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Sample records for faecal egg counts

  1. Nutritionally-related blood metabolites and faecal egg counts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on faecal egg counts and biochemical profiles in indigenous Nguni goats of South Africa. Body weights, body condition scores, faecal and blood samples were collected from 96 goats. Faecal samples were analysed for nematodes and trematodes. Blood was analysed for packed cell volume (PCV), glucose, cholesterol, ...

  2. Faecal nematode egg counts in Merino sheep following natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    This study reports line differences in faecal nematode egg counts in strains of Merino sheep after natural challenge, and genetic (co)variances of egg counts with other traits of economic importance. Material and Methods. Sheep from a Merino selection experiment on the Tygerhoek experimental farm in the Southern Cape.

  3. Effect of tanniniferous browse meal on nematode faecal egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of tanniniferous browse meal on faecal egg counts (FEC) and intestinal worm burdens was investigated in sheep and goats infested experimentally with gastrointestinal nematodes. Initially, leaves of different browse tree species were assayed for condensed tannin (CT) content using a colorimetric method to ...

  4. Genetic parameters and relationships of faecal worm egg count with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The costs of internal parasite control and treatment are potentially very high in grazing sheep. Faecal worm egg count (FEC) has been suggested as a suitable criterion for selection for resistance to nematode infestation in livestock. Genetic parameter estimates for FEC and its relationship with wool traits were assessed in ...

  5. The relationships between faecal worm egg count and subjectively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjectively assessed wool and conformation traits form part of the selection objective in wool sheep enterprises. The present study investigated the genetic, phenotypic and environmental correlations for nematode resistance (using faecal worm egg count (FEC)) with subjectively assessed wool and conformation traits.

  6. Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infestation with gastrointestinal nematodes is probably among the most pervasive problems in small-stock production worldwide. Faecal worm egg count (FWEC) has been reported as an indirect measure of parasite resistance in livestock production. Environmental and genetic factors of FWEC were assessed, using data ...

  7. Interpretation of serum antibody response to Anoplocephala perfoliata in relation to parasite burden and faecal egg count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L.N.; Lungholt, M.M.; Nielsen, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    of development and gross pathological mucosal lesions were recorded and compared with serum antibody responses and faecal egg counts. Faecal egg counts were determined in samples from A. perfoliata infected horses using a semi-quantitative centrifugation/flotation technique. Blood samples collected at slaughter...

  8. A standardised faecal collection protocol for intestinal helminth egg counts in Asian elephants, Elephas maximus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly L. Lynsdale

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative assessment of parasite infection is necessary to measure, manage and reduce infection risk in both wild and captive animal populations. Traditional faecal flotation methods which aim to quantify parasite burden, such as the McMaster egg counting technique, are widely used in veterinary medicine, agricultural management and wildlife parasitology. Although many modifications to the McMaster method exist, few account for systematic variation in parasite egg output which may lead to inaccurate estimations of infection intensity through faecal egg counts (FEC. To adapt the McMaster method for use in sampling Asian elephants (Elephas maximus, we tested a number of possible sources of error regarding faecal sampling, focussing on helminth eggs and using a population of over 120 semi-captive elephants distributed across northern Myanmar. These included time of day of defecation, effects of storage in 10% formalin and 10% formol saline and variation in egg distribution between and within faecal boluses. We found no significant difference in the distribution of helminth eggs within faecal matter or for different defecation times, however, storage in formol saline and formalin significantly decreased egg recovery. This is the first study to analyse several collection and storage aspects of a widely-used traditional parasitology method for helminth parasites of E. maximus using known host individuals. We suggest that for the modified McMaster technique, a minimum of one fresh sample per elephant collected from any freshly produced bolus in the total faecal matter and at any point within a 7.5 h time period (7.30am–2.55 pm will consistently represent parasite load. This study defines a protocol which may be used to test pre-analytic factors and effectively determine infection load in species which produce large quantities of vegetative faeces, such as non-ruminant megaherbivores.

  9. Prevalence of nematode infection and faecal egg counts in free-range laying hens: relations to housing and husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, C M; Nasr, M A F; Gale, E; Petek, M; Stafford, K; Turp, M; Coles, G C

    2013-01-01

    1. Faecal samples from 19 commercial, 65 week old free-range egg laying flocks were examined to assess the prevalence and number of parasitic nematode eggs. Data were collected to characterise the housing, husbandry, behaviour and welfare of the flocks to examine possible relationships with the egg counts. 2. Eggs of at least one genus of nematode were present in the faeces of all 19 flocks. Heterakis eggs were detected in 17 (89%) flocks, Ascaridia in 16 (84%), Trichostrongylus in 9 (47%), and Syngamus in 6 (32%). Faecal egg counts (FEC) were greatest for Ascaridia and Heterakis. 3. For each nematode genus, there was no significant difference in FEC between organic (N = 9) and non-organic (N = 10) flocks, or between static (N = 8) and mobile (N = 11) flocks. 4. FEC were correlated with a range of housing, husbandry and management practices which varied between the nematode genus and included depth of the litter, percentage of hens using the range, and number of dead hens. Statistical analysis indicated relationships with FEC that included light intensity above the feeder, indoor and outdoor stocking density, fearfulness in the shed and on the range, distance to the nearest shelter, and swollen toes. 5. None of the FEC for any of the genera was correlated with weekly egg production or cumulative mortality. 6. Although nematode FEC were highly prevalent among the flocks, the overall lack of relation to other welfare and production measures suggests that these infections were not severe.

  10. Survey of anthelmintic resistance on Danish horse farms, using 5 different methods of calculating faecal egg count reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Henriksen, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    This study reports on the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in strongyles of horses in Denmark; Of 5 methods used for the calculation of faecal egg count reduction (FECR) the method recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, for the detection of resis......This study reports on the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in strongyles of horses in Denmark; Of 5 methods used for the calculation of faecal egg count reduction (FECR) the method recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, for the detection...... of resistance in sheep was the most sensitive procedure for detecting resistance. Using this method benzimidazole resistance was detected on 33 of 42 farms (79%) examined. Pyrantel was tested on 15 farms and FECR tests indicate resistance on 3 (30%) farms. On 2 farms on which resistance to pyrantel was detected...... resistance to benzimidazoles was also detected. On one of 16 farms examined ivermectin resistance was indicated at Day 14 but not at Day 19. On the 15 remaining farms ivermectin was effective. Due to the high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in Danish horse herds it is recommended that tests...

  11. Faecal egg counts from field experiment reveal density dependence in helminth fecundity: Strongyloides robustus infecting grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, L A; Cauchie, S; Martinoli, A; Matthysen, E; Saino, N; Ferrari, N

    2014-09-01

    Investigation of endo-macroparasite infections in living animals relies mostly on indirect methods aimed to detect parasite eggs in hosts' faeces. However, faecal flotation does not provide quantitative information on parasite loads, whereas faecal egg count (FEC) techniques may not give reliable estimates of parasite intensity, since egg production may be affected by density-dependent effects on helminth fecundity. We addressed this issue using Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and their gastrointestinal nematode Strongyloides robustus to assess the performance of coprological techniques and to investigate factors affecting parasite fecundity. We compared results of gut examination, flotation and McMaster FECs in 65 culled grey squirrels. Sensitivity and specificity of flotation were 81.2% (Confidence Interval, CI 54.3-95.9%) and 85.7% (CI 72.7-94.1%), respectively, resulting in low positive predictive values when infection prevalence is low. Individual parasite fecundity (no. of eggs/adult female worm) was negatively affected by S. robustus intensity, leading to a non-linear relationship between parasite load and eggs/gram of faeces (EPG). As a consequence, whereas flotation may be a valid method to perform the first screening of infection status, FECs are not a reliable method to estimate S. robustus intensity, since diverse values of EPG may correspond to the same number of parasites. Neither the amount of analysed faeces nor the season had any effect on EPG, indicating that the observed reduction in helminth fecundity is likely caused exclusively by density-dependent processes such as competition among worms or host immune response.

  12. Effect of strategic deworming of village cattle in Uganda with moxidectin pour-on on faecal egg count and pasture larval counts : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Magona

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Strategic application of moxidectin pour-on (Cydectin(R was evaluated in Uganda for its effect on pasture larval counts and gastrointestinal nematode faecal egg counts in village cattle kept under tethering (semi-intensive grazing management. The strategic deworming schedule involved treating cattle twice at an interval of 2 months, at the end of the 1st wet season and during the 2nd wet season. Two groups of 30 cattle, each consisting of a treated and a control group, were examined for nematode infections every 4 weeks from June 1999 to January 2000. The treated group had significantly lower mean faecal egg counts than the untreated groups (t-value = 2.47, P < 0.05. Generally, the pasture larval counts on treated farms were lower than on untreated ones, but not significantly so (t-value = 2.22, P = 0.068. Pasture larval counts with different nematode species on treated farms were lower than on untreated ones, but the differences were not significant for Haemonchus spp. (t-value=1.68, P=0.145, Oesophagostomum spp. (t-value= 1.87, P=0.111, Trichostrongylus spp. (t-value=1.93, P=0.102, Dictyocaulus spp. (t-value= -0.74, P=0.485 and Cooperia spp. (t-value=-1.00, P=0.356. Treated farms did , however, have significantly lower pasture larval counts of Bunostomum spp. (t-value=4.64, P<0.05. This study has revealed that the application ofmoxidectin pour-on on cattle has an effect on faecal egg count and pasture contamination under the tethering grazing system. Moxidectin pour-on and the strategic deworming schedule evaluated here could be used for the control of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle by small-scale farmers who practise tethering or semi-intensive grazing management in Uganda and other tropical countries, especially where there is a bimodal rainfall pattern.

  13. A quantitative trait locus for faecal worm egg and blood eosinophil counts on chromosome 23 in Australian goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, S; van der Werf, J H J; Walkden-Brown, S W; Marshall, K; Ruvinsky, A

    2010-06-01

    Three microsatellite markers on goat chromosome 23 adjacent to the MHC were used to test for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting faecal worm egg count (WEC) and leukocyte traits in ten Australian Angora and twelve Australian Cashmere half-sib families (n = 16-57 per family). Data were collected from 280 Angora and 347 Cashmere kids over a 3- and 4-year period. A putative QTL affecting trichostrongyle WEC was found in two small families at the 5% chromosome-wise threshold level. The biggest QTL effect for WEC of 1.65 standard deviations (sigma(p)) was found within the region of OarCP73-BM1258. A significant QTL affecting blood eosinophil counts at the 1% chromosome-wise threshold level was detected at marker BM1258 (at 26 cM) in two Angora and Cashmere families. The magnitude of the putative QTL was 0.69 and 0.85 sigma(p) in Angora and Cashmere families, respectively. Due to the comparatively low power of the study these findings should be viewed as indicative rather than definitive.

  14. Endoparasite infection has both short- and long-term negative effects on reproductive success of female house sparrows, as revealed by faecal parasitic egg counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holand, Håkon; Jensen, Henrik; Tufto, Jarle; Pärn, Henrik; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Ringsby, Thor Harald

    2015-01-01

    Parasites have the potential to severely reduce host reproductive success. However, the effects of endoparasites on reproductive success have not received the same amount of attention as the effects of parasites on host survival. We investigated the relationship between an avian endoparasite (gapeworm, Syngamus trachea) and both current and future reproductive success of female house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in a population on the coast of Helgeland, northern Norway. We found that the proportion of eggs in a nest that failed to develop into fledglings increased as the faecal parasitic egg count of the mothers increased. We also found that juvenile females with high numbers of parasitic eggs in their faeces had lower lifetime reproductive success as adults. However, we did not find a relationship between maternal parasite infection and clutch size or recruitment rate of offspring. To our knowledge this is the first study to find a relationship between reproductive success of an avian host and faecal egg count of an endoparasite. The present study indicates that infection by an endoparasite may be associated with lower individual reproductive success in both the short-term and long-term in a wild population of hosts.

  15. Variability in faecal egg counts – a statistical model to achieve reliable determination of anthelmintic resistance in livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret

    statistical model was therefore developed for analysis of FECRT data from multiple farms. Horse age, gender, zip code and pre-treatment egg count were incorporated into the model. Horses and farms were kept as random effects. Resistance classifications were based on model-based 95% lower confidence limit (LCL...

  16. Faecal egg counts and immune markers in a line of Scottish Cashmere goats selected for resistance to gastrointestinal nematode parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBean, David; Nath, Mintu; Kenyon, Fiona; Zile, Karina; Bartley, David J; Jackson, Frank

    2016-10-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of selection for low faecal egg count (FEC) in Scottish Cashmere goats in comparison to a control line of unselected goats grazing the same pasture. Goats from generations F2 through to F9 were monitored for FEC, bodyweight, peripheral eosinophilia and IgG, IgA and IgE response against Teladorsagia circumcincta from the end of their first grazing season, through winter housing (during which a single artificial challenge dose of 10,000 drug susceptible T. circumcincta was given) and the following full grazing season. The study demonstrated that selected line animals excreted a significantly lower number of parasite eggs (P0.05), although the selected line had significantly elevated or reduced levels (P<0.05) for all three within individual generations. There were significant associations between increased IgG and reduced FEC under artificial infection conditions (P=0.02). Increased IgA was also significantly associated with elevated FEC during the second grazing season (P<0.001). The study demonstrates that selection produced a line of goats with consistently reduced FEC compared with control animals, but did not identify a clear relationship between any of the immune markers measured and faecal egg output. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduction of faecal worm egg count, worm numbers and worm fecundity in sheep selected for worm resistance following artificial infection with Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, K E; Palmer, D G; Liu, S M; Greeff, J C; Bishop, S C; Karlsson, L J E

    2010-08-04

    We examined the changes to populations of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teledorsagia circumcincta in mature sheep selected for reduced faecal worm egg count (WEC). Worm resistant (n=19) and control (n=10) genotype sheep were penned and dosed with a total of 10,000 T. colubriformis and 10,000 T. circumcincta per week for 18-weeks. Sheep genotypes were from lines previously bred over 15 years for either low WEC (resistant) or non-selected (control). Weekly WEC and the proportion of larvae from each species in faecal culture were measured during weeks 3-17. Egg hatchability was assessed on a pooled faecal sample from worm resistant or control genotype sheep at weeks 7, 9, 10, 13, 14 and 17. At week 18 the number of adult and immature worms (early and late 4th, and 5th stage), and indicators of worm fecundity (female worm length and number of eggs in utero) were assessed at necropsy. Results show that resistant sheep had reduced mean WEC to only 18% of the control (PWEC and different prediction equations for WEC from necropsy traits for the two sheep genotypes (PWEC. We conclude that lower WEC is achieved through reduced number of adult worms for both species and reduced fecundity for T. circumcincta. These results support the hypotheses that worm resistant sheep with a strong immune function can regulate T. colubriformis by rejecting adult worms but that T. circumcincta is regulated through a combination of suppressed development and reduced female fecundity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The potential impact of density dependent fecundity on the use of the faecal egg count reduction test for detecting drug resistance in human hookworms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Kotze

    Full Text Available Current efforts to control human soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections involve the periodic mass treatment of people, particularly children, in all endemic areas, using benzimidazole and imidothiazole drugs. Given the fact that high levels of resistance have developed to these same drugs in roundworms of livestock, there is a need to monitor drug efficacy in human STHs. The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT, in which faecal egg output is measured pre- and post-drug treatment, is presently under examination by WHO as a means of detecting the emergence of resistance. We have examined the potential impact of density dependent fecundity on FECRT data. Recent evidence with the canine hookworm indicates that the density dependent egg production phenomenon shows dynamic properties in response to drug treatment. This will impact on measurements of drug efficacy, and hence drug resistance. It is likely that the female worms that survive a FECRT drug treatment in some human cases will respond to the relaxation of density dependent constraints on egg production by increasing their egg output significantly compared to their pre-treatment levels. These cases will therefore underestimate drug efficacy in the FECRT. The degree of underestimation will depend on the ability of the worms within particular hosts to increase their egg output, which will in turn depend on the extent to which their egg output is constrained prior to the drug treatment. As worms within different human cases will likely be present at quite different densities prior to a proposed FECRT, there is potential for the effects of this phenomenon on drug efficacy measurements to vary considerably within any group of potential FECRT candidates. Measurement of relative drug efficacy may be improved by attempting to ensure a consistent degree of underestimation in groups of people involved in separate FECRTs. This may be partly achieved by omission of cases with the heaviest infections

  19. Efficacy of ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Denmark evaluated by different methods for analysis of faecal egg count reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Thamsborg, Stig M; Denwood, Matthew J; Drag, Markus; Hansen, Tina V; Jensen, Vibeke F; Enemark, Heidi L

    2016-12-01

    The efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) against gastrointestinal nematodes in Danish cattle was assessed by faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Six cattle farms with history of clinical parasitism and avermectin use were included. On the day of treatment (Day 0), 20 naturally infected calves per farm (total n = 120) were stratified by initial faecal egg counts (FEC) and randomly allocated to a treatment group dosed with 0.2 mg IVM kg -1 body weight s.c. (IVM; n = 10) or an untreated control group (CTL; n = 10). Individual FEC were obtained at Day 0 and Day 14 post-treatment and pooled faeces by group were cultured to isolate L3 for detection of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora by qPCR. Treatment efficacies were analysed using the recommended WAAVP method and two open-source statistical procedures based on Bayesian modelling: 'eggCounts' and 'Bayescount'. A simulation study evaluated the performance of the different procedures to correctly identify FEC reduction percentages of simulated bovine FEC data representing the observed real data. In the FECRT, reduced IVM efficacy was detected in three farms by all procedures using data from treated animals only, and in one farm according to the procedures including data from treated and untreated cattle. Post-treatment, O. ostertagi and C. oncophora L3 were detected by qPCR in faeces of treated animals from one and three herds with declared reduced IVM efficacy, respectively. Based on the simulation study, all methods showed a reduced performance when FEC aggregation increased post-treatment and suggested that a treatment group of 10 animals is insufficient for the FECRT in cattle. This is the first report of reduced anthelmintic efficacy in Danish cattle and warrants the implementation of larger surveys. Advantages and caveats regarding the use of Bayesian modelling and the relevance of including untreated cattle in the FECRT are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  20. Efficacy of ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Denmark evaluated by different methods for analysis of faecal egg count reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Peña-Espinoza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of ivermectin (IVM against gastrointestinal nematodes in Danish cattle was assessed by faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT. Six cattle farms with history of clinical parasitism and avermectin use were included. On the day of treatment (Day 0, 20 naturally infected calves per farm (total n = 120 were stratified by initial faecal egg counts (FEC and randomly allocated to a treatment group dosed with 0.2 mg IVM kg−1 body weight s.c. (IVM; n = 10 or an untreated control group (CTL; n = 10. Individual FEC were obtained at Day 0 and Day 14 post-treatment and pooled faeces by group were cultured to isolate L3 for detection of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora by qPCR. Treatment efficacies were analysed using the recommended WAAVP method and two open-source statistical procedures based on Bayesian modelling: ‘eggCounts’ and ‘Bayescount’. A simulation study evaluated the performance of the different procedures to correctly identify FEC reduction percentages of simulated bovine FEC data representing the observed real data. In the FECRT, reduced IVM efficacy was detected in three farms by all procedures using data from treated animals only, and in one farm according to the procedures including data from treated and untreated cattle. Post-treatment, O. ostertagi and C. oncophora L3 were detected by qPCR in faeces of treated animals from one and three herds with declared reduced IVM efficacy, respectively. Based on the simulation study, all methods showed a reduced performance when FEC aggregation increased post-treatment and suggested that a treatment group of 10 animals is insufficient for the FECRT in cattle. This is the first report of reduced anthelmintic efficacy in Danish cattle and warrants the implementation of larger surveys. Advantages and caveats regarding the use of Bayesian modelling and the relevance of including untreated cattle in the FECRT are discussed.

  1. Investigating anthelmintic efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle by considering appropriate probability distributions for faecal egg count data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Love

    2017-04-01

    Where FEC data were obtained with less sensitive counting techniques (i.e. McMaster 30 or 15 epg, zero-inflated distributions and their associated central tendency were the most appropriate and would be recommended to use, i.e. the arithmetic group mean divided by the proportion of non-zero counts present; otherwise apparent anthelmintic efficacy could be misrepresented.

  2. Decline in faecal worm egg counts in lambs suckling ewes treated with lipophilic anthelmintics: implications for hastening development of anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, M L; Kahn, L P

    2015-04-30

    The aim for this experiment was to look for evidence of milk transfer of anthelmintic actives from ewes to their suckling lambs by reference to lambs' faecal worm egg count (WEC). The hypothesis was that WEC will decline in lambs suckling ewes treated with anthelmintics known to be lipophilic. One group of lactating Border Leicester×Merino ewes were treated (TX) with a combination of short (2.5mg/kg monepantel) and long-acting (1mg/kg moxidectin long-acting injection and a sustained release of 4.62g albendazole over 100 days) anthelmintics to remove gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) burden on day 0. The other group of lactating ewes (UTX) and all lambs (White Suffolk sires) were not treated. Ewes and lambs grazed as a single group and were exposed to GIN (predominately Haemonchus contortus) infection from pasture. Measurements were taken on days 0 and 7. WEC of lambs suckling UTX ewes increased from 6441 to 10,341 eggs per gram (epg) between days 0 and 7, while there was a 51% reduction in WEC for lambs suckling TX ewes. Packed cell volume (PCV) was significantly higher for lambs suckling TX ewes on day 7 compared to lambs suckling UTX ewes (28.5% vs. 24.9%, p=0.039). These results suggest that lambs suckling ewes treated with lipophilic anthelmintics received a sub-therapeutic dose via milk which would increase selection within the GIN (H. contortus) population for anthelmintic resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fasciola hepatica: a comparative survey of adult fluke resistance to triclabendazole, nitroxynil and closantel on selected upland and lowland sheep farms in Northern Ireland using faecal egg counting, coproantigen ELISA testing and fluke histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, R E B; McMahon, C; Ellison, S; Edgar, H W; Kajugu, P-E; Gordon, A; Irwin, D; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-01-15

    In order to investigate the incidence and distribution of adult fluke resistance to the fasciolicide tricalbendazole (TCBZ) amongst populations of Fasciola hepatica in sheep flocks in Northern Ireland (NI), individual rectal faeces samples were collected from 3 groups of 20 sheep, before (pre-dose), and 21 days after (post-dose) treatment of the animals with TCBZ, nitroxynil or closantel, on each of 13 well-managed sheep farms distributed across the province. The efficacy of each flukicide was determined for each farm, using faecal egg count reduction (FECRT) and F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA testing. In certain flocks, 2 sheep with high pre-dose faecal egg counts (FEC) were killed 3 days and 21 days respectively after TCBZ treatment, and the histology of the fluke reproductive organs was compared with that of flukes from untreated sheep, and from sheep treated with nitroxynil or closantel 2 days prior to death, using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and an in situ hybridisation method (TdT-mediated dUDP nick end labelling [TUNEL]) to demonstrate apoptosis. Results from FECRT revealed that in all flocks with a high fluke burden, TCBZ was ineffective in treating chronic fasciolosis, and this finding was generally supported by the results of the coproantigen reduction test (CRT). The histology of reproductive organs of flukes from TCBZ-treated sheep in these flocks was normal, when compared with untreated flukes, and this, together with the FECRT and CRT findings, indicated a likely diagnosis of TCBZ resistance in all the flocks with a high fluke burden. In contrast, nitroxynil and closantel were found to be fully effective against TCBZ-resistant flukes in each of the flocks bearing a high chronic fluke burden. All of the flocks with a high fluke burden and TCBZ resistance were managed on lowland in the South and East of NI. Upland flocks, in the North and West, had low fluke burdens, or were clear of infection; and FECs were too low to allow valid resistance

  4. Prevalence of Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica) in Wild Red Deer (Cervus elaphus): Coproantigen ELISA Is a Practicable Alternative to Faecal Egg Counting for Surveillance in Remote Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew S; Zadoks, Ruth N; Skuce, Philip J; Mitchell, Gillian; Gordon-Gibbs, Danielle K; Craine, Alexandra; Shaw, David; Gibb, Stuart W; Taggart, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) are hosts of liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica); yet, prevalence is rarely quantified in wild populations. Testing fresh samples from remote regions by faecal examination (FE) can be logistically challenging; hence, we appraise frozen storage and the use of a coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) for F. hepatica surveillance. We also present cELISA surveillance data for red deer from the Highlands of Scotland. Diagnoses in faecal samples (207 frozen, 146 fresh) were compared using a cELISA and by FE. For each storage method (frozen or fresh), agreement between the two diagnostics was estimated at individual and population levels, where population prevalence was stratified into cohorts (e.g., by sampling location). To approximate sensitivity and specificity, 65 post-slaughter whole liver examinations were used as a reference. At the individual level, FE and cELISA diagnoses agreed moderately (κfrozen = 0.46; κfresh = 0.51), a likely reflection of their underlying principles. At the population level, FE and cELISA cohort prevalence correlated strongly (Pearson's R = 0.89, p hepatica surveillance in red deer, and its application here has revealed considerable geographic, temporal, sex and age related differences in F. hepatica prevalence in wild Scottish Highland red deer.

  5. Strongyle egg counts in Standardbred trotters: Are they associated with race performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, P.; Vigre, Håkan; Nielsen, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    count levels. Methods: Faecal samples were obtained from 213 racing Standardbred trotters, aged ≥2 years, and stabled at training facilities of 21 professional trainers with license at racecourses in Denmark. Strongyle egg counts were generated using a McMaster technique. Race results were recorded......-3 was significantly associated with higher egg counts. Conclusions: Race performance of the population of professionally trained Danish Standardbred trotters was not negatively affected by higher strongyle faecal egg count levels. Potential relevance: The traditional frequent anthelmintic treatments of racehorses may...

  6. Patterns of faecal nematode egg shedding after treatment of sheep with a long-acting formulation of moxidectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilly, James Patrick; Jennings, Amy; Sargison, Neil

    2015-09-15

    Much of the current information on the effects of long-acting anthelmintics on nematode populations derives either from research farms or mathematical models. A survey was performed with the aim of establishing how moxidectin is currently being used on sheep farms in the south-east of Scotland. A study was undertaken on a subsection of the surveyed farms to examine the effects of long-acting moxidectin treatments in both spring and autumn on faecal nematode egg output. The survey showed that whole flock treatments of injectable 2% moxidectin were used to control sheep scab on 21% of farms. Injectable 2% moxidectin and oral moxidectin were used to control the periparturient rise in faecal nematode egg shedding by ewes on 13% and 55% of farms respectively. The effects of injectable 2% moxidectin treatment on faecal nematode egg shedding post-treatment in both the autumn and spring were investigated by faecal nematode egg counts at the time of treatment and at 2-weekly interval thereafter on eight and six farms in the autumn and spring, respectively. Faecal egg shedding recommenced at 8 weeks (autumn) and 4 weeks (spring) post-treatment. Counts increased to a peak and then declined. The mean (95% confidence interval) peak counts post-treatment were 2.8 (0.6, 5.1), 3.6 (1.7, 5.5) and 53.5 (25.1, 82.0) eggs per gram (EPG) for autumn-treated ewes, autumn-treated lambs and spring-treated ewes respectively. The spring treated sheep showed a statistically significantly earlier return to faecal egg shedding (p=0.0125, p=0.0342) compared to both other groups, statistically significantly higher peak in egg counts than the autumn treated sheep (pdatasheet, but post-treatment FECs were very low compared to pre-treatment counts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The distribution of SNP marker effects for faecal worm egg count in sheep, and the feasibility of using these markers to predict genetic merit for resistance to worm infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathryn E; Emery, David L; Bishop, Stephen C; Oddy, Hutton; Hayes, Benjamin J; Dominik, Sonja; Henshall, John M; Goddard, Michael E

    2011-06-01

    SummaryGenetic resistance to gastrointestinal worms is a complex trait of great importance in both livestock and humans. In order to gain insights into the genetic architecture of this trait, a mixed breed population of sheep was artificially infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis (n=3326) and then Haemonchus contortus (n=2669) to measure faecal worm egg count (WEC). The population was genotyped with the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip and 48 640 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers passed the quality controls. An independent population of 316 sires of mixed breeds with accurate estimated breeding values for WEC were genotyped for the same SNP to assess the results obtained from the first population. We used principal components from the genomic relationship matrix among genotyped individuals to account for population stratification, and a novel approach to directly account for the sampling error associated with each SNP marker regression. The largest marker effects were estimated to explain an average of 0·48% (T. colubriformis) or 0·08% (H. contortus) of the phenotypic variance in WEC. These effects are small but consistent with results from other complex traits. We also demonstrated that methods which use all markers simultaneously can successfully predict genetic merit for resistance to worms, despite the small effects of individual markers. Correlations of genomic predictions with breeding values of the industry sires reached a maximum of 0·32. We estimate that effective across-breed predictions of genetic merit with multi-breed populations will require an average marker spacing of approximately 10 kbp.

  8. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Nichola Eliza Davies; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Bush, Russell David

    2017-01-01

    Background Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples. Methodology/Principal findings A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74–0.76) was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC) using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling

  9. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Nichola Eliza Davies; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Bush, Russell David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples. A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74-0.76) was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC) using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling transport of samples from endemic to non

  10. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola Eliza Davies Calvani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples.A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74-0.76 was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling transport of samples from endemic

  11. Association between nematode larvae and "low worm egg count diarrhoea" in sheep in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Caroline; Bell, Kevin; Forshaw, David; Besier, Brown

    2009-10-28

    Nine flocks of sheep with a high prevalence (>30%) of diarrhoea and severe breech faecal soiling were investigated over a three-year period to examine the causes of diarrhoea in sheep with low mean faecal worm egg counts (WEC). All nine flocks were located in the southwest of Western Australia in areas with a winter rainfall pattern (Mediterranean climate). There was no difference (p=0.304) in WEC of diarrhoeic sheep (loose faeces and severe breech faecal soiling) and "normal sheep" (pelleted faeces and mild or no breech faecal soiling). Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta and Trichostrongylus spp. were the nematodes most commonly identified by total worm counts and differentiation of larvae recovered from faeces and pasture. Larval stages of strongyle worms accounted for the largest proportion of total worm counts in both diarrhoeic and normal sheep. Adult worm burdens were small in most sheep. Diarrhoeic sheep had higher numbers of fourth stage larvae than normal sheep (p=0.046). There was no histopathological evidence of bacterial or viral causes of diarrhoea in any of the flocks or bacteriological evidence of bacterial infections associated with diarrhoea. Two flocks had marginal selenium glutathione peroxidase (selenium) levels. One flock was diagnosed with helminthosis based on rising WEC and high total worm counts. Larval hypersensitivity diarrhoea, nutritional factors or a combination of these two factors were the most likely causes of diarrhoea in the other eight flocks based on exclusion of other known causes of diarrhoea. Treatment with moxidectin and an ivermectin controlled-release capsule did not change faecal moisture content of treated sheep compared to untreated sheep three to five weeks after treatment. The findings suggest that the immune response to strongyle larvae may explain some cases of low WEC diarrhoea observed during winter-spring in immunocompetent mature sheep grazing in Mediterranean environments.

  12. The relationships between faecal worm egg count and subjectively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-08-02

    Aug 2, 2014 ... 2–48. BANDP. 7165. 30.68. 6.40. 20.86. 1–50. Subjective conformation traits. TOT. 6771. 9.41. 2.37. 25.19. 1–40. GEN. 6770. 29.61. 7.12. 24.05. 1–50. HOCKS. 6770. 24.94. 8.30. 33.30. 1–48. FQ. 6771. 23.39. 6.69. 28.60. 1–49. PS. 6789. 32.61. 6.75. 20.70. 1–50. TOPL. 6769. 30.45. 7.50. 24.63. 1–50.

  13. Genetic parameters and relationships of faecal worm egg count with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-07-09

    Jul 9, 2014 ... expense of treatment, increased level of management and vigilance, loss of production and even mortality in severe cases (Nieuwoudt et al., 2002; Brown & Tier, ... consumers demand animal products that are free from contamination of chemicals (Khusro et al., 2004). Research suggested that selection for ...

  14. Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-09

    Dec 9, 2015 ... 1 Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South Africa. 2 Directorate Animal Sciences: Elsenburg, Western Cape Department of Agriculture, Elsenburg 7607, South Africa ...... the effects of gastrointestinal nematodes on the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales. Anim.

  15. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P calves for better performance.

  16. Effect of vacuum packing and temperature on survival and hatching of strongyle eggs in faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Mita E; Thapa, Sundar; Thamsborg, Stig M; Mejer, Helena

    2016-02-15

    Strongyle eggs of helminths of livestock usually hatch within a few hours or days after deposition with faeces. This poses a problem when faecal sampling is performed in the field. As oxygen is needed for embryonic development, it is recommended to reduce air supply during transport and refrigerate. The present study therefore investigated the combined effect of vacuum packing and temperature on survival of strongyle eggs and their subsequent ability to hatch and develop into L3. Fresh faecal samples were collected from calves infected with Cooperia oncophora, pigs infected with Oesophagostomum dentatum, and horses infected with Strongylus vulgaris and cyathostomins. The samples were allocated into four treatments: vacuum packing and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 V and 20 V); normal packing in plastic gloves closed with a loose knot and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 N and 20 N). The number of eggs per gram faeces (EPG) was estimated every fourth day until day 28 post set up (p.s.) by a concentration McMaster-method. Larval cultures were prepared on day 0, 12 and 28 p.s. and the larval yield determined. For C. oncophora, the EPG was significantly higher in vacuum packed samples after 28 days as compared to normal storage, regardless of temperature. However, O. dentatum EPG was significantly higher in samples kept at 5 °C as compared to 20 °C, irrespective of packing. For the horse strongyles, vacuum packed samples at 5 °C had a significantly higher EPG compared to the other treatments after 28 days. The highest larval yield of O. dentatum and horse strongyles were obtained from fresh faecal samples, however, if storage is necessary prior to setting up larval cultures O. dentatum should be kept at room temperature (aerobic or anaerobic). However, horse strongyle coprocultures should ideally be set up on the day of collection to ensure maximum yield. Eggs of C. oncophora should be kept vacuum packed at room temperature for the highest larval yield. Copyright

  17. Comparison of Kato-Katz thick-smear and McMaster egg counting method for the assessment of drug efficacy against soil-transmitted helminthiasis in school children in Jimma Town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekana, Teshome; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Ayana, Mio; Getachew, Mestawet; Vercruysse, Jozef; Levecke, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    There is a paucity of studies that compare efficacy of drugs obtained by different diagnostic methods. We compared the efficacy of a single oral dose albendazole (400 mg), measured as egg reduction rate, against soil-transmitted helminth infections in 210 school children (Jimma Town, Ethiopia) using both Kato-Katz thick smear and McMaster egg counting method. Our results indicate that differences in sensitivity and faecal egg counts did not imply a significant difference in egg reduction rate estimates. The choice of a diagnostic method to assess drug efficacy should not be based on sensitivity and faecal egg counts only. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Associations between trichostrongylid worm egg count and productivity measures in Dorper lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Joshua P A; Gardner, Graham E; Dobson, Robert J; Jacobson, Caroline; Bell, Kevin

    2011-08-25

    Two flocks of pure bred Dorper lambs were managed separately according to sex (283 ewe lambs and 212 ram lambs) in southern Western Australia. Faecal sample collection, weighing and body condition assessments were performed for each lamb on 2 occasions, specifically pre-weaning (approximately 14 weeks of age) and post-weaning (approximately 9 months of age). Body condition score (BCS) was assessed using a scale of 1 (very thin, emaciated) to 5 (excessively fat). Faecal worm egg counts (WECs) were measured using a modified McMaster technique and larval cultures were performed to identify trichostrongylid nematode genera present. Eye muscle and c-site fat depths were measured using ultrasound at post-weaning. Lambs received an abamectin anthelmintic treatment at weaning (18 weeks of age). Worm egg count data was assessed for normality of data distribution and homogeneity of variance. This data was transformed using log(10)(WEC+25) to stabilise variances between groups prior to statistical analyses and general linear models were used to assess relationships between WEC and productivity measures. Mean WECs were 564 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) and 514 EPG at pre- and post-weaning in the ewe flock and 552 EPG and 480 EPG at pre- and post-weaning in the ram flock. Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. larvae were identified. No lambs with WECWEC>1000 EPG post-weaning. Ewe and ram lambs with WEC>1000 EPG at pre-weaning were 42 (12-145 95% CI) and 37 (9-153) times more likely to have WEC>1000 EPG at post-weaning than lambs with WEC 501-1000 EPG at pre-weaning. There were no significant relationships between WEC and live weight in the ram flock, while relationships between WEC and live weight were inconsistent in the ewe lamb flock. There was no relationship between WEC and eye muscle or c-site fat depth. Significant negative relationships between WEC and BCS were identified at pre- and post-weaning for both flocks. Lambs

  19. A comparison of modifications of the McMaster method for the enumeration of Ascaris suum eggs in pig faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereckiene, A; Kaziūnaite, V; Vysniauskas, A; Petkevicius, S; Malakauskas, A; Sarkūnas, M; Taylor, M A

    2007-10-21

    The comparative efficacies of seven published McMaster method modifications for faecal egg counting were evaluated on pig faecal samples containing Ascaris suum eggs. Comparisons were made as to the number of samples found to be positive by each of the methods, the total egg counts per gram (EPG) of faeces, the variations in EPG obtained in the samples examined, and the ease of use of each of the methods. Each method was evaluated after the examination of 30 samples of faeces. The positive samples were identified by counting A. suum eggs in one, two and three sections of newly designed McMaster chamber. In the present study compared methods were reported by: I-Henriksen and Aagaard [Henriksen, S.A., Aagaard, K.A., 1976. A simple flotation and McMaster method. Nord. Vet. Med. 28, 392-397]; II-Kassai [Kassai, T., 1999. Veterinary Helminthology. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 260 pp.]; III and IV-Urquhart et al. [Urquhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L., Dunn, A.M., Jennings, F.W., 1996. Veterinary Parasitology, 2nd ed. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, UK, 307 pp.] (centrifugation and non-centrifugation methods); V and VI-Grønvold [Grønvold, J., 1991. Laboratory diagnoses of helminths common routine methods used in Denmark. In: Nansen, P., Grønvold, J., Bjørn, H. (Eds.), Seminars on Parasitic Problems in Farm Animals Related to Fodder Production and Management. The Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tartu, Estonia, pp. 47-48] (salt solution, and salt and glucose solution); VII-Thienpont et al. [Thienpont, D., Rochette, F., Vanparijs, O.F.J., 1986. Diagnosing Helminthiasis by Coprological Examination. Coprological Examination, 2nd ed. Janssen Research Foundation, Beerse, Belgium, 205 pp.]. The number of positive samples by examining single section ranged from 98.9% (method I), to 51.1% (method VII). Only with methods I and II, there was a 100% positivity in two out of three of the chambers examined, and FEC obtained using these methods were significantly (p<0.01) higher

  20. Egg recognition and counting reduce costs of avian conspecific brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Bruce E

    2003-04-03

    Birds parasitized by interspecific brood parasites often adopt defences based on egg recognition but such behaviours are puzzlingly rare in species parasitized by members of the same species. Here I show that conspecific egg recognition is frequent, accurate and used in three defences that reduce the high costs of conspecific brood parasitism in American coots. Hosts recognized and rejected many parasitic eggs, reducing the fitness costs of parasitism by half. Recognition without rejection also occurred and some hosts banished parasitic eggs to inferior outer incubation positions. Clutch size comparisons revealed that females combine egg recognition and counting to make clutch size decisions--by counting their own eggs, while ignoring distinctive parasitic eggs, females avoid a maladaptive clutch size reduction. This is clear evidence that female birds use visual rather than tactile cues to regulate their clutch sizes, and provides a rare example of the ecological and evolutionary context of counting in animals.

  1. Effects of feeding different postbiotic metabolite combinations produced by Lactobacillus plantarum strains on egg quality and production performance, faecal parameters and plasma cholesterol in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Teck Chwen; Choe, Di Wai; Foo, Hooi Ling; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Bejo, Mohd Hair

    2014-07-05

    Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that are able to colonize the host digestive system, increasing the natural flora and preventing colonization of pathogenic organisms and thus, securing optimal utility of the feed. However, commercial probiotic often do not meet the expected standards and the viability of the efficacy of these strains remains questionable. Another major issue has been highlighted in relation to the application of antibiotic resistant probiotics, the antibiotic resistant gene can be transferred between organisms. Recently, postbiotic metabolites produced from microbes have been extensively studied as feed additive in order to substitute in-feed antibiotics. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was found among the treatment groups on overall feed intake, egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion efficiency. COM456 had a significant reduction (P egg yolk cholesterol were observed in COM456, followed by COM345 and COM246. There was no significant difference in terms of yolk weight between the treatment groups. Significant higher (P egg production was observed in all treatments supplemented with metabolite combinations. In addition, the metabolite combinations, COM456 had reduced the faecal pH and faecal Enterobacteriaceae population, improved the faecal lactic acid bacteria, reduced the plasma and yolk cholesterol and improved the faecal volatile fatty acids content. Postbiotic metabolite combinations can be used as an alternative feed additive to achieve high productivity and better animal health while reducing the use of conventional chemotherapeutic agents such as in-feed antimicrobials.

  2. Changes in periparturient fecal egg counts in beef cows calving in the spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerberg, B; Lamm, W D

    1980-10-01

    A herd of mature Angus and Angus-Holstein-Friesian cows calving between March and May was maintained at 80% and 100% of National Research Council's recommended total digestible nutrient (TDN) levels during the winter. Changes in fecal nematode egg counts of these cows, expressed as eggs/5 g of feces and quantitated by the Wisconsin sugar flotation technique, were detected perinatally and were correlated with breed, nutritional level, and time of year. A limited, yet highly significant (P less than 0.001) increase in egg output was found in cows at calving. Anthelmintic treatment at calving caused postcalving egg counts that were statistically lower than were those from non-treated cows. When breed and nutritional level were considered independently, there was less influence on egg counts than when the interaction of breed and nutritional level was examined. Angus-Holstein-Friesian cows fed 80% TDN requirements had the greatest perinatal increase in egg output, and those fed 100% TDN had the smallest increase of all groups. Angus cows responded in an opposite manner to the nutritional level and had increases in egg counts intermediate to those counts of Angus-Holstein-Friesian cows. This characterization of the periparturient egg output by mature cows aided in evaluating the role of grazing cows in contaminating pastures.

  3. How to improve the standardization and the diagnostic performance of the fecal egg count reduction test?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levecke, Bruno; Kaplan, Ray M.; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2018-01-01

    Although various studies have provided novel insights into how to best design, analyze and interpret a fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), it is still not straightforward to provide guidance that allows improving both the standardization and the analytical performance of the FECRT across...... a variety of both animal and nematode species. For example, it has been suggested to recommend a minimum number of eggs to be counted under the microscope (not eggs per gram of feces), but we lack the evidence to recommend any number of eggs that would allow a reliable assessment of drug efficacy. Other...... the UI methodology that yields the most reliable assessment of drug efficacy (coverage of TDE) and detection of reduced drug efficacy, and (iii) to determine the required sample size and number of eggs counted under the microscope that optimizes the detection of reduced efficacy. Our results confirm...

  4. Egg production, faecal pH and microbial population, small intestine morphology, and plasma and yolk cholesterol in laying hens given liquid metabolites produced by Lactobacillus plantarum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, D W; Loh, T C; Foo, H L; Hair-Bejo, M; Awis, Q S

    2012-01-01

    1. Various dosages of metabolite combinations of the Lactobacillus plantarum RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (COM456) were used to study the egg production, faecal microflora population, faecal pH, small intestine morphology, and plasma and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens. 2. A total of 500 Lohmann Brown hens were raised from 19 weeks to 31 weeks of age. The birds were randomly divided into 5 groups and fed on various treatment diets: (i) basal diet without supplementation of metabolites (control); (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0·3% COM456 metabolites; (iii) basal diet supplemented with 0·6% COM456 metabolites; (iv) basal diet supplemented with 0·9% COM456 metabolites; and (v) basal diet supplemented with 1·2% COM456 metabolites. 3. The inclusion of 0·6% liquid metabolite combinations, produced from three L. plantarum strains, demonstrated the best effect in improving the hens' egg production, faecal lactic acid bacteria population, and small intestine villus height, and reducing faecal pH and Enterobacteriaceae population, and plasma and yolk cholesterol concentrations. 4. The metabolites from locally isolated L. plantarum are a possible alternative feed additive in poultry production.

  5. Effect of vacuum packing and temperature on survival and hatching of strongyle eggs in faecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengupta, Mita Eva; Thapa, Sundar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2016-01-01

    , and horses infected with Strongylus vulgaris and cyathostomins. The samples were allocated into four treatments: vacuum packing and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 V and 20 V); normal packing in plastic gloves closed with a loose knot and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 N and 20 N). The number of eggs per gram...

  6. The sensitivity of direct faecal examination, direct faecal flotation, modified centrifugal faecal flotation and centrifugal sedimentation/flotation in the diagnosis of canine spirocercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Christie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Several faecal examination techniques have shown variable sensitivity in demonstrating Spirocerca lupi (S. lupi eggs. The objective of this study was to determine which faecal examination technique, including a novel modified centrifugal flotation technique, was most sensitive to diagnose spirocercosis. Ten coproscopic examinations were performed on faeces collected from 33 dogs confirmed endoscopically to have spirocercosis. The tests included a direct faecal examination, a faecal sedimentation/flotation test, 4 direct faecal flotations and 4 modified faecal centrifugal flotations. These latter 2 flotation tests utilised 4 different faecal flotation solutions:NaNO3 (SG 1.22,MgSO4 (SG 1.29,ZnSO4 (SG 1.30 and sugar (SG 1.27. The sensitivity of the tests ranged between 42 %and 67 %, with theNaNO3 solution showing the highest sensitivity in both the direct and modified-centrifugal flotations. The modified NaNO3 centrifugal method ranked 1st with the highest mean egg count (45.24±83, and was superior (i.e. higher egg count and significantly different (P< 0.05 compared with the routine saturated sugar,ZnSO4 andMgSO4 flotation methods. The routine NaNO3 flotation method was also superior and significantly different (P < 0.05 compared with the routine ZnSO4 andMgSO4 flotation methods. Fifteen per cent (n=5 of dogs had neoplastic oesophageal nodules and a further 18 % (n = 6 had both neoplastic and non-neoplastic nodules. S. lupi eggs were demonstrated in 40%of dogs with neoplastic nodules only and 72.9 % of the dogs with non-neoplastic nodules. The mean egg count in the non-neoplastic group (61 was statistically greater (P = 0.02 than that of the neoplastic group (1. The results show that faecal examination using a NaNO3 solution is the most sensitive in the diagnosis of spirocercosis. The modified centrifugal flotation faecal method using this solution has the highest egg count. The study also found that dogs with neoplastic nodules shed

  7. Genetic analysis of faecal worm egg count in South African Merinos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sheep from a Merino selection experiment at the Tygerhoek research farm in the Southern Cape provided material for this study. The selection lines involved included a line selected for clean fleece weight, a “Wet and Dry” line, a fine wool line and an unselected Control line. Rectal faeces samples were obtained from ...

