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Sample records for facultatively asexual pea

  1. Facultative symbiont infections affect aphid reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jean-Christophe; Boutin, Sébastien; Tsuchida, Tsutomu; Koga, Ryuichi; Le Gallic, Jean-François; Frantz, Adrien; Outreman, Yannick; Fukatsu, Takema

    2011-01-01

    Some bacterial symbionts alter their hosts reproduction through various mechanisms that enhance their transmission in the host population. In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum harbors several facultative symbionts influencing several aspects of host ecology. Aphids reproduce by cyclical parthenogenesis whereby clonal and sexual reproduction alternate within the annual life cycle. Many species, including the pea aphid, also show variation in their reproductive mode at the population level, with some lineages reproducing by cyclical parthenogenesis and others by permanent parthenogenesis. While the role of facultative symbionts has been well studied during the parthenogenetic phase of their aphid hosts, very little is known on their possible influence during the sexual phase. Here we investigated whether facultative symbionts modulate the capacity to produce sexual forms in various genetic backgrounds of the pea aphid with controlled symbiont composition and also in different aphid genotypes from natural populations with previously characterized infection status and reproductive mode. We found that most facultative symbionts exhibited detrimental effects on their hosts fitness under sex-inducing conditions in comparison with the reference lines. We also showed that the loss of sexual phase in permanently parthenogenetic lineages of A. pisum was not explained by facultative symbionts. Finally, we demonstrated that Spiroplasma infection annihilated the production of males in the host progeny by inducing a male-killing phenotype, an unexpected result for organisms such as aphids that reproduce primarily through clonal reproduction.

  2. Facultative symbiont infections affect aphid reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Simon

    Full Text Available Some bacterial symbionts alter their hosts reproduction through various mechanisms that enhance their transmission in the host population. In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum harbors several facultative symbionts influencing several aspects of host ecology. Aphids reproduce by cyclical parthenogenesis whereby clonal and sexual reproduction alternate within the annual life cycle. Many species, including the pea aphid, also show variation in their reproductive mode at the population level, with some lineages reproducing by cyclical parthenogenesis and others by permanent parthenogenesis. While the role of facultative symbionts has been well studied during the parthenogenetic phase of their aphid hosts, very little is known on their possible influence during the sexual phase. Here we investigated whether facultative symbionts modulate the capacity to produce sexual forms in various genetic backgrounds of the pea aphid with controlled symbiont composition and also in different aphid genotypes from natural populations with previously characterized infection status and reproductive mode. We found that most facultative symbionts exhibited detrimental effects on their hosts fitness under sex-inducing conditions in comparison with the reference lines. We also showed that the loss of sexual phase in permanently parthenogenetic lineages of A. pisum was not explained by facultative symbionts. Finally, we demonstrated that Spiroplasma infection annihilated the production of males in the host progeny by inducing a male-killing phenotype, an unexpected result for organisms such as aphids that reproduce primarily through clonal reproduction.

  3. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seem...

  4. Sexual conflict and the evolution of asexuality at low population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Nina; Kokko, Hanna

    2016-10-26

    Theories for the evolution of sex rarely include facultatively sexual reproduction. Sexual harassment by males is an underappreciated factor: it should at first sight increase the relative advantage of asexual reproduction by increasing the cost of sex. However, if the same females can perform either sexual or asexual life cycles, then females trying to reproduce asexually may not escape harassment. If resisting male harassment is costly, it might be beneficial for a female to accept a mating and undertake a sexual life cycle rather than 'insist' on an asexual one. We investigate the effects of sexual harassment on the maintenance of sex under different population densities. Our model shows that resisting matings pays off at low population densities, which leads to the complete extinction of males, and thus to the evolution of completely asexual populations. Facultative sex persists in a narrow range of slightly higher densities. At high densities, selection favours giving up resisting male mating attempts and thus sexual reproduction takes over. These interactions between the outcomes of sexual conflict and population density suggest an explanation for the rarity of facultative sex and also patterns of geographical parthenogenesis, where marginal environments with potentially low densities are associated with asexuality. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Unrelated facultative endosymbionts protect aphids against a fungal pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik, Piotr; van Asch, Margriet; Guo, Huifang; Ferrari, Julia; Godfray, H Charles J

    2013-02-01

    The importance of microbial facultative endosymbionts to insects is increasingly being recognized, but our understanding of how the fitness effects of infection are distributed across symbiont taxa is limited. In the pea aphid, some of the seven known species of facultative symbionts influence their host's resistance to natural enemies, including parasitoid wasps and a pathogenic fungus. Here we show that protection against this entomopathogen, Pandora neoaphidis, can be conferred by strains of four distantly related symbionts (in the genera Regiella, Rickettsia, Rickettsiella and Spiroplasma). They reduce mortality and also decrease fungal sporulation on dead aphids which may help protect nearby genetically identical insects. Pea aphids thus obtain protection from natural enemies through association with a wider range of microbial associates than has previously been thought. Providing resistance against natural enemies appears to be a particularly common way for facultative endosymbionts to increase in frequency within host populations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  6. Asexual sporulation facilitates adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Debets, A.J.M.; Verweij, P.E.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Zwaan, B.J.; Schoustra, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the occurrence and spread of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is crucial for public health. It has been hypothesized that asexual sporulation, which is abundant in nature, is essential for phenotypic expression of azole resistance mutations in A. fumigatus facilitating

  7. Facultative thermogenesis induced by carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Christensen, N J

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the obligatory thermogenesis due to processing and storage, carbohydrate ingestion is accompanied by a facultative thermogenesis mediated by catecholamines via beta-adrenoceptors. The anatomical origin of facultative thermogenesis has hitherto not been determined. The possible...

  8. Epigenetic variation in asexually reproducing organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Preite, V.

    2014-01-01

    The role that epigenetic inheritance can play in adaptation may differ between sexuals and asexuals because (1) the dynamics of adaptation differ under sexual and asexual reproduction and the opportunities offered by epigenetic inheritance may affect these dynamics differently; and (2) in asexual

  9. Aphid facultative symbionts reduce survival of the predatory lady beetle Hippodamia convergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-essential facultative endosymbionts can provide their hosts with protection from parasites, pathogens, and predators. For example, two facultative bacterial symbionts of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), Serratia symbiotica and Hamiltonella defensa, protect their hosts from parasitism by two species of parasitoid wasp. Previous studies have not explored whether facultative symbionts also play a defensive role against predation in this system. We tested whether feeding on aphids harboring different facultative symbionts affected the fitness of an aphid predator, the lady beetle Hippodamia convergens. Results While these aphid faculative symbionts did not deter lady beetle feeding, they did decrease survival of lady beetle larvae. Lady beetle larvae fed a diet of aphids with facultative symbionts had significantly reduced survival from egg hatching to pupation and therefore had reduced survival to adult emergence. Additionally, lady beetle adults fed aphids with facultative symbionts were significantly heavier than those fed facultative symbiont-free aphids, though development time was not significantly different. Conclusions Aphids reproduce clonally and are often found in large groups. Thus, aphid symbionts, by reducing the fitness of the aphid predator H. convergens, may indirectly defend their hosts’ clonal descendants against predation. These findings highlight the often far-reaching effects that symbionts can have in ecological systems. PMID:24555501

  10. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

    2012-12-23

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted.

  11. How Large Asexual Populations Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Michael

    2007-03-01

    We often think of beneficial mutations as being rare, and of adaptation as a sequence of selected substitutions: a beneficial mutation occurs, spreads through a population in a selective sweep, then later another beneficial mutation occurs, and so on. This simple picture is the basis for much of our intuition about adaptive evolution, and underlies a number of practical techniques for analyzing sequence data. Yet many large and mostly asexual populations -- including a wide variety of unicellular organisms and viruses -- live in a very different world. In these populations, beneficial mutations are common, and frequently interfere or cooperate with one another as they all attempt to sweep simultaneously. This radically changes the way these populations adapt: rather than an orderly sequence of selective sweeps, evolution is a constant swarm of competing and interfering mutations. I will describe some aspects of these dynamics, including why large asexual populations cannot evolve very quickly and the character of the diversity they maintain. I will explain how this changes our expectations of sequence data, how sex can help a population adapt, and the potential role of ``mutator'' phenotypes with abnormally high mutation rates. Finally, I will discuss comparisons of these predictions with evolution experiments in laboratory yeast populations.

  12. Coming to an Asexual Identity: Negotiating Identity, Negotiating Desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Kristin S

    2008-10-01

    Sexuality is generally considered an important aspect of self-hood. Therefore, individuals who do not experience sexual attraction, and embrace an asexual identity are in a unique position to inform the social construction of sexuality. This study explores the experiences of asexual individuals utilizing open ended Internet survey data from 102 self-identified asexual people. In this paper I describe several distinct aspects of asexual identities: the meanings of sexual, and therefore, asexual behaviors, essentialist characterizations of asexuality, and lastly, interest in romance as a distinct dimension of sexuality. These findings have implications not only for asexual identities, but also for the connections of asexuality with other marginalized sexualities.

  13. Molecular evidence for the first records of facultative parthenogenesis in elapid snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L; Sanders, K L; Thomson, V A

    2018-02-01

    Parthenogenesis is a form of asexual reproduction by which embryos develop from unfertilized eggs. Parthenogenesis occurs in reptiles; however, it is not yet known to occur in the widespread elapid snakes (Elapidae), which include well-known taxa such as cobras, mambas, taipans and sea snakes. Here, we describe the production of viable parthenogens in two species of Australo-Papuan elapids with divergent reproductive modes: the oviparous coastal/Papuan taipan ( Oxyuranus scutellatus ) and the viviparous southern death adder ( Acanthophis antarcticus ). Analyses of nuclear SNP data excluded paternity for putative fathers and convincingly demonstrated asexual reproduction, thus representing the first evidence of facultative parthenogenesis in Elapidae. Our finding has broad implications for understanding the evolution of reproductive diversity in snakes, as well as managing the conservation of genetic diversity in wild and captive populations.

  14. Facultative asexual reproduction and genetic diversity of populations in the humivorous termite Cavitermes tuberosus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fournier, D.; Hellemans, S.; Hanus, Robert; Roisin, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 283, č. 1832 (2016), č. článku 20160196. ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12774S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : thelytokous parthenogenesis * breeding systems * termites * reproductive strategies * Isoptera * Termitidae Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.940, year: 2016

  15. Methylocella Species Are Facultatively Methanotrophic

    OpenAIRE

    Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Knief, Claudia; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2005-01-01

    All aerobic methanotrophic bacteria described to date are unable to grow on substrates containing carbon-carbon bonds. Here we demonstrate that members of the recently discovered genus Methylocella are an exception to this. These bacteria are able to use as their sole energy source the one-carbon compounds methane and methanol, as well as the multicarbon compounds acetate, pyruvate, succinate, malate, and ethanol. To conclusively verify facultative growth, acetate and methane were used as mod...

