequencing data were compared between both groups. In 38/80 dogs that were hospitalised until recovery, the time to recovery, mortality, and the course of the disease were compared between dogs with positive and negative faecal antigen ELISA results. Of the 80 dogs included, 41 (51.3%) had a false negative faecal antigen ELISA result. ELISA-negative dogs had a significantly shorter time until presentation, lower frequency of defaecation, lower faecal virus load, and higher serum antibody concentrations than ELISA-positive dogs. Laboratory changes, CPV shedding, and outcomes were not associated with faecal antigen ELISA results. In conclusion, low faecal CPV load and antibodies binding to CPV antigen in faeces are likely to be important reasons for false negative faecal antigen ELISA results. Dogs with clinical signs of CPV infection should be retested by faecal PCR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raziani, Farinaz; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart associations recommend limited intake of saturated fat. However, effects of saturated fat on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk might depend on nutrients and specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in food. OBJECTIVE: We explored...... the effects of cheese and meat as sources of SFAs or isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of fat and bile acids. DESIGN: The study was a randomized, crossover, open-label intervention in 14 overweight postmenopausal women. Three full-diet periods of 2-wk...... duration were provided separated by 2-wk washout periods. The isocaloric diets were as follows: 1) a high-cheese (96-120-g) intervention [i.e., intervention containing cheese (CHEESE)], 2) a macronutrient-matched nondairy, high-meat control [i.e., nondairy control with a high content of high-fat processed...

  13. Significance of stepwise excretion pattern in renogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Nagara; Ishihara, Takashi; Mori, Toru; Bito, Sanae; Ito, Hidetomi

    1981-01-01

    In 204 routine renogram examinations using 131 I-iodohippurate, stepwise excretion curves were observed in 22 cases (14 with chronic thyroiditis, 4 with idiopathic edema, 3 with lower urinary tract disorders, and 1 with Bartter's syndrome). Such a phenomenon was observed in 74% of euthyroid edematous patients with chronic thyroiditis and 57% of patients with idiopathic edema. The stepwise pattern was considered to have certain correlations with spasm or increased peristalsis of the urinary tract through the studies of excretory urogram, butylscopolamine treated renogram, and regional renogram. In one of these edematous patients with chronic thyroiditis, this renogram pattern could not be reproduced after bed rest corresponding with the clinical evidence that physical rest reduce the edema. Thus, the stepwise excretory pattern in renogram seemed to be a useful indicator of the fluctuating edema in patients with chronic thyroiditis and idiopathic edema. (author)

  14. Kidney Modelling for FDG Excretion with PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiting Qiao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to detect the physiological process of FDG's filtration from blood to urine and to establish a mathematical model to describe the process. Dynamic positron emission tomography scan for FDG was performed on seven normal volunteers. The filtration process in kidney can be seen in the sequential images of each study. Variational distribution of FDG in kidney can be detected in dynamic data. According to the structure and function, kidney is divided into parenchyma and pelvis. A unidirectional three-compartment model is proposed to describe the renal function in FDG excretion. The time-activity curves that were picked up from the parenchyma, pelvis, and abdominal aorta were used to estimate the parameter of the model. The output of the model has fitted well with the original curve from dynamic data.

  15. Ezetimibe Increases Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-05-01

    Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular outcomes when added to optimum statin treatment. It lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and percent intestinal cholesterol absorption, but the exact cardioprotective mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the dominant effect of ezetimibe is to increase the reverse transport of cholesterol from rapidly mixing endogenous cholesterol pool into the stool. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial in 24 healthy subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 200 mg/dL, we measured cholesterol metabolism before and after a 6-week treatment period with ezetimibe 10 mg/d or placebo. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol with cholesterol-d 5 and sitostanol-d 4 solubilized in oil. Plasma and stool samples collected during a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Ezetimibe reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption efficiency 30±4.3% (SE, P <0.0001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 19.8±1.9% ( P =0.0001). Body cholesterol pool size was unchanged, but fecal endogenous cholesterol excretion increased 66.6±12.2% ( P <0.0001) and percent cholesterol excretion from body pools into the stool increased 74.7±14.3% ( P <0.0001), whereas plasma cholesterol turnover rose 26.2±3.6% ( P =0.0096). Fecal bile acids were unchanged. Ezetimibe increased the efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport from rapidly mixing plasma and tissue pools into the stool. Further work is needed to examine the potential relation of reverse cholesterol transport and whole body cholesterol metabolism to coronary events and the treatment of atherosclerosis. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01603758. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Effect of sardine proteins on hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity, in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaicheta, Nora; Labbaci, Fatima Z; Bouchenak, Malika; Boukortt, Farida O

    2016-01-14

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major risk factor of CVD. The effects of purified sardine proteins (SP) were examined on glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport in T2D rats. Rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks, and injected with a low dose of streptozotocin, were used. The diabetic rats were divided into four groups, and they were fed casein (CAS) or SP combined with 30 or 5% lipids, for 4 weeks. HFD-induced hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia in rats fed HFD, regardless of the consumed protein. In contrast, these parameters lowered in rats fed SP combined with 5 or 30% lipids, and serum insulin values reduced in SP v. CAS. HFD significantly increased total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in the liver and serum, whereas these parameters decreased with SP, regardless of lipid intake. Faecal cholesterol excretion was higher with SP v. CAS, combined with 30 or 5% lipids. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and HDL3-phospholipids (PL) were higher in CAS-HF than in CAS, whereas HDL2-cholesteryl esters (CE) were lower. Otherwise, LCAT activity and HDL2-CE were higher in the SP group than in the CAS group, whereas HDL3-PL and HDL3-unesterified cholesterol were lower. Moreover, LCAT activity lowered in the SP-HF group than in the CAS-HF group, when HDL2-CE was higher. In conclusion, these results indicate the potential effects of SP to improve glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport, in T2D rats.

  17. Modeling single cell antibody excretion on a biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanovic, Ivan; Baumgartner, W.; van der Velden, T.J.G.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.

    2016-01-01

    We simulated, using Comsol Multiphysics, the excretion of antibodies by single hybridoma cells and their subsequent binding on a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) sensor. The purpose was to confirm that SPRi is suitable to accurately quantify antibody (anti-EpCAM) excretion. The model showed

  18. Catecholamine, Corticosteroid and Ketone Excretion in Exercise and Hypoxia,

    Science.gov (United States)

    OHCS excretion tended to be higher during the experimental period and subsequently lower overnight during the hypoxia week. Ketosis occurred in two...subjects. In one of these it could be readily related to previous extraneous stress. Excretion of unidentified ketones in overnight urines was sometimes suspected and occurred beyond doubt following gross ketosis . (Author)

  19. Purine derivative excretion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a 3 x 3 Latin square design experiment, urinary excretions of purine derivatives (allantoin N, Uric acid N, Xanthine + Hypoxanthine N) were measured and used to estimate microbial N yield in 9 sheep fed roughage- based diet supplemented with 0, 150 and 300g DM grass silage respectively. Daily urinary excretions of ...

  20. Urinary excretion of unconjugated and conjugated 3,5-diiodothyronine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommel, E; Faber, J; Kirkegaard, C

    1985-01-01

    was 276 pmol/d, whereas the median excretion of glucuronidated and sulfated 3,5-T2 in 7 healthy subjects was 448 and 451 pmol/d, respectively. The median excretion of 154 pmol/d in 9 hypothyroid patients did not differ from that found in controls. In contrast 12 patients with hyperthyroidism had...

  1. Circadian variation of urinary albumin excretion in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, C. E.; van der Post, J. A.; van Acker, B. A.; Boer, K.; Koopman, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The hypothesis was tested that circadian variations in urinary albumin excretion of pregnant women in the third trimester of normal pregnancy are different from nonpregnant individuals. DESIGN: Circadian variability in urinary albumin excretion was studied both in pregnant women and in

  2. Whole-genome comparison of urinary pathogenic Escherichia coli and faecal isolates of UTI patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen Leth; Stegger, Marc; Kiil, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    The faecal flora is a common reservoir for urinary tract infection (UTI), and Escherichia coli (E. coli) is frequently found in this reservoir without causing extraintestinal infection. We investigated these E. coli reservoirs by whole-genome sequencing a large collection of E. coli from healthy...... controls (faecal), who had never previously had UTI, and from UTI patients (faecal and urinary) sampled from the same geographical area. We compared MLST types, phylogenetic relationship, accessory genome content and FimH type between patient and control faecal isolates as well as between UTI and faecal......-only isolates, respectively. Comparison of the accessory genome of UTI isolates to faecal isolates revealed 35 gene families which were significantly more prevalent in the UTI isolates compared to the faecal isolates, although none of these were unique to one of the two groups. Of these 35, 22 belonged...

  3. Integrated site-specific quantification of faecal bacteria and detection of DNA markers in faecal contamination source tracking as a microbial risk tracking tool in urban Lake ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donde, Oscar Omondi; Tian, Cuicui; Xiao, Bangding

    2017-11-01

    The presence of feacal-derived pathogens in water is responsible for several infectious diseases and deaths worldwide. As a solution, sources of fecal pollution in waters must be accurately assessed, properly determined and strictly controlled. However, the exercise has remained challenging due to the existing overlapping characteristics by different members of faecal coliform bacteria and the inadequacy of information pertaining to the contribution of seasonality and weather condition on tracking the possible sources of pollution. There are continued efforts to improve the Faecal Contamination Source Tracking (FCST) techniques such as Microbial Source Tracking (MST). This study aimed to make contribution to MST by evaluating the efficacy of combining site specific quantification of faecal contamination indicator bacteria and detection of DNA markers while accounting for seasonality and weather conditions' effects in tracking the major sources of faecal contamination in a freshwater system (Donghu Lake, China). The results showed that the use of cyd gene in addition to lacZ and uidA genes differentiates E. coli from other closely related faecal bacteria. The use of selective media increases the pollution source tracking accuracy. BSA addition boosts PCR detection and increases FCST efficiency. Seasonality and weather variability also influence the detection limit for DNA markers.

  4. Ethosuximide: liver enzyme induction and D-glucaric acid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, J C; Scott, A K; Galloway, D B; Petrie, J C

    1974-06-01

    1 A study has been carried out to determine if ethosuximide induces liver enzymes. 2 Ethosuximide did not affect the urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid by healthy adult subjects nor was the mean daily D-glucaric acid excretion of three epileptic children on long term ethosuximide therapy different from that of three matched controls. 3 Ethosuximide (10 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg daily) did not influence D-glucaric acid excretion or liver microsomal protein and cytochrome P450 contents of guinea pigs but at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily in rats it increased liver microsomal protein and cytochrome P450 without altering D-glucaric acid excretion. 4 These results suggest that at anticonvulsant doses ethosuximide is unlikely to induce liver enzymes. The precise relationship between D-glucaric acid excretion and liver enzyme induction remains in doubt.

  5. Effect of dietary addition of nitrate on growth, salivary and gastric function, immune response, and excretion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, in weaning pigs challenged with this microbe strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazzoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two dietary additions of nitrate (15 mg/kg or 150 mg/kg, supplied by potassium salt were tested in a total 96 weaning pigs challenged or not with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (ST. The oral challenge was done on d 5 and pigs were sacrificed on d 7 or d 25. The effect of challenge never interacted significantly with the dietary treatment. Feed intake, growth, body temperature, salivary excretion, and faecal excretion of ST and gastric function were not affected by the nitrate supplementation. With nitrate additions, total IgA in blood serum tended to be higher before and after the challenge (P<0.10. Nitrite in saliva – but not nitrate – increased with the increasing supplementation at d 5, but not at d 19. The nitrate additions did not negatively affect the weaning performance, but also did not contrast the effect of ST infection.

  6. Models to quantify excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in growing pigs fed regional diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn

    2013-01-01

    used in a digestibility and balance experiment. Excretion of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) of the experimental diets were determined. Due to the highest dietary fibre content, VN had the lowest digestibility of N, P and C (73, 49, and 73%, respectively) compared......Modern pig production contributes to many environmental problems that relate to manure, especially in areas with highly intensive production systems and in regions like Asia where the regulative control is not effective. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use three different pig diets...... varying in dietary protein, fibre and fat as representative for Danish (DK), Thai (TH) and Vietnamese (VN) pig production to develop and evaluate different approaches to predict/calculate excretion from growing pigs in comparison with the experimentally determined values. Nine female growing pigs were...

  7. Increased physical activity ameliorates high fat diet-induced bone resorption in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been recognized that mechanical stresses associated with physical activity (PA) have beneficial effects on increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and improving bone quality. On the other hand, high fat diet (HFD) and obesity increase bone marrow adiposity leading to increased excretion of pro-...

  8. Evaluation of the Efficacy of the Mini Parasep SF Faecal Parasite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the Efficacy of the Mini Parasep SF Faecal Parasite Concentrator; A New Technique against the Direct Smear and Formol Ether Concentration Technique for the Detection of Intestinal Parasites in Stool.

  9. Estimation of endogenous faecal calcium in buffalo (BOS bubalis) by isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Sareen, V.K.; Marwaha, S.R.; Sekhon, B.; Bhatia, I.S.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed investigations on the isotope-dilution technique for the estimation of endogenous faecal calcium were conducted with buffalo calves fed on growing ration. The ration consisted of wheat straw, green lucerne and concentrate mix. The endogenous faecal calcium was 3.71 g/day, which is 17.8 percent of the total faecal calcium. The apparent and true digestibilities of Ca were calculated as 51 and 60 percent respectively. The endogenous faecal calcium can be estimated in buffalo calves by giving single subcutaneous injection of Ca 45 and collecting blood samples on 12th and 21st days only, and representative sample from the faeces collected from 13th through 22nd day after the injection. (author)

  10. Faecal microbiota of healthy adults in south India: Comparison of a tribal & a rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan Ramadass

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Phylum Firmicutes and genus Clostridium constituted the bulk of the faecal microbiota, while significant differences in composition between the groups were probably due to differences in diet and lifestyle.

  11. Prevalence of faecal incontinence in community-dwelling older people in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyasa, I Gede Putu Darma; Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Lynn, Penelope Ann; Skuza, Pawel Piotr; Paterson, Jan

    2015-06-01

    To explore the prevalence rate of faecal incontinence in community-dwelling older people, associated factors, impact on quality of life and practices in managing faecal incontinence. Using a cross-sectional design, 600 older people aged 60+ were randomly selected from a population of 2916 in Bali, Indonesia using a simple random sampling technique. Three hundred and three participants were interviewed (response rate 51%). The prevalence of faecal incontinence was 22.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 18.0-26.8). Self-reported constipation (odds ratio (OR) 3.68, 95% CI 1.87-7.24) and loose stools (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.47-4.78) were significantly associated with faecal incontinence. There was a strong positive correlation between total bowel control score and total quality-of-life score (P Bali. © 2014 ACOTA.

  12. Reset of a critically disturbed microbial ecosystem: faecal transplant in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuentes, Susana; van Nood, Els; Tims, Sebastian; Heikamp-de Jong, Ineke; ter Braak, Cajo J. F.; Keller, Josbert J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; de Vos, Willem M.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can be effectively treated by infusion of a healthy donor faeces suspension. However, it is unclear what factors determine treatment efficacy. By using a phylogenetic microarray platform, we assessed composition, diversity and dynamics of faecal

  13. Process energetics for the hydrothermal carbonisation of human faecal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danso-Boateng, E.; Holdich, R.G.; Martin, S.J.; Shama, G.; Wheatley, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact of variations to scale of operation and feedstock solids content considered. • A framework for estimating energy budget of a waste treatment system is presented. • Combustion of by-product CH_4 renders the process self-sustaining in energy terms. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) has the capability to convert wet biomass such as sewage sludge to a lignite-like renewable solid fuel of high calorific value. However, to date assessment of the energy efficiency of the HTC process has not been fully investigated. In this work, mass and energy balances of semi-continuous HTC of faecal waste conducted at 200 °C and at a reaction time of 30 min are presented. This analysis is based on recovering steam from the process as well as energy from the solid fuel (hydrochar) and methane from digestion of the liquid product. The effect of the feedstock solids content and the quantity of feed on the mass and energy balance were investigated. The heat of reaction was measured at 200 °C for 4 h using wet faecal sludge, and the higher heating value was determined for the hydrochar. The results indicated that preheating the feed to 100 °C using heat recovered from the process would significantly reduce the energy input to the reactor by about 59%, and decreased the heat loss from the reactor by between 50% and 60%. For feedstocks containing 15–25% solids (for all feed rates), after the process is in operation, energy recycled from the flashing off of steam and combustion of the hydrochar and would be sufficient for preheating the feed, operating the reactor and drying the wet hydrochar without the need for any external sources of energy. Alternatively, for a feedstock containing 25% solids for all feed rates, energy recycled from the flashing off of steam and combustion of the methane provides sufficient energy to operate the entire process with an excess energy of about 19–21% which could be used for other purposes.

  14. Fecal Fat: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and, in severe cases, symptoms of malnutrition and vitamin deficiency. If the condition prevents the digestion and/or absorption of fats from the diet, then excess fat is present in the stool and the ...

  15. Quantum behaviors on an excreting black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindesay, James

    2009-01-01

    Often, geometries with horizons offer insights into the intricate relationships between general relativity and quantum physics. However, some subtle aspects of gravitating quantum systems might be difficult to ascertain using static backgrounds, since quantum mechanics incorporates dynamic measurability constraints (such as the uncertainty principle, etc). For this reason, the behaviors of quantum systems on a dynamic black hole background are explored in this paper. The velocities and trajectories of representative outgoing, ingoing and stationary classical particles are calculated and contrasted, and the dynamics of simple quantum fields (both massless and massive) on the spacetime are examined. Invariant densities associated with the quantum fields are exhibited on the Penrose diagram that represents the excreting black hole. Furthermore, a generic approach for the consistent mutual gravitation of quanta in a manner that reproduces the given geometry is developed. The dynamics of the mutually gravitating quantum fields are expressed in terms of the affine parameter that describes local motions of a given quantum type on the spacetime. Algebraic equations that relate the energy-momentum densities of the quantum fields to Einstein's tensor can then be developed. An example mutually gravitating system of macroscopically coherent quanta along with a core gravitating field is demonstrated. Since the approach is generic and algebraic, it can be used to represent a variety of systems with specified boundary conditions.

  16. Contamination of faecal coliforms in ice cubes sampled from food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Izani, N J; Zulaikha, A R; Mohamad Noor, M R; Amri, M A; Mahat, N A

    2012-03-01

    The use of ice cubes in beverages is common among patrons of food outlets in Malaysia although its safety for human consumption remains unclear. Hence, this study was designed to determine the presence of faecal coliforms and several useful water physicochemical parameters viz. free residual chlorine concentration, turbidity and pH in ice cubes from 30 randomly selected food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. Faecal coliforms were found in ice cubes in 16 (53%) food outlets ranging between 1 CFU/100mL to >50 CFU/ 100mL, while in the remaining 14 (47%) food outlets, in samples of tap water as well as in commercially bottled drinking water, faecal coliforms were not detected. The highest faecal coliform counts of >50 CFU/100mL were observed in 3 (10%) food outlets followed by 11-50 CFU/100mL and 1-10 CFU/100mL in 7 (23%) and 6 (20%) food outlets, respectively. All samples recorded low free residual chlorine concentration (contamination by faecal coliforms was not detected in 47% of the samples, tap water and commercially bottled drinking water, it was concluded that (1) contamination by faecal coliforms may occur due to improper handling of ice cubes at the food outlets or (2) they may not be the water sources used for making ice cubes. Since low free residual chlorine concentrations were observed (food outlets, including that of ice cube is crucial in ensuring better food and water for human consumption.

  17. Microbial population analysis improves the evidential value of faecal traces in forensic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaak, Frederike C A; de Graaf, Mei-Lan M; Weterings, Rob; Kuiper, Irene

    2017-01-01

    The forensic science community has a growing interest in microbial population analysis, especially the microbial populations found inside and on the human body. Both their high abundance, microbes outnumber human cells by a factor 10, and their diversity, different sites of the human body harbour different microbial communities, make them an interesting tool for forensics. Faecal material is a type of trace evidence which can be found in a variety of criminal cases, but is often being ignored in forensic investigations. Deriving a human short tandem repeat (STR) profile from a faecal sample can be challenging. However, the microbial communities within faecal material can be of additional criminalistic value in linking a faecal trace to the possible donor. We present a microarray technique in which the faecal microbial community is used to differentiate between faecal samples and developed a decision model to predict the possible common origin of questioned samples. The results show that this technique may be a useful additional tool when no or only partial human STR profiles can be generated.

  18. Dietary hydroxypropyl methylcellulose increases excretion of saturated and trans fats by hamsters fed fast food diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic nonfermentable soluble dietary fiber, are well established. However, effects of HPMC on dietary saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids are largely unknown. This study investigated the eff...

  19. Evaluation of a microwave method for dry matter determination in faecal samples from weaned pigs with or without clinical diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ken Steen; Stege, Helle; Nielsen, Jens Peter

    2011-07-01

    Microwave drying as a procedure for determination of faecal dry matter in weaned pigs was evaluated and clinical relevant cut-off values between faecal consistency scores were determined. Repeatability and reproducibility were evaluated. Overall coefficient of variation was 0.03. The 95% confidence limits for any future faecal subsample examined by any operator in any replica were ± 0.85% faecal dry matter. Robustness in relation to weight of wet faeces was evaluated. The weight categories were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 g. Samples of 0.5 g gave significantly different mean faecal dry matter content compared to weighing of 1.0-3.0 g. Agreement with freeze-drying was evaluated. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.94. On average the faecal dry matter values was 1.7% (SD=1.99%) higher in freeze dried compared to micro waved samples. Non-parametric ROC analyses were used to determine optimal faecal dry matter cut-off values for clinical faecal consistency scores. The 4 consistency scores were score 1=firm and shaped, score 2=soft and shaped, score 3=loose and score 4=watery. The cut-off values were score 1: faecal dry matter content >19.5%, score 2: faecal dry matter content ≤ 19.5% and >18.0%, score 3: faecal dry matter content ≤ 18.0% and >11.3%, score 4: faecal dry matter content ≤ 11.3%. In conclusion, the microwave procedure has an acceptable repeatability/reproducibility and good agreement with freeze drying can be expected. A minimum of 1.0 g of wet faeces must be used for analyses. Faecal dry matter cut-off values between 4 different clinical consistency scores were determined. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ALTERNATIVE MICROBIAL INDICATORS OF FAECAL POLLUTION: CURRENT PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Tyagi, A. K. Chopra, A. A. Kazmi, Arvind Kumar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide coliform bacteria are used as indicators of fecal contamination and hence, the possible presence of disease causing organisms. Therefore, it is important to understand the potential and limitations of these indicator organisms before realistically implementing guidelines and regulations to safeguard our water resources and public health. This review addresses the limitations of current faecal indicator microorganisms and proposed significant alternative microbial indicators of water and wastewater quality. The relevant literature brings out four such significant microbial water pollution indicators and the study of these indicators will reveal the total spectrum of water borne pathogens. As E.coli and enterococci indicates the presence of bacterial pathogens, Coliphages indicate the presence of enteric viruses, and Clostridium perfringens, an obligate anaerobe, indicates presence of parasitic protozoan and enteric viruses. Therefore, monitoring a suite of indicator organisms in reclaimed effluent is more likely to be predictive of the presence of certain pathogens in order to protect public health, as no single indicator is most highly predictive of membership in the presence or absence category for pathogens.

  1. Bacteriophages as indicators of faecal pollution and enteric virus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, B R; Ashbolt, N J; Korajkic, A

    2017-07-01

    Bacteriophages are an attractive alternative to faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), particularly as surrogates of enteric virus fate and transport, due to their closer morphological and biological properties. Based on a review of published data, we summarize densities of coliphages (F+ and somatic), Bacteroides spp. and enterococci bacteriophages (phages) in individual human waste, raw wastewater, ambient fresh and marine waters and removal through wastewater treatment processes utilizing traditional treatments. We also provide comparisons with FIB and enteric viruses whenever possible. Lastly, we examine fate and transport characteristics in the aquatic environment and provide an overview of the environmental factors affecting their survival. In summary, concentrations of bacteriophages in various sources were consistently lower than FIB, but more reflective of infectious enteric virus levels. Overall, our investigation indicates that bacteriophages may be adequate viral surrogates, especially in built systems, such as wastewater treatment plants. Bacteriophage are alternative fecal indicators that may be better surrogates for viral pathogens than fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). This report offers a summary of the existing literature concerning the utility of bacteriophage as indicators of viral presence (fecal sources and surface waters) and persistence (in built infrastructure and aquatic environments). Our findings indicate that bacteriophage levels in all matrices examined are consistently lower than FIB, but similar to viral pathogens. Furthermore, in built infrastructure (e.g. wastewater treatment systems) bacteriophage closely mimic viral pathogen persistence suggesting they may be adequate sentinels of enteric virus removal. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Excretion of metrizamide (Amipaque) in humans following lumbar subarachnoid injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, P.; Weber, H.; Hoel, L.; Golman, K.

    1979-01-01

    The excretion of metrizamide through the kidneys and intestinal tract was determined in 10 patients submitted to myelography because of sciatica, for a period of 7 days following the examination. In the faeces, less than 5 per cent of the injected contrast medium was recovered during this period. Total recovery in the urine varied considerably from patient to patient, but most of the contrast medium was excreted during the first 48 hours. From the fourth day on, only small amounts were excreted, but even on the 7th day 3 to 11 mg iodine remained, which corresponds to 6 to 22 mg of metrizamide. (Auth.)

  3. Absorption, Distribution, and Excretion of 14C-APX001 after Single-Dose Administration to Rats and Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbach, Robert; Shaw, Karen J; Hodges, Michael R; Coleman, Samantha; Fitzsimmons, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background APX001 is a small-molecule therapeutic agent in clinical development for the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFI). Methods The absorption, distribution and excretion profiles of [14C]APX001-derived radioactivity were determined in rats (albino and pigmented) and monkeys. Rats (some implanted with bile duct cannulae) were administered a single 100 mg/kg oral dose or a 30 mg/kg intravenous (IV) dose. Monkeys were administered a single 6 mg/kg IV dose. Samples of blood, urine, feces and bile, as well as carcasses, were collected through 168 hours after dosing. Samples were analyzed for total radioactivity content by liquid scintillation counting, and carcasses were analyzed by quantitative whole-body autoradiography. Results [14C]APX001-derived radioactivity was rapidly and extensively absorbed and extensively distributed to most tissues for both routes of administration in both species. In rats, tissues with the highest radioactivity Cmax values included bile, abdominal fat, reproductive fat, subcutaneous fat, and liver, but radioactivity was also detected in tissues associated with IFI, including lung, brain and eye. In monkeys, the highest Cmax values were in bile, urine, uveal tract, bone marrow, abdominal fat, liver, and kidney cortex. Liver and kidney were the tissues with highest radioactivity, but as in the rat, radioactivity was also detected in lung, brain and eye tissues. In pigmented rats, radiocarbon was densely distributed into pigmented tissue and more slowly cleared than from other tissues. Mean recovery of radioactivity in rats was approximately 95–100%. In bile duct-intact rats, >90% of radioactivity was recovered in feces. In cannulated rats, biliary excretion of radioactivity was the major route of elimination and accounted for 88.8% of the dose, whereas urinary and fecal excretion of radioactivity was minor and accounted for 2.56% and 5.42% of the dose, respectively. In monkeys, the overall recovery of radioactivity

  4. Whole-genome comparison of urinary pathogenic Escherichia coli and faecal isolates of UTI patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karen Leth; Stegger, Marc; Kiil, Kristoffer; Godfrey, Paul A; Feldgarden, Michael; Lilje, Berit; Andersen, Paal S; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2017-12-01

    The faecal flora is a common reservoir for urinary tract infection (UTI), and Escherichia coli (E. coli) is frequently found in this reservoir without causing extraintestinal infection. We investigated these E. coli reservoirs by whole-genome sequencing a large collection of E. coli from healthy controls (faecal), who had never previously had UTI, and from UTI patients (faecal and urinary) sampled from the same geographical area. We compared MLST types, phylogenetic relationship, accessory genome content and FimH type between patient and control faecal isolates as well as between UTI and faecal-only isolates, respectively. Comparison of the accessory genome of UTI isolates to faecal isolates revealed 35 gene families which were significantly more prevalent in the UTI isolates compared to the faecal isolates, although none of these were unique to one of the two groups. Of these 35, 22 belonged to a genomic island and three putatively belonged to a type VI secretion system (T6SS). MLST types and SNP phylogeny indicated no clustering of the UTI or faecal E. coli from patients distinct from the control faecal isolates, although there was an overrepresentation of UTI isolates belonging to clonal lineages CC73 and CC12. One combination of mutations in FimH, N70S/S78N, was significantly associated to UTI, while phylogenetic analysis of FimH and fimH identified no signs of distinct adaptation of UTI isolates compared to faecal-only isolates not causing UTI. In summary, the results showed that (i) healthy women who had never previously had UTI carried faecal E. coli which were overall closely related to UTI and faecal isolates from UTI patients; (ii) UTI isolates do not cluster separately from faecal-only isolates based on SNP analysis; and (iii) 22 gene families of a genomic island, putative T6SS proteins as well as specific metabolism and virulence associated proteins were significantly more common in UTI isolates compared to faecal-only isolates and (iv) evolution of fim

  5. Routes of Hendra Virus Excretion in Naturally-Infected Flying-Foxes: Implications for Viral Transmission and Spillover Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Edson

    Full Text Available Pteropid bats or flying-foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae are the natural host of Hendra virus (HeV which sporadically causes fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. While there is strong evidence that urine is an important infectious medium that likely drives bat to bat transmission and bat to horse transmission, there is uncertainty about the relative importance of alternative routes of excretion such as nasal and oral secretions, and faeces. Identifying the potential routes of HeV excretion in flying-foxes is important to effectively mitigate equine exposure risk at the bat-horse interface, and in determining transmission rates in host-pathogen models. The aim of this study was to identify the major routes of HeV excretion in naturally infected flying-foxes, and secondarily, to identify between-species variation in excretion prevalence. A total of 2840 flying-foxes from three of the four Australian mainland species (Pteropus alecto, P. poliocephalus and P. scapulatus were captured and sampled at multiple roost locations in the eastern states of Queensland and New South Wales between 2012 and 2014. A range of biological samples (urine and serum, and urogenital, nasal, oral and rectal swabs were collected from anaesthetized bats, and tested for HeV RNA using a qRT-PCR assay targeting the M gene. Forty-two P. alecto (n = 1410 had HeV RNA detected in at least one sample, and yielded a total of 78 positive samples, at an overall detection rate of 1.76% across all samples tested in this species (78/4436. The rate of detection, and the amount of viral RNA, was highest in urine samples (>serum, packed haemocytes >faecal >nasal >oral, identifying urine as the most plausible source of infection for flying-foxes and for horses. Detection in a urine sample was more efficient than detection in urogenital swabs, identifying the former as the preferred diagnostic sample. The detection of HeV RNA in serum is consistent with haematogenous

  6. Absorption, distribution, and excretion of 8-methoxypsoralen in HRA/Skh mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muni, I.A.; Schneider, F.H.; Olsson, T.A. III; King, M.

    1984-01-01

    The tissue distribution and excretion of [ 3 H]8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), a well-accepted therapeutic agent for the treatment of psoriasis, was studied in hairless HRA/Skh female mice. Mice were given single oral doses of 6 mg of [ 3 H]8-MOP or 5-[ 14 C]8-MOP/kg in corn oil. Radiochemical analyses of tissues and excreta were accomplished by liquid scintillation counting. The 8-MOP appeared to be rapidly absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, where the tritium levels were highest, followed by skin, blood, and liver; levels were lowest in fat (adipose tissue). In female HRA/Skh mice which had not been irradiated with UVA (320-400 nm), 84% of the carbon-14 and 58% of the tritium were recovered in the urine and feces within 24 hours of oral administration of 5-[ 14 C]8-MOP or [ 3 H]8-MOP, respectively. Animals that were exposed to UVA and received [3H]8-MOP excreted approximately 12% less tritium in the urine and feces compared with the animals which received no UVA

  7. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21...... % carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20 % fat, 65 % carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 +/- 1 % of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-(13)C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than...

  8. Equations to Estimate Creatinine Excretion Rate : The CKD Epidemiology Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ix, Joachim H.; Wassel, Christina L.; Stevens, Lesley A.; Beck, Gerald J.; Froissart, Marc; Navis, Gerjan; Rodby, Roger; Torres, Vicente E.; Zhang, Yaping (Lucy); Greene, Tom; Levey, Andrew S.

    Background and objectives Creatinine excretion rate (CER) indicates timed urine collection accuracy. Although equations to estimate CER exist, their bias and precision are untested and none simultaneously include age, sex, race, and weight. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Participants

  9. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    .0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio of u......Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0...

  10. CADMIUM EXCRETION IN FECES OF RATS AT EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zemlianyi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies demonstrated that the excretions per 1 gof rat weight inthe experimental group usually prevails over the  control group, especially in the second part of the experiment. The increase in the amount of feces in animals of the experimental group was also registered. Such processes may indicate the intense excretory processes and  increase the output of harmful  pollutants from the rats  together with overall stimulation of rat digestive activity. The higher correlations between Cd and other pollutants, namely toxic Ni and Pb (r = 0.84 and 0.91, respectively were calculated for rat feces of experimental group compared to the control. The concentration of Cd and Pb in the excretion of experimental group was maximal in the first day of the experiment, suggesting definite reaction towards rapid output of maximum amount of toxicants from rat body. Subsequently, a decrease in concentration of other pollutants demonstrated their incorporation in metabolic processes and significant accumulation in rat body (kidney and liver, or involvement of other mechanisms for neutralization and removal of intoxicants. Given the increasing amount of excretions  in the second half of the experiment, this may be a solution to this issue. The Cd output per 1 g of rat weight was maximal in the first day, followed by a rapid decline and partial restoration in second half of the experiment. Obviously, it confirms the theory of substitution mechanisms in excretion of significant amount of hazardous toxicants and shifting towards less concentrated excretions in greater amount. Thus, the correlation index between the percentage of excreted pollutant and its concentration in the excretion was 0.75. When we considered only the first 7 days this increased to 0.91 and proved that during the first stage of experiment the percentage of pollutants excretion was dependent upon its concentration in feces. Correlation between Cd output rate and excretion volumes was

  11. Conventional treatment of functional constipation has a positive impact on the behavioural difficulties in children with and without faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modin, Line; Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Constipation studies have only evaluated behavioural difficulties in children with faecal incontinence. This study evaluated changes in behavioural difficulties in childhood with functional constipation (FC) with and without faecal incontinence, based on treatment outcomes. METHODS: Children...... treatment of FC had a positive impact on behavioural difficulties in constipated children with and without faecal incontinence. This study highlights the importance of proactive detection and treatment of FC in paediatric patients....

  12. Effects of Supplemental Mannanoligosaccharides on Growth Performance, Faecal Characteristics and Health in Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagdas Kara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Holstein calves were used to investigate the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS supplementation in the whole milk on growth performance, faecal score, faecal pH, selected faecal bacterial populations and health during the preweaning period. Healthy calves selected by clinical examination were allocated to one of the two groups (control [CG] and experimental [EG] at 5 days old. Each group consisted of 5 male and 5 female calves. Each calf in EG was supplemented with 7 g/d of a MOS product (Celmanax from 5 days to 56 days of age. MOS supplement was mixed with the whole milk once in the morning and administered to the calves in EG via nipple bottle, whereas the calves in CG were fed the whole milk without MOS. Calves were weaned at 56 days of age. The final body weight, average daily weight gain (ADG and average daily feed intake (ADFI were statistically similar (p>0.05 but were higher by 3.70%, 6.66%, and 10.97%, respectively, in MOS than in control calves. Feed efficiency (ADG/ADFI was also similar in two calves group. While faecal scores did not differ on day 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 49, and 56 between groups, EG had a higher faecal score (p = 0.05 than CG on day 35. Faecal concentration of Lactobacillus was lower (p0.05 in faecal concentrations of Bifidobacterium, Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli were found between groups. Although there were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the incidence of diarrhoea, treatment days for diarrhoea and the costs associated with diarrhoea treatments between groups, collectively, the observed reductions in treatment days and the cost of diarrhoea treatments accompanying increases in final body weight, ADG and ADFI for EG may indicate potential benefit of MOS in treatment of diarrhoea.

  13. Species differences in biliary excretion of benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyand, E.H.; Bevan, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Biliary excretion of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) was investigated in rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs following intratracheal administration. [ 3 H]-B[a]P, in amounts of approximately 150 ng or 350 μg, was instilled into lungs and amounts of radioactivity excreted in bile were monitored for six hrs following administration. Differences in biliary excretion of [ 3 H]-B[a]P and/or metabolites among species were observed at low doses but not at high doses. Six hours after instillation of a low dose of B[a]P, 70, 54, and 62% of the dose was excreted in bile of rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs, respectively. Upon administration of the higher dose of B[a]P, approximately 50% of the dose was excreted in bile in six hrs by all species. Thus, rats and guinea pigs exhibit differences in biliary excretion of low and high doses of B[a]P whereas hamsters do not. Profiles of phase II metabolites in rats and hamsters were similar at both low and high doses, with the majority of metabolites being glucuronides and thioether conjugates. However, differences in relative amounts of these conjugates were observed between the two doses, with a shift towards a greater proportion of glucuronides at the higher dose. Metabolites in bile from guinea pigs were primarily thioether conjugates, which accounted for 88% of metabolites at the low dose and 95% at the high dose

  14. Effect of oral diclofenac intake on faecal calprotectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendek, Zlatica; Falk, Magnus; Grodzinsky, Ewa; Wahlin, Karl; Kechagias, Stergios; Svernlöv, Rikard; Hjortswang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    NSAIDs are a known source of increased faecal calprotectin (FC) levels. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge about how long it takes for an increased FC level to return to normal after NSAID intake. The aim was to investigate how oral diclofenac intake affects FC levels and assess how long it takes for an increased FC level to return to normal after oral diclofenac intake. Thirty healthy volunteers received diclofenac 50 mg three times daily for 14 days. Participants provided a stool sample on Days 0, 2, 4, 7, 14 during intake and Days 17, 21, 28 after discontinuation. FC levels were then followed at 7-day intervals until normalization. During diclofenac intake, eight participants (27%) had FC levels exceeding the upper limit of normal (median, 76 μg/g; range, 60-958 μg/g), corresponding to 8.3% of measurements. FC was not constantly increased and became normal in most participants during diclofenac intake. FC levels were on average significantly higher during intake (M = 9.5, interquartile range (IQR) = 13.4) than on baseline (M = 7.5, IQR = 0.0), p = 0.003. After discontinuation, two participants had increased FC on Days 17 and 21, respectively. No significant differences in FC levels were found between baseline and measurements after discontinuation. Two weeks after discontinuation, all participants had normal FC levels. Short-term oral diclofenac intake is associated with increased FC levels. However, the likelihood of an increased test result is low. Our results suggest that 2 weeks of diclofenac withdrawal is sufficient to get an uninfluenced FC test result.

  15. Flavanol monomer-induced changes to the human faecal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzounis, Xenofon; Vulevic, Jelena; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; George, Trevor; Leonczak, Jadwiga; Gibson, Glenn R; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2008-04-01

    We have investigated the bacterial-dependent metabolism of ( - )-epicatechin and (+)-catechin using a pH-controlled, stirred, batch-culture fermentation system reflective of the distal region of the human large intestine. Incubation of ( - )-epicatechin or (+)-catechin (150 mg/l or 1000 mg/l) with faecal bacteria, led to the generation of 5-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone, 5-phenyl-gamma-valerolactone and phenylpropionic acid. However, the formation of these metabolites from (+)-catechin required its initial conversion to (+)-epicatechin. The metabolism of both flavanols occurred in the presence of favourable carbon sources, notably sucrose and the prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides, indicating that bacterial utilisation of flavanols also occurs when preferential energy sources are available. (+)-Catechin incubation affected the growth of select microflora, resulting in a statistically significant increase in the growth of the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group, Bifidobacterium spp. and Escherichia coli, as well as a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of the C. histolyticum group. In contrast, the effect of ( - )-epicatechin was less profound, only significantly increasing the growth of the C. coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group. These potential prebiotic effects for both (+)-catechin and ( - )-epicatechin were most notable at the lower concentration of 150 mg/l. As both ( - )-epicatechin and (+)-catechin were converted to the same metabolites, the more dramatic change in the growth of distinct microfloral populations produced by (+)-catechin incubation may be linked to the bacterial conversion of (+)-catechin to (+)-epicatechin. Together these data suggest that the consumption of flavanol-rich foods may support gut health through their ability to exert prebiotic actions.