  8. Correlation between discharged worms and fecal egg counts in human clonorchiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hwan Kim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stool examination by counting eggs per gram of feces (EPGs is the best method to estimate worm burden of Clonorchis sinensis in infected humans. The present study investigated a correlation between EPGs and worm burden in human clonorchiasis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 60 residents, 50 egg-positive and 10 egg-negative, in Sancheong-gun, Korea, participated in this worm collection trial in 2006-2009. They were diagnosed by egg positivity in feces using the Kato-Katz method. After administration of praziquantel, they were purged with cathartics on the next day, and then discharged adult worms were collected from their feces. Their EPGs ranged from 0 to 65,544. Adult worms of C. sinensis were collected from 17 egg-positive cases, and the number of worms ranged from 1 to 114 in each individual. A positive correlation between EPGs and numbers of worms was demonstrated (r = 0.681, P<0.001. Worm recovery rates were 9.7% in cases of EPGs 1-1,000 and 73.7% in those of EPGs over 1,000. No worms were detected from egg-negative subjects. Maximum egg count per worm per day was roughly estimated 3,770 in a subject with EPGs 2,664 and 106 collected worms. CONCLUSIONS: The numbers of the worms are significantly correlated with the egg counts in human clonorchiasis. It is estimated that at least 110 worms are infected in a human body with EPGs around 3,000, and egg productivity of a worm per day is around 4,000.

  9. Significantly higher faecal counts of the yeastscandidaandsaccharomycesidentified in people with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Joanna; Myers, Stephen P; Rolfe, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Coeliac disease is an autoimmune disorder resulting from an interaction between diet, genome and immunity. The treatment of CoeD is lifelong adherence to a gluten free diet, which is associated with clinical and histological improvements. However, a substantive number of individuals report only partial symptom improvement despite both compliance with a strict gluten free diet and improvements in serological and histological biomarkers of disease activity. The role of the intestinal microbiota is an area of interest in this sub-group. To investigate the role of yeasts and parasites in individuals reporting persistent symptoms of Coeliac disease (CoeD). Forty-five people who met the ESPGHAN diagnostic criteria for CoeD were recruited via the Australian Coeliac Association. The faecal measures of the DNA of yeasts and parasites from the CoeD group were compared to data obtained from the medical records of non-coeliac controls with gastrointestinal symptoms from other causes. Candida sp. was detected in 33% of the CoeD group compared 0% of the control group (p = 0.000) and Saccharomyces sp. was detected in 33% of the CoeD group compared to 10% of the control group (p = 0.026). There were no differences in the presence of any of the parasite species measured. Further research is required to understand the significance of C andida and Saccharomyces species in both the aetiology of CoeD and of persistent symptoms in this sub-group. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Registration-ANZCTR Number: 12610000630011.

  10. Mathematical inference on helminth egg counts in stool and its applications in mass drug administration programmes to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecke, Bruno; Anderson, Roy M; Berkvens, Dirk; Charlier, Johannes; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Speybroeck, Niko; Vercruysse, Jozef; Van Aelst, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we present a hierarchical model based on faecal egg counts (FECs; expressed in eggs per 1g of stool) in which we first describe the variation in FECs between individuals in a particular population, followed by describing the variance due to counting eggs under a microscope separately for each stool sample. From this general framework, we discuss how to calculate a sample size for assessing a population mean FEC and the impact of an intervention, measured as reduction in FECs, for any scenario of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) epidemiology (the intensity and aggregation of FECs within a population) and diagnostic strategy (amount of stool examined (∼sensitivity of the diagnostic technique) and examination of individual/pooled stool samples) and on how to estimate prevalence of STH in the absence of a gold standard. To give these applications the most wide relevance as possible, we illustrate each of them with hypothetical examples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic parameters for fecal egg count and body weight in Katahdin lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for fecal egg count at weaning (WFEC) and post weaning (PWFEC), and weights at birth (BW), weaning (WW) and post weaning (PWW) in Katahdin lambs by investigating direct additive, maternal additive, maternal permanent environmental and ma...

  12. It’s what’s inside that counts: Egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Mark; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Hartman, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm3) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6–13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  13. Division of methods for counting helminths’ eggs and the problem of efficiency of these methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jaromin-Gleń

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available From the sanitary and epidemiological aspects, information concerning the developmental forms of intestinal parasites, especially the eggs of helminths present in our environment in: water, soil, sandpits, sewage sludge, crops watered with wastewater are very important. The methods described in the relevant literature may be classified in various ways, primarily according to the methodology of the preparation of samples from environmental matrices prepared for analysis, and the sole methods of counting and chambers/instruments used for this purpose. In addition, there is a possibility to perform the classification of the research methods analyzed from the aspect of the method and time of identification of the individuals counted, or the necessity for staining them. Standard methods for identification of helminths’ eggs from environmental matrices are usually characterized by low efficiency, i.e. from 30% to approximately 80%. The efficiency of the method applied may be measured in a dual way, either by using the method of internal standard or the ‘Split/Spike’ method. While measuring simultaneously in an examined object the efficiency of the method and the number of eggs, the ‘actual’ number of eggs may be calculated by multiplying the obtained value of the discovered eggs of helminths by inverse efficiency.

  14. QuantiFly: Robust Trainable Software for Automated Drosophila Egg Counting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Waithe

    Full Text Available We report the development and testing of software called QuantiFly: an automated tool to quantify Drosophila egg laying. Many laboratories count Drosophila eggs as a marker of fitness. The existing method requires laboratory researchers to count eggs manually while looking down a microscope. This technique is both time-consuming and tedious, especially when experiments require daily counts of hundreds of vials. The basis of the QuantiFly software is an algorithm which applies and improves upon an existing advanced pattern recognition and machine-learning routine. The accuracy of the baseline algorithm is additionally increased in this study through correction of bias observed in the algorithm output. The QuantiFly software, which includes the refined algorithm, has been designed to be immediately accessible to scientists through an intuitive and responsive user-friendly graphical interface. The software is also open-source, self-contained, has no dependencies and is easily installed (https://github.com/dwaithe/quantifly. Compared to manual egg counts made from digital images, QuantiFly achieved average accuracies of 94% and 85% for eggs laid on transparent (defined and opaque (yeast-based fly media. Thus, the software is capable of detecting experimental differences in most experimental situations. Significantly, the advanced feature recognition capabilities of the software proved to be robust to food surface artefacts like bubbles and crevices. The user experience involves image acquisition, algorithm training by labelling a subset of eggs in images of some of the vials, followed by a batch analysis mode in which new images are automatically assessed for egg numbers. Initial training typically requires approximately 10 minutes, while subsequent image evaluation by the software is performed in just a few seconds. Given the average time per vial for manual counting is approximately 40 seconds, our software introduces a timesaving advantage for

  15. Effects of rainfall, host demography, and musth on strongyle fecal egg counts in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, M I; O'Connell-Rodwell, C E; Turner, W C; Nambandi, K; Kinzley, C; Rodwell, T C; Faulkner, C T; Felt, S A; Bouley, D M

    2011-01-01

    Wild African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are commonly infected with intestinal strongyle parasites. Our objective was to determine baseline fecal strongyle egg counts for elephants in the northeast region of Etosha National Park, Namibia and determine if these numbers were affected by annual rainfall, elephant demography (age of individuals and composition of groups), and hormonal state of males. We found that matriarchal family group members have significantly higher fecal egg counts than male elephants (bulls). Among family group members, strongyle egg counts increased with age, whereas among bulls, strongyle egg counts decreased with age. Years of higher rainfall were correlated with decreased numbers of strongyle eggs among bulls. Finally, bulls were not affected by their physiologic (hormonal) status (musth vs. nonmusth). These results suggest that infection by strongyle parasites in Namibian African elephants is a dynamic process affected by intrinsic and extrinsic factors including host demography and rainfall.

  16. A user-friendly software to easily count Anopheles egg batches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollahosseini Ali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on malaria vector ecology and development/evaluation of vector control strategies often require measures of mosquito life history traits. Assessing the fecundity of malaria vectors can be carried out by counting eggs laid by Anopheles females. However, manually counting the eggs is time consuming, tedious, and error prone. Methods In this paper we present a newly developed software for high precision automatic egg counting. The software written in the Java programming language proposes a user-friendly interface and a complete online manual. It allows the inspection of results by the operator and includes proper tools for manual corrections. The user can in fact correct any details on the acquired results by a mouse click. Time saving is significant and errors due to loss of concentration are avoided. Results The software was tested over 16 randomly chosen images from 2 different experiments. The results show that the proposed automatic method produces results that are close to the ground truth. Conclusions The proposed approaches demonstrated a very high level of robustness. The adoption of the proposed software package will save many hours of labor to the bench scientist. The software needs no particular configuration and is freely available for download on: http://w3.ualg.pt/∼hshah/eggcounter/.

  17. Effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and fecal egg count in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar Paswan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and gastrointestinal parasitic load in growing goats. Materials and Methods: To experiment was conducted for a period of 3-month on 24 male goats (3½ month old, average body weight [BW] 6.50±1.50 kg, distributed into four groups of six animals each. The experimental animals were fed graded level of A. nilotica pod meal (0%, 10%, 20% and 30% mixed in concentrate mixture equivalent to tannin concentration of 0%, 1.91%, 3.82% and 5.73% in the total mixed ration I, II, III and IV, respectively, but ad libitum measured quantity of green sorghum fodder (Sorghum bicolor feeding. The blood samples were collected from experimental goats during the feeding experiment for the examination of different hematological indices and serum biochemical profile to know the overall health status of animals and standard method was followed to analyze the samples. Fecal sample was collected directly from the anus of goats by inserting middle finger and kept the samples in labeled polythene bag. Further fresh sample was processed and examined by McMaster Technique for eggs per gram and oocysts per gram. It gives accurate information regarding severity of infection. Results: The feeding of babul pod meal did not address significant changes about the hematological parameters among various treatment groups. The lymphocyte count was significantly higher (p=0.07 in T3 group as compared to control and increase with increase in level of babul pod meal in the diet. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN level was 4.86 and 6.59% lower in T1 and T2 group as compared to control and inversely proportional with level of supplement in ration. The decrease in BUN reflected good dietary protein metabolism happened in animals supplemented with babul pod meal. Serum creatinine level was significantly lower (p<0.01 in T2 group as compared to control. The creatinine level was 20

  18. Shedding consistency of strongyle-type eggs in dutch boarding horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dopfer, D.D.V.; Kerssens, C.M.; Meijer, Y.G.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Eysker, M.

    2004-01-01

    Faeces of 484 horses were sampled twice with an interval of 6 weeks while anthelmintic therapy was halted. Faecal eggs counts revealed that 267 (55.2%) horses had consistently low numbers of eggs per gram faeces (EPG) (EPG <100 or = 100), 155 (32.0%) horses had consistently high EPGs (EPG >

  19. Dietary supplementation of Digestarom® herbal formulation: effect on apparent digestibility, faecal and caecal microbial counts and live performance of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Celia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment aimed to study the effect of Digestarom® dietary inclusion (herbal formulation containing a mixture of essential oils, herbs, spices and extracts on apparent digestibility and digestive ecosystem of growing rabbits, as well as the effects of its supplementation before and after weaning on growth performance. At kindling, rabbit does and litters were divided into 2 dietary groups (51 does/group and fed either a control diet (C or a diet supplemented with 300 mg Digestarom®/kg diet (D until weaning, which occurred at 35 d (before weaning supplementation. Each group was further divided into 3 dietary groups: CC received the control diet and DD received the D diet from 5 to 12 wk of age, and DC were fed with D (from 5 to 8 wk of age and C diets (from 8 to 12 wk of age (after weaning supplementation; 54 kits/group. An in vivo digestibility trial and a faecal microbial count were carried out on growing rabbits that received only the C or D diets during the trial. The C group showed higher DM intake than D group (215 vs. 196 g/d; P<0.05. The faecal digestibility of ether extract (75.9 vs. 59.8%; P<0.001, cellulose (25.9 vs. 20.6%; P<0.05 and gross energy (51.8 vs. 49.1%; P<0.05 was higher for C than for D group, whereas that of starch (98.9 vs. 98.8%; P<0.001 and the digestible protein to digestible energy ratio (13.9 vs. 13.2 g digestible protein/MJ digestible energy; P<0.01 was the highest for rabbits fed D diet. Stomach and caecal pH, caecal and faecal microbial counts were independent of the dietary treatment. The only exception was the stomach pH in 8 wk-old rabbits, which had the lowest value in C rabbits (P<0.05. The D supplementation before weaning improved feed conversion ratio throughout the growing phase (4.3 vs. 4.4 for D and C, respectively; P<0.05, whereas significant differences in daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and mortality were observed only in the first period after weaning. Based on the results obtained

  20. Count your eggs before they invade: identifying and quantifying egg clutches of two invasive apple snail species (Pomacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Colin H; Plantz, Allyson L; Shelton, Therese; Burks, Romi L

    2013-01-01

    Winning the war against invasive species requires early detection of invasions. Compared to terrestrial invaders, aquatic species often thrive undetected under water and do not garner notice until too late for early action. However, fortunately for managers, apple snails (Family Ampullariidae, Genus Pomacea) provide their own conspicuous sign of invasion in the form of vibrantly colored egg clutches. Managers can potentially use egg clutches laid in the riparian zone as a means of early detection and species identification. To facilitate such efforts, we quantified differences in characteristics (length, width, depth, mass, egg number) of field-laid clutches for the two most common invasive species of apple snail, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, in native and non-native populations. Pomacea canaliculata native and non-native populations differed noticeably only in width. Native P. maculata clutches possessed significantly greater width, mass and eggs numbers compared with native P. canaliculata. Non-native P. maculata clutches significantly exceeded all other populations in all measured characteristics. Consequently, these traits may successfully distinguish between species. Fecundity data also allowed us to develop models that accurately estimated the number of eggs per clutch for each species based on clutch dimensions. We tested one, two and three dimensional models of clutches, including rendering a clutch as either a complete ellipsoid or an ellipsoid intersected by a cylinder to represent the oviposition site. Model comparisons found the product of length and depth, with a different function for each population, best predicted egg number for both species. Comparisons of egg number to clutch volume and mass implied non-native P. canaliculata may be food limited, while non-native P. maculata appeared to produce such enormous clutches by having access to greater nutrients than the native population. With these new tools, researchers and managers can quickly

  1. Count your eggs before they invade: identifying and quantifying egg clutches of two invasive apple snail species (Pomacea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin H Kyle

    Full Text Available Winning the war against invasive species requires early detection of invasions. Compared to terrestrial invaders, aquatic species often thrive undetected under water and do not garner notice until too late for early action. However, fortunately for managers, apple snails (Family Ampullariidae, Genus Pomacea provide their own conspicuous sign of invasion in the form of vibrantly colored egg clutches. Managers can potentially use egg clutches laid in the riparian zone as a means of early detection and species identification. To facilitate such efforts, we quantified differences in characteristics (length, width, depth, mass, egg number of field-laid clutches for the two most common invasive species of apple snail, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, in native and non-native populations. Pomacea canaliculata native and non-native populations differed noticeably only in width. Native P. maculata clutches possessed significantly greater width, mass and eggs numbers compared with native P. canaliculata. Non-native P. maculata clutches significantly exceeded all other populations in all measured characteristics. Consequently, these traits may successfully distinguish between species. Fecundity data also allowed us to develop models that accurately estimated the number of eggs per clutch for each species based on clutch dimensions. We tested one, two and three dimensional models of clutches, including rendering a clutch as either a complete ellipsoid or an ellipsoid intersected by a cylinder to represent the oviposition site. Model comparisons found the product of length and depth, with a different function for each population, best predicted egg number for both species. Comparisons of egg number to clutch volume and mass implied non-native P. canaliculata may be food limited, while non-native P. maculata appeared to produce such enormous clutches by having access to greater nutrients than the native population. With these new tools, researchers and

  2. Faecal egg counts and expulsion dynamics of the whipworm, Trichuris trichiura following self-infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, E P; Merino Tejedor, Ana; Thamsborg, S M

    2016-01-01

    More than 400 million humans are estimated to be infected with the intestinal helminth parasite, Trichuris trichiura. The infection is chronic in nature and high-intensity infection can lead to colitis, anaemia, Trichuris Dysentery Syndrome and reduced cognitive performance. Single doses of 400 mg...

  3. A simple and robust statistical framework for planning, analysing and interpreting faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denwood, M.J.; McKendrick, I.J.; Matthews, L.

    that the notional type 1 error rate of the new statistical test is accurate. Power calculations demonstrate a power of only 65% with a sample size of 20 treatment and control animals, which increases to 69% with 40 control animals or 79% with 40 treatment animals. Discussion. The method proposed is simple...

  4. BOX-COX transformation and random regression models for fecal egg count data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate genetic evaluation of livestock is based on appropriate modeling of phenotypic measurements. In ruminants fecal egg count (FEC is commonly used to measure resistance to nematodes. FEC values are not normally distributed and logarithmic transformations have been used to achieve normality before analysis. However, the transformed data are often not normally distributed, especially when data are extremely skewed. A series of repeated FEC measurements may provide information about the population dynamics of a group or individual. A total of 6,375 FEC measures were obtained for 410 animals between 1992 and 2003 from the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Angus herd. Original data were transformed using an extension of the Box-Cox transformation to approach normality and to estimate (covariance components. We also proposed using random regression models (RRM for genetic and non-genetic studies of FEC. Phenotypes were analyzed using RRM and restricted maximum likelihood. Within the different orders of Legendre polynomials used, those with more parameters (order 4 adjusted FEC data best. Results indicated that the transformation of FEC data utilizing the Box-Cox transformation family was effective in reducing the skewness and kurtosis, and dramatically increased estimates of heritability, and measurements of FEC obtained in the period between 12 and 26 weeks in a 26-week experimental challenge period are genetically correlated.

  5. Descriptive findings from analysis of a large database of cattle worm egg count and larval culture results collected across Australia between 2002 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lee; Hodge, Andrew

    2014-08-29

    Results from worm egg counts (WECs) of cattle from across Australia over an 11 year period have been analysed to provide contemporary data on WEC and worm genus distribution in Australian cattle. A sampling kit consisted of ten sample containers. Faecal samples were collected into each sampling kit from groups of cattle and WEC and larval cultures were conducted using standard procedures. A submission form was completed for each kit with data requested including date of sampling, property address, age, average estimated weight and production type of cattle, last drench used and date of drenching. Regional analysis was done by postcode region and postcode regions were grouped into bioclimatic regions. A total of 5069 submissions were received from 2002 to the end of 2012 representing over 50,000 individual faecal samples. Seventy-seven percent of cattle sampled were no more than 2 years of age with the remainder representing a range of age groups. Samples were collected from all of the significant cattle producing regions of Australia. There was a tendency for higher geometric mean WEC in cattle in northern Australia and in high rainfall areas along the east coast of Australia. Geometric mean WEC for bioclimatic regions varied seasonally with a peak in autumn in regions with summer dominant rainfall, but little seasonal variation in regions with winter dominant rainfall patterns. Worm genera cultured varied throughout Australia with Cooperia spp. being most prevalent across the country, followed by Haemonchus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. in summer rainfall dominant regions and Ostertagia spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. in winter rainfall regions. In the coastal, tablelands, and temperate rangelands regions of NSW, Haemonchus spp. were as prevalent as Cooperia spp. during autumn months and levels of Haemonchus spp. found in south-western Western Australia were higher than previously documented. These data provide an up-to-date summary of internal parasites in

  6. Ovulation time and ovulated eggs count of sneakehead Channa striata induced by prostaglandin 2α with different doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frits Jamlaay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Snakehead fish Channa striata is one of freshwater commodity which has high economic value. Nowadays, snakehead fish stock mostly comes from wild capture. Artificial spawning with hormonal induction is usually used to improve broodstock efficiency, as well as the quality and quantity of fish seed production. Purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of prostaglandin 2α (PGF2α hormone on ovulation time and count of ovulated eggs. This experiment used 30–40 cm broodstock with 600–900 g body weight. Fishes were acclimated for one week in a container and then injected with different doses of PGF2α, namely: control without PGF2α (P1, 0.5 mL/kg (P2; 0.7mL/kg (P3; and 0.9 mL/kg (P4. Each treatment consisted of three fishes as replication. Ovulation time was observed until 72 hours post injection. The results showed that PGF2α injected broodstoks ovulated faster (9.17–12.24 hours post injection than control P1 (22.67 hours, while among PGF2α injected fishes were the same. Furthermore, count of ovulated eggs from PGF2α induced broodstocks were higher than control P1, and the highest (2,860 eggs was obtained in treatment 0.9 mL/kg. Thus, PGF2α at dose of 0.9 mL/kg can be used to induce eggs ovulation of snakehead fish and to increase count of ovulated eggs. Keywords: PGF2α, ovulation time, ovulated eggs count, Channa striata  ABSTRAK Ikan gabus Channa striata merupakan salah satu komoditas air tawar yang mempunyai nilai ekonomi tinggi. Saat ini, pemenuhan kebutuhan hanya bergantung pada hasil penangkapan di alam. Cara pemijahan buatan dengan induksi hormon biasanya digunakan untuk efisiensi penggunaan induk serta peningkatan kualitas dan kuantitas benih ikan yang dihasilkan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji efektivitas hormon prostaglandin 2α (PGF2α terhadap waktu ovulasi dan jumlah telur ikan gabus yang diovulasikan. Penelitian ini menggunakan induk ikan gabus berukuran 30–40 cm dengan bobot

  7. Variation in faecal water content may confound estimates of gastro-intestinal parasite intensity in wild African herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, W C; Cizauskas, C A; Getz, W M

    2010-03-01

    Estimates of parasite intensity within host populations are essential for many studies of host-parasite relationships. Here we evaluated the seasonal, age- and sex-related variability in faecal water content for two wild ungulate species, springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) and plains zebra (Equus quagga). We then assessed whether or not faecal water content biased conclusions regarding differences in strongyle infection rates by season, age or sex. There was evidence of significant variation in faecal water content by season and age for both species, and by sex in springbok. Analyses of faecal egg counts demonstrated that sex was a near-significant factor in explaining variation in strongyle parasite infection rates in zebra (P = 0.055) and springbok (P = 0.052) using wet-weight faecal samples. However, once these intensity estimates were re-scaled by the percent of dry matter in the faeces, sex was no longer a significant factor (zebra, P = 0.268; springbok, P = 0.234). These results demonstrate that variation in faecal water content may confound analyses and could produce spurious conclusions, as was the case with host sex as a factor in the analysis. We thus recommend that researchers assess whether water variation could be a confounding factor when designing and performing research using faecal indices of parasite intensity.

  8. Evaluation of accuracy and precision of a smartphone based automated parasite egg counting system in comparison to the McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scare, J A; Slusarewicz, P; Noel, M L; Wielgus, K M; Nielsen, M K

    2017-11-30

    Fecal egg counts are emphasized for guiding equine helminth parasite control regimens due to the rise of anthelmintic resistance. This, however, poses further challenges, since egg counting results are prone to issues such as operator dependency, method variability, equipment requirements, and time commitment. The use of image analysis software for performing fecal egg counts is promoted in recent studies to reduce the operator dependency associated with manual counts. In an attempt to remove operator dependency associated with current methods, we developed a diagnostic system that utilizes a smartphone and employs image analysis to generate automated egg counts. The aims of this study were (1) to determine precision of the first smartphone prototype, the modified McMaster and ImageJ; (2) to determine precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the second smartphone prototype, the modified McMaster, and Mini-FLOTAC techniques. Repeated counts on fecal samples naturally infected with equine strongyle eggs were performed using each technique to evaluate precision. Triplicate counts on 36 egg count negative samples and 36 samples spiked with strongyle eggs at 5, 50, 500, and 1000 eggs per gram were performed using a second smartphone system prototype, Mini-FLOTAC, and McMaster to determine technique accuracy. Precision across the techniques was evaluated using the coefficient of variation. In regards to the first aim of the study, the McMaster technique performed with significantly less variance than the first smartphone prototype and ImageJ (psmartphone and ImageJ performed with equal variance. In regards to the second aim of the study, the second smartphone system prototype had significantly better precision than the McMaster (psmartphone system were 64.51%, 21.67%, and 32.53%, respectively. The Mini-FLOTAC was significantly more accurate than the McMaster (psmartphone system (psmartphone and McMaster counts did not have statistically different accuracies

  9. The effect of Enterococcus faecium M74 feed additive on the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases/AmpC-positive Escherichia coli faecal counts in pre-weaned dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šmídková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and/or AmpC-positive Escherichia coli among different species of food producing animals poses a threat to public health. The animal gut plays a key role in the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria, allowing the selection, multiplication and subsequent contamination of the farm environment. However, applicable procedures for reducing such bacteria on farms are currently unavailable. The present study was aimed to determine whether a probiotic administration to new-born dairy calves would reduce faecal shedding of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and/or AmpC-positive Escherichia coli during the pre-weaning period. Ten randomly assigned new-born Holstein calves on a dairy farm with recent evidence of high occurrence of AmpC-positive Escherichia coli among calves were treated by a probiotic mix within 12 h after birth. Nine control calves were not treated. Faecal samples were collected from each calf daily on days 2 through 5, and then on days 7, 10, and 14. The faecal samples were cultured, and the mean numbers of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli and confirmed enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were compared between the two groups. Results suggested that the Enterococcus faecium probiotic treatment (Enterococcus faecium M74, NCIMB 11181 of new-born calves did not reduce the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli counts in their faeces. There was no significant difference in the shedding of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli between the probiotic-treated and control calves throughout the two-week study period.

  10. The Effect of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin on Faecal Bacterial Counts and Microbiota-Associated Characteristics in Celiac Disease Children Following a Gluten-Free Diet: Results of a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarocka-Cyrta, Elżbieta; Markiewicz, Lidia Hanna

    2018-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is associated with intestinal microbiota alterations. The administration of prebiotics could be a promising method of restoring gut homeostasis in CD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1) administration on the characteristics and metabolism of intestinal microbiota in CD children following a gluten-free diet (GFD). Thirty-four paediatric CD patients (mean age 10 years; 62% females) on a GFD were randomized into two experimental groups receiving Synergy 1 (10 g/day) or placebo (maltodextrin; 7 g/day) for 3 months. The quantitative gut microbiota characteristics and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration were analysed. In addition, side effects were monitored. Generally, the administration of Synergy 1 in a GFD did not cause any side effects. After the intervention period, Bifidobacterium count increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the Synergy 1 group. Moreover, an increase in faecal acetate and butyrate levels was observed in the prebiotic group. Consequently, total SCFA levels were 31% higher than at the baseline. The presented trial shows that Synergy 1 applied as a supplement of a GFD had a moderate effect on the qualitative characteristics of faecal microbiota, whereas it stimulated the bacterial metabolite production in CD children. PMID:29439526

  11. The Effect of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin on Faecal Bacterial Counts and Microbiota-Associated Characteristics in Celiac Disease Children Following a Gluten-Free Diet: Results of a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabińska, Natalia; Jarocka-Cyrta, Elżbieta; Markiewicz, Lidia Hanna; Krupa-Kozak, Urszula

    2018-02-12

    Celiac disease (CD) is associated with intestinal microbiota alterations. The administration of prebiotics could be a promising method of restoring gut homeostasis in CD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1) administration on the characteristics and metabolism of intestinal microbiota in CD children following a gluten-free diet (GFD). Thirty-four paediatric CD patients (mean age 10 years; 62% females) on a GFD were randomized into two experimental groups receiving Synergy 1 (10 g/day) or placebo (maltodextrin; 7 g/day) for 3 months. The quantitative gut microbiota characteristics and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration were analysed. In addition, side effects were monitored. Generally, the administration of Synergy 1 in a GFD did not cause any side effects. After the intervention period, Bifidobacterium count increased significantly ( p < 0.05) in the Synergy 1 group. Moreover, an increase in faecal acetate and butyrate levels was observed in the prebiotic group. Consequently, total SCFA levels were 31% higher than at the baseline. The presented trial shows that Synergy 1 applied as a supplement of a GFD had a moderate effect on the qualitative characteristics of faecal microbiota, whereas it stimulated the bacterial metabolite production in CD children.

  12. Variability in the fecal egg count and the parasitic burden of hair sheep after grazing in nematode infected paddocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto González-Garduño

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the variability in the fecal egg count (FEC and the parasitic burden of naive hair sheep after grazing in nematode infected paddocks. The research was carried out in Tabasco, Mexico, during two periods (August and December. In each period 32 lambs were grazed for one month on African star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus contaminated with gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes. FEC, packed cell volume (PCV and body weight (BW were recorded. Gastrointestinal worms were recovered at necropsy. Data were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS using a model of repeated measurements over time. A higher number of Haemonchus contortus worms was found in December (2814±838 than in August (1166±305. The opposite occurred with Cooperia curticei (2167±393 and 3638±441, respectively. The FEC and correlation coefficient in respect to the worm burden were higher in December (6516 ± 1599, r=0.83, respectively than in August (4364±771, r=0.44, respectively. A high variability in resistance-susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN occurred in Katahdin × Pelibuey lambs after grazing.

  13. The effects of protein dietary supplementation on fecal egg counts and hematological parameters in goat kids with subclinical nematodosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konwar, Priyanka; Tiwari, S P; Gohain, M; Kumari, Kiran

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with different levels of protein on fecal egg counts and hematological parameters in goat kids with subclinical nematodosis under semi-intensive condition. 20 goat kids (3-5 months old with an average body weight of 8.90 kg) were randomly allocated to four groups: T1, served as a negative control, without receiving concentrate feed, and T2, T3, and T4 that received concentrate feed containing 16, 20, and 24% digestible crude protein, respectively. The experiment was carried out for 60 days. In this study, protein supplementation had a significant (psupplementation, whereas monocyte (%) and neutrophil (%) values were not significantly influenced by protein supplementation effect during the entire experiment. The values of mean corpuscular volume (fl) were affected significantly (pprotein supplementation after 30 days, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) (pg) after 45 days, but MCH concentration (g/dl) was not significantly different among the experimental groups during the entire experiment. The dietary supplementation with different levels of protein significantly improved the hematological profiles and inhibited the nematodosis infection in the experimental goat kids.

  14. Investigation of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) cultivar differences on nitrogen balance and fecal egg count in artificially infected lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuhnwi, B N; Hertzberg, H; Arrigo, Y; Gutzwiller, A; Hess, H D; Mueller-Harvey, I; Torgerson, P R; Kreuzer, M; Dohme-Meier, F

    2013-05-01

    Research in ruminant nutrition and helminth control with forages, which contain condensed tannins (CT), suggests that varying responses may depend not only on CT concentration but also on CT composition. An experiment was designed to test this by feeding 2 dried sainfoin cultivars (Visnovsky and Perly), which differed in CT properties, to lambs that were artificially infected with the abomasal blood-sucking nematode Haemonchus contortus. Twenty-four infected lambs received 1 of these 2 cultivars; the feeds were either untreated or treated with the CT-binding polyethylene glycol over 4 wk (n = 6). The 2 cultivars were also fed to 2 × 6 uninfected lambs. Nutrient digestibility, N balance, ADG, plasma urea, together with indicators of infection [fecal egg count (FEC), abomasal worm count, per capita female fecundity, erythrocytic indices, and serum protein], were determined. The specific effects of sainfoin cultivar, CT, and infection were evaluated by contrast analysis. Digestibility of both NDF and ADF were less (P < 0.001) with Perly compared with Visnovsky. The apparent nutrient digestibility was reduced (P < 0.001) by CT. However, no clear cultivar effects were evident on N excretion and retention. Condensed tannins reduced (P = 0.05) body N retention and shifted (P < 0.001) N excretion from urine to feces. Unlike cultivar and CT, infection decreased (P = 0.002) ADG. Plasma urea concentration was decreased (P = 0.007) in Perly- compared with Visnovsky-fed lambs and was decreased (P < 0.001) by CT. Plasma concentrations of essential and semiessential AA were increased (P < 0.001) by CT. The groups of infected lambs did not clearly differ in abomasal worm counts and erythrocytic indicators. In the last 2 to 3 wk of the experiment, FEC was decreased (P ≤ 0.01) when feeding CT. The lack of substantial cultivar effects suggests that the differences in CT properties may have been too small to result in nutritional and anthelmintic effects. The present results

  15. Candidate gene approach for parasite resistance in sheep--variation in immune pathway genes and association with fecal egg count.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathiravan Periasamy

    Full Text Available Sheep chromosome 3 (Oar3 has the largest number of QTLs reported to be significantly associated with resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes. This study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within candidate genes located in sheep chromosome 3 as well as genes involved in major immune pathways. A total of 41 SNPs were identified across 38 candidate genes in a panel of unrelated sheep and genotyped in 713 animals belonging to 22 breeds across Asia, Europe and South America. The variations and evolution of immune pathway genes were assessed in sheep populations across these macro-environmental regions that significantly differ in the diversity and load of pathogens. The mean minor allele frequency (MAF did not vary between Asian and European sheep reflecting the absence of ascertainment bias. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major clusters with most of South Asian, South East Asian and South West Asian breeds clustering together while European and South American sheep breeds clustered together distinctly. Analysis of molecular variance revealed strong phylogeographic structure at loci located in immune pathway genes, unlike microsatellite and genome wide SNP markers. To understand the influence of natural selection processes, SNP loci located in chromosome 3 were utilized to reconstruct haplotypes, the diversity of which showed significant deviations from selective neutrality. Reduced Median network of reconstructed haplotypes showed balancing selection in force at these loci. Preliminary association of SNP genotypes with phenotypes recorded 42 days post challenge revealed significant differences (P<0.05 in fecal egg count, body weight change and packed cell volume at two, four and six SNP loci respectively. In conclusion, the present study reports strong phylogeographic structure and balancing selection operating at SNP loci located within immune pathway genes. Further, SNP loci identified in the study were found to have

  16. Faecal helminth egg and oocyst counts of a small population of African lions (Panthera leo in the southwestern Kalahari, Namibia : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Smith

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An endoparasite survey of a small pride of African lions (Panthera leo was conducted at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, southwestern Namibia, during winter and summer of 2003 and 2004, respectively. Overall, 23 fresh lion scats were collected opportunistically during fieldwork trials. A flotation technique was employed for the diagnosis of parasites. Three nematodes, Ancylostoma braziliense, Gnathostoma spinigerum and Uncinaria stenocephala and two coccidians, Toxoplasma gondii and Isospora felis were recorded. By using the McMaster method for quantification, a maximum number of 14 866 oocysts per gram of faeces was obtained for I. felis during winter 2003. Endoparasite taxa carried by the different individuals in the pride were found to be related to their levels of association. Rates of infection were relatively low as a result of the habitat, semi-captive conditions and earlier sporadic deworming.

  17. Efficacy of ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Denmark evaluated by different methods for analysis of faecal egg count reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Denwood, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    when FEC aggregation increased post-treatment and suggested that a treatment group of 10 animals is insufficient for the FECRT in cattle. This is the first report of reduced anthelmintic efficacy in Danish cattle and warrants the implementation of larger surveys. Advantages and caveats regarding...

  18. Bovine fasciolosis: prevalence, relationship between faecal egg count and worm burden and its economic impact due to liver condemnation at Rudsar abattoir, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radfar, Mohammad Hossein; Nourollahi-Fard, Saeid Reza; Mohammadyari, Naser

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica, the economic losses from liver condemnation and the relationship between burden of F. hepatica in liver and EPG of F. hepatica in Rudsar city (north of Iran). Between May 2011 and May 2012, a total of 680 slaughtered cattle were examined for the presence of F. hepatica in the liver. Data collected were analyzed by the sex, age, season and breed of the animals. In this study 137 cattle (20.14 %) were found to be positive for F. hepatica. The mean fluke burden in the affected livers was 14 ± 2 flukes per liver. There were no seasonal and age-related differences (P > 0.05) in prevalence of F. hepatica, but there was a statistically significant association (P 30 worms/liver. In this groups (A-C) EPG of F. hepatica was 156, 240 and 620 respectively. There was a strong relationship between EPG and burden of worm in the liver.

  19. Novel insights in the fecal egg count reduction test for monitoring drug efficacy against soil-transmitted helminths in large-scale treatment programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Levecke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT is recommended to monitor drug efficacy against soil-transmitted helminths (STHs in public health. However, the impact of factors inherent to study design (sample size and detection limit of the fecal egg count (FEC method and host-parasite interactions (mean baseline FEC and aggregation of FEC across host population on the reliability of FECRT is poorly understood.A simulation study was performed in which FECRT was assessed under varying conditions of the aforementioned factors. Classification trees were built to explore critical values for these factors required to obtain conclusive FECRT results. The outcome of this analysis was subsequently validated on five efficacy trials across Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Unsatisfactory (<85.0% sensitivity and specificity results to detect reduced efficacy were found if sample sizes were small (<10 or if sample sizes were moderate (10-49 combined with highly aggregated FEC (k<0.25. FECRT remained inconclusive under any evaluated condition for drug efficacies ranging from 87.5% to 92.5% for a reduced-efficacy-threshold of 90% and from 92.5% to 97.5% for a threshold of 95%. The most discriminatory study design required 200 subjects independent of STH status (including subjects who are not excreting eggs. For this sample size, the detection limit of the FEC method and the level of aggregation of the FEC did not affect the interpretation of the FECRT. Only for a threshold of 90%, mean baseline FEC <150 eggs per gram of stool led to a reduced discriminatory power.This study confirms that the interpretation of FECRT is affected by a complex interplay of factors inherent to both study design and host-parasite interactions. The results also highlight that revision of the current World Health Organization guidelines to monitor drug efficacy is indicated. We, therefore, propose novel guidelines to support future monitoring programs.

  20. Canine faecal contamination and parasitic risk in the city of Naples (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneziano Vincenzo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs are associated with more than 60 zoonotic diseases among which, parasitosis and, in particular, helminthosis, can pose serious public-health concerns worldwide. Many canine gastrointestinal parasites eliminate their dispersion elements (eggs, larvae, oocysts by the faecal route. The quantity of canine faeces deposited on public and private property in cities worldwide is both a perennial nuisance and an important health issue. Public sites such as playgrounds, parks, gardens, public squares and sandpits may be an important source of human infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of both canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy, and presence of canine parasitic elements, with particular regard to those which are potential agents of zoonosis. A regular grid of sub-areas (1 km × 700 m was overlaid on the city map using a Geographical Information System (GIS. In each sub-area the straightest 1 km transect was drawn and digitalized on-screen in the GIS. Between February and May 2005 canine faeces were counted along the 1 km transects in 143 sub-areas, and 415 canine faecal samples were collected and submitted to coprological examinations. Negative binomial regression models and Gaussian random effects models were used to analyze the association between faeces count and human population density taking into account for extraPoisson variability. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between positivity to parasitic elements and number of canine faeces. Results Out of the 143 studied sub-areas, 141 (98.6% contained canine faeces. There was a strong spatial gradient with 48% of the total variability accounted by between neighbourhood variability; a positive association between the number of faeces and the human population density was found. Seventy (over 415, 16.9% canine faecal samples were positive for parasitic elements. There was no association between

  1. Biogeography of key mesozooplankton species in the North Atlantic, by manual counting methods, and egg production of Calanus finmarchicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, W.; Runge, J. A.; Head, E.

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a new, pan-Atlantic compilation of data on key mesozooplankton species, including the possibly most important copepod, Calanus finmarchicus. Distributional data of ten representative zooplankton taxa, from recent (2000–2009) Continuous Plankton Recorder data, are presented, along...... with basin-scale data of the phytoplankton colour index. Then we present a compilation of data on C. finmarchicus including observations of abundance, demography, egg production and female size with accompanying data on temperature and chlorophyll. This is a contribution by Canadian, European and US...... scientists and their institutions. http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.820732, http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.824423, http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.828393....

  2. Management of faecal incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinane, John; Crone, Rosie

    2018-01-01

    Faecal incontinence significantly affects a patient's quality of life, and limited research has been conducted into effective interventions that are specific to residential aged care. Australian and New Zealand prevalence data indicate a general faecal incontinence rate of 12-13% in older adults and up to 50% in residential aged care. The objective of this article is to describe the suggested initial investigation and management of faecal incontinence in older adults residing in residential aged care. Discussion of invasive management strategies is outside the scope of this article. Faecal incontinence is difficult to treat and there is limited evidence to support any treatment beyond three to six months. However, recognition remains the major barrier to treatment with non-invasive interventions that are available to reduce episode frequency and prevent complications. A combination of exercise programs and integrated continence care in residential aged care may provide significant benefit if there are sufficient staffing resources available.  .

  3. Faecal microbiota transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Simon M D; Hansen, Mette Mejlby; Erikstrup, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently being established as a second-line treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. FMT is further being considered for other infectious and inflammatory conditions. Safe and reproducible methods for donor screening, laborat......BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently being established as a second-line treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. FMT is further being considered for other infectious and inflammatory conditions. Safe and reproducible methods for donor screening...

  4. New technologies to enhance quality and safety of table eggs: ultra-violet treatment and modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Pasquali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of ultra-violet (UV treatment alone and in combination with 100% CO2 modified atmosphere packaging (MAP was evaluated both on the survival of naturally occurring bacteria, as well as on quality parameters of table eggs during 28 days of storage at 21°C. Table eggs were collected from the conveyor belt after the UV module, and placed on carton trays. A representative number of carton trays were packed in a high barrier multilayer pouch filled with 100% CO2. All eggs were stored at 21°C and analysed at 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Eggs not treated with UV and not packed were also included. On the eggshells total colony count, total coliforms and faecal coliforms counts, as well as the detection of Salmonella spp. were investigated. Moreover, chemical-functional parameters such as weight loss, albumen pH and Haugh Unit (HU were evaluated. The total colony count on UV treated table eggs was approximately 1 log10 CFU/g lower than untreated eggs (2.27 vs 3.29 log10 CFU/g. During storage, CO2 packed eggs maintained the initial values of HU, whereas the albumen pH decreased up to 1.5-2 points in comparison to unpacked eggs. The UV treatment was effective in reducing the total colony count on the surface of table eggs. MAP showed a great potential in maintaining/enhance the technological properties of egg constituents (higher foam stability of the albumen for meringue preparation without significantly impacting on the microbial load of table eggs.

  5. Quantification of Eimeria acervulina in faeces of broilers: Comparison of McMaster oocyst counts from 24 h faecal collections and single droppings to real-time PCR from cloacal swabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F.C.; Blake, D.P.; Graat, E.A.M.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Bouma, A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Coccidiosis is an economically important disease in chickens, caused by infection with Eimeria species parasites. Diagnosis of coccidiosis is frequently based on oocyst enumeration in pooled faecal samples or litter. In studies on infection dynamics and for monitoring in the field, samples from

  6. Survival of faecal coliforms and hygiene risks in soils treated with municipal sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y H; Luo, Y M; Wu, L H; Li, Z G; Song, J; Christie, P

    2006-01-01

    An incubation experiment was conducted to monitor effect of sewage sludge application on changes in numbers of faecal coliforms in soils over time after sludge application and evaluate the hygiene risks. Soil faecal coliform counts were made after 1, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 84 days of incubation. The faecal coliform counts in the sludge-treated soils decreased substantially with time and were similar to those in the untreated controls after incubation for 56 days. Land application of air-dried sludges increased the hygiene risks due to the re-growth of faecal coliforms, and the counts of faecal coliforms in soil treated with air dried sludge from Suzhou (91% DM) were 50 times higher than in soils with fresh dewatered sludge from Suzhou (15% DM) after 7 days of incubation. The main factors affecting the changes in faecal coliform counts were sludge type and incubation time. Sludge type determined the faecal coliform counts and the ability of the faecal coliforms to re-establish, and indigenous microorganisms competed with the faecal coliforms for nutrients during the incubation process.

  7. Strongyle egg reappearance period after moxidectin treatment and its relationship with management factors in UK equine populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzelos, Thomas; Barbeito, Jessica S G; Nielsen, Martin K; Morgan, Eric R; Hodgkinson, Jane E; Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2017-04-15

    Parasitic nematodes, particularly cyathostomins, are ubiquitous in grazing horses world-wide. Considerable burdens of cyathostomin larvae can encyst in the large intestinal wall. The most recommended treatment against these pathogenic stages is moxidectin. Information is required on how effective moxidectin is against cyathostomin populations in different regions. The objectives here were to determine the efficacy of moxidectin treatment and estimate the strongyle egg reappearance period (ERP) after treatment in several equine populations, to confirm the type of strongyle nematodes present and to identify other (i.e. management) factors associated with shortened ERP. Eight yards were recruited and moxidectin in combination with praziquantel administered to all horses (n=261). Faecal egg count (FEC) analysis was performed at weeks 0, 2, 6, 10 and 12 after treatment to determine efficacy and ERP. The ERP was estimated using two previously published methods. Morphological identification of cultured third stage larvae from the sample population was compared to a Strongylus vulgaris-specific end-point PCR to examine the presence of S. vulgaris in samples before and after treatment. Strongyle egg shedding patterns were also compared to worm management practices at each site. At 2 weeks post-treatment, moxidectin was highly effective (faecal egg count reduction range, 99.9-100%). The strongyle ERP ranged from 6 weeks to >12 weeks depending on the calculation method applied. Only cyathostomin larvae were detected by morphological identification. The results from the coprocultures and PCR showed that S. vulgaris was absent before and after treatment. Analysis revealed that regular faecal removal from pasture was associated with lower average FEC and lower prevalence of egg shedding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using three different faecal occult blood tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB. The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC. A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest® and Multistix®, blood for packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC, and FAMACHA© for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC. Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA© score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix® test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA© and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC.

  9. Factors governing the removal of faecal indicator bacteria in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistence of faecal coliforms, presumptive Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at three stations in Lake Timsah were investigated in 2010. Samples were collected by day and at night. Bacterial counts were highest at the outlet of wastewater discharged into the lake (Station 1). As wastewater mixed with the lake ...

  10. PHYSIOTHERAPY MANAGEMENT OF FAECAL IMPACTION:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.MrsOdebode

    this condition. KEY WORDS: faecal impaction, megacolon, modified passive mobilization, abdominal distention. INTRODUCTION. Faecal impaction is a large mass of dry, hard stool that accumulates in the rectum due to unresolved constipation (Creason and Sparks, 2000). The dryness of the mass makes it very difficult to ...

  11. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Egg Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Egg Allergy What's in this ... it's worth it. What Happens With an Egg Allergy? Eggs aren't bad. But when you're ...

  12. Faecal incontinence in myotonic dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Abercrombie, J; Rogers, J; Swash, M

    1998-01-01

    Two siblings with myotonic dystrophy presented for treatment of faecal incontinence. The pathophysiology of this functional disorder is described with the results of anorectal manometry, EMG, and biopsy of smooth and striated muscle of the anorectal sphincters. Both medical and surgical management of the incontinence was unsatisfactory in the long term. Involvement of gastrointestinal musculature is a characteristic feature the disease.



  13. Interpreting faecal analysis results for monitoring exposure to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berard, P.; Rongier, E.; Faure, M.L.; Auriol, B.; Estrabaud, M.; Mazeyrat, C.