  16. Mutation breeding in peas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaranowski, J [Institute of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Academy of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland); Micke, A [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1985-02-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  17. Mutation breeding in peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaranowski, J.; Micke, A.

    1985-01-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  18. Identification of Phytophthora sojae genes involved in asexual ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ual sporulation or germination. But molecular details about asexual spore development in P. sojae are limited (Tyler et al. 2006). In the present study, to understand the molecular basis of asexual spore development in P. sojae, we investigated gene expression changes involved in asexual sporulation after ul- traviolet (UV) ...

  19. Origins of asexuality in Bryobia mites (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, V.I.D.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Obligate asexual reproduction is rare in the animal kingdom. Generally, asexuals are considered evolutionary dead ends that are unable to radiate. The phytophagous mite genus Bryobia contains a large number of asexual species. In this study, we investigate the origin and evolution of

  20. Morphological peculiarities of bryophytes asexual organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Lobachevska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main types of brood organs of dominant bryophyte species on dumps of the mining factories were determined. The special features of morphology, localization and genesis of specialized asexual propagula and gemmae were detected. The analysis of their role in reproductive strategy of colonist species was conducted.

  1. Facultative parthenogenesis validated by DNA analyses in the green anaconda (Eunectes murinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hiroki; Sakata, Shuichi; Hirano, Yuzo; Nitasaka, Eiji; Sakabe, Ai

    2017-01-01

    In reptiles, the mode of reproduction is typically sexual. However, facultative parthenogenesis occurs in some Squamata, such as Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) and Burmese python (Python bivittatus). Here, we report facultative parthenogenesis in the green anaconda (Eunectes murinus). We found two fully developed female neonates and 17 undeveloped eggs in the oviduct of a female anaconda isolated from other individuals for eight years and two months at Ueno Zoo, Japan. To clarify the zygosity of the neonates, we analyzed 18 microsatellite markers of which 16 were informative. We observed only maternal alleles and no paternal alleles for all 16 markers. To examine the possibility of the long-term sperm storage, we estimated allele frequencies in a putative parental stock by genotyping five unrelated founders. If all founders, including the mother, are originated from a single Mendelian population, then the probability that the neonates were produced by sexual reproduction with an unrelated male via long-term sperm storage was infinitesimally small (2.31E-32 per clutch). We also examined samples from two additional offspring that the mother delivered eight years before her death. We consistently observed paternal alleles in these elder offspring, indicating that the mother had switched from sexual reproduction to asexual reproduction during the eight years of isolation. This is the first case of parthenogenesis in Eunectes to be validated by DNA analysis, and suggests that facultative parthenogenesis is widespread in the Boidae.

  2. Facultative parthenogenesis validated by DNA analyses in the green anaconda (Eunectes murinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Shibata

    Full Text Available In reptiles, the mode of reproduction is typically sexual. However, facultative parthenogenesis occurs in some Squamata, such as Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis and Burmese python (Python bivittatus. Here, we report facultative parthenogenesis in the green anaconda (Eunectes murinus. We found two fully developed female neonates and 17 undeveloped eggs in the oviduct of a female anaconda isolated from other individuals for eight years and two months at Ueno Zoo, Japan. To clarify the zygosity of the neonates, we analyzed 18 microsatellite markers of which 16 were informative. We observed only maternal alleles and no paternal alleles for all 16 markers. To examine the possibility of the long-term sperm storage, we estimated allele frequencies in a putative parental stock by genotyping five unrelated founders. If all founders, including the mother, are originated from a single Mendelian population, then the probability that the neonates were produced by sexual reproduction with an unrelated male via long-term sperm storage was infinitesimally small (2.31E-32 per clutch. We also examined samples from two additional offspring that the mother delivered eight years before her death. We consistently observed paternal alleles in these elder offspring, indicating that the mother had switched from sexual reproduction to asexual reproduction during the eight years of isolation. This is the first case of parthenogenesis in Eunectes to be validated by DNA analysis, and suggests that facultative parthenogenesis is widespread in the Boidae.

  3. Public goods dilemma in asexual ant societies

    OpenAIRE

    Dobata, Shigeto; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2013-01-01

    This study reports experimental evidence for the “public goods dilemma” between cooperators and cheaters in an asexual ant society, in which cheating is always more rewarding for individuals but cooperation at the cost of individual fitness leads to better performance of groups. Although this dilemma provides the basic principle of social evolution, its experimental demonstration with underlying genetics and fitness evaluation for both cooperators and cheaters still lacks in societies other t...

  4. Methylocella species are facultatively methanotrophic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedysh, Svetlana N; Knief, Claudia; Dunfield, Peter F

    2005-07-01

    All aerobic methanotrophic bacteria described to date are unable to grow on substrates containing carbon-carbon bonds. Here we demonstrate that members of the recently discovered genus Methylocella are an exception to this. These bacteria are able to use as their sole energy source the one-carbon compounds methane and methanol, as well as the multicarbon compounds acetate, pyruvate, succinate, malate, and ethanol. To conclusively verify facultative growth, acetate and methane were used as model substrates in growth experiments with the type strain Methylocella silvestris BL2. Quantitative real-time PCR targeting the mmoX gene, which encodes a subunit of soluble methane monooxygenase, showed that copies of this gene increased in parallel with cell counts during growth on either acetate or methane as the sole substrate. This verified that cells possessing the genetic basis of methane oxidation grew on acetate as well as methane. Cloning of 16S rRNA genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization with strain-specific and genus-specific oligonucleotide probes detected no contaminants in cultures. The growth rate and carbon conversion efficiency were higher on acetate than on methane, and when both substrates were provided in excess, acetate was preferably used and methane oxidation was shut down. Our data demonstrate that not all methanotrophic bacteria are limited to growing on one-carbon compounds. This could have major implications for understanding the factors controlling methane fluxes in the environment.

  5. ( Voandze subterranean ) and pigeon pea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation and evaluation of complementary food based on bambara nut ( Voandze subterranean ) and pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... Objectives: The study formulated and evaluated complementary food made from composites of maize, bambara nut and pigeon pea. Materials ...

  6. Patterns of Asexuality in China: Sexual Activity, Sexual and Romantic Attraction, and Sexual Desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijun; Su, Yanchen

    2018-05-01

    This study examined patterns of asexuality in Chinese asexual people in terms of sexual activities, sexual/romantic attraction, and sexual desire. The sample included 227 (64 men and 163 women) asexual participants and 57 (26 men and 31 women) uncertain asexual participants recruited from social networks for asexual people. The control group included 217 (115 men and 102 women) heterosexual participants recruited from general social networks. Participants scoring 40 or higher on the Asexuality Identification Scale were classified as asexual. Asexual participants reported having less frequent masturbation, sexual intercourse experience, and sexual and romantic attraction compared to heterosexual participants. Lower sexual attraction among asexuals indicated that "people who experience little or no sexual attraction" would be a more appropriate definition of asexuality. The pattern of uncertain asexual participants' sexual/romantic attraction and sexual desire was intermediate between heterosexual and asexual participants. Asexual participants scored significantly lower on dyadic sexual desire and slightly lower on solitary sexual desire than heterosexual participants. There were significant differences in sexual activities and solitary sexual desire among romantic orientation categories. Homoromantic participants showed higher dyadic sexual desire and were more likely to engage in masturbation, indicating the heterogeneity among asexual people. The findings indicated that Chinese asexual people showed similar patterns of asexuality as in Western nations. Specifically, asexual people have little or no sexual attraction, non-partner-orientated sexual desire, and are heterogeneous in sexual activities and sexual desire. This implies similar mechanisms underlying the etiology of asexuality across cultures.

  7. Asexuality development among middle aged and older men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ping Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess erectile function in middle-aged and older men with asexuality status and further analyze their specific reasons for this condition. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Men who had regular sexual intercourse attempts (sex frequency ≥ 1 time per month were classified into mild erectile dysfunction (ED, moderate to severe ED and non-ED according to International Index of Erectile Function-5, and men having no sexual intercourse attempts for at least 6 months were defined as having an asexuality status. The risk factors associated with ED were collected in a sample of 1,531 Chinese men aged 40 to 80 years, and the self-report reasons for asexuality were recorded in asexual cohort individually. Comparative analyses and multivariate regression models were conducted among these groups. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of ED and asexuality status were 49.9% and 37.2%. The asexuality status group had higher risk factors than the moderate to severe ED group in terms of old age (age ≥ 65, adjusted odds ratio (OR 17.69 versus (Vs. 7.19, diabetes (crude OR: 2.40 Vs. 2.36 and hypertension (crude OR: 1.78 Vs. 1.72. The specific reasons for the asexuality status were "erectile difficulty" (52.9%, "do not care about sexuality" (53.5%", "no longer necessary to have sexuality at this age" (47.7%, "severe stress" (44.4%, "severe fatigue" (26.3% and "masturbation" (26.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Men with an asexual status suffer from higher risk factors for ED than men with moderate to severe ED. The majority of this asexual status could be attributed to a full ED, although the reasons for this transient asexuality also involved sexual attitudes and interests, sexual partners and masturbation.

  8. Asexuality development among middle aged and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Bin; Ping, Ping; Wang, Hong-Xiang; Hu, Kai; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Tao; Feng, Tan; Jin, Yan; Han, Yin-Fa; Wang, Yi-Xin; Huang, Yi-Ran

    2014-01-01

    To assess erectile function in middle-aged and older men with asexuality status and further analyze their specific reasons for this condition. Men who had regular sexual intercourse attempts (sex frequency ≥ 1 time per month) were classified into mild erectile dysfunction (ED), moderate to severe ED and non-ED according to International Index of Erectile Function-5, and men having no sexual intercourse attempts for at least 6 months were defined as having an asexuality status. The risk factors associated with ED were collected in a sample of 1,531 Chinese men aged 40 to 80 years, and the self-report reasons for asexuality were recorded in asexual cohort individually. Comparative analyses and multivariate regression models were conducted among these groups. The prevalence rates of ED and asexuality status were 49.9% and 37.2%. The asexuality status group had higher risk factors than the moderate to severe ED group in terms of old age (age ≥ 65, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 17.69 versus (Vs.) 7.19), diabetes (crude OR: 2.40 Vs. 2.36) and hypertension (crude OR: 1.78 Vs. 1.72). The specific reasons for the asexuality status were "erectile difficulty" (52.9%), "do not care about sexuality" (53.5%)", "no longer necessary to have sexuality at this age" (47.7%), "severe stress" (44.4%), "severe fatigue" (26.3%) and "masturbation" (26.9%). Men with an asexual status suffer from higher risk factors for ED than men with moderate to severe ED. The majority of this asexual status could be attributed to a full ED, although the reasons for this transient asexuality also involved sexual attitudes and interests, sexual partners and masturbation.