  16. Locally produced natural conditioners for dewatering of faecal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Moritz; Dayer, Pauline; Faye, Marie Christine Amie Sene; Clair, Guillaume; Seck, Alsane; Niang, Seydou; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Strande, Linda

    2016-11-01

    In urban areas of low-income countries, treatment of faecal sludge (FS) is insufficient or non-existent. This results in large amounts of FS being dumped into the environment. Existing treatment technologies for FS, such as settling-thickening tanks and drying beds, are land intensive which is limiting in urban areas. Enhanced settling and dewatering by conditioning was evaluated in order to reduce the treatment footprint (or increase treatment capacity). Conventional wastewater conditioners, such as commercially available lime and polymers, are expensive, and commonly rely on complex supply chains for use in low-income countries. Therefore, the treatment performance of five conditioners which could be produced locally was evaluated: Moringa oleifera seeds and press cake, Jatropha curcas seeds, Jatropha Calotropis leaves and chitosan. M. oleifera seeds and press cake, and chitosan improved settling and dewatering and had a similar performance compared to lime and polymers. Optimal dosages were 400-500 kg M. oleifera/t TS, 300-800 kg lime/t TS and 25-50 kg polymer solution/t TS. In comparison, chitosan required 1.5-3.75 kg/t TS. These dosages are comparable to those recommended for wastewater (sludge). The results indicate that conditioning of FS can reduce total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent of settling-thickening tanks by 22-81% and reduce dewatering time with drying beds by 59-97%. This means that the area of drying beds could be reduced by 59-97% with end-use as soil conditioner, or 9-26% as solid fuel. Least expensive options and availability will depend on the local context. In Dakar, Senegal, chitosan produced from shrimp waste appears to be most promising.

  17. Effects of Different Feeding Regimes on the Digestibility and Faecal Excretion of Nitrogen, Soluble Carbohydrates and Fibre Fractions in Water Buffaloes kept under Subtropical Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Asfoor, Husam

    2010-01-01

    In the course of the ‘Livestock Revolution’, extension and intensification of, among others, ruminant livestock production systems are current phenomena, with all their positive and negative side effects. Manure, one of the inevitable secondary products of livestock rearing, is a valuable source of plant nutrients and its skillful recycling to the soil-plant interface is essential for soil fertility, nutrient - and especially phosphorus - uses efficiency and the preservation or re-establishme...

  18. Distribution and excretion after intravenous dosing of [{sup 14}C]micafungin to rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamato, Yasuhiro; Kaneko, Hayato; Yamasaki, Sachiko; Fujiwara, Tomoichi; Katashima, Masataka; Kawamura, Akio; Terakawa, Masato; Kagayama, Akira [Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Biopharmaceutical and Pharmacokinetic Research Lab.

    2002-12-01

    In this study, distribution and excretion after intravenous dosing of [{sup 14}C] micafungin (1 mg/kg) to rats and in vitro serum protein binding and distribution to blood cells in mouse, rat, dog and human were investigated. The concentration of radioactivity in plasma at 5 min, which was the first observation point, was 3,396 ng eq./mL and decreased triexponentially. At 24 h, the concentration had decreased to approximately 12.4% of that at 5 min, and thereafter it deceased with a half-time of 39.3 h. The blood to plasma radioactivity concentration ratios were in the range of 0.80 to 1.00 for up to 7 day after dosing, and were 1.00 or more thereafter. The radioactivity was widely distributed immediately after dosing. The highest radioactivity concentrations were observed in the lungs at 5 min and were 1.86 times higher than that in plasma, followed by the kidneys (1.09). The relative radioactivity concentrations in brain, eyeball, white fat and testis were less than 0.08 of that in plasma, and those in other tissues were in the range of 0.17 to 0.86. The radioactivity concentrations in all tissues examined at 24 h had decreased compared with those at 5 min or 6 h, and decreased almost in parallel with plasma radioactivity concentrations from 72 h with the exception of concentrations for white fat. Up to 240 h after intravenous dosing, 83.5% and 14.4% of the radioactivity had been excreted in feces and urine, respectively. At 240 h, 2.8% and 0.3% of the radioactivity were detected in carcass and gut, respectively. In the expired air, no radioactivity was detected up to 72 h. Up to 48 h after intravenous dosing, 43.9%, 13.2% and 8.3% of the radioactivity had been excreted in bile, urine and feces, respectively. At 48 h, 32.2% and 4.4% of radioactivity were detected in carcass and gut, respectively. (author)

  19. Subclinical laminitis and its association with pO2 and faecal alterations: Isikli, Aydin experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Akin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. The aim of this field trial was to investigate the relationships among subclinical laminitis, hematological, ruminal and faecal alterations. Materials and Methods. To this extent dairy cows presenting subclinical laminitis (n=11 and to those of other healthy cows without laminitis (n=10 were enrolled and assigned into two groups. All animals were receiving the same daily ration formulated to contain 47% cornsilage and 18% hay, mainly. Effects of subclinical laminitis challenges on measurements of feces, and blood samples, were investigated to determine which of these measurements may aid in the diagnosis. pH changes in ruminal fluid collected via rumenocentesis were measured. Besides the following parameters were also measured; blood pH, faecal pH and faecal scoring. Blinded investigators performed the sample collection. Results. No statistical differences between the groups were detected for blood gas values studied regarding pCO2, HCO3, BE, indeed mean that pO2 values decreased statistically (p<0.05 and faecal pH was significantly decreased (p<0.05 in cows with subclinical laminitis in contrast to healthy controls. Conclusions. pO2 values and faecal pH may be valuable as indirect indicators of subclinical laminitis in cattle.

  20. Faecal Waste Disposal and Environmental Health Status in a Nigerian Coastal Settlement of Oron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edet E. Ikurekong

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: This research investigated the relationship between faecal waste disposal and the environmental health status of the inhabitants of Oron LGA, of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The objectives were to identify the methods of faecal disposal; identify the incidence of faecal waste related diseases and the pattern and types of diseases occurrence in the study area. METHOD: 400 households were randomly selected for interview from 17 villages of the study area. Ground and surface water samples were spatially collected and analysed to determine their quality. These include streams, boreholes pipe-borne, and rain and river water from the 17 villages. RESULTS: The result shows that both the qualitative and quantitative aspect of the major sources of drinking water supply are at variance with the established national and international standards. The stepwise multiple regression models applied proved the validity of population demographic characteristics, unhygienic environment and poor quality of water supply as factors that enhance the incidence and vulnerability of the population to faecal waste related disease occurrence. CONCLUSION: The study recommends sustainable strategies towards the management of human faecal waste and related diseases in the study area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 363-368

  1. [Trans-intestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE): a new route for cholesterol excretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Claire; Moreau, François; Cariou, Bertrand; Le May, Cédric

    2014-10-01

    The small intestine plays a crucial role in dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption, as well as its lymphatic secretion as chylomicrons (lipoprotein exogenous way). Recently, a new metabolic pathway called TICE (trans-intestinal excretion of cholesterol) that plays a central role in cholesterol metabolism has emerged. TICE is an inducible way, complementary to the hepatobiliary pathway, allowing the elimination of the plasma cholesterol directly into the intestine lumen through the enterocytes. This pathway is poorly characterized but several molecular actors of TICE have been recently identified. Although it is a matter of debate, two independent studies suggest that TICE is involved in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Thus, TICE is an innovative drug target to reduce -cardiovascular diseases. © 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  2. A Fat strange Repeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申影; 何阅; 姜玉梅; 何大韧

    2004-01-01

    This article reports an observation on a fat strange repeller, which appears after a characteristic crisis observed in a kicked rotor subjected to a piecewise continuous force field. The discontinuity border in the definition range of the two-dimensional mapping, which describes the system, oscillates as the discrete time develops. At a threshold of a control parameter a fat chaotic attractor suddenly transfers to a fat transient set. The strange repeller, which appears after the crisis, is also a fat fractal. This is the reason why super-transience happens

  3. Estimation of the systemic burden of plutonium from urinary excretion data and a multi-exponential model for excretion in comparison with autopsy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, S.R.; Nestor, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have adapted other's method for computing the systemic burden from urinary excretion data to use a multi-exponential model (2) for excretion, rather than Langham's power function. The mathematical basis of Synder's method is the representation of the systemic burden as the convolution integral of the observed urinary excretion data with the inverse Laplace transform of the excretion function; in the case of urinary excretion of plutonium, the power function has a Laplace transform, but for other elements (notably uranium) it does not. If the method is to be used for other radioisotopes, the excretion function must have a Laplace transform, and for this reason we have used a multi-exponential form of the excretion function. They have written a computer program to calculate estimates of the systemic burden and the integrated intake from urinary excretion data, and have compared the results with two cases for which autopsy data are available, as presented in this paper

  4. Urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor and Tamm-Horsfall protein in three rat models with increased renal excretion of urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Jørgensen, P E; Torffvit, O

    1997-01-01

    were examined in three groups of rats with increased renal excretion of urine: uninephrectomy, non-osmotic polyuria and diabetic osmotic polyuria. Twenty-four hour urine samples were obtained after 7, 14 and 21 days. The urinary volume per kidney was doubled in uninephrectomy when compared to controls....... There was a seven-fold increase in urinary volume in rats with non-osmotic polyuria and diabetic osmotic polyuria, as compared to controls. Uninephrectomy, non-osmotic polyuria and diabetes all affected the urinary excretion of EGF and THP differently. The EGF excretion in uninephrectomized rats was 60......-80% of that of the controls, whereas THP excretion was unchanged, indicating that EGF excretion varied with renal tissue mass. Non-osmotic polyuria caused a five-fold increase in THP excretion but no change in EGF excretion. THP excretion in the diabetic rats was increased three-fold after 21 days when compared to controls...

  5. Dietary fat content modulates the hypolipidemic effect of dietary inulin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Yamamoto, Aiko; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2017-08-01

    Dietary fat content (low versus high fat) may modulate the serum lipid-lowering effect of high-performance (HP)-inulin. This study investigated the effect of dietary HP-inulin on metabolism in rats fed a low- or high-fat diet. Rats were fed a diet of 5% fat with 5% cellulose or 5% HP-inulin (average degree of polymerization = 24) (low-fat diet) or of 20% fat with 5% cellulose or 5% HP-inulin (high-fat diet) for 28 days. Total, HDL, and non-HDL cholesterols, and triglyceride concentrations in the serum were measured along with total lipid content of liver and feces. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol, and fecal neutral and acidic sterol concentrations in total lipid were assessed. In addition, cecum SCFA levels and bacterial profiles were determined. The hypolipidemic effect of HP-inulin differed depending on dietary fat content (5% versus 20%). Specifically, 5% inulin instead of cellulose in a semi-purified diet significantly reduced serum lipid levels in rats fed a high-fat diet, which was strongly associated with increased total lipid and neutral sterol excretion. Dietary fat content modulates the hypolipidemic effect of dietary inulin. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Streptococcus caviae sp. nov., isolated from guinea pig faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; Hilderink, Loes J; Oost, John van der; Vos, Willem M de; Plugge, Caroline M

    2017-05-01

    A novel cellobiose-degrading and lactate-producing bacterium, strain Cavy grass 6T, was isolated from faecal samples of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Cells of the strain were ovalshaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, Gram-stain-positive and facultatively anaerobic. The strain gr at 25-40 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 4.5-9.5 (optimum 8.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Cavy grass 6T belongs to the genus Streptococcus with its closest relative being Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T with only 96.5 % similarity. Comparing strain Cavy grass 6T and Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T, average nucleotide identity and level of digital DNA-DNA hybridization dDDH were only 86.9 and 33.3 %, respectively. Housekeeping genes groEL and gyrA were different between strain Cavy grass 6T and other streptococci. The G+C content of strain Cavy grass 6T was 42.6±0.3 mol%. The major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids of strain Cavy grass 6T were C16:0, C20 : 1ω9c and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). Strain Cavy grass 6T ferment a range of plant mono- and disaccharides as well as polymeric carbohydrates, including cellobiose, dulcitol, d-glucose, maltose, raffinose, sucrose, l-sorbose, trehalose, inulin and dried grass extract, to lactate, formate, acetate and ethanol. Based on phylogenetic and physiological characteristics, Cavy grass 6T can be distinguished from other members of the genus Streptococcus. Therefore, a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, family Streptococcaceae, order Lactobacillales is proposed, Streptococcuscaviae sp. nov. (type strain Cavy grass 6T=TISTR 2371T=DSM 102819T).

  7. Underestimation of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in morbidly obese subjects due to high urinary creatinine excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidone, Caterina; Gniuli, Donatella; Castagneto-Gissey, Lidia; Leccesi, Laura; Arrighi, Eugenio; Iaconelli, Amerigo; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2012-04-01

    Albuminuria, a chronic kidney and/or cardiovascular disease biomarker, is currently measured as albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). We hypothesize that in severely obese individuals ACR might be abnormally low in spite of relatively high levels of urinary albumin due to increased creatininuria. One-hundred-eighty-four subjects were divided into tertiles based on their BMI. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat-mass were assessed by DEXA; 24-h creatinine and albumin excretion, ACR, lipid profile and blood pressure were measured. Twenty-four-hour creatinine highly correlated (R = 0.75) with FFM. Since both creatininuria and albuminuria increased with the BMI, being the increase in creatininuria preponderant in subjects with BMI>35, their ratio (AC-ratio) did not change significantly from that of subjects in the lower BMI tertile. ACR only correlated with the systolic blood pressure, while both albuminuria and cretininuria correlated (P = 0.01) with the absolute 10-year CHD risk. In subjects with BMI>35, 100 mg of albumin excreted with urine increased the CHD risk of 2%. Albumin-to-creatinine ratio is underestimated in severely obese individuals as a consequence of the large creatininuria, which is proportional to the increased FFM. Therefore, at least in this population 24-h albuminuria should be more reliable than ACR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. [Detailed methodological recommendations for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with faecal transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Gergely György; Várvölgyi, Csaba; Balogh, Zoltán; Orosi, Piroska; Paragh, György

    2013-01-06

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile associated enteral disease shows dramatic increase worldwide, with appallingly high treatment costs, mortality figures, recurrence rates and treatment refractoriness. It is not surprising, that there is significant interest in the development and introduction of alternative therapeutic strategies. Among these only stool transplantation (or faecal bacteriotherapy) is gaining international acceptance due to its excellent cure rate (≈92%), low recurrence rate (≈6%), safety and cost-effectiveness. Unfortunately faecal transplantation is not available for most patients, although based on promising international results, its introduction into the routine clinical practice is well justified and widely expected. The authors would like to facilitate this process, by presenting a detailed faecal transplantation protocol prepared in their Institution based on the available literature and clinical rationality. Officially accepted national methodological guidelines will need to be issued in the future, founded on the expert opinion of relevant professional societies and upcoming advances in this field.

  9. Poliovirus Excretion in Children with Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Madhu Chhanda; Madkaikar, Manisha Rajan; Desai, Mukesh; Taur, Prasad; Nalavade, Uma Prajwal; Sharma, Deepa Kailash; Gupta, Maya; Dalvi, Aparna; Shabrish, Snehal; Kulkarni, Manasi; Aluri, Jahnavi; Deshpande, Jagadish Mohanrao

    2017-10-01

    Prolonged excretion of poliovirus can occur in immunodeficient patients who receive oral polio vaccine, which may lead to propagation of highly divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), posing a concern for global polio eradication. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of primary immunodeficient children with enterovirus infection and to identify the long-term polio/nonpolio enterovirus excreters in a tertiary care unit in Mumbai, India. During September 2014-April 2017, 151 patients received diagnoses of primary immunodeficiency (PID). We isolated 8 enteroviruses (3 polioviruses and 5 nonpolio enteroviruses) in cell culture of 105 fecal samples collected from 42 patients. Only 1 patient with severe combined immunodeficiency was identified as a long-term VDPV3 excreter (for 2 years after identification of infection). Our results show that the risk of enterovirus excretion among children in India with PID is low; however, systematic screening is necessary to identify long-term poliovirus excreters until the use of oral polio vaccine is stopped.

  10. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion in normal and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurysta, Cedric; Bulur, Nurdan; Oguzhan, Berrin; Satman, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Temel M; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and glucose excretion rate were observed under the same experimental conditions. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion were much higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. No significant correlation between glycemia and either glucose concentration or glucose excretion rate was found in the diabetic patients, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. In the latter patients, as compared to control subjects, the relative magnitude of the increase in saliva glucose concentration was comparable, however, to that of blood glucose concentration. The relationship between these two variables was also documented in normal subjects and diabetic patients undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test.

  11. A standardised faecal collection protocol for intestinal helminth egg counts in Asian elephants, Elephas maximus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly L. Lynsdale

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative assessment of parasite infection is necessary to measure, manage and reduce infection risk in both wild and captive animal populations. Traditional faecal flotation methods which aim to quantify parasite burden, such as the McMaster egg counting technique, are widely used in veterinary medicine, agricultural management and wildlife parasitology. Although many modifications to the McMaster method exist, few account for systematic variation in parasite egg output which may lead to inaccurate estimations of infection intensity through faecal egg counts (FEC. To adapt the McMaster method for use in sampling Asian elephants (Elephas maximus, we tested a number of possible sources of error regarding faecal sampling, focussing on helminth eggs and using a population of over 120 semi-captive elephants distributed across northern Myanmar. These included time of day of defecation, effects of storage in 10% formalin and 10% formol saline and variation in egg distribution between and within faecal boluses. We found no significant difference in the distribution of helminth eggs within faecal matter or for different defecation times, however, storage in formol saline and formalin significantly decreased egg recovery. This is the first study to analyse several collection and storage aspects of a widely-used traditional parasitology method for helminth parasites of E. maximus using known host individuals. We suggest that for the modified McMaster technique, a minimum of one fresh sample per elephant collected from any freshly produced bolus in the total faecal matter and at any point within a 7.5 h time period (7.30am–2.55 pm will consistently represent parasite load. This study defines a protocol which may be used to test pre-analytic factors and effectively determine infection load in species which produce large quantities of vegetative faeces, such as non-ruminant megaherbivores.

  12. Integrity of the Human Faecal Microbiota following Long-Term Sample Storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Kia

    Full Text Available In studies of the human microbiome, faecal samples are frequently used as a non-invasive proxy for the study of the intestinal microbiota. To obtain reliable insights, the need for bacterial DNA of high quality and integrity following appropriate faecal sample collection and preservation steps is paramount. In a study of dietary mineral balance in the context of type 2 diabetes (T2D, faecal samples were collected from healthy and T2D individuals throughout a 13-day residential trial. These samples were freeze-dried, then stored mostly at -20°C from the trial date in 2000/2001 until the current research in 2014. Given the relative antiquity of these samples (~14 years, we sought to evaluate DNA quality and comparability to freshly collected human faecal samples. Following the extraction of bacterial DNA, gel electrophoresis indicated that our DNA extracts were more sheared than extracts made from freshly collected faecal samples, but still of sufficiently high molecular weight to support amplicon-based studies. Likewise, spectrophotometric assessment of extracts revealed that they were of high quality and quantity. A subset of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq and compared against publicly available sequence data representing a similar cohort analysed by the American Gut Project (AGP. Notably, our bacterial community profiles were highly consistent with those from the AGP data. Our results suggest that when faecal specimens are stored appropriately, the microbial profiles are preserved and robust to extended storage periods.

  13. Decomposition of oak leaf litter and millipede faecal pellets in soil under temperate mixed oak forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajovský, Karel; Šimek, Miloslav; Háněl, Ladislav; Šantrůčková, Hana; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The millipedes Glomeris hexasticha (Diplopoda, Glomerida) were maintained under laboratory conditions and fed on oak leaf litter collected from a mixed oak forest (Abieto-Quercetum) in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. Every fourth day litter was changed and produced faecal pellets were separated and afterwards analysed. Content of organic carbon and C:N ratio lowered in faecal pellets as compared with consumed litter. Changes in content of chemical elements (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na) were recognised as those characteristic for the first stage of degradation of plant material. Samples of faecal pellets and oak leaf litter were then exposed in mesh bags between the F and H layers of forest soil for up to one year, subsequently harvested and analysed. A higher rate of decomposition of exposed litter than that of faecal pellets was found during the first two weeks. After 1-year exposure, the weight of litter was reduced to 51%, while that of pellets to 58% only, although the observed activity of present biotic components (algae, protozoans, nematodes; CO2 production, nitrogenase activity) in faecal pellets was higher as compared with litter. Different micro-morphological changes were observed in exposed litter and in pellets although these materials originated from the same initial sources. Comparing to intact leaf litter, another structural and functional processes occurred in pellets due to the fragmentation of plant material by millipedes. Both laboratory and field experiments showed that the millipede faecal pellets are not only a focal point of biodegradation activity in upper soil layers, but also confirmed that millipede feces undergo a slower decomposition than original leaf litter.

  14. A cultural-spatial analysis of excreting, recirculation of human excreta and health--the case of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drangert, Jan-Olof; Nawab, Bahadar

    2011-01-01

    The sanitation issue is entering the development discussion and the UN proclaimed 2008 the year of sanitation. The study aims to understand the cultural-spatial dimension among Muslim communities of excreting and recirculating human excreta in North West Frontier Province in Pakistan. Information on local perceptions and cultural understanding was collected through interviews, group discussions and observations in four selected villages. The study identifies a diversity of excreting practices among age groups and sexes, and varied adherence to expressed cultural norms. Interviewees express less resentment towards urine compared to faeces, however, their negative attitude subsides when faecal matter is mixed with water since this changes appearance, odour-and cultural meaning. Religious dictums about excreta and sewage accommodate contradicting routine behaviours to cater for needs of residents and farmers. For example, when mothers pray wearing soiled clothing, and in the use of wastewater as fertiliser for food production. The excreta-related practices are compatible with good hygienic behaviour as outlined by WHO Guidelines, except for children who are allowed to defecate anywhere. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  16. Supervised pelvic floor muscle training versus attention-control massage treatment in patients with faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussing, Anja; Dahn, Inge; Due, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    supplements is recommended as first-line treatment for faecal incontinence. Despite this, the effect of pelvic floor muscle training for faecal incontinence is unclear. No previous trials have investigated the efficacy of supervised pelvic floor muscle training in combination with conservative treatment...... treatment and conservative treatment. The primary outcome is participants' rating of symptom changes after 16 weeks of treatment using the Patient Global Impression of Improvement Scale. Secondary outcomes are the Vaizey Incontinence Score, the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index, the Fecal Incontinence...

  17. Perianal injectable bulking agents as treatment for faecal incontinence in adults. (Update)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Yasuko; Laurberg, Søren; Norton, Christine

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Faecal incontinence is a complex and distressing condition with significant medical and social implications. Injection of perianal bulking agents has been used to treat the symptoms of passive faecal incontinence. However, various agents have been used without a standardised technique...... evaluation of outcomes and thus it is difficult to gauge whether the improvement in incontinence scores matched practical symptom improvements that mattered to the patients. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: One large randomised controlled trial has shown that this form of treatment using dextranomer in stabilised...

  18. Relative frequencies and significance of faecal coliforms as indicators related to water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auban, E G; Ripolles, A A; Domarco, M J

    1983-01-01

    The faecal coliforms at different sites of a hypereutrophic lake near Valencia (Albufera) were identified and their relative amounts established along an annual cycle. Using lauryl tryptose broth at 35 degrees C, followed by incubation at 44.4 degrees C in 2% brilliant green bile, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are practically the only coliforms present. A positive correlation was found between the water temperature and the relative amount of these two coliforms: K. pneumoniae predominates at high water temperatures, whereas E. coli shows preponderance during the cold period. The role of K. pneumoniae as the only faecal indicator under the circumstances described in the work is emphasized and discussed.

  19. Faecal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the hospital and community setting: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantelle eClaassen-Weitz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and rationale: Staphylococcus aureus faecal carriage has been identified as a potential source for nosocomial transmission and a risk factor for disease development. This systematic review determined the overall S. aureus (including methicillin susceptible and resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage rates within the community and healthcare settings.Methodology: Peer-reviewed articles indexed in Medline, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Africa-Wide Information, CINAHL, and Web of Science were identified using applicable and controlled vocabulary through to 11 November 2015. Eligible studies were ascertained by three independent reviewers. Random-effects meta-analyses of proportions were performed to determine S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage rates reported by eligible studies.Results: Twenty six studies were included in this review. The pooled estimates for S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage were 26 % (95 % confidence interval (CI: 16.8 % - 36.3 %, 86 % (95 % confidence interval (CI: 65.9 % - 97.9 % and 10 % (95 % CI: 0.7 % - 27.0 %, respectively. Faecal S. aureus carriage rates increased on average from 10 % to 65 % during the first eight weeks of life, followed by an average carriage rate of 64 % at six months and 46 % at one year of life. Genotyping techniques were employed mainly in studies conducted in developed countries and comprised largely of gel-based techniques. Six studies reported on the role of S. aureus faecal strains in diarrhoea (n = 2 and the risk for acquiring infections (n = 4. Eight of the 26 studies included in this review performed antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus faecal isolates.Conclusion: This study provides evidence that screening for S. aureus faecal carriage, at least in populations at high risk, could be an effective measure for the prevention of S. aureus transmission and infection in the healthcare and community setting. More well-structured studies need to be

  20. Interpretation of serum antibody response to Anoplocephala perfoliata in relation to parasite burden and faecal egg count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L.N.; Lungholt, M.M.; Nielsen, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    of development and gross pathological mucosal lesions were recorded and compared with serum antibody responses and faecal egg counts. Faecal egg counts were determined in samples from A. perfoliata infected horses using a semi-quantitative centrifugation/flotation technique. Blood samples collected at slaughter...

  1. Effect of ingredient particle sizes and dietary viscosity on digestion and faecal waste of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tu; Hien, T.T.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The ingredients' particle size and dietary viscosity may alter digestion, performance and faecal waste management of fish. This study aimed to assess the effect of grinding screen sizes of feed ingredients and dietary viscosity on digestibility, faecal waste and performance of striped catfish

  2. Effect of ingredient particle sizes and dietary viscosity on digestion and faecal waste of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tu; Hien, T.T.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2018-01-01

    The ingredients' particle size and dietary viscosity may alter digestion, performance and faecal waste management of fish. This study aimed to assess the effect of grinding screen sizes of feed ingredients and dietary viscosity on digestibility, faecal waste and performance of striped catfish

  3. Faecal S100A12 as a non-invasive marker distinguishing inflammatory bowel disease from irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, T; Langhorst, J; Wittkowski, H; Becker, K; Friedrich, A W; Rueffer, A; Dobos, G J; Roth, J; Foell, D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: S100A12 is a pro-inflammatory protein that is secreted by granulocytes. S100A12 serum levels increase during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We performed the first study analysing faecal S100A12 in adults with signs of intestinal inflammation. METHODS: Faecal S100A12 was determined by

  4. Urinary excretion of creatine and creatinine in gamma irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, S K; Srinivasan, M N; Chuttani, K; Bhatnagar, A; Ghose, A

    1985-06-01

    Dose response relationships of creatine, creatinine excretions and their ratio in 24 hr urine samples have been studied on each individual day upto 4 days after 1-7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation to rats. Creatine excretion reaches the peak on the 2nd day while creatinine excretion reaches the peak on the first day and a plateau is maintained up to the 4th day in each case. Good dose response correlationship is maintained for creatine or creatinine levels up to the 4th day and for creatine creatinine ratio up to the 3rd day. Seperate dose response curves are needed on each individual day for using these parameters for biological dosimetry purpose. Administration of the radioprotectors viz., combination of 5-hydroxytryptophan (HT) and 2-amino-ethylisothiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET), HT alone and optimum radioprotecting dose of AET before 5 Gy whole body ..gamma..-irradiation have not been of help for reducing creatinineurea. (author).

  5. Water metabolism and modification of tritium excretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimasa, Y.; Akita, Y.

    1982-01-01

    1. The intake and excretion of tritium were studied in rats exposed to tritiated water vapor. The metabolism of tritium was also investigated in rats given single administrations of tritiated water and in rats given daily administrations (per os or i.p.). The results were essentially in accord with those reported previously. 2. Amounts of drinking water consumed and urine excreted by rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin were 1.5 to 2 times higher than in rats drinking tap water. The tritium activity in various tissues of rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin decreased to about half of that of rats drinking tap water. A similar tendency was observed also in rats drinking beer. The diuretic agent sodium acetazolamide also enhanced the urinary excretion of tritium. (author)

  6. Urinary excretion of creatine and creatinine in gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.K.; Srinivasan, M.N.; Chuttani, K.; Bhatnagar, A.; Ghose, A.

    1985-01-01

    Dose response relationships of creatine, creatinie excretions and their ratio in 24 hr urine samples have been studied on each individual day upto 4 days after 1-7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation to rats. Creatine excretion reaches the peak on the 2nd day while creatinine excretion reaches the peak on the first day and a plateau is maintained upto the 4th day in each case. Good dose response correlationship is maintained for creatine or creatinine levels upto the 4th day and for creatine creatinine ratio upto the 3rd day. Seperate dose response curves are needed on each individual day for using these parameters for biological dosimetry purpose. Administration of the radioprotectors viz., combination of 5-hydroxytryptophan (HT) and 2-amino-ethylisothiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET), HT alone and optimum radioprotecting dose of AET before 5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation have not been of help for reducing creatinineurea. (author)

  7. Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.M.; Boston, R.C.; Leaver, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of 32 P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results indicated the main control site for phosphorus excretion in the ruminating sheep was the gastrointestinal tract, whereas for the non-ruminating sheep fed the liquid diet, control was exerted by the kidney. A critical factor in the induction of adaptation of phosphorus reabsorption by the kidney was the reduction in salivation, and since this response occurred independently of marked changes in the delivery of phosphorus to the kidney, a humoral factor may be involved in this communication between salivary gland and kidney

  8. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  9. Utilization of Chicken Excretions as Compost Manure in Bolu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Kütük

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkish agricultural soils are insufficient with regard to organic matter content. Likewise, organic matter amounts in agricultural areas of Bolu are low. The benefits of organic matter to physical, chemical and biologic properties of soils are known for very long time. On the other hand, huge amount of chicken excretions are produced in Turkey with increased chicken production recently, and this result in substantial health and environmental problems. Amount of chicken excretions are estimated about 10 000 000 tons in Turkey. In Bolu, these amounts of chicken excretions are 300 000 tons per year. The most appropriate way to solve this question is to transform chicken excretions to organic manure and apply to agricultural fields. Composting is basic process for transforming of chicken excretions to organic manure. Composting is the aerobic decomposition of organic materials in the thermophilic temperature range of 40-65 °C. There are two essential methods in composting. One of them is traditional method taking much time and producing low grade manure. Another is rapid composting method taking less time and producing high grade manure under more controlled conditions. Rapid composting methods which are more acceptable as commercially in the world are windrow, rectangular agitated beds and rotating drum, respectively Selection of appropriate method is depending on composting material, environmental and economical conditions. Chicken excretions occurring large amounts in Bolu must be transformed to organic manure by means of a suitable composting method and used in agriculture. Because, chicken manure is an important resource for sustainable agriculture in Turkey and it should be evaluated.

  10. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... is the most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  11. Impact of a new sampling buffer on faecal haemoglobin stability in a colorectal cancer screening programme by the faecal immunochemical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzini, Grazia; Ventura, Leonardo; Rubeca, Tiziana; Rapi, Stefano; Cellai, Filippo; Di Dia, Pietro P; Mallardi, Beatrice; Mantellini, Paola; Zappa, Marco; Castiglione, Guido

    2017-07-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) stability in faecal samples is an important issue in colorectal cancer screening by the faecal immunochemical test (FIT) for Hb. This study evaluated the performance of the FIT-Hb (OC-Sensor Eiken) used in the Florence screening programme by comparing two different formulations of the buffer, both in an analytical and in a clinical setting. In the laboratory simulation, six faecal pools (three in each buffer type) were stored at different temperatures and analysed eight times in 10 replicates over 21 days. In the clinical setting, 7695 screenees returned two samples, using both the old and the new specimen collection device (SCD). In the laboratory simulation, 5 days from sample preparation with the buffer of the old SCD, the Hb concentration decreased by 40% at room temperature (25°C, range 22-28°C) and up to 60% at outside temperature (29°C, range 16-39°C), whereas with the new one, Hb concentration decreased by 10%. In the clinical setting, a higher mean Hb concentration with the new SCD compared with the old one was found (6.3 vs. 5.0 µg Hb/g faeces, respectively, Pbuffer under laboratory conditions, but no difference was found in the clinical performance. In our study, only marginal advantages arise from the new buffer. Improvements in sample stability represent a significant target in the screening setting.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of one versus two sample faecal immunochemical testing for colorectal cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Goede (Luuk); A.H.C. Roon (Aafke); J.C.I.Y. Reijerink (Jacqueline); A.J. van Vuuren (Hanneke); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M.E. van Leerdam (Monique); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective The sensitivity and specificity of a single faecal immunochemical test (FIT) are limited. The performance of FIT screening can be improved by increasing the screening frequency or by providing more than one sample in each screening round. This study aimed to evaluate if

  13. Evaluation of a method of assessing faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, S.C.; Sullivan, P.B.; McHugh, K.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Childhood constipation is common and assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and commonly used to assess constipation. The role of radiography with the use of a simple scoring system has not been fully evaluated. Objective. To assess the reliability of scoring faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children with intractable constipation. Materials and methods. Plain abdominal radiographs from 33 constipated and 67 control children were independently assessed by three observers on two separate occasions. A scoring system was devised with scores from 0 (no stool) to 5 (gross faecal loading with bowel dilatation) in three areas of the colon, giving a total score of 0-15. Results. There were significant differences between the scores of the constipated and control radiographs for each observer (P = 0.05). There was no intra-observer variation (P = 0.12-0.69), but significant inter-observer variation was demonstrated (P = 0.00). Conclusions. We have found this scoring system to be a clinically useful and a reproducible tool in assessing childhood constipation. Assessment of faecal loading is subjective and varies between observers, although one observer will consistently score faecal loading on the same radiograph on successive occasions. To limit exposure to ionising radiation, we recommend that radiography be reserved for the investigation of intractable constipation, and its accuracy is improved if all radiographs are scored by the same observer. (orig.)

  14. Modelling anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water and faecal matter in accumulation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmitwalli, T.; Zeeman, G.; Otterpohl, R.

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic mathematical model based on anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was developed for accumulation (AC) system treating concentrated black water and faecal matter at different temperatures. The AC system was investigated for the treatment of waste(water) produced from the following systems:

  15. Spontaneous scrotal faecal fistula in a neonate: report of a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 21 day old boy with spontaneous scrotal faecal fistula following a neglected strangulated right inguinal hernia is reported. He had necrotizing fasciitis of the right scrotum with sparing of the testis. He successfully had debridement, herniotomy and bowel resection with end-to-end anastomosis. This is a rare occurrence in ...

  16. Earlier stages of colorectal cancer detected with immunochemical faecal occult blood tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, L. G. M.; van Rijn, A. F.; van Munster, I. P.; Jansen, J. B. M. J.; Fockens, P.; Laheij, R. J. F.; Dekker, E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of colorectal cancer screening is to improve prognosis by the detection of early cancer and precursor stages. We compared the stage distribution of asymptomatic colorectal cancer patients detected by a positive immunochemical or guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (FOBT) with

  17. Pelvic floor muscle lesions at endoanal MR imaging in female patients with faecal incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, Maaike P.; Beets-Tan, Regina G. H.; Vervoorn, Inge; Deutekom, Marije; Wasser, Martin N. J. M.; Witkamp, Theo D.; Dobben, Annette C.; Baeten, Cor G. M. I.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Stoker, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency and spectrum of lesions of different pelvic floor muscles at endoanal MRI in women with severe faecal incontinence and to study their relation with incontinence severity and manometric findings. In 105 women MRI examinations were evaluated for internal anal sphincter (IAS),

  18. Microbial shifts and signatures of long-term remission in ulcerative colitis after faecal microbiota transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, Susana; Rossen, Noortje G.; Spek, van der Mirjam J.; Hartman, Jorn H.A.; Huuskonen, Laura; Korpela, Katri; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Aalvink, Steven; Vos, de Willem M.; Haens, D' Geert R.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.

    2017-01-01

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may contribute towards disease remission in ulcerative colitis (UC), but it is unknown which factors determine long-term effect of treatment. Here, we aimed to identify bacterial signatures associated with sustained remission. To this end, samples from

  19. Genotyping faecal samples of Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris for population estimation: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Lalji

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris the National Animal of India, is an endangered species. Estimating populations for such species is the main objective for designing conservation measures and for evaluating those that are already in place. Due to the tiger's cryptic and secretive behaviour, it is not possible to enumerate and monitor its populations through direct observations; instead indirect methods have always been used for studying tigers in the wild. DNA methods based on non-invasive sampling have not been attempted so far for tiger population studies in India. We describe here a pilot study using DNA extracted from faecal samples of tigers for the purpose of population estimation. Results In this study, PCR primers were developed based on tiger-specific variations in the mitochondrial cytochrome b for reliably identifying tiger faecal samples from those of sympatric carnivores. Microsatellite markers were developed for the identification of individual tigers with a sibling Probability of Identity of 0.005 that can distinguish even closely related individuals with 99.9% certainty. The effectiveness of using field-collected tiger faecal samples for DNA analysis was evaluated by sampling, identification and subsequently genotyping samples from two protected areas in southern India. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using tiger faecal matter as a potential source of DNA for population estimation of tigers in protected areas in India in addition to the methods currently in use.

  20. Inappropriate use of the faecal occult blood test in a university hospital in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Anne F.; Stroobants, An K.; Deutekom, Marije; Lauppe, Corinne; Sturk, Auguste; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Although all international guidelines state that there is no indication to perform a faecal occult blood test (FOBT) in symptomatic patients, we believe the test is frequently used as a diagnostic test. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the current guidelines for FOBT

  1. Reliable discrimination of 10 ungulate species using high resolution melting analysis of faecal DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ramón-Laca

    Full Text Available Identifying species occupying an area is essential for many ecological and conservation studies. Faecal DNA is a potentially powerful method for identifying cryptic mammalian species. In New Zealand, 10 species of ungulate (Order: Artiodactyla have established wild populations and are managed as pests because of their impacts on native ecosystems. However, identifying the ungulate species present within a management area based on pellet morphology is unreliable. We present a method that enables reliable identification of 10 ungulate species (red deer, sika deer, rusa deer, fallow deer, sambar deer, white-tailed deer, Himalayan tahr, Alpine chamois, feral sheep, and feral goat from swabs of faecal pellets. A high resolution melting (HRM assay, targeting a fragment of the 12S rRNA gene, was developed. Species-specific primers were designed and combined in a multiplex PCR resulting in fragments of different length and therefore different melting behaviour for each species. The method was developed using tissue from each of the 10 species, and was validated in blind trials. Our protocol enabled species to be determined for 94% of faecal pellet swabs collected during routine monitoring by the New Zealand Department of Conservation. Our HRM method enables high-throughput and cost-effective species identification from low DNA template samples, and could readily be adapted to discriminate other mammalian species from faecal DNA.

  2. Effect of faecal soiling on skatole and androstenone occurrence in organic entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Edwards, Sandra; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2015-01-01

    Production of entire male pigs could be a future strategy for organic pig production. However, production of entire males leads to increased risk of carcasses with elevated boar taint levels. It is hypothesized that skatole levels in pig meat are affected by faecal soiling and that organic housing...