    1996-01-01

    Radiotoxicological monitoring of workers exposed to non-transferable forms of uranium requires six-monthly examinations. These examinations are prescribed according to the kind of product manipulated and tO the industrial risk attached to the workplace. The range of examinations that are useful for this kind of monitoring includes whole body counting examinations, urine analyses and in-line faecal sampling: whole body examinations, which are fundamental to monitoring, provide a lung retention value. However, the detection limit of lung examinations is not low enough for chronic operational monitoring; urine examinations are extremely sensitive to alpha activity (1 mBq per isotope) but the fraction detected in the urine after incorporation by inhalation is very small; in-line 24-hour faecal sampling allows avoiding any workplace exclusion. The authors intend to present their experience acquired over a six year period in the field of systematic faecal examinations after chronic inhalation of the different uranium compounds. They also present results of a study carried out to determine normal uranium concentrations in the faeces of a non-exposed population, the uranium content in drinking waters and the consequences on faecal excretion. Establishing the isotopic content of uranium in the faeces makes it possible to determine practical investigation levels for occupational monitoring. Even if faecal sampling may be critically perceived by the personnel, the authors' experience highlights the value of this kind of analysis which allows to track down the industrial reality of the exposure. Internal dosimetry calculations cannot, however, be carried out, because the physical parameters of the inhaled aerosols are not always known. (author)

  14. Why do patients with faecal impaction have faecal incontinence.

    OpenAIRE

    Read, N W; Abouzekry, L

    1986-01-01

    To elucidate the phenomenon of faecal incontinence in impacted patients, manometric, radiological and other investigations were carried out in 55 elderly patients, who had impacted masses of faeces in the rectum and were incontinent of faeces and 36 elderly control subjects with no anorectal problems. Maximum basal pressure and the maximum squeeze pressure in impacted patients were not significantly different from elderly controls. Sphincter pressures were no different after disimpaction than...

  15. Fasciola hepatica: Specificity of a coproantigen ELISA test for diagnosis of fasciolosis in faecal samples from cattle and sheep concurrently infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidians and/or rumen flukes (paramphistomes), under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajugu, P-E; Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W; McMahon, C; Cooper, M; Gordon, A; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-09-15

    Chronic fasciolosis is often diagnosed by faecal egg counting (FEC), following concentration of the eggs in the sample by a zinc sulphate floatation method. However, concentration by a sedimentation technique gives improved sensitivity. Interpretation of FEC results for fasciolosis is complicated by factors such as the long pre-patent period and irregular egg shedding. Thus, FEC reduction tests (FECRT), when used alone, are not completely reliable for diagnosis of anthelmintic susceptibility or resistance in local fluke populations, especially when parasite burdens are small. A Fasciola hepatica coproantigen ELISA test has been introduced which more accurately reflects the presence of flukes in the host bile ducts in late pre-patent infections, and absence of flukes following successful chemotherapeutic intervention. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the specificity of the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA technique, particularly regarding potential cross-reactivity with rumen fluke (paramphistome), gastrointestinal nematode and coccidian infections. The method involved parallel testing of a large battery of faecal samples from field-infected cattle and sheep using floatation and sedimentation FECs and coproantigen analysis. No evidence was found for significant false positivity in the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA due to paramphistome, coccidian and/or gastrointestinal nematode co-infections. With sedimentation FECs less than 10 F. hepatica eggs per gram (epg), the likelihood of a positive coproantigen result for the sample progressively decreased. Diagnosis of fasciolosis should be based on consideration of both FEC and coproantigen ELISA findings, to ensure optimum sensitivity for pre-patent and low-level infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Postanal repair for faecal incontinence.

    OpenAIRE

    Keighley, M R

    1984-01-01

    Between 1977 and 1983, 105 patients had a postanal repair for the treatment of faecal incontinence. All except 8 patients were women. The principal reasons for operation were: persistent incontinence after rectopexy (n = 25), obstetric trauma (n = 18), anal dilatation (n = 12) and pelvic floor neuropathy (n = 41). One patient died after operation. Of 89 patients followed up for at least six months after operation, 56 (63%) have complete control of faeces and flatus, but 19 have control of sol...

  17. Plugs for containing faecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutekom, Marije; Dobben, Annette C

    2015-07-20

    Faecal incontinence is a distressing disorder with high social stigma. Not all people with faecal incontinence can be cured with conservative or surgical treatment and they may need to rely on containment products, such as anal plugs. To assess the performance of different types of anal plugs for containment of faecal incontinence. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization (WHO) ICTRP and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings (searched 26 May 2015). Reference lists of identified trials were searched and plug manufacturers were contacted for trials. No language or other limitations were imposed. Types of studies: this review was limited to randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials (including crossovers) of anal plug use for the management of faecal incontinence. children and adults with faecal incontinence.Types of interventions: any type of anal plug. Comparison interventions might include no treatment, conservative (physical) treatments, nutritional interventions, surgery, pads and other types or sizes of plugs. Two reviewers independently assessed methodological quality and extracted data from the included trials. Authors of all included trials were contacted for clarification concerning methodological issues. Four studies with a total of 136 participants were included. Two studies compared the use of plugs versus no plugs, one study compared two sizes of the same brand of plug, and one study compared two brands of plugs. In all included studies there was considerable dropout (in total 48 (35%) dropped out before the end of the study) for varying reasons. Data presented are thus subject to potential bias. 'Pseudo-continence' was, however, achieved by some of those who continued to use plugs, at least in the short-term. In a comparison of two

  18. essential oil as hatching egg disinfectant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... 1.36 b. 1.13 b. LSD (0.05). 0.12. 0.18. * = Counts expressed as logarithms (base 10) of number per egg; ** = Microbial count of oregano essential oil is the mean of 2 treatment doses. Table 3. Anti-microbial effect of oregano essential oil dose and exposure time on the microbial count of hatching egg surface ...

  19. Validation and comparison of methods for enumeration of faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in bivalve molluscs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; Poelman M; Stegeman H; Warmerdam C; Teunis PFM; Roda Husman AM de; RIKILT; MGB

    2007-01-01

    The main result of the validation study to show the equivalence of two methods for the enumeration of faecal coliforms in bivalve molluscs is that the plate count method on Mac Conkey agar was indeed found to be equivalent to the MPN method. Meaning that the Netherlands fulfilled the demands as

  20. Seasonal and spatio-temporal distribution of faecal-indicator bacteria in Tyume River in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Timothy; Chigor, Vincent N; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-08-01

    We assessed the incidence of faecal-indicator bacteria in Tyume River over a 12-month period between August 2010 and July 2011. Total coliforms, faecal coliforms and enterococci were determined by the membrane filtration method. Total coliforms were detected in counts ranging from 2.1 × 10(2) to 3.4 × 10(4) CFU/100 ml. Faecal coliform counts ranged from 1 × 10(2) to 1.6 × 10(4) CFU/100 ml while enterococci counts were in the range of 3.3 × 10(1) to 5.1 × 10(3) CFU/100 ml. Indicator bacteria counts increased from upstream to downstream sampling sites. Counts of indicator bacteria at all sites were significantly affected by seasonal changes. The bacteriological qualities of the river water were poor, exceeding the guideline of 200 CFU/100 ml and 33 CFU/100 ml for faecal coliforms and enterococci, respectively, for recreational water. Faecal coliform counts also exceeded the 1,000 CFU/100 ml guideline for water used in fresh produce irrigation. Microbial source tracking results showed that faecal pollution was predominantly of human origin during spring at all sampling sites. During other seasons, human faecal pollution was largely confined to midstream and downstream sampling sites. Generally, the presence of faecal-indicator bacteria in the river water samples suggests faecal pollution of this freshwater resource, raising the possibility of the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the water and a threat to public health.

  1. Performance and egg quality characteristics of egg-type chickens as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and egg quality characteristics of egg-type chickens as influenced by fluted pumpkin ( Telfaria occidentalis ) leaf extract. ... However results for Red blood cell count (RBC) and White blood cell count (WBC) and differential were increased with FPLE intake with birds administered 120ml/litre of FPLE having the ...

  2. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, Christy A.; Elliott, John E.; Ormerod, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in δ 13 C (C. cinclus) or δ 15 N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  3. Suitability of total coliform â-d-galactosidase activity and CFU counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total coliforms are a group of bacteria found in high numbers in mammalian intestines; hence their presence in water indicates the possible contamination with faecal material. Total and faecal coliform counts were monitored over a period of 18 months using mFC, m-Endo and CM1046 media together with enzymatic ...

  4. Monitoring bacterial faecal contamination in waters using multiplex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring of sanitary quality or faecal pollution in water is currently based on quantifying some bacterial indicators such as Escherichia coli and faecal enterococci. Using a multiplex real-time PCR assay for faecal enterococci and Bacteroides spp., the detection of faecal contamination in non-treated water can be done in a ...

  5. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  6. Seal Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of seal counts from aerial photography. Counts by image, site, species, and date are stored in the database along with information on entanglements and...

  7. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have egg allergy: albumin globulin livetin lysozyme ovalbumin ovoglobulin ovomucin ovomucoid ovotransferrin ovovitella ovovitellin silici ... want to make sure you're still getting protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, ...

  8. Faecal Endotoxin in Human Volunteers: Normal Values

    OpenAIRE

    Van Saene, J. J. M.; Stoutenbeek, C. P.; Van Saene, H. K. F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study measuring endotoxin levels in faeces of healthy adults using the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) microassay. Data showed mean faecal endotoxin levels of 1 mg (range 0.01-100 mg) per gram of faeces. No correlation was found with the concentration of Enterobacteriaceae in faeces and free Faecal endotoxin levels.Keywords: Endotoxin; LAL micro-assay; LPS; Faeccs; Human volunteers: Enterobacteriaceae.

  9. [Faecal incontinence - serious medical and social issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihnát, Peter; Kozáková, Radka; Vávra, Petr; Pelikán, Anton; Zonča, Pavel

    Faecal incontinence presents gastrointestinal disorder with high prevalence (more than 2% of population) and serious impact on the quality of life. General practitioners, gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons play the principal role in screening, diagnostics and providing health care to patients who suffer from faecal incontinence. Insufficient knowledge about faecal incontinence and minimal training aimed at its diagnostics and therapy lead to the low quality of provided health care.Authors offer comprehensive up-to-date review focused on faecal incontinence - its definition, prevalence, seriousness, consequences, pathophysiology, diagnostics and management. Detailed anatomical and physiological assessment of each patient is fundamental in determining correct cause of faecal incontinence and consequent selection of the most appropriate therapeutic modality.Broad spectrum of available therapeutic options comprises conservative management (lifestyle modification, diet, medications, and absorbent tools), biofeedback and surgical interventions (sphincter augmentation, sphincter reconstruction, sacral nerve stimulation, sphincter substitution and stools diversion). Application of the most appropriate treatment can lead in majority of patients to significant improvement in faecal incontinence and quality of life. Early diagnosis prevents possible complications, which would possibly deteriorate patients quality of life.

  10. Parasitology and urban livestock farming in Nigeria : prevalence of ova in faecal and soil samples and animal ectoparasites in Makurdi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Omudu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Domestic environmental pollution resulting from urban livestock farming was investigated in Makurdi using parasitological techniques. The test tube flotation technique was used for the parasitological analysis of animal faecal matter and soil samples collected from residential premises. Ectoparasitic fauna of dogs, goats, sheep and cattle cohabiting with humans within the same residential compound were also collected and identified. The hand-picking and body brushing methods were employed to search for ticks, fleas, lice and mites. Of the 150 soil samples examined, 55 (36.7 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. There was no significant difference in the distribution of eggs in the soil samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=0.046, df=2, P>0.05. Ascaris species were the dominant parasite eggs found. Of the 180 faecal samples examined, 107 (59.4 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. Chi-square analysis showed no significant difference in the level of infection of different animal faeces sampled (c2=5.74, df=4, P>0.05. Ascaris species were again the dominating helminth parasite eggs found. There was also no significant difference in the prevalence of helminth eggs in the animal faecal samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=5.99, df=4, P>0.05. A total of 1908 ectoparasites was recovered (ticks: 32.80 %; lice: 22.43 %; fleas: 22.06% and mite: 22.69 %. There was no significant difference in infestation animals between sexes (c2=0.10, df=4, P>0.05. The predominant genus encountered for ticks were Amblyomma, while Linognathus (43.90%, Ctenocephalides (97.38% and Sarcoptes (58.89 % were most predominant for lice, fleas and mites respectively. The public health implications of the findings, especially as these relate to the increasing incidence and prevalence of zoonotic infections, are discussed.

  11. Microbial quality and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Mahdavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was undertaken to determine the microbial quality and the prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in table eggs in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 525 samples were randomly collected from various shops in Isfahan, Iran. Microbial quality of eggs evaluated by coliform count and total bacterial viable counts. Also, detection of Listeria and Salmonella in egg contents and on eggs shells was performed. Results: The mean of total viable bacteria and coliform counts in the egg contents were 3.95 × 10 4 CFU/g and 4.94 × 10 3 CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria were not found on the shell or content of eggs. Enterobacteriaceae families were found in 357 of 525 (68.28% and 276 of 525 (52.44% of egg shell and egg content samples, respectively. Moreover, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from 175 (33.41% and 144 (25.37% of egg shell and egg content, respectively. The isolated Enterobacteriaceae were included: Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Buttiauxella agrestis, Cedecea lapagei, Cedecea davisae and Erwinia herbicola. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate although Salmonella and Listeria were not found in egg samples; however, there is an urgent need to improve the hygienic level of consumed eggs.

  12. Contamination of faecal coliforms in ice cubes sampled from food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Izani, N J; Zulaikha, A R; Mohamad Noor, M R; Amri, M A; Mahat, N A

    2012-03-01

    The use of ice cubes in beverages is common among patrons of food outlets in Malaysia although its safety for human consumption remains unclear. Hence, this study was designed to determine the presence of faecal coliforms and several useful water physicochemical parameters viz. free residual chlorine concentration, turbidity and pH in ice cubes from 30 randomly selected food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. Faecal coliforms were found in ice cubes in 16 (53%) food outlets ranging between 1 CFU/100mL to >50 CFU/ 100mL, while in the remaining 14 (47%) food outlets, in samples of tap water as well as in commercially bottled drinking water, faecal coliforms were not detected. The highest faecal coliform counts of >50 CFU/100mL were observed in 3 (10%) food outlets followed by 11-50 CFU/100mL and 1-10 CFU/100mL in 7 (23%) and 6 (20%) food outlets, respectively. All samples recorded low free residual chlorine concentration (food outlets or (2) they may not be the water sources used for making ice cubes. Since low free residual chlorine concentrations were observed (food outlets, including that of ice cube is crucial in ensuring better food and water for human consumption.

  13. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  14. Heavy metal and faecal bacterial contamination of urban lakes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of faecal bacteria and heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Hg, Pb and Zn) were measured in fish, mud and water from two urban lakes in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The mean densities of faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS) in water were 6 160 ± 8 493CFU 100ml-1 and 387 ± 320CFU 100ml-1, respectively, ...

  15. Using faecal profiling to assess the effects of different management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used faecal profiling to assess diet quality of animals under three different management types in a semi-arid savanna, northwest of Kimberley, Northern Cape, South Africa. The levels of faecal crude protein (FCP) and faecal phosphorus (FP) of freeranging springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) and blue wildebeest ...

  16. DIAGNOSIS OF EGG MARKETING CONDITION IN SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells and internal content. Escherichia coli was isolated from the internal contents of eggs come from an street fair. In aerobic mesophilic counts were obtained from eggs supermarkets counts CFU/g/egg shell of 5,8 x 105, 1,21 x 105 e 4,7 x 103. In relation to the fairs, the counts were 7,2 x 104, 5,66 x 104 e 8,7 x 103. The absence of Salmonella spp. the evaluated eggs classifies them as fit for consumption for compliance with current legislation. However, the presence of E. coli and the values of aerobic mesophilic counts and Enterobacteriaceae highlight the need to establish measures to reduce bacterial contamination of shell eggs sold out at Sinop, MT.

  17. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Assessing the impact of egg sweating on Salmonella Enteritidis penetration into shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Janet A; Curtis, Patricia A; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2017-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevalence in eggs is a major concern to the egg industry. Some research has shown that egg sweating can increase Salmonella penetration into egg contents when refrigerated eggs are moved to a warmer temperature. This occurs when eggs are tempered before wash, to minimize thermal cracks. The effect of egg sweating on SE penetration into shell eggs over a 6 week storage period at 4°C was assessed. A 2 × 2 factorial of SE inoculation and egg sweating was utilized. Treatments included (SES) nalidixic acid (NA)-resistant SE inoculated and sweated, (SENS) NA-resistant SE inoculated and not sweated, (NSES) buffered peptone water (BPW) inoculated and sweated, and (NSENS) BPW inoculated and not sweated. Eggs were inoculated with 108 SE. Eggs formed condensation for approximately 17 min in a 32°C incubator. Shell rinse, shell emulsion, and egg contents were sampled then enumerated and assessed for prevalence of SE over a 6 wk storage period at 4°C. After wk 1, the SENS shell rinse had higher SE counts (0.32 log10 CFU/mL) than the other 3 treatments, where no SE was enumerated. A significant week by treatment interaction was found for the shell rinse SE detection (P shell rinse, shell emulsion, or egg contents. The SENS shell rinses had significantly higher SE prevalence than the SES rinses in weeks 1 (100% vs. 34.3%), 2 (57.6% vs. 22.2%), and 3 (38.2% vs. 11.1%) (P shell emulsion across treatment or week (P < 0.05). The decreasing trend of SE prevalence obtained over the study period indicate that refrigeration is effective at inhibiting SE growth. These results indicate that egg sweating occurring under common US egg handling practices is not harmful to egg safety. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Management of patients with faecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duelund-Jakobsen, Jakob; Worsoe, Jonas; Lundby, Lilli; Christensen, Peter; Krogh, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Faecal incontinence, defined as the involuntary loss of solid or liquid stool, is a common problem affecting 0.8-8.3% of the adult population. Individuals suffering from faecal incontinence often live a restricted life with reduced quality of life. The present paper is a clinically oriented review of the pathophysiology, evaluation and treatment of faecal incontinence. First-line therapy should be conservative and usually include dietary adjustments, fibre supplement, constipating agents or mini enemas. Biofeedback therapy to improve external anal sphincter function can be offered but the evidence for long-term effect is poor. There is good evidence that colonic irrigation can reduce symptoms and improve quality of life, especially in patients with neurogenic faecal incontinence. Surgical interventions should only be considered if conservative measures fail. Sacral nerve stimulation is a minimally invasive procedure with high rate of success. Advanced surgical procedures should be restricted to highly selected patients and only performed at specialist centres. A stoma should be considered if other treatment modalities fail.

  20. Systemic acupuncture in patients with faecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, J T Y; Agulhon, A M; Viani, F C; Viebig, R G

    2016-08-01

    Faecal incontinence is defined as the involuntary loss of intestinal contents (whether faeces or gas). Although it is not frequently reported, it does cause physical and psychological distress. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that the healthy human body is originally in a state of balanced energy (Qi) between Yin and Yang, and all disorders that occur in the body are explained by disruptions in this energy balance. Acupuncture is a valuable therapy and is used as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction. Data regarding faecal incontinence and acupuncture is scarce. This research describes the efficacy of using acupuncture in patients with faecal incontinence. Eighteen adults (2 men and 16 women) underwent acupuncture therapy with traditional acupuncture needles for 10 weeks. Before and after treatment, all patients completed a Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life (FIQL) survey and the incontinence intensity was assessed using a visual analogue scale. After 10 sessions of acupuncture, all patients reported an improvement, and the vast majority of patients showed statistically significant improvements in both tests. Therefore, evidence now shows that acupuncture can improve the quality of life of patients undergoing faecal incontinence treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Uncertainty on faecal analysis on dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juliao, Ligia M.Q.C.; Melo, Dunstana R.; Sousa, Wanderson de O.; Santos, Maristela S.; Fernandes, Paulo Cesar P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Salvador Allende s/n. Via 9, Recreio, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Monitoring programmes for internal dose assessment may need to have a combination of bioassay techniques, e.g. urine and faecal analysis, especially in workplaces where compounds of different solubilities are handled and also in cases of accidental intakes. Faecal analysis may be an important data for assessment of committed effective dose due to exposure to insoluble compounds, since the activity excreted by urine may not be detectable, unless a very sensitive measurement system is available. This paper discusses the variability of the daily faecal excretion based on data from just one daily collection; collection during three consecutive days: samples analysed individually and samples analysed as a pool. The results suggest that just 1 d collection is not appropriate for dose assessment, since the 24 h uranium excretion may vary by a factor of 40. On the basis of this analysis, the recommendation should be faecal collection during three consecutive days, and samples analysed as a pool, it is more economic and faster. (authors)

  2. Development of a faecal occult blood test to determine the severity of Haemonchus contortus infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Ian G; Le Jambre, Leo F

    2008-05-06

    Haemonchus contortus commences feeding on host blood by day 11 of infection, which leads to the presence of blood in the host's faeces. This study examined the capacity for a faecal occult blood (FOB) test to determine the severity of H. contortus infection in sheep at pasture, and to predict a rise in worm egg count (WEC) as infection matures. Diluted faeces were assayed with Bayer Hemastix and the change in colour of the reagent patch was scored on a 9-point scale from 1 (negative) to 5 in half unit increments. Performance of the test was compared with four benchmarks for severe infection: (1) WEC>2000 on test day; (2) WEC>2000 on test day or 3 days later; (3) WEC>2000 on test day or 3 or 7 days later; and (4) WEC>2000 on test day or 3, 7 or 10 days later. For a FOB score > or = 3, the frequency of false positive results was high (31.6%) for benchmark 1 but decreased to 3.6% as the definition of severe infection was extended to include WEC>2000 on the test day or 3 or 7 days later. Sensitivity (92.0%), specificity (94.2%) and predictive value of a negative test result (87.5%) were also high for benchmark 3. By detection of blood in faeces during heavy H. contortus infections prior to the emergence of high WECs, the test provided an early indication of imminent haemonchosis. Positive FOB test results are also likely to arise from other causes of blood in faeces such as fascioliasis, coccidiosis and some bacterial enteritides. Further field studies are needed to validate the method as a diagnostic test for determining the severity of H. contortus infections under diverse environmental and sheep husbandry conditions.

  3. Environmental Monitoring and Analysis of Faecal Contamination in an Urban Setting in the City of Bari (Apulia Region, Italy: Health and Hygiene Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tempesta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy. To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school. A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found.  On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens.

  4. Counting Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  5. Acute myeloid leukaemia presenting as faecal incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoon; Cho, Young Soon; Jang, Pyung Moon; Kim, Ho Jung; Jang, Hye Young

    2007-01-01

    Epidural sacral nerve compression as an initial feature of leukaemia is a rare complication. The findings in a 16‐year‐old boy who presented to an emergency department with symptoms of faecal incontinence are reported herein. Radiological imaging demonstrated soft‐tissue masses in the sacral epidural space. The diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia was confirmed on bone marrow aspirate. The characteristics and management of extramedullary leukaemia are discussed. PMID:17452690

  6. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Patinote, Amélie; Nguyen, Thao Vi; Com, Emmanuelle; Lavigne, Regis; Pineau, Charles; Sullivan, Craig V; Bobe, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained spectra were searched against a zebrafish proteome database and detected proteins were annotated, categorized and quantified based on normalized spectral counts. Manually curated and automated enrichment analyses revealed poor quality eggs to be deficient of proteins involved in protein synthesis and energy and lipid metabolism, and of some vitellogenin products and lectins, and to have a surfeit of proteins involved in endo-lysosomal activities, autophagy, and apoptosis, and of some oncogene products, lectins and egg envelope proteins. Results of pathway and network analyses suggest that this aberrant proteomic profile results from failure of oocytes giving rise to poor quality eggs to properly transit through final maturation, and implicated Wnt signaling in the etiology of this defect. Quantitative comparisons of abundant proteins in good versus poor quality eggs revealed 17 candidate egg quality markers. Thus, the zebrafish egg proteome is clearly linked to embryo developmental potential, a phenomenon that begs further investigation to elucidate the root causes of poor egg quality, presently a serious and intractable problem in livestock and human reproductive medicine.

  7. Evaluation of urinary and faecal continent stomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boemers, T; Schimke, C; Ardelean, M; Ludwikowski, B

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the outcome and complications of urinary and faecal continent catheterizable stomas. Retrospective record review of all patients operated on in our institution within the last 6 years. Fifty-five children received 63 stomas. The mean age at operation was 9.2 years and the mean follow-up period was 2.8 years. The diagnoses were: neurogenic bladder (n=22), bladder or cloacal exstrophy (n=20), anorectal malformation (n=6), persistent cloaca (n=3), Hirschsprung's disease (n=2), posterior urethral valves (n=1) and prune belly syndrome (n=1). There were 35 urinary stomas and 28 faecal stomas. Eight patients received both stomas. Both the appendix and a transverse tubularized intestinal segment (Yang-Monti technique) were used; in some cases a caecal flap was created. In three patients the appendix was divided and used to construct two stomas. The implantation of urinary stomas was into the native bladder in 24 patients and into the intestinal segment of an augmented bladder in 11 cases. The location of the stoma was umbilical in 20 cases, right lower quadrant of the abdomen in 35, neo-umbilicus in five and left lower quadrant in three. When an extra-umbilical location was chosen skin flaps were used. Excellent cosmetic and functional results were achieved in 53 (84.2%) of the 63 stomas, which are continent and easy to catheterize. Two had acceptable results with minor problems. There were eight re-operations (12.6% of stomas, 14.5% of patients). The reasons for the re-operations were difficult catheterization in two, incontinence in three, and mucosal prolapse in three patients in whom skin flaps were not used. Of the eight re-operations, seven were in urinary stomas and one in a faecal stoma. Urinary incontinence was attributed to shortening of the intravesical tunnel. No difference in results was observed between the different techniques used, with the exception that cutaneous anastomosis without skin flaps had to be revised because of prolapse, and two out

  8. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Egg dumping in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallamy, Douglas W

    2005-01-01

    Females that place eggs under the care of conspecifics have been labeled egg dumpers. Egg dumping is an effective reproductive alternative that lowers risks for, and has the potential to increase fecundity in, its practitioners. Although insect egg dumpers can be social parasites of the maternal behavior of egg recipients, dumping is more likely to be a viable reproductive alternative when the costs to egg recipients are low and thus the defense by potential hosts against egg dumping intrusions is minimal. These conditions are met in insects that guard only eggs or in insects whose eggs hatch into self-supporting precocial young that need little beyond defense from parents. When this is the case, egg dumping is favored by natural and/or kin selection as a mechanism by which dumpers can avoid parental risks and increase fecundity, and egg recipients can enhance offspring survival by diluting predation.

  10. Rectal motility after sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, H B; Worsøe, J; Krogh, K

    2010-01-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is effective against faecal incontinence, but the mode of action is obscure. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of SNS on fasting and postprandial rectal motility. Sixteen patients, 14 women age 33-73 (mean 58), with faecal incontinence of various...... CSA was 2999 mm(2) (range: 1481-3822) during fast and 2697 mm(2) (range: 1227-3310) postprandially (P faecal incontinence does not affect phasic rectal motility...

  11. Bacterial contamination of stored table eggs from commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At 53 week-old, sixty eggs/group were kept at room temperature (26-27.5oC), from which 8 eggs/group were selected on the day of lay and weekly for 4 weeks. One ml of vortex mixed albumin and yolk pooled from 4 eggs was diluted 1:10, inoculated on Plate Count Agar-PCA, Salmonella-Shigella Agar-SSA, ...

  12. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks and playground sandpits of Greater Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, David; Alho, Ana M; Nijsse, Rolf; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Overgaauw, Paul; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    Toxocarosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease transmitted from companion animals to humans. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered to be the main source of human infections. In Portugal, knowledge regarding the current situation, including density, distribution and environmental contamination by Toxocara spp., is largely unknown. The present study investigated environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs, in soil and faecal samples collected from public parks and playground sandpits in Greater Lisbon, Portugal. A total of 151 soil samples and 135 canine faecal samples were collected from 7 public sandpits and 12 public parks, over a 4 month-period. Soil samples were tested by a modified centrifugation and sedimentation/flotation technique and faecal samples were tested by an adaptation of the Cornell-Wisconsin method. Molecular analysis and sequencing were performed to discriminate Toxocara species in the soil. Overall, 85.7% of the sandpits (6/7) and 50.0% of the parks (6/12) were contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs. The molecular analysis of soil samples showed that, 85.5% of the sandpits and 34.4% of the parks were contaminated with Toxocara cati eggs. Faecal analysis showed that 12.5% of the sandpits and 3.9% of the parks contained Toxocara canis eggs. In total, 53.0% of soil and 5.9% of faecal samples were positive for Toxocara spp. Additionally, 56.0% of the eggs recovered from the samples were embryonated after 60 days of incubation, therefore considered viable and infective. The average density was 4.2 eggs per hundred grams of soil. Public parks and playground sandpits in the Lisbon area were found to be heavily contaminated with T. cati eggs, representing a serious menace to public health as the studied areas represent common places where people of all ages, particularly children, recreate. This study sounds an alarm bell regarding the necessity to undertake effective measures such as reduction of stray animals, active faecal

  13. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Anderson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity, urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose/kg and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota. Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m3 of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment.

  14. The Egg Joust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-01-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops, the egg walk, and the great Canadian egg race, as well as the mousetrap cars, have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate students. Students at…

  15. Interventions for shell eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggs are the second riskiest foods regulated by the U.S. FDA. Less than 3% of shell eggs are pasteurized using a hot water process that unfortunately damages the appearance and functionality of the eggs. In addition, the current process adds more than $1.50 to the cost of a dozen eggs. Therefore, al...

  16. Counting Possibilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tomasetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Williamson supports the thesis that every possible entity necessarily exists and so he needs to explain how a possible son of Wittgenstein’s, for example, exists in our world:he exists as a merely possible object (MPO, a pure locus of potential. Williamson presents a short argument for the existence of MPOs: how many knives can be made by fitting together two blades and two handles? Four: at the most two are concrete objects, the others being merely possible knives and merely possible objects. This paper defends the idea that one can avoid reference and ontological commitment to MPOs. My proposal is that MPOs can be dispensed with by using the notion of rules of knife-making. I first present a solution according to which we count lists of instructions - selected by the rules - describing physical combinations between components. This account, however, has its own difficulties and I eventually suggest that one can find a way out by admitting possible worlds, entities which are more commonly accepted - at least by philosophers - than MPOs. I maintain that, in answering Williamson’s questions, we count classes of physically possible worlds in which the same instance of a general rule is applied.

  17. Adjusted Count, Complete Count, and Straight Count: Does it Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... research output and citation impact, respectively. This paper reports on the results generated from a case study of the LIS researchers' output using three methods of publications count, namely, adjusted count (Ac), complete count (Cc) and straight count (Sc). Using data extracted from the Library, Information Science and ...

  18. Survival of chicken ascarid eggs exposed to different soil types and fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2017-01-01

    and after incubation (22 °C, 30 days). Egg recovery was substantially reduced by P. chlamydosporia and M. brunneum in sterilised soil. However, in non-sterilised soil only M. brunneum slightly reduced egg counts. Notably, egg recovery was reduced markedly in non-sterilised soil though no fungi were applied...

  19. Faecal Impaction Presenting as Acute Appendicitis: A Report of 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights different manner in which faecal impaction presents i.e. with acute severe right lower quadrant abdominal pain. Two illustrative cases of young adult males are presented, they had clinical features suggestive of acute appendicitis, which turned out to be due to faecal impaction. Digital rectal examination ...

  20. Spontaneous scrotal faecal fistula in a Nigerian adult: review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a 28-year-old Nigerian who presented with four days history of spontaneous scrotal ulceration and faecal discharge. This symptom was preceded by features of intestinal obstruction which got relieved after the faecal discharge from the scrotum. He was resuscitated and had segmental resection and anastomosis ...

  1. Metabolic and inflammatory faecal markers in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the excretion of the inflammatory and metabolic faecal markers calprotectin, lactoferrin, and short-chain fatty acids in symptomatic and quiescent collagenous colitis.......To evaluate the excretion of the inflammatory and metabolic faecal markers calprotectin, lactoferrin, and short-chain fatty acids in symptomatic and quiescent collagenous colitis....

  2. Level of Faecal Coliform Contamination of Drinking Water Sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... CONCLUSION: In this study, the prevalence of positive faecal coliform at water source was high. Educational status, sanitary. Risk of contamination at the water source, water shortage experience had significant associations with the presence of faecal coliform in drinking water sources. KEYWORDS: Water ...

  3. Preliminary monitoring of faecal indicator organisms of surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faecal contamination of water bodies is a known cause of high morbidity in developing countries. This study was carried out to assess the level of faecal contamination in Mvudi River used as a source of domestic water for people who live around it. Certified multimeters were used to measure pH, conductivity and turbidity ...

  4. The current role of imaging techniques in faecal incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, M. P.; Stoker, J.

    2006-01-01

    Faecal incontinence is a common multifactorial disorder. Major causes of faecal incontinence are related to vaginal delivery and prior anorectal surgery. In addition to medical history and physical examination, several anorectal functional tests and imaging techniques can be used to assess the

  5. Sewage Reflects the Distriubtion of Human Faecal Lachnospiraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faecal pollution contains a rich and diverse community of bacteria derived from animals and humans,many of which might serve as alternatives to the traditional enterococci and Escherichia coli faecal indicators. We used massively parallel sequencing (MPS)of the 16S rRNA gene to ...

  6. Assessment of helminth load in faecal samples of free range ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helminths load in faecal sample of free range indigenous chicken in Port Harcourt Metropolis was examined. Faecal samples were collected from 224 birds in 15 homesteads and 4 major markets - Mile 3, Mile 1, Borokiri and Eneka Village market where poultry birds are gathered for sale. 0.2-0.5g of feacal sample was ...

  7. Physiotherapy Management of Faecal Impaction: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report describes how a physiotherapy modality was used to resolve faecal impaction. A 38-year old man developed faecal impaction after 8 weeks of intensive medical care. A physiotherapist was invited to apply a suitable modality that could bring relief to the patient. The pre-treatment measurement of the ...

  8. Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and their significance to public health are reviewed in this paper, to highlight their levels of general acceptability and suitability as safeguards against health hazards associated with water supplies. Regular bacteriological analysis with the sole aim of detecting faecal ...

  9. Diet and faecal lipids following cholecystectomy in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydon, W G; Ross, A H; Anderson, J R; Douglas, S

    1982-01-01

    Faecal characteristics and diet have been investigated in male subjects following cholecystectomy and in age-matched controls. Daily faecal fat excretion and concentration were significantly higher in the post-cholecystectomy subjects. Bile acid and neutral sterol excretion and concentration were not significantly different. Although diets did not differ in any respect, the stool weight was significantly higher in post-cholecystectomy subjects.

  10. A Toxocara cati eggs concentration method from cats' faeces, for experimental and diagnostic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, N; Sommerfelt, I; Fariña, F; Pasqualetti, M; Pérez, M; Ercole, M; Rosa, A; Ribicich, M

    2014-09-01

    Toxocariosis is a zoonotic parasite infection worldwide distributed, now considered a neglected disease associated to poverty. For experimental infection in animals and to develop the diagnosis in humans it is necessary to obtain large number of Toxocara spp. larval eggs. Toxocara cati eggs recovered percentage from faeces of infected cats was determined employing a novel egg concentration method. The McMaster egg counting technique and the concentration method were applied on 20 positive cats' sample faeces obtained from naturally infected cats. The mean percentage of eggs recovered by the concentration method was 24.37% higher than the count obtained by McMaster egg counting technique. The main advantage of this method is that it can be obtained a small final volume with a high number of recovered eggs and a good quality inoculum for experimental and diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Have eggs. Will travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Feminist scholars have critically questioned the practices and ethics of reproductive mobility. While the reproductive mobility of fertility patients has been foregrounded, little is known of egg donor mobility including the experiences of travelling internationally to donate eggs. Based on written...... stories and photographic material provided by forty-two egg donors, this article uses feminist cluster analysis and the concept of eggpreneurship to illustrate how global egg donors negotiate reproductive agency and choice when they travel internationally to donate their eggs. In their stories, global egg...

  12. Effects of levan-type fructan on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhoea scores, faecal shedding of total lactic acid bacteria and coliform bacteria, and faecal gas emission in weaning pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xin Jian; Kim, Yong Min; Park, Jae Hong; Baek, Dong Heon; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Kim, In Ho

    2018-03-01

    The use of antibiotics as growth promoters in feed has been fully or partially banned in several countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of levan-type fructan on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, faecal shedding of lactic acid bacteria and coliform bacteria, diarrhoea scores, and faecal gas emission in weaning pigs. A total of 144 weaning pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] were randomly allocated to four diets: corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0, 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 g kg -1 levan-type fructan during this 42-day experiment. During days 0 to 21 and 0 to 42, average daily gain and average daily feed intake were linearly increased (P bacteria counts were linearly increased (P = 0.001). The results indicate that dietary supplementation with increasing levan-type fructan enhanced growth performance, improved nutrient digestibility, and increased faecal lactic acid bacteria counts in weaning pigs linearly. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E

    2013-08-01

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P Eggs from conventional cages had significantly different (P eggs with significantly different (P eggs having the lowest level of contamination for the hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system.

  14. [Corrected count].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-27

    The data of the 1991 census indicated that the population count of Brazil fell short of a former estimate by 3 million people. The population reached 150 million people with an annual increase of 2%, while projections in the previous decade expected an increase of 2.48% to 153 million people. This reduction indicates more widespread use of family planning (FP) and control of fertility among families of lower social status as more information is being provided to them. However, the Ministry of Health ordered an investigation of foreign family planning organizations because it was suspected that women were forced to undergo tubal ligation during vaccination campaigns. A strange alliance of left wing politicians and the Roman Catholic Church alleges a conspiracy of international FP organizations receiving foreign funds. The FP strategies of Bemfam and Pro-Pater offer women who have little alternative the opportunity to undergo tubal ligation or to receive oral contraceptives to control fertility. The ongoing government program of distributing booklets on FP is feeble and is not backed up by an education campaign. Charges of foreign interference are leveled while the government hypocritically ignores the grave problem of 4 million abortions a year. The population is expected to continue to grow until the year 2040 and then to stabilize at a low growth rate of .4%. In 1980, the number of children per woman was 4.4 whereas the 1991 census figures indicate this has dropped to 3.5. The excess population is associated with poverty and a forsaken caste in the interior. The population actually has decreased in the interior and in cities with 15,000 people. The phenomenon of the drop of fertility associated with rural exodus is contrasted with cities and villages where the population is 20% less than expected.

  15. Faecal microbiota transplantation: Key points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlioux, P

    2015-05-01

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from a healthy donor has become the gold standard treatment for patients suffering from recurrent Clostridium difficile infection where antibiotic treatment (with vancomycin, metronidazole or fidaxomicin) has failed. FMT eradicates C. difficile and helps restore the recipient's intestinal flora, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Since FMT's complex and highly variable composition cannot be easily characterized - nor its quality routinely assessed - FMT as a sui generis biologic drug cannot conform to existing standards for preparation. Clearly, donors must be carefully selected and the raw material prepared under close microbiological control, but FMT should also conform to manufacturing and laboratory practice standards for which international consensus can only be achieved with further experience. The objective should be to engage biomedical research to develop protocols that help elucidate the mechanism of action of FMT and support the production of safe and efficacious products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Mosquito, egg raft (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes of the Culex species lay their eggs in the form of egg rafts that float in still or stagnant water. The mosquito ... mosquitoes. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

  17. Multicentre observational study of the Gatekeeper for faecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, C; Buntzen, S; Aigner, F; Altomare, D F; Heydari, A; Donisi, L; Lundby, L; Parello, A

    2016-02-01

    A variety of therapeutic approaches are available for faecal incontinence. Implantation of Gatekeeper prostheses is a new promising option. The primary endpoint of this prospective observational multicentre study was to assess the clinical efficacy of Gatekeeper implantation in patients with faecal incontinence. Secondary endpoints included the assessment of patients' quality of life, and the feasibility and safety of implantation. Patients with faecal incontinence, with either intact sphincters or internal anal sphincter lesions extending for less than 60° of the anal circumference, were selected. Intersphincteric implantation of six prostheses was performed. At baseline, and 1, 3 and 12 months after implantation, the number of faecal incontinence episodes, Cleveland Clinic Faecal Incontinence, Vaizey and American Medical Systems, Faecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale and Short Form 36 Health Survey scores were recorded. Endoanal ultrasonography was performed at baseline and follow-up. Fifty-four patients were implanted. After Gatekeeper implantation, incontinence to gas, liquid and solid stool improved significantly, soiling was reduced, and ability to defer defaecation enhanced. All faecal incontinence severity scores were significantly reduced, and patients' quality of life improved. At 12 months, 30 patients (56 per cent) showed at least 75 per cent improvement in all faecal incontinence parameters, and seven (13 per cent) became fully continent. In three patients a single prosthesis was extruded during surgery, but was replaced immediately. After implantation, prosthesis dislodgement occurred in three patients; no replacement was required. Anal implantation of the Gatekeeper in patients with faecal incontinence was effective and safe. Clinical benefits were sustained at 1-year follow-up. © 2015 The Authors. BJS published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of BJS Society Ltd.

  18. A method to evaluate relative ovicidal effects of soil microfungi on thick-shelled eggs of animal-parasitic nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Katakam, Kiran Kumar

    2015-01-01

    and Purpureocillium lilacinum Strain 251 (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), on the development and survival of eggs of faecal origin of three ascarid species, Ascaridia galli (chicken roundworm), Toxocara canis (canine roundworm) and Ascaris suum (pig roundworm). Ascarid eggs were embryonated on water agar with or without...... a fungus, and the resulting viability of the eggs was evaluated on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 post exposure (pe) by observing eggs in situ. On days 7–42 pe, P. chlamydosporia had reduced the viability of A. galli and T. canis eggs by 64–86% and 26–67%. Corresponding reductions for P. lilacinum Strain...... for a simple, repeatable and non-invasive evaluation of the ovicidal effects of microfungi. This study demonstrates that P. chlamydosporia Biotype 10 may be utilised as a biocontrol agent to reduce A. galli and T. canis egg contamination of the environment....

  19. HHP treatment of liquid egg at 200-350 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, A.; Németh, Cs; Palotás, P.; Surányi, J.; Zeke, I.; Csehi, B.; Castillo, L. A.; Friedrich, L.; Balla, Cs

    2017-10-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment of egg proteins partially limits their sensitivity to pressure. According to the literature, at the 450 MPa level, denaturation of some proteins sets in to the extent that sensory and functional characteristics are impacted. This study involved treating liquid egg (egg white, yolk, and melange) at less than the above-mentioned value, after which the microbiological effect was examined. For the study, pressure pouches were filled with 100ml of raw liquid egg per pouch. Then the samples were treated at 200, 250, 300 and 350 MPa. In each case, the level was reached by increasing pressure at a rate of 100 MPa/min. Measurements were taken at the Corvinus University of Budapest, Faculty of Food Science, Dept. of Refrigeration and Livestock Products Technology RESATO FPU 100-2000 equipment. Denaturation was determined with calorimetric (DSC) tests. From our results, it appears that even at 250 MPa pressure treatment, the viable cell count decreases. Further, it can be said that microbe count went down in the egg white samples at 300-350 MPa, below the impact level. Significant denaturation was not detected during our examinations. In summary, we state that the most HHP-sensitive liquid egg type, egg white, can be pressure treated to reduce microbe count at a level less than that which causes denaturation. Microbe reduction was smaller in yolk and melange, so higher pressure values are appropriate for these products.

  20. The Egg Joust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-09-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops,1,2 the egg walk,3 and the great Canadian egg race,4 as well as the mousetrap cars,5 have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate6 students. Students at Greendale High School in suburban Milwaukee, WI, participate in an annual egg-jousting competition that combines the energy of a mousetrap with the delicateness of an egg. For this evening event, students gather in costume for a night of medieval intrigue where parents and friends witness the peril of two eggs colliding while atop their trusty steed.

  1. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Yilmaz

    Full Text Available Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained spectra were searched against a zebrafish proteome database and detected proteins were annotated, categorized and quantified based on normalized spectral counts. Manually curated and automated enrichment analyses revealed poor quality eggs to be deficient of proteins involved in protein synthesis and energy and lipid metabolism, and of some vitellogenin products and lectins, and to have a surfeit of proteins involved in endo-lysosomal activities, autophagy, and apoptosis, and of some oncogene products, lectins and egg envelope proteins. Results of pathway and network analyses suggest that this aberrant proteomic profile results from failure of oocytes giving rise to poor quality eggs to properly transit through final maturation, and implicated Wnt signaling in the etiology of this defect. Quantitative comparisons of abundant proteins in good versus poor quality eggs revealed 17 candidate egg quality markers. Thus, the zebrafish egg proteome is clearly linked to embryo developmental potential, a phenomenon that begs further investigation to elucidate the root causes of poor egg quality, presently a serious and intractable problem in livestock and human reproductive medicine.

  2. Level of faecal coliform contamination of drinking water sources and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic and behavioral data. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done using logistic regression models. Results: A total of 736 households participated in the study. The prevalence of positive faecal coliform at water sources in North ...

  3. Ensuring Microbiological Safety of Fresh Eggs by Using Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A. A.; Swailam, H.M.; Aly, W. F.

    2008-01-01

    Egg shell sanitizing practices are necessary to improve microbiological safety of fresh eggs. In this work, fifteen fresh eggs samples of each (Balady, White and Brown eggs) were collected from different local supermarkets to evaluate their microbiological quality. The results indicated that Balady eggs were higher in microbial population in comparison with the two other varieties. Salmonella spp. was detected in 9 (60%) samples of Balady eggs. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy on microbiological quality of Balady eggs during storage at 4±1 degree C for 35 days was studied. The effects of irradiation and storage on total cholesterol, and total carotenoids contents in Balady eggs were also investigated. The results showed that irradiation at 3 kGy reduced total aerobic bacterial counts. Coliform bacteria, E. coli and Salmonella spp. were completely eliminated. Total cholesterol and total carotenoids were decreased in yolk egg as a result of irradiation. Treated Balady eggs with irradiation dose of 3 kGy were efficient and sufficient for ensuring safety, maintain quality and extend shelf-life.

  4. Plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol in chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekchay, S.; Apichartsrungkoon, T.; Pongpiachan, P.

    1996-01-01

    Identification of sex in some kind of fowls can not be done by using their external appearances. Sex steroid hormone levels may be used as an indicator of sexual dimorphism in birds. The objective of this investigation was to measure plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol concentrations in 8 male and 15 female chickens by using radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. The relationship between plasma and faecal testosterone, and plasma and faecal estradiol are positively correlated. The correlation coefficients (r 2 ) between plasma and faecal steroids concentration were 0.621 (p<0.05) for testosterone and 0.692 (p<0.05) for estradiol. The average plasma and faecal sex steroid concentrations in male and female chickens were 10.05 ± 1.97 ng/ml and 511.50 ± 95.89 ng/g (for male testosterone), 24.85 ± 1.60 pg/ml and 49.65 ± 6.01 ng/g (for male estradiol), 0.79 ± 0.05 ng/ml and 134.20 ± 14.70 ng/ml (for female testosterone), 129.91 ± 19.30 pg/ml and 334.80 ± 15.62 ng/g (for female estradiol), respectively. Plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol levels in male and female chickens are significant difference (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.001 and p<0.001 respectively). The results of this investigation suggested that plasma or faecal sex steroid concentrations can be used to discriminate sex of chicken which is show the possibility to use the plasma or faecal sex steroids for identification of sex in other bird species

  5. Gastrointestinal Strongyle Egg Output and its Relationship with Tick Burden in Gambian N'dama and Gobra Zebu Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattioli, RC.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Fortnightly quantitative analysis of rectal faecal samples for the presence of strongyle eggs were carried out from May 1992 to April 1993 on 11 Gambian N'dama Bos taurus and 11 Gobra zebu Bos indicus cattle. Significantly (P <0.001 lower strongyle egg outputs were found in N'dama in comparison with zebu cattle. No correlation was found between individual cumulative tick burden and strongyle egg output in either breed, although individual variations in parasite burdens were lower in N'dama than in zebu cattle. This study strenghtens the evidence for the presence of a natural resistant trait to strongyle infection in N'dama cattle.