  9. Ecdysone signaling underlies the pea aphid transgenerational wing polyphenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellichirammal, Neetha Nanoth; Gupta, Purba; Hall, Tannice A; Brisson, Jennifer A

    2017-02-07

    The wing polyphenism of pea aphids is a compelling laboratory model with which to study the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity. In this polyphenism, environmental stressors such as high aphid density cause asexual, viviparous adult female aphids to alter the developmental fate of their embryos from wingless to winged morphs. This polyphenism is transgenerational, in that the pea aphid mother experiences the environmental signals, but it is her offspring that are affected. Previous research suggested that the steroid hormone ecdysone may play a role in this polyphenism. Here, we analyzed ecdysone-related gene expression patterns and found that they were consistent with a down-regulation of the ecdysone pathway being involved in the production of winged offspring. We therefore predicted that reduced ecdysone signaling would result in more winged offspring. Experimental injections of ecdysone or its analog resulted in a decreased production of winged offspring. Conversely, interfering with ecdysone signaling using an ecdysone receptor antagonist or knocking down the ecdysone receptor gene with RNAi resulted in an increased production of winged offspring. Our results are therefore consistent with the idea that ecdysone plays a causative role in the regulation of the proportion of winged offspring produced in response to crowding in this polyphenism. Our results also show that an environmentally regulated maternal hormone can mediate phenotype production in the next generation, as well as provide significant insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the functioning of transgenerational phenotypic plasticity.

  10. Facultative hyperaccumulation of heavy metals and metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, A Joseph; Reeves, Roger D; Baker, Alan J M

    2014-03-01

    Approximately 500 species of plants are known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals and metalloids. The majority are obligate metallophytes, species that are restricted to metalliferous soils. However, a smaller but increasing list of plants are "facultative hyperaccumulators" that hyperaccumulate heavy metals when occurring on metalliferous soils, yet also occur commonly on normal, non-metalliferous soils. This paper reviews the biology of facultative hyperaccumulators and the opportunities they provide for ecological and evolutionary research. The existence of facultative hyperaccumulator populations across a wide edaphic range allows intraspecific comparisons of tolerance and uptake physiology. This approach has been used to study zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation by Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri, and it will be instructive to make similar comparisons on species that are distributed even more abundantly on normal soil. Over 90% of known hyperaccumulators occur on serpentine (ultramafic) soil and accumulate nickel, yet there have paradoxically been few experimental studies of facultative nickel hyperaccumulation. Several hypotheses suggested to explain the evolution of hyperaccumulation seem unlikely when most populations of a species occur on normal soil, where plants cannot hyperaccumulate due to low metal availability. In such species, it may be that hyperaccumulation is an ancestral phylogenetic trait or an anomalous manifestation of physiological mechanisms evolved on normal soils, and may or may not have direct adaptive benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of Pea Accessions for Development of an Oilseed Pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khodapanahi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Global interest in stable energy resources coupled with growing demand for bio-oils in various conventional and arising industries has renewed the importance of vegetable oil production. To address this global interest, oilseed production has been increased in recent decades by different approaches, such as extending the cultivation area of oil crops, or breeding and growing genetically modified plants. In this study, pea (Pisum sativum L. accessions were screened for lipid content using a rapid extraction method. This method quantifies lipid concentration in pea seeds and was developed by assessing and comparing the results of existing extraction methods used for canola and soybean, the top two Canadian oilseeds. Seeds of 151 field pea accessions were grown to maturity in 2009 and 2010 at McGill University (Quebec, Canada. Overall, lipid concentration in pea seeds ranged from 0.9 to 5.0%. Among several seed characteristics, only seed shape (wrinkled verses round had a significant effect on the total lipid production in the seeds. Peas are a valuable source of protein and starch, but the lipid concentration in their seeds has been undervalued. This research supports the idea of developing a novel dual-purpose oilseed pea that emulates the protein and oil production in soybean seeds while being conveniently adapted to a colder climate.

  12. Chromosome length scaling in haploid, asexual reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P M C de

    2007-01-01

    We study the genetic behaviour of a population formed by haploid individuals which reproduce asexually. The genetic information for each individual is stored along a bit-string (or chromosome) with L bits, where 0-bits represent the wild allele and 1-bits correspond to harmful mutations. Each newborn inherits this chromosome from its parent with a few random mutations: on average a fixed number m of bits are flipped. Selection is implemented according to the number N of 1-bits counted along the individual's chromosome: the smaller N the higher the probability an individual has to survive a new time step. Such a population evolves, with births and deaths, and its genetic distribution becomes stabilized after sufficiently many generations have passed. The question we pose concerns the procedure of increasing L. The aim is to get the same distribution of genetic loads N/L among the equilibrated population, in spite of a larger L. Should we keep the same mutation rate m/L for different values of L? The answer is yes, which intuitively seems to be plausible. However, this conclusion is not trivial, according to our simulation results: the question also involves the population size

  13. Conditional Reduction of Predation Risk Associated with a Facultative Symbiont in an Insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Polin

    Full Text Available Symbionts are widespread among eukaryotes and their impacts on the ecology and evolution of their hosts are meaningful. Most insects harbour obligate and facultative symbiotic bacteria that can influence their phenotype. In the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, an astounding symbiotic-mediated phenotype has been recently observed: when infected with the symbiotic bacteria Rickettsiella viridis, young red aphid larvae become greener at adulthood and even darker green when co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa. As body colour affects the susceptibility towards natural enemies in aphids, the influence of the colour change due to these facultative symbionts on the host survival in presence of predators was tested. Our results suggested that the Rickettsiella viridis infection may impact positively host survival by reducing predation risk. Due to results from uninfected aphids (i.e., more green ones attacked, the main assumption is that this symbiotic infection would deter the predatory ladybird feeding by reducing the profitability of their hosts rather than decreasing host detection through body colour change. Aphids co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa were, however, more exposed to predation suggesting an ecological cost associated with multiple infections. The underlying mechanisms and ecological consequences of these symbiotic effects are discussed.

  14. Facultative reinsurance and the full reinsurance clause

    OpenAIRE

    Gurses, Ozlem

    2009-01-01

    The Full Reinsurance clause by which a reinsurer agrees to be bound by the same terms and conditions as the original policy and commits to follow the reinsured’s settlements is widely used in London Market facultative reinsurance contracts. In most disputes the outcome depends upon resolving the fundamental question of whether reinsurance is either a further insurance on the subject matter insured or is a reinsurance of the liability of the reinsured under the direct policy. The interpretatio...

  15. Inheritance patterns of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of pea aphid biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccoud, Jean; Bonhomme, Joël; Mahéo, Frédérique; de la Huerta, Manon; Cosson, Olivier; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Herbivorous insects frequently harbor bacterial symbionts that affect their ecology and evolution. Aphids host the obligatory endosymbiont Buchnera, which is required for reproduction, together with facultative symbionts whose frequencies vary across aphid populations. These maternally transmitted secondary symbionts have been particularly studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, which harbors at least 8 distinct bacterial species (not counting Buchnera) having environmentally dependent effects on host fitness. In particular, these symbiont species are associated with pea aphid populations feeding on specific plants. Although they are maternally inherited, these bacteria are occasionally transferred across insect lineages. One mechanism of such nonmaternal transfer is paternal transmission to the progeny during sexual reproduction. To date, transmission of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of aphids has been investigated in only a handful of aphid lineages and 3 symbiont species. To better characterize this process, we investigated inheritance patterns of 7 symbiont species during sexual reproduction of pea aphids through a crossing experiment involving 49 clones belonging to 9 host-specialized biotypes, and 117 crosses. Symbiont species in the progeny were detected with diagnostic qualitative PCR at the fundatrix stage hatching from eggs and in later parthenogenetic generations. We found no confirmed case of paternal transmission of symbionts to the progeny, and we observed that maternal transmission of a particular symbiont species (Serratia symbiotica) was quite inefficient. We discuss these observations in respect to the ecology of the pea aphid. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Biological markers of asexuality: Handedness, birth order, and finger length ratios in self-identified asexual men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Morag A; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2014-02-01

    Human asexuality is defined as a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything and it has been suggested that it may be best conceptualized as a sexual orientation. Non-right-handedness, fraternal birth order, and finger length ratio (2D:4D) are early neurodevelopmental markers associated with sexual orientation. We conducted an Internet study investigating the relationship between self-identification as asexual, handedness, number of older siblings, and self-measured finger-lengths in comparison to individuals of other sexual orientation groups. A total of 325 asexuals (60 men and 265 women; M age, 24.8 years), 690 heterosexuals (190 men and 500 women; M age, 23.5 years), and 268 non-heterosexuals (homosexual and bisexual; 64 men and 204 women; M age, 29.0 years) completed online questionnaires. Asexual men and women were 2.4 and 2.5 times, respectively, more likely to be non-right-handed than their heterosexual counterparts and there were significant differences between sexual orientation groups in number of older brothers and older sisters, and this depended on handedness. Asexual and non-heterosexual men were more likely to be later-born than heterosexual men, and asexual women were more likely to be earlier-born than non-heterosexual women. We found no significant differences between sexual orientation groups on measurements of 2D:4D ratio. This is one of the first studies to test and provide preliminary empirical support for an underlying neurodevelopmental basis to account for the lack of sexual attraction characteristic of asexuality.

  17. Studies on the susceptibility of peas and field peas cultivars to Ascochyta pisi (Lib.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to find the plants resistant to Ascochyta pisi causing leaf and spot-pot of peas and field peas. Fourty five cultivars of peas and field peas and 6 breeding materials were tested in field in the period 1975-1978. Cultivars: Bartel, Birte, Borek, Cebeco, Finale and Paloma were to be less susceptible. In laboratory and greenhouse conditions peas and field peas cultivares were examined for susceptible to pathotypes 2 and 4 of Ascochyta pisi. The results obtained proved that cultivars: Borel, cebeco, Finale and Paloma were to be less susceptible to two pathotypes of Ascochyta pisi.

  18. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  19. Understanding asexual identity as a means to facilitate culturally competent care: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catriona; Hayter, Mark; Jomeen, Julie

    2017-12-01

    To provide a contemporary overview of asexuality and the implications this has for healthcare practice. Individuals belonging to sexual minority groups face many barriers in accessing appropriate health care. The term "sexual minority group" is usually used to refer to lesbian women, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals. Anecdotal and research evidence suggests that those who identify as asexual have similar poor experiences. Systematic review and qualitative analysis. This work uses a systematic review and qualitative analysis of the existing interview data from self-identified asexuals, to construct features of the asexual identity. The findings will help practitioners and health professionals develop an understanding of this poorly understood construct. Ultimately this work is aimed at facilitating culturally competent care in the context of asexuality. Qualitative analysis produced three themes, which can be used, not only to frame asexuality in a positive and normalising way, but also to provide greater understanding of asexuality, "romantic differences coupled with sexual indifference," "validation through engagement with asexual communities" and "a diversity of subasexual identities." Having some understanding of what it means to identify as asexual, and respecting the choices made by asexuals can markedly improve the experiences of those who embrace an asexual identity when engaging with health care. Anecdotal evidence, taken from one of the largest asexual online forums, suggests that a number of self-identified asexuals choose not to disclose their identity to healthcare professionals through fear of their asexual status being pathologised, problematised or judged. Given that asexuality is a poorly understood concept, this may be due to lack of understanding on behalf of healthcare providers. The review provides health professionals and practitioners working in clinical settings with some insights of the features of an asexual identity to facilitate

  20. A Comparison of In Vitro and In Vivo Asexual Embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hand, Melanie; Vries, de S.C.; Koltunow, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In plants, embryogenesis generally occurs through the sexual process of double fertilization, which involves a haploid sperm cell fusing with a haploid egg cell to ultimately give rise to a diploid embryo. Embryogenesis can also occur asexually in the absence of fertilization, both in vitro and in

  1. Evolution of complex asexual reproductive strategies in jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnedler-Meyer, Nicolas Azaña; Pigolotti, Simone; Mariani, Patrizio

    2018-01-01

    Many living organisms in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems rely on multiple reproductive strategies to reduce the risk of extinction in variable environments. Examples are provided by the polyp stage of several bloom-forming jellyfish species, which can reproduce asexually using different buddin...