  3. The potential beneficial role of faecal microbiota transplantation in diseases other than Clostridium difficile infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, R.; Nieuwdorp, M.; ten Berge, I. J. M.; Bemelman, F. J.; Geerlings, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    This review gives an outline of the indications for faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for diseases other than Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection. The remarkable efficacy of FMT against C. difficile infection has already been demonstrated. The use of FMT for other diseases, such as

  4. Faecal incontinence in rural and regional northern Queensland community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Lynne M; Nowak, Madeleine J; Ho, Yikhong

    2013-01-01

    In Australia, faecal incontinence, the involuntary loss of liquid or solid stool with or without a person's awareness, has been reported in 8% of the South Australian and 11% of the urban New South Wales community-dwelling populations. Studies conducted in 2004 and 2005 reported faecal incontinence in more than 20% of colorectal and urogynaecological clinic patients at Townsville Hospital (a referral centre serving rural North Queensland). This prompted concern regarding the level of faecal incontinence in the community. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of faecal incontinence in the North and Far North Queensland urban and rural communities. The sample size was based on the New South Wales postal surveys (11% prevalence). Higher rates were expected in North/Far North Queensland, so prevalence there was estimated at 12.1% (confidence interval ± 2%, ie the true level to be between 10.1% and 14.1%). The sample for each of the Townsville, Cairns (in Far North Queensland) and rural/remote settings was calculated at 1022. The database for the present study was compiled using a systematic randomised process selecting two private names from each column on each page of the Cairns and Townsville White Pages® (Cairns: 1112 urban, 481 rural, 226 remote; Townsville: 1049 urban, 432 rural, 320 remote). The questionnaire covered personal demographics, health/risk factors, bowel habits, nutrition (fibre and fluid intake) and physical activity. Faecal incontinence was defined as accidental leakage of solid or liquid stool in the past 12 months that was not caused by a virus, medication or contaminated food. To improve the response rate a participation incentive of a chance to win a $250 voucher or one of ten $50 vouchers was offered in the initial mail-out. The initial survey was mailed out in July 2007; two follow-up surveys were mailed out to non-responders in September 2007 and January 2008. One hundred randomly selected non-responders were telephoned in

  5. Urinary Excretion of Niacin Metabolites in Humans After Coffee Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Jonathan Isaak; Gömpel, Katharina; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a major natural source of niacin in the human diet, as it is formed during coffee roasting from the alkaloid trigonelline. The intention of our study was to monitor the urinary excretion of niacin metabolites after coffee consumption under controlled diet. We performed a 4-day human intervention study on the excretion of major niacin metabolites in the urine of volunteers after ingestion of 500 mL regular coffee containing 34.8 μmol nicotinic acid (NA) and 0.58 μmol nicotinamide (NAM). In addition to NA and NAM, the metabolites N 1 -methylnicotinamide (NMNAM), N 1 -methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2-Py), and nicotinuric acid (NUA) were identified and quantified in the collected urine samples by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIVA) using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Rapid urinary excretion was observed for the main metabolites (NA, NAM, NMNAM, and 2-Py), with t max values within the first hour after ingestion. NUA appeared in traces even more rapidly. In sum, 972 nmol h -1 of NA, NAM, NMNAM, and 2-Py were excreted within 12 h after coffee consumption, corresponding to 6% of the ingested NA and NAM. The results indicate regular coffee consumption to be a source of niacin in human diet. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Steroid hormone excretion is enhanced by sucrose feeding to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, T.C.; Hsu, H.; Saunders, J.P.; Kim, S.S.; Given-Proctor, J.; Ahrens, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that feeding rats sucrose rather than invert sugar (50:50 mixture of glucose and fructose) or cornstarch would result in a more rapid excretion of intravenously injected 1,2- 3 H aldosterone or 1,2,6,7- 3 H cortisol. The three carbohydrate sources provided 45% of dietary energy when fed, respectively, to one of three groups of 10 male, Sprague Dawley rats. After 4 or 8 weeks of ad lib feeding of the three diets 5 μCI of 3 H-labeled hormones were injected intravenously and % recovery in urine and feces was measured for 4 days by liquid scintillation counting. Nearly 90% of the 3 H injected as 1,2- 3 H aldosterone was recovered over 4 days in the excreta of the sucrose fed rats. This recovery of 3 H from aldosterone was significantly greater (P 3 H from intravenously injected 1,2,6,7- 3 H cortisol followed a similar pattern. The authors anticipate that the excretion of all metabolic end products and xenobiotics excreted as glucuronides would be enhanced by sucrose feeding. Oxocarbonium ions from the glucose portion of sucrose digestion in the mammalian small intestine are thought to compete with oxocarbonium ions from the glucuronic acid portion of glucuronide hydrolysis. Such competition may slow glucuronide hydrolysis and promote glucuronide excretion, including the glucuronides derived from aldosterone and cortisol

  7. Zooplankton as a compound mineralising and synthesizing system: Phosphorus excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulati, R.D.; Martinez, C.P.; Siewertsen, K.

    1995-01-01

    Data on phosphate excretion rates of zooplankton are based on measurements using the pelagic crustacean zoo-plankton of Lake Vechten and laboratory-cultured Daphnia galeata. In case of Daphnia sp we measured the effects of feeding on P-rich algae and P-poor algae (Scenedesmus) as food on the

  8. Excretion of depleted uranium by Gulf war veterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    During the Persian Gulf War, in 1991, approximately 100 US military personnel had potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU), including shrapnel wounds. In 1993, the US government initiated a follow-up study of 33 Gulf War veterans who had been exposed to DU, many of whom contained embedded fragments of DU shrapnel in their bodies. The veterans underwent medical evaluation, whole-body counting, and urinalysis for uranium by kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA). Data are available from seven individuals who exceeded the detection limit for whole-body counting and also had elevated urinary uranium. Urinary excretion rates, in μg U g -1 creatinine, were determined in 1997 and 1999. The body contents, in mg DU, were determined in 1997; it is assumed there were no significant decreases in total body content in the interim. For the 1997 data, the mean fractional excretion was (2.4 ± 2.8) x 10 -5 g -1 creatinine, and for the 1999 data, the mean was (1.1 ± 0.6) x 10 -5 g -1 creatinine. However, these means are not significantly different, nor is there any correlation of excretion rate with body content. Thus, human data available to date do not provide any basis for determining the effects of particle surface area, composition and solubility, and biological processes such as encapsulation, on the excretion rate. (author)

  9. Excretion pattern of enrofloxacin after oral treatment of chicken broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slana, M; Pahor, V; Cvitkovič Maričič, L; Sollner-Dolenc, M

    2014-12-01

    The metabolism and excretion of enrofloxacin were studied when applied as oral solution to chicken broilers for five consecutive days. Sixty 9-day-old broilers were isolated within an intensively rearing poultry farm during enrofloxacin therapy (15.5 mg/kg per day). The excreta of the isolated broilers were collected daily, 9 days after therapy termination, for 13 consecutive days, and analyzed for the presence of enrofloxacin and its metabolites [ciprofloxacin, desethylene-enrofloxacin (DES-EF) and desethylene-ciprofloxacin (DES-CF)]. Enrofloxacin was excreted predominantly in the form of the parent compound between days 1 and 13. Ciprofloxacin was detected in the excreta between days 1 and 6, whereas minor amounts of DES-EF and DES-CF were excreted only between days 1-7 and 1-6, respectively. In conclusion, the analysis of the excreta showed that approximately 74% of orally applied enrofloxacin was excreted as the parent compound, approximately 25% as the main metabolite ciprofloxacin, and approximately 1% as the minor metabolites desethylene-enrofloxacin and desethylene-ciprofloxacin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Regulation of direct transintestinal cholesterol excretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van den Oever, Karin; Seemann, Ingar; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; van Eck, Miranda; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2008-01-01

    Biliary secretion is generally considered to be an obligate step in the pathway of excess cholesterol excretion from the body. We have recently shown that an alternative route exists. Direct transintestinal cholesterol efflux ( TICE) contributes significantly to cholesterol removal in mice. Our aim

  11. Regulation of direct transintestinal cholesterol excretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van den Oever, Karin; Seemann, Ingar; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; van Eck, Miranda; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2008-01-01

    Biliary secretion is generally considered to be an obligate step in the pathway of excess cholesterol excretion from the body. We have recently shown that an alternative route exists. Direct transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) contributes significantly to cholesterol removal in mice. Our aim

  12. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  13. Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Henk Mathijs Johannes; Budisatria, I Gede Suparta

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers' conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia and Africander sheep from South Africa were introduced. Crossing of fat-tailed sheep with the local thin-tailed sheep produced the Javanese fat-tailed sheep. Main motives for the gradual change-over to fat-tailed sheep have been their potential larger body size and the preference of consumers for their meat. Management systems are changing in response to the intensification of land use. The reproductive performances of fat-tailed sheep are good. Households keep four to six animals, housed close to the family quarters. This results in very high levels of faecal bacteria contamination of drinking water sources. Sheep provide a small income, manure, security and help to accumulate capital. Sheep also play a key role in religious festivities. Farmers hardly profit from the increased demand for the feast of sacrifice; animals are sold mainly when the owners have urgent cash needs. Systematic sheep fattening can contribute to higher economic results, if sufficient family labour and crop residues are available.

  14. Know Your Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They're mainly found in fish such as salmon, trout and herring, avocados, olives, walnuts and liquid ... fats are found in many fried foods and baked goods such as pastries, pizza dough, pie crust, ...

  15. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... albacore tuna, and trout Corn oil Soybean oil Safflower oil To get the health benefits, you need to ... sunflower seeds to salads. Cook with corn or safflower oil instead of butter and solid fats.

  16. Steroid Biomarkers Revisited - Improved Source Identification of Faecal Remains in Archaeological Soil Material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Prost

    Full Text Available Steroids are used as faecal markers in environmental and in archaeological studies, because they provide insights into ancient agricultural practices and the former presence of animals. Up to now, steroid analyses could only identify and distinguish between herbivore, pig, and human faecal matter and their residues in soils and sediments. We hypothesized that a finer differentiation between faeces of different livestock animals could be achieved when the analyses of several steroids is combined (Δ5-sterols, 5α-stanols, 5β-stanols, epi-5β-stanols, stanones, and bile acids. We therefore reviewed the existing literature on various faecal steroids from livestock and humans and analysed faeces from old livestock breed (cattle, horse, donkey, sheep, goat, goose, and pig and humans. Additionally, we performed steroid analyses on soil material of four different archaeological periods (sites located in the Lower Rhine Basin, Western Germany, dating to the Linearbandkeramik, Urnfield Period / Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman Age with known or supposed faecal inputs. By means of already established and newly applied steroid ratios of the analysed faeces together with results from the literature, all considered livestock faeces, except sheep and cattle, could be distinguished on the basis of their steroid signatures. Most remarkably was the identification of horse faeces (via the ratio: epi-5β-stigmastanol: 5β-stigmastanol + epicoprostanol: coprostanol; together with the presence of chenodeoxycholic acid and a successful differentiation between goat (with chenodeoxycholic acid and sheep/cattle faeces (without chenodeoxycholic acid. The steroid analysis of archaeological soil material confirmed the supposed faecal inputs, even if these inputs had occurred several thousand years ago.

  17. Frequency of post-operative faecal incontinence in patients with closed and open internal anal sphincterotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghayas, N.G.; Younus, S.M.; Mirani, A.J.; Ghayasuddin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Fissure in ano is one of the commonest benign and painful proctologic diseases causing considerable morbidity and reduction in quality of life. There are medical as well as surgical treatment options for anal fissure. The study was conducted to compare the frequency of postoperative faecal incontinence in patients with closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy with von-greaves knife versus standard Parks operation (open method) for chronic anal fissure. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at the Department of Surgery, KVSS, S.I.T.E. Hospital, Karachi, for a period of six months from 13th February to 12th August 2011. Ninety four consecutive patients having chronic anal fissure were assigned through blocked randomization to groups A and B, with 47 patients in each group. Closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy (CLIAS) via von-greaves knife was carried out in patients of group-A whereas patients of group-B were subjected to open internal anal sphincterotomy (OIAS) also known as Parks procedure. Faecal incontinence was noted on the 5th post-operative day. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. Results: There were 81 (86.2%) males and 13 (13.8%) females with male to female ratio being 6:1. Mean age was 38.38 mp±14.56 years. Post-operative faecal incontinence in patients undergoing CLIAS was 4.3% while it was 21.3% in those undergoing OIAS with a p-value of 0.027. CLIAS with von-greaves knife is effective in reducing faecal incontinence on 5th postoperative day as compared to standard OIAS. Conclusion: CLIAS with von-greaves knife is effective in reducing faecal incontinence on 5th postoperative day as compared to OIAS (Park's procedure). Therefore, this technique may be used in future regularly to treat chronic anal fissure for prevention of this morbidity. (author)

  18. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    % of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat......The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper...

  19. Absorption, tissue distribution, excretion, and metabolism of clothianidin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Tokunori; Mikata, Kazuki; Nagasaki, Hiromi; Ohta, Kazunari

    2003-11-19

    Absorption, distribution, excretion, and metabolism of clothianidin [(E)-1-(2-chloro-1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl)-3-methyl-2-nitroguanidine] were investigated after a single oral administration of [nitroimino-(14)C]- or [thiazolyl-2-(14)C]clothianidin to male and female rats at a dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight (bw) (low dose) or 250 mg/kg of bw (high dose). The maximum concentration of carbon-14 in blood occurred 2 h after administration of the low oral dose for both labeled clothianidins, and then the concentration of carbon-14 in blood decreased with a half-life of 2.9-4.0 h. The orally administered carbon-14 was rapidly and extensively distributed to all tissues and organs within 2 h after administration, especially to the kidney and liver, but was rapidly and almost completely eliminated from all tissues and organs with no evidence of accumulation. The orally administered carbon-14 was almost completely excreted into urine and feces within 2 days after administration, and approximately 90% of the administered dose was excreted via urine. The major compound in excreta was clothianidin, accounting for >60% of the administered dose. The major metabolic reactions of clothianidin in rats were oxidative demethylation to form N-(2-chlorothiazol-5-ylmethyl)-N'-nitroguanidine and the cleavage of the carbon-nitrogen bond between the thiazolylmethyl moiety and the nitroguanidine moiety. The part of the molecule containing the nitroguanidine moiety was transformed mainly to N-methyl-N'-nitroguanidine, whereas the thiazol moiety was further metabolized to 2-(methylthio)thiazole-5-carboxylic acid. With the exception of the transiently delayed excretion of carbon-14 at the high-dose level, the rates of biokinetics, excretion, distribution, and metabolism of clothianidin were not markedly influenced by dose level and sex.

  20. Indications for and outcome of primary repair compared with faecal diversion in the management of traumatic colon injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, E; Emile, S; Elfeki, H; Youssef, M; Ghanem, A; Fikry, A A; Elshobaky, A; Omar, W; Khafagy, W; Morshed, M

    2016-08-01

    Injuries of the colon are a serious sequel of abdominal trauma owing to the associated morbidity and mortality. This study aims to assess postoperative outcome and complications of faecal diversion and primary repair of colon injuries when applied according to established guidelines for the management of colon injuries. This retrospective study was conducted on 110 patients with colon injuries. Guided by estimation of risk factors, patients were managed either by primary repair alone, repair with proximal diversion or diversion alone. There were 102 (92.7%) male patients and 8 (7.3%) female patients of median age 38 years. Thirty-seven were managed by primary repair and 73 by faecal diversion. Colon injuries were caused by penetrating abdominal trauma in 65 and blunt trauma in 45 patients. Forty-three patients were in shock on admission, and were all managed by faecal diversion. Forty patients developed 84 complications after surgery. Primary repair had a significantly lower complication rate than faecal diversion (P = 0.037). Wound infection was the commonest complication. The overall mortality rate was 3.6%. Primary repair, when employed properly, resulted in a significantly lower complication rate than faecal diversion. Significant predictive factors associated with a higher complication rate were faecal diversion, severe faecal contamination, multiple colon injuries, an interval of more than 12 h after colon injury and shock. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Variation in faecal water content may confound estimates of gastro-intestinal parasite intensity in wild African herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, W C; Cizauskas, C A; Getz, W M

    2010-03-01

    Estimates of parasite intensity within host populations are essential for many studies of host-parasite relationships. Here we evaluated the seasonal, age- and sex-related variability in faecal water content for two wild ungulate species, springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) and plains zebra (Equus quagga). We then assessed whether or not faecal water content biased conclusions regarding differences in strongyle infection rates by season, age or sex. There was evidence of significant variation in faecal water content by season and age for both species, and by sex in springbok. Analyses of faecal egg counts demonstrated that sex was a near-significant factor in explaining variation in strongyle parasite infection rates in zebra (P = 0.055) and springbok (P = 0.052) using wet-weight faecal samples. However, once these intensity estimates were re-scaled by the percent of dry matter in the faeces, sex was no longer a significant factor (zebra, P = 0.268; springbok, P = 0.234). These results demonstrate that variation in faecal water content may confound analyses and could produce spurious conclusions, as was the case with host sex as a factor in the analysis. We thus recommend that researchers assess whether water variation could be a confounding factor when designing and performing research using faecal indices of parasite intensity.

  2. Predictors of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor - Induced reduction of urinary albumin excretion in nondiabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wal, Ruud M. A.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; van der Harst, Pim; Boomsma, Frans; Thijs Plokker, H. W.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; de Jong, Paul E.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Voors, Adriaan A.

    2006-01-01

    Urinary albumin excretion is a predictor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We investigated which parameters determine baseline urinary albumin excretion in nondiabetic subjects, without renal disease. In addition, we evaluated the parameters that predict the albuminuria-lowering efficacy

  3. Effect of room temperature transport vials on DNA quality and phylogenetic composition of faecal microbiota of elderly adults and infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hill, Cian J

    2016-05-01

    Alterations in intestinal microbiota have been correlated with a growing number of diseases. Investigating the faecal microbiota is widely used as a non-invasive and ethically simple proxy for intestinal biopsies. There is an urgent need for collection and transport media that would allow faecal sampling at distance from the processing laboratory, obviating the need for same-day DNA extraction recommended by previous studies of freezing and processing methods for stool. We compared the faecal bacterial DNA quality and apparent phylogenetic composition derived using a commercial kit for stool storage and transport (DNA Genotek OMNIgene GUT) with that of freshly extracted samples, 22 from infants and 20 from older adults.

  4. Changes of some serum and faecal parameters not correct word in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... arose, and total pathogen germs were not different among treatments. Cortisol concentration .... The animals had free access to water via drinking nipples. ..... excretion, health and performance of pigs in a hot African climate.

  5. Plasma disposition, milk excretion and parasitological efficacy of mebendazole in donkeys naturally infected by Cyathostominae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokbulut, Cengiz; Aksit, Dilek; Santoro, Mario; Roncoroni, Cristina; Mariani, Ugo; Buono, Francesco; Rufrano, Domenico; Fagiolo, Antonio; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2016-02-15

    Mebendazole (MBZ) has been licensed for use in horses and donkeys, however there are no data available in the literature regarding its pharmacokinetic disposition and efficacy in donkeys. This study was designed to determine the plasma disposition, milk excretion and anthelmintic efficacy of MBZ in donkeys naturally infected by Cyathostominae. The animals were allocated to three groups, each of six donkeys. One group was untreated control (C-group) and the others were treated using a paste formulation of MBZ administered per os at the manufacturer's recommended horse dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight (MBZ 1) and at the double horse dosage 20 mg/kg body weight (MBZ 2). Blood and milk samples were collected at various times between 1h and 120 h post treatment and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. Individual FECs (Faecal Egg Counts) were performed on each animal before the treatment (day-3) and weekly from day 7 until day 56 post treatment using a modified McMaster technique. The plasma concentrations and systemic exposure of MBZ in donkeys were relatively lower compared with the other methylcarbamate benzimidazoles. Dose-dependent plasma dispositions of MBZ were observed at the increased dosage (10 mg/kg vs 20 mg/kg) in donkeys. MBZ was not detected in any milk samples at a dosage of 10 mg/kg. However, the parent drug reached 0.01 μg/ml peak milk concentration at 10.66 h and AUCmilk/AUCplasma value was 0.18 ± 0.02 at a dosage of 20 mg/kg bodyweight. This study indicated that per os administration of MBZ has a minimal disposition rate into the milk and may be used in lactating donkeys with zero milk-withdrawal period. The results of FECRT for both MBZ dosages were efficient (>95% efficacy) until day 28. This trial demonstrates that MBZ oral paste at horse dosage (10 mg/kg B.W.) was effective and safety for the treatment of Cyathostominae in donkeys. Therefore, similar dosage regimens of MBZ could be used for horses and

  6. Determination of bioequivalence of lomefloxacin tablets using urinary excretion data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shailesh A; Rathod, Ishwarsinh S; Savale, Shrinivas S; Patel, Dharmesh B

    2002-11-07

    The present study describes development of a sensitive and simple HPTLC method for estimation of lomefloxacin (LMF) in human urine. The drug was extracted using chloroform after adjusting the pH of urine to 7.0. Chloroform extract was spotted on silica gel 60 F(254) TLC plate and was developed in a mixture of n-butanol-methanol-ethyl acetate-6 M ammonia (4:2:3:2, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase and scanned at 290 nm. The peak for LMF resolved at R(F) of 0.40+/-0.02. The method was validated in terms of linearity (50-600 microgram/ml), precision, specificity and accuracy. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for LMF in urine were found to be 20 and 50 microgram/ml, respectively. The average recovery of LMF from urine was 91.93%. The proposed method was applied to generate urinary excretion data for LMF after administration of two market LMF tablet formulations (400 mg, Formulation R and Formulation T) to six healthy human volunteers in a two-treatment, open, crossover design. Various pharmacokinetic parameters like peak excretion rate ((dAU/dt)(max)), time for peak excretion rate (t(max)), AUC(0-48), AUC(0- infinity ), cumulative amount and % cumulative amount of LMF excreted, elimination half-life (t(1/2)), terminal elimination rate constant (k(el)) and overall elimination rate constant (K), were calculated for both the formulations. The average cumulative amounts of LMF excreted in urine after administration of Formulation R and Formulation T were found to be 321.60 mg (80.40% of dose) and 296.51 mg (74.13% of dose), respectively. The urinary excretion profiles of LMF upto 48 h for both the formulations were found to be similar. Statistical comparison (90% confidence intervals of ratio) of various pharmacokinetic parameters of Formulation T with that of Formulation R revealed that Formulation T is bioequivalent with Formulation R.

  7. Changes in urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two-thirds hepatectomy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H. S.; Jörning, G. G.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    This study followed the time course of urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two-thirds hepatectomy in rats. The excretion of both taurine and hypotaurine was elevated during 18 h following the hepatectomy, with maximal excretion during the first 6 h. Twelve and 24 h after partial

  8. Integrated analysis of water quality parameters for cost-effective faecal pollution management in river catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnane, Daniel Ekane; Ebdon, James Edward; Taylor, Huw David

    2011-03-01

    In many parts of the world, microbial contamination of surface waters used for drinking, recreation, and shellfishery remains a pervasive risk to human health, especially in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDC). However, the capacity to provide effective management strategies to break the waterborne route to human infection is often thwarted by our inability to identify the source of microbial contamination. Microbial Source Tracking (MST) has potential to improve water quality management in complex river catchments that are either routinely, or intermittently contaminated by faecal material from one or more sources, by attributing faecal loads to their human or non-human sources, and thereby supporting more rational approaches to microbial risk assessment. The River Ouse catchment in southeast England (U.K.) was used as a model with which to investigate the integration and application of a novel and simple MST approach to monitor microbial water quality over one calendar year, thereby encompassing a range of meteorological conditions. A key objective of the work was to develop simple low-cost protocols that could be easily replicated. Bacteriophages (viruses) capable of infecting a human specific strain of Bacteroides GB-124, and their correlation with presumptive Escherichia coli, were used to distinguish sources of faecal pollution. The results reported here suggest that in this river catchment the principal source of faecal pollution in most instances was non-human in origin. During storm events, presumptive E. coli and presumptive intestinal enterococci levels were 1.1-1.2 logs higher than during dry weather conditions, and levels of the faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) were closely associated with increased turbidity levels (presumptive E. coli and turbidity, r = 0.43). Spatio-temporal variation in microbial water quality parameters was accounted for by three principal components (67.6%). Cluster Analysis, reduced the fourteen monitoring sites to six

  9. Euterpe oleracea Mart.-Derived Polyphenols Protect Mice from Diet-Induced Obesity and Fatty Liver by Regulating Hepatic Lipogenesis and Cholesterol Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Paola Raquel B; da Costa, Cristiane A; de Bem, Graziele F; Cordeiro, Viviane S C; Santos, Izabelle B; de Carvalho, Lenize C R M; da Conceição, Ellen Paula S; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Ognibene, Dayane T; Sousa, Pergentino José C; Martins, Gabriel R; da Silva, Antônio Jorge R; de Moura, Roberto S; Resende, Angela C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a polyphenol-rich Açaí seed extract (ASE, 300 mg/kg-1d-1) on adiposity and hepatic steatosis in mice that were fed a high-fat (HF) diet and its underlying mechanisms based on hepatic lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. Four groups were studied: C57BL/6 mice that were fed with standard diet (10% fat, Control), 10% fat + ASE (ASE), 60% fat (HF), and 60% fat + ASE (HF + ASE) for 12 weeks. We evaluated the food intake, body weight gain, serum glucose and lipid profile, hepatic cholesterol and triacyglycerol (TG), hepatic expression of pAMPK, lipogenic proteins (SREBP-1c, pACC, ACC, HMG-CoA reductase) and cholesterol excretion transporters, ABCG5 and ABCG8. We also evaluated the steatosis in liver sections and oxidative stress. ASE reduced body weight gain, food intake, glucose levels, accumulation of cholesterol and TG in the liver, which was associated with a reduction of hepatic steatosis. The increased expressions of SREBP-1c and HMG-CoA reductase and reduced expressions of pAMPK and pACC/ACC in HF group were antagonized by ASE. The ABCG5 and ABCG8 transporters expressions were increased by the extract. The antioxidant effect of ASE was demonstrated in liver of HF mice by restoration of SOD, CAT and GPx activities and reduction of the increased levels of malondialdehyde and protein carbonylation. In conclusion, ASE substantially reduced the obesity and hepatic steatosis induced by HF diet by reducing lipogenesis, increasing cholesterol excretion and improving oxidative stress in the liver, providing a nutritional resource for prevention of obesity-related adiposity and hepatic steatosis.

  10. Brain fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Hisato; Yanagimoto, Masahiro; Goto, Yukio

    1994-01-01

    Recently CT and MR imaging have demonstrated that cerebral edema is present in cases of fat embolism syndrome. To simulate this we have made a model of brain-fat embolism in rats under MR imaging. In 20 rats, we did intravenous injection of heparinized blood, 1.5 ml·kg -1 taken from femoral bone marrow cavity. Twenty four hours after the injection, we examined the MR images (1.5 tesla, spin-echo method) of brains and histologic findings of brains and lungs were obtained. In 5 of 20 rats, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images were observed in the area of the unilateral cerebral cortex or hippocampus. These findings showed edema of the brains. They disappeared, however, one week later. Histologic examinations showed massive micro-fat emboli in capillaries of the deep cerebral cortex and substantia nigra, but no edematous findings of the brain were revealed in HE staining. In pulmonary arteries, we also found large fat emboli. We conclude that our model is a useful one for the study of brain fat embolism. (author)

  11. Data file on retention and excretion of inhaled radionuclides calculated using ICRP dosimetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigure, Nobuhito; Nakano, Takashi; Enomoto, Hiroko; Shimo, Michikuni; Inaba, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    The authors have computed whole-body or a specific organ content and the daily urinary and faecal excretion rate of some selected radionuclides following acute intake by inhalation and ingestion, where the ICRP new respiratory tract model (ICRP Publication 66) and the latest ICRP biokinetic models were applied. The results were compiled in a file of MS Excel. The file was tentatively called MONDAI for reference. MONDAI contains the data for all radionuclides in ICRP Publications 54 and 78 and, in addition, some other radionuclides which are important from the viewpoint of occupational exposure in nuclear industry, research and medicine. They are H-3, P-32, Cr-51, Mn-54, Fe-59, Co-57, Co-58, Co-60, Zn-65, Rb-86, Sr-85, Sr-89, Sr-90, Zr-95, Ru-106, Ag-110m, Sb-124, Sb-125, I-125, I-129, I-131, Cs-134, Cs-137, Ba-140, Ce-141, Ce-144, Hg-203, Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, Th-232, U-234, U-235, U-238, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Am-241, Cm-242, Cm-244 and Cf-252. The day-by-day data up to 1000 days and the data at every 10 days up to 10000 days are presented. The following ICRP default values for the physical characteristics of the radioactive aerosols were used: AMAD=5 micron, geometric SD=2.5, particle density = 3 g/cm 3 , particle shape factor = 1.5. The subject exposed to the aerosols is the ICRP reference worker doing light work: light exercise with the ventilation rate of 1.5 m 3 /h for 5.5 h + sitting with the ventilation rate of 0.54 m 3 /h for 2.5 h. MONDAI was originally made by Version 7.0 of MS Excel for Windows 95, but the file was saved in the form of Ver. 4.0 as well as Ver. 7.0. Therefore, if the user has Ver. 4.0 or an upper version, he can open the file and operate it. With the graph-wizard of MS Excel the user can easily make a diagram for the retention or daily excretion of a radionuclide of interest. The dose coefficient (Sv/Bq intake) of each radionuclide for each absorption type given in ICRP Publication 68 was also written in each sheet. Therefore

  12. Dietary alpha-cyclodextrin lowers LDL-C and alters plasma fatty acid profile in LDLr-KO mice on a high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Elke M.; Catherine Jen, K-L; Artiss, Joseph D.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2008-01-01

    High dietary intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, and elevated low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are some of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Alpha-cyclodextrin (α-CD) when given orally has been shown in rats to increase fecal saturated fat excretion, and to reduce blood total cholesterol levels in obese hypertriglyceridemic subjects with type 2 diabetes. In this study, the effects of dietary α-CD on lipid metabolism in LDL receptor knock-out (L...

  13. Relationship between plasma uridine and urinary urea excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, Tuneyoshi; Inokuchi, Taku; Tamada, Daisuke; Suda, Michio; Tsutsumi, Zenta; Okuda, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Asako; Takahashi, Sumio; Moriwaki, Yuji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-03-01

    To investigate whether the concentration of uridine in plasma is related to the urinary excretion of urea, 45 healthy male subjects with normouricemia and normal blood pressure were studied after providing informed consent. Immediately after collection of 24-hour urine, blood samples were drawn after an overnight fast except for water. The contents of ingested foods during the 24-hour urine collection period were described by the subjects and analyzed by a dietician. Simple regression analysis showed that plasma uridine was correlated with the urinary excretions of urea (R = 0.41, P urea. These results suggest that an increase in de novo pyrimidine synthesis leads to an increased concentration of uridine in plasma via nitrogen catabolism in healthy subjects with normouricemia and normal blood pressure. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion...... of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study...... on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20-59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses...

  15. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives in Yerli Kara cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Guecues, A. I.; Oezcan, H.; Ulutuerk, S.; Yaman, S.

    2000-01-01

    The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) was measured in four Yerli Kara bulls in two experiments, a fasting experiment lasting for 7 days and the other , where animals were given a diet containing 30% wheat straw and 70% compounded feed at four levels of intake (40,60,80 and 95% of voluntary feed intake). In the second experiment, which was carried out according to a 4x4 Latin Square design, four animals receiving 60 and 95% levels of intake were also given a single injection of 8- ''1''4C - uric acid via a jugular catheter. In Addition to the above two experiments the activity of xanthine oxidase and uricase in plasma, liver and intestinal mucosa obtained from Yerli Kara cattle was also determined.In the first experiment,fasting PD excretion averaged 0.691 (±0.053) mmol/kgW''0''.''7''5/d. Glomerular filtration rate GFR), tubular load and net re-absorption of allantoin between pre fasting and fasting were statistically significant (P<0.05). In the second experiment the recovery of injected 8 - ''1''4C - uric acid as total PD was 72.5 and 89.9% for 60 and 95% feeding levels, respectively. The average recovery was 81%. Plasma kinetics measured by 8 - ''1''4C - uric acid indicated that the total compartment pool size was 214.0 (±43.8) and 250.3 L (±29.5) for 60 and 95% feeding levels, respectively. GFR, tubular load and net re-absorption of uric acid and allantoin were not affected by feed intake. The allantoin : PD molar ratios changed between 0.78 to 0.93 for the four levels feed intake. There were significant correlations between PD excretion (expressed as mmol/d and μmol/kg W''0''.''7''5/d) and DDMI (kg/d and kg/kg W''0''.''7''5/d) and DOMI (kg/d)(r=0.99, P<0.01). The rate of PD excretion as a linear function of feed intake was 16.4 mmol/kg W''0''.''7''5 DDMI, 19.8 mmol/kg DDMI and 22.7 mmol/kg DOMI. Xanthine oxidase and uricase activities were; 1.34 (±0.72) and .44 (±0.05) and 0.13 (±0.03) and 0.08 (±0.03) unit/g fresh tissue in liver and

  16. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  17. [Renal excretion of total porphyrins and hippuric acid in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzke, J; Burck, D

    1986-09-01

    The amounts of total porphyrins, hippuric acid and creatinine, excreted in urine by adult male Wistar rats, exhibited normal distributions for hippuric acid and creatinine, but a bimodal distribution for total porphyrins. This typical distribution of total porphyrins was still observed when creatinine was used as reference parameter. In biochemical and toxicological experiments in rats, the tested parameters should be therefore be investigated for homogeneity.

  18. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, tissue distribution and excretion of tangeretin in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lun Hung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tangeretin, 4′,5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone, is one of the major polymethoxyflavones (PMFs existing in citrus fruits, particularly in the peels of sweet oranges and mandarins. Tangeretin has been reported to possess several beneficial bioactivities including anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and neuroprotective effects. To achieve a thorough understanding of the biological actions of tangeretin in vivo, our current study is designed to investigate the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, distribution and excretion of tangeretin in rats. After oral administration of 50 mg/kg bw tangeretin to rats, the Cmax, Tmax and t1/2 were 0.87 ± 0.33 μg/mL, 340.00 ± 48.99 min and 342.43 ± 71.27 min, respectively. Based on the area under the curves (AUC of oral and intravenous administration of tangeretin, calculated absolute oral bioavailability was 27.11%. During tissue distribution, maximum concentrations of tangeretin in the vital organs occurred at 4 or 8 h after oral administration. The highest accumulation of tangeretin was found in the kidney, lung and liver, followed by spleen and heart. In the gastrointestinal tract, maximum concentrations of tangeretin in the stomach and small intestine were found at 4 h, while in the cecum, colon and rectum, tangeretin reached the maximum concentrations at 12 h. Tangeretin excreted in the urine and feces was recovered within 48 h after oral administration, concentrations were only 0.0026% and 7.54%, respectively. These results suggest that tangeretin was mainly eliminated as metabolites. In conclusion, our study provides useful information regarding absorption, distribution, as well as excretion of tangeretin, which will provide a good base for studying the mechanism of its biological effects. Keywords: Tangeretin, Oral bioavailability, Pharmacokinetics, Tissue distribution, Excretion

  19. Effects of Gentamicin on Urinary Electrolyte Excretion in Admitted Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Falakolaflaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic widely used during the neonatal period. It is associated with nephrotoxic effects in neonates, including glomerular impairment and renal tubular dysfunction. Electrolyte balance is very important, especially in the sick premature neonate receiving aminoglycosides. The purpose of this study was early diagnosis of gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 23 neonates (11 full – term and 12 preterm with suspected sepsis who were admitted and treated with gentamicin. Blood and urine samples were collected before infusion and on the 3rd day of treatment. Serum and urine concentration of Na, K, creatinine (Cr and urine concentration of Ca were measured. Then fractional excretion of Na and K were estimated. Ca excretion was estimated as the UCa/UCr ratio. Then the collected data were analyzed using SPSS package.Results: In all neonates, increase in fractional excretion of Na and UCa/UCr, in the 3rd day of treatment were observed as compared to those of before infusion (P=0.01 and P=0.02 respectively. Serum creatinine levels decreased in all patients. Serum level of electrolytes during therapy was normal.Conclusion: The results of this study clearly demonstrate an effect of gentamicin infusion on renal sodium and calcium excretion. These results may be of clinical importance especially for sick preterm neonates receiving treatment with gentamicin. These babies are usually salt-losers and are also more susceptible to early onset hypocalcemia. Gentamicin can aggravate these complications.

  20. Study about excretion of 210 Po in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Azeredo, A.M.G. da.

    1988-01-01

    The urine of mines's workers are analysed to detect the presence of 210 Po. The results was compared with the workers and with a control population. Cigarettes samples was analysed two and confirmed the 210 presence. The control population individuals were divided in smokers and non smokers and them urine was investigated the influence of the smoke in the 210 Po excretion. (L.M.J.)

  1. Effects of habituation, research and ecotourism on faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in wild western lowland gorillas: Implications for conservation management

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shutt, K.; Heistermann, M.; Kasim, A.; Kalousová, B.; Profousová, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Fuh, T.; Dicky, J.-F.; Bopalanzognako, J.-B.; Setchell, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 172, April (2014), s. 72-79 ISSN 0006-3207 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Conservation * Ecotourism * Faecal-glucocorticoids * Habituation * Primate * Stress * Wildlife Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.762, year: 2014

  2. Faecal bacterial composition in dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in faeces in comparison with nonshedding cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaevska, Marija; Videnska, Petra; Sedlar, Karel; Bartejsova, Iva; Kralova, Alena; Slana, Iva

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in the faecal microbiota of dairy cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in comparison with noninfected cows from the same herds. Faecal samples from cows in 4 herds were tested for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by real-time PCR, and faecal bacterial populations were analysed by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The most notable differences between shedding and nonshedding cows were an increase in the genus Psychrobacter and a decrease in the genera Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, and Bifidobacterium in cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The present study is the first to report the faecal microbial composition in dairy cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

  3. Whites excrete a water load more rapidly than blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weder, Alan B; Gleiberman, Lillian; Sachdeva, Amit

    2009-04-01

    A recent report demonstrated a racial difference in response to furosemide compatible with increased ion reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in blacks. Urinary dilution is another function of the loop-diuretic-sensitive Na,K,2Cl cotransporter in the thick ascending limb, and racial differences in urinary diluting capacity have not been reported previously. We assessed diluting segment (cortical thick ascending limb and distal convoluted tubule) function in black and white normotensives in 2 studies using a water-loading approach. In both studies, we found that whites excreted a water load more rapidly than blacks. In the first study, the final free water clearance rates (mean+/-SD) were 7.3+/-4.7 mL/min in whites (n=17, 7 females and 10 males) and 3.8+/-3.6 mL/min in blacks (n=14, 9 females and 5 males; Pwater clearance rates were 8.3+/-2.6 mL/min in whites (n=17, 8 females and 9 males) and 6.4+/-1.8 mL/min in blacks (n=11, 8 females and 3 males; Pwater excretion. We conclude that our observations are most consistent with a lower capacity of ion reabsorption in the renal diluting segment in blacks. Slower excretion of an acute water load may have been an advantage during natural selection of humans living in arid, hot climates.

  4. Distribution and Excretion of Am-241 in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alatas, Z; Nurhayati, S; Rahardjo, T

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the activity content of Am-241 administered oral y in several organs and tissues of white rats including the excretion had been carried out. The observation of Am-241 activity was carried out through surgery and for the excretion of the radionuclide by collecting urine and faces. The surgeries were conducted on the 0 (6 hours), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 15 and 30th day post administration of 2.965 kBq Am-241, whereas the urine and faces collections were done every other day for 30 days using metabolism cage. The result indicated that the distribution of Am-241 which found in all tested organs/tissues with various fraction is considered as the initial distribution of Am-241 in rats. The content of americium in gastrointestinal tract and lung is relatively high within the first week post contamination. And, americium activities in other organs/tissues are various with time. The excretion of Am-241 is higher via feces than that of urin, i.e up to 20% in 30 days

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteinase A excretion and wine making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lulu; Chen, Yefu; Du, Yongjing; Wang, Xibin; Guo, Xuewu; Dong, Jian; Xiao, Dongguang

    2017-11-09

    Proteinase A (PrA), the major protease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, plays an essential role in zymogen activation, sporulation, and other physiological processes in vivo. The extracellular secretion of PrA often occurs during alcoholic fermentation, especially in the later stages when the yeast cells are under stress conditions, and affects the quality and safety of fermented products. Thus, the mechanism underlying PrA excretion must be explored to improve the quality and safety of fermented products. This paper briefly introduces the structure and physiological function of PrA. Two transport routes of PrA, namely, the Golgi-to-vacuole pathway and the constitutive Golgi-to-plasma membrane pathway, are also discussed. Moreover, the research history and developments on the mechanism of extracellular PrA secretion are described. In addition, it is briefly discussed that calcium homeostasis plays an important role in the secretory pathway of proteins, implying that the regulation of PrA delivery to the plasma membrane requires the involvement of calcium ion. Finally, this review focuses on the effects of PrA excretion on wine making (including Chinese rice wine, grape wine, and beer brewage) and presents strategies to control PrA excretion.