  6. Faecal incontinence: Current knowledges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benezech, Alban; Bouvier, Michel; Vitton, Véronique

    2016-02-15

    Faecal incontinence (FI) is a disabling and frequent symptom since its prevalence can vary between 5% and 15% of the general population. It has a particular negative impact on quality of life. Many tools are currently available for the treatment of FI, from conservative measures to invasive surgical treatments. The conservative treatment may be dietetic measures, various pharmacological agents, anorectal rehabilitation, posterior tibial nerve stimulation, and transanal irrigation. If needed, patients may have miniinvasive approaches such as sacral nerve modulation or antegrade irrigation. In some cases, a surgical treatment is proposed, mainly external anal sphincter repair. Although these different therapeutic options are available, new techniques are arriving allowing new hopes for the patients. Moreover, most of them are non-invasive such as local application of an α1-adrenoceptor agonist, stem cell injections, rectal injection of botulinum toxin, acupuncture. New more invasive techniques with promising results are also coming such as anal magnetic sphincter and antropylorus transposition. This review reports the main current available treatments of FI and the developing therapeutics tools.

  7. Enhancing faecal sludge management in peri-urban areas of Lusaka through faecal sludge valorisation: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembo, J. M.; Nyirenda, E.; Nyambe, I.

    2017-03-01

    Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia, has two million inhabitants with 70% residing in peri-urban areas. Ninety (90) % of this population employ pit latrines for excretion generating approximately 22,680 tons of faecal sludge per annum. This sludge is inadequately managed hence of the generated amount, over 60% remains within the residential environment thereby compromising both the environment and public health. To foster a solution to this problem, a study was commissioned to assess faecal sludge valorisation potential and how it would impact on Faecal Sludge Management. The study evaluated policy, institutional and regulatory frameworks, sanitation practices including latrine construction and usage aspects and also characterised the faecal sludge for selected parameters relevant to valorisation. Four peri-urban areas were adopted as study sites. Policy issues together with existing institutional and regulatory frameworks were assessed through literature review. Sanitation practices were evaluated through physical observations, focus group discussions, interviews and questionnaire administration. Faecal sludge characterisation was through sampling and analysis. It was observed that there are policy gaps in fostering faecal sludge valorisation. Sanitation practices and latrines construction also do not favour valorisation. The quality of the raw sludge has potential for valorisation though again, some parameters like solid waste content require drastic changes in sanitation practices in order not to compromise the reuse potential of the sludge. It was concluded that if faecal sludge management is to be enhanced through valorisation, there is need to have policies promoting pit latrine faecal sludge reuse and strengthened regulatory and institutional frameworks in this respect.

  8. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosanjh A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinical trial, atopy

  9. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dosanjh,Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinica...

  10. Hookworm-like eggs in children's faecal samples from a rural area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Área de Parasitología del Departament de Biología Cel.lular i Parasitología, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de. València, Valencia, Spain. 2. Área de Parasitología del Departamento de Agroquímica y Medioambiente, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad. Miguel Hernández de Elche, Alicante,Spain. 3. Laboratorio de ...

  11. Embryonation of Ostertagia ostertagi eggs affects the outcome of real-time quantitative PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Höglund, Johan; Nejsum, Peter

    prior to detection and quantification by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Fresh O. ostertagi eggs were isolated from cattle faeces and stored at 4°C or 25°C under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Embryonation was monitored by microscopy and the ITS2 copies were determined by q......The aims of this study were to assess how the development of Ostertagia ostertagi eggs into first-stage larva (L1) affects the copy numbers of the Internal Transcribed Spacer region 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA; and based on these results, to suggest optimal storage conditions for faecal samples...

  12. Faecal Contamination of Feeding Bottles Contents, Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. coli was the commonest isolate [33 (30%)]. Different other bacterial species were also isolated with very high count (1X106 - > 15X105/ml). Twenty one enteric pathogens were isolated from the stool specimens [Enteropathogenic E. coli (7) and Shigella species (14)]. The antibiotic sensitivity of the E. coli and Shigella ...

  13. Egg origin determination efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, A.; Futo, I.; Vodila, G.; Palcsu, L.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. As a co-operation with the Poultry Product Board, egg and drinking water samples were received in order to investigate whether the country of origin of the egg can be determined based on its stable isotope composition with the aim of market protection of the Hungarian eggs against the mislabelled foreign ones. The scientific background is that drinking water of egg laying hens is assumed to reflect the composition of regional precipitation, and it is also an input data in the process of egg formation. In the first sampling, altogether 23 sets of egg and drinking water samples were received from different production sites covering the whole area of Hungary. The egg white samples were vacuum distilled and frozen out by liquid nitrogen at -196 deg C. The process was monitored by two vacuum gauges. Water frozen out together with the drinking water samples was measured were measured by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer using a GasBench II peripheral unit equipped with a GC-autosampler. As a second issue, additionally, elemental composition of egg shells were also performed for series of Hungarian, Czech and Polish egg samples by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The drinking waters fit well to the Global Meteoric Water Line indicating their precipitation origin. It was experienced that the water in egg white gets enriched compared to the drinking water (Δ 18 O = -4.9 ± 1.0 per thousand and Δ D = -21.8 ± 6.4 per thousand), however, this shift is independent of the type of the hens, since the mean shifts in the eggs of Tetra and Hy-line hens are similar within error bar. For more depleted drinking water, the shift of the egg white was higher than for more enriched ones. This can be due to the contribution of the nutriment isotopic composition. The water isotope composition of the Hungarian eggs investigated was δ 18 O = -4.8 - -7.3 per thousand and δD = -46.0 - -70.7 per thousand, therefore egg

  14. Evaluation of Questionnaire, Reagent Strip and Egg Count as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A longitudinal study covering 55 months evaluated the three diagnostic tools used for confirmation of prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among 1151 consented primary school pupils in 13 communities of Edo State, Nigeria. Questionnaire, reagent strip method and parasitological examination were employed.

  15. Ensuring microbiological safety of commercial eggs by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A.A; Swailam, H.M.; Abd El-Rahim, E.A.; Shallan, M.A; Aly, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Egg shell sanitizing practices are necessary to improve microbiological safety of fresh eggs. In this work, fifteen fresh eggs samples of each (balady, white and brown eggs) were collected from different local supermarkets to evaluate their microbiological quality. The results indicated that balady eggs were higher in microbial population in comparison with the two other varieties. Salmonella spp. was detected in 9 (60%) samples of balady eggs. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 0,2,3 and 4 kGy on microbiological quality of balady eggs during storage at 4± 1 deg c for 35 days as well as on total cholesterol , ph, and total carotenoids contents were also investigated. The results showed that irradiation at 3 kGy reduced total aerobic bacterial counts. Whereas completely eliminated coliform bacteria, E.coli and salmonella spp. Total cholesterol and total carotenoids were decreased in yolk egg. irradiation dose of 3 kGy were efficient and sufficient for ensuring safety, maintain quality and extend shelf-life of balady eggs

  16. Reverse transcriptase real-time PCR for detection and quantification of viable Campylobacter jejuni directly from poultry faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Xuan Thanh; Wolff, Anders; Madsen, Mogens; Bang, Dang Duong

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. is the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans worldwide. Therefore, rapid and reliable methods for detection and quantification of this pathogen are required. In this study, we have developed a reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) for detection and quantification of viable Campylobacter jejuni directly from chicken faecal samples. The results of this method and a DNA-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method were compared with those of a bacterial culture method. Using bacterial culture and RT-qPCR methods, viable C. jejuni cells could be detected for up to 5 days in both the C. jejuni spiked and the naturally contaminated faecal samples. We found that no RT-qPCR signals were obtained when viable C. jejuni cells could not be counted by the culture method. In contrast, using a DNA-based qPCR method, dead or non-viable Campylobacter cells were detected, and all tested samples were positive, even after 20 days of storage. The developed method for detection and quantification of viable C. jejuni cells directly from chicken faecal samples can be used for further research on the survival of Campylobacter in the environment. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Count it! fun with counting and comparing

    CERN Document Server

    First, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Make math fun with Count It! Fun photographs, colorful graphics, and simple text are used to teach young readers basic math concepts. From counting groups to comparing to estimating this book will help kids develop the skills they need. A simple activity at the end of the book encourages kids to put counting and comparing to use! Aligned to Common Core standards and correlated to state standards. Sandcastle is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  18. Establishment of an immunocompetent nipple valve anastomosis to prevent faecal reflux after ileocolic resection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, K W; Pistorius, G; Menger, M D; Feifel, G

    2000-05-01

    To construct an immunocompetent nipple valve anastomosis (NVA) to exclude faecal reflux and compare it with an end-to-end anastomosis to see if it would prevent recurrent inflammation caused by intraluminal bacterial antigens in Crohn's disease. Laboratory study. Teaching hospital, Germany. Two groups of six beagle dogs each of which had NVA or end-to-end anastomosis. Construction of a NVA by stapling the telescoped nipple, and replacing the ileal mucosa on the valve by colonic mucosa; end-to-end anastomosis. Radiological, bacteriological, angiographic, and morphometric results. Absolute retrograde pressure-competence and free orthograde permeability of the NVA resulted in significantly lower intestinal bacterial counts compared with the end-to-end anastomosis (p < 0.05). Transposition of colonic mucosa was successful as demonstrated by revascularisation from the ileal nipple and looked normal on morphometry. If NVA were constructed in patients with Crohn's disease, recurrences should be prevented, which would verify the immunopathogenetic hypothesis of new inflammation.

  19. Screening for faecal contamination in primary schools in Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, A; Drakopoulou, S; Georgaki, I; Fountoulakis, M; Mitsou, E; Lasaridi, K E; Manios, Y; Manios, T

    2009-03-01

    Hygienic conditions in primary schools are a major concern for both governmental organizations and families. Particularly, the occurrence of faecal indicators on children's hands and various school surfaces has been associated with increased risk of diarrhoeal diseases. The presence of faecal streptococci on environmental surfaces and children's hands and the possible correlation with socio-economic factors were examined. Overall, 1956 samples from hands and 1470 samples from surfaces were collected from 20 primary schools in Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Faecal streptococci were found at 52.9% of children's hands and at 16.7% of other surfaces. Children, who had parents with the highest education level (>12 years), had the lowest percentage (48.8%) of faecal contamination on their hands. Furthermore, boys exhibited higher levels of hands contamination compared with girls. Among the environmental surfaces examined, the school canteen reception was the most contaminated area. High faecal contamination was detected in primary schools in the examined region. Children's hands were highly infected (52.9%), while boys exhibited higher levels of contamination. The educational level of parents correlated well with the contamination of children's hands.

  20. Sewage reflects the distribution of human faecal Lachnospiraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Sandra L.; Newton, Ryan J.; Vandewalle, Jessica L.; Shanks, Orin C.; Huse, Susan M.; Eren, A. Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Faecal pollution contains a rich and diverse community of bacteria derived from animals and humans, many of which might serve as alternatives to the traditional enterococci and Escherichia coli faecal indicators. We used massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize microbial communities from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent sewage from 12 cities geographically distributed across the USA. We examined members of the Clostridiales, which included the families Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae for their potential as sewage indicators. Lachnospiraceae was one of the most abundant groups of faecal bacteria in sewage, and several Lachnospiraceae high-abundance sewage pyrotags occurred in at least 46 of 48 human faecal samples. Clone libraries targeting Clostridium coccoides (C. coccoides) in sewage samples demonstrated that Lachnospiraceae-annotated V6 pyrotags encompassed the previously reported C. coccoides group. We used oligotyping to profile the genus Blautia within Lachnospiraceae and found oligotypes comprised of 24 entropy components that showed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that indicators based on Blautia might have the capacity to discriminate between different faecal pollution sources. Development of source-specific alternative indicators would enhance water quality assessments, which leads to improved ecosystem health and reduced human health risk due to waterborne disease. PMID:23438335

  1. Faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in animal shelters across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, A M; Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Hamer, S A; Lawhon, S D

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies on faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in the United States have been limited, despite evidence that the incidence of human campylobacteriosis has increased over the last decade. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among shelter dogs in Texas, to estimate the specific prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding, and to identify risk factors for Campylobacter-positive status. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs in six animal shelters across Texas between May and December, 2014. Quantitative PCR protocols were used to detect Campylobacter in samples and to specifically identify C. jejuni and C. coli. The prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among sampled dogs was 75.7% (140/185). Prevalence varied significantly by shelter (p = .03), ranging from 57% to 93%. There was a marginal association (p = .06) between abnormal faecal consistency and positive Campylobacter status, after controlling for shelter as a random effect. However, approximately 70% of Campylobacter-positive dogs had grossly normal faeces. Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly by age group or sex. The prevalence of C. jejuni-positive samples was 5.4% (10/185), but C. coli was not detected in any samples. Dogs are a potential source of zoonotic Campylobacter transmission. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Are all eggs equal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.

    2016-01-01

    Hatching eggs, supplied to hatcheries are originating from different origins varying in breed, strain, and breeder age. These hatching eggs can be different in size, composition and eggshell properties, which might influence nutrient and O2 availability and consequently could affect embryonic

  3. Assessment of reagent effectiveness and preservation methods for equine faecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vavrouchova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to identify the most suitable flotation solution and effective preservation method for the examination of equine faeces samples using the FLOTAC technique. Samples from naturally infected horses were transported to the laboratory andanalysed accordingly. The sample from each horse was homogenized and divided into four parts: one was frozen, another two were preserved in different reagents such as sodium acetate-acetic-acid–formalin (SAF or 5% formalin.The last part was examined as a fresh sample in three different flotation solutions (Sheather´s solution, sodium chloride and sodium nitrate solution, all with a specific gravity 1.200. The preserved samples were examined in the period from 14 to21days after collection. According to our results, the sucrose solution was the most suitable flotation solution for fresh samples (small strongyle egg per gram was 706 compared to 360 in sodium chlorid and 507 in sodium nitrate and the sodium nitrate solution was the most efficient for the preserved samples (egg per gram was 382 compared to 295 in salt solution and 305 in sucrose solution. Freezing appears to be the most effective method of sample preservation, resulting in minimal damage to fragile strongyle eggs and therefore it is the most simple and effective preservation method for the examination of large numbers of faecal samples without the necessity of examining them all within 48 hours of collection. Deep freezing as a preservation method for equine faeces samples has not, according to our knowledge, been yet published.

  4. A vegan or vegetarian diet substantially alters the human colonic faecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, J; Lange, B; Frick, J-S; Sauer, H; Zimmermann, K; Schwiertz, A; Rusch, K; Klosterhalfen, S; Enck, P

    2012-01-01

    Consisting of ≈10(14) microbial cells, the intestinal microbiota represents the largest and the most complex microbial community inhabiting the human body. However, the influence of regular diets on the microbiota is widely unknown. We examined faecal samples of vegetarians (n=144), vegans (n=105) and an equal number of control subjects consuming ordinary omnivorous diet who were matched for age and gender. We used classical bacteriological isolation, identification and enumeration of the main anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera and computed absolute and relative numbers that were compared between groups. Total counts of Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae spp. were significantly lower (P=0.001, P=0.002, P=0.006 and P=0.008, respectively) in vegan samples than in controls, whereas others (E. coli biovars, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., other Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Citrobacter spp. and Clostridium spp.) were not. Subjects on a vegetarian diet ranked between vegans and controls. The total microbial count did not differ between the groups. In addition, subjects on a vegan or vegetarian diet showed significantly (P=0.0001) lower stool pH than did controls, and stool pH and counts of E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae were significantly correlated across all subgroups. Maintaining a strict vegan or vegetarian diet results in a significant shift in the microbiota while total cell numbers remain unaltered.

  5. Flotation of Toxocara canis Eggs in Commercial Bleach and Effects of Bleach Treatment Times on Larval Development in These Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dohlen, Alexa Rosypal; Houk-Miles, Alice E; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2017-04-01

    Toxocara canis is a common intestinal nematode of young dogs. Puppies contaminate the environment with large numbers of eggs that can embryonate and become infective in less than a month. Embryonated eggs are infectious for humans and other paratenic hosts. Most T. canis infections in humans are asymptomatic; however, migration of T. canis larvae in the eye and in the central nervous system can result in vision loss, blindness, and even death. The eggs of T. canis are highly resistant to harsh environmental conditions and routinely used chemical disinfectants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of full-strength commercial bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution) treatment on development of T. canis eggs and to report our serendipitous finding that T. canis eggs in dog feces can float in passive fecal flotation tests using bleach. We also demonstrated that T. canis eggs could be identified using the McMaster's fecal eggs counting test using 100% bleach. Toxocara canis eggs collected from the feces of naturally infected 4-8 wk old puppies were treated with full-strength bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution) for 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, and 120 min; washed free of bleach smell by centrifugation; and resuspended in 0.1 N sulfuric acid solution to undergo larval development at room temperature for 18 days after exposure to bleach. Motile larvae were observed in T. canis eggs in all groups treated for 15-120 min and eggs continuously exposed to bleach for 18 days. Our results indicate that bleach may not be an appropriate disinfectant for dog kennels, cages, or laboratory utensils and work surfaces. Toxocara canis eggs are resistant to bleach treatment and continue to pose a risk for canine and human infections. Further study is needed to find the most appropriate methods for disinfection and removal of eggs to reduce the risk of transmission of this parasite.

  6. Frogs host faecal bacteria typically associated with humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Karen; Schobben, Xavier; Christian, Keith

    2017-07-01

    Tree frogs commonly access drinking water tanks; this may have human health implications. Although amphibians might not be expected to host mammalian faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), it is possible that they may have human FIB on their skin after exposure to human waste. We collected faeces and skin wash from green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) from a natural environment, a suburban site, and a suburban site near a creek occasionally contaminated with sewage effluent. We used molecular techniques to test for FIB that are routinely used to indicate human faecal contamination. Enterococci colonies were isolated from both faecal and skin wash samples, and specific markers (Enterococcus faecium and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron) were found in frog faeces, demonstrating that these markers are not human- or mammalian-specific. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron was detected in frogs from both natural and urban sites, but E. faecium was only associated with the sewage impacted site.

  7. Faecal incontinence following radiotherapy for prostate cancer: A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Yasuko; Høyer, Morten; Lundby, Lilli

    2011-01-01

    cohort studies with data on pre-treatment continence status and because variable instruments have been used to assess the severity of the condition. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to investigate dosimetric parameters focusing on the anal canal and sphincter apparatus. Considering......BACKGROUND: Faecal incontinence (FI) after radiotherapy is a known phenomenon, but has received little attention to date. This article aimed to review current knowledge on faecal incontinence related to radiotherapy for prostate cancer. METHODS: PubMed was searched for English-language articles...

  8. Sigmoid Colonic Perforation with Faecal Peritonitis due to Faecaloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Khalil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Colon perforation is an uncommon event usually caused by malignancy, diverticular disease, amoebic colitis, steroid therapy, trauma and ulcerative colitis, but stercoral perforation is very rare. Severe chronic constipation is considered to be the main causative factor in development of stercoral perforation of colon. Sometimes it can also produce catastrophic complications like colonic obstruction, faecal peritonitis and septicaemia. We report a rare case of sigmoid colonic perforation with faecal peritonitis and pneumoperitonium due to faecaloma which was diagnosed after exploratory laparotomy.

  9. Survival and transport of faecal bacteria in agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina Bundgaard

    Today, there is yearly applied 34 million tonnes of animal waste to arable land in Denmark. This waste may contain pathogenic zoonotic bacteria and/or antibiotic resistant bacteria, and when applied to arable land there is a risk of contaminating groundwater, surface water, feeding animals or fresh...... produce. Prediction of faecal bacterial survival and transport in the soil environment will help minimize the risk of contamination, as best management practices can be adapted to this knowledge. The aim of this Ph.D. is to study factors influencing faecal bacteria survival and transport in soil...

  10. Impact of faecal DM excretion on faecal calcium losses in dogs eating complete moist and dry pet foods - food digestibility is a major determinant of calcium requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzle, Ellen; Brenten, Thomas; Dobenecker, Britta

    2017-01-01

    The recommendations for the Ca supply for maintenance of dogs have been reduced by about 75 % in the last decades. An important factor for Ca requirements is faecal Ca losses. In previous studies with experimental diets faecal Ca losses depended on Ca intake and on faecal DM excretion. A predictive equation for faecal Ca losses in mg/kg body weight (BW) developed in a fibre model is: faecal losses = -33·8 + (13·6 faecal DM excretion (g/kg BW)) + (0·78 Ca intake (mg/kg BW)). The present study aimed at testing this equation in pet food with material from trials carried out for other purposes. Digestion trials with twenty-five dry and fifteen moist foods (326 observations in total) were evaluated retrospectively. Faecal DM excretion and faecal Ca losses were significantly correlated ( r 2  0·86; P  food. Faecal DM excretion has a considerable impact on faecal Ca losses in a practical feeding situation. In conclusion, Ca requirements for maintenance may vary with food DM intake and digestibility.

  11. Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z

    2013-01-01

    1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability.

  12. Effect of an artificial Ascaridia galli infection on egg production, immune response, and liver lipid reserve of free-range laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N; Hunt, P W; Hine, B C; McNally, J; Sharma, N K; Iqbal, Z; Normant, C; Andronicos, N M; Swick, R A; Ruhnke, I

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of Ascaridia galli infection on free-range laying hens. Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 200) at 17 wk of age were allocated to 4 treatment groups (n = 50 per group), each with 5 replicate pens of 10 hens. Hens in 3 treatment groups were orally inoculated with different doses of embryonated A. galli eggs: low (250 eggs), medium (1,000 eggs), and high (2,500 eggs) levels, whereas hens of the control group were not infected. Infection levels were monitored using excreta egg counts and mature A. galli worm counts in the intestine. Anti A. galli antibody titers (IgY) in the serum were measured prior to infection, and at 6, 11, 15, and 20 wk post infection (PI) and in egg yolk at 11 and 20 wk PI. Parameters evaluated included feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, FCR, liver weight, liver fat, and intra epithelial immune cell infiltration. The results showed no difference in feed intake, body weight, or FCR among any treatment groups (P > 0.05). Egg production was lower in the low infection group compared to other groups at 20 wk of age (P eggs in the coprodeum content and adult A. galli worm count were higher in infected hens compared to hens of the control group (P egg yolk antibody may be a more reliable indicator of A. galli infection than serum antibody or excreta egg count. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Effects of dietary boron on performance, egg production, egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study dietary boron at different doses (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg feed) was supplemented to layers from 4 to 64 weeks of age. There was no significant difference between treatments with respect of mortality, egg production, egg weight, egg mass and cracked eggs. Significant increases were observed in body ...

  14. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and some egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs were examined for both internal and external egg quality traits.Data obtained were subjected to one-way analysis of variance using the general linear procedure of SAS (2012). Differences in means were ranked using the Duncan's multiple Range test. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and other egg quality ...

  15. Flu Vaccine and People with Egg Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... able to eat lightly cooked egg (e.g., scrambled egg) without reaction are unlikely to be allergic. Egg- ... able to eat lightly cooked egg (e.g., scrambled egg) without reaction, you are unlikely to be allergic ...

  16. Antibiotic resistance of faecal Escherichia coli in poultry, poultry farmers and poultry slaughterers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaard, A.E. van den; London, N.; Driessen, C.A.G.G.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2001-01-01

    The percentage of faecal samples containing resistant Echerichia coli and the proportion of resistant faecal E. coli were determined in three poultry populations: broilers and turkeys commonly given antibiotics, and laying hens treated with antibiotics relatively infrequently. Faecal samples of five

  17. Reticulocyte Count Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to compensate, resulting in a high reticulocyte count. Hemolytic disease of the newborn : This condition causes increased RBC destruction, similar to hemolytic anemia described above. A low reticulocyte count with ...

  18. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 115 2 Don't like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 3 Loading... Loading... Transcript The ...

  19. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 118 2 Don't like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 3 Loading... Loading... Transcript The ...

  20. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

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  1. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  2. Eggs on Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    While Denmark is widely known as a global exporter of cryopreserved sperm, Danish women’s eggs face a very different fate. This paper combines legal and rhetorical analyses with the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries. In establishing the genealogy of the sociotechnical imaginaries that shaped...... Danish regulation of the cryopreservation of eggs, we analyse the relevant Acts, Bills, preparatory work, and readings in Parliament, along with the concurrent public and ethical debates that over time relaxed the legal limit for the cryopreservation of eggs to the current five years and today continue...... to ignite discussions on elective egg freezing. We rely on welfare-state perspectives to discuss why reproduction, in the Danish context, is seen as a legitimate and appropriate sphere to regulate, and we turn to feminist theorizing to discuss the gendered implications captured in the sociotechnical...

  3. Dinosaur Eggs and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Hirsch, Karl F.; Horner, John R.

    1996-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the study of dinosaur eggs and babies has proved to be one of the most exciting and profitable areas of dinosaur research. This is the first book solely devoted to this topic and reviews, in scientific detail, our present state of knowledge about this exciting area of palaeontology. Chapters in the book discuss all aspects of the science including the occurrence of eggs, nests and baby skeletons, descriptive osteology of juvenile skeletons, comparative histology of juvenile bone, analyses of eggs and egg shells, palaeoenvironments of nesting sites, nesting behaviour and developmental growth of baby dinosaurs. The volume will be an invaluable addition to the book collections of vertebrate palaeontologists and their graduate students.

  4. LCA of Egg Phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  5. A comparative study of faecal sludge management in Malawi and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rochelle Holm

    national policies and regulations taking faecal sludge management into account are weak and have wide .... Urban migration was discouraged by the first President, H. Kamuzu. Banda (1964-1994), during a time where rules supporting sanitation, hygiene, and waste were ... World Bank (2002) report on low income urban.

  6. Degradation of dietary fibre from 'Gari' by faecal bacteria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble fibre) was extracted from 'gari' (a fermented cassava product). The 'gari' fibre was subjected to degradation by faecal microflora and the microbial extracellular enzymes obtained from six clinically healthy adults (S1-S6). Other common components of dietary fibre namely starch, xylan, ...

  7. Sewage, Septage and Faecal Sludge Management in Tamale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sewage, septage and faecal sludge management profile in Tamale Municipality have been studied in relation to the different handling facilities used and the technologies adopted for their treatment and disposal. The human excreta facilities available include pan latrines, public latrines, and water closet systems.

  8. Sewage, Septage and faecal sludge management profile in Ho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents the sewage, septage and faecal sludge management profile in the Ho District of Ghana. The excreta handling facilities available in Ho District are water closet systems, KVIP, pan/bucket latrines and public latrines. About 71 per cent of the population, especially people in the densely populated and low ...

  9. Ano-rectal tuberculous granulomapresenting with faecal incontinence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... present a case of a 68-year old man with a huge mass in the ano-rectum with faecal incontinence, which was clinically diagnosed as an advanced carcinoma of the ano-rectum for which the biopsy was reported as tuberculosis. He improved with anti-tuberculosis treatment. Keywords: Ano-rectum, tuberculosis, cancer.

  10. Phosphorus and the grazing ruminant. 4. Blood and faecal grab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood plasma and faecal grab samples were evaluated as indicators of P status of cattle grazing at two experimental sites (Glen and Armoedsvlakte). Plasma Pj levels clearly identified the - P cattle at Armoedsvlakte as being P deficient whilst at Glen the - P group tended towards lower levels than the supplemented cattle ...

  11. Faecal pancreatic elastase - 1 a non invasive measure of exocrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives:- The major objective of this work was to establish the assay of faecal pancreatic elastase-1 in spot stool samples as an exocrine pancreatic function test at ... An ELISA technique which recognizes human pancreatic elastase-1 from spot stool samples was employed for the test and read photometrically at 405nm.

  12. Removal of faecal bacteria and nutrients from domestic wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of faecal bacteria and nutrients from domestic wastewater, in surface flow wetlands vegetated with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Horizontal surface flow (HSF) wetlands were fed with primarily treated domestic wastewater at organic loading rates varying from 20.74 to 27.15 g ...

  13. Faecal progestagen profiles in wild southern white rhinoceros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of the reproductive biology of wild animals can provide valuable information for the development of appropriate in situ and ex situ management plans. The present study aimed to establish a non-invasive protocol for monitoring faecal progestagen metabolite (FPM) patterns in wild female southern white ...

  14. Immunoglobulin coating of faecal bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waaij, Laurens A.; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Visser, Annie; Nelis, Gerardus F.; Westerveld, Bram D.; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Hunter, John O.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An inappropriate mucosal immune response to the commensal bacterial flora may play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study we determined the percentage of immunoglobulin-coated bacteria in the stools of patients and controls. METHODS: Faecal samples

  15. Longitudinal prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia pecorum in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia spp. in sheep in Australia has not been well described. Two species-specific quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) targeting the chlamydial outer membrane protein cell surface antigen gene (ompA) were validated and used to determine the prevalence and faecal shedding of C. abortus and C. pecorum from faecal samples of lambs at three sampling times (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter) from eight farms in South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. A total of 3412 faecal samples were collected and screened from approximately 1189 lambs across the four states. C. abortus was not detected in any of the samples screened. The overall prevalence of C. pecorum was 1027/3412 (30.1%) and median bacterial concentrations at weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter were 1.8 × 10(7), 1.2 × 10(7) and 9.6 × 10(5)/g faeces, respectively. A subset of C. pecorum positive samples from each farm, (n = 48) was sequenced to confirm their identity. The present study demonstrates that C. pecorum is prevalent in Australian sheep, highlighting a need for further research on the impact of this bacterium on production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis on faecal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis on faecal carriage rates of resistant isolates of Escherichia coli in HIV-infected adult patients in Lagos. ... African Journal of Infectious Diseases ... The Escherichia coli isolates showed a progressive increase in resistance to the tested antibiotics over the 12-month period.

  17. Escherichia coli. A sanitary methodology for faecal water pollution tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonadonna, L.

    2001-01-01

    Among the traditional indictors of faecal water pollution, Escherichia coli has shown to fit better with the definition of indicator organism. Till now its recovery has been time-consuming and needs confirmation tests. In this report more rapid and direct methods, based on enzymatic reactions, are presented [it

  18. Pyrosequencing the canine faecal microbiota: breadth and depth of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Daniel; Wallis, Corrin; Colyer, Alison; Penn, Charles W

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian intestinal microbiota remain poorly understood despite decades of interest and investigation by culture-based and other long-established methodologies. Using high-throughput sequencing technology we now report a detailed analysis of canine faecal microbiota. The study group of animals comprised eleven healthy adult miniature Schnauzer dogs of mixed sex and age, some closely related and all housed in kennel and pen accommodation on the same premises with similar feeding and exercise regimes. DNA was extracted from faecal specimens and subjected to PCR amplification of 16S rDNA, followed by sequencing of the 5' region that included variable regions V1 and V2. Barcoded amplicons were sequenced by Roche-454 FLX high-throughput pyrosequencing. Sequences were assigned to taxa using the Ribosomal Database Project Bayesian classifier and revealed dominance of Fusobacterium and Bacteroidetes phyla. Differences between animals in the proportions of different taxa, among 10,000 reads per animal, were clear and not supportive of the concept of a "core microbiota". Despite this variability in prominent genera, littermates were shown to have a more similar faecal microbial composition than unrelated dogs. Diversity of the microbiota was also assessed by assignment of sequence reads into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the level of 97% sequence identity. The OTU data were then subjected to rarefaction analysis and determination of Chao1 richness estimates. The data indicated that faecal microbiota comprised possibly as many as 500 to 1500 OTUs.

  19. Pyrosequencing the canine faecal microbiota: breadth and depth of biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hand

    Full Text Available Mammalian intestinal microbiota remain poorly understood despite decades of interest and investigation by culture-based and other long-established methodologies. Using high-throughput sequencing technology we now report a detailed analysis of canine faecal microbiota. The study group of animals comprised eleven healthy adult miniature Schnauzer dogs of mixed sex and age, some closely related and all housed in kennel and pen accommodation on the same premises with similar feeding and exercise regimes. DNA was extracted from faecal specimens and subjected to PCR amplification of 16S rDNA, followed by sequencing of the 5' region that included variable regions V1 and V2. Barcoded amplicons were sequenced by Roche-454 FLX high-throughput pyrosequencing. Sequences were assigned to taxa using the Ribosomal Database Project Bayesian classifier and revealed dominance of Fusobacterium and Bacteroidetes phyla. Differences between animals in the proportions of different taxa, among 10,000 reads per animal, were clear and not supportive of the concept of a "core microbiota". Despite this variability in prominent genera, littermates were shown to have a more similar faecal microbial composition than unrelated dogs. Diversity of the microbiota was also assessed by assignment of sequence reads into operational taxonomic units (OTUs at the level of 97% sequence identity. The OTU data were then subjected to rarefaction analysis and determination of Chao1 richness estimates. The data indicated that faecal microbiota comprised possibly as many as 500 to 1500 OTUs.

  20. Faecal indicator organisms in the Renoster Spruit system of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-04-02

    Apr 2, 2002 ... The impact of a variety of urban discharges from Bloemfontein on the numbers of microbiological faecal indicator organisms in the water of the Renoster Spruit subcatchment was investigated using E. coli, C. perfringens and somatic coliphages as microbial indicators. The no-observed-adverse-effect-levels ...

  1. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A variety of techniques have been described to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution of water. F-RNA (male-specific) coliphages have been classified into four sero-groups and evidence has been presented that two of these sero-groups are specific for human excreta and the other two for animal excreta.

  2. Molecular Detection of Strongyloides ratti in Faecal Samples from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A PCR method targeting the small subunit of the rRNA gene was performed in this study for the detection of DNA from Strongyloides ratti (an animal model of S. stercoralis) in faecal samples of wild Brown rats, Rattus norvegicus. Results: Strongyloides ratti was detected in 34.2 % of collected rats by different ...

  3. DNA-based species identification for faecal samples: An application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... Table 2. Collection sites of 162 valid faecal samples in the study. Species. Number of sample. Number in Fuxi site. Number in. Jiaocun site. Number in. Luocun site. Macaca thibetana. 78. 33. 22. 23. Macaca mulatta. 49. 0. 3. 46. Rattus edwardsi. 1. 0. 0. 1. Rattus tanezumi. 1. 0. 0. 1. Rattus norvegicus. 5. 2. 0.

  4. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faecal sterols were extracted from water and analysed by gas chromatography using published methods ..... The membranes were removed from the bags and placed in clean containers and washed twice in Buffer 1 containing 0.3 X SSC and 0.1%. SDS, for 15 min at 37°C in a .... proper phase separation could be seen.

  5. Haematology and faecal parasitic load of West African Dwarf goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematology and faecal parasitic load of West African Dwarf goats fed Panicum maximum supplemented with wheat offal. ... Total White Blood Cell (TWBC), L and N. There was an increased post-trial hematological over pre-trial hematological parameters for PCV, N and M while a decrease was observed for L in animals ...

  6. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human enteric viral infections are considered to be predominantly associated with human wastes, as opposed to animal wastes, and a distinction between these has benefits for water quality control and risk assessment. A variety of techniques have been described to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

  7. Effects of challenge dose on faecal shedding of Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... enteritidis infections has been reported worldwide (CDC,. 2000; Gast et al., .... Data analysis. Faecal samples with no detectable growths at all or that had colonies not typical of Salmonella and which did not agglutinate when reacted ... for different weeks post-infection were analysed via one-way analysis of ...

  8. Coliforms and enterococci as indicators of faecal pollution of Woji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the influence of the abattoir effluents and other human centred activities on the microbial quality of the Woji Trans-Amadi River of Port Harcourt, using coliforms and enterococci as indicators of faecal pollution. Four sites on the Woji River namely: the abattoir effluent, the waste/faeces disposal, upstream ...

  9. Excretion of faecal viruses during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, J; Shipp, A P; Waller, D K; Higgins, P G

    1980-01-01

    Four hundred faecal samples, collected at approximately weekly intervals during the first year of life from nine babies, were examined for the presence of viruses. Only nine (2.3%) samples contained a virus detectable by electron microscopy, and on all but one occasion only one type of virus was present and that in small numbers. Thirty (7.5%) of the specimens contained an enterovirus other than poliovirus, and these represetned 10 infections in four of the children. All three types of poliovirus, probably vaccine derived, were excreted by each child, and one or more types were present in 87 (21.8%) of the samples. There was no evidence to suggest that any of the illnesses suffered by the children had been caused by faecal viruses. Infection with these viruses was uncommon in the first three months of life but more than 40% of faecal samples obtained from children between the ages of 3 months and 1 year contained a faecal virus. PMID:6253530

  10. FOOD PREFERENCE DATA BY FAECAL ANALYSIS FOR AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOOD PREFERENCE DATA BY FAECAL ANALYSIS. FOR AFRICAN PLAINS UNGULATES. D. R. M. STEWART AND Joycr STEWART. Fauna Research Unit, Kenya Game Department, Nairobi, Kenya. INTRODUCTION. There is little published information, particularly of a quantitative nature, concerning the preferences ...

  11. Faecal incontinence in children in Calabar | Archibong | Orient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This procedure complemented with psychotherapy was effective in improving continence to various degrees in 90% of the patients. Conclusion: Faecal Incontinence is a societal problem and before school age is not taken seriously as diapers may be applied in the home environment. Orient Journal of Medicine Vol.

  12. Effects of ceftriaxone on faecal flora : analysis by micromorphometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma, D.G.; Wilkinson, M.H.F.; Meijer, B.C

    1991-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effect of ceftriaxone therapy on the morphology of gut microflora, 11 human volunteers were treated with ceftriaxone, 1 g daily, given intramuscularly in one dose. Treatment continued for 5 days. Faecal microflora was analysed by digital image processing before, during and

  13. Faecal Parasitology: Concentration Methodology Needs to be Better Standardised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Monika M.; Saez, Agatha Christie Santos; Chiodini, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine whether variation in the preservative, pore size of the sieve, solvent, centrifugal force and centrifugation time used in the Ridley-Allen Concentration method for examining faecal specimens for parasite stages had any effect on their recovery in faecal specimens. Methods A questionnaire was sent to all participants in the UK NEQAS Faecal Parasitology Scheme. The recovery of parasite stages was compared using formalin diluted in water or formalin diluted in saline as the fixative, 3 different pore sizes of sieve, ether or ethyl acetate as a solvent, 7 different centrifugal forces and 6 different centrifugation times according to the methods described by participants completing the questionnaire. Results The number of parasite stages recovered was higher when formalin diluted in water was used as fixative, a smaller pore size of sieve was used, ethyl acetate along with Triton X 100 was used as a solvent and a centrifugal force of 3,000 rpm for 3 minutes were employed. Conclusions This study showed that differences in methodology at various stages of the concentration process affect the recovery of parasites from a faecal specimen and parasites present in small numbers could be missed if the recommended methodology is not followed. PMID:27073836

  14. Antibiotic resistant bacteria in faecal samples of apparently healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in faeces of apparently healthy individual volunteers was investigated. Faecal samples were collected from 216 individuals comprising 138 adults (70 males and 68 females) and 78 children aged between 4 months and 42 years (mean age was 30.2 months). Individuals on ...

  15. Performance of rats orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and simultaneously infected with Escherichia coli, while the control was challenged with E. coli alone. The treatment was repeated the second day and post ingestion period of 18 days follow. It was observed that rats ...

  16. Proteomics analysis of egg white proteins from different egg varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiapei; Liang, Yue; Omana, Dileep A; Kav, Nat N V; Wu, Jianping

    2012-01-11

    The market of specialty eggs, such as omega-3-enriched eggs, organic eggs, and free-range eggs, is continuously growing. The nutritional composition of egg yolk can be manipulated by feed diet; however, it is not known if there is any difference in the composition of egg white proteins among different egg varieties. The purpose of the study was to compare the egg white proteins among six different egg varieties using proteomics analysis. Egg white proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 89 protein spots were subjected to LC-MS/MS. A total of 23 proteins, belonging to Gallus gallus , were identified from 72 detected protein spots. A quiescence-specific protein precursor in egg white was identified for the first time in this study. Significant differences in the abundant levels of 19 proteins (from 65 protein spots) were observed among six egg varieties. Four proteins, ovalbumin-related protein Y, cystatin, avidin, and albumin precursor, were not different among these six egg varieties. These findings suggest that the abundance, but not the composition, of egg white proteins varied among the egg varieties.

  17. Cryptocephaline Egg Case Provides Incomplete Protection from Generalist Predators (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schöller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The egg case of Cryptocephalus rufipes (Goeze is described and illustrated. In laboratory trials, eggs of field-collected C. rufipes were observed for larval emergence (untreated control or exposed to two species of generalist predators, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens or Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter in no-choice experiments. The behaviour of the predators upon contact with the C. rufipes eggs was observed. The number of hatching larvae was counted and compared. In the presence of each of the two species of predators, larval emergence was significantly reduced. Eggs that were not protected by an egg case were completely consumed by the predators. C. rufipes eggs were therefore incompletely protected from the studied generalist predators. This is the first study showing experimentally the protective function of cryptocephaline egg case.

  18. Radiation counting statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiments. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. 11 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  19. Radiation counting statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H.

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  20. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight,

  1. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Egg components, egg size, and hatchling size in leatherback turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bryan P; Sotherland, Paul R; Tomillo, Pilar Santidrian; Bouchard, Sarah S; Reina, Richard D; Spotila, James R; Paladino, Frank V

    2006-12-01

    Relationships between egg size, egg components, and neonate size have been investigated across a wide range of oviparous taxa. Differences in egg traits among taxa reflect not only phylogenetic differences, but also interactions between biotic (i.e., maternal resource allocation) and abiotic (i.e. nest environment conditions) factors. We examined relationships between egg mass, egg composition, and hatchling size in leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) because of the unique egg and reproductive characteristics of this species and of sea turtles in general. Albumen comprised 63.0%+/-2.8% (mean+/-S.D.) of egg mass and explained most of the variation in egg mass, whereas yolk comprised only 33.0%+/-2.7%. Additionally, leatherback albumen dry mass was approximately 16% of albumen wet mass. Whereas hatchling mass increased significantly with egg mass (n = 218 clutches), hatchling mass increased by only approximately 2 g for each 10 g increase in egg mass and was approximately 10-20 g greater than yolk mass. Taken together, our results indicate that albumen might play a particularly significant role in leatherback embryonic development, and that leatherback eggs are both capable of water uptake from the nest substrate and also possess a large reservoir of water in the albumen. Relationships between egg mass and egg components, such as variation in egg mass being largely explained by variation in albumen mass and egg mass containing a relatively high proportion of albumen solids, are more similar to bird eggs than to eggs of other non-avian reptiles. However, hatchling mass correlates more with yolk mass than with albumen mass, unlike patterns observed in bird eggs of similar composition.

  3. Quantitative assessment of faecal shedding of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem

    2015-01-01

    media containing relevant antibiotic concentrations, followed by species identification using MALDI-TOF. Ampicillin- and cefotaxime-resistant E. coli were detected in 40% and 8% of the dogs, respectively, whereas approximately 15% carried ampicillin-resistant enterococci, mainly Enterococcus faecium...... of 108 dogs presenting at a veterinary hospital in Denmark. The dogs had not been treated with antimicrobials for 4 weeks prior to the study. Total E. coli and enterococci were quantified by counts on MacConkey and Slanetz-Bartley, respectively. Resistant E. coli and enterococci were counted on the same....... In the faeces of the carriers, the proportion of resistant strains in the total bacterial species population was on average 15% for both ampicillin-resistant E. coli (median faecal load 3.2×10(4)cfu/g) and E. faecium (5.8×10(2)cfu/g), and 4.6% for cefotaxime-resistant E. coli (8.6×10(3) cfu/g). Cefotaxime...

  4. Droplet digital PCR improves absolute quantification of viable lactic acid bacteria in faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobert, Guillaume; Cotillard, Aurélie; Fourmestraux, Candice; Pruvost, Laurence; Miguet, Jean; Boyer, Mickaël

    2018-03-14

    Analysing correlations between the observed health effects of ingested probiotics and their survival in digestive tract allows adapting their preparations for food. Tracking ingested probiotic in faecal samples requires accurate and specific tools to quantify live vs dead cells at strain level. Traditional culture-based methods are simpler to use but they do not allow quantifying viable but non-cultivable (VBNC) cells and they are poorly discriminant below the species level. We have set up a viable PCR (vPCR) assay combining propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment and either real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) or droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to quantify a Lactobacillus rhamnosus and two Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei strains in piglet faeces. Adjustments of the PMA treatment conditions and reduction of the faecal sample size were necessary to obtain accurate discrimination between dead and live cells. The study also revealed differences of PMA efficiency among the two L. paracasei strains. Both PCR methods were able to specifically quantify each strain and provided comparable total bacterial counts. However, quantification of lower numbers of viable cells was best achieved with ddPCR, which was characterized by a reduced lower limit of quantification (improvement of up to 1.76 log 10 compared to qPCR). All three strains were able to survive in the piglets' gut with viability losses between 0.78 and 1.59 log 10 /g faeces. This study shows the applicability of PMA-ddPCR to specific quantification of small numbers of viable bacterial cells in the presence of an important background of unwanted microorganisms, and without the need to set up standard curves. It also illustrates the need to adapt PMA protocols according to the final matrix and target strain, even for closely related strains. The PMA-ddPCR approach provides a new tool to quantify bacterial survival in faecal samples from a preclinical and clinical trial. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by

  5. BACTERIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WASHED AND UNWASHED LAYING HEN’S EGGS CARACTERÍSTICAS BACTERIOLÓGICAS DE OVOS LAVADOS E NÃO LAVADOS DE GRANJAS DE PRODUÇÃO COMERCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Ferreira Stringhini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the bacteriological quality of washed and unwashed eggs obtained in four commercial poultry farms located in the metropolitan area of Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil was the purpose of this study. Farms 1 and 2 were considered as medium and small production capacity, respectively, and washed mechanically the eggs with heated water containing sanitizing while farms 3 and 4 produced unwashed eggs. The sample universe was made up of 576 eggs from farms 1 and 2, 288 obtained from the poultry facilities and other 288 collected in the classification hall, and 132 obtained in farms 3 and 4, half of this collected in the facilities and the other half in the classification hall. It was considered commercial eggs classified as large eggs from 30 to 40 weeks of age Dekalb White hens. The experimental design was a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 (washing procedure x collection place with three replicates and the experimental unit consisted of pool of six eggs. Counts of mesophilic and positive Staphylococcus coagulase and Most Probable Number (MPN of total and fecal coliforms in shells and internal content of eggs and Salmonella spp. research in eggshells were made. Results of the counts were expressed as log CFU/g and “t” Student test (5% adopted. Descriptive and frequency analysis was used to analyse MPN of total and faecal coliforms. Counts of mesophilic and positive Staphylococcus coagulase in eggshells of washed eggs in the classification hall of the farm 1 were lower (p <0.05 than that eggs collected in hen’s facilities which showed the efficiency of sanitization and good bacteriological quality of eggshell. The eggshells obtained in the classification hall of the farm 3 showed a higher (p <0.05 counts of mesophilic than in the facilities. Despite the high counting for positive Staphylococcus coagulase in the classification halls of farms 3 and 4, these values are lower than those needed to form toxin capable of

  6. Determination of the quality of stripe-marked and cracked eggs during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chi Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Stripe marks, which occasionally occur on the shell, do not cause breakage to the shell and shell membranes of eggs. This study investigated the quality of intact eggs (IEs, minor stripe-marked eggs (MEs, severe stripe-marked eggs (SEs, and cracked eggs (CEs during 3-week storage at 25°C. Methods Shell eggs were collected the day after being laid and were washed. Among them, eggs without any visual cracks or stripe marks on the shells were evaluated as IEs by the plant employees using candling in a darkened egg storage room; the remaining eggs exhibited some eggshell defects. At day 3, the eggs were further categorized into IEs, MEs, SEs, CEs, and broken eggs (BEs on the basis of the description given. Except BEs, which were discarded, the remaining eggs were stored at 25°C (approximate relative humidity 50% and then analyzed. Results Stripe marks were observed primarily within the first 3 days after washing. At day 3, CEs had significantly (p<0.05 lower Haugh unit values, but all eggs had grades AA or A, according to the United States Department of Agriculture standard. As storage time increased, differences in egg quality between groups were more obvious. IEs had the highest eggshell breaking strength. During storage, the total plate counts and pathogens, namely Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp., were not detectable in the internal content of IEs and SEs. Conclusion In conclusion, cracks degraded egg quality severely and minor stripe marks only slightly influenced the egg quality.