  2. [Facultative and obligate aerobic methylobacteria synthesize cytokinins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, E G; Doronina, N V; Shepeliakovskaia, A O; Laman, A G; Brovko, F A; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2000-01-01

    The presence and expression of genes controlling the synthesis and secretion of cytokinins by the pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium mesophilicum VKM B-2143 with the serine pathway and nonpigmented obligate methylotroph Methylovorus mays VKM B-2221 with the ribulose monophosphate pathway of C1 metabolism were shown using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR methods. The presence of the corresponding mRNA in M. mesophilicum cells grown on methanol or succinate suggests that the expression of these genes is constitutive. The cytokinin activity of culture liquid and its fractions was determined by a biotest with Amarantus caudatus L. seedlings. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis, we detected zeatin (riboside) in the culture liquid of both bacteria studied. The data obtained show that the aerobic methylobacteria are phytosymbionts that are able to utilize the single- and polycarbon compounds secreted by symbiotic plants and to synthesize cytokinins.

  3. Asexuality: Sexual Orientation, Paraphilia, Sexual Dysfunction, or None of the Above?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A; Yule, Morag

    2017-04-01

    Although lack of sexual attraction was first quantified by Kinsey, large-scale and systematic research on the prevalence and correlates of asexuality has only emerged over the past decade. Several theories have been posited to account for the nature of asexuality. The goal of this review was to consider the evidence for whether asexuality is best classified as a psychiatric syndrome (or a symptom of one), a sexual dysfunction, or a paraphilia. Based on the available science, we believe there is not sufficient evidence to support the categorization of asexuality as a psychiatric condition (or symptom of one) or as a disorder of sexual desire. There is some evidence that a subset of self-identified asexuals have a paraphilia. We also considered evidence supporting the classification of asexuality as a unique sexual orientation. We conclude that asexuality is a heterogeneous entity that likely meets conditions for a sexual orientation, and that researchers should further explore evidence for such a categorization.

  4. Detoxification of hexavalent chromium by an indigenous facultative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    s

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper ... to reduce the hazardous compounds concentration in effluents ... potent facultative anaerobic bacteria from tannery effluent ...... Biological degradation and bioremediation of toxic chemicals,.

  5. Gonad establishment during asexual reproduction in the annelid Pristina leidyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özpolat, B Duygu; Bely, Alexandra E

    2015-09-01

    Animals that can reproduce by both asexual agametic reproduction and sexual reproduction must transmit or re-establish their germ line post-embryonically. Although such a dual reproductive mode has evolved repeatedly among animals, how asexually produced individuals establish their germ line remains poorly understood in most groups. We investigated germ line development in the annelid Pristina leidyi, a species that typically reproduces asexually by paratomic fission, intercalating a new tail and head in the middle of the body followed by splitting. We found that in fissioning individuals, gonads occur in anterior segments in the anterior-most individual as well as in new heads forming within fission zones. Homologs of the germ line/multipotency genes piwi, vasa, and nanos are expressed in the gonads, as well as in proliferative tissues including the posterior growth zone, fission zone, and regeneration blastema. In fissioning animals, certain cells on the ventral nerve cord express a homolog of piwi, are abundant near fission zones, and sometimes make contact with gonads. Such cells are typically undetectable near the blastema and posterior growth zone. Time-lapse imaging provides direct evidence that cells on the ventral nerve cord migrate preferentially towards fission zones. Our findings indicate that gonads form routinely in fissioning individuals, that a population of piwi-positive cells on the ventral nerve cord is associated with fission and gonads, and that cells resembling these piwi-positive cells migrate along the ventral nerve cord. We suggest that the piwi-positive ventral cells are germ cells that transmit the germ line across asexually produced individuals via migration along the ventral nerve cord. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sexual Fantasy and Masturbation Among Asexual Individuals: An In-Depth Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Morag A; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2017-01-01

    Human asexuality is generally defined as a lack of sexual attraction. We used online questionnaires to investigate reasons for masturbation, and explored and compared the contents of sexual fantasies of asexual individuals (identified using the Asexual Identification Scale) with those of sexual individuals. A total of 351 asexual participants (292 women, 59 men) and 388 sexual participants (221 women, 167 men) participated. Asexual women were significantly less likely to masturbate than sexual women, sexual men, and asexual men. Asexual women were less likely to report masturbating for sexual pleasure or fun than their sexual counterparts, and asexual men were less likely to report masturbating for sexual pleasure than sexual men. Both asexual women and men were significantly more likely than sexual women and men to report that they had never had a sexual fantasy. Of those who have had a sexual fantasy, asexual women and men were significantly more likely to endorse the response "my fantasies do not involve other people" compared to sexual participants, and consistently scored each sexual fantasy on a questionnaire as being less sexually exciting than did sexual participants. When using an open-ended format, asexual participants were more likely to report having fantasies about sexual activities that did not involve themselves, and were less likely to fantasize about topics such as group sex, public sex, and having an affair. Interestingly, there was a large amount of overlap between sexual fantasies of asexual and sexual participants. Notably, both asexual and sexual participants (both men and women) were equally likely to fantasize about topics such as fetishes and BDSM.

  7. Facultative parthenogenesis in vertebrates: reproductive error or chance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, K P

    2008-01-01

    Parthenogenesis, the development of an embryo from a female gamete without any contribution of a male gamete, is very rare in vertebrates. Parthenogenetically reproducing species have, so far, only been found in the Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). Facultative parthenogenesis, switching between sexual and clonal reproduction, although quite common in invertebrates, e.g. Daphnia and aphids, seems to be even rarer in vertebrates. However, isolated cases of parthenogenetic development have been reported in all vertebrate groups. Facultative parthenogenesis in vertebrates has only been found in captive animals but might simply have been overlooked in natural populations. Even though its evolutionary impact is hard to determine and very likely varies depending on the ploidy restoration mechanisms and sex-determining mechanisms involved, facultative parthenogenesis is already discussed in conservation biology and medical research. To raise interest for facultative parthenogenesis especially in evolutionary biology, I summarize the current knowledge about facultative parthenogenesis in the different vertebrate groups, introduce mechanisms of diploid oocyte formation and discuss the genetic consequences and potential evolutionary impact of facultative parthenogenesis in vertebrates.

  8. Hybrid asexuality as a primary postzygotic barrier between nascent species: on the interconnection between asexuality, hybridization and speciation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, K.; Pačes, J.; Wilkinson-Herbots, H.; Costa, R. J.; Roslein, Jan; Drozd, P.; Iakovenko, N.; Rídl, J.; Hroudová, M.; Kočí, J.; Reifová, R.; Šlechtová, V.; Choleva, L.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2018), s. 248-263 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : pairwise nucleotide differences * mitochondrial-dna variation * multilocus genotype data * reproductive isolation * maximum-likelihood * loaches cobitis * migration model * gene flow * phylogenetic constraints * coalescence time * balance hypothesis * coalescence * evolution of asexuality * hybridization * phylogeography * speciation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  9. Relationships between yield and some yield components in Pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... canned food. Sugar rate of pea grains is high. Dry pea grains are broken and used to make soup. On the other hand, the pea grains are used in animal feed. Some pea varieties are used for the purpose of green forage production, dry forage and green manure produc- tion. These varieties are called 'feed ...

  10. Development of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Chickpea (Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research objectives were: to evaluate the quality of a pea snack prepared using four different methods of cooking, namely, frying, baking, steaming and microwave; to determine the effect of blending dried green pea with chickpea dhal on the quality of a fried pea snack. Green pea and chickpea snacks were prepared ...

  11. Coexistence of sexual individuals and genetically isolated asexual counterparts in a thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Yoshimura, Jin; Hasegawa, Eisuke

    2013-11-21

    Sex is a paradoxical phenomenon because it is less efficient compared with asexual reproduction. To resolve this paradox we need a direct comparison between sexual and asexual forms. In many organisms, however, sexual and asexual forms do not occur in the same habitat, or at the same time. In a few cases where sexual and asexual forms are found in a single population, some (though rare) genetic exchange is usually detected between the two forms. When genetic exchange occurs a direct comparison is impossible. Here we investigate a thrips exhibiting both sexual and asexual forms (lineages) that are morphologically indistinguishable. We examine if the two forms are genetically isolated. Phylogeny based on nuclear genes confirms that the sexual and asexual lineages are genetically differentiated. Thus we demonstrate that the current system has certain advantages over existing and previously used model systems in the evolution of sexual reproduction.

  12. Marginal distribution and high heterozygosity of asexual Caloglossa vieillardii (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta) along the Australian coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Mitsunobu; Saba, Erika; West, John A

    2017-12-01

    In animals and land plants, many asexual species originate through inter- or intraspecific crosses, and such heterozygous asexuals frequently are more abundant than their sexual relatives in marginal habitats. Although asexual species have been reported in various macroalgal taxa, detailed information regarding their distribution, heterozygosity, and origin is limited. Because many asexual tetrasporophyte strains of Caloglossa vieillardii have been isolated from South Australia, far from their core tropical habitats, we re-examined the distribution range of asexual C. vieillardii and genotyped these and other western Pacific strains using an actin gene marker. We confirmed the marginal distribution of the asexuals; however, a small patch of sexual thalli was newly discovered 450 km further west from asexual populations in South Australia. Three heterozygous genotypes and one homozygous genotypes were detected from nine asexual populations; 21 heterozygous strains were obligately asexual, but one homozygous strain suddenly produced sexual gametophytes after several years of culture. We hypothesized that the most abundant heterozygous genotype (defined as type 3/4) in asexual populations occurred by a cross between type 3 and type 4 allele gametophytes, both of which were isolated from the Australian coasts. In the crossing experiments, certain combinations between type 3 females and type 4 males produced tetrasporophytes, which recycled successive tetrasporophytes. In the culture experiments, whereas both sexual and asexual strains successfully produced tetraspores at 12°C, no sexual strains released carpospores below 14°C. However, it is uncertain whether this slight difference of maturation temperature was related to the marginal distribution of asexual C. vieillardii. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  13. Adaptations to different habitats in sexual and asexual populations of parasitoid wasps: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Amat, I; Kacelnik, A; van Alphen, JJM; Desouhant, E; Bernstein, C

    2017-01-01

    Background Coexistence of sexual and asexual populations remains a key question in evolutionary ecology. We address the question how an asexual and a sexual form of the parasitoid Venturia canescens can coexist in southern Europe. We test the hypothesis that both forms are adapted to different habitats within their area of distribution. Sexuals inhabit natural environments that are highly unpredictable, and where density of wasps and their hosts is low and patchily distributed. Asexuals in...