  6. Does mercury vapor exposure increase urinary selenium excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, T; Suzuki, T; Himeno, S; Watanabe, C; Satoh, H; Shimada, Y

    1985-01-01

    It has been reported that an increase of urinary selenium excretion may occur as a result of mercury vapor exposure. However, experimental data regarding the interaction between mercury vapor and selenium have yielded ambiguous results about the retention and elimination of selenium due to mercury vapor exposure and the decrease of selenium excretion due to mercury in the form of mercuric mercury (Hg/sup 2 +/). In this study, the authors measured urinary mercury and selenium in workers with or without exposure to mercury vapor to determine whether or not urinary selenium excretion was increased as a result of mercury vapor exposure. Urine samples were collected from 141 workers, 71 men and 70 women, whose extent of exposure to mercury vapor varied according to their job sites. Workers were divided into five groups according to their urinary mercury levels. The mercury level in group I was less than 2.8 nmol/mmol creatinine which means that this group was mostly free from mercury exposure. The average age was almost identical among the groups. For both sexes, group V (with the highest urinary mercury level) had the lowest urinary selenium level, but one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) did not reveal any significant variations of urinary selenium with urinary mercury levels; however, a weak but significant negative correlation between mercury and selenium was found in men.

  7. Effect of vacuum packing and temperature on survival and hatching of strongyle eggs in faecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengupta, Mita Eva; Thapa, Sundar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2016-01-01

    Strongyle eggs of helminths of livestock usually hatch within a few hours or days after deposition with faeces. This poses a problem when faecal sampling is performed in the field. As oxygen is needed for embryonic development, it is recommended to reduce air supply during transport and refrigerate....... The present study therefore investigated the combined effect of vacuum packing and temperature on survival of strongyle eggs and their subsequent ability to hatch and develop into L3. Fresh faecal samples were collected from calves infected with Cooperia oncophora, pigs infected with Oesophagostomum dentatum......, and horses infected with Strongylus vulgaris and cyathostomins. The samples were allocated into four treatments: vacuum packing and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 V and 20 V); normal packing in plastic gloves closed with a loose knot and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 N and 20 N). The number of eggs per gram...

  8. Effects of feeding polydextrose on faecal characteristics, microbiota and fermentative end products in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Wolff, Amanda K; Swanson, Kelly S

    2012-08-01

    Polydextrose is a potential prebiotic, but has not been well tested in dogs. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the effects of polydextrose on faecal characteristics, microbial populations and fermentative end products in healthy adult dogs. A total of eight adult hound dogs (3.5 (sem 0.5) years; 20 (sem 0.5) kg) were randomly allotted to one of four test diets containing the following concentrations of polydextrose: (1) 0 % (control); (2) 0.5 %; (3) 1.0 %; or (4) 1.5 %. A Latin square design was used, with each treatment period lasting 14 d (days 0-10 adaptation; days 11-14 fresh and total faecal collection). All dogs were fed to maintain body weight. Data were evaluated for linear and quadratic effects using SAS software. Although apparent total tract DM digestibility was unaffected, total tract crude protein digestibility tended to decrease (P dogs.

  9. Immunochemical faecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syful Azlie, M F; Hassan, M R; Junainah, S; Rugayah, B

    2015-02-01

    A systematic review on the effectiveness and costeffectiveness of Immunochemical faecal occult IFOBT for CRC screening was carried out. A total of 450 relevant titles were identified, 41 abstracts were screened and 18 articles were included in the results. There was fair level of retrievable evidence to suggest that the sensitivity and specificity of IFOBT varies with the cut-off point of haemoglobin, whereas the diagnostic accuracy performance was influenced by high temperature and haemoglobin stability. A screening programme using IFOBT can be effective for prevention of advanced CRC and reduced mortality. There was also evidence to suggest that IFOBT is cost-effective in comparison with no screening, whereby a two-day faecal collection method was found to be costeffective as a means of screening for CRC. Based on the review, quantitative IFOBT method can be used in Malaysia as a screening test for CRC. The use of fully automated IFOBT assay would be highly desirable.

  10. Applicability of Commercially Available ELISA Kits for the Quantification of Faecal Immunoreactive Corticosterone Metabolites in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Kalliokoski, Otto; Teilmann, Anne Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background: Commercially available ELISA kits are popular among investigators that quantify faecal corticosterone or cortisol metabolites (FCM) for stress assessment in animals. However, in faeces, these assays mainly detect immunoreactive glucocorticoid metabolites. Since different assays contain......: The present study was designed to investigate corticosterone (CORT) in serum and FCM levels in faeces of laboratory mice, as quantified in four different ELISA kits (DRG EIA-4164, Demeditec DEV9922, Enzo ADI-900-097 and Cayman EIA kit 500655). Assay kits were chosen based on the origin of the antibody...... assays, in both groups of mice. In faecal samples, there was no consistent positive correlation between the levels detected in the four assays and the measured concentration of FCM also differed between assays. Conclusion: Whereas commercially available CORT ELISAs are frequently successfully used...

  11. Detection of anthelmintic resistance in sheep and goat against fenbendazole by faecal egg count reduction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramandeep; Bal, M S; Singla, L D; Kaur, Paramjit

    2017-06-01

    Anthelmintic resistance against commonly used anthelmintic fenbendazole was evaluated by employing faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in naturally occurring gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in the semi organized sheep and goat farms of Ludhiana and Amritsar districts. A total of 80 animals (20 each for sheep and goat in both districts) were randomly selected and their faecal samples were examined by qualitative and quantitative parasitological techniques. Results indicate presence of high level of resistance against fenbendazole in both sheep and goat population of Ludhiana and Amritsar districts. More resistance was observed in the GI nematodes from animals reared in Amritsar district as compared to Ludhiana district. The level of anthelmintic resistance observed was apparently more in sheep than goats.

  12. Effect of chito-oligosaccharides over human faecal microbiota during fermentation in batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Aparicio, Inmaculada; Mengíbar, Marian; Heras, Angeles

    2016-02-10

    Chitosan with high number of deacetylated units, its reacetylated derivative and COS obtained through an enzymatic treatment with chitosanase were tested in pH controlled batch cultures to investigate the ability of the human faecal microbiota to utilise them. Chitosan derivatives with high number of deacetylated units decreased the bacterial populations: Bifidobacterium spp., Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides, C. Histolyticum and Bacteroides/Prevotella. On the other hand, chitosan derivatives with high content of acetylated residues maintained the tested bacterial groups and could increase Lactobacillus/Enterococcus. Regarding short chain fatty acids (SCFA), only low Mw COS increased the production in similar levels than fructo-oligossacharides (FOS). The acetylated chitosans and their COS do not appear as potential prebiotics but did not affect negatively the faecal microbiota, while derivatives with high number of deacetylated units could induce a colonic microbiota imbalance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptation of Escherichia coli traversing from the faecal environment to the urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Stegger, Marc; Godfrey, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) causing urinary tract infections (UTI) are found in the patient’s own gut flora, but only limited knowledge is available on the potential adaptation that may occur in the bacteria in order to traverse the perineum and successfully...... infect the urinary tract. Here, matching pairs of faecal and UTI isolates from 42 patients were compared pairwise using in-depth whole-genome sequencing to investigate whether genetic changes were evident for successful colonization in these two different environments. The identified non...... in virulence potential were observed in a mouse UTI model for five matching faecal and UTI isolates with or without mutations in antigen 43 and haemolysin B. Variations in plasmid content were observed in only four of the 42 pairs. Although, we observed mutations in known UTI virulence genes for a few pairs...

  14. Effect of exercise on apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and faecal recovery of ADL and TiO2 in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafstra, F J W C; van Doorn, D A; Schonewille, J T; Roelfsema, E; Westermann, C M; Dansen, O; Jacobs, M; Lee, J-Y; Spronck, E A; Blok, M C; Hendriks, W H

    2018-03-07

    Exercise and physical training are known to affect gastrointestinal function and digestibility in horses and can lead to inaccurate estimates of nutrient and energy digestibility when markers are used. The effect of exercise on apparent nutrient digestibility and faecal recoveries of ADL and TiO2 was studied in six Welsh pony geldings subjected to either a low- (LI) or high-intensity (HI) exercise regime according to a cross-over design. Ponies performing LI exercise were walked once per day for 45 min in a horse walker (5 km/h) for 47 consecutive days. Ponies submitted to HI exercise were gradually trained for the same 47 days according a standardized protocol. Throughout the experiment, the ponies received a fixed level of feed and the daily rations consisted of 4.7 kg DM of grass hay and 0.95 kg DM of concentrate. The diet was supplemented with minerals, vitamins and TiO2 (3.0 g Ti/day). Total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM), CP, crude fat, NDF, ADF, starch, sugar and energy was determined with the total faeces collection (TFC) method. In addition, DM and OM digestibility was estimated using internal ADL and the externally supplemented Ti as markers. Urine was collected on the final 2 days of each experimental period. Exercise did not affect apparent digestibility of CP, crude fat, starch and sugar. Digestibility of DM (DMD), OM (OMD), ADF and NDF tended to be lower and DE was decreased when ponies received the HI exercise regime. For all treatments combined, mean faecal recoveries of ADL and Ti were 87.8±1.7% and 99.3±1.7%, respectively. Ti was not detected in the urine, indicating that intestinal integrity was maintained with exercise. Dry matter digestibility estimated with the TFC, ADL and Ti for ponies subjected to LI exercise were 66.3%, 60.3% and 64.8%, respectively, while DMD for HI ponies were 64.2%, 60.3% and 65.2%, respectively. In conclusion, physical exercise has an influence on the GE digestibility of the feed in ponies provided

  15. Blinded comparison of faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowlam, S.; Vinayagam, R.; Khan, U.; Marsden, S.; Minty, I.; Moncur, P.; Bain, I.; Yiannakou, Y.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To compare faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation. Methods: The study group was a convenience sample of patients attending the Durham Constipation Clinic. All patients underwent transit studies according to an established protocol, and severity of constipation was assessed contemporaneously using a validated questionnaire (PAC-SYM). Transit studies were performed using radio-opaque markers that were ingested over 3 consecutive days, with a radiograph taken on the fourth day. Digital images of the radiograph were digitally altered to remove all traces of the transit markers without affecting the underlying pattern of faecal loading. Four observers assessed faecal loading independently; two clinicians (C1 and C2) and two radiologists (R1 and R2). C1 and R1 used a previously described formal scoring method of assessing faecal loading, whereas C2 and R2 assessed the images as if they were in a clinic or reporting session, grading the faecal loading as mild, moderate, or severe. Results: One hundred patients were recruited out of 186 presenting in a 2-year period. All patients completed assessments. The correlation between observers was only fair to moderate (r ranging from 0.34-0.51). There were some surprisingly marked disagreements in 10-18% of assessments. The correlation between faecal loading and transit was weak for all observers (r ranging from 0.261-0.311). Symptom severity did not correlate with faecal loading. Conclusion: These results suggest that there is considerable inter-observer variation in the radiological assessment of faecal loading, irrespective of the training or method used by the observer, and that there is very poor correlation with colonic transit. The diagnosis of constipation, and the assessment of severity, is best performed clinically

  16. Blinded comparison of faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlam, S. [Sunderland Royal Hospital, Sunderland (United Kingdom); Vinayagam, R.; Khan, U.; Marsden, S.; Minty, I.; Moncur, P.; Bain, I. [University Hospital of North Durham, Durham (United Kingdom); Yiannakou, Y.J. [University Hospital of North Durham, Durham (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yan.yiannakou@cddft.nhs.uk

    2008-12-15

    Aim: To compare faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation. Methods: The study group was a convenience sample of patients attending the Durham Constipation Clinic. All patients underwent transit studies according to an established protocol, and severity of constipation was assessed contemporaneously using a validated questionnaire (PAC-SYM). Transit studies were performed using radio-opaque markers that were ingested over 3 consecutive days, with a radiograph taken on the fourth day. Digital images of the radiograph were digitally altered to remove all traces of the transit markers without affecting the underlying pattern of faecal loading. Four observers assessed faecal loading independently; two clinicians (C1 and C2) and two radiologists (R1 and R2). C1 and R1 used a previously described formal scoring method of assessing faecal loading, whereas C2 and R2 assessed the images as if they were in a clinic or reporting session, grading the faecal loading as mild, moderate, or severe. Results: One hundred patients were recruited out of 186 presenting in a 2-year period. All patients completed assessments. The correlation between observers was only fair to moderate (r ranging from 0.34-0.51). There were some surprisingly marked disagreements in 10-18% of assessments. The correlation between faecal loading and transit was weak for all observers (r ranging from 0.261-0.311). Symptom severity did not correlate with faecal loading. Conclusion: These results suggest that there is considerable inter-observer variation in the radiological assessment of faecal loading, irrespective of the training or method used by the observer, and that there is very poor correlation with colonic transit. The diagnosis of constipation, and the assessment of severity, is best performed clinically.

  17. Environmental impact on faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi)

    OpenAIRE

    Yarnell, K; Walker, SL

    2017-01-01

    The non-invasive nature of faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) assessment means that sample collection is on an opportunistic basis and samples cannot always be collected immediately upon defection during field studies. Faeces that have been exposed to heat and moisturemay not accurately reflect levels of FGM. Our study exposed male (n=3) and female (n=3) Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) faeces to six environmental conditions to simulate a range of weather and seasonal patterns (temperate clim...

  18. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples

    OpenAIRE

    Calvani, Nichola Eliza Davies; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Bush, Russell David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-pat...

  19. Subclinical laminitis and its association with pO2 and faecal alterations: Isikli, Aydin experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Akin; Deniz Alic Ural; Mehmet Gultekin; Kerem Ural

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. The aim of this field trial was to investigate the relationships among subclinical laminitis, hematological, ruminal and faecal alterations. Materials and Methods. To this extent dairy cows presenting subclinical laminitis (n=11) and to those of other healthy cows without laminitis (n=10) were enrolled and assigned into two groups. All animals were receiving the same daily ration formulated to contain 47% cornsilage and 18% hay, mainly. Effects of subclinical laminitis chal...

  20. Effects of cattle manure on erosion rates and runoff water pollution by faecal coliforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M C; Quinton, J N; Tyrrel, S F

    2006-01-01

    The large quantities of slurry and manure that are produced annually in many areas in which cattle are raised could be an important source of organic matter and nutrients for agriculture. However, the benefits of waste recycling may be partially offset by the risk of water pollution associated with runoff from the fields to which slurry or manure has been applied. In this paper, the effects of cattle manure application on soil erosion rates and runoff and on surface water pollution by faecal coliforms are analysed. Rainfall simulations at a rate of 70 mm h(-1) were conducted in a sandy loam soil packed into soil flumes (2.5m long x 1m wide) at a bulk density of 1400 kg m(-3), with and without cattle slurry manure applied on the surface. For each simulation, sediment and runoff rates were analysed and in those simulations with applied slurry, presumptive faecal coliform (PFC) concentrations in the runoff were evaluated. The application of slurry on the soil surface appeared to have a protective effect on the soils, reducing soil detachment by up to 70% but increasing runoff volume by up to 30%. This practice implies an important source of pollution for surface waters especially if rainfall takes place within a short period after application. The concentrations of micro-organisms (presumptive faecal coliforms (PFCs)) found in water runoff ranged from 1.9 x 10(4) to 1.1 x 10(6) PFC 100mL(-1), depending on the initial concentration in the slurry, and they were particularly high during the first phases of the rainfall event. The result indicates a strong relationship between the faecal coliforms transported by runoff and the organic matter in the sediment.

  1. Incidence of interval cancers in faecal immunochemical test colorectal screening programmes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Carretta, Elisa; Mangone, Lucia; Baracco, Susanna; Serraino, Diego; Zorzi, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    Objective In Italy, colorectal screening programmes using the faecal immunochemical test from ages 50 to 69 every two years have been in place since 2005. We aimed to measure the incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test, and compare this with the pre-screening incidence of colorectal cancer. Methods Using data on colorectal cancers diagnosed in Italy from 2000 to 2008 collected by cancer registries in areas with active screening programmes, we identified cases that occurred within 24 months of negative screening tests. We used the number of tests with a negative result as a denominator, grouped by age and sex. Proportional incidence was calculated for the first and second year after screening. Results Among 579,176 and 226,738 persons with negative test results followed up at 12 and 24 months, respectively, we identified 100 interval cancers in the first year and 70 in the second year. The proportional incidence was 13% (95% confidence interval 10-15) and 23% (95% confidence interval 18-25), respectively. The estimate for the two-year incidence is 18%, which was slightly higher in females (22%; 95% confidence interval 17-26), and for proximal colon (22%; 95% confidence interval 16-28). Conclusion The incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test in routine population-based colorectal cancer screening was less than one-fifth of the expected incidence. This is direct evidence that the faecal immunochemical test-based screening programme protocol has high sensitivity for cancers that will become symptomatic.

  2. Travel-associated faecal colonization with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostholm-Balkhed, Ase; Tärnberg, Maria; Nilsson, Maud; Nilsson, Lennart E; Hanberger, Håkan; Hällgren, Anita

    2013-09-01

    To study the acquisition of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) among the faecal flora during travel, with a focus on risk factors, antibiotic susceptibility and ESBL-encoding genes. An observational prospective multicentre cohort study of individuals attending vaccination clinics in south-east Sweden was performed, in which the submission of faecal samples and questionnaires before and after travelling outside Scandinavia was requested. Faecal samples were screened for ESBL-PE by culturing on ChromID ESBL and an in-house method. ESBL-PE was confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Susceptibility testing was performed with the Etest. Individuals who acquired ESBL-PE during travel (travel-associated carriers) were compared with non-carriers regarding risk factors, and unadjusted and adjusted ORs after manual stepwise elimination were calculated using logistic regression. Of 262 enrolled individuals, 2.4% were colonized before travel. Among 226 evaluable participants, ESBL-PE was detected in the post-travel samples from 68 (30%) travellers. The most important risk factor in the final model was the geographic area visited: Indian subcontinent (OR 24.8, P Asia (OR 8.63, P < 0.001) and Africa north of the equator (OR 4.94, P = 0.002). Age and gastrointestinal symptoms also affected the risk significantly. Multiresistance was seen in 77 (66%) of the ESBL-PE isolates, predominantly a combination of reduced susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and aminoglycosides. The most common species and ESBL-encoding gene were Escherichia coli (90%) and CTX-M (73%), respectively. Acquisition of multiresistant ESBL-PE among the faecal flora during international travel is common. The geographical area visited has the highest impact on ESBL-PE acquisition.

  3. Measuring the gut microbiome in birds: Comparison of faecal and cloacal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videvall, Elin; Strandh, Maria; Engelbrecht, Anel; Cloete, Schalk; Cornwallis, Charlie K

    2018-05-01

    The gut microbiomes of birds and other animals are increasingly being studied in ecological and evolutionary contexts. Numerous studies on birds and reptiles have made inferences about gut microbiota using cloacal sampling; however, it is not known whether the bacterial community of the cloaca provides an accurate representation of the gut microbiome. We examined the accuracy with which cloacal swabs and faecal samples measure the microbiota in three different parts of the gastrointestinal tract (ileum, caecum, and colon) using a case study on juvenile ostriches, Struthio camelus, and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing. We found that faeces were significantly better than cloacal swabs in representing the bacterial community of the colon. Cloacal samples had a higher abundance of Gammaproteobacteria and fewer Clostridia relative to the gut and faecal samples. However, both faecal and cloacal samples were poor representatives of the microbial communities in the caecum and ileum. Furthermore, the accuracy of each sampling method in measuring the abundance of different bacterial taxa was highly variable: Bacteroidetes was the most highly correlated phylum between all three gut sections and both methods, whereas Actinobacteria, for example, was only strongly correlated between faecal and colon samples. Based on our results, we recommend sampling faeces, whenever possible, as this sample type provides the most accurate assessment of the colon microbiome. The fact that neither sampling technique accurately portrayed the bacterial community of the ileum nor the caecum illustrates the difficulty in noninvasively monitoring gut bacteria located further up in the gastrointestinal tract. These results have important implications for the interpretation of avian gut microbiome studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Faecal nitrogen: a potential indicator of red and roe deer diet quality in forest habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamler, Jiří; Homolka, Miloslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, 1-2 (2005), s. 89-98 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/99/D053; GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : free-living ungulates * faecal indicators * diet quality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.585, year: 2005 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/54/1-2/89-98.pdf

  5. Modeling of Faecal Contamination in Water from Catchment to Shellfish Growing Area

    OpenAIRE

    Bougeard, Morgane; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Perenne, Nicolas; Le Guyader, Soizick; Pommepuy, Monique

    2009-01-01

    During rainstorms, watersheds can introduce large amounts of faecal pollution into the rivers and sea, leading to shellfish contamination. In this study, we assessed Escherichia coli fluxes from a catchment, and their impact on estuarine water quality, using two assembled models. For the catchment, the agro-hydrological model SWAT was implemented integrating land uses, soil, topography, rainfall and other climatic data on Daoulas watershed (France). Initially, the SWAT model was calibrated an...

  6. Lycopene, Lutein and Zeaxanthin May Reduce Faecal Blood, Mucus and Pus but not Abdominal Pain in Individuals with Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Zakrzewska, Paulina; Włodarek, Dariusz; Lech, Gustaw

    2016-01-01

    Background: The main symptom of ulcerative colitis is diarrhoea, which is often accompanied by painful tenesmus and faecal blood and mucus. It sometimes co-occurs with abdominal pain, fever, feeling of fatigue, loss of appetite and weight loss. Some dietary factors have been indicated as important in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The aim of the study was to analyse the association between retinoid intake (total vitamin A, retinol, β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin) and ulcerative colitis symptoms (abdominal pain, faecal blood, faecal mucus, faecal pus) in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission. Methods: Assessment of diet was based on self-reported data from each patient’s dietary records taken over a period of three typical, random days (2 weekdays and 1 day of the weekend). Results: A total of 56 individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission (19 males and 37 females) were recruited for the study. One in every four individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission was characterised as having inadequate vitamin A intake. Higher lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin intakes in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission were associated with lower faecal blood, mucus and pus but not with lower incidence of abdominal pain. Higher carotene intake in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission may contribute to higher incidence of faecal mucus. Conclusions: Optimising intake of specific retinoids may enhance disease control in individuals with ulcerative colitis. Prospective studies, including patient reported and objective outcomes, are required to confirm this. PMID:27706028

  7. Male commuters in north and south England: risk factors for the presence of faecal bacteria on hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donachie Peter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study found that the prevalence of contamination with bacteria of faecal-origin on the hands of men differed across UK cities, with a general trend of increased contamination in northern cities. The aim of this study was to (1 confirm the north-south trend (2 identify causes for the trend. Methods Hand swabs from commuters (n = 308 at train stations in 4 cities were tested for the presence of faecal bacteria. Results The prevalence of hand contamination with faecal bacteria was again higher in cities in the north compared to the south (5% in London, 4% in Birmingham, 10% in Liverpool and 19% in Newcastle. Contamination risk decreased with age and better personal hygiene (self-reported. Soil contact and shaking hands increased contamination with faecal bacteria. However, in multivariable analysis, none of these factors fully explained the variation in contamination across cities. Conclusion The study confirmed the north-south differences in faecal contamination of hands without finding a clear cause for the trend. Faecal contamination of hands was associated with personal hygiene indicators suggesting that microbiological testing may contribute to evaluating hygiene promotion campaigns.

  8. Lycopene, Lutein and Zeaxanthin May Reduce Faecal Blood, Mucus and Pus but not Abdominal Pain in Individuals with Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Zakrzewska, Paulina; Włodarek, Dariusz; Lech, Gustaw

    2016-09-30

    The main symptom of ulcerative colitis is diarrhoea, which is often accompanied by painful tenesmus and faecal blood and mucus. It sometimes co-occurs with abdominal pain, fever, feeling of fatigue, loss of appetite and weight loss. Some dietary factors have been indicated as important in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The aim of the study was to analyse the association between retinoid intake (total vitamin A, retinol, β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin) and ulcerative colitis symptoms (abdominal pain, faecal blood, faecal mucus, faecal pus) in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission. Assessment of diet was based on self-reported data from each patient's dietary records taken over a period of three typical, random days (2 weekdays and 1 day of the weekend). A total of 56 individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission (19 males and 37 females) were recruited for the study. One in every four individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission was characterised as having inadequate vitamin A intake. Higher lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin intakes in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission were associated with lower faecal blood, mucus and pus but not with lower incidence of abdominal pain. Higher carotene intake in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission may contribute to higher incidence of faecal mucus. Optimising intake of specific retinoids may enhance disease control in individuals with ulcerative colitis. Prospective studies, including patient reported and objective outcomes, are required to confirm this.

  9. Faecal incontinence after chemoradiotherapy in anal cancer survivors: Long-term results of a national cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, Anne Gry; Guren, Marianne G.; Vonen, Barthold; Wanderås, Eva H.; Frykholm, Gunilla; Wilsgaard, Tom; Dahl, Olav; Balteskard, Lise

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the prevalence and severity of faecal incontinence amongst anal cancer survivors after chemoradiotherapy. Material and methods: Anal cancer survivors from a complete, unselected, national cohort, minimum 2-years follow-up, were invited to a cross-sectional study. The St. Mark’s incontinence score was used to evaluate occurrence and degree of faecal incontinence the last four weeks. The results were compared to age- and sex-matched volunteers from the general population. Results: Of 199 invited survivors and 1211volunteers, 66% and 21%, respectively, signed informed consent. The survivors had significantly higher St. Mark’s score than the volunteers (mean 9.7 vs. 1.1, p < 0.001). Incontinence of stool of any degree was reported by 43% vs. 5% (OR 4.0, CI 2.73–6.01), and urgency was reported by 64% vs. 6% (OR 6.6, CI 4.38–9.90) of the survivors and volunteers, respectively. Only 29% of those with leakage of liquid stool used constipating drugs. Survivors of locally advanced tumours had a higher incontinence score (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Moderate to severe faecal incontinence is common amongst anal cancer survivors. Post-treatment follow-up should include the evaluation of continence, and incontinent survivors should be offered better symptom management and multidisciplinary approach if simple measures are insufficient

  10. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-10-29

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment.

  11. Raw meat based diet influences faecal microbiome and end products of fermentation in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Misa; Dal Monego, Simeone; Conte, Giuseppe; Sgorlon, Sandy; Stefanon, Bruno

    2017-02-28

    Dietary intervention studies are required to deeper understand the variability of gut microbial ecosystem in healthy dogs under different feeding conditions and to improve diet formulations. The aim of the study was to investigate in dogs the influence of a raw based diet supplemented with vegetable foods on faecal microbiome in comparison with extruded food. Eight healthy adult Boxer dogs were recruited and randomly divided in two experimental blocks of 4 individuals. Dogs were regularly fed a commercial extruded diet (RD) and starting from the beginning of the trial, one group received the raw based diet (MD) and the other group continued to be fed with the RD diet (CD) for a fortnight. After 14 days, the two groups were inverted, the CD group shifted to the MD and the MD shifted to the CD, for the next 14 days. Faeces were collected at the beginning of the study (T0), after 14 days (T14) before the change of diet and at the end of experimental period (T28) for DNA extraction and analysis of metagenome by sequencing 16SrRNA V3 and V4 regions, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), lactate and faecal score. A decreased proportion of Lactobacillus, Paralactobacillus (P diet significantly (P diet composition modifies faecal microbial composition and end products of fermentation. The administration of MD diet promoted a more balanced growth of bacterial communities and a positive change in the readouts of healthy gut functions in comparison to RD diet.

  12. Occurrence of faecal contamination in households along the US-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L; Mena, K D; Mota, L C; Ortiz, M; Behravesh, C B; Gibbs, S G; Bristol, J R; Mayberry, L; Cardenas, V M

    2008-06-01

    The study aim was to determine the presence of total and faecal coliforms on kitchen surfaces, in tap water and on the hands of caregivers in households on both sides of the US-Mexico border. Samples were collected in 135 randomly selected households in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas. Different surfaces throughout the kitchen and head of households' hands were sampled using sterile cotton swabs moistened in D/E neutralizing solution. Sponge/dishcloth and drinking water samples were also obtained. Total and faecal coliforms were enumerated on m-Endo LES and mFC respectively. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water samples were enumerated in accordance with the Quanti-Tray method. Sponge/dishcloth samples were the most commonly contaminated kitchen sites, followed by countertops and cutting boards. We recovered faecal coliforms from 14% of the hands of child caregivers, and this indicator was moderately associated with self-reported failure to wash hands after using the toilet (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 0.9, 11.1). Hand washing should continue to be emphasized, and additional interventions should be directed to specific kitchen areas, such as sponges/dishcloths, tables/countertops and cutting boards. There is a need for additional interventions regarding kitchen sanitation.

  13. The contribution of simple random sampling to observed variations in faecal egg counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Paul R; Paul, Michaela; Lewis, Fraser I

    2012-09-10

    It has been over 100 years since the classical paper published by Gosset in 1907, under the pseudonym "Student", demonstrated that yeast cells suspended in a fluid and measured by a haemocytometer conformed to a Poisson process. Similarly parasite eggs in a faecal suspension also conform to a Poisson process. Despite this there are common misconceptions how to analyse or interpret observations from the McMaster or similar quantitative parasitic diagnostic techniques, widely used for evaluating parasite eggs in faeces. The McMaster technique can easily be shown from a theoretical perspective to give variable results that inevitably arise from the random distribution of parasite eggs in a well mixed faecal sample. The Poisson processes that lead to this variability are described and illustrative examples of the potentially large confidence intervals that can arise from observed faecal eggs counts that are calculated from the observations on a McMaster slide. Attempts to modify the McMaster technique, or indeed other quantitative techniques, to ensure uniform egg counts are doomed to failure and belie ignorance of Poisson processes. A simple method to immediately identify excess variation/poor sampling from replicate counts is provided. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Recent perspectives on the relations between faecal mutagenicity, genotoxicity and diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eGratz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is an essential component of the genesis of colonic cancer. Gut microbial products and food components are thought to be principally responsible for the damage that initiates disease progression. Modified Ames tests and Comet assays have been developed for measuring mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Their relevance to oncogenesis remains to be confirmed, as does the relative importance of different mutagenic and genotoxic compounds present in faecal water and the bacteria involved in their metabolism. Dietary intervention studies provide clues to the likely risks of oncogenesis. High-protein diets lead to increases in N-nitroso compounds in faecal water and greater DNA damage as measured by the Comet assay, for example. Other dietary interventions, such as non-digestible carbohydrates and probiotics, may lead to lower faecal genotoxicity. In order to make recommendations to the general public, we must develop a better understanding of how genotoxic compounds are formed in the colon, how accurate the Ames and Comet assays are, and how diet affects genotoxicity.

  15. PCR Screening of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Faecal Samples from Australian and Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravensdale, Joshua T; Xian, Darren Ten Wei; Wei, Chooi Ming; Lv, Quanjun; Wen, Xiajian; Guo, Jing; Coorey, Ranil; LeSouëf, Peter; Lu, Fengmin; Zhang, Brad; Dykes, Gary A

    2018-03-31

    Recent public awareness campaigns on the risk of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microbes has placed pressure on governments to enforce stricter antimicrobial stewardship policies on the hospital and agricultural industry. This study aimed to screen faecal samples from Australian and Chinese children for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes to identify demographics at risk of carriage of these genes and examine antimicrobial stewardship policies from the two countries which may influence carriage. Faecal samples from 46 Australian and 53 Chinese children were screened for the presence of six clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes using PCR. Clinical and demographic data was also collected from each patient. Over 90% of faecal samples from Chinese children tested positive for β-lactam, macrolide, tetracycline, and aminoglycoside resistance genes, which was substantially higher than Australian samples. Besides country of origin, no clear trend could be seen to predict carriage of resistance genes. The exception to this was Chinese born children who immigrated to Australia having higher rates of carriage for bla TEM and tetM genes than children born and still living in Australia. These data indicated that Chinese children were more likely to carry certain antibiotic resistance genes than Australian children. The Chinese government has recently implemented strict policies to control the overuse of antibiotics in hospitals. However, many of these policies do not extend to the agricultural industry which could explain the differences seen in this study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Adaptation of Escherichia coli traversing from the faecal environment to the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karen L; Stegger, Marc; Godfrey, Paul A; Feldgarden, Michael; Andersen, Paal S; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2016-12-01

    The majority of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) causing urinary tract infections (UTI) are found in the patient's own gut flora, but only limited knowledge is available on the potential adaptation that may occur in the bacteria in order to traverse the perineum and successfully infect the urinary tract. Here, matching pairs of faecal and UTI isolates from 42 patients were compared pairwise using in-depth whole-genome sequencing to investigate whether genetic changes were evident for successful colonization in these two different environments. The identified non-synonymous mutations (0-12 substitutions in each pair) were primarily associated to genes encoding virulence factors and nutrient metabolism; and indications of parallel evolution were observed in genes encoding the major phase-variable protein antigen 43, a toxin/antitoxin locus and haemolysin B. No differences in virulence potential were observed in a mouse UTI model for five matching faecal and UTI isolates with or without mutations in antigen 43 and haemolysin B. Variations in plasmid content were observed in only four of the 42 pairs. Although, we observed mutations in known UTI virulence genes for a few pairs, the majority showed no detectable differences with respect to mutations or mobilome when compared to their faecal counterpart. The results show that UPECs are successful in colonizing both the bladder and gut without adaptation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Faecal microbiota transplantation: Where did it start? What have studies taught us? Where is it going?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Chanyi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The composition and activity of microorganisms in the gut, the microbiome, is emerging as an important factor to consider with regard to the treatment of many diseases. Dysbiosis of the normal community has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, diabetes and, most notoriously, Clostridium difficile infection. In Canada, the leading treatment strategy for recalcitrant C. difficile infection is to receive faecal material which by nature is filled with microorganisms and their metabolites, from a healthy individual, known as a faecal microbiota transplantation. This influx of bacteria into the gut helps to restore the microbiota to a healthy state, preventing C. difficile from causing further disease. Much of what is known with respect to the microbiota and faecal microbiota transplantation comes from animal studies simulating the human disease. Although these models allow researchers to perform studies that would be difficult in humans, they do not always recapitulate the human microbiome. This makes the translation of these results to humans somewhat questionable. The purpose of this review is to analyse these animal models and discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of them in relation to human translation. By understanding some of the limitation of animal models, we will be better able to design and perform experiments of most relevance to human applications.

  18. Does the Internet provide patients or clinicians with useful information regarding faecal incontinence? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, C A; Murphy, J; Hodgkinson, J D; Vaizey, C J; Maeda, Y

    2018-01-01

    The Internet has become an important platform for information communication. This study aim to investigate the utility of social media and search engines to disseminate faecal incontinence information. We looked into Social media platforms and search engines. There was not a direct patient recruitment and any available information from patients was already on public domain at the time of search. A quantitative analysis of types and volumes of information regarding faecal incontinence was made. Twelve valid pages were identified on Facebook: 5 (41%) pages were advertising commercial incontinence products, 4 (33%) pages were dedicated to patients support groups and 3 (25%) pages provided healthcare information. Also we found 192 Facebook posts. On Twitter, 2890 tweets were found of which 51% tweets provided healthcare information; 675 (45%) were sent by healthcare professionals to patients, 530 tweets (35.3%) were between healthcare professionals, 201 tweets (13.4%) were from medical journals or scientific books and 103 tweets (7%) were from hospitals or clinics with information about events and meetings. The second commonest type of tweets was advertising commercial incontinence products 27%. Patients tweeted to exchange information and advice between themselves (20.5%). In contrast, search engines as Google/Yahoo/Bing had a higher proportion of healthcare information (over 70%). Internet appears to have potential to be a useful platform for patients to learn about faecal incontinence and share information; however, given one lack of focus of available data, patients may struggle to identify valid and useful information.

  19. Use of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to detect Actinobacteria associated with the human faecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyles, Lesley; Clear, Jessica A; McCartney, Anne L

    2013-08-01

    With the exceptions of the bifidobacteria, propionibacteria and coriobacteria, the Actinobacteria associated with the human gastrointestinal tract have received little attention. This has been due to the seeming absence of these bacteria from most clone libraries. In addition, many of these bacteria have fastidious growth and atmospheric requirements. A recent cultivation-based study has shown that the Actinobacteria of the human gut may be more diverse than previously thought. The aim of this study was to develop a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach for characterizing Actinobacteria present in faecal samples. Amount of DNA added to the Actinobacteria-specific PCR used to generate strong PCR products of equal intensity from faecal samples of five infants, nine adults and eight elderly adults was anti-correlated with counts of bacteria obtained using fluorescence in situ hybridization probe HGC69A. A nested PCR using Actinobacteria-specific and universal PCR-DGGE primers was used to generate profiles for the Actinobacteria. Cloning of sequences from the DGGE bands confirmed the specificity of the Actinobacteria-specific primers. In addition to members of the genus Bifidobacterium, species belonging to the genera Propionibacterium, Microbacterium, Brevibacterium, Actinomyces and Corynebacterium were found to be part of the faecal microbiota of healthy humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tea decoctions prevent body weight gain in rats fed high-fat diet; black tea being more efficient than green tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hédi Hamdaoui

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Chronic GTD and BTD prevent fat storage in the liver, lowering blood lipids and glucose, increasing fecal excretion of TG, decreasing AT and weight gains in rats fed HFD, with a strong effect of BTD compared to GTD. Therefore, these beverages containing high amounts of TPC and caffeine could constitute a natural alternative in the prevention of obesity.

  1. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  2. Fats for diabetics. (Letter).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Opinion. Comments on the treatment of type 2 diabetes from the interaction between nature and nurture. Effective form of treatment for type 2 diabetes; Composition of the diet for diabetics; Identification of unsaturated fats in the diabetic diet; Risks faced by diabetic patients.

  3. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  4. Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed tomography fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intra-abdominal fat is an important factor in determining the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance, and thus the risk of diabetes and ischaemic heart disease. Computed Tomography (CT) fat segmentation represents a defined method of quantifying intra-abdominal fat, with attendant radiation risks.

  5. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our growth and activities — everything from solving a math problem to racing up and down the soccer ... saturated fat and trans fat raise blood cholesterol levels, increasing a person's chances of developing heart disease, ...

  6. Canine faecal contamination and parasitic risk in the city of Naples (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneziano Vincenzo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs are associated with more than 60 zoonotic diseases among which, parasitosis and, in particular, helminthosis, can pose serious public-health concerns worldwide. Many canine gastrointestinal parasites eliminate their dispersion elements (eggs, larvae, oocysts by the faecal route. The quantity of canine faeces deposited on public and private property in cities worldwide is both a perennial nuisance and an important health issue. Public sites such as playgrounds, parks, gardens, public squares and sandpits may be an important source of human infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of both canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy, and presence of canine parasitic elements, with particular regard to those which are potential agents of zoonosis. A regular grid of sub-areas (1 km × 700 m was overlaid on the city map using a Geographical Information System (GIS. In each sub-area the straightest 1 km transect was drawn and digitalized on-screen in the GIS. Between February and May 2005 canine faeces were counted along the 1 km transects in 143 sub-areas, and 415 canine faecal samples were collected and submitted to coprological examinations. Negative binomial regression models and Gaussian random effects models were used to analyze the association between faeces count and human population density taking into account for extraPoisson variability. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between positivity to parasitic elements and number of canine faeces. Results Out of the 143 studied sub-areas, 141 (98.6% contained canine faeces. There was a strong spatial gradient with 48% of the total variability accounted by between neighbourhood variability; a positive association between the number of faeces and the human population density was found. Seventy (over 415, 16.9% canine faecal samples were positive for parasitic elements. There was no association between

  7. Dietary fat affects heat production and other variables of equine performance, under hot and humid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld, D S

    1996-07-01

    Does dietary fat supplementation during conditioning improve athletic performance, especially in the heat? Fat adaptation has been used to increase energy density, decrease bowel bulk and faecal output and reduce health risks associated with hydrolysable carbohydrate overload. It may also reduce spontaneous activity and reactivity (excitability), increase fatty acid oxidation, reduce CO2 production and associated acidosis, enhance metabolic regulation of glycolysis, improve both aerobic and anaerobic performance and substantially reduce heat production. A thermochemical analysis of ATP generation showed the least heat release during the direct oxidation of long chain fatty acids, which have a 3% advantage over glucose and 20 to 30% over short chain fatty acids and amino acids. Indirect oxidation via storage as triglyceride increased heat loss during ATP generation by 3% for stearic acid, 65% for glucose and 174% for acetic acid. Meal feeding and nutrient storage, therefore, accentuates the advantage of dietary fat. A calorimetric model was based on initial estimates of net energy for competitive work (10.76 MJ for the Endurance Test of an Olympic level 3-day-event), other work (14.4 MJ/day) and maintenance (36 MJ), then applied estimates of efficiencies to derive associated heat productions for the utilisation of 3 diets, Diet A: hay (100), Diet B: hay and oats (50:50) and Diet C: hay, oats and vegetable oil (45:45:10), the difference between the last 2 diets representing fat adaptation. During a 90.5 min speed and stamina test, heat production was estimated as 37, 35.4 and 34.6 MJ for the 3 diets, respectively, an advantage 0.8 MJ less heat load for the fat adapted horse, which would reduce water needed for evaporation by 0.33 kg and reduce body temperature increase by about 0.07 degree C. Total estimated daily heat production was 105, 93 and 88 MJ for the 3 diets, respectively, suggesting a 5 MJ advantage for the fat adapted horse (Diet C vs. Diet B). Estimated

  8. Optimize fat Replacers in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M HassaniMoosaAbadi

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: In order to solve some problems related to the elimination or reduction of fat , cardiovascular diseases prevention and health improvement, it is possible to use fat alternatives in communities’ food, furthermore, the obtained results indicated that the production of low-calorie foods is similar to the texture of high fat products.