  7. A faecal analysis of helminth infections in wild and captive wolves, Canis lupus L., in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafrańska, E; Wasielewski, O; Bereszyński, A

    2010-12-01

    One hundred and three samples of faeces of reared grey wolves from four locations (Stobnica Park and Zoological Gardens in Bydgoszcz, Wrocław and Cracow) and twenty-six samples of faeces from two free-roaming packs of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Piła (Forest Divisions: Borne Sulinowo, Czarnobór, Jastrowo) and Zielona Góra (Forest Divisions: Torzym, Krosno Odrzańskie) were collected between 2005 and 2007. Helminth eggs were detected in 78.6% of faecal samples of reared grey wolves and in 88.4% of those of free-roaming wolves. The trematode Alaria alata (80.1%) and nematodes Eucoleus aerophilus (23.1%) and Spirocerca lupi (11.5%) were only detected from wild packs of wolves and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (35.9%), Trichuris vulpis (15.5%) and Toxocara canis (3.9%) were only detected from reared wolves. Differences were observed in the prevalence and composition of helminth fauna between reared and wild grey wolves and our results are compared with those from studies within Poland and elsewhere in Europe.

  8. Health Physics counting room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.

  9. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  10. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  11. Concentrations of faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci and Campylobacter spp. in equine faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, E M; Downing, M; Bellamy, J; Gilpin, B J

    2015-03-01

    To determine the concentration of Campylobacter spp. as well as faecal indicator bacteria; faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci in the faeces of healthy adult horses in a sample of properties in the Canterbury region of New Zealand. The faeces of healthy adult horses (n=59), including ponies, pleasure horses and Thoroughbreds, were collected from eight properties around Christchurch, New Zealand. The faeces were analysed for concentrations of Campylobacter spp and faecal indicator bacteria; faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci. The presence of other animals on the properties sampled as well as the age, feed and health of the horses at the time of sampling was recorded. Enterococci and faecal coliforms were isolated from all samples, and E. coli was isolated from 58/59 samples. Mean concentrations of faecal coliforms and E. coli did not differ between properties, but there was a significant difference in mean concentration of enterococci between properties. Campylobacter spp. were detected in two faecal samples with one isolate being determined by PCR analysis to be a thermotolerant Campylobacter species, the other C. jejuni. This is the first known report quantifying the concentration of Campylobacter spp. present in healthy adult horses in New Zealand. The presence of equine faecal material in water could elevate concentrations of faecal bacteria and therefore needs to be considered as a source of water contamination. The access of horses to waterways and coastal environments may also need to be restricted to prevent transmission of faecal indicator bacteria and potentially zoonotic agents.

  12. High-grade internal rectal prolapse: Does it explain so-called "idiopathic" faecal incontinence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemendaal, A L A; Buchs, N C; Prapasrivorakul, S; Cunningham, C; Jones, O M; Hompes, R; Lindsey, I

    2016-01-01

    Faecal incontinence is a multifactorial disorder, with multiple treatment options. The role of internal rectal prolapse in the aetiology of faecal incontinence is debated. Recent data has shown the importance of high-grade internal rectal prolapse in case of faecal incontinence. We aimed to determine the incidence and relevance of internal rectal prolapse in patients with faecal incontinence without an anal sphincter defect. Patient data, collected in a prospective pelvic floor database, were assessed. All females with moderate to severe pure faecal incontinence, without obstructed defecation and sphincter muscle defects, were included. Data on defecation proctography, anorectal physiology and incontinence scores were analysed. Of 2082 females in the database, 174 fitted the inclusion criteria. High-grade internal rectal prolapse was found in 49% of patients and was associated predominantly with urge faecal incontinence. Passive faecal incontinence was more common in low-grade compared to high-grade internal rectal prolapse patients. Maximum resting pressure was lower in older patients and in patients with high-grade compared to low-grade internal rectal prolapse. Internal rectal prolapse grade was not significantly correlated with faecal incontinence severity score. High-grade internal rectal prolapse is common in female patients suffering particularly urge faecal incontinence, without anal sphincter lesions. Defecation proctography should be routine in the work up of faecal incontinence. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence due to systemic sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenefick, N J; Vaizey, C J; Nicholls, R J; Cohen, R; Kamm, M A

    2002-01-01

    Background: Faecal incontinence occurs in over one third of patients with systemic sclerosis. The aetiology is multifactorial. Conventional treatment is often unsuccessful. Sacral nerve stimulation is a new effective treatment for resistant faecal incontinence. Aims: To evaluate sacral nerve stimulation in patients with systemic sclerosis. Patients: Five women, median age 61 years (30–71), with scleroderma associated faecal incontinence were evaluated. All had failed maximal conventional treatment. Median number of preoperative weekly episodes of incontinence was 15 (7–25), median duration of incontinence was five years (5–9), and scleroderma 13 years (4–29). Methods: All patients were screened with temporary stimulation. Those who benefited underwent permanent implantation. At baseline and after stimulation a bowel diary, the SF-36 quality of life assessment, endoanal ultrasound, and anorectal physiology were performed. Results: Four patients were continent at a median follow up of 24 months (6–60). One patient failed temporary stimulation and was not permanently implanted. The weekly episodes of incontinence decreased from 15, 11, 23, and 7 to 0. Urgency resolved (median time to defer <1 minute (0–1) v 12.5 minutes (5–15)). Quality of life, especially social function, improved. Endoanal ultrasound showed an atrophic internal anal sphincter (median width 1.0 mm (0–1.6)). Anorectal physiology showed an increase in median resting pressure (37 pre v 65 cm H2O post) and squeeze pressure (89 v 105 cm H2O). Stimulation produced enhanced rectal sensitivity to distension. There were no major complications. Conclusions: Sacral nerve stimulation is a safe and effective treatment for resistant faecal incontinence secondary to scleroderma. The benefit is maintained in the medium term. PMID:12427794

  14. Locally produced natural conditioners for dewatering of faecal sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Moritz; Dayer, Pauline; Faye, Marie Christine Amie Sene; Clair, Guillaume; Seck, Alsane; Niang, Seydou; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Strande, Linda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In urban areas of low-income countries, treatment of faecal sludge (FS) is insufficient or non-existent. This results in large amounts of FS being dumped into the environment. Existing treatment technologies for FS, such as settling-thickening tanks and drying beds, are land intensive which is limiting in urban areas. Enhanced settling and dewatering by conditioning was evaluated in order to reduce the treatment footprint (or increase treatment capacity). Conventional wastewater cond...

  15. The relationship between perception and prevalence of faecal-orally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    12.5%, P=0.004) and Entamoeba histolytica (6.0% vs. 1.9%, P=0.035). In Barombi-kang the change in the awareness was not significant (P>0.1) and there was no significant change in the prevalence of any of the faecal-orally transmitted parasites detected. The relationship between the perception and the prevalence of ...

  16. Implementation of immunochemical faecal occult blood test in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jakob Søgaard; Bro, Flemming; Hornung, Nete

    2016-01-01

    anvendelsen af immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) i almen praksis. iFOBT detekterer humant globin i fæces og indikerer gastrointestinal blødning. Studiet udgør en del af et ph.d.-studie, der bidrager med ny viden til at optimere udredningen af patienter med tarmkræft. Der er et stort behov...

  17. Hatching distribution and embryo mortality of eggs laid by broiler breeders of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the hatching distribution of eggs from broiler breeders of different ages in distinct periods of incubation. Eggs were incubated in a single-stage experimental incubator. A number of 3.510 eggs were distributed into 3 treatments with 13 replicates of 90 eggs each. Treatments corresponded to breeder age: young (34 weeks, intermediate-age (44 weeks and old (72 weeks breeders. Eggs were transferred to the hatcher at 432 incubation hours, hatching was first checked at 449 hours, after which the number of hatched chicks was counted every 6 hours up to 515 incubation hours. After each count, hatched chicks were removed from the hatcher. Data were submitted to analysis of variance using measures repeated. A significant interaction between breeder age and incubation time was found. The total period required to hatch all incubated fertile eggs was not influenced by breeder age, which, however, affected hatching distribution. Eggs from old breeders hatched later as compared to young and intermediate-age breeders. More than 71% of the eggs had already hatched at 485 incubation hours, and 94% at 491 hours. Eggs laid by old breeders presented higher infertility and total embryo mortality, resulting in lower hatching percentage.

  18. Platelet Count and Plateletcrit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strated that neonates with late onset sepsis (bacteremia after 3 days of age) had a dramatic increase in MPV and. PDW18. We hypothesize that as the MPV and PDW increase and platelet count and PCT decrease in sick children, intui- tively, the ratio of MPV to PCT; MPV to Platelet count,. PDW to PCT, PDW to platelet ...

  19. T-cell count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... count URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003516.htm T-cell count To use the sharing features on this ... as hepatitis or mononucleosis Lower than normal T-cell levels may be due to: Acute viral infections Aging Cancer Immune system diseases, such as HIV/AIDS ...

  20. EcoCount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip P. Allen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Techniques that analyze biological remains from sediment sequences for environmental reconstructions are well established and widely used. Yet, identifying, counting, and recording biological evidence such as pollen grains remain a highly skilled, demanding, and time-consuming task. Standard procedure requires the classification and recording of between 300 and 500 pollen grains from each representative sample. Recording the data from a pollen count requires significant effort and focused resources from the palynologist. However, when an adaptation to the recording procedure is utilized, efficiency and time economy improve. We describe EcoCount, which represents a development in environmental data recording procedure. EcoCount is a voice activated fully customizable digital count sheet that allows the investigator to continuously interact with a field of view during the data recording. Continuous viewing allows the palynologist the opportunity to remain engaged with the essential task, identification, for longer, making pollen counting more efficient and economical. EcoCount is a versatile software package that can be used to record a variety of environmental evidence and can be installed onto different computer platforms, making the adoption by users and laboratories simple and inexpensive. The user-friendly format of EcoCount allows any novice to be competent and functional in a very short time.

  1. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu

    Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp.

    The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen

  2. Neutron event counting circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, B.J.; Maitis, W.

    1986-01-01

    A circuit is described for counting particles emitted by a particle-emitting material. The circuit consists of: means responsive to emitted particles for generating sensed particle pulses; first counting means for counting the sensed particle pulses; means responsive to the sensed particle pulses for generating window pulses, the window pulse generating means being further operative to generate window pulse of predetermined maximum time duration in response to each sensed particle pulse which occurs during the interval of a previously generated window pulse; means for generating a second pulse in response to each sensed particle pulse occurring during the interval of a previously generated window pulse; and second counting means for counting the second pulses

  3. Applied carbohydrate counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lovely; Khandelwal, Deepak; Kalra, Sanjay

    2017-09-01

    Carbohydrate counting or "carb counting" is a meal planning technique for persons with diabetes for managing blood glucose levels by tracking the grams of carbohydrate consumed at meals. With better patient education and awareness, carb counting has become an important step in diabetes management. People with all types of diabetes can be benefited with this approach via improved glycaemic control and quality of life. In the first part of this review basic principles of carbohydrate counting, its application in clinical practice and exchange lists pertaining primarily to South Asian populations have been discussed. Advanced carb counting involving equations which help in better understanding of insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio and insulin dose adjustment are also included in this review.

  4. Faecal haemoglobin and faecal calprotectin as indicators of bowel disease in patients presenting to primary care with bowel symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowat, Craig; Digby, Jayne; Strachan, Judith A; Wilson, Robyn; Carey, Francis A; Fraser, Callum G; Steele, Robert J C

    2016-09-01

    In primary care, assessing which patients with bowel symptoms harbour significant disease (cancer, higher-risk adenoma or IBD) is difficult. We studied the diagnostic accuracies of faecal haemoglobin (FHb) and faecal calprotectin (FC) in a cohort of symptomatic patients. From October 2013 to March 2014, general practitioners were prompted to request FHb and FC when referring patients with bowel symptoms to secondary care. Faecal samples were analysed for haemoglobin (EIKEN OC-Sensor io) and calprotectin (BÜHLMANN Calprotectin ELISA). Patients triaged to endoscopy were investigated within 6 weeks. All clinicians and endoscopists were blind to the faecal test results. The diagnostic accuracies of FHb and FC for identification of significant bowel disease were assessed. 1043 patients returned samples. FHb was detectable in 57.6% (median 0.4 µg/g, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.8; range 0-200). FC at 50 µg/g or above was present in 60.0%. 755 patients (54.6% women, median age 64 years (range 16-90, IQR 52-73)) returned samples and completed colonic investigations. 103 patients had significant bowel disease; the negative predictive values of FHb for colorectal cancer, higher-risk adenoma and IBD were 100%, 97.8% and 98.4%, respectively. Using cut-offs of detectable FHb and/or 200 µg/g FC detected two further cases of IBD, one higher-risk adenoma and no additional cancers. In primary care, undetectable FHb is a good 'rule-out' test for significant bowel disease and could guide who requires investigation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. FAECAL CALPROTECTIN IN NONINVASIVE DIAGNOSTICS OF THE INFLAMMATORY ENTERIC DISEASES AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.F. Tat'yanina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the opportunities to define the level of faecal calprotectin in diagnostics of the inflammatory enteric diseases (grohn's disease and colitis gravis among children. It was established that children, suffering from the inflammatory enteric diseases, the concentration of faecal calprotectin increases, thus, correlating with the clinical and endoscopic activity of the disease, as well as with the spread of the intestinal impairment. Faecal calprotectin may be a reliable marker of the inflammation activity in the event of grohn's disease and colitis gravis.Key words: faecal calprotectin, inflammatory enteric diseases, colitis gravis, grohn's disease, diagnostics, children.

  6. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...... control for private good attributes such as food safety also connected to the label. Our results suggest that altruistic motives may play an important role in the demand for agricultural products....

  7. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find ...

  8. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 64K ...

  9. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  10. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  11. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  12. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  13. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ Ditch the ads. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ... Sign in Share More Report Need to report the video? Sign in to report inappropriate content. Sign ...

  14. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe ...

  15. Helminth infections in faecal samples of Apennine wolf (Canis lupus italicus) and Marsican brown bear (Ursus arctos marsicanus) in two protected national parks of central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Barbara; Iorio, Raffaella; Traversa, Donato; Di Francesco, Cristina E; Gentile, Leonardo; Angelucci, Simone; Amicucci, Cristina; Bartolini, Roberto; Marangi, Marianna; Di Cesare, Angela

    This article reports the results of a copromicroscopic and molecular investigation carried out on faecal samples of wolves (n=37) and brown bears (n=80) collected in two protected national parks of central Italy (Abruzzo Region). Twenty-three (62.2%) samples from wolves were positive for parasite eggs. Eight (34.78%) samples scored positive for single infections, i.e. E. aerophilus (21.74%), Ancylostoma/Uncinaria (4.34%), Trichuris vulpis (4.34%), T. canis (4.34%). Polyspecific infections were found in 15 samples (65.21%), these being the most frequent association: E. aerophilus and Ancylostoma/Uncinaria. Thirty-seven (46.25%) out of the 80 faecal samples from bears were positive for parasite eggs. Fourteen (37.83%) samples were positive for B. transfuga, and six (16.21%) of them also contained Ancylostoma/Uncinaria, one (2.7%) E. aerophilus and one (2.7%) both E. aerophilus and Ancylostoma/Uncinaria. Of the other samples, 19 (51.35%) were positive for Ancylostoma/Uncinaria, two (5.4%) for E. aerophilus and two (5.4%) for both. Molecular analysis found the roundworm and capillariid eggs found in wolves and bear samples to be Toxocara canis, Baylisascaris transfuga and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila). Considering the high prevalence of zoonotic intestinal helminths detected in this study, it is important to improve the knowledge and awareness of the general public and park operators regarding the potential health risk associated with infections in wildlife.

  16. Assessment of the aerobic faecal microflora in mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) with emphasis on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus intermedius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, Karl; Chriél, Mariann

    2003-01-01

    and their offspring on seven mink farms throughout the production season and a semi-quantitative enumeration of total E. coli and haemolytic E. coli, beta-haemolytic streptococci, beta-haemolytic coagulase positive staphylococci, total lactic acid bacteria, and enterococci was carried out in all samples using...... selective and non-selective media. Aerobic bacteria were cultured from close to 100% of the samples throughout the survey. Prevalence of E. coli isolates varied between 70 and 90% of the samples throughout the survey with a small decline at the end of the study period. The highest bacterial counts were......The present study was undertaken to investigate the culturable aerobic faecal microflora of mink from newborn until adulthood with emphasis on the potential pathogens Escherichia coli and beta-haemolytic coagulase positive staphylococci. Rectal swabs were taken from 10 healthy dams...

  17. Effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus Isolated from Tibetan Mushrooms on the Plasma Lipids, Egg Cholesterol Level, Egg Quality and Intestinal Health of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Zhong

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of the Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 strain, isolated from Tibetan mushrooms, on plasma lipids, egg cholesterol level, egg quality, and intestinal health of laying hens were evaluated. In total, 160 Beijing fatty laying hens (43 weeks old were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.5% freeze-dried K. marxianus M3 powder for four weeks. The results showed that yeast supplementation reduced serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C levels (p<0.01, and increased serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C level (p<0.05. Moreover, regardless of K. marxianus M3 dietary addition level, the cholesterol content of the eggs decreased by more than 26%. When0.3% yeast was supplemented, significant differences were found in the egg weights, shell strength, albumen height, Haugh unit and nutrient content of the eggs (p<0.01. Finally, 0.3% yeast supplementation improved the intestinal flora conditions of the hens by decreasing the Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus counts (p<0.01 and increasing the Bifidobacterium count (p<0.01. The results in this work demonstrated that yeast culture supplementation to the diets deceased the serum and egg yolk cholesterol, and increased egg quality.

  18. Composition of human faecal microbiota in resistance to Campylobacter infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, C; Dicksved, J; Engstrand, L; Rautelin, H

    2016-01-01

    In mice, specific species composition of gut microbiota enhances susceptibility to Campylobacter jejuni but little is known about the specific composition of the human gut microbiota in providing protection from infections caused by enteropathogens. Healthy adult individuals, who travelled in groups from Sweden to destinations with an estimated high risk for acquisition of Campylobacter infection, were enrolled. Faecal samples, collected before travelling and after returning home, were cultured for bacterial enteropathogens, and analysed for Campylobacter by PCR and for the species composition of the microbiota by 16S amplicon massive parallel sequencing. The microbiota compositions were compared between persons who became infected during their travel and those who did not. A total of 63 participants completed the study; 14 became infected with Campylobacter, two with Salmonella and 47 remained negative for the enteropathogens tested. After exclusion of samples taken after antimicrobial treatment, 49 individuals were included in the final analyses. Intra-individual stability of the microbiota was demonstrated for samples taken before travelling. The original diversity of the faecal microbiota was significantly lower among individuals who later became infected compared with those who remained uninfected. The relative abundances of bacteria belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae, and more specifically its two genera Dorea and Coprococcus, were significantly higher among those who remained uninfected. The travel-related infection did not significantly modify the faecal microbiota composition. Species composition of human gut microbiota is important for colonization resistance to Campylobacter infection. Especially individuals with a lower diversity are more susceptible to Campylobacter infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors affecting compliance in faecal occult blood testing: a cluster randomized study of the faecal immunochemical test versus the guaiac faecal occult test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenfeld, Shlomo; Belfer, Rachel Gingold; Chared, Miri; Vilkin, Alex; Barchana, Micha; Lifshitz, Irena; Fruchter, Dana; Aronski, Dina; Balicer, Ran; Niv, Yaron; Levi, Zohar

    2011-01-01

    To compare the uptake of faecal immunochemical occult blood test (FIT) with guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) in a screening programme, with specific attention to the demographic and socioeconomic factors that might affect test uptake. The Clalit Health Service screening programme, Israel. Average-risk individuals aged 50-75 years were randomized into a FIT arm or gFOBT arm using a programme based on the socioeconomic status (SES) of their primary care clinics. G-FOBT was performed with Hemoccult SENSA™ (3 evacuations) and FIT with the OC- MICRO(TM) (3 evacuations, refrigerating mandated). The GLIMMIX model was used. There were 5,464 and 10,668 eligible participants in the FIT and gFOBT arms respectively. Compliance in taking the kits was better (but not statistically significantly better) with gFOBT (37.8% vs. 29.3%; odds ratio [OR] 1.43 [95% CI 0.73-2.80]; P = 0.227). Kit return was higher in the FIT arm (65.0% vs. 78.9%; OR 0.45 [95% CI 0.24-0.83], P = 0.021). Overall test uptake was affected by age, gender, being immigrant and SES (determined by whether or not the participant paid national insurance tax, and the SES of the primary care clinic). The overall uptake of gFOBT and FIT was comparable (OR 0.996 [95% CI 0.46-2.17], P = 0.99). Overall compliance for test uptake was comparable between the two methods despite the more demanding procedure in the FIT arm. Sociodemographic parameters were the major determinants of compliance. An educational programme, with emphasis on the sociodemographic characteristics of the target population, should be instigated.

  20. Impact of diets with a high content of greaves-meal protein or carbohydrates on faecal characteristics, volatile fatty acids and faecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hang, I.; Heilmann, R.M.; Grützner, N.; Suchodolski, J.S.; Steiner, J.M.; Atroshi, F.; Sankari, S.; Kettunen, A.; Vos, de W.M.; Zentek, J.; Spillmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research suggests that dietary composition influences gastrointestinal function and bacteria-derived metabolic products in the dog colon. We previously reported that dietary composition impacts upon the faecal microbiota of healthy dogs. This study aims at evaluating the dietary

  1. Neutron activation analysis of cheese, eggs, fish, fowl and meats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikovsky, L.; Soliman, K.

    2002-01-01

    The concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, I, K, Mg, Na, Rb, S and Ti in 44 samples of cheese, eggs, fish, fowl and meats sold in Canada were determined with absolute instrumental neutron activation analysis. The procedure is fully computerized and incorporates one short irradiation and counting only. When an element was not detected, its detection limit was calculated. The nuclear interferences and blanks were taken into account. The nutritional significance of the results is discussed. (author)

  2. Egg Phospholipids and Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N. Blesso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are a major source of phospholipids (PL in the Western diet. Dietary PL have emerged as a potential source of bioactive lipids that may have widespread effects on pathways related to inflammation, cholesterol metabolism, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL function. Based on pre-clinical studies, egg phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin appear to regulate cholesterol absorption and inflammation. In clinical studies, egg PL intake is associated with beneficial changes in biomarkers related to HDL reverse cholesterol transport. Recently, egg PC was shown to be a substrate for the generation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO, a gut microbe-dependent metabolite associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. More research is warranted to examine potential serum TMAO responses with chronic egg ingestion and in different populations, such as diabetics. In this review, the recent basic science, clinical, and epidemiological findings examining egg PL intake and risk of CVD are summarized.

  3. Egg Phospholipids and Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesso, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are a major source of phospholipids (PL) in the Western diet. Dietary PL have emerged as a potential source of bioactive lipids that may have widespread effects on pathways related to inflammation, cholesterol metabolism, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function. Based on pre-clinical studies, egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin appear to regulate cholesterol absorption and inflammation. In clinical studies, egg PL intake is associated with beneficial changes in biomarkers related to HDL reverse cholesterol transport. Recently, egg PC was shown to be a substrate for the generation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbe-dependent metabolite associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. More research is warranted to examine potential serum TMAO responses with chronic egg ingestion and in different populations, such as diabetics. In this review, the recent basic science, clinical, and epidemiological findings examining egg PL intake and risk of CVD are summarized. PMID:25871489

  4. Irradiation of liquid egg, frozen egg, powdered egg, egg yolk and white of egg: reducing the population of Salmonella enteritidis and sensory aspects and physico-chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Eggs and their products have been incriminated in foodborne disease outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Irradiation is a food preservation technology that could be applied to minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of irradiation in liquid and frozen egg as well as in powdered egg, egg yolk and egg white spiked with Salmonella enteritidis. Spiked samples of liquid egg, egg white and egg yolk were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 kGy and spiked samples of frozen and powdered egg were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy. Raw odour, cooked odour and taste of non inoculated and irradiated samples and non irradiated samples of egg and egg products were analysed by a trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation (malonaldehyde concentration) were also determined. Doses of 2,0; 3,0; 3,5; 3,0 e 3,5 kGy reduced in 5 log the population of S. Enteritidis in liquid and frozen egg, powdered egg yolk, egg white and egg, respectively, with moderate alterations in relation to non irradiated samples detected by the trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation in the powdered products, however, showed more intense alterations. Therefore, irradiation can be considered a feasible process for liquid and frozen egg while when applied to powdered products it should be considered the type of food product to which they will be added due to alterations in viscosity. (author)

  5. Pattern of faecal 20-oxopregnane and oestrogen concentrations during pregnancy in wild plains zebra mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Hlengisizwe; Duncan, Patrick; Grange, Sophie; Cameron, Elissa Z; Barnier, Florian; Ganswindt, Andre

    2011-07-01

    Regulative endocrine mechanisms influence the reproductive behaviour and success of mammals, but they have been studied predominantly in domestic and captive animals. The study aims at describing the pattern of faecal 20-oxopregnane and oestrogen concentrations during pregnancy in wild plains zebra Equus quagga chapmani. Data were collected during wet and dry seasons 2007-2009. Enzyme Immunoassays were used to determine 20-oxopregnane and oestrogen concentrations in faecal samples (n=74) collected from individual mares (n=32) whose dates of foaling were known through long-term monitoring. Hormonal profiles were described with a General Additive Model (GAM: Hormone ∼ Days to Foaling). Faecal 20-oxopregnanes have a complex cycle during pregnancy (GAM, n=70, R(2)=0.616, p200 ng/g DW) of faecal 20-oxopregnanes associated with high (>160 ng/g DW) faecal oestrogen levels indicate mid-pregnancy in c.90% of cases (16/17). High faecal 20-oxopregnanes (>200 ng/g DW) and low faecal oestrogen levels (<160 ng/g DW) indicate late pregnancy, again in c.90% of cases. Two faecal samples would allow the stage of pregnancy to be determined with confidence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between average daily gain, faecal dry matter content and concentration of Lawsonia intracellularis in faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ken Steen; Skrubel, Rikke; Stege, Helle

    2012-01-01

    from day 29 to 47 post weaning. Every third day all pigs were weighed, subjected to a clinical examination and faecal samples were obtained. Faecal samples were subjected to dry matter determination and absolute quantification by PCR for L. intracellularis and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2...

  7. Review article: faecal incontinence in children: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical evaluation and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajindrajith, S.; Devanarayana, N. M.; Benninga, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Faecal incontinence (FI) in children is a significant gastrointestinal problem, with great personal and social impacts. It is characterised by recurrent loss of faecal matter into the underwear. Both functional and organic causes contribute to its aetiology with the former predominating. To review

  8. Increased faecal calprotectin predicts recurrence of colonic diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursi, Antonio; Elisei, Walter; Picchio, Marcello; Brandimarte, Giovanni

    2014-08-01

    Colonic diverticulitis shows a high recurrence rate, but the role of faecal markers in predicting recurrence is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of faecal calprotectin (FC) in predicting recurrence of diverticulitis. A prospective cohort study was performed on 54 patients suffering from acute uncomplicated diverticulitis (AUD) diagnosed by computerized tomography (CT). After remission, patients underwent to clinical follow-up every 2 months. After remission and during the follow-up, FC was analysed. Recurrence of diverticulitis was defined as return to our observation due to left lower-quadrant pain with or without other symptoms (e.g. fever), associated with leucocytosis and/or increased C-reactive protein (CRP). Presence of diverticulitis was confirmed by means of CT. The mean follow-up was 20 months (range 12-24 months). Forty-eight patients were available for the final evaluation, and six patients were lost to follow-up. During follow-up, increased FC was detected in 17 (35.4 %) patients and diverticulitis recurred in eight patients (16.7 %). Diverticulitis recurred in eight (16.7 %) patients: seven (87.5 %) patients showed increased FC during the follow-up, and only one (12.5 %) patient with recurrent diverticulitis did not show increased FC. Diverticulitis recurrence was strictly related to the presence of abnormal FC test during follow-up. In the present prospective study, increased FC was found to be predictive of diverticulitis recurrence.

  9. Antegrade continence enemas in the management of intractable faecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, E M; Ade-Ajayi, N; Wheeler, R

    1995-01-01

    The introduction of the Malone procedure has improved the outlook for children with severe faecal incontinence. Phosphate and saline enemas are administered through the exteriorized appendix in antegrade fashion to achieve evacuation and ensure cleanliness. The appendix functions as a non-refluxing catheterizable channel: If it is not available for use, a tubularized caecal flap is a safe alternative. We have constructed Malone stomas using the appendix in 20 patients and another seven patients have undergone the caecal flap modification. The mean age was 8.6 years. Eleven of the patients were boys and 16 (59%) were girls. Six children required dilatation or revision of their stomas for stenosis. One developed small bowel obstruction and another has stopped using the stoma. The results of the continence enemas were considered to be very good by the vast majority of patients and their carers. Our recent experience suggests that bisacodyl may be a valuable adjunct to the antegrade enemas of phosphate and saline. We believe that this procedure may be extended with benefit to adults with serious faecal incontinence in whom standard measures have failed. PMID:7769583

  10. Detection of Campylobacter in human faecal samples in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Aruna; Wilkinson, Jenny; Mahony, Timothy; Vanniasinkam, Thiru

    2014-01-01

    Data on campylobacteriosis in developed countries are well documented; in contrast, few studies on campylobacteriosis have been conducted in developing countries. This study was undertaken to test for Campylobacter in human faecal samples sent to the two major pathology laboratories in Fiji. A total of 408 diarrhoeal faecal samples were collected from the two major hospital pathology laboratories in Central Fiji (Suva) and Western Fiji (Lautoka) between December 2012 and February 2013 and from June to July 2013. Samples were analysed for the presence of Campylobacter using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods. Campylobacter was detected in 241/408 (59.1%) of samples tested using PCR. Samples from children aged less than five accounted for 21.6% of positive cases. Campylobacter was detected in 59.1% of diarrhoeal samples collected from the two main laboratories in Fiji. A high proportion of children under five years with Campylobacter has been reported in other countries and could be due to parents being more likely to seek medical attention. Further studies are required to confirm the species of Campylobacter that are predominantly associated with gastroenteritis in Fiji.

  11. Detection of Campylobacter in human faecal samples in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Devi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Data on campylobacteriosis in developed countries are well documented; in contrast, few studies on campylobacteriosis have been conducted in developing countries. This study was undertaken to test for Campylobacter in human faecal samples sent to the two major pathology laboratories in Fiji. Methods: A total of 408 diarrhoeal faecal samples were collected from the two major hospital pathology laboratories in Central Fiji (Suva and Western Fiji (Lautoka between December 2012 and February 2013 and from June to July 2013. Samples were analysed for the presence of Campylobacter using polymerase chain reaction (PCR based methods. Results: Campylobacter was detected in 241/408 (59.1% of samples tested using PCR. Samples from children aged less than five accounted for 21.6% of positive cases. Discussion: Campylobacter was detected in 59.1% of diarrhoeal samples collected from the two main laboratories in Fiji. A high proportion of children under five years with Campylobacter has been reported in other countries and could be due to parents being more likely to seek medical attention. Further studies are required to confirm the species of Campylobacter that are predominantly associated with gastroenteritis in Fiji.

  12. The Neanderthal meal: a new perspective using faecal biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainara Sistiaga

    Full Text Available Neanderthal dietary reconstructions have, to date, been based on indirect evidence and may underestimate the significance of plants as a food source. While zooarchaeological and stable isotope data have conveyed an image of Neanderthals as largely carnivorous, studies on dental calculus and scattered palaeobotanical evidence suggest some degree of contribution of plants to their diet. However, both views remain plausible and there is no categorical indication of an omnivorous diet. Here we present direct evidence of Neanderthal diet using faecal biomarkers, a valuable analytical tool for identifying dietary provenance. Our gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results from El Salt (Spain, a Middle Palaeolithic site dating to ca. 50,000 yr. BP, represents the oldest positive identification of human faecal matter. We show that Neanderthals, like anatomically modern humans, have a high rate of conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol related to the presence of required bacteria in their guts. Analysis of five sediment samples from different occupation floors suggests that Neanderthals predominantly consumed meat, as indicated by high coprostanol proportions, but also had significant plant intake, as shown by the presence of 5β-stigmastanol. This study highlights the applicability of the biomarker approach in Pleistocene contexts as a provider of direct palaeodietary information and supports the opportunity for further research into cholesterol metabolism throughout human evolution.

  13. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  14. Principles of correlation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A review is given of the various applications which have been made of correlation techniques in the field of nuclear physics, in particular for absolute counting. Whereas in most cases the usual coincidence method will be preferable for its simplicity, correlation counting may be the only possible approach in such cases where the two radiations of the cascade cannot be well separated or when there is a longliving intermediate state. The measurement of half-lives and of count rates of spurious pulses is also briefly discussed. The various experimental situations lead to different ways the correlation method is best applied (covariance technique with one or with two detectors, application of correlation functions, etc.). Formulae are given for some simple model cases, neglecting dead-time corrections

  15. The level of embryonation influences detection of Ostertagia ostertagi eggs by semi-quantitative PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Höglund, Johan; Nejsum, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ) to suggest optimal storage conditions for faecal samples in a diagnostic pipeline that involves detection and semi-quantification by real-time semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Eggs of Ostertagia ostertagi were obtained from fresh faeces and stored at 4 °C or 25 °C under aerobic...... or anaerobic (vacuum packing) conditions. Development was monitored by microscopy for up to 336 h, and the ITS2 copies were determined by qPCR from a fixed number of parasites. Under aerobic conditions at 25 °C, embryonation and a significant increase of ITS2 copies (P ......The Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) is a candidate diagnostic marker of the pathogenic cattle nematode Ostertagia ostertagi. The aims of this study were: (i) to document and quantify how the development of O. ostertagi eggs affects ITS2 copies under different storage conditions, and (ii...

  16. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  17. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKanna, J.A.; Casagrande, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  18. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  19. Fluorescence hyper-spectral imaging to detecting faecal contamination on fresh tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Romaniello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faecal contamination of fresh fruits represents a severe danger for human health. Thus some techniques based on microbiological testing were developed to individuate faecal contaminants but those tests do not results efficient because their non-applicability on overall vegetable unity. In this work a methodology based on hyper-spectral fluorescence imaging was developed and tested to detecting faecal contamination on fresh tomatoes. Two image-processing methods were performed to maximise the contrast between the faecal contaminant and tomatoes skin: principal component analysis and band image ratio (BRI. The BRI method allows classifying correctly 70% of contaminated area, with no false-positives in all examined cases. Thus, the developed methodology can be employed for a fast and effective detection of faecal contamination on fresh tomatoes.

  20. Microplastics Alter the Properties and Sinking Rates of Zooplankton Faecal Pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Penelope K; Fileman, Elaine; Clark, James; Lewis, Ceri; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S

    2016-03-15

    Plastic debris is a widespread contaminant, prevalent in aquatic ecosystems across the globe. Zooplankton readily ingest microscopic plastic (microplastic, microplastics on faecal pellet properties are currently unknown. Here we test the hypotheses that (1) faecal pellets are a vector for transport of microplastics, (2) polystyrene microplastics can alter the properties and sinking rates of zooplankton egests and, (3) faecal pellets can facilitate the transfer of plastics to coprophagous biota. Following exposure to 20.6 μm polystyrene microplastics (1000 microplastics mL(-1)) and natural prey (∼1650 algae mL(-1)) the copepod Calanus helgolandicus egested faecal pellets with significantly (P microplastics, encapsulated within egests of the copepod Centropages typicus, could be transferred to C. helgolandicus via coprophagy. Our results support the proposal that sinking faecal matter represents a mechanism by which floating plastics can be vertically transported away from surface waters.

  1. Supervised pelvic floor muscle training versus attention-control massage treatment in patients with faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussing, Anja; Dahn, Inge; Due, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Faecal incontinence affects approximately 8–9% of the adult population. The condition is surrounded by taboo; it can have a devastating impact on quality of life and lead to major limitations in daily life. Pelvic floor muscle training in combination with information and fibre...... supplements is recommended as first-line treatment for faecal incontinence. Despite this, the effect of pelvic floor muscle training for faecal incontinence is unclear. No previous trials have investigated the efficacy of supervised pelvic floor muscle training in combination with conservative treatment...... in patients with faecal incontinence. Design Randomised, controlled, superiority trial with two parallel arms. Methods 100 participants with faecal incontinence will be randomised to either (1) individually supervised pelvic floor muscle training and conservative treatment or (2) attention-control massage...

  2. Multiparametric monitoring of microbial faecal pollution reveals the dominance of human contamination along the whole Danube River

    OpenAIRE

    Kirschner, A.K.T.; Reischer, G.H.; Jakwerth, S.; Savio, D.; Ixenmaier, S.; Toth, E.; Sommer, R.; Mach, R.L.; Linke, R.; Eiler, A.; Kolarevic, S.; Farnleitner, A.H.

    2017-01-01

    The microbial faecal pollution of rivers has wide-ranging impacts on a variety of human activities that rely on appropriate river water quality. Thus, detailed knowledge of the extent and origin of microbial faecal pollution is crucial for watershed management activities to maintain safe water use. In this study, the microbial faecal pollution levels were monitored by standard faecal indicator bacteria (SFIB) along a 2580 km stretch of the Danube, the world's most international river, as well...

  3. The relationship between nutritionally-related blood metabolites and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of season on faecal egg counts and biochemical profiles in indigenous Nguni goats of South Africa. Body weights, body condition scores, faecal and blood samples were collected from 96 goats. Faecal samples were analysed for nematodes and trematodes.

  4. The nutritional status affects the complete blood count of goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cériac, S; Jayles, C; Arquet, R; Feuillet, D; Félicité, Y; Archimède, H; Bambou, J-C

    2017-11-09

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) remains the most important pathogenic constraint of small ruminant production worldwide. The improvement of the host immune response against GIN though breeding for improved animal resistance, vaccination and nutritional supplementation appear as very promising methods. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of four nutritional status differing in protein and energy levels (Hay: 5.1 MJ/Kg of dry matter (DM) and 7.6% of crude protein (CP), Ban: 8.3 MJ/Kg of DM and 7.5% of CP, Soy: 7.6 MJ/Kg of DM and 17.3% of CP, BS: 12.7 MJ/Kg of DM and 7.4% of CP) on the haematological disturbances due to Haemonchus contortus infection in Creole kid goats. No significant effect of the nutritional status was observed for faecal egg count (FEC) but the experimental infection induced haematological disturbances whose intensity and lengthening were dependent on the nutritional status. A transient marked regenerative macrocytic hypochromic anaemia as revealed by a decrease of packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin and an increase of reticulocytes was observed in all infected groups except Hay. In this latter, the anaemia settled until the end of the experiment. Furthermore, H. contortus induced a thrombocytopenia significantly more pronounced in the group under the lowest nutritional status in term of protein (Hay and Ban). A principal component analysis revealed that the variables that discriminated the nutritional status were the average daily gain (ADG) and the PCV, considered as measures of the level of resilience to H. contortus infection. Moreover, the variables that discriminated infected and non-infected animals were mostly related to the biology of RBC (i.e. size and hemoglobin content) and they were correlated with FEC. The severity and the lengthening of the regenerative anaemia and the thrombocytopenia induced by H. contortus have been affected by the nutritional status. The protein enriched

  5. [Survey of the number of eggs in Taenia asiatica gravid proglottids in Dali Prefecture of Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-Mei; Fang, Wen; Liu, Hong-Kun

    2013-12-01

    To observe the number of eggs in the gravid proglottids of Taenia asiatica. Twenty gravid proglottids at each end of two adults of T. asiatica were digested by 1% pepsin. Then, the collected eggs were observed and counted by a microscope. The number of eggs in each gravid proglottid were not the same, with the maximum of 132 500, minimum of 44 180, and the average number of 90 051, and there was a significant difference among the different gravid proglottids (t = -3.487, P = 0.003). The number of eggs in different gravid proglottids of T. asiatica is evidently different.

  6. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 414 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  7. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 319 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  8. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to make your opinion count. Sign in 117 2 Don't like this video? Sign in to ... Duration: 4:50. Saskatchewan Health Authority - Saskatoon area 2,010,512 views 4:50 Handwashing Gangnam Style - ...

  9. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Ditch the ads. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 671 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  10. What Counts as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  11. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 396 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  12. What Counts as Prostitution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart P. Green

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available What counts, or should count, as prostitution? In the criminal law today, prostitution is understood to involve the provision of sexual services in exchange for money or other benefits. But what exactly is a ‘sexual service’? And what exactly is the nature of the required ‘exchange’? The key to answering these questions is to recognize that how we choose to define prostitution will inevitably depend on why we believe one or more aspects of prostitution are wrong or harmful, or should be criminalized or otherwise deterred, in the first place. These judgements, in turn, will often depend on an assessment of the contested empirical evidence on which they rest. This article describes a variety of real-world contexts in which the ‘what counts as prostitution’ question has arisen, surveys a range of leading rationales for deterring prostitution, and demonstrates how the answer to the definition question depends on the answer to the normative question. The article concludes with some preliminary thoughts on how analogous questions about what should count as sexual conduct arise in the context of consensual offences such as adultery and incest, as well as non-consensual offences such as sexual assault.

  13. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 741 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  14. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Ditch the ads. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 269 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 460 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  16. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 269 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  17. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 384 views 1:19 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  18. Detection and counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, M.A.N. de

    1976-01-01

    Detection devices based on gaseous ionization are analysed, such as: electroscopes ionization chambers, proportional counters and Geiger-Mueller counters. Scintillation methods are also commented. A revision of the basic concepts in electronics is done and the main equipment for counting is detailed. In the study of gama spectrometry, scintillation and semiconductor detectors are analysed [pt

  19. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 824 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 409,492 ...

  20. Calorie count - fast food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Calorie count - fast food URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/ ...

  1. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Ditch the ads. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 931 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  2. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 552 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  3. Classification of parasite eggs used as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, J. M.; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Thamsborg, S.

    2012-01-01

    in order to first detect and then classify the parasite eggs based on a set of biologically inspired, quantitative features. The egg classification is currently done manually using transmitted light microscopy, but to allow for validation of this process and to reduce the operator bias, an automated system......The aim of the project is to describe the developmental stages of parasite eggs using digital image analysis of multispectral imagery. The primary focus is to identify and count eggs of different developmental stages and distinguish them from unrelated particles. This information is used to assess...... the pharmaceutical potency of eggs from the parasite Trichuris suis (pig whipworm), used as an active pharmaceutical ingredient in medicine against chronic autoimmune diseases of the intestines such as Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis. The analysis will combine spectral and morphological characteristics...

  4. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swansen, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a high speed circuit for accurate neutron coincidence counting comprising: neutron detecting means for providing an above-threshold signal upon neutron detection; amplifying means inputted by the neutron detecting means for providing a pulse output having a pulse width of about 0.5 microseconds upon the input of each above threshold signal; digital processing means inputted by the pulse output of the amplifying means for generating a pulse responsive to each input pulse from the amplifying means and having a pulse width of about 50 nanoseconds effective for processing an expected neutron event rate of about 1 Mpps: pulse stretching means inputted by the digital processing means for producing a pulse having a pulse width of several milliseconds for each pulse received form the digital processing means; visual indicating means inputted by the pulse stretching means for producing a visual output for each pulse received from the digital processing means; and derandomizing means effective to receive the 50 ns neutron event pulses from the digital processing means for storage at a rate up to the neutron event rate of 1 Mpps and having first counter means for storing the input neutron event pulses

  5. Egg temperature and embryonic metabolism of A- and B-eggs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macaroni and rockhopper penguins lay two eggs but rear only one chick to independence. The eggs are markedly dimorphic in size and, although the smaller A-egg is laid several days before the B-egg, in nests where both eggs are incubated, the B-egg always hatches first. Incubation temperatures and embryonic oxygen ...

  6. Assessment of commercially packaged water for faecal bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the 48 sachet water analyzed, 2 (4.2%) were positive for Presumptive Coliform Count (PCC) with the first and second water samples showing a count of 160 MPN/l00mls and 30MPN/100mls respectively. All the bottled water analyzed were negative for PCC. Since the need for consumption of packaged water cannot be ...

  7. Soil-transmitted helminth eggs assessment in wastewater in an urban area in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, Sonia; Barani, Viswa; Hegarty-Craver, Meghan; Raj, Antony; Perumal, Prasanna; Berg, Adrian B; Archer, Colleen

    2018-02-01

    Water quality and sanitation are inextricably linked to prevalence and control of soil-transmitted helminth infections, a public health concern in resource-limited settings. India bears a large burden of disease associated with poor sanitation. Transformative onsite sanitation technologies are being developed that feature elimination of pathogens including helminth eggs in wastewater treatment. We are conducting third-party testing of multiple sanitation technology systems in Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu) India. To ensure stringent testing of the pathogen removal ability of sanitation technologies, the presence of helminth eggs in wastewater across the town of Coimbatore was assessed. Wastewater samples from existing test sites as well as desludging trucks servicing residential and non-residential septic tanks, were collected. The AmBic methodology (based on washing, sieving, sedimenting and floating) was used for helminth egg isolation. We tested 29 different source samples and found a 52% prevalence of potentially infective helminth eggs. Identification and enumeration of helminth species is reported against the septage source (private residential vs. shared toilet facility) and total solids content. Trichuris egg counts were higher than those of hookworm and Ascaris from desludging trucks, whereas hookworm egg counts were higher in fresh wastewater samples. Surprisingly, no correlation between soil transmitted helminth eggs and total solids was observed.