  14. Facultative and obligate methanotrophs how to identify and differentiate them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedysh, Svetlana N; Dunfield, Peter F

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic methanotrophs are metabolically unique bacteria that are able to utilize methane and some other C1-compounds as sole sources of carbon and energy. A defining characteristic of these organisms is the use of methane monooxygenase (MMO) enzymes to catalyze the oxidation of methane to methanol. For a long time, all methanotrophs were considered to be obligately methylotrophic, that is, unable to grow on compounds containing C-C bonds. This notion has recently been revised. Some members of the genera Methylocella, Methylocystis, and Methylocapsa are now known to be facultative methanotrophs, that is, capable of growing on methane as well as on some multicarbon substrates. The diagnosis of facultative methanotrophy in new isolates requires a great degree of caution since methanotrophic cultures are frequently contaminated by heterotrophic bacteria that survive on metabolic by-products of methanotrophs. The presence of only a few satellite cells in a culture may lead to false conclusions regarding substrate utilization, and several early reports of facultative methanotrophy are likely attributable to impure cultures. Another recurring mistake is the misidentification of nonmethanotrophic facultative methylotrophs as facultative methanotrophs. This chapter was prepared as an aid to avoid both kinds of confusion when examining methanotrophic isolates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Divergent biology of facultative heavy metal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Hermann; Słomka, Aneta

    2017-12-01

    Among heavy metal plants (the metallophytes), facultative species can live both in soils contaminated by an excess of heavy metals and in non-affected sites. In contrast, obligate metallophytes are restricted to polluted areas. Metallophytes offer a fascinating biology, due to the fact that species have developed different strategies to cope with the adverse conditions of heavy metal soils. The literature distinguishes between hyperaccumulating, accumulating, tolerant and excluding metallophytes, but the borderline between these categories is blurred. Due to the fact that heavy metal soils are dry, nutrient limited and are not uniform but have a patchy distribution in many instances, drought-tolerant or low nutrient demanding species are often regarded as metallophytes in the literature. In only a few cases, the concentrations of heavy metals in soils are so toxic that only a few specifically adapted plants, the genuine metallophytes, can cope with these adverse soil conditions. Current molecular biological studies focus on the genetically amenable and hyperaccumulating Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens of the Brassicaceae. Armeria maritima ssp. halleri utilizes glands for the excretion of heavy metals and is, therefore, a heavy metal excluder. The two endemic zinc violets of Western Europe, Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria of the Aachen-Liège area and Viola lutea ssp. westfalica of the Pb-Cu-ditch of Blankenrode, Eastern Westphalia, as well as Viola tricolor ecotypes of Eastern Europe, keep their cells free of excess heavy metals by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which bind heavy metals. The Caryophyllaceae, Silene vulgaris f. humilis and Minuartia verna, apparently discard leaves when overloaded with heavy metals. All Central European metallophytes have close relatives that grow in areas outside of heavy metal soils, mainly in the Alps, and have, therefore, been considered as relicts of the glacial epoch in the past. However, the current

  16. MOLECULAR MARKERS FOR VEGETABLE PEA SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Anokhina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the presence in genomes of pea hybrid materials of the DNA regions complementary to the primers that are associated with the biochemical characteristics and resistance to powdery mildew.

  17. Effects of vulture exclusion on carrion consumption by facultative scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jacob E; DeVault, Travis L; Beasley, James C; Rhodes, Olin E; Belant, Jerrold L

    2018-03-01

    Vultures provide an essential ecosystem service through removal of carrion, but globally, many populations are collapsing and several species are threatened with extinction. Widespread declines in vulture populations could increase the availability of carrion to other organisms, but the ways facultative scavengers might respond to this increase have not been thoroughly explored. We aimed to determine whether facultative scavengers increase carrion consumption in the absence of vulture competition and whether they are capable of functionally replacing vultures in the removal of carrion biomass from the landscape. We experimentally excluded 65 rabbit carcasses from vultures during daylight hours and placed an additional 65 carcasses that were accessible to vultures in forested habitat in South Carolina, USA during summer (June-August). We used motion-activated cameras to compare carrion use by facultative scavenging species between the experimental and control carcasses. Scavenging by facultative scavengers did not increase in the absence of competition with vultures. We found no difference in scavenger presence between control carcasses and those from which vultures were excluded. Eighty percent of carcasses from which vultures were excluded were not scavenged by vertebrates, compared to 5% of carcasses that were accessible to vultures. At the end of the 7-day trials, there was a 10.1-fold increase in the number of experimental carcasses that were not fully scavenged compared to controls. Facultative scavengers did not functionally replace vultures during summer in our study. This finding may have been influenced by the time of the year in which the study took place, the duration of the trials, and the spacing of carcass sites. Our results suggest that under the warm and humid conditions of our study, facultative scavengers would not compensate for loss of vultures. Carcasses would persist longer in the environment and consumption of carrion would likely shift from

  18. Hybrid asexuality as a primary postzygotic barrier between nascent species: On the interconnection between asexuality, hybridization and speciation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, Karel; Pačes, Jan; Wilkinson-Herbots, H.; Costa, R. J.; Roslein, Jan; Drozd, P.; Iakovenko, Nataliia; Rídl, J.; Hroudová, M.; Kočí, Jan; Reifová, R.; Šlechtová, Věra; Choleva, Lukáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2018), s. 248-263 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600450902; GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460; GA ČR GA13-12580S; GA ČR GA206/09/1298; GA ČR GAP506/10/1155; GA ČR GJ15-19947Y Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : balance hypothesis * coalescence * ecolution of asexuality * hybridization Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  19. Genotoxicological Evaluation of NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Aouatif, Chentouf; Looten, Ph.; Parvathi, M. V. S.; Raja Ganesh, S.; Paranthaman, V.

    2013-01-01

    NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate, a protein supplement, is a high-quality source of protein which is primarily emulsifying functional protein. We evaluated the genotoxic potential of NUTRALYS isolated from dry yellow pea, using three established genotoxicity tests (AMES test in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test) employing OECD guidelines under GLP conditions. In the bacterial reverse mutation test, NUTRALYS did not show positive responses in strains detecting point ...

  20. Freedom, invisibility, and community: a qualitative study of self-identification with asexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeela, Pádraig; Murphy, Aisling

    2015-04-01

    A significant body of research is now emerging on the subjective meaning of asexuality. This study explored how self-identification as asexual is managed, both as a threat to the self-concept and a source of personal meaning. A total of 66 self-identified asexuals were recruited from an asexuality internet community and responded to open-ended questions on an online survey. Of these, 31 participants identified as female, 15 as male, 18 gave a different label such as genderqueer or androgynous, and two did not provide information on gender. A thematic analysis of the transcripts resulted in three themes. Socially, asexuality attracted denial and resistance due to incompatibility with heteronormative societal expectations. Despite the threat to self-integrity arising from asexuality being socially rejected, it was typically assimilated as a valued and meaningful orientation on an intra-personal level, aided by information and support from the online community. A second level of threat to self arose whereby other self-identifications, especially gender, had to be reconciled with a non-sexual persona. The accommodation made to other elements of the self was reflected in complex sub-identities. The findings were interpreted using identity process theory to understand how threats arising from self-identifying as asexual are managed. Although asexuality emerges as an orientation to sexuality that can be reconciled with the self, its invisibility or outright rejection in society constitute an on-going challenge.

  1. The exact distributions of F(IS under partial asexuality in small finite populations with mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solenn Stoeckel

    Full Text Available Reproductive systems like partial asexuality participate to shape the evolution of genetic diversity within populations, which is often quantified by the inbreeding coefficient F IS. Understanding how those mating systems impact the possible distributions of F IS values in theoretical populations helps to unravel forces shaping the evolution of real populations. We proposed a population genetics model based on genotypic states in a finite population with mutation. For populations with less than 400 individuals, we assessed the impact of the rates of asexuality on the full exact distributions of F IS, the probabilities of positive and negative F IS, the probabilities of fixation and the probabilities to observe changes in the sign of F IS over one generation. After an infinite number of generations, we distinguished three main patterns of effects of the rates of asexuality on genetic diversity that also varied according to the interactions of mutation and genetic drift. Even rare asexual events in mainly sexual populations impacted the balance between negative and positive F IS and the occurrence of extreme values. It also drastically modified the probability to change the sign of F IS value at one locus over one generation. When mutation prevailed over genetic drift, increasing rates of asexuality continuously increased the variance of F IS that reached its highest value in fully asexual populations. In consequence, even ancient asexual populations showed the entire F IS spectrum, including strong positive F IS. The prevalence of heterozygous loci only occurred in full asexual populations when genetic drift dominated.

  2. 78 FR 63160 - United States Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils under the Agriculture Marketing Act (AMA) of 1946. To... meeting the needs in today's marketing environment. DATES: GIPSA will consider comments received by..., DC, 20250-3604. Email comments to: [email protected] Fax: (202) 690-2173. Internet: Go to http...

  3. Effects of a concentrate of pea antinutritional factors on pea protein digestibility in piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guen, M.P. Le; Huisman, J.; Guéguen, J.; Beelen, G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1995-01-01

    Four experiments were designed to investigate the apparent ileal digestibility of raw pea (Pisum sativum) and two of its components - an isolate of its proteins and a concentrate of its proteinaceous antinutritional factors (ANFs). Three varieties of peas were used: spring varieties Finale and

  4. Effect of Pigeon pea and Cow pea on the performance and gut immunity of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagoub, Yagoub Magboul

    1998-03-01

    two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of pigeon pea and cow pea on the performance and gut immunity of broiler chicks. In experiment 1, 3 experimental diets were formulated containing graded levels of cow pea were maintained. Diets were prepared containing 18.21, 18.25 and 18.25% crude protein and 3076.41, 3062 Kel/Kg metabolizable energy for experiment 1, while diets of experiment 11 were prepared containing 18.21, 18.22, and 18.22% crude protein and 3076.41, 3080.5 and 3055.89 KEl/Kg metabolized energy. 120 Loghmann broiler chicks were equally allocated into 15 pens (8 chicks/pen). Then the experimental diets were randomly assigned to the pens. feed and water were provided ad libitum in both experiments. In experiment 1, the results showed no significant difference were found in chick performance at day 45. The feed conversation ratio increased with the level of pigeon pea used. The pancreas mass was increased as the level of pigeon pea increase. In experiment 2 the results showed significant decrease in the body weight and feed intake at day 45, while the pancreas mass tend to increase with increasing level of cow pea in the diet. Histological examination of small intestine slides showed no histopathological differences between the control and chicks fed cow pea and/or pigeon pea. Immunological test of the serum and mucous samples using ELISA techniques revealed no significant difference between the control and chicks given cow pea and / or pigeon pea

  5. Pollination and facultative ant-association in the African leopard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of extra-floral nectar appears to be recruitment of foraging ants to tend the flowers resulting in a facultative ant-association between the orchid and gregarious ants. Four different ant species were found to forage on A. africana's inflorescences. Ant-tended inflorescences suffered significantly less damage by insects.