  9. Faecal Escherichia coli from patients with E. coli urinary tract infection and healthy controls who have never had a urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L; Dynesen, Pia; Larsen, Preben

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are primarily caused by Escherichia coli with the patient's own faecal flora acting as a reservoir for the infecting E. coli. Here we sought to characterize the E. coli faecal flora of UTI patients and healthy controls who had never had a UTI. Up to 20 E. coli...... colonies from each rectal swab were random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typed for clonality, dominance in the sample and correlation to the infecting UTI isolate in patients. Each distinct clone was phylotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Eighty-seven per cent of the UTI patients...... carried the infecting strain in their faecal flora, and faecal clones causing UTI were more often dominant in the faecal flora. Patients had a larger diversity of E. coli in their gut flora by carrying more unique E. coli clones compared to controls, and patient faecal clones were more often associated...

  10. Distribution and excretion of methyl and phenyl mercury salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gage, J C

    1964-01-01

    The distribution, metabolism, and excretion of phenyl mercury acetate (P.M.A.) and of methyl mercury dicyanidiamide (M.M.D.) has been studied in the rat during the repeated subcutaneous administration of small doses over a period of six weeks, and for several weeks after a single dose. The results indicate that P.M.A. is absorbed unchanged into the circulation from which it is mainly removed by the liver and kidneys where it is metabolized and excreted in the feces and urine mostly as inorganic mercury. During repeated dosage the rats reached a steady state by the end of the second week when excretion approximately balanced intake. No measurable amount of mercury was found in the central nervous system. After repeated dosage with M.M.D. there is no clear indication of a steady state being reached after six weeks. There is an accumulation of organic mercury in all tissues, particularly in the red cells, and a progressive increase in the brain concentration. M.M.D. is more slowly released from the tissues than P.M.A. and the breakdown to inorganic mercury is low. The control of human exposure to alkyl and aryl mercury salts is considered in the light of these experimental observations. The recommendation that the concentration of alkyl mercury salts in the atmosphere should not exceed 0-01 mg/m/sup 3/ seems justifiable, but there appears to be no reason to establish the figure for aryl mercury salts below the 0-1 mg/m/sup 3/ recommended for inorganic mercury vapor. 13 references, 4 tables.

  11. Allelic variation of the COMT gene in a despotic primate society: A haplotype is related to cortisol excretion in Macaca fuscata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflüger, Lena S; Gutleb, Daria R; Hofer, Martin; Fieder, Martin; Wallner, Bernard; Steinborn, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Sequence variations in genes of the monoamine neurotransmitter system and their common function in human and non-human primate species are an ongoing issue of investigation. However, the COMT gene, coding for the catechol-O-methyltransferase, has not yet attracted much scientific attention regarding its functional role in non-human primates. Considering that a polymorphism of the human COMT gene affects the enzyme activity and cortisol level in response to a social stressor, this study investigated the impact of COMT on endocrine stress and behavioural parameters in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The species exemplifies a despotic hierarchy in which males' social rank positions require an adaptation of behaviour strategies. During the mating period steroid secretion and the frequency of aggressive encounters between males increase. We addressed i) whether this species exhibits potential functional COMT variants, ii) whether these variants are associated with faecal cortisol excretion of males, iii) how they are distributed among different social rank positions and iv) whether they are associated with behavioural strategies during times of mate competition. By genotyping 26 males we identified three COMT haplotypes (HT), including a putative splice mutant (HT3). This variant was associated with increased cortisol excretion. Given the observed inverse correlation between cortisol and physical aggression, we assume that different COMT haplotypes may predispose individuals to pursue more or less aggressive strategies. How these gene-stress effects might favour a specific social role is discussed. Our study of non-invasive genotyping in combination with behavioural and endocrine parameters represents an important step towards the understanding of gene-stress effects in a hierarchically organised primate society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic relatedness of faecal coliforms and enterococci bacteria isolated from water and sediments of the Apies River, Gauteng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwanzala, Mutshiene Deogratias; Abia, Akebe Luther King; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Keshri, Jitendra; Momba, Ndombo Benteke Maggy

    2017-12-01

    To date, the microbiological quality of river sediments and its impact on water resources are not included in the water quality monitoring assessment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish genetic relatedness between faecal coliforms and enterococci isolated from the river water and riverbed sediments of Apies River to better understand the genetic similarity of microorganisms between the sediment and water phases. Indicator bacteria were subjected to a molecular study, which consisted of PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA gene using specific primers for faecal coliforms and enterococci, respectively. Results revealed that the Apies River had high faecal pollution levels with enterococci showing low to moderate correlation coefficient (r 2 values ranged from 0.2605 to 0.7499) compared to the faecal coliforms which showed zero to low correlation (r 2 values ranged from 0.0027 to 0.1407) indicating that enterococci may be better indicator than faecal coliforms for detecting faecal contamination in riverbed sediments. The phylogenetic tree of faecal coliforms revealed a 98% homology among their nucleotide sequences confirming the close genetic relatedness between river water and riverbed sediment isolates. The phylogenetic tree of the enterococci showed that Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are the predominant species found in both river water and riverbed sediments with bootstrap values of ≥99%. A high degree of genetic relatedness between sediment and water isolates indicated a possible common ancestry and transmission pathway. We recommend the microbial monitoring of riverbed sediments as it harbours more diverse microbial community and once resuspended may cause health and environmental problems.

  13. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S

    1999-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict...... ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population-based cohort. In 1983, urinary albumin and creatinine levels were measured, along with the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors, in 2085 consecutive participants without IHD, renal disease, urinary tract infection, or diabetes mellitus. The participants...

  14. Radiation dosimetry from breast milk excretion of radioiodine and pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedrick, W.R.; Di Simone, R.N.; Keen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements were made of the activity in samples of breast milk obtained from a patient with postpartum thyroiditis following administration of [ 123 I]sodium iodide and subsequently [99mTc]pertechnetate 24 hr later. Both 123 I and 99mTc were found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 5.8 hr and 2.8 hr, respectively. Less than 10% of the activity was incorporated into breast-milk protein. After administration of [ 123 I]sodium iodide breast feeding should be discontinued for 24-36 hr to reduce the absorbed dose to the child's thyroid

  15. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  16. Estimation of uptake from censored urine excretion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, J.W.; Birchall, A.

    1994-01-01

    The estimation of radionuclide uptake often involves consideration of measurements of urine excretion which may include some values reported as below the limit of detection (LOD). Data sets which contain below LOD data as well as positive results are known as censored data sets. A simple method which uses the information contained in censored data to estimate uptake is described. A Monte Carlo technique has been used to investigate the accuracy and the efficiency of the method using simulated data sets with increasing numbers of LOD data points. (author)

  17. Sup(123)I excretion in breast milk - additional data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawes, S.C. (Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom))

    1992-07-01

    A woman with a suspected sublingual thyroid was referred for thyroid imaging with {sup 123}I-sodium iodide. On attending it was ascertained that she was currently breastfeeding her 3-month-old baby. Reference to the available literature showed little information regarding the excretion of {sup 123}I-sodium iodide in human breast milk apart from one single case. It was felt therefore that this would be an ideal opportunity to collect some useful data. Originally the presence of impurities in the radiopharmaceutical administered had been discounted as being of little significance. However, after consideration, a review of the contribution of any impurity was undertaken. (author).

  18. Cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Sawada, Yusuke; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Nishide, Kazuyuki; Yoshioka, Toshiharu

    1982-01-01

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  19. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  20. Effect of tolvaptan on renal water and sodium excretion and blood pressure during nitric oxide inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therwani, Safa Al; Rosenbæk, Jeppe Bakkestrøm; Mose, Frank Holden

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan is a selective vasopressin receptor antagonist. Nitric Oxide (NO) promotes renal water and sodium excretion, but the effect is unknown in the nephron's principal cells. In a dose-response study, we measured the effect of tolvaptan on renal handling of water and sodium....... CONCLUSIONS: During baseline, fractional excretion of sodium was unchanged. During tolvaptan with NO-inhibition, renal water excretion was reduced dose dependently, and renal sodium excretion was reduced unrelated to the dose, partly via an AVP dependent mechanism. Thus, tolvaptan antagonized the reduction...... in renal water and sodium excretion during NO-inhibition. Most likely, the lack of decrease in AQP2 excretion by tolvaptan could be attributed to a counteracting effect of the high level of p-AVP....

  1. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after single administration of ciprofloxacin was 0.073 ± 0.014 ml/min/kg. Mean (± SE values for renal clearance of creatinine and ciprofloxacin were 1.870 ± 0.385 and 0.982 ± 0.166 ml/min/kg, respectively. The ratio between the renal clearance of ciprofloxacin and that of creatinine remained less than one, which was indicative of back diffusion. The mean (± SE value for the cumulative percent of ciprofloxacin dose excreted at 10 hours following its intramuscular administration was 13.03 ± 2.07. Based on these results, it was evident that besides glomerular filtration, renal handling of drug involved back diffusion also. It was concluded that in local goats glomerular filtration rate (GFR was lower than that reported for their foreign counterparts.

  2. Urinary excretion of polyethylene glycol 3350 during colonoscopy preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothfuss, K S; Bode, J C; Stange, E F; Parlesak, A

    2006-02-01

    Whole gut lavage with a polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG) is a common bowel cleansing method for diagnostic and therapeutic colon interventions. Absorption of orally administered PEG from the gastrointestinal tract in healthy human beings is generally considered to be poor. In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), intestinal permeability and PEG absorption were previously reported to be higher than in normal subjects. In the current study, we investigated the absorption of PEG 3350 in patients undergoing routine gut lavage. Urine specimens were collected for 8 hours in 24 patients undergoing bowel cleansing with PEG 3350 for colonoscopy. The urinary excretion of PEG 3350, measured by size exclusion chromatography, ranged between 0.01 and 0.51 % of the ingested amount, corresponding to 5.8 and 896 mg in absolute amounts, respectively. Mean PEG excretion in patients with impaired mucosa such as inflammation or ulceration of the intestine (0.24 % +/- 0.19, n = 11) was not significantly higher (p = 0.173) compared to that in subjects with macroscopically normal intestinal mucosa (0.13 % +/- 0.13, n = 13). The results indicate that intestinal absorption of PEG 3350 is higher than previously assumed and underlies a strong inter-individual variation. Inflammatory changes of the intestine do not necessarily lead to a significantly higher permeability of PEG.

  3. Excretion and organic distribution of 57Co-bleomycin emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathan, B.

    1982-01-01

    Excretion and organic distributions of 57 Co-bleomycin were studied in normal and tumour-bearing mice with the objective of obtaining high 57 Co-bleomycin concentrations in the tumour and the regional lymph nodes. Aqueous 57 Co-bleomycin and various 57 Co-bleomycin emulsions were used for the studies and applied either locally or systemically. Excretion of 57 Co-bleomycin was slowest after local administration of 57 Co-bleomycin oil-in-water emulsion and fastest after systemic application of aqueous 57 Co-bleomycin. Organic distribution studies showed the highest values in the tumour and the regional lymph nodes after local injection of 57 Co-bleomycin oil-in-water emulsion while the lowest values were measured after systemic application of aqueous 57 Co-bleomycin. These kinetic studies suggest that intratumoral treatment with oil-in-water emulsions of bleomycin may be a new approach in the therapy of epithelial tumours with lymphogenic metastases. (orig.) [de

  4. The use of geoinformatic data and spatial analysis to predict faecal pollution during extreme precipitation events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ray; Purnell, Sarah; Ebdon, James; Nnane, Daniel; Taylor, Huw

    2013-04-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) regulates surface water quality standards in the European Union (EU). The Directive call for the identification and management of point and diffuse sources of pollution and requires the establishment of a 'programme of measures' for identified river basin districts, in order to achieve a "good status" by 2015. The hygienic quality of water is normally monitored using faecal indicator organisms (FIO), such as Escherichia coli, which indicate a potential risk to public health from human waterborne pathogens. Environmental factors influence the transmission of these pathogens and indicator organisms, and statistically significant relationships have been found between rainfall and outbreaks of waterborne disease. Climate change has been predicted to lead to an increase in severe weather events in many parts of Europe, including an increase in the frequency of extreme rainfall events. This in turn is likely to lead to an increase in incidents of human waterborne disease in Europe, unless measures are taken to predict and mitigate for such events. This study investigates a variety of environmental factors that influence the concentration of FIO in surface waters receiving faecal contamination from a variety of sources. Levels of FIO, including Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, somatic coliphage and GB124 (a human-specific microbial source tracking marker), were monitored in the Sussex Ouse catchment in Southeast England over a period of 26 months. These data were combined with geoinformatic environmental data within a GIS to map faecal contamination within the river. Previously, precipitation and soil erosion have been identified as major factors that can influence the concentration of these faecal markers, and studies have shown that slope, soil type and vegetation influence both the mechanisms and the rate by which erosion occurs in river catchments. Of the environmental variables studied, extreme precipitation was found to

  5. Faecal Microbiota of Forage-Fed Horses in New Zealand and the Population Dynamics of Microbial Communities following Dietary Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Karlette A.; Kittelmann, Sandra; Rogers, Christopher W.; Gee, Erica K.; Bolwell, Charlotte F.; Bermingham, Emma N.; Thomas, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of abrupt dietary transition on the faecal microbiota of forage-fed horses over a 3-week period were investigated. Yearling Thoroughbred fillies reared as a cohort were exclusively fed on either an ensiled conserved forage-grain diet (“Group A”; n = 6) or pasture (“Group B”; n = 6) for three weeks prior to the study. After the Day 0 faecal samples were collected, horses of Group A were abruptly transitioned to pasture. Both groups continued to graze similar pasture for three weeks, with faecal samples collected at 4-day intervals. DNA was isolated from the faeces and microbial 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicons were generated and analysed by pyrosequencing. The faecal bacterial communities of both groups of horses were highly diverse (Simpson’s index of diversity >0.8), with differences between the two groups on Day 0 (Phorses became similar to Group B within four days of feeding on pasture, whereas the structure of the archaeal community remained constant pre- and post-dietary change. The community structure of the faecal microbiota (bacteria, archaea and ciliate protozoa) of pasture-fed horses was also identified. The initial differences observed appeared to be linked to recent dietary history, with the bacterial community of the forage-fed horses responding rapidly to abrupt dietary change. PMID:25383707

  6. Another one bites the dust: faecal silica levels in large herbivores correlate with high-crowned teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Jürgen; Findeisen, Eva; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Ruf, Irina; Kaiser, Thomas M.; Bucher, Martin; Clauss, Marcus; Codron, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    The circumstances of the evolution of hypsodonty (= high-crowned teeth) are a bone of contention. Hypsodonty is usually linked to diet abrasiveness, either from siliceous phytoliths (monocotyledons) or from grit (dusty environments). However, any empirical quantitative approach testing the relation of ingested silica and hypsodonty is lacking. In this study, faecal silica content was quantified as acid detergent insoluble ash and used as proxy for silica ingested by large African herbivores of different digestive types, feeding strategies and hypsodonty levels. Separate sample sets were used for the dry (n = 15 species) and wet (n = 13 species) season. Average faecal silica contents were 17–46 g kg−1 dry matter (DM) for browsing and 52–163 g kg−1 DM for grazing herbivores. No difference was detected between the wet (97.5 ± 14.4 g kg−1 DM) and dry season (93.5 ± 13.7 g kg−1 DM) faecal silica. In a phylogenetically controlled analysis, a strong positive correlation (dry season r = 0.80, p < 0.0005; wet season r = 0.74, p < 0.005) was found between hypsodonty index and faecal silica levels. While surprisingly our results do not indicate major seasonal changes in silica ingested, the correlation of faecal silica and hypsodonty supports a scenario of a dominant role of abrasive silica in the evolution of high-crowned teeth. PMID:21068036

  7. Faecal shedding and strain diversity of Listeria monocytogenes in healthy ruminants and swine in Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtado Ana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Listeria monocytogenes is among the most important foodborne bacterial pathogens due to the high mortality rate and severity of the infection. L. monocytogenes is a ubiquitous organism occasionally present in the intestinal tract of various animal species and faecal shedding by asymptomatically infected livestock poses a risk for contamination of farm environments and raw food at the pre-harvest stages. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and strain diversity of L. monocytogenes in healthy ruminants and swine herds. Results Faecal samples from 30 animals per herd were collected from 343 herds (120 sheep, 124 beef cattle, 82 dairy cattle and 17 swine in the Basque Country and screened in pools by an automated enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay (VIDAS® to estimate the prevalence of positive herds. Positive samples were subcultured onto the selective and differential agar ALOA and biochemically confirmed. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 46.3% of dairy cattle, 30.6% beef cattle and 14.2% sheep herds, but not from swine. Within-herd prevalence investigated by individually analysing 197 sheep and 221 cattle detected 1.5% of faecal shedders in sheep and 21.3% in cattle. Serotyping of 114 isolates identified complex 4b as the most prevalent (84.2%, followed by 1/2a (13.2%, and PFGE analysis of 68 isolates showed a highly diverse L. monocytogenes population in ruminant herds. Conclusion These results suggested that cattle represent a potentially important reservoir for L. monocytogenes in the Basque Country, and highlighted the complexity of pathogen control at the farm level.

  8. Effect of Heat Stress on Concentrations of Faecal Cortisol Metabolites in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, A; Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Heuwieser, W

    2016-06-01

    The negative impact of heat stress on health and productivity of dairy cows is well known. Heat stress can be quantified with the temperature-humidity index (THI) and is defined as a THI ≥ 72. Additionally, animal welfare is affected in cows living under heat stress conditions. Finding a way to quantify heat stress in dairy cows has been of increasing interest over the past decades. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate concentrations of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites [i.e. 11,17-dioxoandrostanes (11,17-DOA)] as an indirect stress parameter in dairy cows without heat stress (DOA 0), with heat stress on a single day (acute heat stress, DOA 1) or with more than a single day of heat stress (chronic heat stress, DOA 2). Cows were housed in five farms under moderate European climates. Two statistical approaches (approach 1 and approach 2) were assessed. Using approach 1, concentrations of faecal 11,17-DOA were compared among DOA 0, DOA 1 and DOA 2 samples regardless of their origin (i.e. cow, unpaired comparison with a one-way anova). Using approach 2, a cow was considered as its own control; that is 11,17-DOA was treated as a cow-specific factor and only paired samples were included in the analysis for this approach (paired comparison with t-tests). In approach 1 (p = 0.006) and approach 2 (p = 0.038), 11,17-DOA values of cows under acute heat stress were higher compared to those of cows without heat stress. Our results also indicate that acute heat stress has to be considered as a confounder in studies measuring faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in cows to evaluate other stressful situations. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance in equine faecal Escherichia coli isolates from North West England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Nicola J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli isolates of equine faecal origin were investigated for antibiotic resistance, resistance genes and their ability to perform horizontal transfer. Methods In total, 264 faecal samples were collected from 138 horses in hospital and community livery premises in northwest England, yielding 296 resistant E. coli isolates. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods in order to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC. PCR amplification was used to detect genes conferring resistance to: ampicillin (TEM and SHV beta-lactamase, chloramphenicol (catI, catII, catIII and cml, tetracycline (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tet E and tetG, and trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA9, dfrA12, dfrA13, dfr7, and dfr17. Results The proportion of antibiotic resistant isolates, and multidrug resistant isolates (MDR was significantly higher in hospital samples compared to livery samples (MDR: 48% of hospital isolates; 12% of livery isolates, p dfr, TEM beta-lactamase, tet and cat, conferring resistance to trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, respectively. Within each antimicrobial resistance group, these genes occurred at frequencies of 93% (260/279, 91%, 86.8% and 73.5%, respectively; with 115/296 (38.8% found to be MDR isolates. Conjugation experiments were performed on selected isolates and MDR phenotypes were readily transferred. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that E. coli of equine faecal origin are commonly resistant to antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. Furthermore, our results suggest that most antibiotic resistance observed in equine E. coli is encoded by well-known and well-characterized resistant genes common to E. coli from man and domestic animals. These data support the ongoing concern about antimicrobial resistance, MDR, antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic risk that horses could potentially pose to

  10. The nutrition/excretion system of urban areas: socioecological regimes and transitions.

    OpenAIRE

    Esculier , Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition and excretion are fundamental physiological needs for all human beings. Analysis of their materiality, from the cellular scale up to the great planetary-scale biogeochemical cycles, shows that nutrition and excretion form a system. The focus of our study is the sustainability of the nutrition/excretion systems of urban areas, which we have sought to assess by analysing substance flows.The most relevant of these substances seems to be nitrogen, so by assessing urban nitrogen flows we...

  11. Urinary Excretion of Sodium, Nitrogen, and Sugar Amounts Are Valid Biomarkers of Dietary Sodium, Protein, and High Sugar Intake in Nonobese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lori B; Liu, Sarah V; Halliday, Tanya M; Neilson, Andrew P; Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M

    2017-12-01

    Background: Objective indicators of dietary intake (e.g., biomarkers) are needed to overcome the limitations of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods in adolescents. To our knowledge, no controlled feeding studies to date have evaluated the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, or sugar excretion as dietary biomarkers in adolescents. Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, and total sugars (TS) excretion as biomarkers for sodium, protein, and added sugars (AS) intake in nonobese adolescents. Methods: In a crossover controlled feeding study design, 33 adolescents [12-18 y of age, 47 ± 25th percentile (mean ± SD) of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) for age] consumed 5% AS [low added sugars (LAS)] and 25% AS [high added sugars (HAS)] isocaloric, macronutrient-matched (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 15% protein) diets for 7 d each, in a randomly assigned order, with a 4-wk washout period between diets. On the final 2 d of each diet period, 24-h urine samples were collected. Thirty-two adolescents completed all measurements (97% retention). Results: Urinary sodium was not different from the expected 90% recovery (mean ± SD: 88% ± 18%, P = 0.50). Urinary nitrogen was correlated with protein intake ( r = 0.69, P sodium appears to be a valid biomarker for sodium intake in nonobese adolescents. Urinary nitrogen is associated with protein intake, but nitrogen excretion rates were less than previously reported for adults, possibly owing to adolescent growth rates. TS excretion reflects AS at 25% AS intake and was responsive to the change in AS intake. Thus, urinary biomarkers are promising objective indicators of dietary intake in adolescents, although larger-scale feeding trials are needed to confirm these findings. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02455388. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Faecal contamination of household drinking water in Rwanda: A national cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Miles A., E-mail: miles.kirby@lshtm.ac.uk [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Nagel, Corey L., E-mail: nagelc@ohsu.edu [Oregon Health and Science University, School of Nursing Portland Campus, 3455 SW US Veterans Hospital Road, SN-6S, Portland, OR 97239 (United States); Rosa, Ghislaine, E-mail: ghislaine.rosa@lshtm.ac.uk [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Iyakaremye, Laurien, E-mail: laurieniyakaremye1@gmail.com [DelAgua Health Rwanda Implementation, Ltd., 3rd Fl KG 19 Avenue, Kibagabaga Rd, Kigali (Rwanda); Zambrano, Laura Divens, E-mail: laura.zambrano@emory.edu [Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, 1518 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Clasen, Thomas F., E-mail: thomas.f.clasen@emory.edu [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, 1518 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Unsafe drinking water is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among young children in low-income settings. We conducted a national survey in Rwanda to determine the level of faecal contamination of household drinking water and risk factors associated therewith. Drinking water samples were collected from a nationally representative sample of 870 households and assessed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), a World Health Organization (WHO)-approved indicator of faecal contamination. Potential household and community-level determinants of household drinking water quality derived from household surveys, the 2012 Rwanda Population and Housing Census, and a precipitation dataset were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Widespread faecal contamination was present, and only 24.9% (95% CI 20.9–29.4%, n = 217) of household samples met WHO Guidelines of having no detectable TTC contamination, while 42.5% (95% CI 38.0–47.1%, n = 361) of samples had > 100 TTC/100 mL and considered high risk. Sub-national differences were observed, with poorer water quality in rural areas and Eastern province. In multivariate analyses, there was evidence for an association between detectable contamination and increased open waste disposal in a sector, lower elevation, and water sources other than piped to household or rainwater/bottled. Risk factors for intermediate/high risk contamination (> 10 TTC/100 mL) included low population density, increased open waste disposal, lower elevation, water sources other than piped to household or rainwater/bottled, and occurrence of an extreme rain event the previous day. Modelling suggests non-household-based risk factors are determinants of water quality in this setting, and these results suggest a substantial proportion of Rwanda's population are exposed to faecal contamination through drinking water. - Graphical abstract: Household drinking water quality (thermotolerant coliform colony forming units/100 m

  13. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Nichola Eliza Davies; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Bush, Russell David

    2017-01-01

    Background Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples. Methodology/Principal findings A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74–0.76) was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC) using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling

  14. Identifying faecal impaction is important for ensuring the timely diagnosis of childhood functional constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modin, Line; Walsted, Anne-Mette; Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Most research on functional constipation has been carried out at a tertiary level. We focused this study on a secondary-level hospital outpatients' department, assessing the distribution of diagnostic criteria for childhood functional constipation and evaluating the consequences of current...... diagnostic practice based on current guidelines. METHODS: We enrolled 235 children, aged two to 16 years of age, with functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria and assessed them using medical histories and physical examinations, including rectal examinations and ultrasound measurements...... the timely diagnosis of childhood functional constipation at the secondary care level. Ultrasound examination proved a reliable alternative to rectal examination or abdominal radiography when identifying faecal impaction....

  15. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola Eliza Davies Calvani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples.A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74-0.76 was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling transport of samples from endemic

  16. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Nichola Eliza Davies; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Bush, Russell David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples. A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74-0.76) was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC) using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling transport of samples from endemic to non

  17. Determinants of participation in colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Brasso, Klaus; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and women. Participation rates in faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) screening activities are, however, relatively low. In terms of lowering the colorectal cancer mortality, high participation rates are essential, and therefore......, but determinants varied across countries and test settings. There was no systematic variation in participation across age groups. CONCLUSION: The participation pattern depends in part on local circumstances, which makes it difficult to point to a general strategy for increasing the uptake in FOBT screening...

  18. Faecal cortisol metabolites in Bengal (Panthera tigris tigris) and Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Parnell, Tempe; Clark, Giles; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-12-01

    The tiger (Panthera tigris) faces a great risk of extinction as its wild numbers have plummeted due to poaching and habitat destruction so ex-situ conservation programs are becoming ever more necessary. Reliable non-invasive biomarkers of the stress hormone (cortisol) are necessary for assessing the health and welfare of tigers in captivity. To our knowledge, non-invasive stress endocrinology methods have not been tested as widely in tigers. The first aim of this study was to describe and validate a faecal cortisol metabolite enzyme-immmunoassay (FCM EIA) for two tiger sub-species, the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae). Individual tigers (n=22) were studied in two large Zoos in Queensland, Australia (Dreamworld Theme Park and Australia Zoo). Fresh faecal samples (Zoos over a study period of 21 days. Biological validation was conducted separately by collecting feces 5 days before and 5 days after blood was taken from four male and five female tigers. Results showed that mean FCM levels increased by 138% and 285% in the male and female tigers within 1 day after bloods were taken, returning to baseline in 5 days. Laboratory validations of the FCM EIA were done using an extraction efficiency test and parallelism. Results showed >89% recovery of the cortisol standard that was added to tiger faecal extract. We also obtained parallel displacement of the serially diluted cortisol standard against serially diluted tiger faecal extract. Our second aim was to determine whether the FCM levels were significantly different between tiger sub-species and sex. Results showed no significant difference in mean FCM levels between the Bengal and Sumatran tiger sub-species. Mean levels of FCMs were significantly higher in females than in male tigers. Those male and female tigers with reported health issues during the study period expressed higher FCM levels than the reportedly healthy tigers. Interestingly, those tigers that took

  19. Faecal contamination of household drinking water in Rwanda: A national cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Miles A.; Nagel, Corey L.; Rosa, Ghislaine; Iyakaremye, Laurien; Zambrano, Laura Divens; Clasen, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Unsafe drinking water is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among young children in low-income settings. We conducted a national survey in Rwanda to determine the level of faecal contamination of household drinking water and risk factors associated therewith. Drinking water samples were collected from a nationally representative sample of 870 households and assessed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), a World Health Organization (WHO)-approved indicator of faecal contamination. Potential household and community-level determinants of household drinking water quality derived from household surveys, the 2012 Rwanda Population and Housing Census, and a precipitation dataset were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Widespread faecal contamination was present, and only 24.9% (95% CI 20.9–29.4%, n = 217) of household samples met WHO Guidelines of having no detectable TTC contamination, while 42.5% (95% CI 38.0–47.1%, n = 361) of samples had > 100 TTC/100 mL and considered high risk. Sub-national differences were observed, with poorer water quality in rural areas and Eastern province. In multivariate analyses, there was evidence for an association between detectable contamination and increased open waste disposal in a sector, lower elevation, and water sources other than piped to household or rainwater/bottled. Risk factors for intermediate/high risk contamination (> 10 TTC/100 mL) included low population density, increased open waste disposal, lower elevation, water sources other than piped to household or rainwater/bottled, and occurrence of an extreme rain event the previous day. Modelling suggests non-household-based risk factors are determinants of water quality in this setting, and these results suggest a substantial proportion of Rwanda's population are exposed to faecal contamination through drinking water. - Graphical abstract: Household drinking water quality (thermotolerant coliform colony forming units/100 mL) nationally and

  20. Research on urinary excretion of purine derivatives in ruminants: Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.B.; Orskov, E.R.

    2004-01-01

    Research on urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD), namely allantoin, uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine, in ruminants have been carried out with an objective to use the excretion of these purine metabolites as a parameter to estimate the intestinal flow of microbial protein. This paper reviews the published literature, from the first paper in 1931 to the current date. The current status of understanding in some key topics is discussed. The topics include: endogenous excretion, modelling the response of PD excretion to purine absorption, calculation of microbial N supply from PD excretion, use of spot urine measurement, possible use of plasma or milk PD as an alterative index, and applications in ruminant nutrition research. This review also covers the current understanding of PD excretion in different animal species, including sheep, cattle, goats, buffaloes, llamas, camels, yak and deer. Progress in analytical methods for the determination of purine derivatives is also discussed. Finally, areas of future research are highlighted. The paper stresses the need for more studies on metabolism of PD in the tissue, the kinetics of PD in the blood and physiological processes of renal excretion, so as to understand better the mechanism that accounts for the between-species and within species variation in PD excretion. Development of simpler and more rapid methods for defining the endogenous excretion and purine input-output relationship is also an area for future work. (author)

  1. Correlation between dietary nitrogen, level of plasma urea and urea excretion in urine of buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted with 6 male buffalo calves of Murrah breed, aged 1.5 years, to determine whether blood urea nitrogen and urea excretion in urine were associated with protein intake. The animals were fed different amounts of crude protein in their diet. The levels of urea-N in the blood, excretion of 14 C from urea and urea-N in the urine were estimated. Close relationships were observed between nitrogen intake, blood urea nitrogen and urea excretion in the urine. The observations indicated that blood urea-N and urea excretion in urine could be quantitated with the protein intake. (author)

  2. Effect of change in diet on excretion of plutonium-239 from organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    To check supposition on milk effect on plutonium-239 excretion from organism the portable water for rats, contained in individual metabolic cages permitting separate excretion analysis, was replaced by milk. Some days later milk was excluded from diet. 24-hourly rate of radionuclide with feces and urine excretion from organism was determined. On the basis of preliminary data analysis it is supposed that interaction of some milk components with biocomponents of blood and deposition organ tissues violate 239 Pu steady equilibrium distribution in organism, affecting its metabolism through the intermediary of blood system. It results in increased plutonium excretion

  3. Comparison of endogenous and radiolabeled bile acid excretion in patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, L.R.; Bilhartz, L.E.; Santa Ana, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Fecal recovery of radioactivity after ingestion of a bolus of radiolabeled bile acid is abnormally high in most patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea. To evaluate the significance of this malabsorption, concurrent fecal excretion of both exogenous radiolabeled bile acid and endogenous (unlabeled) bile acid were measured in patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea. Subjects received a 2.5-microCi oral dose of taurocholic acid labeled with 14C in the 24th position of the steroid moiety. Endogenous bile acid excretion was measured by a hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase assay on a concurrent 72-h stool collection. Both radiolabeled and endogenous bile acid excretion were abnormally high in most patients with chronic diarrhea compared with normal subjects, even when equivoluminous diarrhea was induced in normal subjects by ingestion of osmotically active solutions. The correlation between radiolabeled and endogenous bile acid excretion was good. However, neither radiolabeled nor endogenous bile acid excretion was as abnormal as is typically seen in patients with ileal resection, and none of these diarrhea patients responded to treatment with cholestyramine with stool weights less than 200 g. These results suggest (a) that this radiolabeled bile acid excretion test accurately reflects excess endogenous bile acid excretion; (b) that excess endogenous bile acid excretion is not caused by diarrhea per se; (c) that spontaneously occurring idiopathic chronic diarrhea is often associated with increased endogenous bile acid excretion; and (d) that bile acid malabsorption is not likely to be the primary cause of diarrhea in most of these patients

  4. Post-operative substrate utilisation and gas exchange using two different TPN-systems: glucose versus fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Eklund, A; Stjernström, H

    1985-01-01

    Twenty patients were studied over the first 4 post-operative days following abdominal aortic surgery. Ten patients had 93% of their non-protein energy as glucose and insulin was given to keep blood glucose below 10 mmol/l. The other 10 patients had 80% of non-protein energy as fat (Intralipid...... indirect calorimetry data and nitrogen excretion. Metabolism in the early post-operative phase was found to adapt to the nutrition regimen given even though the composition was extreme either in fat or carbohydrate content. The glucose-insulin regimen had a better nitrogen sparing effect and based...

  5. Facial fat necrosis following autologous fat transfer and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous fat transfer (AFT is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the benefits and risks of AFT highlighting common causes of fat graft failure.

  6. Simulation of the fate of faecal bacteria in estuarine and coastal waters based on a fractionated sediment transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Liu, Ying

    2017-08-01

    A two-dimensional depth-integrated numerical model is refined in this paper to simulate the hydrodynamics, graded sediment transport process and the fate of faecal bacteria in estuarine and coastal waters. The sediment mixture is divided into several fractions according to the grain size. A bed evolution model is adopted to simulate the processes of the bed elevation change and sediment grain size sorting. The faecal bacteria transport equation includes enhanced source and sink terms to represent bacterial kinetic transformation and disappearance or reappearance due to sediment deposition or re-suspension. A novel partition ratio and dynamic decay rates of faecal bacteria are adopted in the numerical model. The model has been applied to the turbid water environment in the Bristol Channel and Severn estuary, UK. The predictions by the present model are compared with field data and those by non-fractionated model.

  7. Gram-negative bacteria account for main differences between faecal microbiota from patients with ulcerative colitis and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Brynskov, J.; Steenholdt, C.

    2012-01-01

    process of the gut mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the faecal microbiota in patients either with UC in remission (n=6) or with active disease (n=6), and in healthy controls (n=6). The composition of Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria was examined. Antigenic structures...... of Gram-negative bacteria such as lipopolysaccharides have been related to the inflammatory responses and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Dice cluster analysis and principal component analysis of faecal microbiota profiles obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative...... PCR, respectively, revealed that the composition of faecal bacteria from UC patients with active disease differed from the healthy controls and that this difference should be ascribed to Gram-negative bacteria. The analysis did not show any clear grouping of UC patients in remission. Even...

  8. Assessing diet quality of African ungulates from faecal analyses: the effect of forage quality, intake and herbivore species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Wrench

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Faecal phosphorous and nitrogen can be used as indicators of the nutritive content of the veld. Dietary P concentrations can be predicted with reasonable accuracy from faecal P concentrations in faeces of caged impala rams using a simple linear regression model, Y = 0.393X (r2 = 0.97. This regression holds whether impala are grazing or browsing as well as for high and low levels of intake. The regression equation used in the prediction of dietary P in zebra, blue wildebeest and cattle, did not differ significantly from this simple regression and a combined regression equation could be formulated. A faecal P concentration of less than 2 g P/kg OM would appear to indicate a P deficiency in most species. The prediction of dietary N is influenced by the intake of phenolic compounds and different regression equations exist for grazers and browsers. For prediction of dietary N concentrations, both the concentration of N and P in the faeces should be taken into account. This multiple regression equation is applicable for grazing impala at all levels of intake. For impala utilising browse, a regression model with faecal Acid Detergent Insoluble Nitrogen (ADIN and Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL should be used to predict dietary N concentration. For grazers, a faecal N concentration of less than 14 g/kg DM would indicate a deficiency. Dietary digestibility can be predicted accurately in some species using faecal N, P and ADL concentrations. However, more work needs to be done to quantify their effects.

  9. Frequency, severity and risk factors for urinary and faecal incontinence at 4 years postpartum: a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, D; MacArthur, C; Woolhouse, H; McDonald, E; Brown, S J

    2016-06-01

    To investigate frequency, severity and risk factors for urinary incontinence and faecal incontinence 4 years after a first birth. Prospective pregnancy cohort study. Melbourne, Australia. A total of 1011 nulliparous women recruited in early pregnancy. Participants were followed up at 32 weeks of gestation; then at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months and 4 years postpartum. Frequency and severity of urinary and faecal incontinence. At 4 years, 29.6% of women reported urinary incontinence and 7.1% reported faecal incontinence. Compared with women having only spontaneous vaginal births, women who delivered exclusively by caesarean section were less likely to have urinary incontinence at 4 years postpartum (adjusted odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0.3-0.6). Women who reported urinary incontinence before or during the index pregnancy, and those experiencing symptoms in the first year postpartum had increased odds of incontinence at 4 years, with the highest odds (6-12 times higher) among women who had previously reported moderate or severe symptoms. The odds of reporting faecal incontinence at 4 years were two to six times higher for women experiencing symptoms in pregnancy, and around four to eight times higher for those with symptoms in the first year postpartum. Urinary and faecal incontinence are prevalent conditions 4 years after a first birth. Women reporting urinary or faecal incontinence during pregnancy had markedly higher odds of reporting symptoms at 4 years postpartum, suggesting a need for further investigation and elucidation of aetiological pathways involving nonbirth-related risk factors. Moderate/severe incontinence prevalent 4 years after first birth in population cohort. Prior symptoms are biggest predictor. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Use of faecal markers in screening for colorectal neoplasia: a European group on tumor markers position paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Several randomized controlled trials have shown that population-based screening using faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) can reduce mortality from colorectal neoplasia. Based on this evidence, a number of countries have introduced screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and high-risk adenoma and many others are considering its introduction. The aim of this article is to critically review the current status of faecal markers as population-based screening tests for these neoplasia. Most of the available faecal tests involve the measurement of either occult blood or a panel of DNA markers. Occult blood may be measured using either the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) or a faecal immunochemical test (iFOBT). Although iFOBT may require a greater initial investment, they have several advantages over gFOBT, including greater analytical sensitivity and specificity. Their use results in improved clinical performance and higher uptake rates. Importantly for population screening, some of the iFOBTs can be automated and provide an adjustable cutoff for faecal haemoglobin concentration. However, samples for iFOBT, may be less stable after collection than for gFOBT. For new centres undertaking FOBT for colorectal neoplasia, the European Group on Tumour Markers recommends use of a quantitative iFOBT with an adjustable cutoff point and high throughput analysis. All participants with positive FOBT results should be offered colonoscopy. The panel recommends further research into increasing the stability of iFOBT and the development of improved and affordable DNA and proteomic-based tests, which reduce current false negative rates, simplify sample transport and enable automated analysis.