  8. Eggs and Health Special Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz Fernandez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1968, the American Heart Association recommended the consumption of no more than 300 mg/day of dietary cholesterol and emphasized that no more than 3 eggs should be eaten per week, resulting in substantial reductions in egg consumption, not just by diseased populations but alsobyhealthyindividuals,andmoreimportantlybypoorcommunitiesinundevelopedcountieswho were advised against consuming a highly nutritious food.[...

  9. Eggspectation : organic egg verification tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 RIKILT conducted a study on about 2,000 eggs to evaluate three different analytical verification methods: carotenoid profiling, fatty acid profiling and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The eggs were collected from about 50 Dutch farms. The selection was based on the farms’ location and

  10. Egg dumping by predatory insects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corbani, A. C.; Ferrer, A.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Hemptinne, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2011), s. 290-293 ISSN 0307-6962 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Egg dumping * ladybird beetles * oocyte resorption * trophic egg Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.330, year: 2011

  11. Influence of clinical and laboratory variables on faecal antigen ELISA results in dogs with canine parvovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Unterer, S; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Hartmann, K

    2015-06-01

    False negative faecal canine parvovirus (CPV) antigen ELISA results in dogs with CPV infection are common, but the factors that lead to these false negative results are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dogs with a false negative faecal CPV antigen ELISA result have milder clinical signs and laboratory changes, a lower faecal virus load, higher faecal and serum CPV antibody titres and a faster recovery than dogs with a positive result. Eighty dogs with CPV infection, confirmed by the presence of clinical signs and a positive faecal CPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were assigned to two groups according to their faecal antigen ELISA result. Time until presentation, severity of symptoms, laboratory parameters, faecal virus load, faecal and serum antibody titres, and CPV sequencing data were compared between both groups. In 38/80 dogs that were hospitalised until recovery, the time to recovery, mortality, and the course of the disease were compared between dogs with positive and negative faecal antigen ELISA results. Of the 80 dogs included, 41 (51.3%) had a false negative faecal antigen ELISA result. ELISA-negative dogs had a significantly shorter time until presentation, lower frequency of defaecation, lower faecal virus load, and higher serum antibody concentrations than ELISA-positive dogs. Laboratory changes, CPV shedding, and outcomes were not associated with faecal antigen ELISA results. In conclusion, low faecal CPV load and antibodies binding to CPV antigen in faeces are likely to be important reasons for false negative faecal antigen ELISA results. Dogs with clinical signs of CPV infection should be retested by faecal PCR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bilateral compared with unilateral sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund-Jakobsen, J; Buntzen, S; Lundby, L

    2015-01-01

    % improvement were eligible. Twenty-seven patients who accepted to enter the trial were bilaterally implanted with two permanent leads and pacemakers. Patients were randomized into three periods of four weeks stimulation including unilateral right, unilateral left and bilateral. Symptoms scores and bowel habit......AIM: This randomized single-blinded cross over study aimed to investigate whether bilateral Sacral Nerve Stimulation (SNS) is more efficient than unilateral stimulation for faecal incontinence (FI). METHOD: FI-patients who responded during a unilateral test-stimulation, with a minimum of 50...... diaries were collected at baseline and in each study-period. Between each period one-week washout was introduced. RESULTS: Twenty-seven (25 female) patients with a median age of 63 (36-84) years were bilaterally implanted from May 2009 to June 2012. Median FI-episodes per three weeks significantly...

  13. Occurrence of pathogenic and faecal Escherichia coli in layer hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tagliabue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 117 Escherichia coli from colibacillosis affected (APEC and clinically healthy birds (AFEC were serotyped and tested for the presence of virulence genes: iss, tsh, cva. A total of 54.5% E. Coli were typeable and 15 different serogroups were identified. The most common serogroups among APEC strains were O78, O2 and O128, whereas O139 was predominant in faecal strains from healthy birds. Iss, tsh e cva were more frequently detected among the septicaemic E. coli strains. The association of virulence genes was observed. Particularly, the pathotype iss-tsh-cva was present in 46.5% of APEC strains. Referring to serogroups, E. coli O78 and O2 originating from colibacillosis affected birds were always isstsh- cva positive but did not share virulence genes when they came from healthy birds.

  14. Molecular Detection of Strongyloides ratti in Faecal Samples from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for all collected stool samples. Briefly, 2 g of each sample was placed in the center of plastic petri dish containing approximately 20 mL of nutrient agar. Dishes were sealed with parafilm tape to prevent larvae from crawling .... loops spiraling around the intestine or running parallel with intestine. Eggs in single row in uterus.

  15. Egg shell treatment methods effect on commercial eggs quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Santos de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The objective was to evaluate commercial eggs quality after being subjected to a cleaning process and immersion in whey protein concentrate (WPC as a function of storage time. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 4x7, being four methods of treating shell (not cleaned and not coated with WPC, not cleaned and coated with WPC, cleaned and not coated with WPC, cleaned and coated with WPC and seven periods of storage (1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days for a total of 28 treatments, with five replicates of four eggs each. Quality parameters evaluated were weight loss of eggs (%, specific gravity (g/cm3, haugh units (HU, yolk index (YI and potential hydrogen (pH albumen. The storage period increase, regardless of the shell treatment method, causing weight loss in eggs, reductions in specific gravity in the Haugh units, yolk index and increase in the albumen pH. The cleaning method makes egg's internal quality worse during storage. Coverage of whey protein concentrate is a viable alternative for commercial eggs conservation stored at room temperature in order to minimize quality loss during storage, including eggs that need to go through the cleaning process.

  16. Sacral nerve stimulation for the treatment of severe faecal incontinence: results after 10 years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Carmona, M Dolores; Martín Arévalo, José; Moro Valdezate, David; Plá Martí, Vicente; Checa Ayet, Félix

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study is to report our experience with sacral nerve stimulation for the treatment of severe faecal incontinence after the first 10 years with this technique. Between 2001 and 2011, 49 patients with severe faecal incontinence underwent sacral nerve stimulation. Anorectal manometry, endoanal ultrasound and pudendal nerve latency were performed. Bowel habit diary, severity of faecal incontinence and quality of life scales were evaluated preoperatively and at the end of follow-up. Morbidity occurred in a third of patients, mostly minor. Four definitive devices were explanted. With a median follow-up of 37 months, severity of faecal incontinence, urge and incontinence episodes significantly improved at the end of follow-up. Patients' subgroup with major follow-up of 5 years significantly improved the severity of faecal incontinence but not the parameters of the bowel habit diary. Quality of life showed no significant improvement. Descriptive data in patients with sphincter defects did not show worse results than with sphincter integrity. Sacral nerve stimulation is a safe technique for severe faecal incontinence with good functional medium-term results. In the long term, severity of the faecal incontinence also improves but studies with larger sample are necessary to show if other clinical parameters and the quality of life support this information. Preliminary results in patients with sphincter defects suggest that this technique could be effective in this group but future studies will have to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. The right to count does not always count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life......The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life...

  18. Six billion and counting

    OpenAIRE

    Leisinger, Klaus M.; Schmitt, Karin M.; Pandya-Lorch, Rajul

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 global population surpassed 6 billion people, and this number rises by about 70-80 million people each year. "Six Billion and Counting" examines the consequences of continuing population growth for the world's resource systems and for national and global food security. Leisinger, Schmitt, and Pandya-Lorch offer here a sober analysis of a complex and alarming situation. They assess the progress the world has made in controlling population growth and point to the areas where future diff...

  19. Fragments of approximate counting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buss, S.R.; Kolodziejczyk, L. A.; Thapen, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2014), s. 496-525 ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : approximate counting * bounded arithmetic * ordering principle Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2014 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9287274&fileId=S0022481213000376

  20. Counting conformal correlators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchuk, Petr; Simmons-Duffin, David

    2018-02-01

    We introduce simple group-theoretic techniques for classifying conformallyinvariant tensor structures. With them, we classify tensor structures of general n-point functions of non-conserved operators, and n ≥ 4-point functions of general conserved currents, with or without permutation symmetries, and in any spacetime dimension d. Our techniques are useful for bootstrap applications. The rules we derive simultaneously count tensor structures for flat-space scattering amplitudes in d + 1 dimensions.

  1. Whole-genome comparison of urinary pathogenic Escherichia coli and faecal isolates of UTI patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen Leth; Stegger, Marc; Kiil, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    The faecal flora is a common reservoir for urinary tract infection (UTI), and Escherichia coli (E. coli) is frequently found in this reservoir without causing extraintestinal infection. We investigated these E. coli reservoirs by whole-genome sequencing a large collection of E. coli from healthy...... controls (faecal), who had never previously had UTI, and from UTI patients (faecal and urinary) sampled from the same geographical area. We compared MLST types, phylogenetic relationship, accessory genome content and FimH type between patient and control faecal isolates as well as between UTI and faecal......-only isolates, respectively. Comparison of the accessory genome of UTI isolates to faecal isolates revealed 35 gene families which were significantly more prevalent in the UTI isolates compared to the faecal isolates, although none of these were unique to one of the two groups. Of these 35, 22 belonged...

  2. Faecal excretion of brush border membrane enzymes in patients with clostridium difficile diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katyal R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To look for the presence of intestinal brush border membrane (BBM enzymes in the faecal samples of patients with Clostridium difficile association. METHODS: One hundred faecal samples were investigated for C.difficile toxin (CDT. Simultaneous assays for faecal excretion of intestinal BBM enzymes viz., disaccharidases, alkaline phosphatase (AP and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP were also done. RESULTS: C.difficile toxin was detected in 25 (25% of the samples with a titre ranging from 10 to 160. No significant difference (p>0.05 was seen between the CDT positive and negative groups with any of the disaccharidases studied. However, significant increase (pC.difficile diarrhoea.

  3. Faecal incontinence as presentation of an ependymomas of the spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyarajah, Santhini; King, Andrew; Papagrigoriadis, Savvas

    2007-01-01

    Background Spinal tumours and ependymomas in particular are rare causes of cauda equina syndrome that present with faecal incontinence. Case presentation We present a case of a 45 year old gentleman who presents to a colorectal clinic with incontinence. We then present a review of ependymomas with particular reference to the symptoms they cause as well a review of the neurophysiology of faecal continence. Conclusion Suspicion for non-colonic causes for faecal incontinence should arise when there is absence of other etiologic factors. Establishment of the diagnosis of spinal tumours is with neurological examination and MRI spine. PMID:17894884

  4. Faecal incontinence as presentation of an ependymomas of the spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papagrigoriadis Savvas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal tumours and ependymomas in particular are rare causes of cauda equina syndrome that present with faecal incontinence. Case presentation We present a case of a 45 year old gentleman who presents to a colorectal clinic with incontinence. We then present a review of ependymomas with particular reference to the symptoms they cause as well a review of the neurophysiology of faecal continence. Conclusion Suspicion for non-colonic causes for faecal incontinence should arise when there is absence of other etiologic factors. Establishment of the diagnosis of spinal tumours is with neurological examination and MRI spine.

  5. Growth and parameters of microflora in intestinal and faecal samples of piglets due to application of a phytogenic feed additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhl, A; Liebert, F

    2007-10-01

    A commercial phytogenic feed additive (PFA), containing the fructopolysaccharide inulin, an essential oil mix (carvacrol, thymol), chestnut meal (tannins) and cellulose powder as carrier substance, was examined for effects on growth and faecal and intestinal microflora of piglets. Two experiments (35 days) were conducted, each with 40 male castrated weaned piglets. In experiment 1, graded levels of the PFA were supplied (A1: control; B1: 0.05% PFA; C1: 0.1% PFA; D1: 0.15% PFA) in diets based on wheat, barley, soybean meal and fish meal with lysine as the limiting amino acid. In experiment 2, a similar diet with 0.1% of the PFA (A2: control; B2: 0.1% PFA; C2: +0.35% lysine; D2: 0.1% PFA + 0.35% lysine) and lysine supplementation was utilized. During experiment 1, no significant effect of the PFA on growth, feed intake and feed conversion rate was observed (p > 0.05). Lysine supplementation in experiment 2 improved growth performance significantly, but no significant effect of the PFA was detected. Microbial counts in faeces (aerobes, Gram negatives, anaerobes and lactobacilli) during the first and fifth week did not indicate any significant PFA effect (p > 0.05). In addition, microflora in intestinal samples was not significantly modified by supplementing the PFA (p > 0.05). Lysine supplementation indicated lysine as limiting amino acid in the basal diet, but did not influence the microbial counts in faeces and small intestine respectively.

  6. Integrated site-specific quantification of faecal bacteria and detection of DNA markers in faecal contamination source tracking as a microbial risk tracking tool in urban Lake ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donde, Oscar Omondi; Tian, Cuicui; Xiao, Bangding

    2017-11-01

    The presence of feacal-derived pathogens in water is responsible for several infectious diseases and deaths worldwide. As a solution, sources of fecal pollution in waters must be accurately assessed, properly determined and strictly controlled. However, the exercise has remained challenging due to the existing overlapping characteristics by different members of faecal coliform bacteria and the inadequacy of information pertaining to the contribution of seasonality and weather condition on tracking the possible sources of pollution. There are continued efforts to improve the Faecal Contamination Source Tracking (FCST) techniques such as Microbial Source Tracking (MST). This study aimed to make contribution to MST by evaluating the efficacy of combining site specific quantification of faecal contamination indicator bacteria and detection of DNA markers while accounting for seasonality and weather conditions' effects in tracking the major sources of faecal contamination in a freshwater system (Donghu Lake, China). The results showed that the use of cyd gene in addition to lacZ and uidA genes differentiates E. coli from other closely related faecal bacteria. The use of selective media increases the pollution source tracking accuracy. BSA addition boosts PCR detection and increases FCST efficiency. Seasonality and weather variability also influence the detection limit for DNA markers.

  7. Faecal immunochemical tests (FIT) in the assessment of patients presenting with lower bowel symptoms: Concepts and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Callum G

    2018-03-13

    Colonoscopy is a relatively scarce resource in many countries, including Scotland, and a simple investigation which would aid general practitioners in particular in decision-making as to which patients presenting with lower bowel symptoms warranted referral would be of much help. Faecal immunochemical tests for haemoglobin (FIT) have many advantageous characteristics and are now proven to be of considerable value in the timely assessment of patients with symptoms of lower bowel disease. Quantitative FIT provide numerical estimates of faecal haemoglobin concentration (f-Hb) and, at low f-Hb cut-off, FIT have high sensitivity for colorectal cancer (CRC) and could be used as a rule-in test to stimulate rapid referral, especially when symptoms are suggestive of serious bowel disease. Perhaps more importantly, a low f-Hb gives considerable reassurance that significant bowel disease (CRC + higher-risk adenoma + inflammatory bowel disease) is absent and further investigation may not be warranted: however, no test is perfect, so some cases will remain undetected using FIT alone and robust safety netting is required, possibly including watching and waiting, referral to clinics in secondary care, or a repeat FIT. Moreover, the FIT results should not be taken in isolation, but clinical impressions and the results of other investigations, probably including the full blood count, should be considered. Challenges still exist, however, and harmonisation of aspects of the available FIT analytical systems is required. Moreover, a number of seemingly valid clinical concerns remain and these require resolution through further research and reporting of studies done in real clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Incubation of selected fermentable fibres with feline faecal inoculum: correlations between in vitro fermentation characteristics and end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochus, Kristel; Bosch, Guido; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Van de Velde, Hannelore; Depauw, Sarah; Xu, Jia; Fievez, Veerle; Van de Wiele, Tom; Hendriks, Wouter Hendrikus; Paul Jules Janssens, Geert; Hesta, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate correlations between fermentation characteristics and end products of selected fermentable fibres (three types of fructans, citrus pectin, guar gum), incubated with faecal inocula from donor cats fed two diets, differing in fibre and protein sources and concentrations. Cumulative gas production was measured over 72 h, fermentation end products were analysed at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-incubation, and quantification of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and bacteroides in fermentation liquids were performed at 4 and 48 h of incubation. Partial Pearson correlations, corrected for inoculum, were calculated to assess the interdependency of the fermentation characteristics of the soluble fibre substrates. Butyric and valeric acid concentrations increased with higher fermentation rates, whereas acetic acid declined. Concentrations of butyric acid (highest in fructans) and propionic acid were inversely correlated with protein fermentation end products at several time points, whereas concentrations of acetic acid (highest in citrus pectin) were positively correlated with these products at most time points. Remarkably, a lack of clear relationship between the counts of bacterial groups and their typically associated products after 4 h of incubation was observed. Data from this experiment suggest that differences in fibre fermentation rate in feline faecal inocula coincide with typical changes in the profile of bacterial fermentation products. The observed higher concentrations of propionic and butyric acid as a result of fibre fermentation could possibly have beneficial effects on intestinal health, and may be confounded with a concurrent decrease in the production of putrefactive compounds. In conclusion, supplementing guar gum or fructans to a feline diet might be more advantageous compared with citrus pectin. However, in vivo research is warranted to confirm these conclusions in domestic cats.

  9. Multiparametric monitoring of microbial faecal pollution reveals the dominance of human contamination along the whole Danube River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, A.K.T.; Reischer, G.H.; Jakwerth, S.; Savio, D.; Ixenmaier, S.; Toth, E.; Sommer, R.; Mach, R.L.; Linke, R.; Eiler, A.; Kolarevic, S.; Farnleitner, A.H.

    2017-01-01

    The microbial faecal pollution of rivers has wide-ranging impacts on a variety of human activities that rely on appropriate river water quality. Thus, detailed knowledge of the extent and origin of microbial faecal pollution is crucial for watershed management activities to maintain safe water use. In this study, the microbial faecal pollution levels were monitored by standard faecal indicator bacteria (SFIB) along a 2580 km stretch of the Danube, the world's most international river, as well as the Danube's most important tributaries. To track the origin of faecal pollution, host-associated Bacteroidetes genetic faecal marker qPCR assays for different host groups were applied in concert with SFIB. The spatial resolution analysis was followed by a time resolution analysis of faecal pollution patterns over 1 year at three selected sites. In this way, a comprehensive faecal pollution map of the total length of the Danube was created, combining substantiated information on both the extent and origin of microbial faecal pollution. Within the environmental data matrix for the river, microbial faecal pollution constituted an independent component and did not cluster with any other measured environmental parameters. Generally, midstream samples representatively depicted the microbial pollution levels at the respective river sites. However, at a few, somewhat unexpected sites, high pollution levels occurred in the lateral zones of the river while the midstream zone had good water quality. Human faecal pollution was demonstrated as the primary pollution source along the whole river, while animal faecal pollution was of minor importance. This study demonstrates that the application of host-associated genetic microbial source tracking markers in concert with the traditional concept of microbial faecal pollution monitoring based on SFIB significantly enhances the knowledge of the extent and origin of microbial faecal pollution patterns in large rivers. It constitutes a

  10. Prevalence, clinical consequences and management of acute faecal incontinence with diarrhoea in the ICU: The FIRST™ Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Rachel; De Luca, Enrico; Dierkes, Christine; Franci, Andrea; Herrero, Eva; Niederalt, Georg

    2015-11-01

    There are limited data on the incidence and management of acute faecal incontinence with diarrhoea in the ICU. The FIRST™ Observational Study was undertaken to obtain data on clinical practices used in the ICU for the management of acute faecal incontinence with diarrhoea in Germany, UK, Spain and Italy. ICU-hospitalised patients ≥18 years of age experiencing a second episode of acute faecal incontinence with diarrhoea in 24 h were recruited, and management practices of acute faecal incontinence with diarrhoea were recorded for up to 15 days. A total of 372 patients had complete data sets; the mean duration of study was 6.8 days. At baseline, 40% of patients experienced mild or moderate-to-severe skin excoriation, which increased to 63% in patients with acute faecal incontinence with diarrhoea lasting >15 days. At baseline, 27% of patients presented with a pressure ulcer, which increased to 37%, 45% and 49% at days 5, 10 and 15, respectively. Traditional methods (pads, sheets and tubes) were more commonly used compared to faecal management systems during days 1-4 (76% vs. 47% faecal management system), while the use of a faecal management system increased to 56% at days 5-9 and 61% at days 10-15. At baseline, only 26% of nurses were satisfied with traditional management methods compared to 69% with faecal management systems. For patients still experiencing acute faecal incontinence with diarrhoea after 15 days, 82% of nurses using a faecal management systems to manage acute faecal incontinence with diarrhoea were satisfied or very satisfied, compared to 37% using traditional methods. These results highlight that acute faecal incontinence with diarrhoea remains an important healthcare challenge in ICUs in Europe; skin breakdown and pressure ulcers remain common complications in patients with acute faecal incontinence with diarrhoea in the ICU.

  11. Multiparametric monitoring of microbial faecal pollution reveals the dominance of human contamination along the whole Danube River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, A K T; Reischer, G H; Jakwerth, S; Savio, D; Ixenmaier, S; Toth, E; Sommer, R; Mach, R L; Linke, R; Eiler, A; Kolarevic, S; Farnleitner, A H

    2017-11-01

    The microbial faecal pollution of rivers has wide-ranging impacts on a variety of human activities that rely on appropriate river water quality. Thus, detailed knowledge of the extent and origin of microbial faecal pollution is crucial for watershed management activities to maintain safe water use. In this study, the microbial faecal pollution levels were monitored by standard faecal indicator bacteria (SFIB) along a 2580 km stretch of the Danube, the world's most international river, as well as the Danube's most important tributaries. To track the origin of faecal pollution, host-associated Bacteroidetes genetic faecal marker qPCR assays for different host groups were applied in concert with SFIB. The spatial resolution analysis was followed by a time resolution analysis of faecal pollution patterns over 1 year at three selected sites. In this way, a comprehensive faecal pollution map of the total length of the Danube was created, combining substantiated information on both the extent and origin of microbial faecal pollution. Within the environmental data matrix for the river, microbial faecal pollution constituted an independent component and did not cluster with any other measured environmental parameters. Generally, midstream samples representatively depicted the microbial pollution levels at the respective river sites. However, at a few, somewhat unexpected sites, high pollution levels occurred in the lateral zones of the river while the midstream zone had good water quality. Human faecal pollution was demonstrated as the primary pollution source along the whole river, while animal faecal pollution was of minor importance. This study demonstrates that the application of host-associated genetic microbial source tracking markers in concert with the traditional concept of microbial faecal pollution monitoring based on SFIB significantly enhances the knowledge of the extent and origin of microbial faecal pollution patterns in large rivers. It constitutes a

  12. Egg to Fry - Chinook Egg-to-Fry Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Few estimates of Chinook egg-to-fry survival exist despite the fact that this is thought to be one of the life stages limiting production of many listed Chinook...

  13. Observations of territorial breeding common ravens caching eggs of greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations using continuous video monitoring of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus nests have unambiguously identified common ravens Corvus corax as an important egg predator within the western United States. The quantity of greater sage-grouse eggs an individual common raven consumes during the nesting period and the extent to which common ravens actively hunt greater sage-grouse nests are largely unknown. However, some evidence suggests that territorial breeding common ravens, rather than nonbreeding transients, are most likely responsible for nest depredations. We describe greater sage-grouse egg depredation observations obtained opportunistically from three common raven nests located in Idaho and Nevada where depredated greater sage-grouse eggs were found at or in the immediate vicinity of the nest site, including the caching of eggs in nearby rock crevices. We opportunistically monitored these nests by counting and removing depredated eggs and shell fragments from the nest sites during each visit to determine the extent to which the common raven pairs preyed on greater sage-grouse eggs. To our knowledge, our observations represent the first evidence that breeding, territorial pairs of common ravens cache greater sage-grouse eggs and are capable of depredating multiple greater sage-grouse nests.

  14. Faecal and protozoan parasite contamination of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) cultivated in urban wastewater in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anh, Vuong Tuan; Tram, Nguyen Thuy; Klank, Lise Tønner

    2007-01-01

    into a stream. Water spinach samples were harvested at each of the three locations with and without wastewater contact according to the normal practices of farmers, and analysed for ThC, protozoan parasites (Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora), and helminth eggs (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichura...... with and without wastewater contact. Giardia spp. were present in 56% (20) of samples with an average cyst concentration of 6.6/g. Mean counts of Giardia were not significantly associated with wastewater contact status of water spinach. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 17% (six) of samples with an average...

  15. Faecal microbiota of healthy adults in south India: Comparison of a tribal & a rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan Ramadass

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Phylum Firmicutes and genus Clostridium constituted the bulk of the faecal microbiota, while significant differences in composition between the groups were probably due to differences in diet and lifestyle.

  16. Faecal carriage of ESBL and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) - and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase prducing bacteria represent a great concern because there are few therapeutic choices. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of faecal carriage of ESBL ...

  17. Evaluation of the Efficacy of the Mini Parasep SF Faecal Parasite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the Efficacy of the Mini Parasep SF Faecal Parasite Concentrator; A New Technique against the Direct Smear and Formol Ether Concentration Technique for the Detection of Intestinal Parasites in Stool.

  18. Questionable Specificity of Genetic Total Faecal Pollution Markers for Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Source Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierheilig, Julia; Reischer, Georg H.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2010-05-01

    Characterisation of microbial faecal hazards in water is a fundamental aspect for target-orientated water resources management to achieve appropriate water quality for various purposes like water supply or agriculture and thus to minimize related health risks. Nowadays the management of water resources increasingly demands detailed knowledge on the extent and the origin of microbial pollution. Cultivation of standard faecal indicator bacteria, which has been used for over a century to test the microbiological water quality, cannot sufficiently meet these challenges. The abundant intestinal bacterial populations are very promising alternative targets for modern faecal indication systems. Numerous assays for the detection of genetic markers targeting source-specific populations of the phylum Bacteroidetes have been developed in recent years. In some cases markers for total faecal pollution were also proposed in order to relate source-specific marker concentrations to general faecal pollution levels. However, microbial populations in intestinal and non-intestinal systems exhibit a dazzling array of diversity and molecular analysis of microbial faecal pollution has been based on a fragmentary puzzle of very limited sequence information. The aim of this study was to test the available qPCR-based methods detecting genetic Bacteroidetes markers for total faecal pollution in terms of their value and specificity as indicators of faecal pollution. We applied the AllBac (Layton et al., 2006) the BacUni (Kildare et al., 2007) and the Bacteroidetes (Dick and Field, 2004) assays on soil DNA samples. Samples were collected in well characterised karst spring catchments in Austria's Eastern Calcareous Alps. They were at various levels of altitude between 800 and 1800 meters above sea level and from several different habitats (woodland, alpine pastures, krummholz). In addition we tried to choose sampling sites representing a presumptive gradient of faecal pollution levels. For

  19. Faecal incontinence: a narrative review of clinic-based management for the general gynaecologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn S; Shalom, Dara F; Winkler, Harvey A

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an informative and narrative review for the general Gynaecologist regarding the pathophysiology and conservative treatments available for faecal incontinence (FI). A PubMed search was performed by library staff and an author using the keywords: anal incontinence, faecal incontinence, accidental bowel leakage, outpatient clinic management of faecal incontinence and defecatory dysfunction. As the social limitations of FI can be devastating and long-term patient satisfaction rates after anal sphincteroplasty remain reportedly-low, the role of clinic-based management of FI has continued to grow. The purpose of this article is to provide the Obstetrician and Gynaecologist with a basic template for screening, evaluation and management of faecal incontinence in the clinical setting.

  20. Estimation of endogenous faecal calcium in buffalo (BOS bubalis) by isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Sareen, V.K.; Marwaha, S.R.; Sekhon, B.; Bhatia, I.S.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed investigations on the isotope-dilution technique for the estimation of endogenous faecal calcium were conducted with buffalo calves fed on growing ration. The ration consisted of wheat straw, green lucerne and concentrate mix. The endogenous faecal calcium was 3.71 g/day, which is 17.8 percent of the total faecal calcium. The apparent and true digestibilities of Ca were calculated as 51 and 60 percent respectively. The endogenous faecal calcium can be estimated in buffalo calves by giving single subcutaneous injection of Ca 45 and collecting blood samples on 12th and 21st days only, and representative sample from the faeces collected from 13th through 22nd day after the injection. (author)

  1. Immunologic changes in children with egg allergy ingesting extensively heated egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon-Mulé, Heather; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Shreffler, Wayne G; Noone, Sally; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2008-11-01

    Prior studies have suggested that heated egg might be tolerated by some children with egg allergy. We sought to confirm tolerance of heated egg in a subset of children with egg allergy, to evaluate clinical and immunologic predictors of heated egg tolerance, to characterize immunologic changes associated with continued ingestion of heated egg, and to determine whether a diet incorporating heated egg is well tolerated. Subjects with documented IgE-mediated egg allergy underwent physician-supervised oral food challenges to extensively heated egg (in the form of a muffin and a waffle), with tolerant subjects also undergoing regular egg challenges (in a form of scrambled egg or French toast). Heated egg-tolerant subjects incorporated heated egg into their diets. Skin prick test wheal diameters and egg white, ovalbumin, and ovomucoid IgE levels, as well as ovalbumin and ovomucoid IgG4 levels, were measured at baseline for all subjects and at 3, 6, and 12 months for those tolerant of heated egg. Sixty-four of 117 subjects tolerated heated egg, 23 tolerated regular egg, and 27 reacted to heated egg. Heated egg-reactive subjects had larger skin test wheals and greater egg white-specific, ovalbumin-specific, and ovomucoid-specific IgE levels compared with heated egg- and egg-tolerant subjects. Continued ingestion of heated egg was associated with decreased skin test wheal diameters and ovalbumin-specific IgE levels and increased ovalbumin-specific and ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels. The majority of subjects with egg allergy were tolerant of heated egg. Continued ingestion of heated egg was well tolerated and associated with immunologic changes that paralleled the changes observed with the development of clinical tolerance to regular egg.

  2. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    , denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite......Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  3. Photon counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuby, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a review of the various photon counting systems, used in astronomy, at optical wavelengths. Technological differences between available devices are introduced according to the processes applied to these photoelectrons (multiplication and/or acceleration), and their impact targets (phosphors, photodetectors, resistive or conductive anodes...). Two detection processes are involved: threshold discrimination above noise for most types of devices, and analog measurement for systems using resistive and wedge-and-strip anodes. Devices currently used for astronomical observations are presented, and their performance characteristics. These devices are: photomultipliers, which are monopixel detectors, using multiplication with dynodes; images intensifiers cameras, most frequently read with CCDs; analog devices with resistive or wedge-and-strip anodes, behind microchannel plates (MCP); Digicons, using direct electronic bombardment; the MAMA detector, with coincidence anodes behind MCP; and then the PAPA detector using masks encoding readout. Dead time effects, which define the dynamic range are presented with some details. Finally, because of the improvement of low level readout noise devices (CCDs), the field of application of the photon counting techniques confines to the blue and the UV part of the spectrum, at low signal to noise ratios [fr

  4. Sacral neuromodulation for the treatment of faecal incontinence following proctectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, I; Chadi, S A; Haim, N; Sands, D R; Gurland, B; Zutshi, M; Wexner, S D; da Silva, G

    2017-05-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) for faecal incontinence (FI) following proctectomy with colorectal or coloanal anastomosis. An Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved database identified patients treated for FI following proctectomy (SNM-P) for benign or malignant disease, who were matched 1:1 according to preoperative Cleveland Clinic Florida Faecal Incontinence Scores (CCF-FIS) with patients without proctectomy (SNM-NP). Primary outcome was change in CCF-FIS. Twelve patients (seven women) were in the SNM-P group and 12 (all women) were in the SNM-NP group. In the SNM-P group, six patients underwent proctectomy for low rectal cancer and five received neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Five patients had handsewn anastomosis, and one had stapled coloanal anastomosis. One lead explantation occurred after a failed 2-week SNM percutaneous trial. Six patients underwent proctectomy for benign conditions. Within-group analyses revealed significant improvement in CCF-FIS in the SNM-P group (reduction from a score of 18 to a score of 14; P = 0.02), which was more profound for benign disease (reduction from 14.5 to 8.5) than for rectal cancer (reduction from 19.5 to 15). SNM was explanted in 66% and 33% of patients after proctectomy for malignant and benign conditions, respectively. In the SNM-NP group, 41% underwent overlapping sphincteroplasty. One patient received chemoradiation for anal cancer. Within-group analysis for the SNM-NP group showed significant improvement in CCF-FIS (a reduction from 17.5 to 4.0; P = 0.003). There was significant improvement in CCF-FIS in patients without previous proctectomy (mean delta CCF-FIS: 11.1 vs 4.7; P = 0.011). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) reaffirmed that controls outperformed proctectomy patients (P = 0.006). SNM for FI after proctectomy appears less effective than SNM in patients without proctectomy, with high device explantation rates, particularly after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and

  5. Quality assurance in the egg production chain to reduce the bacterial contamination of the eggshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Reu, K; Grijspeerdt, K; Heyndrickx, M; Uyttendaele, M; Herman, L

    2003-01-01

    Washing eggs in sterile plastic bags with diluent is an efficient sample preparation method for the determination of the bacterial contamination on eggshells. The total count of aerobic bacteria and the total count of Gramnegative bacteria on the eggshell can be used to detect critical contamination points in the egg production chain. The number of eggs to be sampled in a point of the production chain was determined on a statistical basis and fixed on 40 for non-graded eggs and on 20 for graded eggs. In two production chains, one cage production and one organic production system, critical contamination points were identified. The influence of the housing system on the bacterial contamination of the eggshell at the stable was studied. A positive correlation was found between the initial bacterial eggshell contamination and the concentration of bacteria in the air of the poultry houses. With the exception of heavily soiled shells, like shells from ground eggs, there is a poor correlation between the level of bacterial contamination and the visual eggshell contamination.

  6. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required... INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled. (a) All shell eggs packed into containers destined for the ultimate consumer shall be labeled to...

  7. Review of synthetic human faeces and faecal sludge for sanitation and wastewater research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Roni; Ward, Barbara J; Strande, Linda; Maurer, Max

    2018-04-01

    Investigations involving human faeces and faecal sludge are of great importance for urban sanitation, such as operation and maintenance of sewer systems, or implementation of faecal sludge management. However, working with real faecal matter is difficult as it not only involves working with a pathogenic, malodorous material but also individual faeces and faecal sludge samples are highly variable, making it difficult to execute repeatable experiments. Synthetic faeces and faecal sludge can provide consistently reproducible substrate and alleviate these challenges. A critical literature review of simulants developed for various wastewater and faecal sludge related research is provided. Most individual studies sought to develop a simulant representative of specific physical, chemical, or thermal properties depending on their research objectives. Based on the review, a suitable simulant can be chosen and used or further developed according to the research needs. As an example, the authors present such a modification for the development of a simulant that can be used for investigating the motion (movement, settling and sedimentation) of faeces and their physical and biological disintegration in sewers and in on-site sanitation systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microbial population analysis improves the evidential value of faecal traces in forensic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaak, Frederike C A; de Graaf, Mei-Lan M; Weterings, Rob; Kuiper, Irene

    2017-01-01

    The forensic science community has a growing interest in microbial population analysis, especially the microbial populations found inside and on the human body. Both their high abundance, microbes outnumber human cells by a factor 10, and their diversity, different sites of the human body harbour different microbial communities, make them an interesting tool for forensics. Faecal material is a type of trace evidence which can be found in a variety of criminal cases, but is often being ignored in forensic investigations. Deriving a human short tandem repeat (STR) profile from a faecal sample can be challenging. However, the microbial communities within faecal material can be of additional criminalistic value in linking a faecal trace to the possible donor. We present a microarray technique in which the faecal microbial community is used to differentiate between faecal samples and developed a decision model to predict the possible common origin of questioned samples. The results show that this technique may be a useful additional tool when no or only partial human STR profiles can be generated.

  9. Ovomucoid Is Not Superior to Egg White Testing in Predicting Tolerance to Baked Egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnikas, Lisa M.; Sheehan, William J.; Larabee, Katherine S.; Petty, Carter; Schneider, Lynda C.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children with egg allergy may tolerate baked egg products. Ovomucoid specific IgE (sIgE) antibody levels have been suggested to predict outcomes of baked egg challenges. OBJECTIVE We determined the relationship of ovomucoid and egg white sIgE levels and egg white skin prick test (SPT) wheal size with baked egg challenge outcome. METHODS Retrospective review of 1186 patients who underwent ovomucoid sIgE blood testing. Subset analysis was of 169 patients who underwent baked egg food challenges. RESULTS Egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT were different among those eating regular egg, eating baked egg only, or avoiding all egg (P egg challenges. We were able to establish >90% predictive values for passing baked egg challenge for egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT. No patient with egg white SPT wheal egg challenge. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT showed areas under the curve of 0.721, 0.645, and 0.624, respectively. No significant difference was observed among these immunologic parameters in their abilities to predict baked egg challenge outcome (P = .301). CONCLUSION Most children with egg allergy in this study passed baked egg challenges. Ovomucoid sIgE, although a useful clinical predictor of baked egg tolerance, was not superior to egg white SPT or sIgE in predicting outcome of baked egg challenge. PMID:24013255

  10. Distribution of the number of Eurytrema sp. eggs per gram of feces in naturally infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belém, P A; Oliveira, M R; Padovani, C R

    1993-09-01

    Eurytrema sp. egg counts (epg) in the feces of naturally infected cattle were performed and the technique employed showed 94.2% probability of detecting positive cases of the infection with a single examination independently of the host parasite burden. It was also demonstrated that the epg of Eurytrema sp. follows a negative binomial distribution model and is characterized by its small magnitude.

  11. Effect of Formalin on the Hatching Rate of eggs and Survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    mathematically expressed as: % hatching rate. =Number of hatched eggs /Total number of eggsx100. Determination of survival rate: Percentage survival was determined by counting the total number of survived larvae after formalin treatment after one week and expressing such as a percentage of the total hatched larvae in ...

  12. Oral tylosin administration is associated with an increase of faecal enterococci and lactic acid bacteria in dogs with tylosin-responsive diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpinen, Susanne; Rantala, Merja; Spillmann, Thomas; Björkroth, Johanna; Westermarck, Elias

    2015-09-01

    The term tylosin-responsive diarrhoea (TRD) is used for canine recurrent diarrhoea cases for which no underlying cause can be found after extensive diagnostic investigations, but which show a response to the antibiotic tylosin in a few days. The objective of this prospective, one-arm longitudinal trial was to assess the effects of oral tylosin administration on the faecal levels of potentially probiotic bacteria, such as Enterococcus spp. and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), in dogs with TRD. This trial included 14 client-owned suspected TRD dogs that were on tylosin treatment and had firm faeces. Treatment was then terminated and dogs were followed up for up to 2 months to determine the recurrence of diarrhoea. Once diarrhoea started, dogs received tylosin (orally, 25 mg/kg, once daily for 7 days). At the end of the treatment period, stools were firm again in 11 dogs (TRD dogs); three dogs continued having diarrhoea and were excluded from the study. Faecal samples were collected at all three time-points for culture of LAB and enterococci. In TRD dogs, the colony counts of Enterococcus spp. (P = 0.003), LAB (P = 0.037), tylosin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (P tylosin treatment and had normal faecal consistency compared to when they had diarrhoea following discontinuation of tylosin. In conclusion, cessation of diarrhoea in TRD dogs with tylosin treatment could be mediated by selection of a specific lactic acid population, the Enterococcus spp., due to their potential probiotic properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vision Technology for Automated Characterization of Parasite Eggs in a Medicinal Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Johan Musaeus

    . In the present PhD project, a microscopy-based vision instrument has been developed to automate the characterization of egg suspension quantity and quality. The instrument uses digital image analysis and statistical classification to detect and count the eggs and to characterize the developmental stages......Eggs from the pig whipworm, Trichuris suis ova, constitute the active pharmaceutical ingredient in a drug candidate targeting immune-mediated diseases such as Crohn’s disease, multiple sclerosis, a.o. The drug candidate is currently being evaluated in clinical trials around the world...... of the larvae inside the eggs based on morphology and darkfield scattering. The novel application of this technology is described in a patent application. The assessed concentration and embryonation percentage is used in the preparation of medicinal doses for the patients. The instrument has been evaluated...

  14. AdipoCount: A New Software for Automatic Adipocyte Counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhao Zhi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has spread worldwide and become a common health problem in modern society. One typical feature of obesity is the excessive accumulation of fat in adipocytes, which occurs through the following two physiological phenomena: hyperplasia (increase in quantity and hypertrophy (increase in size of adipocytes. In clinical and scientific research, the accurate quantification of the number and diameter of adipocytes is necessary for assessing obesity. In this study, we present a new automatic adipocyte counting system, AdipoCount, which is based on image processing algorithms. Comparing with other existing adipocyte counting tools, AdipoCount is more accurate and supports further manual correction. AdipoCount counts adipose cells by the following three-step process: (1 It detects the image edges, which are used to segment the membrane of adipose cells; (2 It uses a watershed-based algorithm to re-segment the missing dyed membrane; and (3 It applies a domain connectivity analysis to count the cells. The outputs of this system are the labels and the statistical data of all adipose cells in the image. The AdipoCount software is freely available for academic use at: http://www.csbio.sjtu.edu.cn/bioinf/AdipoCount/.

  15. Incidence of Faecal coliforms Isolated From Different Foods Sold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-six (66) food products and ten water samples were collected from food vendors and restaurants and examined for bacteriological quality using both the most probable number (MPN) technique and the plate count of Escherichia coli on Eosin Ethylene Blue (EMB) and lactose fermenters on MacConkey agar. All results ...

  16. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Andersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk.

  17. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk. PMID:26389951

  18. Bacteriological methods for distinguishing between human and animal faecal pollution of water: results of fieldwork in Nigeria and Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Mara, D. Duncan; Oragui, John

    1985-01-01

    Bacteriological techniques have traditionally been used to detect faecal pollution of drinking water supplies. Recently, methods have been developed to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution in temperate climates. The present study assessed the applicability and practicality of these methods in tropical countries. Fieldwork in Nigeria and Zimbabwe has shown that animal faecal pollution can reliably be identified by the detection and enumeration of Rhodococcus coprophilus using ...

  19. Conventional treatment of functional constipation has a positive impact on the behavioural difficulties in children with and without faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modin, Line; Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Constipation studies have only evaluated behavioural difficulties in children with faecal incontinence. This study evaluated changes in behavioural difficulties in childhood with functional constipation (FC) with and without faecal incontinence, based on treatment outcomes. METHODS: Children...... treatment of FC had a positive impact on behavioural difficulties in constipated children with and without faecal incontinence. This study highlights the importance of proactive detection and treatment of FC in paediatric patients....

  20. Sequestration and Transfer of Cry Entomotoxin to the Eggs of a Predaceous Ladybird Beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora P Paula

    Full Text Available In the past 10 years, sequestration of Cry toxins and transfer to offspring has been indicated in three insect species in laboratory studies. This work directly demonstrates the sequestration and intergenerational transfer of Cry1F by the parents of the aphidophagous coccinellid predator, Harmonia axyridis, to its offspring. Recently emerged adults (10 individual couples/cage/treatment were exposed during 20 days to aphids (100 Myzus persicae each day that fed on a holidic diet containing 20 μg/mL Cry1F (and a control-group. Egg batches and neonate larvae were monitored daily, and counted and weighed for immunodetection of Cry1F by ELISA. At the end of the bioassay, the parents were weighed and analyzed by ELISA. Cry1F was detected in the offspring, both eggs and neonate larvae, of exposed H. axyridis adults. On average the neonate larvae had 60% of the Cry1F concentration of the eggs from the same egg batch. The Cry1F concentration in the adults was positively correlated with the concentration in their eggs. These three results provided independent evidence of transfer to offspring. No detrimental effects of Cry1F were observed on the age of first reproduction, total number of eggs laid per female, age-specific fecundity, egg development time, hatching rate, or fertility rate. The occurrence and generality of intergenerational transfer of Cry toxins should be investigated in the field to determine its potential ecological implications.

  1. Description of a novel viral tool to identify and quantify ovine faecal pollution in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiñol, Marta; Carratalà, Anna; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Bach, Alex; Kern, Anita; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Girones, Rosina; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia

    2013-08-01

    Farmed animals such as sheep, cattle, swine and poultry play an important role in microbial contamination of water, crops and food, and introduce large quantities of pathogens into the environment. The ability to determine the origin of faecal pollution in water resources is essential when establishing a robust and efficient water management system. Animal-specific viruses have previously been suggested as microbial source tracking tools, but specific ovine viral markers have not been reported before now. Previous studies have shown that polyomaviruses are host-specific, highly prevalent and are commonly excreted in urine. Furthermore, they have been reported to infect several vertebrate species but not sheep. That situation encouraged the study of a new putative ovine polyomavirus (OPyV) and its use to determine whether faecal pollution originates from ovine faecal/urine contamination. Putative OPyV DNA was amplified from ovine urine and faecal samples using a broad-spectrum nested PCR (nPCR). Specific nested PCR and quantitative PCR assays were developed and applied to faecal and environmental samples, including sheep slurries, slaughterhouse wastewater effluents, urban sewage and river water samples. Successful amplification by PCR was achieved in sheep urine samples, sheep slaughterhouse wastewater and downstream sewage effluents. The assay was specific and was negative in samples of human, bovine, goat, swine and chicken origin. Ovine faecal pollution was detected in river water samples by applying the designed methods. These results provide a quantitative tool for the analysis of OPyV as a suitable viral indicator of sheep faecal contamination that may be present in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of ACTH upon faecal glucocorticoid excretion in the koala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Nicole; Gillett, Amber; McAlpine, Clive; Seabrook, Leonie; Baxter, Greg; Lunney, Daniel; Bradley, Adrian

    2013-10-01

    Environmental changes result in physiological responses of organisms, which can adversely affect population dynamics and reduce resistance to disease. These changes are expressed in chronic levels of stress. The measurement of glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations in faeces is a non-invasive method for monitoring stress in wildlife. The metabolism and excretion of steroids differ significantly between species and, as a consequence, non-invasive methods must be physiologically validated for each species. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are declining in numbers through much of their range. The role of chronic stress in koala populations has not been identified. Prior to the assessment of faecal GC concentrations in wild koala populations, the excretion timing and concentrations of GCs need to be determined. In this study, we assessed a method for identifying and measuring the concentrations of GC metabolites in faecal pellets of captive koalas following ACTH treatment. The results show that an elevation of plasma cortisol concentrations, using sustained release of ACTH, results in elevated concentrations of faecal cortisol/cortisol metabolites. Taking into account the excretion time lag, an increase in faecal cortisol metabolite concentrations corresponds to the release of GCs from the adrenal cortex as early as 36 h before faecal pellet collection. The calculations of steroid partitioning of plasma cortisol showed that the ACTH-stimulated values were significantly different from the control values for the concentrations of free, corticosteroid-binding globulin-bound and albumin-bound cortisol. This study validates the use of faecal cortisol analysis to assess the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in freshly collected koala faecal pellets and indicates that the method should be suitable to assess the adrenocortical status of koalas in wild populations.