  6. Detoxification of hexavalent chromium by an indigenous facultative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A chromate resistant facultative anaerobic bacterial strain (FA-3) was isolated from the treated tannery effluent of Jajmau, Kanpur (India) and was identified as Bacillus cereus. FA-3 was tolerant to 1400 μg/ml of Cr (VI) and reduced a maximum of 72% Cr (VI) at 1000 μg/ml chromate concentration. The rate of growth of B.

  7. Protein methylation in pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.J.; Adler, J.; Selman, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    The methylation of chloroplast proteins has been investigated by incubating intact pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts with [ 3 H-methyl]-S-adenosylmethionine. Incubation in the light increases the amount of methylation in both the thylakoid and stromal fractions. Numerous thylakoid proteins serve as substrates for the methyltransfer reactions. Three of these thylakoid proteins are methylated to a significantly greater extent in the light than in the dark. The primary stromal polypeptide methylated is the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. One other stromal polypeptide is also methylated much more in the light than in the dark. Two distinct types of protein methylation occur. One methylinkage is stable to basic conditions whereas a second type is base labile. The base-stable linkage is indicative of N-methylation of amino acid residues while base-lability is suggestive of carboxymethylation of amino acid residues. Labeling in the light increases the percentage of methylation that is base labile in the thylakoid fraction while no difference is observed in the amount of base-labile methylations in light-labeled and dark-labeled stromal proteins. Also suggestive of carboxymethylation is the detection of volatile [ 3 H]methyl radioactivity which increases during the labeling period and is greater in chloroplasts labeled in the light as opposed to being labeled in the dark; this implies in vivo turnover of the [ 3 H]methyl group

  8. faba bean and field pea seed proportion for intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    reduced with increase in the seeding rate of field pea. ... productivity of the Faba bean/field pea was obtained from intercropping system. Growing Faba bean both as a ..... Management: Proceedings of the First and ... Population, time and crop.

  9. Immunofluorescence detection of pea protein in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrášová, Michaela; Pospiech, Matej; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Javůrková, Zdeňka

    2016-08-01

    In this study we developed an immunofluorescence method to detect pea protein in meat products. Pea protein has a high nutritional value but in sensitive individuals it may be responsible for causing allergic reactions. We produced model meat products with various additions of pea protein and flour; the detection limit (LOD) of the method for pea flour was 0.5% addition, and for pea protein it was 0.001% addition. The repeatabilities and reproducibilities for samples both positive and negative for pea protein were all 100%. In a blind test with model products and commercial samples, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between the declared concentrations of pea protein and flour and the immunofluorescence method results. Sensitivity was 1.06 and specificity was 1.00. These results show that the immunofluorescence method is suitable for the detection of pea protein in meat products.

  10. Characterization and expression of dehydrins in wild Egyptian pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization and expression of dehydrins in wild Egyptian pea ( Pisum sativum L.) ... was isolated and characterized from wild Egyptian pea (Pisum sativum L.) ... DNA sequence indicated an open reading frame which predicts a protein ...

  11. Expansion of genes encoding piRNA-associated argonaute proteins in the pea aphid: diversification of expression profiles in different plastic morphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ling Lu

    Full Text Available Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs are known to regulate transposon activity in germ cells of several animal models that propagate sexually. However, the role of piRNAs during asexual reproduction remains almost unknown. Aphids that can alternate sexual and asexual reproduction cycles in response to seasonal changes of photoperiod provide a unique opportunity to study piRNAs and the piRNA pathway in both reproductive modes. Taking advantage of the recently sequenced genome of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, we found an unusually large lineage-specific expansion of genes encoding the Piwi sub-clade of Argonaute proteins. In situ hybridisation showed differential expressions between the duplicated piwi copies: while Api-piwi2 and Api-piwi6 are "specialised" in germ cells their most closely related copy, respectively Api-piwi5 and Api-piwi3, are expressed in the somatic cells. The differential expression was also identified in duplicated ago3: Api-ago3a in germ cells and Api-ago3b in somatic cells. Moreover, analyses of expression profiles of the expanded piwi and ago3 genes by semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that expressions varied according to the reproductive types. These specific expression patterns suggest that expanded aphid piwi and ago3 genes have distinct roles in asexual and sexual reproduction.

  12. Pea weevil damage and chemical characteristics of pea cultivars determining their resistance to Bruchus pisorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, I

    2016-04-01

    Bruchus pisorum (L.) is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea in Europe. Development of resistant cultivars is very important to environmental protection and would solve this problem to a great extent. Therefore, the resistance of five spring pea cultivars was studied to B. pisorum: Glyans, Modus; Kamerton and Svit and Pleven 4 based on the weevil damage and chemical composition of seeds. The seeds were classified as three types: healthy seeds (type one), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (type two) and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes (type three). From visibly damaged pea seeds by pea weevil B. pisorum was isolated the parasitoid Triaspis thoracica Curtis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Modus, followed by Glyans was outlined as resistant cultivars against the pea weevil. They had the lowest total damaged seed degree, loss in weight of damaged seeds (type two and type three) and values of susceptibility coefficients. A strong negative relationship (r = -0.838) between the weight of type one seeds and the proportion of type three seeds was found. Cultivars with lower protein and phosphorus (P) content had a lower level of damage. The crude protein, crude fiber and P content in damaged seeds significantly or no significantly were increased as compared with the healthy seeds due to weevil damage. The P content had the highest significant influence on pea weevil infestation. Use of chemical markers for resistance to the creation of new pea cultivars can be effective method for defense and control against B. pisorum.

  13. Possible causes of dry pea synergy to corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry pea improves corn yield and tolerance to weed interference compared with soybean, spring wheat, or canola as preceding crops. To understand this synergy between dry pea and corn, we examined growth and nutrient concentration of corn following dry pea or soybean in sequence. Each corn plot was ...

  14. Number and Effectiveness of Pea Rhizobia in Danish Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    Most of 44 Danish soils tested contain between 1000 and 10 000 pea rhizobia (Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viceae) per gram. Pea rhizobia were not detected in acid moor and forest soils. Only one case of failed nodulation in peas in the field has been noted, in spots in a reclaimed sandy heath m...

  15. Hybrid asexuality as a primary postzygotic barrier between nascent species: On the interconnection between asexuality, hybridization and speciation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, K.; Pačes, Jan; Wilkinson-Herbots, H.; Costa, R. J.; Roslein, J.; Drozd, P.; Iakovenko, N.; Rídl, Jakub; Hroudová, Miluše; Kočí, J.; Reifová, R.; Šlechtová, V.; Choleva, L.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2018), s. 248-263 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600450902; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015047; GA ČR GA13-12580S; GA ČR GA206/09/1298; GA ČR GAP506/10/1155; GA ČR GJ15-19947Y; GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : balance hypothesis * coalescence * evolution of asexuality * hybridization * phylogeography * speciation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  16. London's historic ''pea-soupers''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbinato, D.

    1994-01-01

    Americans may think smog was invented in Los Angeles. Not so. In fact, a Londoner coined the term ''smog'' in 1905 to describe the city's insidious combination of natural fog and coal smoke. By then, the phenomenon was part of London history, and dirty, acrid smoke-filled ''pea-soupers'' were as familiar to Londoners as Big Ben and Westminster Abby. Smog in London predates Shakespeare by four centuries. Until the 12th century, most Londoners burned wood for fuel. But as the city grew and the forests shrank, wood became scarce and increasingly expensive. Large deposits of ''sea-coal'' off the northeast coast provided a cheap alternative. Soon, Londoners were burning the soft, bituminous coal to heat their homes and fuel their factories. Sea-coal was plentiful, but it didn't burn efficiently. A lot of its energy was spent making smoke, not heat. Coal smoke drifting through thousands of London chimneys combined with clean natural fog to make smog. If the weather conditions were right, it would last for days. Early on, no one had the scientific tools to correlate smog with adverse health effects, but complaints about the smoky air as an annoyance date back to at least 1272, when King Edward I, on the urging of important noblemen and clerics, banned the burning of sea-coal. Anyone caught burning or selling the stuff was to be tortured or executed. The first offender caught was summarily put to death. This deterred nobody. Of necessity, citizens continued to burn sea-coal in violation of the law, which required the burning of wood few could afford

  17. Pea yield and its components in different crop rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Seibutis, Vytautas; Deveikytė, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the crop rotations (2-4 course) differing in duration on the formation of pea productivity elements and the yield were investigated in stationary field experiments in Dotnuva during 1997-2004. Averaged experimental data showed that the highest pea yield (3.70 t ha-1) was recorded in the three-course crop rotation (sugar beet-spring barley-pea), in the four-course (pea-winter wheat-sugar beet-spring barley) and two-course (pea-winter wheat) crop rotations the grain yield consist...

  18. Environmental distribution and abundance of the facultative methanotroph Methylocella

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Chen, Yin; Stralis-Pavese, Nancy; Bodrossy, Levente; Meir, Patrick; McNamara, Niall P; Murrell, J Colin

    2010-01-01

    Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs, which are able to grow not only on methane but also on multicarbon substrates such as acetate, pyruvate or malate. Methylocella spp. were previously thought to be restricted to acidic soils such as peatlands, in which they may have a key role in methane oxidation. There is little information on the abundance and distribution of Methylocella spp. in the environment. New primers were designed, and a real-time quantitative PCR method was developed...

  19. Developmental Transcriptome for a Facultatively Eusocial Bee, Megalopta genalis

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Beryl M.; Wcislo, William T.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes provide excellent foundational resources for mechanistic and evolutionary analyses of complex traits. We present a developmental transcriptome for the facultatively eusocial bee Megalopta genalis, which represents a potential transition point in the evolution of eusociality. A de novo transcriptome assembly of Megalopta genalis was generated using paired-end Illumina sequencing and the Trinity assembler. Males and females of all life stages were aligned to this transcriptome fo...

  20. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren M; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-08-01

    Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine.