  11. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2009-01-01

    , and . Only did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to . The opposite occurred in group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The responses were similar to , with the exception of food consumption. In both and groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents.

  12. Effect of dairy calcium from cheese and milk on fecal fat excretion, blood lipids, and appetite in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Thorning, Tanja K; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    increased more with the consumption of both the milk (5.2 ± 0.4 g/d) and cheese (5.7 ± 0.4 g/d) diets than with the control diet (3.9 ± 0.3 g/d) (P triglycerides, and lipid ratios did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Compared...

  13. Substantial replacement of lactose with fat in a high-lactose milk replacer diet increases liver fat accumulation but does not affect insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, A J; Gerrits, W J J; Vonk, R J; van den Borne, J J G C

    2016-12-01

    In veal calves, the major portion of digestible energy intake originates from milk replacer (MR), with lactose and fat contributing approximately 45 and 35%, respectively. In veal calves older than 4 mo, prolonged high intakes of MR may lead to problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, ultimately resulting in sustained insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and impaired animal performance. The contribution of each of the dietary energy sources (lactose and fat) to deteriorated glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance is currently unknown. Therefore, an experiment was designed to compare the effects of a high-lactose and a high-fat MR on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Sixteen male Holstein-Friesian calves (120±2.8kg of BW) were assigned to either a high-lactose (HL) or a high-fat (HF) MR for 13 consecutive weeks. After at least 7 wk of adaptation, whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic clamps, respectively. Postprandial blood samples were collected to assess glucose, insulin, and triglyceride responses to feeding, and 24-h urine was collected to quantify urinary glucose excretion. At the end of the trial, liver and muscle biopsies were taken to assess triglyceride contents in these tissues. Long-term exposure of calves to HF or HL MR did not affect whole-body insulin sensitivity (averaging 4.2±0.5×10 -2 [(mg/kg∙min)/(μU/mL)]) and insulin secretion. Responses to feeding were greater for plasma glucose and tended to be greater for plasma insulin in HL calves than in HF calves. Urinary glucose excretion was substantially higher in HL calves (75±13g/d) than in HF calves (21±6g/d). Muscle triglyceride content was not affected by treatment and averaged 4.5±0.6g/kg, but liver triglyceride content was higher in HF calves (16.4±0.9g/kg) than in HL calves (11.2±0.7g/kg), indicating increased hepatic fat accumulation. We conclude that

  14. Marine, freshwater and aerially acclimated mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) use different strategies for cutaneous ammonia excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher A.; Wilson, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins are ammonia gas (NH3) channels known to be involved in ammonia transport in animals. Because of the different osmoregulatory and ionoregulatory challenges faced by teleost fishes in marine and freshwater (FW) environments, we hypothesized that ammonia excretion strategies would differ between environments. Also, we hypothesized that cutaneous NH3 volatilization in air-acclimated fish is facilitated by base secretion. To test these hypotheses, we used the skin of the euryhaline amphibious mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus). The skin excretes ammonia and expresses Rh glycoproteins. Serosal-to-mucosal cutaneous ammonia flux was saturable (0–16 mmol/l ammonia, Km of 6.42 mmol/l). In FW, ammonia excretion increased in response to low mucosal pH but decreased with pharmacological inhibition of Na+/H+ exchangers (NHE) and H+ ATPase. Conversely, in brackish water (BW), lowering the mucosal pH significantly decreased ammonia excretion. Inhibitors of NHE also decreased ammonia excretion in BW fish. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that both the Rh isoform, Rhcg1, and NHE3 proteins colocalized in Na+/K+ ATPase expressing mitochondrion-rich cells in the gills, kidney, and skin. We propose that the mechanisms of cutaneous ammonia excretion in FW K. marmoratus are consistent with the model for branchial ammonia excretion in FW teleost fish. NH4+ excretion appeared to play a stronger role in BW. NH4+ excretion in BW may be facilitated by apical NHE and/or diffuse through paracellular pathways. In aerially acclimated fish, inhibition of NHE and H+ ATPase, but not the Cl−/HCO3− exchanger, significantly affected cutaneous surface pH, suggesting that direct base excretion is not critical for NH3 volatilization. Overall, K. marmoratus use different strategies for excreting ammonia in three different environments, FW, BW, and air, and Rh glycoproteins and NHE are integral to all. PMID:23389109

  15. Effects of pelvic floor muscle exercise on faecal incontinence in rectal cancer patients after stoma closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y-H; Yang, H-Y; Hung, S-L; Chen, H-P; Liu, K-W; Chen, T-B; Chi, S-C

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of pelvic floor muscle exercise (PFME) on the faecal incontinence (FI) of rectal cancer patients following stoma closure. Participants were randomly distributed into an exercise group (n = 27) and non-exercise group (n = 26). An experimental design and longitudinal approach were implemented for data collection. Baseline data were collected at 1 day before discharge, and then PFME was taught before the patients were discharged from the hospital. We collected data and followed up with the patients at their pre-discharge visit and at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 9 months after discharge. The Cleveland Clinic Faecal Incontinence (CCI) score was used to measure patient outcome. PFME proved to effectively decrease the degree of FI in stoma closure recipients. The FI score of the exercise group significantly decreased from 8.37 to 2.27 after PFME compared with that of the non-exercise group (from 8.54 to 2.58). The generalised estimation equation tests showed that both group and time were significantly different. The tests also indicated that although PFME appeared to hasten the decline of incontinence, this effect was no longer detectable at 9 months; thus, it may be an effective intervention for FI when implemented up to half a year after discharge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Jerusalem artichoke and chicory inulin in bakery products affect faecal microbiota of healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleessen, Brigitta; Schwarz, Sandra; Boehm, Anke; Fuhrmann, H; Richter, A; Henle, T; Krueger, Monika

    2007-09-01

    A study was conducted to test the effects of Jerusalem artichoke inulin (JA) or chicory inulin (CH) in snack bars on composition of faecal microbiota, concentration of faecal SCFA, bowel habit and gastrointestinal symptoms. Forty-five volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. At the end of a 7 d run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to three groups of fifteen subjects each, consuming either snack bars with CH or JA, or snack bars without fructans (placebo); for 7 d (adaptation period), they ingested one snack bar per day (7.7 g fructan/d) and continued for 14 d with two snack bars per day. The composition of the microbiota was monitored weekly. The consumption of CH or JA increased counts of bifidobacteria (+1.2 log10 in 21 d) and reduced Bacteroides/Prevotella in number and the Clostridium histolyticum/C. lituseburense group in frequency at the end of intervention (P bakery products stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria and may contribute to the suppression of potential pathogenic bacteria.

  17. Faecal-wood biomass co-combustion and ash composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somorin, Tosin Onabanjo; Kolios, Athanasios J; Parker, Alison; McAdam, Ewan; Williams, Leon; Tyrrel, Sean

    2017-09-01

    Fuel blending is a widely used approach in biomass combustion, particularly for feedstocks with low calorific value and high moisture content. In on-site sanitation technologies, fuel blending is proposed as a pre-treatment requirement to reduce moisture levels and improve the physiochemical properties of raw faeces prior to drying. This study investigates the co-combustion performance of wood dust: raw human faeces blends at varying air-to-fuel ratios in a bench-scale combustor test rig. It concludes with ash composition analyses and discusses their potential application and related problems. The study shows that a 50:50 wood dust (WD): raw human faeces (FC) can reduce moisture levels in raw human faeces by ∼40% prior to drying. The minimum acceptable blend for treating moist faeces without prior drying at a combustion air flow rate of 14-18 L/min is 30:70 WD: FC. For self-sustained ignition and flame propagation, the minimum combustion temperature required for conversion of the fuel to ash is ∼400 °C. The most abundant elements in faecal ash are potassium and calcium, while elements such as nickel, aluminium and iron are in trace quantities. This suggests the potential use of faecal ash as a soil conditioner, but increases the tendency for fly ash formation and sintering problems.

  18. Model evaluation of faecal contamination in coastal areas affected by urban rivers receiving combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, T; Kojima, K; Lee, S A; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    Odaiba seaside park is one of the most popular waterfronts in Tokyo Bay, but is easily affected by wet weather pollutant loads through combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The monitoring data of Escherichia coli clearly showed high faecal contamination after a rainfall event on 9-11 November 2007. We estimated the amounts of discharge volume and E. coli pollutant loads of urban rivers receiving CSO from rainfall chambers as well as pumping stations and primary effluent discharge. The result suggested that Sumida River and Meguro River were more influential to the Odaiba coastal area than other sources including the nearest wastewater treatment plant. Subsequently, we simulated the dynamic behaviour of E. coli by a three-dimensional (3D) hydro-dynamic and water quality model. The model simulation reproduced that E. coli concentration after the rainfall event increased rapidly at first and later gradually decreased. The simulations with and without inflow pollutant loads from urban rivers suggested that the E. coli concentration can be influenced by the Meguro River just after the rainfall event and Sumida River about 1 week later. From the spatial and temporal distribution of surface E. coli concentration, after at least 6 days from the rainfall event, high faecal contamination spread to the whole of the coastal area.

  19. Pelvic floor muscle lesions at endoanal MR imaging in female patients with faecal incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, Maaike P.; Vervoorn, Inge; Dobben, Annette C.; Stoker, Jaap; Beets-Tan, Regina G.H.; Deutekom, Marije; Bossuyt, Patrick M.M.; Wasser, Martin N.J.M.; Witkamp, Theo D.; Baeten, Cor G.M.I.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency and spectrum of lesions of different pelvic floor muscles at endoanal MRI in women with severe faecal incontinence and to study their relation with incontinence severity and manometric findings. In 105 women MRI examinations were evaluated for internal anal sphincter (IAS), external anal sphincter (EAS), puborectal muscle (PM) and levator ani (LA) lesions. The relative contribution of lesions to differences in incontinence severity and manometric findings was studied. IAS (n=59) and EAS (n=61) defects were more common than PM (n=23) and LA (n=26) defects. PM and LA defects presented mainly with IAS and/or EAS defects (isolated n=2 and n=3). EAS atrophy (n=73) was more common than IAS (n=19), PM (n=16) and LA (n=9) atrophy and presented mainly isolated. PM and LA atrophy presented primarily with EAS atrophy (isolated n=3 and n=1). Patients with IAS and EAS lesions had a lower resting and squeeze pressure, respectively; no other associations were found. PM and LA lesions are relatively common in patients with severe faecal incontinence, but the majority of lesions are found in women who also have IAS and/or EAS lesions. Only an association between anal sphincter lesions and manometry was observed. (orig.)

  20. Dietary carbohydrate source influences molecular fingerprints of the rat faecal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Poulsen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Background: A study was designed to elucidate effects of selected carbohydrates on composition and activity of the intestinal microbiota. Five groups of eight rats were fed a western type diet containing cornstarch (reference group), sucrose, potato starch, inulin (a long-chained fructan) or olig......Background: A study was designed to elucidate effects of selected carbohydrates on composition and activity of the intestinal microbiota. Five groups of eight rats were fed a western type diet containing cornstarch (reference group), sucrose, potato starch, inulin (a long-chained fructan...... of coliform bacteria in faeces. In the inulin and oligofructose groups, higher levels of butyrate and propionate, respectively, were measured. Principal Component Analysis of profiles of the faecal microbiota obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR amplified bacterial 16S rRNA genes...... and are not expected to reach the large intestine, the DGGE band patterns obtained indicated that these carbohydrates indeed affected the composition of bacteria in the large gut. Also the two fructans resulted in completely different molecular fingerprints of the faecal microbiota, indicating that even though...

  1. Significance of the thickness of the anal sphincters with age and its relevance in faecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachrysostomou, M; Pye, S D; Wild, S R; Smith, A N

    1994-08-01

    Ultrasonographic studies in healthy volunteers showed that the external anal sphincter (EAS) and internal anal sphincter (IAS) thicknesses were inversely related at rest. The functional importance of the two sphincters in continence control was demonstrated in the relationship between the sum of the thicknesses of the two sphincters and the anal canal resting pressure. The aims of the present study were to assess the morphometric appearance of the anal sphincters by endosonography in faecally incontinent patients and to contrast this with that of older healthy subjects. Twenty-eight female patients with neurogenic faecal incontinence (FI) were studied. An older group of 7 healthy women, aged 41-75 years, and a young group of 11 nulliparous healthy women, aged 20-23 years, served as control groups. Anal endosonography was performed with a radial rotating endoprobe, with the subject in the left lateral position. Conventional anal manometry was performed in all subjects. The EAS in the FI group was thicker than the EAS in the old (p IAS thickness in the FI group did not differ from that in the older group. In both these groups the IAS was thicker than in the young women (p IAS in the FI group does not seem to compensate for function and results in a failure of the sphincter mechanism to maintain continence, whereas in healthy elderly subjects the increased IAS thickness appears to be compensatory and important for continence control.

  2. Urinary excretion of polyethylene glycol 3350 during colonoscopy preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothfuss, K. S.; Bode, J.C.; Stange, E.F.

    2006-01-01

    . In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), intestinal permeability and PEG absorption were previously reported to be higher than in normal subjects. In the current study, we investigated the absorption of PEG 3350 in patients undergoing routine gut lavage. METHODS AND RESULTS: Urine specimens were...... collected for 8 hours in 24 patients undergoing bowel cleansing with PEG 3350 for colonoscopy. The urinary excretion of PEG 3350, measured by size exclusion chromatography, ranged between 0.01 and 0.51 % of the ingested amount, corresponding to 5.8 and 896 mg in absolute amounts, respectively. Mean PEG...... that intestinal absorption of PEG 3350 is higher than previously assumed and underlies a strong inter-individual variation. Inflammatory changes of the intestine do not necessarily lead to a significantly higher permeability of PEG....

  3. I-131 rose bengal excretion test is not dead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antico, V.F.; Denhartog, P.; Ash, J.M.; Gilday, D.L.; Houle, S.

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and thirty I-131 Rose Bengal Excretion Studies (RBI) were performed on 84 patients over nine years. In 90% (56/60) of cases with biliary atresia, the 72-hour RBI was less than or equal to 7%. In only 12.5% (3/24) of cases with neonatal hepatitis was the 72-hour RBI less than or equal to 7%. The accuracy of the test was 91% with a specificity of 88%. Thirty patients later were studied following a Kasai procedure. The RBI test reliably predicted the patency of the anastomosis. The authors conclude that the 72-hour RBI is a reliable test in the diagnosis of biliary atresia and in the documentation of biliary patency following surgery, provided adequate care is taken in stool collection and measurement

  4. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, N; Jarløv, J O; Kemp, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis develops resistance to ciprofloxacin rapidly. That this antibiotic is excreted in apocrine and eccrine sweat of healthy individuals might be the reason for the development of such resistance. We assessed whether S epidermidis isolated from the axilla and nasal...... flora of healthy people could develop resistance to ciprofloxacin after a 1-week course of this antibiotic. METHODS: The concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat was measured in seven volunteers after oral administration of 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily for 7 days, and the development of resistance...... in S epidermidis from axilla and nostrils was monitored during and 2 months after the treatment. Genotyping of S epidermidis was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. FINDINGS: The mean concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat increased during the 7 days of treatment-from 2.2 micrograms/mL 2...

  5. Influence of radioiodine therapy on urinary iodine excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, B.; Lauer, I.; Baehre, M.; Richter, E.

    1998-01-01

    In 214 patients with benign thyroid diseases the time-course of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was investigated in order to identify changes after radioiodine therapy (RITh). Method: UIE was measured photometrically (cerium-arsenite method) and related to urinary creatinine on the first and last day of the radioiodine test and the three days, seven days, four weeks, and six months after 131 I administration. Results: As compared with the level found immediately before radioiodine therapy, median UIE had almost doubled four weeks after therapy and was still significantly elevated six months after therapy. This increase correlated significantly with the target volume as measured by scintigraphy and sonography. Conclusions: The persistent elevation of UIE for months after RITh is a measure of treatment-induced damage to thyrocytes. Therefore, in view of the unfavourable kinetics of iodine that follow it, RITh should if possible be given via a single-dose regime. (orig.) [de

  6. Protein digestibility and ammonia excretion in catfish Clarias gariepinus culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A series of experiments was performed to analyze protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, and also heterothropic bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics in the catfish Clarias gariepinus culture. In the digestibility experiment, catfish with an individual initial size of 43.67±0.83 g were stocked into 120 L conical fiberglass tanks at a density of 20 fish per tank. Fish were fed on with commercial diet supplemented with Cr2O3 indicator at a concentration of 1%. In the ammonia excretion experiment, catfish with an individual size of 111.6±9.5 and 40.6±3.4 g, respectively,  were placed into a 10 L chamber filled with 8 L of water. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN in the chambers were monitored every hour for six consecutive hours. In the bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics experiment, catfish were stocked in the 25 m2 concrete tanks which was divided into two compartments (catfish 10 m2, and heterotrof compartments 15 m2. Catfish with individual size of 42,5±0 g were stocked into the tanks at a density of 100 fish per tank. Water was recirculated from catfish compartments to heterotrophic compartments. Fish were fed with floating feed. Molasses as carbon source for heterotrophic bacteria was applied daily. The experiment was conducted for six weeks. The results showed that the protein digestibility was 61.97±7.24%. Larger fish (size of 111.6 g excreted ammonia at a rate of 0.008±0.003 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour, which was lower than that of the smaller catfish (size of 40.6 g, i.e. 0.012±0.004 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour. Keywords: protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, catfish  ABSTRAK Serangkaian penelitian telah dilakukan untuk menganalisis ketercernaan pakan dan protein, ekskresi amonia, serta dinamika bakteri dan fitoplankton pada budidaya ikan lele (Clarias gariepinus. Pada penelitian ketercernaan pakan, ikan lele berukuran 43,67±0,83 g/ekor dipelihara dalam bak fiberglas berbentuk corong berukuran 120 L dengan kepadatan 20

  7. Additional oligofructose/inulin does not increase faecal bifidobacteria in critically ill patients receiving enteral nutrition: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Hazreen A; Cole, Jayne; Emery, Peter W; Whelan, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    Patients with diarrhoea during enteral nutrition (EN) have been shown to have low faecal bifidobacteria concentrations. Oligofructose/inulin selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in healthy humans. This study investigates the effect of additional oligofructose/inulin on the gastrointestinal microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and faecal output in patients receiving EN. Adult patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) who were starting EN with a formula containing fibre were randomised to receive 7 g/d of additional oligofructose/inulin or an identically packaged placebo (maltodextrin). A fresh faecal sample was collected at baseline and following at least 7 days of supplementation. Faecal microbiota were analysed using fluorescent in-situ hybridisation and faecal output was monitored daily. Twenty-two patients (mean age 71 years) completed at least 7 days of intervention (mean 12 days). At the end of the intervention, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of bifidobacteria between the groups, after adjusting for baseline values (oligofructose/inulin 6.9 + 1.4, placebo 7.8 + 1.3 log10 cells/g dry faeces, P > 0.05), but there were significantly lower concentrations of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (7.0 + 1.0 vs. 8.4 + 1.3 log10 cells/g, P = 0.01) and Bacteroides-Prevotella (9.1 + 1.0 vs. 9.9 + 0.9 log10 cells/g, P = 0.05) in patients receiving additional oligofructose/inulin. There were no differences in faecal concentrations of any SCFA, secretory IgA, daily faecal score or incidence of diarrhoea between the two groups. Additional oligofructose/inulin did not increase faecal bifidobacteria in critically ill patients receiving EN, although it did result in lower concentrations of F. prausnitzii and Bacteroides-Prevotella. This trial is registered at http://controlled-trials.com. Identifier: ISRCTN06446184. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All

  8. Cow-specific diet digestibility predictions based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy scans of faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtiö, T; Rinne, M; Nyholm, L; Mäntysaari, P; Sairanen, A; Mäntysaari, E A; Pitkänen, T; Lidauer, M H

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to obtain information on prediction of diet digestibility from near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) scans of faecal spot samples from dairy cows at different stages of lactation and to develop a faecal sampling protocol. NIRS was used to predict diet organic matter digestibility (OMD) and indigestible neutral detergent fibre content (iNDF) from faecal samples, and dry matter digestibility (DMD) using iNDF in feed and faecal samples as an internal marker. Acid-insoluble ash (AIA) as an internal digestibility marker was used as a reference method to evaluate the reliability of NIRS predictions. Feed and composite faecal samples were collected from 44 cows at approximately 50, 150 and 250 days in milk (DIM). The estimated standard deviation for cow-specific organic matter digestibility analysed by AIA was 12.3 g/kg, which is small considering that the average was 724 g/kg. The phenotypic correlation between direct faecal OMD prediction by NIRS and OMD by AIA over the lactation was 0.51. The low repeatability and small variability estimates for direct OMD predictions by NIRS were not accurate enough to quantify small differences in OMD between cows. In contrast to OMD, the repeatability estimates for DMD by iNDF and especially for direct faecal iNDF predictions were 0.32 and 0.46, respectively, indicating that developing of NIRS predictions for cow-specific digestibility is possible. A data subset of 20 cows with daily individual faecal samples was used to develop an on-farm sampling protocol. Based on the assessment of correlations between individual sample combinations and composite samples as well as repeatability estimates for individual sample combinations, we found that collecting up to three individual samples yields a representative composite sample. Collection of samples from all the cows of a herd every third month might be a good choice, because it would yield a better accuracy. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Effects of inulin supplementation on selected faecal characteristics and health of neonatal Saanen kids sucking milk from their dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, C; Orman, A; Gencoglu, H; Kovanlıkaya, A; Meral, Y; Cetin, I; Yıbar, A; Kasap, S; Turkmen, I; Deniz, G

    2012-12-01

    Fifty newborn Saanen kids were used to study the effects of inulin supplementation on faecal score, faecal pH, selected faecal bacterial population, BW, body temperature, haematological traits, selected health parameters and the incidence of diarrhoea. Kids were sorted by parity of their dams and multiple birth (twin or triplet) and assigned to one of the two groups (control: CG, and experimental: EG) at birth. Each group consisted of 25 kids. The groups were similar with regard to sex and birth weight. All kids were fed colostrum for the first 3 days after birth, and then the kids in EG were adapted to inulin supplementation by an increased dosage from day 4 to 7. Each kid in EG was supplemented with 0.2 g, 0.3 g, 0.4 g, 0.5 g and 0.6 g inulin on day 4, 5, 6, 7 and from day 8 to 28, respectively, whereas the kids in CG did not receive inulin. Faecal score and faecal bacterial population were not affected by inulin supplementation (P > 0.05). There were differences in faecal pH on day 14 (P = 0.01) and 28 (P 0.05) was detected between groups. No differences (P > 0.05) in BW and haematological traits were found between groups. Body temperature did not differ on day 14 and 21 (P > 0.05), whereas there was a difference in body temperature on day 28 (P = 0.01) between groups. The numbers of kids with pneumonia and kids treated for pneumonia and diarrhoea were similar for CG and EG. Kid losses during the study were the same for CG and EG. The incidence of diarrhoea was not affected by inulin supplementation (P > 0.05). Inulin supplemented to kids did not adversely affect faecal score. The effect of inulin on faecal pH was not consistent. The results of our study suggested that daily dose (0.6 g) of inulin might not be enough to observe effects of it. Our data will be useful to determine the dose and timing of inulin supplementation in future studies investigating the effects of inulin on the parameters associated with performance and health status in kids and other

  10. Metagenomic analysis of faecal microbiome as a tool towards targeted non-invasive biomarkers for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jun; Feng, Qiang; Wong, Sunny Hei

    2017-01-01

    known associations of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Peptostreptococcus stomatis with CRC, we found significant associations with several species, including Parvimonas micra and Solobacterium moorei. We identified 20 microbial gene markers that differentiated CRC and control microbiomes, and validated 4...... in the independent Chinese cohort with AUC=0.84 and OR of 23. These genes were enriched in early-stage (I-II) patient microbiomes, highlighting the potential for using faecal metagenomic biomarkers for early diagnosis of CRC. CONCLUSIONS: We present the first metagenomic profiling study of CRC faecal microbiomes...

  11. A comparison of in vitro tests and a faecal egg count reduction test in detecting anthelmintic resistance in horse strongyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Barnes, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    This study reports a comparison between faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA) for detecting anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyles. Resistance to benzimidazoles was demonstrated in 33 of 42 (79%) farms tested by FECRT and in 32 (62......%) of the 52 farms tested by EHA. As the reference strain used was not fully susceptible to benzimidazoles it was not possible to determine the level of resistance by LDA. Pyrantel resistance was indicated on three of 15 farms by faecal egg count reduction. Resistance was also indicated by LDA for one...

  12. LOW FRACTIONAL EXCRETION OF UREA IN HYPOTHYROIDISM INDUCED HYPONATREMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algranati L

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:El hipotiroidismo puede causar alteraciones del metabolismo del agua, los electrolitos, la hemodinamia e histología renales, siendo la hiponatremia y la reducción del filtrado glomerular sus consecuencias más significativas, pero poco prevalentes. Todos estos cambios son corregibles con el suministro de hormona tiroidea exógena.La excreción fraccional de urea (EFU es un índice útil en la evaluación de la hiponatremia, pero no se ha descripto aun el valor que este índice alcanza en la hiponatremia inducida por hipotiroidismo. En el presente reporte mostramos que la EFU y excreción fraccional de sodio (EFNa fueron baja (EFU: 29% y alta (EFNa: 2.2% respectivamente en un paciente que padecía hipotiroideo severo. El tratamiento con hormona tiroidea normalizó el valor de ambos índices.ABSTRACTHypothyroidism can cause disturbance of renal hemodinamics, kidney histology, water and electrolyte metabolism, being hyponatremia and glomerular filtration reduction their low prevalent but most significant consequences. All these changes are largely corrected by substitution of exogenous thyroid hormone.Fractional excretion of urea (FEU is a useful index in the evaluation of hyponatremia. However, it was not still reported in the literature the FEU value in hyponatremia induced by hypothyroidism. Because of that we presented a case report showing that the value of FEU and fractional excretion of sodium (FENa were low (FEU: 29% and high (FENa: 2.2 % respectively in a severe hypothyroid patient. Treatment based on thyroid hormone normalized both indeces.

  13. Ammonia production, excretion, toxicity, and defense in fish: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Y K Ip

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity by enhancing the effectiveness of ammonia excretion through active NH4+ transport, manipulation of ambient pH, or reduction in ammonia permeability through the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Recent reports on ammonia toxicity in mammalian brain reveal the importance of permeation of ammonia through the blood-brain barrier and passages of ammonia and water through transporters in the plasmalemma of brain cells. Additionally, brain ammonia toxicity could be related to the passage of glutamine through the mitochondrial membranes into the mitochondrial matrix. On the other hand, recent reports on ammonia excretion in fish confirm the involvement of Rhesus glycoproteins in the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Therefore, this review focuses on both the earlier literature and the up-to-date information on the problems and mechanisms concerning the permeation of ammonia, as NH3, NH4+ or proton-neutral nitrogenous compounds, across mitochondrial membranes, the blood-brain barrier, the plasmalemma of neurons, and the branchial and cutaneous epithelia of fish. It also addresses how certain fishes with high ammonia tolerance defend against ammonia toxicity through the regulation of the permeation of ammonia and related nitrogenous compounds through various types of membranes. It is hoped that this review would revive the interests in investigations on the passage of ammonia through the mitochondrial membranes and the blood-brain barrier of ammonotelic fishes and fishes with high brain ammonia-tolerance, respectively.

  14. Are carnivore digestive separation mechanisms revealed on structure-rich diets?: Faecal inconsistency in dogs (Canis familiaris) fed day old chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuyper, De Annelies; Clauss, M.; Hesta, Myriam; Cools, An; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Janssens, Geert P.J.

    2018-01-01

    Pronounced variations in faecal consistency have been described anecdotally for some carnivore species fed a structure-rich diet. Typically two faecal consistencies are distinguished, namely hard and firm versus liquid and viscous faeces. It is possible that a separation mechanism is operating in

  15. Effect of low-dose heparin on urinary albumin excretion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B; Hansen, P M; Jensen, T

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of heparin on urinary albumin excretion in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 39 patients with persistent urinary albumin excretion of 30-300 mg/24 h were randomly treated for 3 months with subcutaneous injections twice daily of isotonic saline, 5000 IU...

  16. Separation of pair housed roosters is associated with transient increased corticosteroid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hau, Jann; Carlsson, H E; Royo, F

    2009-01-01

    the second day after separation indicating that the separation and relocation is associated with an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The excretion of ICCM in droppings was not correlated to the concentration of ICCM in droppings. It is thus important that excretion of ICCM be expressed...

  17. Hydrochlorothiazide-induced 131I excretion facilitated by salt and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, K.H. Jr.; Fehr, D.M.; Gelarden, R.T.; White, W.J.; Lang, C.M.; Vesell, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salt intake is restricted under clinical conditions for which thiazide diuretics are customarily used. Dietary iodide intake offsets any effect of thiazide on iodide loss. However, our correlation coefficients relating Na+ to Cl- to I- excretion indicate that as thiazide administration or sodium chloride intake increases renal Na+ and Cl- excretion, I- reabsorption by the nephron coordinately decreases. Increased sodium chloride and water intake by the dog doubled I-excretion rates. Hydrochlorothiazide increased the sodium chloride and water enhanced I-excretion rate as much as eight-fold. Without added NaCl, hydrochlorothiazide increased the excretion rate of 131I by three- to eightfold, acutely. Within five to seven days after 131I oral administration, hydrochlorothiazide (1 or 2 mg/kg twice daily) doubled the rate of 131I disappearance from plasma, reduced the fecal output of 131I, and increased its rate of renal excretion. When hydrochlorothiazide was administered, as much 131I was excreted in the first 24 hours as occurred in 48 hours when sodium chloride and water were given without hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazide administration in customary clinical dosage twice a day with substantial sodium chloride and water for the first two days after exposure to 131I, should therefore facilitate the safe excretion of 131I. This accelerated removal of 131I might be enhanced even more if thyroid uptake of 131I is blocked by administration of potassium iodide, as judged by the greater 131I recovery from thyroidectomized dogs

  18. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion predicts preeclampsia in pregnant women with pregestational type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, MS; Hesse, D; Ekbom, P

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.......We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes....

  19. The effect of taurocholate on canine bile flow, biliary excretion and concentration of ioglycamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toetterman, S.; Santavirta, S.; Mankinen, P.; Antila, H.; Lukkari, E.; Goethlin, J.; Korpi-Tommola, T.

    1983-01-01

    The bile acid taurocholate increases the biliary excretion of organic anions, such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP), bilirubin and iopanoic acid. In the present study has been investigated the effect of taurocholate on 1. Canine biliary excretion and concentration of the i.v. contrast medium ioglycamide and 2. Canine bile flow. The experimental model consisted of cholecystectomized, anaesthetized dogs with a fistula, through which the common bile duct could be catheterized and drained. One hour after cannulation, i.v. infusion of ioglycamide at a rate of 4 μmol/min./kg. was started. Two hours after the infusion start a control group received i.v. infusion of saline, while in another a 1.5% sodium taurocholate infusion was started with stepwise increases with 30 min. intervals from 0.4 to 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 μmol/min./kg. Compared with control, all rates of taurocholate infusion increased bile flow and decreased biliary ioglycamide concentration. Although the bile flow with increasing taurocholate infusion rates was enhanced, the biliary ioglycamide excretion did not increase. The results indicate that ioglycamide and taurocholate are excreted into bile by separate excretion mechanisms. As taurocholate increases the biliary excretion of some other organic anions, it supports the hypothesis that organic anions are excreted into bile by more than two excretion mechanisms, taurocholate affecting only some of them. (orig.)

  20. Ivermectin excreted in cattle dung after subcutaneous injection or pour-on treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C.; Steffansen, B.; Nielsen, B. Overgaard

    1992-01-01

    Heifers were treated with the recommended doses of ivermectin: 0.2 mg/kg bw by subcutaneous injection or 0.5 mg/kg bw by pour-on. An analytic procedure is described and used for the detection of ivermectin residues excreted in dung. A large amount of the higher pour-on dose was excreted during th...

  1. Splanchnic and peripheral release of 3-methylhistidine in relation to its urinary excretion in human infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjölin, J; Stjernström, H; Henneberg, S

    1989-01-01

    ) and from the splanchnic region 0.012 +/- 0.013 mumol/min. These releases of 3MH constitute 27% +/- 2% and 8% +/- 6% of the individual urinary excretions, respectively. With increasing degree of catabolism, measured as individual 3MH increase above baseline excretion or as the 3MH to creatinine ratio (3MH...

  2. Influence of spironolactone on the excretion of 203Hg2+ in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cikrt, M.; Tichy, M.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of spironolactone (SPL) on 203 Hg 2+ excretion was studied in rats with a special emphasis in biliary excretion. No correlation was found between the number of doses of SPL pretreatment (1-5 doses of 5 mg/100 g body weight) and the biliary excretion of 203 Hg 2+ within 6 hours after intravenous administration of 120 μg Hg 2+ per rat. After the SPL pretreatment there was a significantly increased mercury stool excretion 24 hours after intravenous administration. Concurrent oral administration of SH-groups containing sorbent had no effect on mercury stool excretion. Repeated administration of 203 Hg 2+ (5 hours after the first dose) induced significantly increased biliary excretion of mercury in rats pretreated with SPL. On the other hand, repeated administration of SPL (4 hours after intravenous administration of mercury) did not influence the biliary excretion of mercury. The results indicate that the effect of SPL on biliary excretion of mercury could be limited by the level of ''mercury available'' in the organism and might be determined by a direct interaction of mercury molecule with the molecule of SPL

  3. Effect of low-dose heparin on urinary albumin excretion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myrup, B.; Hansen, P.M.; Jensen, T.; Kofoed-Enevoldsen, A.; Feldt-Rasmussen, B.; Gram, J.; Kluft, C.; Jespersen, J.; Deckert, T.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of heparin on urinary albumin excretion in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 39 patients with persistent urinary albumin excretion of 30-300 mg/24 h were randomly treated for 3 months with subcutaneous injections twice daily of isotonic saline, 5000 IU

  4. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) wer......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  5. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peanut butter and peanut oil Polyunsaturated fat: Polyunsaturated fat, another type of unsaturated fat, protects your heart. Sources of ... paste • safflower oil • walnuts • salad dressings Omega-3 fats: This type of fat helps prevent clogging of the arteries. ...

  6. Uptake, retention and excretion of strontium in man; Assimilation, retention et excretion du strontium chez l'homme; Pogloshchenie, zaderzhka i vydelenie strontsiya organizmom cheloveka; Absorcion, retencion y excrecion del estroncio en el hombre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, G. E. [Radiobiological Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1963-02-15

    The absorption of strontium from the gastrointestinal tract is discussed in relation to the diet and the different components of a bread-milk diet. A brief review is given of the results obtained by using chelators and diets high in calcium in order to decrease the strontium absorption. The ratios of strontium to calcium in the different body compartments for adult man is discussed. The results of recent experimental work on normal man on a constant diet, are reviewed with particular reference to the urinary excretion and the retention of Sr{sup 85} contained in the experimental diet. The endogenous faecal excretion is also derived. These results are compared with those obtained from a single intravenous injection of radioactive strontium. For all the subjects the retention was obtained from whole-body counting using a pulse height analyser. The retention of the strontium in the skeleton is analysed and it is postulated that there are at least three degrees of binding of radioactive strontium with bone. In particular the retention several months after the dose and the relationship of this retention to the radiation dose to the skeleton from Sr{sup 90} is discussed. A formula is proposed for the evaluation of body retention of a radioactive dose of strontium from the radioactivity excreted in the urine. (author) [French] L'auteur etudie l'aborption du strontium provenant du tractus gastrointestinal, en fonction du regime alimentaire et des divers elements constitutifs d'un regime compose de pain et de lait. Il donne un apercu des resultats que l 'on a pu obtenir en utilisant des agents de chelation et en imposant des regimes alimentaires caracterises par une forte eneur en calcium, afin de reduire l'absorption du strontium. L'auteur examine les rapports strontium/calcium dans les differentes parties de l'organisme adulte. Il passe en revue les recentes experiences faites sur l'homme normal, soumis a un regime alimentaire constant, en tenant particulierement compte

  7. Are carnivore digestive separation mechanisms revealed on structure-rich diets?: Faecal inconsistency in dogs (Canis familiaris fed day old chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies De Cuyper

    Full Text Available Pronounced variations in faecal consistency have been described anecdotally for some carnivore species fed a structure-rich diet. Typically two faecal consistencies are distinguished, namely hard and firm versus liquid and viscous faeces. It is possible that a separation mechanism is operating in the carnivore digestive tract, as in many herbivore species. Six beagle dogs were fed two experimental diets in a cross-over design of 7 days. Test diets consisted of chunked day old chicks differing only in particle size (fine = 7.8 mm vs coarse = 13 mm in order to vary dietary structure. Digestive retention time was measured using titanium oxide (TiO2 as marker. The total faecal output was scored for consistency and faecal fermentation profiles were evaluated through faecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA and ammonia (NH3 analyses. A total of 181 faecal samples were collected. Dietary particle size did not affect faecal consistency, fermentative end products nor mean retention time (MRT. However, a faecal consistency dichotomy was observed with firm faeces (score 2-2.5 and soft faeces (score 4-4.5 being the most frequently occurring consistencies in an almost alternating pattern in every single dog. Firm and soft faeces differed distinctively in fermentative profiles. Although the structure difference between diets did not affect the faecal dichotomy, feeding whole prey provoked the occurrence of the latter which raises suspicion of a digestive separation mechanism in the canine digestive tract. Further faecal characterisation is however required in order to unravel the underlying mechanism.

  8. Effects of water deprivation on renal hydroelectrolytic excretion in chronically Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T. Rosa

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an 8 hour-period of water deprivation on fluid and electrolyte renal excretion was investigated in male Wistar rats infected with the strain São Felipe (12SF of Trypanosoma cruzi, in comparison with age and sex matched non-infected controls. The median percent reductions in the urinary flow (-40% v -63% and excretion ofsodium (-57% v-79% were smaller in chagasic than in control rats, respectively. So, chagasic rats excreted more than controls. On the other hand, the median percent decrement in the clearance of creatinine was higher in chagasic (-51% than in controls (-39%. Thus, chagasic rats showed some disturbed renal hydroelectrolytic responses to water deprivation, expressed by smaller conservation, or higher excretion of water and sodium in association with smaller glomerularfiltration rate. This fact denoted an elevation in the fractional excretion of sodium and water.

  9. Human excretion behaviour in a schistosomiasis endemic area of the Geizira, Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheesmond, A.K.; Fenwick, A.

    1981-06-01

    A 12-month study of the excretory behaviour of resident and migrant labourers in Gezira, Sudan, was undertaken to contribute base-line information towards the development of a new control strategy. Of 398 observed acts of excretion 70% of urinations and 93% of defaecations occurred in sites far removed from any water body. After excretion only 31% people washed themselves (and only 7.1% actually washed their genital region directly into a water body). People excreting far from water were as likely to wash afterwards as those excreting near a water body. This finding contradicted previous expectations based on the hygienic precepts of Islam. The results show that privacy is a more important consideration than proximity of water in the selection of a site for excretion, and suggest that there is only limited regular contamination by S. mansoni eggs under the observed conditions.