  3. Effects of Supplemental Mannanoligosaccharides on Growth Performance, Faecal Characteristics and Health in Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagdas Kara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Holstein calves were used to investigate the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS supplementation in the whole milk on growth performance, faecal score, faecal pH, selected faecal bacterial populations and health during the preweaning period. Healthy calves selected by clinical examination were allocated to one of the two groups (control [CG] and experimental [EG] at 5 days old. Each group consisted of 5 male and 5 female calves. Each calf in EG was supplemented with 7 g/d of a MOS product (Celmanax from 5 days to 56 days of age. MOS supplement was mixed with the whole milk once in the morning and administered to the calves in EG via nipple bottle, whereas the calves in CG were fed the whole milk without MOS. Calves were weaned at 56 days of age. The final body weight, average daily weight gain (ADG and average daily feed intake (ADFI were statistically similar (p>0.05 but were higher by 3.70%, 6.66%, and 10.97%, respectively, in MOS than in control calves. Feed efficiency (ADG/ADFI was also similar in two calves group. While faecal scores did not differ on day 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 49, and 56 between groups, EG had a higher faecal score (p = 0.05 than CG on day 35. Faecal concentration of Lactobacillus was lower (p0.05 in faecal concentrations of Bifidobacterium, Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli were found between groups. Although there were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the incidence of diarrhoea, treatment days for diarrhoea and the costs associated with diarrhoea treatments between groups, collectively, the observed reductions in treatment days and the cost of diarrhoea treatments accompanying increases in final body weight, ADG and ADFI for EG may indicate potential benefit of MOS in treatment of diarrhoea.

  4. Translation and validation of the traditional Chinese version of the faecal incontinence quality of life scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Tony W C; Leung, Wing Wa; Ngo, Dennis K Y; Lee, Janet F Y; Hon, Sophie S F; Ng, Simon S M

    2016-02-01

    Psychometric evaluation with tools such as the faecal incontinence quality of life scale is an essential component of clinical assessment. Currently, there is no translated Traditional Chinese version of the scale. A validated translated version may help to improve the quality of healthcare received in countries with Chinese minorities (0.5, 1.2 and 4.0% of the UK, USA and Australian population, respectively) as well as local population of Hong Kong. The purpose of this study is to validate the Traditional Chinese version of the faecal incontinence quality of life scale (FIQL). The FIQL questionnaire was translated into Traditional Chinese Language followed by linguistic validation. It was then tested on 55 patients with faecal incontinence and 93 controls in the colorectal outpatients clinic. Faecal incontinence severity index was also used for the assessment of disease severity. Internal consistency was good/excellent for all scales (Cronbach's alpha >0.70, between 0.71 and 0.93). The intra-class correlation indicated a high stability over time with coefficients ranging between 0.78 and 0.90. Test and retest of all four scales found no significant differences of mean scores between baseline and retest. The mean faecal incontinence quality of life scale scores of all four domains improved significantly after treatment of 10 patients whose faecal incontinence severity index scores decreased by 50 % of their pre-treatment scores, hence indicating good sensitivity. This study demonstrates the linguistic and psychometric validity of the traditional Chinese version of the faecal incontinence quality of life scale.

  5. The level of embryonation influences detection of Ostertagia ostertagi eggs by semi-quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drag, Markus; Höglund, Johan; Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig M; Enemark, Heidi L

    2016-06-29

    The Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) is a candidate diagnostic marker of the pathogenic cattle nematode Ostertagia ostertagi. The aims of this study were: (i) to document and quantify how the development of O. ostertagi eggs affects ITS2 copies under different storage conditions, and (ii) to suggest optimal storage conditions for faecal samples in a diagnostic pipeline that involves detection and semi-quantification by real-time semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Eggs of Ostertagia ostertagi were obtained from fresh faeces and stored at 4 °C or 25 °C under aerobic or anaerobic (vacuum packing) conditions. Development was monitored by microscopy for up to 336 h, and the ITS2 copies were determined by qPCR from a fixed number of parasites. Under aerobic conditions at 25 °C, embryonation and a significant increase of ITS2 copies (P parasite stage: first-stage larvae (L1) exhibited significantly higher copy numbers (20,353 ± 1,950) than unembryonated eggs (568 ± 168; P < 0.0001) with lower coefficient of variation (33 vs 266 %). Aerobic storage of O. ostertagi eggs at 25 °C led to a significant increase in ITS2 copies after 12 h due to embryonation and subsequent hatching. In contrast, anaerobic storage (vacuum packing) at 25 °C completely inhibited egg development and any undesirable semi-quantification bias for up to 336 h. Hence, vacuum packing is an optimal storage strategy prior to molecular diagnostic analyses. Alternatively, aerobic storage at 4 °C for up to 72 h can be used. Due to high copy numbers and lower genetic variation, the L1 stage may be considered for diagnostics and further molecular research.

  6. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm

    2009-01-01

    Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal...... fat excretion, we performed a systematic review with meta-analysis. We included randomized, controlled trials of calcium (supplements or dairy) in healthy subjects, where faecal fat excretion was measured. Meta-analyses used random-effects models with changes in faecal fat excreted expressed...

  7. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  8. Effect of oral diclofenac intake on faecal calprotectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendek, Zlatica; Falk, Magnus; Grodzinsky, Ewa; Wahlin, Karl; Kechagias, Stergios; Svernlöv, Rikard; Hjortswang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    NSAIDs are a known source of increased faecal calprotectin (FC) levels. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge about how long it takes for an increased FC level to return to normal after NSAID intake. The aim was to investigate how oral diclofenac intake affects FC levels and assess how long it takes for an increased FC level to return to normal after oral diclofenac intake. Thirty healthy volunteers received diclofenac 50 mg three times daily for 14 days. Participants provided a stool sample on Days 0, 2, 4, 7, 14 during intake and Days 17, 21, 28 after discontinuation. FC levels were then followed at 7-day intervals until normalization. During diclofenac intake, eight participants (27%) had FC levels exceeding the upper limit of normal (median, 76 μg/g; range, 60-958 μg/g), corresponding to 8.3% of measurements. FC was not constantly increased and became normal in most participants during diclofenac intake. FC levels were on average significantly higher during intake (M = 9.5, interquartile range (IQR) = 13.4) than on baseline (M = 7.5, IQR = 0.0), p = 0.003. After discontinuation, two participants had increased FC on Days 17 and 21, respectively. No significant differences in FC levels were found between baseline and measurements after discontinuation. Two weeks after discontinuation, all participants had normal FC levels. Short-term oral diclofenac intake is associated with increased FC levels. However, the likelihood of an increased test result is low. Our results suggest that 2 weeks of diclofenac withdrawal is sufficient to get an uninfluenced FC test result.

  9. Bifidobacterium faecale sp. nov., isolated from human faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Hye; Lee, Kyung Min; Lee, Myung-Ki; Cha, Chang-Jun; Kim, Geun-Bae

    2014-09-01

    A novel strain, designated strain CU3-7(T), was isolated from faeces of a two-week-old baby. The isolate was Gram-staining-positive, anaerobic and rod-shaped. Results from 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain CU3-7(T) was phylogenetically affiliated with members of the genus Bifidobacterium. Strain CU3-7(T) showed the highest level of sequence similarity with Bifidobacterium adolescentis KCTC 3216(T) (98.4 %), followed by Bifidobacterium ruminantium KCTC 3425(T) (97.9 %). Analysis of hsp60 sequences showed that strain CU3-7(T) was closely related to B. adolescentis KCTC 3216(T) (94.0 %) and B. ruminantium KCTC 3425(T) (92.5 %). The DNA-DNA hybridization values with the closely related strains were all below the cut-off value for species delineation, 17.0 % with B. ruminantium KCTC 3425(T) and 14.9 % with B. adolescentis KCTC 3216(T). Fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity was detected. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0 (27.7 %), C18 : 1ω9c (27.4 %) and C18 : 1ω9c dimethylacetate (15.5 %). The DNA G+C content was 58.6 mol%. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomy, strain CU3-7(T) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species within the genus Bifidobacterium, for which the name Bifidobacterium faecale sp. nov. is proposed ( = KACC 17904(T) = JCM 19861(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  10. Systematic review of the prevalence of faecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Yuan, L; Marshall, R J; Merrie, A E H; Bissett, I P

    2016-11-01

    Faecal incontinence (FI) is widely recognized as a significant problem in the community. Conjecture exists around the proportion of the population affected. This systematic review evaluated studies reporting the community prevalence of FI in terms of methodology, design and definitions. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Collaboration and National Guideline databases were searched for studies investigating the prevalence of FI in community-based adults published from January 1966 to February 2015. Study data, including methodology, sample size, response rate, definition of FI and prevalence rates, were extracted on to a pro forma and appraised critically. Where possible, FI prevalence estimates were pooled. Thirty studies were analysed from 4840 screened articles. FI prevalence estimates varied from 1·4 to 19·5 per cent. This variation was explained by differences in data collection method and two factors within definitions of FI: type of stool and frequency of FI episodes. When these factors were accounted for, the FI prevalence at a threshold of at least once per month for liquid or solid stool was 8·3-8·4 per cent for face-to-face or telephone interviews, and 11·2-12·4 per cent for postal surveys. The pooled prevalence rate from studies for functional FI (defined by ROME II criteria) was 5·9 (95 per cent c.i. 5·6 to 6·3) per cent. When comparable methodologies and definitions are used, studies produce remarkably similar prevalence rates in different community populations. FI remains an unspoken symptom, with lower rates reported in personal interviews compared with anonymous postal questionnaires. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Locally produced natural conditioners for dewatering of faecal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Moritz; Dayer, Pauline; Faye, Marie Christine Amie Sene; Clair, Guillaume; Seck, Alsane; Niang, Seydou; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Strande, Linda

    2016-11-01

    In urban areas of low-income countries, treatment of faecal sludge (FS) is insufficient or non-existent. This results in large amounts of FS being dumped into the environment. Existing treatment technologies for FS, such as settling-thickening tanks and drying beds, are land intensive which is limiting in urban areas. Enhanced settling and dewatering by conditioning was evaluated in order to reduce the treatment footprint (or increase treatment capacity). Conventional wastewater conditioners, such as commercially available lime and polymers, are expensive, and commonly rely on complex supply chains for use in low-income countries. Therefore, the treatment performance of five conditioners which could be produced locally was evaluated: Moringa oleifera seeds and press cake, Jatropha curcas seeds, Jatropha Calotropis leaves and chitosan. M. oleifera seeds and press cake, and chitosan improved settling and dewatering and had a similar performance compared to lime and polymers. Optimal dosages were 400-500 kg M. oleifera/t TS, 300-800 kg lime/t TS and 25-50 kg polymer solution/t TS. In comparison, chitosan required 1.5-3.75 kg/t TS. These dosages are comparable to those recommended for wastewater (sludge). The results indicate that conditioning of FS can reduce total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent of settling-thickening tanks by 22-81% and reduce dewatering time with drying beds by 59-97%. This means that the area of drying beds could be reduced by 59-97% with end-use as soil conditioner, or 9-26% as solid fuel. Least expensive options and availability will depend on the local context. In Dakar, Senegal, chitosan produced from shrimp waste appears to be most promising.

  12. LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Group, Nuclear Instrumentation

    1966-10-01

    The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.

  13. Let's Make Data Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budden, A. E.; Abrams, S.; Chodacki, J.; Cruse, P.; Fenner, M.; Jones, M. B.; Lowenberg, D.; Rueda, L.; Vieglais, D.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of research has traditionally been measured by citations to journal publications and used extensively for evaluation and assessment in academia, but this process misses the impact and reach of data and software as first-class scientific products. For traditional publications, Article-Level Metrics (ALM) capture the multitude of ways in which research is disseminated and used, such as references and citations within social media and other journal articles. Here we present on the extension of usage and citation metrics collection to include other artifacts of research, namely datasets. The Make Data Count (MDC) project will enable measuring the impact of research data in a manner similar to what is currently done with publications. Data-level metrics (DLM) are a multidimensional suite of indicators measuring the broad reach and use of data as legitimate research outputs. By making data metrics openly available for reuse in a number of different ways, the MDC project represents an important first step on the path towards the full integration of data metrics into the research data management ecosystem. By assuring researchers that their contributions to scholarly progress represented by data corpora are acknowledged, data level metrics provide a foundation for streamlining the advancement of knowledge by actively promoting desirable best practices regarding research data management, publication, and sharing.

  14. Making kids count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, W P

    1998-01-01

    Using data from the 1988 KIDS COUNT Data Book, compiled and published by The Annie E. Casey Foundation, the most recent state figures (1995) are compared with corresponding data from 1985 to assess the trends in child well-being in each state during the decade. The 10 key indicators used are taken from governmental data sources and reflect the best data available for each of the measures. Between 1985 and 1995, child well-being worsened across the country in five of the indicators, i.e., percent of low birthweight babies; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide and suicide; teen birth rate; Juvenile Violent Crime Arrest Rate; and percent of families with children headed by a single parent. Areas of improvement include: infant mortality; child death rate; percent of teens who are high school dropouts; and percent of teens not attending school and/or not working. There was no change between 1985 and 1995 in the percent of children living in poverty. When the states are ranked by a composite of the 10 indicators of childhood well-being, a cluster of states in the South and Southwest are at or near the bottom of the rankings while the New England states and those in the upper plains are typically near the top. The states near the top have higher incomes and lower poverty rates than those near the bottom.

  15. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  16. Eggs on Ice. Imaginaries on Eggs and Cryopreservation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    While Denmark is widely known as a global exporter of cryopreserved sperm, Danish women’s eggs follow very different trajectories. This paper combines legal and rhetorical analyses with the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries (Jasanoff, 2015). In establishing the genealogy of the sociotechnical...

  17. Evaluation of Reproductive Performance, Egg Production and Egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At 18 weeks of age, seventy two (72) adult females FE were housed singly in battery cages and evaluated for egg production from sexual maturity to 52 weeks in lay. The results showed ... Percentage hen housed production (HHP) was 53.10% while the percentage hen day production (HDP) was 57.6%. Age had significant ...

  18. The manipulation of egg size and egg quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flocks already in lay. Manipulation of sexual maturity does not require light-proof houses but the changes in eggmass which result are irreversible, being correlated with permanent changes in body size. Increases in egg size achieved with ahemerallight-dark cycles, on the other hand, are temporary and can easily be ...

  19. Effect of diatomaceous earth on parasite load, egg production, and egg quality of free-range organic laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D C; Yee, A; Rhee, Y-J; Cheng, K M

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth (DE) as a treatment against parasites and to increase feed efficiency and egg production of organically raised free-range layer hens was evaluated in 2 breeds of commercial egg layers [Bovan Brown (BB) and Lowmann Brown (LB)] that differ in their resistance to internal parasitic infections. Half the hens of each breed were fed diets supplemented with DE (2%). Their internal parasite loads were assessed by biweekly fecal egg counts (FEC) and by postmortem examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Supplementing DE in diets of LB hens, the more parasite-resistant breed, did not significantly affect their FEC and adult parasite load. However, BB hens treated with dietary DE had significantly lower Capillaria FEC, slightly lower Eimeria FEC, fewer birds infected with Heterakis, and significantly lower Heterakis worm burden than control BB hens. Both BB and LB hens fed the diet containing DE were significantly heavier, laid more eggs, and consumed more feed than hens fed the control diet, but feed efficiency did not differ between the 2 dietary treatments. Additionally, BB hens consuming the DE diet laid larger eggs containing more albumen and yolk than hens consuming the control diet. In a subsequent experiment, the effectiveness of DE to treat a Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation was tested. Relative to controls, both breeds of hens that were dusted with DE had reduced number of mites. The results of this study indicate the DE has the potential to be an effective treatment to help control parasites and improve production of organically raised, free-range layer hens.

  20. Bacteriophages as indicators of human and animal faecal contamination in raw and treated wastewaters from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, M; Hmaied, F; Jebri, S; Jofre, J; Hamdi, M

    2015-05-01

    We aimed at quantifying bacteriophages in raw and treated wastewaters of human and animal origin in Tunisia to assess their usefulness for tracking the origin of faecal pollution and in the follow-up of effectiveness of water treatments process. The concentrations of bacteriophages in wastewater samples were determined by double layer agar technique. Somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA bacteriophages were present in all types of samples in high concentrations. The values of Escherichia coli were variable depending on geographical location. On the other hand, bacteriophages infecting strain GA17 were detected preferably when human faecal contamination was occurred. Bacteriophages appear as a feasible and widely applicable manner to detect faecal contamination in Tunisia. On the other hand, phages infecting GA17 could be good markers for tracking the origin of faecal pollution in the area studied. The reuse of treated wastewaters can be a solution to meet the needs of water in the geographical area of study. Bacteriophages seem to predict differently the presence of faecal contamination in water than bacterial indicators. Consequently, they can be a valuable additional tool to improve water resources management for minimizing health risks. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Meta-analysis of antegrade continence enema in adults with faecal incontinence and constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, D S Y; Delicata, R J

    2016-03-01

    Faecal incontinence and constipation affects up to 20 per cent of the general population, and can be a significant source of distress. The antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedure has been shown to be an effective alternative treatment option for children, but its use in adults requires clarification. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine outcomes of the ACE procedure in adults with faecal incontinence and constipation. PubMed, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library (from January 1990 to January 2015) were searched for studies that reported outcomes of ACE in adults with faecal incontinence and constipation. The primary outcome measure was successful use of ACE in the management of symptoms, as determined by continued use at follow-up. Seventeen observational studies involving 426 patients (265 female patients; median age 42 (range 17-84) years) with faecal incontinence (165 patients), constipation (209) or both (52), who had undergone the ACE procedure, were analysed. At a median follow-up of 39 months, the pooled success rate was 74·3 (95 per cent c.i. 66·1 to 82·6) per cent (P constipation (both P constipation, and should be considered before performing a definitive colostomy. Patients with faecal incontinence appear to respond better than those with constipation. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Prevalence of faecal incontinence in community-dwelling older people in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyasa, I Gede Putu Darma; Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Lynn, Penelope Ann; Skuza, Pawel Piotr; Paterson, Jan

    2015-06-01

    To explore the prevalence rate of faecal incontinence in community-dwelling older people, associated factors, impact on quality of life and practices in managing faecal incontinence. Using a cross-sectional design, 600 older people aged 60+ were randomly selected from a population of 2916 in Bali, Indonesia using a simple random sampling technique. Three hundred and three participants were interviewed (response rate 51%). The prevalence of faecal incontinence was 22.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 18.0-26.8). Self-reported constipation (odds ratio (OR) 3.68, 95% CI 1.87-7.24) and loose stools (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.47-4.78) were significantly associated with faecal incontinence. There was a strong positive correlation between total bowel control score and total quality-of-life score (P < 0.001, rs = 0.61) indicating significant alterations in quality of life. The current management practices varied from changing diet, visiting health-care professionals, and using modern and traditional medicines. Faecal incontinence is common among community-dwelling older people in Bali. © 2014 ACOTA.

  3.   Transanal Irrigation System for Paediatric Faecal Incontinence: A Single Centre Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Nasher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the efficacy of the PeristeenⒸ transanal irrigation system when treating faecal incontinence in children due to chronic idiopathic constipation. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted of the first cohort of patients affected with faecal incontinence and referred to our centre for PeristeenⒸ transanal irrigation treatment between January 2010 and December 2012. Patients with neurogenic bowel disturbance were excluded. A previously described and validated faecal continence scoring system was used to assess bowel function and social problems before and after treatment with PeristeenⒸ. Results. 13 patients were referred for PeristeenⒸ transanal irrigation during the study period. Mean time of using PeristeenⒸ  was 12.6 months (±0.6 months and mean length of follow-up was 21.2 months (±0.9 months. All patients were noted to have an improvement in their faecal continence score, with a mean improvement from 9.7 ± 1.4 to 14.8 ± 2.7 (P=0.0008 and a reduction in episodes of soiling and increasing in quality of life scores. Conclusion. In this initial study, PeristeenⒸ appears to be a safe and effective bowel management system, which improves bowel function and quality of life in children affected with faecal incontinence as a result of chronic idiopathic constipation, Hirschsprung’s disease, and anorectal malformations.

  4. Subclinical laminitis and its association with pO2 and faecal alterations: Isikli, Aydin experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Akin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. The aim of this field trial was to investigate the relationships among subclinical laminitis, hematological, ruminal and faecal alterations. Materials and Methods. To this extent dairy cows presenting subclinical laminitis (n=11 and to those of other healthy cows without laminitis (n=10 were enrolled and assigned into two groups. All animals were receiving the same daily ration formulated to contain 47% cornsilage and 18% hay, mainly. Effects of subclinical laminitis challenges on measurements of feces, and blood samples, were investigated to determine which of these measurements may aid in the diagnosis. pH changes in ruminal fluid collected via rumenocentesis were measured. Besides the following parameters were also measured; blood pH, faecal pH and faecal scoring. Blinded investigators performed the sample collection. Results. No statistical differences between the groups were detected for blood gas values studied regarding pCO2, HCO3, BE, indeed mean that pO2 values decreased statistically (p<0.05 and faecal pH was significantly decreased (p<0.05 in cows with subclinical laminitis in contrast to healthy controls. Conclusions. pO2 values and faecal pH may be valuable as indirect indicators of subclinical laminitis in cattle.

  5. Diseases of amphibian eggs and embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Majumdar, S.K.; Huffman, J.E.; Brenner, F.J.; Panah, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibians generally are prolific egg producers. In tropical and semi-tropical regions, deposition of eggs may occur year-round or may coincide with rainy seasons, while in temperate regions, deposition of eggs usually occurs immediately after emergence from hibernation. Numbers of eggs produced by each species may vary from a few dozen to thousands. Accordingly, some eggs may be infertile and wastage of embryos is to be expected. Fertility, viability and decomposition of eggs and embryos must be considered before it is assumed that diseases are present. An important consideration in the evaluation of egg masses is the fact that some will contain infertile and non-viable eggs. These infertile and nonviable eggs will undergo decomposition and they may appear similar to eggs that are infected by a pathogen. Evaluation of egg masses and embryos for the presence of disease may require repeated observations in a given breeding season as well as continued monitoring of egg masses during their growth and development and over successive breeding seasons. Amphibian eggs rarely are subjected to a comprehensive health (diagnostic) examination; hence, there is scant literature on the diseases of this life stage. Indeed, the eggs of some North American amphibians have yet to be described. Much basic physiology and normal biomedical baseline data on amphibian eggs is lacking. For example, it is known that the aquatic eggs of some species of shrimp quickly are coated by a protective and commensal bacterium that effectively impedes invasion of the eggs by other environmental organisms and potential pathogens. In the absence of this bacterium, shrimp eggs are rapidly killed by other bacteria and fungi (Green, 2001). The possibility that amphibian eggs also have important symbiotic or commensal bacteria needs to be investigated. Furthermore, the quantity and types of chemicals in the normal gelatinous capsules of amphibian eggs have scarcely been examined. Abnormalities of the

  6. Appraisal of the 14C-glycocholate acid test with special reference to the measurement of faecal 14C excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpello, J.H.B.; Sladen, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The 14 C-glycocholate test, including the measurement of marker corrected faecal 14 C, has been assessed in the following groups of subjects: normal controls (18), patients with diarrhoea not attributable to altered bile acid metabolism (21), patients with diverticula of the small intestine (12), patients with previous resection of ileum and often proximal colon (34), and established ileostomists (10). Patients with diverticular disease had increased breath 14 CO 2 excretion, but normal faecal excretion of 14 C, and this test was more frequently abnormal than the Schilling test. Ileostomists excreted increased amounts of faecal 14 C, even when the ileum was intact and apparently normal. The pattern after resection was complex. Breath 14 C output was normal if the ileal resection was less than 25 cm in length, although some of these patients had increased faecal 14 C excretion if, in addition, at least 15 cm of proximal colon had been resected or by-passed. Longer ileal resections were associated with increased breath and/or faecal 14 C excretion, depending in part on the length of colon resected or by-passed and the 24 hour faecal volume. Fewer than half these patients had both increased breath and faecal excretion of isotope and faecal 14 C alone was occasionally normal with an ileal resection of 50 cm or more. The 14 C-glycocholate test was more frequently abnormal than the Schilling test in this group. The use of faecal marker correction had only a minor impact on the results. These data suggest that, in patients with ileal resection, faecal 14 C, like faecal weight, is determined by the extent of colonic resection as well as by the amount of ileum resected. (author)

  7. Scabies mite, eggs, and stool photomicrograph (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... photomicrograph of a skin scraping that contains a scabies mite, eggs, and feces. This animal burrows into the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. A scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to ...

  8. Egg weight detection on machine vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Yike; Ying, Yibin; Rao, Xiuqin

    2006-10-01

    A machine vision system for egg weight detection was developed. Egg image was grabbed by a CCD camera and a frame grabber. An indicator composed of R, G, B intensity was used for image segmentation. A series of algorithms were developed to evaluate egg's vertical diameter, maximal horizontal diameter, upper horizontal diameter and nether horizontal diameter. Based on extracted four size features of vertical and maximal/upper/nether horizontal diameter, a regression model between egg's weight and its size was established using SAS, which was used to detect egg's weight. The experiment results indicated that, for egg weight detection on the machine vision system, the correlative coefficient of the regression model was 0.9781 and the absolute error was no more than +/-3 g, which would be lower work load on human graders and an increased flexibility in the egg quality control process in egg's industrialization.

  9. Shell Eggs from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high amount of iron in the cooking water. Scrambled eggs cooked at too high a temperature or held ... must be cooked thoroughly until yolks are firm. Scrambled eggs should not be runny. Casseroles and other dishes ...

  10. Occupational asthma induced by inhaled egg lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, J A; Kraut, A; Bernstein, D I; Warrington, R; Bolin, T; Warren, C P; Bernstein, I L

    1993-02-01

    A 26-year-old man employed in a company which manufactured hen egg white derived lysozyme for use in the pharmaceutical industry was evaluated for occupational asthma. The worker began to experience immediate-onset asthmatic symptoms two months after starting to work with egg lysozyme powder. The work process involved the production of approximately 1,000 kg of purified dried lysozyme powder per week. Prick skin testing was positive to egg lysozyme (50 mg/ml) and other egg protein components, but negative to whole egg white and egg yolk reagents. Serum specific IgE to egg lysozyme was documented. Decrements in serial peak expiratory flow rates were associated with lysozyme exposure at work. A specific bronchoprovocation challenge to lysozyme powder was positive demonstrating an isolated immediate asthmatic response (48 percent decrease from baseline FEV1). This is the first reported case of lysozyme-induced asthma specifically caused by inhalational exposure to egg lysozyme.

  11. Computational Counting (Dagstuhl Seminar 18341)

    OpenAIRE

    Bezáková, Ivona; Goldberg, Leslie Ann; Jerrum, Mark R.

    2018-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 17341 "Computational Counting". The seminar was held from 20th to 25th August 2017, at Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibnitz Center for Informatics. A total of 43 researchers from all over the world, with interests and expertise in different aspects of computational counting, actively participated in the meeting.

  12. Computational Counting (Dagstuhl Seminar 13031)

    OpenAIRE

    Bürgisser, Peter; Goldberg, Leslie Ann; Jerrum, Mark; Koiran, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Dagstuhl Seminar 13031 "Computational Counting" was held from 13th to 18th January 2013, at Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibnitz Center for Informatics. A total of 43 researchers from all over the world, with interests and expertise in different aspects of computational counting, actively participated in the meeting.

  13. 10481 Executive Summary -- Computational Counting

    OpenAIRE

    Bürgisser, Peter; Goldberg, Leslie Ann; Jerrum, Mark

    2011-01-01

    From November 28 to December 3 2010, the Dagstuhl seminar 10481 ``Computational Counting'' was held in Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibnitz Center for Informatics. 36 researchers from all over the world, with interests and expertise in different aspects of computational counting, actively participated in the meeting.

  14. Raw eggs-moving target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Doug

    1999-09-01

    High school physics students often have difficulty with understanding when and where to use an appropriate calculation to solve a problem. In this activity students have to solve a real problem using formulas they have seen before, but in a context with which they are unfamiliar; namely dropping a raw egg on a moving target-their instructor.

  15. How do eggs pan out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, N

    1998-07-01

    Once upon a time, eggs were considered a "breakfast of champions." Just about every active, hard-working person enjoyed them fried, scrambled, poached, or even raw in eggnog and protein drinks. Then, Americans became cholesterol-conscious and began to substitute bagels, cereal, and other high-carbohydrate, low-cholesterol breakfast foods.

  16. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  17. Plant response to butterfly eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griese, Eddie; Dicke, Marcel; Hilker, Monika; Fatouros, Nina E.

    2017-01-01

    Plants employ various defences killing the insect attacker in an early stage. Oviposition by cabbage white butterflies (Pieris spp.) on brassicaceous plants, including Brassica nigra, induces a hypersensitive response (HR) - like leaf necrosis promoting desiccation of eggs. To gain a deeper insight

  18. Galaxy number counts: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, N.; Shanks, T.; Fong, R.; Jones, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Using the Prime Focus CCD Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope we have determined the form of the B and R galaxy number-magnitude count relations in 12 independent fields for 21 m ccd m and 19 m ccd m 5. The average galaxy count relations lie in the middle of the wide range previously encompassed by photographic data. The field-to-field variation of the counts is small enough to define the faint (B m 5) galaxy count to ±10 per cent and this variation is consistent with that expected from galaxy clustering considerations. Our new data confirm that the B, and also the R, galaxy counts show evidence for strong galaxy luminosity evolution, and that the majority of the evolving galaxies are of moderately blue colour. (author)

  19. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs

  20. Organic and free-range egg production

    OpenAIRE

    Hammershøj, M.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter includes information on the development of the free range and the organic egg production and their market shares in different countries. Consumer behaviour is investigated particularly in relation to the price and availability of non-cage eggs. Regulations on the production of free range and organic eggs and their present and future impact are examined. Nutrient supply, animal welfare, productivity, safety and environmental impact of the types of egg production are covered with a...

  1. Vitamin B12 absorption from eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doscherholmen, A; McMahon, J; Ripley, D

    1975-09-01

    The assimilation of 57Co B12 from in vivo labeled eggs was much inferior to that of a comparable amount of crystalline 57Co B12. Furthermore, the absorption varied with the form in which the eggs were served. Judged by the urinary excretion test and the plasma absorption of radioactivity the average absorption from boiled and fried eggs was more than twice that from scrambled whole eggs, but less than half that absorbed from crystalline 57Co B12.

  2. Perianal injectable bulking agents as treatment for faecal incontinence in adults. (Update)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Yasuko; Laurberg, Søren; Norton, Christine

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Faecal incontinence is a complex and distressing condition with significant medical and social implications. Injection of perianal bulking agents has been used to treat the symptoms of passive faecal incontinence. However, various agents have been used without a standardised technique...... and the supposed benefit of the treatment is largely anecdotal with a limited clinical research base. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of perianal injection of bulking agents for the treatment of faecal incontinence in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised...... injections at six months (65/136, 48% versus 48/70, 69% participants not improved, defined as less than 50% reduction in incontinence episodes, RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.88; with more incontinence free days (3.1 days compared with 1.7 in the sham treatment group, MD 1.40 days, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.47). Another...

  3. FACTORS AFFECTING THE FIRST STAGE DIGESTION OF FORAGES USING FAECAL LIQUOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Solangi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the effect of duration of incubation on the digestibility with the aim to reduce the time of incubation of the first stage digestion. This could be achieved if method for improving the potency of faecal liquor is evolved and verified. To estimate the time required to complete digestion of forages, triplicate samples of ryegrass and two varieties of straw were incubated in the faecal liquor for digestion for the periods of 0, 3, 6, 9, 24, 34, 48, 58, 72, 80 or 96 hours. It was observed that the incubation time required to complete digestion in faecal liquor for ryegrass and straw was 58 and 96 hours, respectively. The rate of digestion was maximal from 9 to 48 hours during which time approximately 1.11 mg/hour were solublised.

  4. Faecal calprotectin: a marker of inflammation throughout the intestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerton, Christopher B; Longlands, Michael G; Wiener, Keith; Shreeve, David R

    2002-08-01

    To assess the potential of measuring the calcium-binding protein calprotectin in faeces as a method of screening for alimentary inflammation and neoplasia. Hospital day services unit for endoscopy and faecal analysis in the clinical biochemistry department. Consented patients attending for routine endoscopy were requested to provide faeces. Seventeen of the initial 30 patients provided faeces before and 1 week after endoscopy. After this, 116 patients for planned endoscopy provided faeces before endoscopy. The group comprised 43 patients with upper-gastrointestinal lesions, seven patients with inflammatory bowel disease, seven patients with irritable bowel syndrome, 31 patients with colonic disorders, and 28 normal people. A final 18 patients with known inflammatory bowel disease (seven patients), gastric carcinoma (one patient), colorectal cancer (eight patients) and colorectal adenoma (two patients) had faeces analysed. Faeces were analysed by the Nycotest PhiCal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Nycomed, Oslo, Norway), and the final 18 patients were analysed by the newer version marketed as Calprest. No definite differences between pre- and post-endoscopy calprotectin were found, but it was considered preferable in the subsequent patients to analyse pre-endoscopy faeces. Upper-gastrointestinal disorders showed little difference in calprotectin levels, Barrett's oesophagus (median 6.8 mg/l), gastric ulcer (median 6.5 mg/l) or gastritis/duodenitis (median 5.2 mg/l), but these levels were all higher than the median calprotectin level of normal subjects (4.5 mg/l). The oesophageal and gastric carcinoma median was elevated significantly at 30 mg/l. Inflammatory bowel disease was also associated with marked elevation (Crohn's disease, 31.2 mg/l; ulcerative colitis, 116.2 mg/l). Colorectal polyps (median 3.7 mg/l) and adenoma (median 3.8 mg/l) showed no elevated levels in contrast to colorectal carcinoma (median 53.4 mg/l). The elevated calprotectin in

  5. Streptococcus caviae sp. nov., isolated from guinea pig faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; Hilderink, Loes J; Oost, John van der; Vos, Willem M de; Plugge, Caroline M

    2017-05-01

    A novel cellobiose-degrading and lactate-producing bacterium, strain Cavy grass 6T, was isolated from faecal samples of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Cells of the strain were ovalshaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, Gram-stain-positive and facultatively anaerobic. The strain gr at 25-40 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 4.5-9.5 (optimum 8.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Cavy grass 6T belongs to the genus Streptococcus with its closest relative being Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T with only 96.5 % similarity. Comparing strain Cavy grass 6T and Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T, average nucleotide identity and level of digital DNA-DNA hybridization dDDH were only 86.9 and 33.3 %, respectively. Housekeeping genes groEL and gyrA were different between strain Cavy grass 6T and other streptococci. The G+C content of strain Cavy grass 6T was 42.6±0.3 mol%. The major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids of strain Cavy grass 6T were C16:0, C20 : 1ω9c and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). Strain Cavy grass 6T ferment a range of plant mono- and disaccharides as well as polymeric carbohydrates, including cellobiose, dulcitol, d-glucose, maltose, raffinose, sucrose, l-sorbose, trehalose, inulin and dried grass extract, to lactate, formate, acetate and ethanol. Based on phylogenetic and physiological characteristics, Cavy grass 6T can be distinguished from other members of the genus Streptococcus. Therefore, a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, family Streptococcaceae, order Lactobacillales is proposed, Streptococcuscaviae sp. nov. (type strain Cavy grass 6T=TISTR 2371T=DSM 102819T).

  6. Differences in internal egg quality characteristics between white and brown shell eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Dogan

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted to reveal the differences among the internal quality characteristics of brown and white shell table eggs and to examine the relationship between quality characteristics. A total of 235 eggs from brown and white laying hens (Nick-chick; 95 wk of age) were used in this study. Internal egg quality characteristics including egg weight, albumen height, Haugh Unit, yolk height, yolk index, albumen pH, yolk pH, yolk color were determined. The Haugh unit (Pwhite shell eggs were higher than that of brown shell eggs. On the contrary, the yolk a*(Pwhite shell eggs were lower than that of brown shell eggs. There were no significant differences were found between white and brown shell eggs for egg weight, albumen and yolk pH values. Significant (Pegg quality of white shell eggs. Similarly, there were significant (Pegg weight and albumen height (r=0.39), albumen height and yolk height (r=0.35), Haugh unit and yolk index (r=0.36) in internal egg quality of brown shell eggs. Significant (Pwhite shell eggs, and yolk L* and yolk a* (r=-0.56) in brown shell eggs. No significant relationships were observed among others internal egg quality criteria.

  7. The Effects of Egg Shape Index on Egg Quality Traits of Guinea Fowl (Numida meleagris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezai Alkan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigated the effects of the egg shape index on egg quality characteristics in Guinea fowl. For this, the eggs were classified in terms of egg shape index, as ≤ 75, and ≥ 78. A total of 100 Guinea fowl eggs were evaluated to determine the egg quality traits ( egg weight, eggshell thickness, eggshell surface area, eggshell weight per unit surface area, eggshell ratio, albumen index, albumen ratio, yolk index, yolk ratio, yolk/albumen ratio, haugh unit and egg volume. In this study, eggshell thickness, eggshell weight per unit surface area, eggshell ratio, albumen index, albumen ratio, yolk index, yolk ratio, yolk/albumen ratio and haugh unit were not significantly affected by egg shape index groups. Whereas egg weight, eggshell surface area and egg volume were significantly affected by egg shape index groups. At the same time, there were found significant relationship between the egg shape index and egg quality traits. Egg shape index was found to be an important factor affecting the egg quality characteristics.

  8. Storage of Eggs in Water Affects Internal Egg Quality, Embryonic Development, and Hatchling Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Hoekstra, L.A.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    In a series of experiments, effects of storage of eggs in water on internal egg quality, embryonic development, and hatchling quality were investigated. In experiment 1, unfertilized eggs were stored for 4 to 14 d in water (W) or air (control; C). In experiment 2, fertilized eggs were stored for 3

  9. Effect of location of eggs in the incubator on hatchability of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the hatchability of all eggs set and of fertile eggs was the highest in eggs placed in the front of the machine. Furthermore, early and middle stage deaths during incubation were lower in the front of the incubator compared to the back. The differences between eggs placed in the upper, middle and lower parts of the machine ...

  10. Prospects of table eggs production in Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Sytchevnik, Anna; Golovkov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Problems of development of egg production in Belarus are considered. Dynamics of volume of egg production is considered for the period of 1995-2009. Results of production and sale of eggs by integrated (mass production) poultry farms are analyzed by means of a correlation method.

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EGG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    although the problem is alleviated in many other countries where it is an acceptable practice to feed treated egg shell back to animals as a source of calcium and this is a very efficient option for the disposal of egg shells. Egg shell waste primarily contains calcium, magnesium carbonate (lime) and protein [1]. In order to ...

  12. [Diagnostic stain of helminth eggs (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L

    1976-12-01

    A description is given of a diagnostic method for the staining of eggs and larvae of intestinal helminth in smears of both fresh and fixed stool samples. The contents of the eggs and larvae stain red, the background various shades of blue. The most contrasting staining was obtained with thin-walled eggs.

  13. Faecal corticosterone metabolite assessment in socially housed male and female Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cinque

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of animals’ hormonal status is important for conservation studies in wild or semi-free-ranging conditions as well as for behavioural and clinical experiments conducted in laboratory research, mostly performed on rats and mice. Faecal sampling is a useful non-invasive method to obtain steroid hormone assessments. Nevertheless, in laboratory studies, unlike other contexts, faecal sampling is less utilised. One of the issues raised is the necessity to collect samples belonging to different animals, separately. Usually, researchers using faecal sampling solve this problem through the isolation of animals or taking the cage rather than single animal as unit of study. These solutions though, could lead to unreliable measurements, and cannot be applied in many studies. Our aim was to show the biological reliability of individual faecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM assessments in socially housed male and female Wistar rats. We analytically validated the enzyme immunoassay kit used for FCM assessments. Then, we exposed the animals to two different stress stimuli that are known to activate the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis and the following release of corticosterone to biologically validate the EIA kit: environmental enrichment and predator odour. Individual faecal sampling from social animals was collected through short-time handling. The results demonstrated that both the stimuli increased FCM levels in male and female rats showing the reliability of EIA kit assessment and the applicability of our sampling method. We also found a diurnal rhythm in FCM levels. These results could help to increase the use of faecal hormone metabolite determinations in studies conducted on rats.

  14. Consultation about urinary and faecal incontinence in the year after childbirth: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S; Gartland, D; Perlen, S; McDonald, E; MacArthur, C

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the extent to which primary-care practitioners routinely inquire about postpartum urinary and faecal incontinence, and assess the proportion of women who disclose symptoms. Prospective pregnancy cohort study of nulliparous women. Melbourne, Australia. A total of 1507 nulliparous women recruited in early pregnancy. Women were recruited from six public maternity hospitals, with follow up at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postpartum. Standardised measures of urinary and bowel symptoms, and measures of health service use. In the first 12 months postpartum, the period prevalence of urinary incontinence was 47%, and of faecal incontinence was 17%. In all, 86% of women visited a primary health-care practitioner at least once to discuss their own health in the first year after childbirth. However, only around a quarter were asked about urinary incontinence, and fewer than one in five women were asked about faecal incontinence. Discussion of symptoms with health professionals was most likely to occur in the first 3 months postpartum, and happened only rarely during the remainder of the first postnatal year. Over 70% of women reporting severe urinary incontinence and/or faecal incontinence had not discussed symptoms with a health professional. The findings provide robust evidence that many women experiencing postpartum urinary and faecal incontinence—including women with moderate and severe symptoms—do not receive adequate primary-care follow up in the first 12 months postpartum. Systems of maternal health surveillance need to include routine inquiry about urinary and faecal incontinence to overcome women's reluctance to seek help. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Faecal incontinence in men referred for specialty care: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, J N; Chou, A B; Varma, M G

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about men with faecal incontinence. We compared clinical findings and quality of life in a large cohort of men and women with faecal incontinence to guide its evaluation and treatment in men. We analysed men and women presenting to a tertiary referral centre with faecal incontinence between 2005 and 2013. Demographics, physical examination, anorectal physiology testing, symptom severity (Fecal Incontinence Severity Index) and quality of life (Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale) were recorded. We determined differences between men and women and analysed the association between gender and quality of life. Data were obtained from 144 men and 897 women. Men with faecal incontinence were slightly younger than women (55.3 vs 57.6 years, P = 0.001), more likely to report coexisting constipation (P = 0.004) and more likely to have normal internal and external sphincter function on physical examination (both P < 0.001). Anorectal physiology testing revealed fewer sphincter defects (P < 0.05) and less pudendal neuropathy (P < 0.05) in men compared with women. Although symptom severity and overall quality of life were similar, men had improved coping and less embarrassment compared with women after we adjusted for important clinical factors. Men with faecal incontinence presenting to a tertiary referral centre are more likely than women to have a mixed presentation characterized by constipation and less sphincter dysfunction. They exhibited better coping and less embarrassment than women. These findings should be taken into consideration when evaluating and treating men with faecal incontinence. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Integrity of the Human Faecal Microbiota following Long-Term Sample Storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Kia

    Full Text Available In studies of the human microbiome, faecal samples are frequently used as a non-invasive proxy for the study of the intestinal microbiota. To obtain reliable insights, the need for bacterial DNA of high quality and integrity following appropriate faecal sample collection and preservation steps is paramount. In a study of dietary mineral balance in the context of type 2 diabetes (T2D, faecal samples were collected from healthy and T2D individuals throughout a 13-day residential trial. These samples were freeze-dried, then stored mostly at -20°C from the trial date in 2000/2001 until the current research in 2014. Given the relative antiquity of these samples (~14 years, we sought to evaluate DNA quality and comparability to freshly collected human faecal samples. Following the extraction of bacterial DNA, gel electrophoresis indicated that our DNA extracts were more sheared than extracts made from freshly collected faecal samples, but still of sufficiently high molecular weight to support amplicon-based studies. Likewise, spectrophotometric assessment of extracts revealed that they were of high quality and quantity. A subset of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq and compared against publicly available sequence data representing a similar cohort analysed by the American Gut Project (AGP. Notably, our bacterial community profiles were highly consistent with those from the AGP data. Our results suggest that when faecal specimens are stored appropriately, the microbial profiles are preserved and robust to extended storage periods.

  17. EGG: hatching a mock Universe from empirical prescriptions⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, C.; Elbaz, D.; Pannella, M.; Merlin, E.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Bourne, N.; Boutsia, K.; Cullen, F.; Dunlop, J.; Ferguson, H. C.; Michałowski, M. J.; Okumura, K.; Santini, P.; Shu, X. W.; Wang, T.; White, C.

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduces EGG, the Empirical Galaxy Generator, a tool designed within the ASTRODEEP collaboration to generate mock galaxy catalogs for deep fields with realistic fluxes and simple morphologies. The simulation procedure is based exclusively on empirical prescriptions - rather than first principles - to provide the most accurate match with current observations at 0 sky at random positions with a fixed angular two-point correlation function to implement basic clustering. The resulting flux catalogs reproduce accurately the observed number counts in all broad bands from the ultraviolet up to the sub-millimeter, and can be directly fed to image simulators such as SkyMaker. The images can then be used to test source extraction softwares and image-based techniques such as stacking. EGG is open-source, and is made available to the community on behalf of the ASTRODEEP collaboration, together with a set of pre-generated catalogs and images. http://cschreib.github.io/egg/ Full Table C.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/602/A96

  18. Thraustochytrid fungoid protists in faecal pellets of the tunicate Pegea confoederata, their tolerance to deep-sea conditions and implication in degradation processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    During a swarm of the tunicate Pegea confoederata (salp) in the northern Arabian Sea, we examined their faecal pellets for thraustochytrid protists and bacteria to understand the role of the former in decomposition processes in the sea. Fresh faecal...

  19. Effect of ingredient particle sizes and dietary viscosity on digestion and faecal waste of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tu; Hien, T.T.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The ingredients' particle size and dietary viscosity may alter digestion, performance and faecal waste management of fish. This study aimed to assess the effect of grinding screen sizes of feed ingredients and dietary viscosity on digestibility, faecal waste and performance of striped catfish

  20. Faecal S100A12 as a non-invasive marker distinguishing inflammatory bowel disease from irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, T; Langhorst, J; Wittkowski, H; Becker, K; Friedrich, A W; Rueffer, A; Dobos, G J; Roth, J; Foell, D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: S100A12 is a pro-inflammatory protein that is secreted by granulocytes. S100A12 serum levels increase during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We performed the first study analysing faecal S100A12 in adults with signs of intestinal inflammation. METHODS: Faecal S100A12 was determined by

  1. Techniques for application of faecal DNA methods to field studies of Ursids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, S K; Houston, C S; Koehler, G M; Cadd, G G; Fain, S R

    1997-11-01

    We describe methods for the preservation, extraction and amplification of DNA from faeces that facilitate field applications of faecal DNA technology. Mitochondrial, protein encoding and microsatellite nuclear DNA extracted and amplified from faeces of Malayan sun bears and North American black bears is shown to be identical to that extracted and amplified from the same individual's tissue or blood. A simple drying agent, silica beads, is shown to be a particularly effective preservative, allowing easy and safe transport of samples from the field. Methods are also developed to eliminate the risk of faecal DNA contamination from hair present in faeces.