  1. Natural epigenetic variation contributes to heritable flowering divergence in a widespread asexual dandelion lineage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, R.A.; Oplaat, C.; Snoek, B.; Kirschner, J.; Verhoeven, K.J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic variation has been proposed to contribute to the success of asexual plants, either as a contributor to phenotypic plasticity or by enabling transient adaptation via selection on transgenerationally stable, but reversible, epialleles. While recent studies in experimental plant populations

  2. Data from: Natural epigenetic variation contributes to heritable flowering divergence in a widespread asexual dandelion lineage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, Rutger; Oplaat, C.; Snoek, L.B.; Kirschner, J.; Verhoeven, K.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic variation has been proposed to contribute to the success of asexual plants, either as a contributor to phenotypic plasticity or by enabling transient adaptation via selection on transgenerationally stable, but reversible, epialleles. While recent studies in experimental plant populations

  3. Pea and pea-grain mixtures as whole crop protein silage for dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Rondahl, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    In this review the use of pea and pea/grain mixtures as whole crop protein silage for dairy cows is discussed. An introductory discussion concerns the ensilage process and protein degradation and effects of different silage additives. To minimise protein loss, prewilting time should be kept short. An acid additive will reduce respiration and thereby reduce protein degradation. The main part of the review discusses nutritional and botanical changes during development as well as results from bo...

  4. Infection dynamic of symbiotic bacteria in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum gut and host immune response at the early steps in the infection process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Renoz

    Full Text Available In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum can harbor several facultative bacterial symbionts which can be mutualistic in the context of various ecological interactions. Belonging to a genus where many members have been described as pathogen in invertebrates, Serratia symbiotica is one of the most common facultative partners found in aphids. The recent discovery of strains able to grow outside their host allowed us to simulate environmental acquisition of symbiotic bacteria by aphids. Here, we performed an experiment to characterize the A. pisum response to the ingestion of the free-living S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T in comparison to the ingestion of the pathogenic Serratia marcescens Db11 at the early steps in the infection process. We found that, while S. marcescens Db11 killed the aphids within a few days, S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T did not affect host survival and colonized the whole digestive tract within a few days. Gene expression analysis of immune genes suggests that S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T did not trigger an immune reaction, while S. marcescens Db11 did, and supports the hypothesis of a fine-tuning of the host immune response set-up for fighting pathogens while maintaining mutualistic partners. Our results also suggest that the lysosomal system and the JNK pathway are possibly involved in the regulation of invasive bacteria in aphids and that the activation of the JNK pathway is IMD-independent in the pea aphid.

  5. Infection dynamic of symbiotic bacteria in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum gut and host immune response at the early steps in the infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoz, François; Noël, Christine; Errachid, Abdelmounaim; Foray, Vincent; Hance, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum can harbor several facultative bacterial symbionts which can be mutualistic in the context of various ecological interactions. Belonging to a genus where many members have been described as pathogen in invertebrates, Serratia symbiotica is one of the most common facultative partners found in aphids. The recent discovery of strains able to grow outside their host allowed us to simulate environmental acquisition of symbiotic bacteria by aphids. Here, we performed an experiment to characterize the A. pisum response to the ingestion of the free-living S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T in comparison to the ingestion of the pathogenic Serratia marcescens Db11 at the early steps in the infection process. We found that, while S. marcescens Db11 killed the aphids within a few days, S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T did not affect host survival and colonized the whole digestive tract within a few days. Gene expression analysis of immune genes suggests that S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T did not trigger an immune reaction, while S. marcescens Db11 did, and supports the hypothesis of a fine-tuning of the host immune response set-up for fighting pathogens while maintaining mutualistic partners. Our results also suggest that the lysosomal system and the JNK pathway are possibly involved in the regulation of invasive bacteria in aphids and that the activation of the JNK pathway is IMD-independent in the pea aphid.

  6. Sexual versus Asexual Reproduction: Distinct Outcomes in Relative Abundance of Parthenogenetic Mealybugs following Recent Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Jun; Ichiki, Ryoko T; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Kageyama, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Asexual reproduction, including parthenogenesis in which embryos develop within a female without fertilization, is assumed to confer advantages over sexual reproduction, which includes a "cost of males." Sexual reproduction largely predominates in animals, however, indicating that this cost is outweighed by the genetic and/or ecological benefits of sexuality, including the acquisition of advantageous mutations occurring in different individuals and the elimination of deleterious mutations. But the evolution of sexual reproduction remains unclear, because we have limited examples that demonstrate the relative success of sexual lineages in the face of competition from asexual lineages in the same environment. Here we investigated a sympatric occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction in the pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes. This pest invaded southwestern Japan, including Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands, in the 1930s in association with imported pineapple plants. Our recent censuses demonstrated that on Okinawa sexually reproducing individuals can coexist with and even dominate asexual individuals in the presence of habitat and resource competition, which is considered to be severe for this nearly immobile insect. Molecular phylogeny based on partial DNA sequences in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, as well as the endosymbiotic bacterial genome, revealed that the asexual lineage diverged from a common sexual ancestor in the relatively recent past. In contrast, only the asexual lineage exhibiting obligate apomictic thelytoky was discovered on Ishigaki. Co-existence of the two lineages cannot be explained by the results of laboratory experiments, which showed that the intrinsic rate of increase in the sexual lineage was not obviously superior to that of the asexual lineage. Differences in biotic and/or abiotic selective forces operating on the two islands might be the cause of this discrepancy. This biological system offers a unique opportunity to assess

  7. Influences of pea morphology and interacting factors on pea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, N; Cuddington, K

    2009-08-01

    It has been claimed that plant architecture can alter aphid reproductive rates, but the mechanism driving this effect has not been identified. We studied interactions between plant architecture, aphid density, environmental conditions, and nutrient availability on the reproduction of pea aphids [Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)] using four near-isogenic peas (Pisum sativum L.) that differ in morphology. Manipulations of aphid density (1, 5, and 10 adults per plant) allowed us to examine any effects of plant morphology on crowding and consequently reproduction. Pea morphology per se did not alter pea aphid crowding, as measured by mean nearest neighbor distance, and there was no effect on reproduction. In addition, reproduction increased with increasing adult density, indicating positive density dependence. In a separate experiment, peas were fertilized to determine whether differences between nutrient availability of the four different morphologies might drive any observed differences in aphid reproduction. Although plant nitrogen content was altered by fertilization treatments, this did not have an impact on aphid reproduction. Greenhouse experiments, however, suggested that pea morphology can interact with environmental conditions to reduce aphid reproduction under some conditions. We conclude that plant morphology only influences aphid reproduction when environmental conditions are less than optimal.

  8. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Onl...

  9. Pea Streak Virus Recorded in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarkisova, Tatiana; Bečková, M.; Fránová, Jana; Petrzik, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2016), s. 164-166 ISSN 1212-2580 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71145 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Pea streak virus * alfalfa * carlavirus * partial sequence Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016

  10. Pea disease diagnostic series - Powdery Mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew is a serious disease of pea worldwide, and it could be caused by two fungal species Erysiphe pisi and E. trifolii. White powdery patches on leaves, stems and pods are characteristics of the disease. The pathogen may form black fruiting bodies called chasmothecia near the end of the gr...

  11. Transport processes in pea seed coats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, Joost Thomas van

    2001-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns transport processes in coats of developing pea seeds. The scope of the investigation ranges from seed coat anatomy, via transport studies to the cloning of cDNA encoding proteinaceous membrane pores, and the heterologous expression of these

  12. CEI-PEA Alert, Summer 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Practical Skills & High Academic Standards: Career Technical Education; (2) Parents: Help Your Children Gain "Soft Skills" for the Workforce; (3) Culinary Arts…

  13. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen peas... two or more, of the following safe and suitable optional ingredients: (i) Natural and artificial... “early June” shall precede or follow the name in the case of smooth-skin or substantially smooth-skin...

  14. Let us not be unfair to asexuals: their ephemerality may be explained by neutral models without invoking any evolutionary constraints of asexuality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 2 (2014), s. 569-576 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : age of clones * asexuality * clonal turnover Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.612, year: 2014

  15. Horizontal transfer generates genetic variation in an asexual pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiu Huang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are major gaps in the understanding of how genetic variation is generated in the asexual pathogen Verticillium dahliae. On the one hand, V. dahliae is a haploid organism that reproduces clonally. On the other hand, single-nucleotide polymorphisms and chromosomal rearrangements were found between V. dahliae strains. Lineage-specific (LS regions comprising about 5% of the genome are highly variable between V. dahliae strains. Nonetheless, it is unknown whether horizontal gene transfer plays a major role in generating genetic variation in V. dahliae. Here, we analyzed a previously sequenced V. dahliae population of nine strains from various geographical locations and hosts. We found highly homologous elements in LS regions of each strain; LS regions of V. dahliae strain JR2 are much richer in highly homologous elements than the core genome. In addition, we discovered, in LS regions of JR2, several structural forms of nonhomologous recombination, and two or three homologous sequence types of each form, with almost each sequence type present in an LS region of another strain. A large section of one of the forms is known to be horizontally transferred between V. dahliae strains. We unexpectedly found that 350 kilobases of dynamic LS regions were much more conserved than the core genome between V. dahliae and a closely related species (V. albo-atrum, suggesting that these LS regions were horizontally transferred recently. Our results support the view that genetic variation in LS regions is generated by horizontal transfer between strains, and by chromosomal reshuffling reported previously.

  16. Sexual and asexual oogenesis require the expression of unique and shared sets of genes in the insect Acyrthosiphon pisum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallot Aurore

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sexual reproduction is dominant within eukaryotes, asexual reproduction is widespread and has evolved independently as a derived trait in almost all major taxa. How asexuality evolved in sexual organisms is unclear. Aphids, such as Acyrthosiphon pisum, alternate between asexual and sexual reproductive means, as the production of parthenogenetic viviparous females or sexual oviparous females and males varies in response to seasonal photoperiodism. Consequently, sexual and asexual development in aphids can be analyzed simultaneously in genetically identical individuals. Results We compared the transcriptomes of aphid embryos in the stages of development during which the trajectory of oogenesis is determined for producing sexual or asexual gametes. This study design aimed at identifying genes involved in the onset of the divergent mechanisms that result in the sexual or asexual phenotype. We detected 33 genes that were differentially transcribed in sexual and asexual embryos. Functional annotation by gene ontology (GO showed a biological signature of oogenesis, cell cycle regulation, epigenetic regulation and RNA maturation. In situ hybridizations demonstrated that 16 of the differentially-transcribed genes were specifically expressed in germ cells and/or oocytes of asexual and/or sexual ovaries, and therefore may contribute to aphid oogenesis. We categorized these 16 genes by their transcription patterns in the two types of ovaries; they were: i expressed during sexual and asexual oogenesis; ii expressed during sexual and asexual oogenesis but with different localizations; or iii expressed only during sexual or asexual oogenesis. Conclusions Our results show that asexual and sexual oogenesis in aphids share common genetic programs but diverge by adapting specificities in their respective gene expression profiles in germ cells and oocytes.