  10. Diagnostic value of determination of amount of urinary excretion of proteins for early diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhuocheng; Chen Jianxiong; Yan Dewen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of detection of changes of the amount of usinary excretion of albumin, β 2 -m, Tamm- Horsfall protein and α 1 -m for diagnosis of early diabetic nephropathy. Methods: The amounts of 24h urinary excretion of albumin, β 2 -m, Tamm-Horsfall protein and α 1 -m were determined with RIA in 78 patients with diabetes mellitus and 40 controls. Results: The amounts of 24h urinary excretion of albumin, β 2 -m, α 1 -m in patients with diabetes mellitus were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01 ), while the amount of Tamm-Horsfall protein was significantly lower (P<0.01). Among the diabetic patients, the changes of the amount of protein excretion were more pronounced in those with advanced impairment of renal function. Conclusion: Determination of amount of urinary excretion of proteins was helpful for diagnosis and assessment of early diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  11. Interplay of biopharmaceutics, biopharmaceutics drug disposition and salivary excretion classification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkaidek, Nasir M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this commentary is to investigate the interplay of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) and Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS). BCS first classified drugs based on permeability and solubility for the purpose of predicting oral drug absorption. Then BDDCS linked permeability with hepatic metabolism and classified drugs based on metabolism and solubility for the purpose of predicting oral drug disposition. On the other hand, SECS classified drugs based on permeability and protein binding for the purpose of predicting the salivary excretion of drugs. The role of metabolism, rather than permeability, on salivary excretion is investigated and the results are not in agreement with BDDCS. Conclusion The proposed Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) can be used as a guide for drug salivary excretion based on permeability (not metabolism) and protein binding. PMID:24493977

  12. Excretion of amine nitrogen and ammonia in urine of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfiya Raisovna Alimetova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study excretion of amine nitrogen and ammonia in urine of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus depending on gestational ageand albuminuria level. Materials and methods. A total of 60 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus were examined. Proximal and distal tubular function was estimatedfrom daily excretion of amine nitrogen and ammonia respectively. Results. Daily excretion of amine nitrogen and ammonia in urine of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus was lower than in healthycontrols in the 2nd trimester regardless of albuminuria and in the 3rd trimester in patients with microalbuminuria (MAU and proteinuria (PU.Ammonia excretion was twice lower than normal in the 2nd trimester in women with MAU and PU, and in the 3rd trimester in patients with PU.Healthy pregnant women showed significant correlation between ammonia and amine nitrogen excretion throughout pregnancy (r?0.833,p

  13. Excretion of Different Forms of Zinc by the prawn Palaemon serratus (Pennant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.; Keckes, S.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Freshly collected speciments of Palaemon serratus from the upper Adriatic Sea were used to determine excretion rates of zinc in ''zinc-free'' water by anodic stripping polarographic techniques. Weight-specific excretion of total zinc varied reciprocally with body weight apparently in a log-log relationship. Weight-specific excretion of ionic-particulate zinc appeared greatest in short term (1-3 hr) experiments, while weight specific excretion of complexed zinc appeared greatest in longer term (4-5 hr) experiments; however, we cannot exclude the possibility that ionic-particulate zinc and dissolved organic compounds were excreted separately and subsequently combined in the water to yield zinc complex. (author)

  14. Excretion of different forms of zinc by the prawn Palaemon serratus (Pennant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.; Keckes, S.; Fowler, S.W.

    1974-01-01

    Freshly collected specimens of Palaemon serratus from the upper Adriatic Sea were used to determine excretion rates of zinc in zinc-free water by anodic stripping polarographic techniques. Weight-specific excretion of total zinc varied reciprocally with body weight, apparently in a log--log relationship. Weight-specific excretion of ionic-particulate zinc appeared greatest in short term (1 to 3 hr) experiments, while weight-specific excretion of complexed zinc appeared greatest in longer term (4 to 5 hr) experiments; however, we cannot exclude the possibility that ionic-particulate zinc and dissolved organic compounds were excreted separately and subsequently combined in the water to yield zinc complex. (auth)

  15. Effect of time of maize silage supplementation on herbage intake, milk production, and nitrogen excretion of grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marashdeh, O; Gregorini, P; Edwards, G R

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding maize silage at different times before a short grazing bout on dry matter (DM) intake, milk production, and N excretion of dairy cows. Thirty-six Friesian × Jersey crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked in 9groups of 4 cows by milk solids (sum of protein and fat) production (1.26±0.25kg/d), body weight (466±65kg), body condition score (4±0.48), and days in milk (197±15). Groups were then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 replicates of 3 treatments: control; herbage only, supplemented with 3kg of DM/cow of maize silage after morning milking approximately 9h before pasture allocation (9BH); and supplemented with 3kg of DM/cow of maize silage before afternoon milking approximately 2h before pasture allocation (2BH). Herbage allowance (above the ground level) was 22kg of DM/cow per day for all groups of cows. Cows were allocated to pasture from 1530 to 2030 h. Maize silage DM intake did not differ between treatments, averaging 3kg of DM/cow per day. Herbage DM intake was greater for control than 2BH and 9BH, and greater for 9BH than 2BH (11.1, 10.1, and 10.9kg of DM/cow per day for control, 2BH, and 9BH, respectively). The substitution rate (kilograms of herbage DM per kilograms of maize silage DM) was greater for 2BH (0.47) than 9BH (0.19). Milk solids production was similar between treatments (overall mean 1.2kg/cow per day). Body weight loss tended to be less for supplemented than control cows (-0.95, -0.44, and -0.58kg/cow per day for control, 2BH, and 9BH, respectively). Nitrogen concentration in urine was not affected by supplementation or time of supplementation, but estimated urinary N excretion tended to be greater for control than supplemented cows when urinary N excretion estimated using plasma or milk urea N. At the time of herbage meal, nonesterified fatty acid concentration was greater for control than supplemented cows and greater for 9BH than 2BH (0.58, 0.14, and 0.26mmol/L for

  16. Methane production, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, and milk production of dairy cows fed conventional or brown midrib corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Benchaar, C

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of replacing conventional corn silage (CCS) with brown midrib corn silage (BMCS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH 4 emission, nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and N excretion. Sixteen rumen-cannulated lactating cows used in a crossover design (35-d periods) were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio = 65:35, dry matter basis) based (59% dry matter) on either CCS or BMCS. Dry matter intake and milk yield increased when cows were fed BMCS instead of CCS. Of the milk components, only milk fat content slightly decreased when cows were fed the BMCS-based diet compared with when fed the CCS-based diet (3.81 vs. 3.92%). Compared with CCS, feeding BMCS to cows increased yields of milk protein and milk fat. Ruminal pH, protozoa numbers, total VFA concentration, and molar proportions of acetate and propionate were similar between cows fed BMCS and those fed CCS. Daily enteric CH 4 emission (g/d) was unaffected by dietary treatments, but CH 4 production expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake or on milk yield basis was lower for cows fed the BMCS-based diet than for cows fed the CCS-based diet. A decline in manure N excretion and a shift in N excretion from urine to feces were observed when BMCS replaced CCS in the diet, suggesting reduced potential of manure N volatilization. Results from this study show that improving fiber quality of corn silage in dairy cow diets through using brown midrib trait cultivar can reduce enteric CH 4 emissions as well as potential emissions of NH 3 and N 2 O from manure. However, CH 4 emissions during manure storage may increase due to excretion of degradable OM when BMCS diet is fed, which merits further investigation. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sexual differences in the excretion of organic and inorganic mercury by methyl mercury-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.J.; Fisher, H.L.; Sumler, M.R.; Mushak, P.; Hall, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Adult male and female Long Evans rats received 1 mumole of methyl ( 203 Hg) mercuric chloride per kilogram sc. Whole-body retention of mercury and excretion of organic and inorganic mercury in urine and feces were monitored for 98 days after dosing. Females cleared mercury from the body more rapidly than did males. The major route of mercury excretion was feces. By 98 days after dosing, cumulative mercury excretion in feces accounted for about 51% of the dose in males and about 54% of the dose in females. For both sexes, about 33% of the dose was excreted in feces as inorganic mercury. Cumulative excretion of organic mercury in feces accounted for about 18 and 21% of the dose in males and females, respectively. Urinary excretion of mercury was quantitatively a smaller route for mercury clearance but important sexual differences in loss by this route were found. Over the 98-day experimental period, males excreted in urine about 3.2% of the dose and females excreted 7.5%. Cumulative organic Hg excretion in urine accounted for 1.8% of the dose in males and 5.3% of the dose in females. These sexual differences in urinary and fecal excretion of organic and inorganic mercury following methyl mercury treatment were consistent with previous reports of sexual differences in mercury distribution and retention in methyl mercury-treated rats, particularly sexual differences in organic mercury uptake and retention in the kidney. Relationships between body burdens of organic or inorganic Hg and output of these forms of Hg in urine and feces were also found to be influenced by the interval after MeHg treatment and by sex. Relationship between concentration of Hg in liver and feces and in kidney and urine differed for organic and inorganic Hg and depended upon sexual status and interval after MeHg treatment

  18. Uptake and excretion of 110mAg by Mud carp Cirrhina molitorella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shunhua; Zhong Chuangguang

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation, excretion and tissue distribution of 110m Ag from both labeled food and water pathways in juvenile mud carp Cirrhina molitorella were investigated. Results indicated that the excretion rate of 110m Ag uptaken from artificial food pathway was very fast. 24 hours after feeding, the radioactivity of the fish decreased rapidly to 2.62% of the initial one and maintained the similar level afterwards in the 7 days excretion experiment. On the 7th day of excretion, the fish were dissected to separate the organs and tissues. The distribution of 110m Ag in the fish was uneven. Radioactivity of 110m Ag in the organs and tissues was in the order as liver>intestine>gall bladder>eye>gill>remainder>muscle. The radioactivity in liver, intestine and gall bladder were 48.14%, 18/43% and 15.43% of the total radioactivity of the fish, respectively. The accumulation of waterborne 110m Ag by mud carp showed that 110m Ag was easy to be uptaken by the fish. the concentration factors at 8th hour and 13th day were 23.8 and 208.6 respectively. Excretion of 110m Ag uptaken from water pathway was slower than that from food pathway. The radioactivity decreased to 20.1% and 16.7% on 15th and 28th day, respectively. The excretion procedure was composed of fast excretion phase (0-2d) and slow excretion phase (2-28d). The half-life of 110m Ag in mud carp in the slow excretion phase was 22d during the slow excretion phase. The distribution of 110m Ag in organs and tissues was mainly in viscera, which accounted for about 80% of the total radioactivity of the fish

  19. The Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract (GSPE on Urinary Sodium Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsum Ozkan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: While various hormones and mediators reduce the urinary excretion of Na, other mediators such as nitric oxide (NO increase Na excretion. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE is a molecule that has an antioxidant effect by increasing NO levels. Our study was intended to evaluate the effect of GSPE on Na excretion. Material and Method: Fourteen rats were divided into control and GSPE groups. The control group was given 1 cm3 milk by gavage for one week, while the GSPE group was given 100 mg/kg GSPE. Seventh-day urines were collected from rats monitored over 24 h in a metabolic cage. Urinary Na excretion at the end of 24 h was investigated and the experiment concluded. Results: There was no difference between the control and GSPE groups in terms of weight, solid and liquid food intake and urine volumes. 24-hour urinary Na excretion was higher in the GSPE group (1.43±0.30 g/day compared to the control group (1.37±0.29 g/day, although the difference was not statistically significant. Na excretion was positively correlated with solid food intake (p=0.029, r=0.583  and urine volume (p<0.001, r=0.806. Discussion: Our study shows, for the first time in the literature, that GSPE increases  urinary Na excretion in healthy rats,  though not to a statistically significant extent, and that solid food intake and urine volume affect Na excretion. We think that it will be useful for the effect of GSPE on urinary Na excretion in hypertensive rats with impaired Na excretion and balance to be evaluated in future studies.

  20. Droplet digital PCR improves absolute quantification of viable lactic acid bacteria in faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobert, Guillaume; Cotillard, Aurélie; Fourmestraux, Candice; Pruvost, Laurence; Miguet, Jean; Boyer, Mickaël

    2018-03-14

    Analysing correlations between the observed health effects of ingested probiotics and their survival in digestive tract allows adapting their preparations for food. Tracking ingested probiotic in faecal samples requires accurate and specific tools to quantify live vs dead cells at strain level. Traditional culture-based methods are simpler to use but they do not allow quantifying viable but non-cultivable (VBNC) cells and they are poorly discriminant below the species level. We have set up a viable PCR (vPCR) assay combining propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment and either real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) or droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to quantify a Lactobacillus rhamnosus and two Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei strains in piglet faeces. Adjustments of the PMA treatment conditions and reduction of the faecal sample size were necessary to obtain accurate discrimination between dead and live cells. The study also revealed differences of PMA efficiency among the two L. paracasei strains. Both PCR methods were able to specifically quantify each strain and provided comparable total bacterial counts. However, quantification of lower numbers of viable cells was best achieved with ddPCR, which was characterized by a reduced lower limit of quantification (improvement of up to 1.76 log 10 compared to qPCR). All three strains were able to survive in the piglets' gut with viability losses between 0.78 and 1.59 log 10 /g faeces. This study shows the applicability of PMA-ddPCR to specific quantification of small numbers of viable bacterial cells in the presence of an important background of unwanted microorganisms, and without the need to set up standard curves. It also illustrates the need to adapt PMA protocols according to the final matrix and target strain, even for closely related strains. The PMA-ddPCR approach provides a new tool to quantify bacterial survival in faecal samples from a preclinical and clinical trial. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by

  1. Faecal consistency and risk factors for diarrhoea and constipation in cats in UK rehoming shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Allison C; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Morgan, Kenton L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to describe faecal consistency, prevalence and risk factors for diarrhoea and constipation in a rescue cat population. Methods Faecal samples in litter trays from a stratified random sample of cats in pens at 25 UK rehoming centres were scored for consistency in two discrete time periods, summer and winter. A six-point scale was used, with diarrhoea ⩽3, severe diarrhoea ⩽2 and constipation as 6. The effect on faecal consistency of age, number of cats per pen and season was investigated using multivariable hierarchical logistic regression with centre and pen as random effects. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to estimate the effect of pen and centre. Results Overall, 11.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]:10.4-13.7) of cats had diarrhoea, 2.4% (95% CI 1.6-3.7) had severe diarrhoea and 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.5) were constipated. The prevalence of diarrhoea (median 11.0%, interquartile range [IQR] 5.0-14.5%) and constipation (median 4.2%, IQR 1.8-5.9) varied at the centre level. Diarrhoea was associated with being a kitten (odds ratio [OR] 2.54, 95% CI 1.45-4.46; P = 0.001) and being in a multi-cat pen (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.48; P = 0.02) but not with season (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.55-1.77; P = 0.96). Severe diarrhoea was associated with senior cats (OR 4.66, 95% CI 1.25-17.44; P = 0.02). Constipation was associated with increasing age (OR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.01; P = 0.02) and winter (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.89; P = 0.02). Both diarrhoea and constipation showed moderate correlation with pens within a centre. Conclusions and relevance From IQRs, we suggest acceptable levels for diarrhoea and constipation of 11% and 4%, respectively, targets of 5% and 2%, and intervention at 15% and 6%. Increasing age was associated with decreased risk of diarrhoea and increased risk of constipation. However, severe diarrhoea was associated with being a senior cat. Season (winter) was a risk factor for constipation; multi-cat pens were a risk

  2. Using faecal DNA to determine consumption by kangaroos of plants considered palatable to sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K W; Krebs, G L; McCafferty, P; van Wyngaarden, S P; Addison, J

    2010-02-01

    Disagreement exists within the scientific community with regards to the level of competition for feed between sheep and kangaroos in the Australian rangelands. The greatest challenge to solving this debate is finding effective means of determining the composition of the diets of these potential grazing competitors. An option is to adopt a non-invasive approach that combines faecal collection and molecular techniques that focus on faecal DNA as the primary source of dietary information. As proof-of-concept, we show that a DNA reference data bank on plant species can be established. This DNA reference data bank was then used as a library to identify plant species in kangaroo faeces collected in the southern rangelands of Western Australia. To enhance the method development and to begin the investigation of competitive grazing between sheep and kangaroos, 16 plant species known to be palatable to sheep were initially targeted for collection. To ensure that only plant sequences were studied, PCR amplification was performed using a universal primer pair previously shown to be specific to the chloroplast transfer RNA leucine (trnL) UAA gene intron. Overall, genus-specific, single and differently sized amplicons were reliably and reproducibly generated; enabling the differentiation of reference plants by PCR product length heterogeneity. However, there were a few plants that could not be clearly differentiated on the basis of size alone. This prompted the adoption of a post-PCR step that enabled further differentiation according to base sequence variation. Restriction endonucleases make sequence-specific cleavages on DNA to produce discrete and reproducible fragments having unique sizes and base compositions. Their availability, affordability and simplicity-of-use put restriction enzyme sequence (RES) profiling as a logical post-PCR step for confirming plant species identity. We demonstrate that PCR-RES profiling of plant and faecal matter is useful for the identification

  3. Effect of injury on S1 dorsal root ganglia in an experimental model of neuropathic faecal incontinence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Peirce, C

    2011-08-01

    An experimental model of neuropathic faecal incontinence has recently been established. This study aimed to quantify and compare the effect of crush and compression injury on first-order sensory neurones of the inferior rectal nerve (IRN) using a nuclear marker of axonal injury, activating transcription factor (ATF) 3.

  4. Reducing fluxes of faecal indicator compliance parameters to bathing waters from diffuse agricultural sources: The Brighouse Bay study, Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, D.; Aitken, M.; Crowther, J.; Dickson, I.; Edwards, A.C.; Francis, C.; Hopkins, M.; Jeffrey, W.; Kay, C.; McDonald, A.T.; McDonald, D.; Stapleton, C.M.; Watkins, J.; Wilkinson, J.; Wyer, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires the integrated management of point and diffuse pollution to achieve 'good' water quality in 'protected areas'. These include bathing waters, which are regulated using faecal indicator organisms as compliance parameters. Thus, for the first time, European regulators are faced with the control of faecal indicator fluxes from agricultural sources where these impact on bathing water compliance locations. Concurrently, reforms to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy offer scope for supporting on-farm measures producing environmental benefits through the new 'single farm payments' and the concept of 'cross-compliance'. This paper reports the first UK study involving remedial measures, principally stream bank fencing, designed to reduce faecal indicator fluxes at the catchment scale. Considerable reduction in faecal indicator flux was observed, but this was insufficient to ensure bathing water compliance with either Directive 76/160/EEC standards or new health-evidence-based criteria proposed by WHO and the European Commission. - Diffuse microbiological pollution from farming activities can be reduced by protected riparian zones

  5. Identification of the origin of faecal contamination in estuarine oysters using Bacteroidales and F-specific RNA bacteriophage markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszkin, S; Caprais, M P; Le Mennec, C; Le Goff, M; Edge, T A; Gourmelon, M

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the origin of faecal pollution impacting the Elorn estuary (Brittany, France) by applying microbial source tracking (MST) markers in both oysters and estuarine waters. The MST markers used were as follows: (i) human-, ruminant- and pig-associated Bacteroidales markers by real-time PCR and (ii) human genogroup II and animal genogroup I of F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPH) by culture/genotyping and by direct real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR. The higher occurrence of the human genogroup II of F-specific RNA bacteriophages using a culture/genotyping method, and human-associated Bacteroidales marker by real-time PCR, allowed the identification of human faecal contamination as the predominant source of contamination in oysters (total of 18 oyster batches tested) and waters (total of 24 water samples tested). The importance of using the intravalvular liquids instead of digestive tissues, when applying host-associated Bacteroidales markers in oysters, was also revealed. This study has shown that the application of a MST toolbox of diverse bacterial and viral methods can provide multiple lines of evidence to identify the predominant source of faecal contamination in shellfish from an estuarine environment. Application of this MST toolbox is a useful approach to understand the origin of faecal contamination in shellfish harvesting areas in an estuarine setting. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. A Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactor for faecal coliform removal from an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaya Beas, R.E.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Lier, van J.B.; Zeeman, G.

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the faecal coliforms removal capacity of Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactors as a post-treatment for an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. Three long-term continuous lab-scale DHS reactors i.e. a reactor with cube type sponges without

  7. Time related alterations in digestibility and faecal characteristics as affected by dietary composition in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirkolaie, A.K.; Schrama, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    After being shifted to a new diet, time related alterations in digestibility, faecal waste production and faeces recovery in Nile tilapia were assessed in relation with dietary ingredient composition. Four experimental diets were formulated according to a 2 by 2 factorial design: two starch

  8. Evaluation of two automated enzyme-immunoassays for detection of thermophilic campylobacters in faecal samples from cattle and swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Nielsen, E.M.; Stryhn, H.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of two enzyme-immunoassays (EIA) for the detection of naturally occurring, thermophilic Campylobacter spp. found in faecal samples from cattle (n = 21 and n = 26) and swine (n = 43) relative to the standard culture method, and also assuming that none of the tests...

  9. The relationship between faecal-associated and mucosal-associated microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome patients and healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rangel, I.; Sundin, J.; Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, S.; Repsilber, D.; Vos, de W.M.; Brummer, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The faecal-associated microbiota is commonly seen as a surrogate of the mucosal-associated microbiota. However, previous studies indicate that they are different. Furthermore, analyses of the mucosal microbiota are commonly done after standard bowel cleansing, affecting the microbial

  10. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance of faecal and urinary Escherichia coli isolated from dogs and humans in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Tramuta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During this study, 109 faecal Escherichia coli samples isolated from 61 dogs and 48 humans were characterised according to phylogenetic group, extraintestinal virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. The isolates from dogs were predominantly distributed within phylogroup B1 (36%, while the majority of human strains belonged to phylogroup B2 (54%. The prevalence of cnf1, hlyA, papC and sfa virulence genes was significantly associated with the group B2. Canine isolates showed multidrug resistance (MDR more frequently than human strains. Since group B2 contains most of the strains that cause extraintestinal infections, all 46 B2 faecal strains were confronted against an addition population of 57 urinary E. coli strains belonging to the same phylogroup. The comparison shows that there was no significant difference in the occurrence of virulence factors or in the distribution of antibiotic resistance between faecal and urinary E. coli isolates fromd dogs. At the same time, a highly significant association was detected between multiple resistence and the source of the strains and between MDR and E. coli isolated from urine in human. This study highlighted similar features of E. coli isolated across sources and hosts. The data suggest a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance in faecal strains, which may represent a serious health risk since these strains can function as a reservoir for uropathogenic E. coli.

  11. Increase of faecal tryptic activity relates to changes in the intestinal microbiome: analysis of Crohn's disease with a multidisciplinary platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Midtvedt

    Full Text Available To investigate-by molecular, classical and functional methods-the microbiota in biopsies and faeces from patients with active Crohn's disease (CD and controls.The microbiota in biopsies was investigated utilizing a novel molecular method and classical cultivation technology. Faecal samples were investigated by classical technology and four functional methods, reflecting alterations in short chain fatty acids pattern, conversion of cholesterol and bilirubin and inactivation of trypsin.By molecular methods we found more than 92% similarity in the microbiota on the biopsies from the two groups. However, 4.6% of microbes found in controls were lacking in CD patients. Furthermore, NotI representation libraries demonstrate two different clusters representing CD patients and controls, respectively. Utilizing conventional technology, Bacteroides (alt. Parabacteroides was less frequently detected in the biopsies from CD patients than from controls. A similar reduction in the number of Bacteroides was found in faecal samples. Bacteroides is the only group of bacteria known to be able to inactivate pancreatic trypsin. Faecal tryptic activity was high in CD patients, and inversely correlated to the levels of Bacteroides.CD patients have compositional and functional alterations in their intestinal microbiota, in line with the global description hypothesis rather than the candidate microorganism theory. The most striking functional difference was high amount of faecal tryptic activity in CD patients, inversely correlated to the levels of Bacteroides in faeces.

  12. Gender-specific reduction of hepatic Mrp2 expression by high-fat diet protects female mice from ANIT toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Bo; Csanaky, Iván L.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Patni, Meghan; Chen, Qi; Ma, Xiaochao; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Weir, Scott; Broward, Melinda; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Guo, Grace L.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) to rodents affects the expression of genes involved in drug transport. However, gender-specific effects of HFD on drug transport are not known. The multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2) is a transporter highly expressed in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and is important for biliary excretion of glutathione-conjugated chemicals. The current study showed that hepatic Mrp2 expression was reduced by HFD feeding only in female, but not male, C57BL/6J mice. In order to determine whether down-regulation of Mrp2 in female mice altered chemical disposition and toxicity, the biliary excretion and hepatotoxicity of the Mrp2 substrate, α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), were assessed in male and female mice fed control diet or HFD for 4 weeks. ANIT-induced biliary injury is a commonly used model of experimental cholestasis and has been shown to be dependent upon Mrp2-mediated efflux of an ANIT glutathione conjugate that selectively injures biliary epithelial cells. Interestingly, HFD feeding significantly reduced early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice and largely protected against ANIT-induced liver injury. In summary, the current study showed that, at least in mice, HFD feeding can differentially regulate Mrp2 expression and function and depending upon the chemical exposure may enhance or reduce susceptibility to toxicity. Taken together, these data provide a novel interaction between diet and gender in regulating hepatobiliary excretion and susceptibility to injury. -- Highlights: ► High-fat diet decreases hepatic Mrp2 expression only in female but not in male mice. ► HFD significantly reduces early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice. ► HFD protects female mice against ANIT-induced liver injury.

  13. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...

  14. Antimicrobial-resistant faecal organisms in algae products marketed as health supplements

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-09-01

    Dietary supplements are increasingly popular in Irish society. One of these is blue-green algae which is used with a variety health benefits in mind. A batch of Chlorella powder was found to be contaminated with Salmonella species in Ireland in 2015. This prompted additional testing of a total of 8 samples of three different products (Chlorella, Spirulina and Super Greens), for other faecal flora and antimicrobial resistance in any bacteria isolated. All 8 samples cultured enteric flora such as Enterococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium species. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed one isolate with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) activity and one with carbapenemase activity. Clinicians caring for vulnerable patients should be aware of the potential risk of exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria associated with these products

  15. Development of an Intervention for implementing Immunochemical Faecal Occult Blood Test in General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jakob Søgaard; Vedsted, Peter; Bro, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Denne korte artikel handler om udviklingen af en intervention til implementering af immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) i almen praksis. Artiklen gennemgår processen fra de tidlige udviklingsstadier, over pilot-testning og frem til de endelige justeringer før selve implementeringen blev...... vurdering og viden om patienten. Kombinationen af teori og praksis viste sig at være en god måde at sikre hurtig ibrugtagning af en ny test i almen praksis til at identificere potentielle tegn på tarmkræft hos patienter. Særligt pilot-testning af interventionen viste sig at være værdifuld, fordi den...

  16. Establishment of an immunocompetent nipple valve anastomosis to prevent faecal reflux after ileocolic resection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, K W; Pistorius, G; Menger, M D; Feifel, G

    2000-05-01

    To construct an immunocompetent nipple valve anastomosis (NVA) to exclude faecal reflux and compare it with an end-to-end anastomosis to see if it would prevent recurrent inflammation caused by intraluminal bacterial antigens in Crohn's disease. Laboratory study. Teaching hospital, Germany. Two groups of six beagle dogs each of which had NVA or end-to-end anastomosis. Construction of a NVA by stapling the telescoped nipple, and replacing the ileal mucosa on the valve by colonic mucosa; end-to-end anastomosis. Radiological, bacteriological, angiographic, and morphometric results. Absolute retrograde pressure-competence and free orthograde permeability of the NVA resulted in significantly lower intestinal bacterial counts compared with the end-to-end anastomosis (p < 0.05). Transposition of colonic mucosa was successful as demonstrated by revascularisation from the ileal nipple and looked normal on morphometry. If NVA were constructed in patients with Crohn's disease, recurrences should be prevented, which would verify the immunopathogenetic hypothesis of new inflammation.

  17. Encopresis in children: a cyclical model of constipation and faecal retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanwick, T

    1991-01-01

    Encopresis afflicts one in 100 children causing considerable stigma and parental concern. General practitioners are in a position to help in most cases but are often deterred by the psychoanalytical theories which have been developed to explain this problem. It is currently accepted that children with encopresis tend to retain stools. This leads to constipation, overstretching of sphincters and resultant faecal soiling. Physical and psychological perpetuating factors result in retention once again, thus completing a cycle of constipation and retention. Various precipitant and predisposing factors can maintain this cycle. Once physical causes have been excluded a simple behavioural approach can be adopted aimed at retraining the bowel. By using laxatives to prevent retention, gaining the child's confidence, cooperation and understanding and involving both the family and school, encopresis can be successfully managed in general practice. PMID:1807329

  18. Quantitative assessment of faecal shedding of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative data on faecal shedding of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are crucial to assess the risk of transmission from dogs to other animals as well as humans. In this study we investigated prevalence and concentrations of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in the faeces...... of 108 dogs presenting at a veterinary hospital in Denmark. The dogs had not been treated with antimicrobials for 4 weeks prior to the study. Total E. coli and enterococci were quantified by counts on MacConkey and Slanetz-Bartley, respectively. Resistant E. coli and enterococci were counted on the same...... media containing relevant antibiotic concentrations, followed by species identification using MALDI-TOF. Ampicillin- and cefotaxime-resistant E. coli were detected in 40% and 8% of the dogs, respectively, whereas approximately 15% carried ampicillin-resistant enterococci, mainly Enterococcus faecium...

  19. Presence of faecal coliforms and selected heavy metals in ice cubes from food outlets in Taman Universiti, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Meor Ahmad, Z; Abdul Wahab, R

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of iced beverages is common in Malaysia although specific research focusing on its safety parameters such as presence of faecal coliforms and heavy metal elements remains scarce. A study conducted in Kelantan indicated that faecal coliforms were detected in the majority of the ice cube samples analyzed, largely attributable to improper handling. Hence, it was found pertinent to conduct similar study in other parts of the country such as Johor Bahru if the similar pattern prevailed. Therefore, this present cross sectional study which randomly sampled ice cubes from 30 permanent food outlets in Taman Universiti, Johor Bahru for detecting contamination by faecal coliforms and selected heavy metal elements (lead, copper, manganese and zinc) acquires significance. Faecal coliforms were detected in 11 (36.67%) of the samples, ranging between 1 CFU/100 mL to > 50 CFU/100 mL; two of the samples were grossly contaminated (>50 CFU/100 mL). Interestingly, while positive detection of lead was observed in 29 of the 30 ice cube samples (mean: 0.511±0.105 ppm; range: 0.489-0.674 ppm), copper, manganese and zinc were not detected. In addition, analysis on commercially bottled mineral water as well as in tap water samples did not detect such contaminations. Therefore, it appears that (1) contamination of faecal coliforms in ice cubes in food outlets in Malaysia may not be sporadic in pattern but rather prevalent and (2) the source of water used for manufacturing the ice cubes that contained significant amount of lead would suggest that (3) it was neither originated from the treated tap water supply nor bottled mineral water or (4) perhaps contaminated during manufacturing process. Further studies exploring the source of water used for manufacturing these ice cubes as well as the handling process among food operators deserve consideration.

  20. Faecal microbiota of forage-fed horses in New Zealand and the population dynamics of microbial communities following dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Karlette A; Kittelmann, Sandra; Rogers, Christopher W; Gee, Erica K; Bolwell, Charlotte F; Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G

    2014-01-01

    The effects of abrupt dietary transition on the faecal microbiota of forage-fed horses over a 3-week period were investigated. Yearling Thoroughbred fillies reared as a cohort were exclusively fed on either an ensiled conserved forage-grain diet ("Group A"; n = 6) or pasture ("Group B"; n = 6) for three weeks prior to the study. After the Day 0 faecal samples were collected, horses of Group A were abruptly transitioned to pasture. Both groups continued to graze similar pasture for three weeks, with faecal samples collected at 4-day intervals. DNA was isolated from the faeces and microbial 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicons were generated and analysed by pyrosequencing. The faecal bacterial communities of both groups of horses were highly diverse (Simpson's index of diversity > 0.8), with differences between the two groups on Day 0 (P 003), CF231 (family Paraprevotellaceae; P = 0.004), and currently unclassified members within the order Clostridiales (P = 0.003) and within the family Lachnospiraceae (P = 0.006). The bacterial community of Group A horses became similar to Group B within four days of feeding on pasture, whereas the structure of the archaeal community remained constant pre- and post-dietary change. The community structure of the faecal microbiota (bacteria, archaea and ciliate protozoa) of pasture-fed horses was also identified. The initial differences observed appeared to be linked to recent dietary history, with the bacterial community of the forage-fed horses responding rapidly to abrupt dietary change.

  1. SaFaRI: sacral nerve stimulation versus the FENIX magnetic sphincter augmentation for adult faecal incontinence: a randomised investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Annabelle E; Croft, Julie; Napp, Vicky; Corrigan, Neil; Brown, Julia M; Hulme, Claire; Brown, Steven R; Lodge, Jen; Protheroe, David; Jayne, David G

    2016-02-01

    Faecal incontinence is a physically, psychologically and socially disabling condition. NICE guidance (2007) recommends surgical intervention, including sacral nerve stimulation (SNS), after failed conservative therapies. The FENIX magnetic sphincter augmentation (MSA) device is a novel continence device consisting of a flexible band of interlinked titanium beads with magnetic cores that is placed around the anal canal to augment anal sphincter tone through passive attraction of the beads. Preliminary studies suggest the FENIX MSA is safe, but efficacy data is limited. Rigorous evaluation is required prior to widespread adoption. The SaFaRI trial is a National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA)-funded UK multi-site, parallel group, randomised controlled, unblinded trial that will investigate the use of the FENIX MSA, as compared to SNS, for adult faecal incontinence resistant to conservative management. Twenty sites across the UK, experienced in the treatment of faecal incontinence, will recruit 350 patients randomised equally to receive either SNS or FENIX MSA. Participants will be followed-up at 2 weeks post-surgery and at 6, 12 and 18 months post-randomisation. The primary endpoint is success, as defined by device in use and ≥50 % improvement in the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score (CCIS) at 18 months post-randomisation. Secondary endpoints include complications, quality of life and cost effectiveness. SaFaRI will rigorously evaluate a new technology for faecal incontinence, the FENIX™ MSA, allowing its safe and controlled introduction into current clinical practice. These results will inform the future surgical management of adult faecal incontinence.

  2. Social, state-dependent and environmental modulation of faecal corticosteroid levels in free-ranging female spotted hyenas.

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    Goymann, W; East, M L; Wachter, B; Höner, O P; Möstl, E; Van't Hof, T J; Hofer, H

    2001-12-07

    Little is known about to what extent the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be state dependent and vary in the same species between environments. Here we tested whether the faecal corticosteroid concentrations of matrilineal adult female spotted hyenas are influenced by social and reproductive status in adjacent ecosystems and whether they vary between periods with and without social stress. Females in the Serengeti National Park frequently become socially subordinate intruders in other hyena territories by undertaking long-distance foraging trips to migratory herds, whereas in the Ngorongoro Crater they usually forage inside their own small territories on resident prey. The faecal corticosteroid concentrations in Serengeti females were significantly higher than in Ngorongoro females. Energy expenditure by lactation is exceptionally high in spotted hyenas and this may be reflected in their corticosteroid levels. The faecal corticosteroid levels in both populations were higher in lactating than in non-lactating females. During periods of social stability, faecal corticosteroid concentrations increased in non-lactating females but not in lactating females as social status declined. Lactating Serengeti females had significantly higher faecal corticosteroid concentrations during periods with acute severe social stress than during periods without, indicating that the HPA axis is sensitive to social stimuli even in lactating females. So far few studies have used non-invasive monitoring methods for assessing social stress in freeranging animals. This study demonstrates for the first time, to the authors' knowledge, that corticosteroid concentrations may differ between periods with and without social stress for a free-ranging female mammal and that the modulating effect of social status may depend on reproductive status.

  3. Improved Methods of Carnivore Faecal Sample Preservation, DNA Extraction and Quantification for Accurate Genotyping of Wild Tigers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harika, Katakam; Mahla, Ranjeet Singh; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-invasively collected samples allow a variety of genetic studies on endangered and elusive species. However due to low amplification success and high genotyping error rates fewer samples can be identified up to the individual level. Number of PCRs needed to obtain reliable genotypes also noticeably increase. Methods We developed a quantitative PCR assay to measure and grade amplifiable nuclear DNA in feline faecal extracts. We determined DNA degradation in experimentally aged faecal samples and tested a suite of pre-PCR protocols to considerably improve DNA retrieval. Results Average DNA concentrations of Grade I, II and III extracts were 982pg/µl, 9.5pg/µl and 0.4pg/µl respectively. Nearly 10% of extracts had no amplifiable DNA. Microsatellite PCR success and allelic dropout rates were 92% and 1.5% in Grade I, 79% and 5% in Grade II, and 54% and 16% in Grade III respectively. Our results on experimentally aged faecal samples showed that ageing has a significant effect on quantity and quality of amplifiable DNA (pDNA degradation occurs within 3 days of exposure to direct sunlight. DNA concentrations of Day 1 samples stored by ethanol and silica methods for a month varied significantly from fresh Day 1 extracts (p0.05). DNA concentrations of fresh tiger and leopard faecal extracts without addition of carrier RNA were 816.5pg/µl (±115.5) and 690.1pg/µl (±207.1), while concentrations with addition of carrier RNA were 49414.5pg/µl (±9370.6) and 20982.7pg/µl (±6835.8) respectively. Conclusions Our results indicate that carnivore faecal samples should be collected as freshly as possible, are better preserved by two-step method and should be extracted with addition of carrier RNA. We recommend quantification of template DNA as this facilitates several downstream protocols. PMID:23071624

  4. Faecal microbiota composition in vegetarians: comparison with omnivores in a cohort of young women in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeerdoss, Jayakanthan; Devi, R Shobana; Mary, R Regina; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S

    2012-09-28

    The effect of vegetarian diets on faecal microbiota has been explored largely through culture-based techniques. The present study compared the faecal microbiota of vegetarian and omnivorous young women in southern India. Faecal samples were obtained from thirty-two lacto-vegetarian and twenty-four omnivorous young adult women from a similar social and economic background. Macronutrient intake and anthropometric data were collected. Faecal microbiota of interest was quantified by real-time PCR with SYBR Green using primers targeting 16S rRNA genes of groups, including: Clostridium coccoides group (Clostridium cluster XIVa), Roseburia spp.-Eubacterium rectale, Bacteroides--Prevotella group, Bifidobacterium genus, Lactobacillus group, Clostridium leptum group (Clostridium cluster IV), Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Ruminococcus productus--C. coccoides, Butyrivibrio, Enterococcus species and Enterobacteriaceae. The groups were matched for age, socio-economic score and anthropometric indices. Intake of energy, complex carbohydrates and Ca were significantly higher in the omnivorous group. The faecal microbiota of the omnivorous group was enriched with Clostridium cluster XIVa bacteria, specifically Roseburia-E. rectale. The relative proportions of other microbial communities were similar in both groups. The butyryl-CoA CoA-transferase gene, associated with microbial butyrate production, was present in greater amounts in the faeces of omnivores, and the levels were highly correlated with Clostridium cluster XIVa and Roseburia-E. rectale abundance and to a lesser extent with Clostridium leptum and F. prausnitzii abundance and with crude fibre intake. Omnivores had an increased relative abundance of Clostridium cluster XIVa bacteria and butyryl-CoA CoA-transferase gene compared with vegetarians, but we were unable to identify the components of the diet responsible for this difference.

  5. Faecal microbiota of forage-fed horses in New Zealand and the population dynamics of microbial communities following dietary change.

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    Karlette A Fernandes

    Full Text Available The effects of abrupt dietary transition on the faecal microbiota of forage-fed horses over a 3-week period were investigated. Yearling Thoroughbred fillies reared as a cohort were exclusively fed on either an ensiled conserved forage-grain diet ("Group A"; n = 6 or pasture ("Group B"; n = 6 for three weeks prior to the study. After the Day 0 faecal samples were collected, horses of Group A were abruptly transitioned to pasture. Both groups continued to graze similar pasture for three weeks, with faecal samples collected at 4-day intervals. DNA was isolated from the faeces and microbial 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicons were generated and analysed by pyrosequencing. The faecal bacterial communities of both groups of horses were highly diverse (Simpson's index of diversity > 0.8, with differences between the two groups on Day 0 (P < 0.017 adjusted for multiple comparisons. There were differences between Groups A and B in the relative abundances of four genera, BF311 (family Bacteroidaceae; P = 0.003, CF231 (family Paraprevotellaceae; P = 0.004, and currently unclassified members within the order Clostridiales (P = 0.003 and within the family Lachnospiraceae (P = 0.006. The bacterial community of Group A horses became similar to Group B within four days of feeding on pasture, whereas the structure of the archaeal community remained constant pre- and post-dietary change. The community structure of the faecal microbiota (bacteria, archaea and ciliate protozoa of pasture-fed horses was also identified. The initial differences observed appeared to be linked to recent dietary history, with the bacterial community of the forage-fed horses responding rapidly to abrupt dietary change.