  2. Prevalence of bovine fasciolosis based on faecal examination and abattoir survey in Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Murthy, C M; D'Souza, Placid E

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of fasciolosis was evaluated in bovines based on coprological examination and postmortem liver examination of slaughtered cattle and buffaloes. The faecal examination of 130 cattle and 135 buffaloes revealed a prevalence of 9.9 % in cattle and 13.3 % in buffaloes respectively. The examination of livers from cattle and buffaloes (155 each) slaughtered at the KMPMCL abattoir revealed the prevalence of fasciolosis was 20.6 % in cattle and 22.5 % in buffaloes. The results were statistically significant in faecal examination and not significant in liver examination from cattle and buffaloes respectively.

  3. Relative frequencies and significance of faecal coliforms as indicators related to water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auban, E G; Ripolles, A A; Domarco, M J

    1983-01-01

    The faecal coliforms at different sites of a hypereutrophic lake near Valencia (Albufera) were identified and their relative amounts established along an annual cycle. Using lauryl tryptose broth at 35 degrees C, followed by incubation at 44.4 degrees C in 2% brilliant green bile, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are practically the only coliforms present. A positive correlation was found between the water temperature and the relative amount of these two coliforms: K. pneumoniae predominates at high water temperatures, whereas E. coli shows preponderance during the cold period. The role of K. pneumoniae as the only faecal indicator under the circumstances described in the work is emphasized and discussed.

  4. Faecal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the hospital and community setting: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantelle eClaassen-Weitz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and rationale: Staphylococcus aureus faecal carriage has been identified as a potential source for nosocomial transmission and a risk factor for disease development. This systematic review determined the overall S. aureus (including methicillin susceptible and resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage rates within the community and healthcare settings.Methodology: Peer-reviewed articles indexed in Medline, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Africa-Wide Information, CINAHL, and Web of Science were identified using applicable and controlled vocabulary through to 11 November 2015. Eligible studies were ascertained by three independent reviewers. Random-effects meta-analyses of proportions were performed to determine S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage rates reported by eligible studies.Results: Twenty six studies were included in this review. The pooled estimates for S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage were 26 % (95 % confidence interval (CI: 16.8 % - 36.3 %, 86 % (95 % confidence interval (CI: 65.9 % - 97.9 % and 10 % (95 % CI: 0.7 % - 27.0 %, respectively. Faecal S. aureus carriage rates increased on average from 10 % to 65 % during the first eight weeks of life, followed by an average carriage rate of 64 % at six months and 46 % at one year of life. Genotyping techniques were employed mainly in studies conducted in developed countries and comprised largely of gel-based techniques. Six studies reported on the role of S. aureus faecal strains in diarrhoea (n = 2 and the risk for acquiring infections (n = 4. Eight of the 26 studies included in this review performed antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus faecal isolates.Conclusion: This study provides evidence that screening for S. aureus faecal carriage, at least in populations at high risk, could be an effective measure for the prevention of S. aureus transmission and infection in the healthcare and community setting. More well-structured studies need to be

  5. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  6. Efficacy of fluralaner flavored chews (Bravecto) administered to dogs against the adult cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis and egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Michael W; Smith, Vicki; Bennett, Tashina; Math, Lisa; Kallman, James; Heaney, Kathleen; Sun, Fangshi

    2015-07-11

    Fluralaner is a potent insecticide and acaricide with rapid and persistent efficacy. This study measured the efficacy of fluralaner flavored chews (Bravecto®, Merck Animal Health) administered to dogs against adult Ctenocephalides felis felis and egg production. Twelve purpose-bred dogs were randomly allocated to two groups of six dogs each. Dogs in treatment group 1 were administered a single fluralaner flavored chew to achieve a minimum dose of at least 25 mg/kg while treatment group 2 served as untreated controls. On Days -2, 28, 56, 84, 91, 98, 105, 112, and 120 post-treatment, each dog was infested with approximately 200 unfed cat fleas, C. felis felis (KS1 strain). Forty-eight hours after treatment and 48 h after each infestation, eggs were collected over a 3-h period, counted and viability determined. Dogs were combed to remove any remaining fleas. Treatment of dogs with oral fluralaner provided a 100% reduction in flea counts 48 h after treatment and within 48 h of every post-treatment infestation through Day122. Egg production from fluralaner treated dogs was reduced by 99.9% (two eggs from one dog) within 48 h after treatment and not a single egg (100% efficacy) was thereafter collected from treated dogs. Adult flea counts and egg production from the fluralaner-treated dogs were significantly lower than for non-treated controls at all post-treatment evaluations (P fluralaner flavored chews provided 100% efficacy against repeated flea infestations on dogs for 4 months. Fluralaner reduced egg production of activity reproducing female fleas by 99.9% and then killed every single female flea before any eggs could be produced following each subsequent re-infestation for the entire 122-day evaluation period.

  7. Diurnal rhythms of blood glucose, serum ghrelin, faecal IgA and faecal corticosterone in rats subjected to restricted feeding using the diet board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasanen, Iiris; Inhilä, Katja; Savontaus, Eriika

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory rats are generally fed ad libitum, although this method is associated with obesity and an increased frequency of spontaneous tumours. It has been challenging looking for ways to limit feed consumption in group-housed rats without any setbacks to animal welfare and scientific results....... The diet board, as a method of dietary restriction, was used in the present study. Diet board feeding allows group housing and should result in enhanced welfare compared with traditional methods of dietary restriction. With respect to animal model robustness and translatability of results it is important...... that the feeding regime does not affect diurnal rhythmicity of biological parameters. In the present study the effects of diet board feeding on diurnal rhythms of blood glucose, serum ghrelin, faecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) and faecal corticosterone were assessed. The diet board did not alter diurnal rhythms...

  8. Uncertainty in measurements by counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bich, Walter; Pennecchi, Francesca

    2012-02-01

    Counting is at the base of many high-level measurements, such as, for example, frequency measurements. In some instances the measurand itself is a number of events, such as spontaneous decays in activity measurements, or objects, such as colonies of bacteria in microbiology. Countings also play a fundamental role in everyday life. In any case, a counting is a measurement. A measurement result, according to its present definition, as given in the 'International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM)', must include a specification concerning the estimated uncertainty. As concerns measurements by counting, this specification is not easy to encompass in the well-known framework of the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement', known as GUM, in which there is no guidance on the topic. Furthermore, the issue of uncertainty in countings has received little or no attention in the literature, so that it is commonly accepted that this category of measurements constitutes an exception in which the concept of uncertainty is not applicable, or, alternatively, that results of measurements by counting have essentially no uncertainty. In this paper we propose a general model for measurements by counting which allows an uncertainty evaluation compliant with the general framework of the GUM.

  9. High Count Rate Single Photon Counting Detector Array, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optical communications receiver requires efficient and high-rate photon-counting capability so that the information from every photon, received at the aperture,...

  10. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... egg whites. (a) The food dried egg whites, egg white solids, dried egg albumen, egg albumen solids is... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg whites. 160.145 Section 160.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  11. Effects of Brevibacillus brevis FJAT-1501-BPA on growth performance, faecal microflora, faecal enzyme activities and blood parameters of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jianmei; Ye, Shaowen; Liu, Bo; Deng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Qianqian; Ge, Cibin; Liu, Guohong; Wang, Jieping

    2016-12-01

    A feeding expriment was performed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with Brevibacillus brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation on the growth performance, faecal microflora, faecal enzyme activities and blood parameters of weaned piglets. A total of 150 weaned piglets were randomly assigned to different treatments groups, which were fed the same basic diet supplemented with 10, 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation. The results showed that a diet supplemented with 10 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation could significantly increase the final body weight (P BPA exhibited a trend of reducing the contents of the Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Salmonella compared with the control. During the 35 day experimental period, cellulase and protease activities were significantly increased by the dietary inclusion of the B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation (P BPA fermentation, 21.8 U/g, was highest among the different treatments. The protease activity for piglets fed diet containing 10 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation, 50.4 U/g, was highest among the different treatments. The amylase and hemicellulase activities for piglets fed diet containing 10 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation were significantly higher than those on the control diet and other treatments (P BPA had positive effects on levels of enzymes and minerals in blood. The alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, Fe and Mg concentrations for weaned piglets fed diet containing B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation were significantly higher than for those on the control diet (P BPA fermentation compared to other treatments. These results indicated that feeding with B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA has the potential to improve growth performance, faecal microflora, faecal enzyme activities and blood parameters of weaned piglets.

  12. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated egg albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    2003-01-01

    A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin to diatomite at pH6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30°C was about 100-fold larger than that of nativ...

  13. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul......(-1) of total egg volume is derived for most species spawning eggs without visible oil globules. The energy density of eggs with oil globules is predicted by (σ) over cap = 1.34 + 40.61 x (J mul(-1)) where x is the fractional volume of the oil globule. (C) 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British...

  14. Impact of a new sampling buffer on faecal haemoglobin stability in a colorectal cancer screening programme by the faecal immunochemical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzini, Grazia; Ventura, Leonardo; Rubeca, Tiziana; Rapi, Stefano; Cellai, Filippo; Di Dia, Pietro P; Mallardi, Beatrice; Mantellini, Paola; Zappa, Marco; Castiglione, Guido

    2017-07-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) stability in faecal samples is an important issue in colorectal cancer screening by the faecal immunochemical test (FIT) for Hb. This study evaluated the performance of the FIT-Hb (OC-Sensor Eiken) used in the Florence screening programme by comparing two different formulations of the buffer, both in an analytical and in a clinical setting. In the laboratory simulation, six faecal pools (three in each buffer type) were stored at different temperatures and analysed eight times in 10 replicates over 21 days. In the clinical setting, 7695 screenees returned two samples, using both the old and the new specimen collection device (SCD). In the laboratory simulation, 5 days from sample preparation with the buffer of the old SCD, the Hb concentration decreased by 40% at room temperature (25°C, range 22-28°C) and up to 60% at outside temperature (29°C, range 16-39°C), whereas with the new one, Hb concentration decreased by 10%. In the clinical setting, a higher mean Hb concentration with the new SCD compared with the old one was found (6.3 vs. 5.0 µg Hb/g faeces, respectively, Pbuffer under laboratory conditions, but no difference was found in the clinical performance. In our study, only marginal advantages arise from the new buffer. Improvements in sample stability represent a significant target in the screening setting.

  15. Enhancing hatch rate and survival in laboratory-reared hybrid Devils Hole Pupfish through application of antibiotics to eggs and larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Olin; Bonar, Scott A.; Barrett, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of four antibiotics in enhancing the hatch rate, larval survival, and adult survival of hybrid Devils Hole Pupfish Cyprinodon diabolis (hybridized with Ash Meadows Amargosa Pupfish C. nevadensis mionectes). Cephalexin (CEX; concentration = 6.6 mg/L of water), chloramphenicol (CAM; 50 mg/L), erythromycin (ERY; 12.5 mg/L), and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX; 25 mg/L) were applied as a constant bath either to incubating eggs or to larvae that hatched from untreated eggs. Hatch rate was roughly doubled by incubation in the presence of CAM (68% hatch) and TMP-SMX (66%) relative to the control (28%). Cephalexin and ERY conferred no benefit upon the hatch rate. Among fry that hatched from treated eggs, there was no increase in 15-d larval survival. However, fish that hatched from eggs treated with CAM, ERY, and TMP-SMX demonstrated enhanced survival at 360 d (51.2, 38.4, and 43.6%, respectively) and at 540 d (22.6, 6.8, and 20.2%, respectively); the untreated control had no survivors to those time points. All groups of eggs treated with antibiotics showed reductions in bacterial colony-forming units (CFUs) at 24 h posttreatment. At 120 h posttreatment, CEX-treated eggs had CFU counts similar to those of the control, whereas the TMP-SMX-treated eggs had the lowest CFU counts. Eggs treated with CAM and ERY had similar CFU counts, which were significantly reduced from the control counts. Larvae that were treated with CAM and TMP-SMX within 12 h posthatch showed enhanced 15-d survival (74% and 72%, respectively) in comparison with the control (56%). For pupfish rearing efforts in which antibiotic use is appropriate, CAM and TMP-SMX appear to provide the greatest benefit, particularly when applied to incubating eggs rather than to hatched larvae.

  16. Make My Trip Count 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Make My Trip Count (MMTC) commuter survey, conducted in September and October 2015 by GBA, the Pittsburgh 2030 District, and 10 other regional transportation...

  17. Counting proofs in propositional logic

    OpenAIRE

    David, René; Zaionc, Marek

    2009-01-01

    International audience; We give a procedure for counting the number of different proofs of a formula in various sorts of propositional logic. This number is either an integer (that may be 0 if the formula is not provable) or infinite.

  18. Egg care by termite soldiers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanus, Robert; Šobotník, Jan; Čížek, Lukáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, - (2005), 357-359 ISSN 0020-1812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/2146 Grant - others:NSF(US) DEB-97-07928; NSF(US) DEB-02-11591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : termite soldier * egg transport Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.618, year: 2005

  19. Medical and social egg freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lallemant, Camille; Vassard, Ditte; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Until recently, limited options for preserving fertility in order to delay childbearing were available. Although egg freezing and successful thawing is now possible, it remains unclear to what extent women are aware of the availability of this technique, their attitudes towards its ...... planning. Reassurance regarding its efficacy appears more important than its potential adverse effects on their health or that of future children, or the costs of the procedure....

  20. Trends in Strongyloides stercoralis Faecal Larvae Detections in the Northern Territory, Australia: 2002 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna K. Mayer-Coverdale

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth (STH endemic to tropical and subtropical areas. We reviewed the temporal detection trends in patients with S. stercoralis larvae present in faecal samples, in Northern Territory (NT Government Health facilities, between 2002 and 2012. This was a retrospective observational study of consecutive patients with microbiologically confirmed detection of S. stercoralis in faeces. The presence of anaemia, eosinophilia, polyparasitism, and geographic and demographic data, were included in the assessment. S. stercoralis larvae were present in 389 of 22,892 faecal samples (1.7% collected across the NT over 11 years, examined by microscopy after formol ethyl acetate concentration. 97.7% of detections were in Indigenous patients. Detections, by number, occurred in a biphasic age distribution. Detections per number of faecal samples collected, were highest in the 0–5 year age group. Anaemia was present in 44.8%, and eosinophilia in 49.9% of patients. Eosinophilia was present in 65.5% of the ≤5 age group, compared to 40.8% of >5 year age (p < 0.0001. Polyparasitism was present in 31.4% of patients. There was an overall downward trend in larvae detections from 2.64% to 0.99% detections/number of faecal samples year between 2002 and 2012, consistent with the trends observed for other local STHs. S. stercoralis remains an important NT-wide pathogen.

  1. Microwave treatment of faecal sludge from intensively used toilets in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mawioo, Peter M.; Hooijmans, Christine M.; Garcia, Hector A.; Brdanovic, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Toilet facilities in highly dense areas such as the slum and emergency settlements fill up rapidly; thus, requiring frequent emptying. Consequently, big quantities of fresh faecal sludge (FS) containing large amounts of pathogens are generated. Fast and efficient FS treatment technologies are

  2. Reliable discrimination of 10 ungulate species using high resolution melting analysis of faecal DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ramón-Laca

    Full Text Available Identifying species occupying an area is essential for many ecological and conservation studies. Faecal DNA is a potentially powerful method for identifying cryptic mammalian species. In New Zealand, 10 species of ungulate (Order: Artiodactyla have established wild populations and are managed as pests because of their impacts on native ecosystems. However, identifying the ungulate species present within a management area based on pellet morphology is unreliable. We present a method that enables reliable identification of 10 ungulate species (red deer, sika deer, rusa deer, fallow deer, sambar deer, white-tailed deer, Himalayan tahr, Alpine chamois, feral sheep, and feral goat from swabs of faecal pellets. A high resolution melting (HRM assay, targeting a fragment of the 12S rRNA gene, was developed. Species-specific primers were designed and combined in a multiplex PCR resulting in fragments of different length and therefore different melting behaviour for each species. The method was developed using tissue from each of the 10 species, and was validated in blind trials. Our protocol enabled species to be determined for 94% of faecal pellet swabs collected during routine monitoring by the New Zealand Department of Conservation. Our HRM method enables high-throughput and cost-effective species identification from low DNA template samples, and could readily be adapted to discriminate other mammalian species from faecal DNA.

  3. Earlier stages of colorectal cancer detected with immunochemical faecal occult blood tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, L. G. M.; van Rijn, A. F.; van Munster, I. P.; Jansen, J. B. M. J.; Fockens, P.; Laheij, R. J. F.; Dekker, E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of colorectal cancer screening is to improve prognosis by the detection of early cancer and precursor stages. We compared the stage distribution of asymptomatic colorectal cancer patients detected by a positive immunochemical or guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (FOBT) with

  4. Dietary carbohydrate source influences molecular fingerprints of the rat faecal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Poulsen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    and are not expected to reach the large intestine, the DGGE band patterns obtained indicated that these carbohydrates indeed affected the composition of bacteria in the large gut. Also the two fructans resulted in completely different molecular fingerprints of the faecal microbiota, indicating that even though...

  5. Genotyping faecal samples of Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris for population estimation: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Lalji

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris the National Animal of India, is an endangered species. Estimating populations for such species is the main objective for designing conservation measures and for evaluating those that are already in place. Due to the tiger's cryptic and secretive behaviour, it is not possible to enumerate and monitor its populations through direct observations; instead indirect methods have always been used for studying tigers in the wild. DNA methods based on non-invasive sampling have not been attempted so far for tiger population studies in India. We describe here a pilot study using DNA extracted from faecal samples of tigers for the purpose of population estimation. Results In this study, PCR primers were developed based on tiger-specific variations in the mitochondrial cytochrome b for reliably identifying tiger faecal samples from those of sympatric carnivores. Microsatellite markers were developed for the identification of individual tigers with a sibling Probability of Identity of 0.005 that can distinguish even closely related individuals with 99.9% certainty. The effectiveness of using field-collected tiger faecal samples for DNA analysis was evaluated by sampling, identification and subsequently genotyping samples from two protected areas in southern India. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using tiger faecal matter as a potential source of DNA for population estimation of tigers in protected areas in India in addition to the methods currently in use.

  6. FRNA Bacteriophages as Viral Indicators of Faecal Contamination in Mexican Tropical Aquatic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Avalos, Carlos; Lopez-Vidal, Yolanda; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    A particular challenge to water safety in populous intertropical regions is the lack of reliable faecal indicators to detect microbiological contamination of water, while the numerical relationships of specific viral indicators remain largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the numerical relationships of FRNA-bacteriophage genotypes, adenovirus 41, and human adenoviruses (HADV) in Mexican surface water systems to assess sewage contamination. We studied the presence of HADV, HADV41 and FRNA bacteriophage genotypes in water samples and quantified by qPCR and RT-qPCR. Virus and water quality indicator variances, as analyzed by principal component analysis and partial least squared regression, followed along the major percentiles of water faecal enterococci. FRNA bacteriophages adequately deciphered viral and point source water contamination. The strongest correlation for HADV was with FRNA bacteriophage type II, in water samples higher than the 50th percentiles of faecal enterococci, thus indicating urban pollution. FRNA bacteriophage genotypes I and III virus indicator performances were assisted by their associations with electrical conductivity and faecal enterococci. In combination, our methods are useful for inferring water quality degradation caused by sewage contamination. The methods used have potential for determining source contamination in water and, specifically, the presence of enteric viruses where clean and contaminated water have mixed. PMID:28114378

  7. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition : Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, C.; Malambo, D.H.; Gonzalez Perez, M.E.; Nobela, H.N.; De Pooter, L.; Spit, J.; Hooijmans, C.M.; Van de Vossenberg, J.; Greya, W.; Thole, B.; Van Lier, J.B.; Brdjanovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated

  8. Genotyping faecal samples of Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris for population estimation: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavatula, Jyotsna; Singh, Lalji

    2006-01-01

    Background Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris the National Animal of India, is an endangered species. Estimating populations for such species is the main objective for designing conservation measures and for evaluating those that are already in place. Due to the tiger's cryptic and secretive behaviour, it is not possible to enumerate and monitor its populations through direct observations; instead indirect methods have always been used for studying tigers in the wild. DNA methods based on non-invasive sampling have not been attempted so far for tiger population studies in India. We describe here a pilot study using DNA extracted from faecal samples of tigers for the purpose of population estimation. Results In this study, PCR primers were developed based on tiger-specific variations in the mitochondrial cytochrome b for reliably identifying tiger faecal samples from those of sympatric carnivores. Microsatellite markers were developed for the identification of individual tigers with a sibling Probability of Identity of 0.005 that can distinguish even closely related individuals with 99.9% certainty. The effectiveness of using field-collected tiger faecal samples for DNA analysis was evaluated by sampling, identification and subsequently genotyping samples from two protected areas in southern India. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using tiger faecal matter as a potential source of DNA for population estimation of tigers in protected areas in India in addition to the methods currently in use. PMID:17044939

  9. The in vitro fermentation of maize stover as affected by faecal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different inoculum sources, obtained from the faeces of ungulates, i.e. horses (H), wildebeest (WB) and zebra (ZB) and combinations of inoculum sources on the fermentation of maize stover (MS) was investigated. Combined sources (CS) were: (1) H+WB, (2) H+ZB, (3) WB+ZB and (4) H+WB+ZB. Fresh faecal ...

  10. Molecular analysis of the human faecal archaea in a southern Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archaea are an important constituent of the human gut microbiota, but there is no information on human gut archaea inan Indian population. In this study, faecal samples were obtained from different age groups (neonatal babies, preschoolchildren, school-going children, adolescents, adults and elderly) of a southern Indian ...

  11. The impact of health education on the prevalence of faecal-orally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the impact of health education on the prevalence of faecal-orally transmitted parasitic infections among primary school children in a typical African rural community. Methods: An intervention study was conducted in two villages in the South-West Region of Cameroon. A total of 370 ...

  12. Comparative study of anal acoustic reflectometry and anal manometry in the assessment of faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornung, B R; Mitchell, P J; Carlson, G L

    2012-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry (AAR) is a reproducible technique providing a novel physiological assessment of anal sphincter function. It may have advantages over conventional anal manometry. The aims of this study were to determine the ability of AAR and anal manometry to identify changes in anal ...... sphincter function in patients with faecal incontinence (FI) and to relate these changes to the severity of FI....

  13. Spontaneous scrotal faecal fistula in a neonate: report of a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 21 day old boy with spontaneous scrotal faecal fistula following a neglected strangulated right inguinal hernia is reported. He had necrotizing fasciitis of the right scrotum with sparing of the testis. He successfully had debridement, herniotomy and bowel resection with end-to-end anastomosis. This is a rare occurrence in ...

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group in faecal microbiota from healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Jensen, Betina Hebbelstrup; Petersen, Andreas Munk

    2017-01-01

    of relatively antibiotic-naive healthy Danish children. From 174 faecal samples collected from children attending day care, 359 non-duplicate isolates were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of these, 0.0%, 1.9%, 5.0% and 21.2% of isolates were intermediate-susceptible or resistant to metronidazole...

  15. Evaluation of a method of assessing faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, S.C.; Sullivan, P.B.; McHugh, K.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Childhood constipation is common and assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and commonly used to assess constipation. The role of radiography with the use of a simple scoring system has not been fully evaluated. Objective. To assess the reliability of scoring faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children with intractable constipation. Materials and methods. Plain abdominal radiographs from 33 constipated and 67 control children were independently assessed by three observers on two separate occasions. A scoring system was devised with scores from 0 (no stool) to 5 (gross faecal loading with bowel dilatation) in three areas of the colon, giving a total score of 0-15. Results. There were significant differences between the scores of the constipated and control radiographs for each observer (P = 0.05). There was no intra-observer variation (P = 0.12-0.69), but significant inter-observer variation was demonstrated (P = 0.00). Conclusions. We have found this scoring system to be a clinically useful and a reproducible tool in assessing childhood constipation. Assessment of faecal loading is subjective and varies between observers, although one observer will consistently score faecal loading on the same radiograph on successive occasions. To limit exposure to ionising radiation, we recommend that radiography be reserved for the investigation of intractable constipation, and its accuracy is improved if all radiographs are scored by the same observer. (orig.)

  16. Genotyping faecal samples of Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris for population estimation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavatula, Jyotsna; Singh, Lalji

    2006-10-17

    Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris the National Animal of India, is an endangered species. Estimating populations for such species is the main objective for designing conservation measures and for evaluating those that are already in place. Due to the tiger's cryptic and secretive behaviour, it is not possible to enumerate and monitor its populations through direct observations; instead indirect methods have always been used for studying tigers in the wild. DNA methods based on non-invasive sampling have not been attempted so far for tiger population studies in India. We describe here a pilot study using DNA extracted from faecal samples of tigers for the purpose of population estimation. In this study, PCR primers were developed based on tiger-specific variations in the mitochondrial cytochrome b for reliably identifying tiger faecal samples from those of sympatric carnivores. Microsatellite markers were developed for the identification of individual tigers with a sibling Probability of Identity of 0.005 that can distinguish even closely related individuals with 99.9% certainty. The effectiveness of using field-collected tiger faecal samples for DNA analysis was evaluated by sampling, identification and subsequently genotyping samples from two protected areas in southern India. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using tiger faecal matter as a potential source of DNA for population estimation of tigers in protected areas in India in addition to the methods currently in use.

  17. Inappropriate use of the faecal occult blood test in a university hospital in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Anne F.; Stroobants, An K.; Deutekom, Marije; Lauppe, Corinne; Sturk, Auguste; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Although all international guidelines state that there is no indication to perform a faecal occult blood test (FOBT) in symptomatic patients, we believe the test is frequently used as a diagnostic test. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the current guidelines for FOBT

  18. Evaluation of a method of assessing faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leech, S.C.; Sullivan, P.B. [Dept. of Paediatrics, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); McHugh, K. [Department of Radiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-01

    Background. Childhood constipation is common and assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and commonly used to assess constipation. The role of radiography with the use of a simple scoring system has not been fully evaluated. Objective. To assess the reliability of scoring faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children with intractable constipation. Materials and methods. Plain abdominal radiographs from 33 constipated and 67 control children were independently assessed by three observers on two separate occasions. A scoring system was devised with scores from 0 (no stool) to 5 (gross faecal loading with bowel dilatation) in three areas of the colon, giving a total score of 0-15. Results. There were significant differences between the scores of the constipated and control radiographs for each observer (P = 0.05). There was no intra-observer variation (P = 0.12-0.69), but significant inter-observer variation was demonstrated (P = 0.00). Conclusions. We have found this scoring system to be a clinically useful and a reproducible tool in assessing childhood constipation. Assessment of faecal loading is subjective and varies between observers, although one observer will consistently score faecal loading on the same radiograph on successive occasions. To limit exposure to ionising radiation, we recommend that radiography be reserved for the investigation of intractable constipation, and its accuracy is improved if all radiographs are scored by the same observer. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  19. A reveiw of faecal analysis techniques for determining the diet of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The technique of faecal analysis has become increasingly popular for determining the diet of wild grazing herbivores. This paper reviews the methods used in collecting, storing, preparing and analysing the faeces and interpreting the results of the analysis; recommendations are given at each stage of the procedure.

  20. Validation of a new scoring system: Rapid assessment faecal incontinence score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Portilla, Fernando; Calero-Lillo, Arantxa; Jiménez-Rodríguez, Rosa M; Reyes, Maria L; Segovia-González, Manuela; Maestre, María Victoria; García-Cabrera, Ana M

    2015-09-27

    To implement a quick and simple test - rapid assessment faecal incontinence score (RAFIS) and show its reliability and validity. From March 2008 through March 2010, we evaluated a total of 261 consecutive patients, including 53 patients with faecal incontinence. Demographic and comorbidity information was collected. In a single visit, patients were administered the RAFIS. The results obtained with the new score were compared with those of both Wexner score and faecal incontinence quality of life scale (FIQL) questionnaire. The patient without influence of the surgeon completed the test. The role of surgeon was explaining the meaning of each section and how he had to fill. Reliability of the RAFIS score was measured using intra-observer agreement and Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency) coefficient. Multivariate analysis of the main components within the different scores was performed in order to determine whether all the scores measured the same factor and to conclude whether the information could be encompassed in a single factor. A sample size of 50 patients with faecal incontinence was estimated to be enough to detect a correlation of 0.55 or better at 5% level of significance with 80% power. We analysed the results obtained by 53 consecutive patients with faecal incontinence (median age 61.55 ± 12.49 years) in the three scoring systems. A total of 208 healthy volunteers (median age 58.41 ± 18.41 years) without faecal incontinence were included in the study as negative controls. Pearson's correlation coefficient between "state" and "leaks" was excellent (r = 0.92, P < 0.005). Internal consistency in the comparison of "state" and "leaks" yielded also excellent correlation (Cronbach's α = 0.93). Results in each score were compared using regression analysis and a correlation value of r = 0.98 was obtained with Wexner score. As regards FIQL questionnaire, the values of "r" for the different subscales of the questionnaire were: "lifestyle" r = -0.87, "coping

  1. Impact of egg handling and conditions during extended storage on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Ward, G E; Regmi, P; Karcher, D M

    2018-02-01

    The international trade of shell eggs has become more important in recent years in order to feed a growing worldwide population, meet food manufacturing demands, and address supply issues during disease outbreaks or product recalls. The primary barriers for the export and import of shell eggs are: whether to wash eggs and egg storage temperature. The current study was undertaken to compare egg quality factors as influenced by egg washing and storage temperature. Three lots of nest run white shell eggs were collected on consecutive d from a commercial in-line egg production facility. The treatment and storage conditions were selected to encompass the primary egg handling and storage conditions utilized throughout the world: washed; washed, oiled; and unwashed stored at 4°C; and unwashed stored at 22°C. Eggs were assessed weekly from 0 to 15 wk. Percent egg weight loss was greatest for the unwashed 22°C eggs (15.72%) and least for washed, oiled 4°C (0.33%, P < 0.0001). Less than 24 h at 22°C had a greater impact on yolk shape measurements decline than 15 wk at 4°C (P < 0.05). After 15 wk, average Haugh unit scores for all refrigerated treatments were still Grade A, and unwashed 22°C dropped from Grade AA to almost Grade B in one week. Room temperature storage of eggs rapidly declines egg quality. Egg treatment did not impact egg quality factors when stored at 4°C. Washing and oiling eggs before refrigerated storage did suppress the rate of egg weight loss. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2017.

  2. Safety and feasibility of heated egg yolk challenge for children with egg allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Sato, Sakura; Asaumi, Tomoyuki; Ogura, Kiyotake; Borres, Magnus P; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2017-06-01

    Hen's egg allergy is a frequent cause of childhood food allergy. Egg yolk is used in various commonly consumed foods; if children with allergy to hen's egg could eat heated egg yolk, their quality of life (QOL) would improve. No reports exist regarding oral food challenges (OFCs) for heated egg yolk. We aimed to clarify whether pediatric patients allergic to hen's egg could consume heated egg yolk. Data from pediatric patients who had undergone OFCs for heated egg yolk were evaluated retrospectively. Among 919 patients, positive OFC results were obtained in 17.0% of patients; seven presented with severe symptoms. Older age, high specific IgE value for ovomucoid, low total IgE levels, and history of anaphylaxis related to food other than hen's egg were risk factors for positive OFC results. Specific IgE values for egg white, ovomucoid, and egg yolk, indicative of a negative predictive value >95%, were 0.71, 0.41, and 0.17 kU A /l, respectively. A specific IgE to ovomucoid levels of 100 kU A /l predicted heated egg yolk-positive OFCs for 38.3% of patients. Among 763 patients with a negative OFC, seven (0.9%) reacted to heated egg yolk at home, and 756 (99.1%) consumed hen's egg yolk safely. Most pediatric patients allergic to heated hen's egg safely consumed heated egg yolk. Heated egg yolk OFCs rarely provoked severe symptoms and may be recommended for improving the QOL of children with allergy to hen's egg. © 2017 The Authors Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated egg albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    2003-07-01

    A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.05 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin onto diatomite at pH 6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30 degrees C was about 100-fold larger than that of native egg albumin; however, the adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin decreased to about 1/100 with temperature decreasing from 30 to 6 degrees C. The saturated adsorption amount of egg albumin was also increased by the methylation. The flocculating ability of methylated egg albumin was examined with a diatomite suspension at 6 and 30 degrees C in the pH range from pH 2 to 11. The diatomite suspension was effectively flocculated by the addition of small amounts of methylated egg albumin (only 0.5-1 wt% against diatomite) over a wide pH range from pH 3 to 10.

  4. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  5. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-02-26

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  6. Effect of diets with different protein-energy density on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groups were each fed one of the diets, respectively, as supplement and released into a paddock grown with Stylosanthes hamata and Pennisetum pedicellatum, to graze for 12 weeks at 5 hours per day. The faecal egg count (FEC) ranged from 375 to 3483 eggs per gram (epg). The strongyle eggs had the highest (P<0.05) ...

  7. Steroid Biomarkers Revisited - Improved Source Identification of Faecal Remains in Archaeological Soil Material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Prost

    Full Text Available Steroids are used as faecal markers in environmental and in archaeological studies, because they provide insights into ancient agricultural practices and the former presence of animals. Up to now, steroid analyses could only identify and distinguish between herbivore, pig, and human faecal matter and their residues in soils and sediments. We hypothesized that a finer differentiation between faeces of different livestock animals could be achieved when the analyses of several steroids is combined (Δ5-sterols, 5α-stanols, 5β-stanols, epi-5β-stanols, stanones, and bile acids. We therefore reviewed the existing literature on various faecal steroids from livestock and humans and analysed faeces from old livestock breed (cattle, horse, donkey, sheep, goat, goose, and pig and humans. Additionally, we performed steroid analyses on soil material of four different archaeological periods (sites located in the Lower Rhine Basin, Western Germany, dating to the Linearbandkeramik, Urnfield Period / Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman Age with known or supposed faecal inputs. By means of already established and newly applied steroid ratios of the analysed faeces together with results from the literature, all considered livestock faeces, except sheep and cattle, could be distinguished on the basis of their steroid signatures. Most remarkably was the identification of horse faeces (via the ratio: epi-5β-stigmastanol: 5β-stigmastanol + epicoprostanol: coprostanol; together with the presence of chenodeoxycholic acid and a successful differentiation between goat (with chenodeoxycholic acid and sheep/cattle faeces (without chenodeoxycholic acid. The steroid analysis of archaeological soil material confirmed the supposed faecal inputs, even if these inputs had occurred several thousand years ago.

  8. Assessing radiocaesium bioavailability in birds separation of urates from faecal pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapp, J.; Beresford, N.A

    2004-01-01

    Concomitant analyses of urine and faeces present a methodology whereby the bioavailability of dietary radionuclides can be estimated. Whilst the collection of urine from most wild animals is impractical, birds excrete urine in a semi-solid state making field collection possible. In birds the end product of nitrogen metabolism is uric acid which is combined with albumin, calcium and potassium cations as a laminated sphere 0.5 to 15 μm in size. Urate spheres are passed as a colloidal suspension in a proteinaceous fluid composed predominantly of water, albumin and electrolytes giving the characteristic white dollop' to avian guano. Some herbivorous bird species (e.g. Lagopus spp.) excrete comparatively dry-pelleted guano with distinct urate (white) and faecal (brown) components. These are readily separable as they form the predominant constituents of the opposite ends of the cylindrically shaped pellet. This raises the hypothesis that the separation and analyses of the faecal and urate component of herbivorous bird pellets presents a possible methodology to estimate the bioavailability of ingested radionuclides (i.e. as the apparent absorption coefficient). Preliminary sampling and analyses determined that the radiocaesium content of the urate component of Lagopus spp. guano was consistently higher than the faecal tip. The results of a field sampling programme to test this hypothesis are discussed. Lagopus Lagopus scoticus (Red grouse) guano (separated into urate and faecal components), Calluna vulgaris (predominant dietary component of L. lagopus) and soil samples were collected over a period one year from an upland area in northern England. Comparison of the urate to faecal radiocaesium activity concentrations is used to investigate potential changes in the dietary radiocaesium of L. lagopus throughout the year. (author)

  9. Steroid Biomarkers Revisited – Improved Source Identification of Faecal Remains in Archaeological Soil Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prost, Katharina; Birk, Jago Jonathan; Lehndorff, Eva; Gerlach, Renate; Amelung, Wulf

    2017-01-01

    Steroids are used as faecal markers in environmental and in archaeological studies, because they provide insights into ancient agricultural practices and the former presence of animals. Up to now, steroid analyses could only identify and distinguish between herbivore, pig, and human faecal matter and their residues in soils and sediments. We hypothesized that a finer differentiation between faeces of different livestock animals could be achieved when the analyses of several steroids is combined (Δ5-sterols, 5α-stanols, 5β-stanols, epi-5β-stanols, stanones, and bile acids). We therefore reviewed the existing literature on various faecal steroids from livestock and humans and analysed faeces from old livestock breed (cattle, horse, donkey, sheep, goat, goose, and pig) and humans. Additionally, we performed steroid analyses on soil material of four different archaeological periods (sites located in the Lower Rhine Basin, Western Germany, dating to the Linearbandkeramik, Urnfield Period / Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman Age) with known or supposed faecal inputs. By means of already established and newly applied steroid ratios of the analysed faeces together with results from the literature, all considered livestock faeces, except sheep and cattle, could be distinguished on the basis of their steroid signatures. Most remarkably was the identification of horse faeces (via the ratio: epi-5β-stigmastanol: 5β-stigmastanol + epicoprostanol: coprostanol; together with the presence of chenodeoxycholic acid) and a successful differentiation between goat (with chenodeoxycholic acid) and sheep/cattle faeces (without chenodeoxycholic acid). The steroid analysis of archaeological soil material confirmed the supposed faecal inputs, even if these inputs had occurred several thousand years ago. PMID:28060808

  10. FREQUENCY OF POST-OPERATIVE FAECAL INCONTINENCE IN PATIENTS WITH CLOSED AND OPEN INTERNAL ANAL SPHINCTEROTOMY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayas, Nighat; Younus, Syed Muneeb; Mirani, Abdul Jabbar; Ghayasuddin, Mohammed; Qazi, Aamna; Suchdev, Sunil Dutt; Bakshi, Saqib Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Fissure in ano is one of the commonest benign and painful proctologic diseases causing considerable morbidity and reduction in quality of life. There are medical as well as surgical treatment options for anal fissure. The study was conducted to compare the frequency of postoperative faecal incontinence in patients with closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy with von-greaves knife versus standard Park's operation (open method) for chronic anal fissure. This was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at the Department of Surgery, KVSS, S.I.T.E. Hospital, Karachi, for a period of six months from 13th February to 12th August 2011. Ninety four consecutive patients having chronic anal fissure were assigned through blocked randomization to groups A & B, with 47 patients in each group. Closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy (CLIAS) via von-greaves knife was carried out in patients of group-A whereas patients of group-B were subjected to open internal anal sphincterotomy (OIAS) also known as Parks' procedure. Faecal incontinence was noted on the 5th post-operative day. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. There were 81 (86.2%) males and 13 (13.8%) females with male to female ratio being 6:1. Mean age was 38.38 mp ± 14.56 years. Post-operative faecal incontinence in patients undergoing CLIAS was 4.3% while it was 21.3% in those undergoing OIAS with a p-value of 0.027. CLIAS with von-greaves knife is effective in reducing faecal incontinence on 5th postoperative day as compared to standard OIAS. CLIAS with von-greaves knife is effective in reducing faecal incontinence on 5th postoperative day as compared to OIAS (Park's procedure). Therefore, this technique may be used in future regularly to treat chronic anal fissure for prevention of this morbidity.

  11. Rapid removal of plutonium from the oceanic surface layer by zooplankton faecal pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.; Cherry, R.D.; Heyraud, M.; Fowler, S.W.

    1977-01-01

    In view of the possibility that increasing quantities of Pu may in due course be introduced into the marine environment, it is important to have a detailed knowledge of its oceanic behaviour. It has been suggested that algae and perhaps the phytoplanktonic mass may have an important role in determining the chemical and physical forms of Pu predominant in the ocean. The role of the zooplanktonic mass has not been investigated in detail, but it is known that for several elements zooplankton metabolism may be an important biological factor in the removal of elements from the surface layers of the ocean. The particular importance of zooplankton faecal pellets in this process has been stressed, and it has been found that M. norvegica is rich in the naturally-occurring α-emitter 210 Po when compared with whole organism levels. A study is here described for Pu, and it is reported that M. norvegica faecal pellets are relatively rich in Pu. It is suggested that zooplankton faecal pellet deposition might be an important vector in the vertical oceanic transport of this element. Experimental details are given and results are shown in tabular form. The implications of the high concentrations of Pu in faecal pellets are described, and rough estimates are made for the removal time of Pu from the upper mixed ocean layers by zooplankton pellets alone; the result is 3.6 years. It is suggested that faecal pellets may have a significant role in the removal of Pu from the surface layers of the sea. (U.K.)

  12. Rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk from different poultry specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbár, V.; Nedomová, Š.; Votava, J.; Buchar, J.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this study is differences in rheological behaviour of hen (ISA BROWN), goose (Anser anser f. domestica) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) egg white and egg yolk. The rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Rheological behaviour was pseudoplastic and flow curves were fitted by the Herschel-Bulkley model and Ostwald-de Waele model with high values of coeficients of determination R2. The meaning of rheological parameters on friction factors during flow of egg white and egg yolk in real tube has been shown. Preliminary information on time-dependent behaviour of tested liquids has been also obtained.

  13. Effect of colesevelam on faecal bile acids and bowel functions in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, M; Acosta, A; Busciglio, I; Boldingh, A; Dyer, R B; Zinsmeister, A R; Lueke, A; Gray, A; Donato, L J

    2015-03-01

    About one-third of patients with IBS-diarrhoea (irritable bowel syndrome-D) have evidence of increased bile acid synthesis or excretion. To assess effects of the bile acid sequestrant, colesevelam, on faecal excretion of BAs, hepatic BA synthesis and diarrhoea in IBS-D; to appraise whether individual or random stool samples accurately reflect 48-h total faecal bile acid excretion and proportions of the main bile acids excreted and to study the faecal fat excretion in response to colesevelam. A single-centre, unblinded, single-dose trial of effects of colesevelam, 1875 mg [3 tablets (625 mg tablets)] orally, twice daily, for 10 days on total 48-h faecal bile acid excretion and fasting serum C4 (7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one; surrogate of hepatic bile acid synthesis). Stool diaries documented bowel functions for 8 days prior and 8 days during colesevelam treatment. Stool 48-h samples and fasting serum were collected for faecal fat, faecal bile acid and serum C4. Colesevelam was associated with significantly increased faecal total bile acid excretion and deoxycholic acid excretion, increased serum C4 and more solid stool consistency. There was a significant inverse correlation between number of bowel movements per week and the total bile acid sequestered into stool during the last 48 h of treatment. Random stool samples did not accurately reflect 48-h total or individual faecal bile acid excretion. Sequestration of bile acids by colesevelam did not increase faecal fat. Colesevelam increases delivery of bile acids to stool while improving stool consistency, and increases hepatic bile acid synthesis, avoiding steatorrhoea in patients with IBS-D. Overall effects are consistent with luminal bile acid sequestration by colesevelam. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

  15. Effects of inulin on performance, egg quality, gut microflora and serum and yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, H M; Hu, T M; Lu, Y J; Wu, H X

    2010-12-01

    1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin on laying hens. A total of 360 Brown Nick laying hens were divided randomly into 6 groups of 60 with 6 replicates of 10 hens and fed on diets containing 0 (control), 0·1, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 or 2·0% inulin during the 4-week trial. 2. Dietary supplementation of inulin reduced cholesterol concentration (mg/g yolk) and content (mg/egg) in eggs. Cholesterol content in eggs decreased linearly with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. 3. Supplementation of inulin in diets decreased coliform bacteria counts and pH in the caecum. The lowest coliform bacteria counts (6·30 ± 0·03 log10 cfu/g) and pH (6·47 ± 0·01) were obtained in the 2·0% inulin group, the two indices decreasing by 21·6% and 3·0% respectively, compared with the control group. Coliform bacteria count and pH were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. Caecal Bifidobacteria counts were increased in the 2·0%-inulin group. 4. Inulin supplementation of layer diets did not appear to have any adverse effects on laying rate, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, cracked-egg rate, eggshell thickness or Haugh unit compared with the control laying hens. 5. Therefore, dietary supplementation with inulin may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers.

  16. Maternal effects of egg size on emu Dromaius novaehollandiae egg composition and hatchling phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzialowski, Edward M; Sotherland, Paul R

    2004-02-01

    Parental investment in eggs and, consequently, in offspring can profoundly influence the phenotype, survival and ultimately evolutionary fitness of an organism. Avian eggs are excellent model systems to examine maternal allocation of energy translated through egg size variation. We used the natural range in emu Dromaius novaehollandiae egg size, from 400 g to >700 g, to examine the influence of maternal investment in eggs on the morphology and physiology of hatchlings. Female emus provisioned larger eggs with a greater absolute amount of energy, nutrients and water in the yolk and albumen. Variation in maternal investment was reflected in differences in hatchling size, which increased isometrically with egg size. Egg size also influenced the physiology of developing emu embryos, such that late-term embryonic metabolic rate was positively correlated with egg size and embryos developing in larger eggs consumed more yolk during development. Large eggs produced hatchlings that were both heavier (yolk-free wet and dry mass) and structurally larger (tibiotarsus and culmen lengths) than hatchlings emerging from smaller eggs. As with many other precocial birds, larger hatchlings also contained more water, which was reflected in a greater blood volume. However, blood osmolality, hemoglobin content and hematocrit did not vary with hatchling mass. Emu maternal investment in offspring, measured by egg size and composition, is significantly correlated with the morphology and physiology of hatchlings and, in turn, may influence the success of these organisms during the first days of the juvenile stage.

  17. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. McNamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  18. Effect of room temperature transport vials on DNA quality and phylogenetic composition of faecal microbiota of elderly adults and infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hill, Cian J

    2016-05-01

    Alterations in intestinal microbiota have been correlated with a growing number of diseases. Investigating the faecal microbiota is widely used as a non-invasive and ethically simple proxy for intestinal biopsies. There is an urgent need for collection and transport media that would allow faecal sampling at distance from the processing laboratory, obviating the need for same-day DNA extraction recommended by previous studies of freezing and processing methods for stool. We compared the faecal bacterial DNA quality and apparent phylogenetic composition derived using a commercial kit for stool storage and transport (DNA Genotek OMNIgene GUT) with that of freshly extracted samples, 22 from infants and 20 from older adults.

  19. Rapid sample preparation for detection and identification of avian influenza virus from chicken faecal samples using magnetic bead microsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhumpa, Raghuram; Bu, Minqiang; Handberg, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    -PCR is a sensitive method for detection of AIV, it requires sample preparation including separation and purification of AIV and concentrate viral RNA. It is laborious and complex process especially for diagnosis using faecal sample. In this study, magnetic beads were used for immunoseparation of AIV in chicken...... faecal sample by a magnetic microsystem. Using this system, all the 16 hemagglutinin (H) and 9 neuraminidase (N) subtypes of AIV were separated and detected in spiked faecal samples using RT-PCR, without an RNA extraction step. This rapid sample preparation method can be integrated with a total analysis...

  20. City & Rural KIDS COUNT Data Book. KIDS COUNT Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This publication provides the objective data needed to track and monitor the well-being of children in different types of American communities. It is part of the ongoing work of the Casey Foundation -- advanced primarily through our KIDS COUNT initiative -- designed to give policymakers data that can help them better understand how conditions of…