  6. The composition and metabolism of faecal microbiota is specifically modulated by different dietary polysaccharides and mucin: an isothermal microcalorimetry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, K; Kolk, K; Jaagura, M; Vilu, R; Adamberg, S

    2018-01-29

    The metabolic activity of colon microbiota is specifically affected by fibres with various monomer compositions, degree of polymerisation and branching. The supply of a variety of dietary fibres assures the diversity of gut microbial communities considered important for the well-being of the host. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of different oligo- and polysaccharides (galacto- and fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, levan, inulin, arabinogalactan, xylan, pectin and chitin), and a glycoprotein mucin on the growth and metabolism of faecal microbiota in vitro by using isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC). Faecal samples from healthy donors were incubated in a phosphate-buffered defined medium with or without supplementation of a single substrate. The generation of heat was followed on-line, microbiota composition (V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA using Illumina MiSeq v2) and concentrations of metabolites (HPLC) were determined at the end of growth. The multiauxic power-time curves obtained were substrate-specific. More than 70% of all substrates except chitin were fermented by faecal microbiota with total heat generation of up to 8 J/ml. The final metabolite patterns were in accordance with the microbiota changes. For arabinogalactan, xylan and levan, the fibre-affected distribution of bacterial taxa showed clear similarities (e.g. increase of Bacteroides ovatus and decrease of Bifidobacterium adolescentis). The formation of propionic acid, an important colon metabolite, was enhanced by arabinogalactan, xylan and mucin but not by galacto- and fructooligosaccharides or inulin. Mucin fermentation resulted in acetate, propionate and butyrate production in ratios previously observed for faecal samples, indicating that mucins may serve as major substrates for colon microbial population. IMC combined with analytical methods was shown to be an effective method for screening the impact of specific dietary fibres on functional changes in faecal microbiota.

  7. Metabolomic profiling of faecal extracts from Cryptosporidium parvum infection in experimental mouse models.

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    Josephine S Y Ng Hublin

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium. In healthy individuals, the disease manifests mainly as acute self-limiting diarrhoea, but may be chronic and life threatening for those with compromised immune systems. Control and treatment of the disease is challenged by the lack of sensitive diagnostic tools and broad-spectrum chemotherapy. Metabolomics, or metabolite profiling, is an emerging field of study, which enables characterisation of the end products of regulatory processes in a biological system. Analysis of changes in metabolite patterns reflects changes in biochemical regulation, production and control, and may contribute to understanding the effects of Cryptosporidium infection in the host environment. In the present study, metabolomic analysis of faecal samples from experimentally infected mice was carried out to assess metabolite profiles pertaining to the infection. Gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS carried out on faecal samples from a group of C. parvum infected mice and a group of uninfected control mice detected a mean total of 220 compounds. Multivariate analyses showed distinct differences between the profiles of C. parvum infected mice and uninfected control mice,identifying a total of 40 compounds, or metabolites that contributed most to the variance between the two groups. These metabolites consisted of amino acids (n = 17, carbohydrates (n = 8, lipids (n = 7, organic acids (n = 3 and other various metabolites (n = 5, which showed significant differences in levels of metabolite abundance between the infected and uninfected mice groups (p < 0.05. The metabolites detected in this study as well as the differences in abundance between the C. parvum infected and the uninfected control mice, highlights the effects of the infection on intestinal permeability and the fate of the metabolites as a result of nutrient scavenging by the

  8. Modelling the costs and consequences of treating paediatric faecal impaction in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Julian F; Clegg, John P

    2006-01-01

    To compare the costs and consequences of using oral macrogol 3350 plus electrolytes (macrogol 3350; Movicol) compared to enemas/suppositories, manual evacuation and naso-gastric administration of macrogol (NGA-PEG) lavage solution in treating paediatric faecal impaction in Australia. A decision model was constructed using published clinical outcomes, utilities and clinician-derived resource utilisation estimates. The model was used to determine the expected Commonwealth and parent costs associated with each treatment over the period of disimpaction and 12 weeks post-disimpaction, in Australian dollars at 2003/2004 prices. 92% of oral macrogol 3350-treated patients are expected to be disimpacted within 6 days following initial treatment, compared with 79% of patients treated with enemas and suppositories who are expected to be disimpacted within 8 days. All patients are expected to be disimpacted within 5 days following a manual evacuation and within 2 days following NGA-PEG. The level of health gain at 12 weeks post-disimpaction irrespective of treatment for disimpaction and subsequent maintenance is expected to be the same; the expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) being 0.20 (95% CI: 0.17; 0.23). Starting treatment with oral macrogol 3350 in an outpatient setting is expected to lead to a Commonwealth cost of $758, compared to $1838 with NGA-PEG, $2125 with enemas and suppositories, $3931 with oral macrogol 3350 in an inpatient setting and $4478 with manual evacuation. Resource use associated with maintenance following initial disimpaction is expected to be broadly similar, irrespective of initial laxative. Hence, the expected Commonwealth cost is primarily affected by the treatment used to initially disimpact a patient. Expected parents' costs are expected to be comparable irrespective of treatment ranging from $89 to $112 per patient. Within the limitations of our model, using oral macrogol 3350 in an outpatient setting for treating faecally impacted

  9. Effects of KN-42 on Growth Performance, Diarrhea and Faecal Bacterial Flora of Weaned Piglets

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    Yuanliang Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the effects of different doses of Bacillus subtilis KN-42 on the growth performance, diarrhea incidence, faecal bacterial flora, and the relative number of Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli in faeces of weaned piglets to determine whether the strain can serve as a candidate antimicrobial growth promoter. A total of 360 piglets (initial body weight 7.14±0.63 kg weaned at 26±2 days of age were randomly allotted to 5 treatment groups (4 pens per treatment with 18 pigs per pen for a 28-day trial. Dietary treatments were basal diet without any antimicrobial (negative control; NC, basal diet supplemented with 120 mg/kg feed of neomycin sulfate (positive control; PC and basal diet supplemented with 2×109 (L, 4×109 (M and 20×109 (H CFU/kg feed of B. subtilis KN-42. During the overall period, average daily gain and feed efficiency of piglets were higher in groups PC, M, and H than those in group NC (p<0.05, and all probiotics and antibiotics groups had a lower diarrhea index than group NC (p<0.05. The 16S rDNA gene-based methods were used to analyze faecal bacterial flora on day 28 of experiment. The result of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that supplementation of B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet changed the bacterial communities, with a higher bacterial diversity and band number in group M than in the other four groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the relative number of Lactobacillus were higher in groups PC and H than in group NC (p<0.05, and the supplemented B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet also reduced the relative number of E. coli (p<0.05. These results suggest that dietary addition of B. subtilis KN-42 can improve the growth performance and gastrointestinal health of piglets.

  10. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using three different faecal occult blood tests

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    A.V. Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB. The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC. A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest® and Multistix®, blood for packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC, and FAMACHA© for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC. Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA© score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix® test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA© and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC.

  11. Impact on colorectal cancer mortality of screening programmes based on the faecal immunochemical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Fedeli, Ugo; Schievano, Elena; Bovo, Emanuela; Guzzinati, Stefano; Baracco, Susanna; Fedato, Chiara; Saugo, Mario; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes based on the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) reduce CRC-specific mortality. Several studies have shown higher sensitivity with the faecal immunochemical test (FIT) compared with gFOBT. We carried out an ecological study to evaluate the impact of FIT-based screening programmes on CRC mortality. In the Veneto Region (Italy), biennial FIT-based screening programmes that invited 50-69-year-old residents were introduced in different areas between 2002 and 2009. We compared CRC mortality rates from 1995 to 2011 between the areas where screening started in 2002-2004 (early screening areas (ESA)) and areas that introduced the screening in 2008-2009 (late screening areas (LSA)) using Poisson regression models. We also compared available data on CRC incidence rates (1995-2007) and surgical resection rates (2001-2012). Before the introduction of screening, CRC mortality and incidence rates in the two areas were similar. Compared with 1995-2000, 2006-2011 mortality rates were 22% lower in the ESA than in the LSA (rate ratio (RR)=0.78; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.89). The reduction was larger in women (RR=0.64; CI 0.51 to 0.80) than in men (RR=0.87; CI 0.73 to 1.04). In the ESA, incidence and surgery rates peaked during the introduction of the screening programme and then returned to the baseline (2006-2007 incidence) or dropped below initial values (surgery after 2007). FIT-based screening programmes were associated with a significant reduction in CRC mortality. This effect took place much earlier than reported by gFOBT-based trials and observational studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Simultaneous monitoring of faecal indicators and harmful algae using an in-situ autonomous sensor.

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    Yamahara, K M; Demir-Hilton, E; Preston, C M; Marin, R; Pargett, D; Roman, B; Jensen, S; Birch, J M; Boehm, A B; Scholin, C A

    2015-08-01

    Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and harmful algal blooms (HABs) threaten the health and the economy of coastal communities worldwide. Emerging automated sampling technologies combined with molecular analytical techniques could enable rapid detection of micro-organisms in-situ, thereby improving resource management and public health decision-making. We evaluated this concept using a robotic device, the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP). The ESP automates in-situ sample collection, nucleic acid extraction and molecular analyses. Here, the ESP measured and reported concentrations of FIB (Enterococcus spp.), a microbial source-tracking marker (human-specific Bacteriodales) and a HAB species (Psuedo-nitzschia spp.) over a 45-day deployment on the Santa Cruz Municipal Wharf (Santa Cruz, CA, USA). Both FIB and HABs were enumerated from single in-situ collected water samples. The in-situ qPCR efficiencies ranged from 86% to 105%, while the limit of quantifications during the deployment was 10 copies reaction(-1) . No differences were observed in the concentrations of enterococci, the human-specific marker in Bacteroidales spp., and P. australis between in-situ collected sample and traditional hand sampling methods (P > 0·05). Analytical results were Internet-accessible within hours of sample collection, demonstrating the feasibility of same-day public notification of current water quality conditions. This study presents the first report of in-situ qPCR enumeration of both faecal indicators and harmful algal species in coastal marine waters. We utilize a robotic device for in-situ quantification of enterococci, the human-specific marker in Bacteriodales and Pseudo-nitzschia spp. from the same water samples collected and processed in-situ. The results demonstrate that rapid, in-situ monitoring can be utilized to identify and quantify multiple health-relevant micro-organisms important in water quality monitoring and that this monitoring can be used to inform same

  13. Optimisation of hydraulic performance to maximise faecal coliform removal in maturation ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Nibis; Lloyd, Barry; Aldana, Gerardo

    2006-05-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim of improving faecal coliform (FC) and faecal streptococcus (FS) removal efficiencies in tertiary maturation stages of a sewage treatment plant in Southern England, where climatic conditions are sub-optimal. The research used intensive field assessments (bacteriological, general quality and hydraulic) to identify the parameters that affect the bacteriological quality of the effluent from three parallel maturation ponds (North, Central and South) of similar geometry and dimensions. An engineering intervention was carried out to convert the South pond to three channels to increase the L/W ratio from 9:1 to 79:1. Hydraulic tracer studies in the South pond with Rhodamine WT showed that the dispersion number 'd' was reduced from 0.37 (dispersed flow) to 0.074 by this intervention under similar flow conditions (4.5l/s). Hydraulic retention time was thus increased by 5h, delay in jet flow short-circuiting was increased from 2.5 to 17.5h thus increasing the exposure times for all elements. As a result of the intervention FC removal increased substantially. Maximum channel-lagoon efficiency of 99.84% was obtained at 4.5l/s and 19 degrees C, when exposure to sunlight was 17 h in summer. It is concluded that the channel configuration produces a higher hydraulic efficiency than conventional maturation ponds. It is therefore recommended as a viable engineering solution which permits a low-cost upgrading of plant performance, requiring no additional land, and with minimal maintenance costs.

  14. Effect of high contents of dietary animal-derived protein or carbohydrates on canine faecal microbiota

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    Hang Ingrid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable evidence suggests that food impacts both the gastro-intestinal (GI function and the microbial ecology of the canine GI tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of high-carbohydrate (HC, high-protein (HP and dry commercial (DC diets on the canine colonic microbiota in Beagle dogs. Diets were allocated according to the Graeco-Latin square design. For this purpose, microbial DNA was isolated from faecal samples and separated by density gradient centrifugation, resulting in specific profiling based on the guanine-cytosine content (%G + C. In addition, 16 S rRNA gene amplicons were obtained from the most abundant %G + C peaks and analysed by sequence analysis, producing a total of 720 non-redundant sequences (240 sequences per diet. Results The DC diet sample showed high abundance of representatives of the orders Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, Coriobacteriales and Bacteroidales. Sequence diversity was highest for DC diet samples and included representatives of the orders Lactobacillales and Bacteroidales, which were not detected in samples from the HP and HC diets. These latter two diets also had reduced levels of representatives of the family Lachnospiraceae, specifically Clostridial cluster XIVa. The HC diet favoured representatives of the order Erysipelotrichales, more specifically the Clostridial cluster XVIII, while the HP diet favoured representatives of the order Fusobacteriales. Conclusions This study detected Coriobacteriales in dog faeces, possibly due to the non-selective nature of the %G + C profiling method used in combination with sequencing. Moreover, our work demonstrates that the effect of diet on faecal microbiota can be explained based on the metabolic properties of the detected microbial taxa.

  15. Global assessment of exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water based on a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Robert; Cronk, Ryan; Hossain, Rifat; Bonjour, Sophie; Onda, Kyle; Wright, Jim; Yang, Hong; Slaymaker, Tom; Hunter, Paul; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-08-01

    To estimate exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water as indicated by levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli) or thermotolerant coliform (TTC) in water sources. We estimated coverage of different types of drinking water source based on household surveys and censuses using multilevel modelling. Coverage data were combined with water quality studies that assessed E. coli or TTC including those identified by a systematic review (n = 345). Predictive models for the presence and level of contamination of drinking water sources were developed using random effects logistic regression and selected covariates. We assessed sensitivity of estimated exposure to study quality, indicator bacteria and separately considered nationally randomised surveys. We estimate that 1.8 billion people globally use a source of drinking water which suffers from faecal contamination, of these 1.1 billion drink water that is of at least 'moderate' risk (>10 E. coli or TTC per 100 ml). Data from nationally randomised studies suggest that 10% of improved sources may be 'high' risk, containing at least 100 E. coli or TTC per 100 ml. Drinking water is found to be more often contaminated in rural areas (41%, CI: 31%-51%) than in urban areas (12%, CI: 8-18%), and contamination is most prevalent in Africa (53%, CI: 42%-63%) and South-East Asia (35%, CI: 24%-45%). Estimates were not sensitive to the exclusion of low quality studies or restriction to studies reporting E. coli. Microbial contamination is widespread and affects all water source types, including piped supplies. Global burden of disease estimates may have substantially understated the disease burden associated with inadequate water services. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine and International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Faecal contamination of water and sediment in the rivers of the Scheldt drainage network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Nouho Koffi; Passerat, Julien; Servais, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    The Scheldt watershed is characterized by a high population density, intense industrial activities and intensive agriculture and breeding. A monthly monitoring (n = 16) of the abundance of two faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci (IE), showed that microbiological water quality of the main rivers of the Scheldt drainage network was poor (median values ranging between 1.4 × 10(3) and 4.0 × 10(5) E. coli (100 mL)( -1) and between 3.4 × 10(2) and 7.6 × 10(4) IE (100 mL)( -1)). The Zenne River downstream from Brussels was particularly contaminated. Glucuronidase activity was measured in parallel and was demonstrated to be a valid surrogate for a rapid evaluation of E. coli concentration in the river waters. FIB were also investigated in the river sediments; their abundance was sometimes high (average values ranging between 2.1 × 10(2) and 3.3 × 10(5) E. coli g( -1) and between 1.0 × 10(2) and 1.7 × 10(5) IE g( -1)) but was not sufficient to contribute significantly to the river water contamination during resuspension events, except for the Scheldt and the Nethe Rivers. FIB were also quantified in representative point sources (wastewater treatment plants) and non-point sources (runoff water and soil leaching on different types of land use) of faecal contamination. The comparison of the respective contribution of point and non-point sources at the scale of the Scheldt watershed showed that point sources were largely predominant.

  17. The effectiveness of sewage treatment processes to remove faecal pathogens and antibiotic residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Rahzia; Pool, Edmund John

    2012-01-01

    Pathogens and antibiotics enter the aquatic environment via sewage effluents and may pose a health risk to wild life and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of faecal bacteria, and selected antibiotic residues in raw wastewater and treated sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sewage treatment plant 1 and 2 use older technologies, while sewage treatment plant 3 has been upgraded and membrane technologies were incorporated in the treatment processes. Coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were used as bioindicators for faecal bacteria. A chromogenic test was used to screen for coliforms and E. coli. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole are commonly used antibiotics and were selected to monitor the efficiency of sewage treatment processes for antibiotic removal. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) were used to quantitate antibiotic residues in raw and treated sewage. Raw intake water at all treatment plants contained total coliforms and E. coli. High removal of E. coli by treatment processes was evident for treatment plant 2 and 3 only. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole were detected in raw wastewater from all sewage treatment plants. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the fluoroquinolone concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced the fluoroquinolone concentration by 21% and 31%, respectively. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the sulfamethoxazole concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced sulfamethoxazole by 34% and 56%, respectively. This study showed that bacteria and antibiotic residues are still discharged into the environment. Further research needs to be undertaken to improve sewage treatment technologies, thereby producing a better quality treated sewage effluent. PMID:22242882

  18. Reliable genotyping of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) using DNA isolated from a single faecal pellet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedrowicz, Faye; Karsa, Mawar; Mosse, Jennifer; Hogan, Fiona E

    2013-07-01

    The koala, an Australian icon, has been added to the threatened species list. Rationale for the listing includes proposed declines in population size, threats to populations (e.g. disease) and loss and fragmentation of habitat. There is now an urgent need to obtain accurate data to assess the status of koala populations in Australia, to ensure the long-term viability of this species. Advances in genetic techniques have enabled DNA analysis to study and inform the management of wild populations; however, sampling of individual koalas is difficult in tall, often remote, eucalypt forest. The collection of faecal pellets (scats) from the forest floor presents an opportunistic sampling strategy, where DNA can be collected without capturing or even sighting an individual. Obtaining DNA via noninvasive sampling can be used to rapidly sample a large proportion of a population; however, DNA from noninvasively collected samples is often degraded. Factors influencing DNA quality and quantity include environmental exposure, diet and methods of sample collection, storage and DNA isolation. Reduced DNA quality and quantity can introduce genotyping errors and provide inaccurate DNA profiles, reducing confidence in the ability of such data to inform management/conservation strategies. Here, we present a protocol that produces a reliable individual koala genotype from a single faecal pellet and highlight the importance of optimizing DNA isolation and analysis for the species of interest. This method could readily be adapted for genetic studies of mammals other than koalas, particularly those whose diet contains high proportions of volatile materials that are likely to induce DNA damage. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  20. Persistence of urinary excretion products of benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uziel, M.; Haglund, R.; White, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Persistence of DNA-adducts has been observed in a variety of experimental circumstances and has been suggested as one potential mechanism for explaining the long-term delay before expression of proliferative disease. In this concept, a stable DNA-adduct, which is a remnant of a prior exposure in a nondividing cell, would not express the genotoxic effect until the cells were stimulated to divide, and thus explain the long-term delay in expression of cancer. An alternative view of the observation of persistent DNA-adducts, described in this communication, is the continuing replenishment of DNA adducts by formation and turnover of these adducts from exposure to a constant supply of the ultimate carcinogenic species derived from a prior exposure. It is of interest to note that virtually all experiments where ''persistent'' adducts have been observed have been high dose exposures. During the course of experiments designed to develop improved methods for detection of DNA adducts and related derivatives derived from polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), we observed that there was a continuous excretion of urinary derivatives of the injected benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) beyond the initial burst of detoxification. This report describes the time dependent distribution of those derivatives in blood, urine, feces, and at the site of injection. 11 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Distribution and excretion of mercury compounds in hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulfvarson, U.

    1969-01-01

    Young white Leghorn cocks, were given intravenously Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ (I), methylmercury hydroxide (II), methoxyethylmercury hydroxide (III), and phenylmercury hydroxide (IV), all containing /sup 203/Hg. Doses were approx. 20% of LD/sub 50/ (0.5 mg/kg body wt of I and 5 mg/kg body wt of the other compounds). Feces was analyzed by scintillation techniques, and the various organs were investigated after killing some of the animals. With I, III, and IV, the Hg-concentration in the kidneys and the liver did not exceed 10 times the av. concentration in the body, whereas II was evenly distributed over all organs. The excretion is best described by the hyperbolic function 1/x = kt + 1/x/sub 0/, where x is the av. Hg-concn. in the body after t days, x/sub 0/ is the original concentration, and k is a rate constant having the value 10/sup 5/ (g Hg/g body wt)/sup -1/ day/sup -1/ for I, III, and IV, and only 4% of this value for II. Similar results were obtained when cocks were fed with grain containing 16 mg Hg/kg for 3 weeks.

  2. Patient Specific Dosimetry based in excreted urine measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barquero, R.; Nunez, C.; Ruiz, A.; Valverde, J.; Basurto, F.

    2006-07-01

    One of the limiting factors in utilising therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals in the I-131 thyroid therapy is the potential hazard to the bone marrow, kidneys, and other internal organs. In this work, by means of daily dose rate measurements at a point in contact of the can with the urine excreted by the patient undergoing radio-iodine therapy, activities and associated absorbed doses in total body are calculated. The urine can is characterised by a geometric and materials model for MC simulation with MCNP. Knowing the conversion factor from activity in urine to dose rate in the measurement point of the can for each filling volume, the urine and patient activity can be obtained at each measurement time. From the fitting of these activities, the time evolution, the effective half life in the patient and the cumulative whole body activity are calculated. The emission characteristics of I-131 are using after to estimate the maximum whole body absorbed dose. The results for 2 hyperthyroidism and 4 carcinoma treatments are presented. The maximum total body absorbed dose are 673 and 149 Gy for the carcinoma and hyperthyroidism. The corresponding range of T1/2 eff is o.2 to 2.5 days (carcinoma) and 5.4 to 6.6 days (hyperthyroidism). (Author)

  3. [Production, absorption and excretion of phenols in intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, M

    1986-11-01

    In intestinal obstruction, phenols were produced in the distended loop proximal to obstruction by enteric bacteria. Clinically, in 17 cases of non-strangulated intestinal obstruction, phenols were detected in 15 cases and mean concentration of phenols was 4.2 +/- 9.7 micro g/ml(mean +/- 1 SD). In the fraction of phenols, p-cresol was detected in 15 cases and mean concentration was 3.8 +/- 7.7 and phenol was detected in 4 cases and mean concentration was 0.5 +/- 2.6. Phenols were decreased as clinical improvement of intestinal obstruction. Enteric bacteria in enteric juice ranged from 10(4) to 10(10)/ml and its change paralleled to phenols concentration. Mean urinary concentration of phenols in intestinal obstruction was increased to 297 +/- 415 mg/day compared to control (less than 50 mg/day). Its change also paralleled to phenols concentration in enteric juice. Closed ileal loop was made in dogs and phenols were infused in the loop. Phenols were increased in the portal vein 5 min after the infusion and in the femoral vein 60 min after the infusion. Phenols, which was thought to be toxic to the host, were proved to be produced in the distended intestine and excreted from the kidney.

  4. Trace metal excretion in patients with homozygous hypercholesterolaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, G E; Blewet, R; Rodgers, A L; Wood, L; Jacobs, P

    1999-07-01

    In patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia regular therapeutic apheresis is acknowledged to have long-term benefit. A previously unrecognised complication of such intervention is the development of anaemia that reflects a sub-optimal dietary iron intake coupled with accelerated loss of this trace metal in the fluid discarded after each procedure. Additional contributions result from enhanced urinary excretion as a result of chelation to citrate used as an anticoagulant and frequent blood sampling. The underlying pathophysiologic process appears to be reduced deformability. We now document similar and significant losses of zinc, copper and chromium in these circumstances. In the case of the latter three elements, no associated clinical syndromes have thus far been identified, probably because deficiency states are less well-recognised than that due to iron loss and, additionally, because critical reductions are avoided by their replenishment during a normal food intake. These studies are, nevertheless, relevant since they are the basis for recommending prophylactic supplementation during this form of management.

  5. Greater bile acid excretion with soy bean than with cow milk in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J M; Nestel, P J

    1976-05-01

    The excretion of fecal sterols and bile acids was measured in five infants from the 1st week of life to 2 or 3 months of age as the composition of their diet was changed from cow milk to soy bean milk. Bile acid excretion, adjusted for body weight, was initially lower during the 1st than during the 3rd week, when it reached adult values. The average excretion of bile acids was 6.8 mg/kg per day with soy bean milk and 3.6 mg/kg per day with cow milk. Net sterol excretion (total sterol output minus cholesterol intake) was also twice as high with soy bean milk and probably reflected enhancement of cholesterol re-excretion as well as of synthesis since the cholesterol content of soy beans is nil. However, net sterol excretion remained higher with soy bean than with cow milk even when egg yolk cholesterol was added to the soy bean milk. It is concluded that the substitution of soy bean milk for cow milk, which lowered the plasma cholesterol in all infants (even in the presence of dietary cholesterol) leads to an increase in bile acids and probably also in cholesterol excretion in young infants.

  6. Variation of 210Po daily urinary excretion for male subjects at environmental level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelgye, Z.; Hyza, M.; Mihalik, J.; Rulik, P.; Skrkal, J.

    2015-01-01

    210 Po was determined in 24-h urine of seven healthy males from Prague, Czech Republic, for ten consecutive days. The results show that for each volunteer, the urinary excretion of 210 Po changed only little from day to day in the studied time period. For two volunteers, the difference in the daily excreted 210 Po activity for two consecutive days was not significant, given the 95 % confidence interval (two sigma) of the activity measurements. The same is valid for the excretion data of the other volunteers, except for some days where the differences were slightly higher. The range of daily urinary excretion of 210 Po of each volunteer in the studied time period was quite narrow. Among the volunteers, the maximum daily urinary excretion value of 210 Po was at most about a factor of 2.5 higher than the lowest excretion value. An attempt to explain the observed small inter-individual variability of 210 Po excretion in daily urine is made. (orig.)

  7. The influence of some thiols on biliary excretion of methyl mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refsvik, T.

    1983-01-01

    N-Acetylpenicillamine and thiola increased biliary excretion of methyl mercury and sulfhydryl right after administration. Cysteine increased excretion of methyl mercury in bile after a temporary decrease following administration. During the interval of decreased mercury excretion biliary excretion of cysteine passed through a maximum. This indicates the existence of a common factor of the excretory systems for cysteine and methyl mercury and illustrates that cysteine cannot carry methyl mercury from liver to bile. Relatively large proportions of unchanged thiola and N-acetylpenicillamine were excreted in bile. Bile collected after administration of one of these compounds, in addition to thiola or N-acetylpenicillamine, contained other methyl mercury carrying components not present in control bile. From the experiments undertaken it cannot be stated whether these components play any role in the increased excretion of methyl mercury in bile caused by thiola and N-acetylpenicillamine. The mechanisms of increased biliary excretion of methyl mercury following administration of N-acetylpenicillamine, thiola and cysteine are discussed. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the Impact of Alveolar Nitrogen Excretion on Indices Derived from Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Niklas; Nielsen, Jorgen G.; Horsley, Alex R.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence has now accumulated describing the advantages of multiple breath washout tests over conventional spirometry in cystic fibrosis (CF). Although the majority of studies have used exogenous sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) as the tracer gas this has also led to an increased interest in nitrogen washout tests, despite the differences between these methods. The impact of body nitrogen excreted across the alveoli has previously been ignored. Methods A two-compartment lung model was developed that included ventilation heterogeneity and dead space (DS) effects, but also incorporated experimental data on nitrogen excretion. The model was used to assess the impact of nitrogen excretion on washout progress and accuracy of functional residual capacity (FRC) and lung clearance index (LCI) measurements. Results Excreted nitrogen had a small effect on accuracy of FRC (1.8%) in the healthy adult model. The error in LCI calculated with true FRC was greater (6.3%), and excreted nitrogen contributed 21% of the total nitrogen concentration at the end of the washout. Increasing DS and ventilation heterogeneity both caused further increase in measurement error. LCI was increased by 6–13% in a CF child model, and excreted nitrogen increased the end of washout nitrogen concentration by 24–49%. Conclusions Excreted nitrogen appears to have complex but clinically significant effects on washout progress, particularly in the presence of abnormal gas mixing. This may explain much of the previously described differences in washout outcomes between SF6 and nitrogen. PMID:24039916

  9. Reduction in fecal excretion of Giardia cysts: effect of cholestasis and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsen, Stanley

    2005-12-01

    Bile is a major growth factor for the proliferation of Giardia spp. trophozoites in the small intestine and, at high concentrations, stimulates encystment of trophozoites. This report demonstrates that surgical cholestasis to interrupt the flow of bile from liver to intestine or the use of bile-binding resins in the diet can both dramatically decrease the fecal excretion of Giardia muris cysts. Cholestasis produced a 3 log reduction in excretion of G. muris cysts within 24 hr of surgery and a 4 log reduction after 3 days. Sham controls showed no difference in cyst excretion from presurgical control values. Two isocaloric diets were studied: a control diet (N) of Purina mouse chow containing 5% celufil and an experimental diet (CR) containing 5% cholestyramine, a resin that binds bile. Compared with the N diet, the CR diet was associated with reductions in cyst excretion of 3 logs within 1 day. Despite lowered excretion of G. muris cysts in mice fed the cholestyramine diet, the trophozoite recovery from the duodenum was similar with both diets. Cyclic feeding of the CR diet and the N diet at 3-day intervals produced significant oscillations (changes of 3-4 logs) in fecal cyst shedding. The significant reductions in fecal excretion of cysts observed with agents that bind bile suggests that diets capable of binding bile might be a therapeutic means to minimize the fecal excretion of cysts and thereby may help to reduce the risk of spreading giardiasis through fecal-oral contamination.

  10. Organic acid excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron increases with ambient pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVrabl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite being of high biotechnological relevance, many aspects of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi like the influence of ambient pH are still insufficiently understood. While the excretion of an individual organic acid may peak at a certain pH value, the few available studies investigating a broader range of organic acids indicate that total organic acid excretion rises with increasing external pH.We hypothesized that this phenomenon might be a general response of filamentous fungi to increased ambient pH. If this is the case, the observation should be widely independent of the organism, growth conditions or experimental design and might therefore be a crucial key point in understanding the function and mechanisms of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi.In this study we explored this hypothesis using ammonium limited chemostat cultivations (pH 2-7, and ammonium or phosphate limited bioreactor batch cultivations (pH 5 and 7. Two strains of Penicillium ochrochloron were investigated differing in the spectrum of excreted organic acids.Confirming our hypothesis, the main result demonstrated that organic acid excretion in P. ochrochloron was enhanced at high external pH levels compared to low pH levels independent of the tested strain, nutrient limitation and cultivation method. We discuss these findings against the background of three hypotheses explaining organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi, i.e. overflow metabolism, charge balance and aggressive acidification hypothesis.

  11. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion levels of preschool children: Individual, daily, and seasonal differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Kenichiro; Nagafuchi, Mikako; Izu, Ryoji; Kajiyama, Tomomi; Imai, Katsumi; Murata, Yusuke; Ohe, Kenji; Enjoji, Munechika; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the authors measured sodium and potassium concentrations in spot urine samples of preschool children on multiple days, and evaluated individual, daily, and seasonal effects. A total of 104 healthy preschool children aged 4 to 5 years were studied. Urine samples were collected from the first urine of the day after waking for three consecutive days (Monday-Wednesday) four times a year (spring, summer, autumn, winter). The authors estimated the daily urine volume as 500 mL and daily creatinine excretion as 300 mg, and used these to calculate daily sodium and potassium excretion levels. Daily sodium and potassium excretion levels and sodium to potassium ratios were highly variable. The coefficient variant in the children's excretion levels were also high within and between individuals. Sodium excretion levels and sodium to potassium ratios were higher on Monday (weekend sodium intakes) than Tuesday. Season had no effect on sodium or potassium excretion levels, but the sodium to potassium ratio was higher in summer than in winter. In conclusion, levels of urinary sodium excretion are comparatively high and those of potassium are low in preschool students, with high variability within and between individuals. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. EFFECT OF CASEIN-BASED SEMISYNTHETIC FOOD ON RENAL ACID EXCRETION AND ACID-BASE STATE OF BLOOD IN DOGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, WG; LANGBROEK, AJM; KRAAN, J; RISPENS, P; NIJMEIJER, A

    1995-01-01

    Urinary acid excretion and blood acid-base stare were determined in dogs fed a casein-based semi-synthetic food (SSF), to which different amounts of salts had been added, in comparison with feeding normal dog food. Net acid excretion (NAE) and inorganic acid excretion (IAE) increased during SSF

  13. Urine sodium excretion increased slightly among U.S. adults between 1988 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Hughes, Jeffery P; Cogswell, Mary E; Burt, Vicki L; Lacher, David A; Lavoie, Donna J; Rabinowitz, Daniel J; Johnson, Clifford L; Pirkle, James L

    2014-05-01

    Little information is available on temporal trends in sodium intake in the U.S. population using urine sodium excretion as a biomarker. Our aim was to assess 1988-2010 trends in estimated 24-h urine sodium (24hUNa) excretion among U.S. adults (age 20-59 y) participating in the cross-sectional NHANES. We used subsamples from a 1988-1994 convenience sample, a 2003-2006 one-third random sample, and a 2010 one-third random sample to comply with resource constraints. We estimated 24hUNa excretion from measured sodium concentrations in spot urine samples by use of calibration equations (for men and women) derived from the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure study. Estimated 24hUNa excretion increased over the 20-y period [1988-1994, 2003-2006, and 2010; means ± SEMs (n): 3160 ± 38.4 mg/d (1249), 3290 ± 29.4 mg/d (1235), and 3290 ± 44.4 mg/d (525), respectively; P-trend = 0.022]. We observed significantly higher mean estimated 24hUNa excretion in each survey period (P trends in mean estimated 24hUNa excretion remained significant (P-trend = 0.004). We observed no temporal trends in mean estimated 24hUNa excretion among BMI subgroups, nor after adjusting for BMI. Although several limitations apply to this analysis (the use of a convenience sample in 1988-1994 and using estimated 24hUNa excretion as a biomarker of sodium intake), these first NHANES data suggest that mean estimated 24hUNa excretion increased slightly in U.S. adults over the past 2 decades, and this increase may be explained by a shift in the distribution of BMI.

  14. Investigation of the daily variation in iodine and creatinine excretion in human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aabech, H.S.

    1975-08-01

    Continuing earlier investigations of the level of iodine intake in Norway, the excretion of iodine in 24-hour samples of urine over 7 days has been measured for 23 persons. Three of them collected 24-hour samples of urine during continuous periods of 21, 22 and 54 days. The main aim of the investigation was to study the diurnal variation of iodine excretion , and to correlate it with diet components when connection was suspected. To this end the persons had to keep record of the diet, especially with respect to fish and fish products. The variation from day to day of the iodine excretion was much greater than expected, and the highest values were always preceded by meals of sea-fish. Mean 24-hour iodine excretion from 13 males was 266 μg/24h (range 54-2272), from 8 females 154 μg/24h (range 58-627), and from 2 children 74 μg/24h (range 33-129). Large fluctuations were present, as indicated by standard deviations that varied from 12 to 119% of the mean. None of the persons had a mean 24-hour excretion lower than the advised minimum of 1 μg iodine/kg b w. The excretion of creatinine has also been measured, and the excretion from day to day showed large fluctuations for some of the persons. In 13 males the mean 24-hour excretion of creatinine was 1.88 gram (range 0.81-2.93), and in 8 females 1.17 gram (range 0.47-1.74). In one person, who collected urine during a period of 54 days, the mean excretion of creatinine was 1.80 gram (range 1.19-2.75). (auth.)

  15. Absorption and excretion of zinc, cadmium and mercury in the gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, H [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1975-10-01

    The absorption and excretion of inorganic zinc, cadmium and mercury in the gastrointestinal tract were compared using /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd and /sup 203/Hg. A single dose of /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg was administered orally or injected intravenously to investigate the distribution, excretion into bile and excretion into feces or urine. Absorption and excretion through the gastrointestinal tract of mice were studied by the tied loop method. Groups of eight mice or rats were used to measure the radioactivity in sample with a scintillation counter. Most of the orally administered /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg was excreted into feces and was less absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, respectively. Absorption rate in the gastrointestinal tract was as follows: /sup 203/Hg>/sup 65/Zn>/sup 109/Cd. Intravenously injected /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg was escreted into the gastrointestinal tract through the gastrointestinal wall and bile duct, respectively. Excretion rate in the gastrointestinal tract was as follows: /sup 65/Zn>/sup 203/Hg>/sup 109/Cd. When comparing the absorption and excretion in each gastrointestinal tract divided into 10 parts, /sup 65/Zn, and /sup 109/Cd were relatively well absorbed from the upper and lower part of small intestine and excreted into the upper, middle, lower part. /sup 203/Hg was relatively well absorbed from the upper, lower part of small intestine and excreted into the stomach and the caecum. The major organs that accumulated absorbed /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg were the pancreas and liver, liver and kidney, kidney and liver, respectively.

  16. Selective renal vasoconstriction, exaggerated natriuresis and excretion rates of exosomic proteins in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, M.; Jensen, Pia Hønnerup; Schwämmle, Veit

    2014-01-01

    AimIn essential hypertension (EH), the regulation of renal sodium excretion is aberrant. We hypothesized that in mild EH, (i) abnormal dynamics of plasma renin concentration (PRC) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are responsible for the exaggerated natriuresis, and (ii) exosomic protein...... patterns reflect the renal tubular abnormality involved in the dysregulation of sodium excretion. MethodsAfter 2-week drug washout and 4-day diet, systemic and renal hemodynamics, cardio-renal hormones, glomerular filtration and renal excretion were studied in male patients during saline loading (SL...

  17. Estimation of exposure to 222Rn from the excretion rates of 21πPb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzman, R.B.; Rundo, J.

    1981-01-01

    A model is proposed with which estimates of exposure to 227 Rn and its daughter products may be made from urinary excretion rates of 210 Pb. It is assumed that 20% of all the 210 Pb inhaled reaches the blood and that 50% of the endogenous excretion is through the urine. The estimates from the model are compared with the results of measurements on a subject residing in a house with high levels of radon. Whole body radioactivity and excretion data were consistent with the model, but the estimates of exposure (WL) were higher than those measured with an Environmental Working Level Monitor

  18. Modelling and sensitivity analysis of urinary platinum excretion in anticancer chemotherapy for the recovery of platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folens, Karel; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Baeten, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Platinum (Pt) based antineoplastics are important in cancer therapy. To date the Pt which is urinary excreted by the patients ends up in wastewater. This is disadvantageous from both an economic as from an ecological point of view because Pt is a valuable material and the excretion products...... are toxic for aquatic organisms. Therefore, efforts should be made to recover the Pt. The urinary excretion of Pt from two antineoplastics are taken under consideration, i.e. cisplatin and carboplatin. Using these reference compounds, a scenario analysis based on administration statistics from Ghent...

  19. Additional short-term plutonium urinary excretion data from the 1945-1947 plutonium injection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, W.D.; Gautier, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    A review of original injection experimental records at LASL suggest that the power function fit is a good choice to describe early plutonium excretion; however, the later period (300-, 500-, and 1600-day) results along with 10,000 day results show a significant departure from the Langham power function model used to describe long-term Pu excretion. The authors suggest that since the 523- and 1600-day data in question influenced the mathematical development of the Langham power function equation, its use in predicting Pu body burdens from long-term excretion data should be discouraged. 9 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  20. Bioactive Lipids in Dairy Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Nordby, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Milk fat is the most important energy source for the newborn infant beside its important role as energy source, milk fat also contain a range of bioactive lipids, that potentially can modulate the immune response and metabolic regulation in the child. In this chapter we review the literature on b...... on bioactive dairy fatty acids: conjugated linoleic acid, branched chained and odd chained fatty acids, as well as bioactive complex lipids such as sphingomyelin and gangliosides....