  17. HARDNESS PHENOMENON IN BEACH PEA (Lethyrus maritimus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    U.D. Chavan; R. Amarowicz; F. Shahidi

    2013-01-01

    Beach pea is mostly grown on seashores and it contains higher amount of protein than other legumes. However, the pea has several undesirable  attributes, such as long cooking time and hard to germinate (imbibitions) that limited its use as food. The present investigation aimed to study the physico-chemical properties, cooking characteristics and hull crude fibre structure of beach pea as compare to other similar legumes. Standard methods of processing pulses were used for present study. Beach...

  18. Protein import into isolated pea root leucoplasts

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chiung-Chih; Li, Hsou-min

    2015-01-01

    Leucoplasts are important organelles for the synthesis and storage of starch, lipids and proteins. However, molecular mechanism of protein import into leucoplasts and how it differs from that of import into chloroplasts remain unknown. We used pea seedlings for both chloroplast and leucoplast isolations to compare within the same species. We further optimized the isolation and import conditions to improve import efficiency and to permit a quantitative comparison between the two plastid types....

  19. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greenhouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.), and peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleeger, Thomas; Olszyk, David; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2011-02-01

    Although laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective, and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive to obtain. Toxicology tests were conducted on potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in a native soil in pots in the greenhouse and were compared to plants grown outside under natural environmental conditions to determine toxicological differences between environments, whether different plant developmental stages were more sensitive to herbicides, and whether these species were good candidates for plant reproductive tests. The reproductive and vegetative endpoints of the greenhouse plants and field-grown plants were also compared. The herbicides bromoxynil, glyphosate, MCPA ([4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy] acetic acid), and sulfometuron-methyl were applied at below field application rates to potato plants at two developmental stages. Peas and soybeans were exposed to sulfometuron-methyl at similar rates at three developmental stages. The effective herbicide concentrations producing a 25% reduction in a given measure differed between experimental conditions but were generally within a single order of magnitude within a species, even though there were differences in plant morphology. This study demonstrated that potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in pots in a greenhouse produce phytotoxicity results similar to those grown outside in pots; that reproductive endpoints in many cases were more sensitive than vegetative ones; and that potato and pea plants are reasonable candidates for asexual and sexual reproductive phytotoxicity tests, respectively. Plants grown in pots in a greenhouse and outside varied little in toxicity. However, extrapolating those toxicity results to native plant communities in the field is basically unknown and in need of research. © 2010 SETAC.

  20. Asexual sporulation facilitates adaptation: The emergence of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Debets, Alfons J M; Verweij, Paul E; Melchers, Willem J G; Zwaan, Bas J; Schoustra, Sijmen E

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the occurrence and spread of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is crucial for public health. It has been hypothesized that asexual sporulation, which is abundant in nature, is essential for phenotypic expression of azole resistance mutations in A. fumigatus facilitating subsequent spread through natural selection. Furthermore, the disease aspergilloma is associated with asexual sporulation within the lungs of patients and the emergence of azole resistance. This study assessed the evolutionary advantage of asexual sporulation by growing the fungus under pressure of one of five different azole fungicides over seven weeks and by comparing the rate of adaptation between scenarios of culturing with and without asexual sporulation. Results unequivocally show that asexual sporulation facilitates adaptation. This can be explained by the combination of more effective selection because of the transition from a multicellular to a unicellular stage, and by increased mutation supply due to the production of spores, which involves numerous mitotic divisions. Insights from this study are essential to unravel the resistance mechanisms of sporulating pathogens to chemical compounds and disease agents in general, and for designing strategies that prevent or overcome the emerging threat of azole resistance in particular. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Adaptations to different habitats in sexual and asexual populations of parasitoid wasps: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Isabelle; van Alphen, Jacques J M; Kacelnik, Alex; Desouhant, Emmanuel; Bernstein, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Coexistence of sexual and asexual populations remains a key question in evolutionary ecology. We address the question how an asexual and a sexual form of the parasitoid Venturia canescens can coexist in southern Europe. We test the hypothesis that both forms are adapted to different habitats within their area of distribution. Sexuals inhabit natural environments that are highly unpredictable, and where density of wasps and their hosts is low and patchily distributed. Asexuals instead are common in anthropic environments (e.g., grain stores) where host outbreaks offer periods when egg-load is the main constraint on reproductive output. We present a meta-analysis of known adaptations to these habitats. Differences in behavior, physiology and life-history traits between sexual and asexual wasps were standardized in term of effect size (Cohen's d value; Cohen, 1988). Seeking consilience from the differences between multiple traits, we found that sexuals invest more in longevity at the expense of egg-load, are more mobile, and display higher plasticity in response to thermal variability than asexual counterparts. Thus, each form has consistent multiple adaptations to the ecological circumstances in the contrasting environments.

  2. Adaptations to different habitats in sexual and asexual populations of parasitoid wasps: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Amat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Coexistence of sexual and asexual populations remains a key question in evolutionary ecology. We address the question how an asexual and a sexual form of the parasitoid Venturia canescens can coexist in southern Europe. We test the hypothesis that both forms are adapted to different habitats within their area of distribution. Sexuals inhabit natural environments that are highly unpredictable, and where density of wasps and their hosts is low and patchily distributed. Asexuals instead are common in anthropic environments (e.g., grain stores where host outbreaks offer periods when egg-load is the main constraint on reproductive output. Methods We present a meta-analysis of known adaptations to these habitats. Differences in behavior, physiology and life-history traits between sexual and asexual wasps were standardized in term of effect size (Cohen’s d value; Cohen, 1988. Results Seeking consilience from the differences between multiple traits, we found that sexuals invest more in longevity at the expense of egg-load, are more mobile, and display higher plasticity in response to thermal variability than asexual counterparts. Discussion Thus, each form has consistent multiple adaptations to the ecological circumstances in the contrasting environments.

  3. Genomic Tools in Pea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeh, Nadim; Aubert, Grégoire; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Warkentin, Thomas D.; Burstin, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22–25% protein, complex starch and fiber constituents, and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tons produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel's experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress toward deciphering the pea genome. PMID:26640470

  4. Genomic tools in pea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim eTAYEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22-25 percent protein, complex starch and fibre constituents and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tonnes produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel’s experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress towards deciphering the pea genome.

  5. Facultative Stabilization Pond: Measuring Biological Oxygen Demand using Mathematical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wira S, Ihsan; Sunarsih, Sunarsih

    2018-02-01

    Pollution is a man-made phenomenon. Some pollutants which discharged directly to the environment could create serious pollution problems. Untreated wastewater will cause contamination and even pollution on the water body. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is the amount of oxygen required for the oxidation by bacteria. The higher the BOD concentration, the greater the organic matter would be. The purpose of this study was to predict the value of BOD contained in wastewater. Mathematical modeling methods were chosen in this study to depict and predict the BOD values contained in facultative wastewater stabilization ponds. Measurements of sampling data were carried out to validate the model. The results of this study indicated that a mathematical approach can be applied to predict the BOD contained in the facultative wastewater stabilization ponds. The model was validated using Absolute Means Error with 10% tolerance limit, and AME for model was 7.38% (< 10%), so the model is valid. Furthermore, a mathematical approach can also be applied to illustrate and predict the contents of wastewater.

  6. Horizontal transfer of facultative endosymbionts is limited by host relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik, Piotr; Guo, Huifang; van Asch, Margriet; Henry, Lee M; Godfray, H Charles J; Ferrari, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Heritable microbial symbionts can have important effects on many aspects of their hosts' biology. Acquisition of a novel symbiont strain can provide fitness benefits to the host, with significant ecological and evolutionary consequences. We measured barriers to horizontal transmission by artificially transferring facultative symbionts from the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, and five other aphid species into two clonal genotypes of S. avenae. We found the symbiont Hamiltonella defensa establishes infections more easily following a transfer from the same host species and that such infections are more stable. Infection success was also higher when the introduced symbiont strain was more closely related to the strain that was originally present in the host (but which had previously been removed). There were no differences among successfully established symbiont strains in their effect on aphid fecundity. Hamiltonella defensa did not confer protection against parasitoids in our S. avenae clones, although it often does in other aphid hosts. However, strains of the symbiont Regiella insecticola originating from two host species protected grain aphids against the pathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis. This study helps describe the extent to which facultative symbionts can act as a pool of adaptations that can be sampled by their eukaryote hosts. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Absence of genome reduction in diverse, facultative endohyphal bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltrus, David A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Dougherty, Kevin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Arendt, Kayla R. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Huntemann, Marcel [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Clum, Alicia [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Pillay, Manoj [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Palaniappan, Krishnaveni [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Varghese, Neha [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Mikhailova, Natalia [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Stamatis, Dimitrios [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Reddy, T. B. K. [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Ngan, Chew Yee [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Daum, Chris [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Shapiro, Nicole [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Markowitz, Victor [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Ivanova, Natalia [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Kyrpides, Nikos [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Woyke, Tanja [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Arnold, A. Elizabeth [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Fungi interact closely with bacteria, both on the surfaces of the hyphae and within their living tissues (i.e. endohyphal bacteria, EHB). These EHB can be obligate or facultative symbionts and can mediate diverse phenotypic traits in their hosts. Although EHB have been observed in many lineages of fungi, it remains unclear how widespread and general these associations are, and whether there are unifying ecological and genomic features can be found across EHB strains as a whole. We cultured 11 bacterial strains after they emerged from the hyphae of diverse Ascomycota that were isolated as foliar endophytes of cupressaceous trees, and generated nearly complete genome sequences for all. Unlike the genomes of largely obligate EHB, the genomes of these facultative EHB resembled those of closely related strains isolated from environmental sources. Although all analysed genomes encoded structures that could be used to interact with eukaryotic hosts, pathways previously implicated in maintenance and establishment of EHB symbiosis were not universally present across all strains. Independent isolation of two nearly identical pairs of strains from different classes of fungi, coupled with recent experimental evidence, suggests horizontal transfer of EHB across endophytic hosts. Given the potential for EHB to influence fungal phenotypes, these genomes could shed light on the mechanisms of plant growth promotion or stress mitigation by fungal endophytes during the symbiotic phase, as well as degradation of plant material during the saprotrophic phase. As such, these findings contribute to the illumination of a new dimension of functional biodiversity in fungi.

  8. The Key Role of Epigenetics in the Persistence of Asexual Lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Castonguay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Asexual organisms, often perceived as evolutionary dead ends, can be long-lived and geographically widespread. We propose that epigenetic mechanisms could play a crucial role in the evolutionary persistence of these lineages. Genetically identical organisms could rely on phenotypic plasticity to face environmental variation. Epigenetic modifications could be the molecular mechanism enabling such phenotypic plasticity; they can be influenced by the environment and act at shorter timescales than mutation. Recent work on the asexual vertebrate Chrosomus eos-neogaeus (Pisces: Cyprinidae provides broad insights into the contribution of epigenetics in genetically identical individuals. We discuss the extension of these results to other asexual organisms, in particular those resulting from interspecific hybridizations. We finally develop on the evolutionary relevance of epigenetic variation in the context of heritability.

  9. 46 CFR 308.545 - Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316. 308.545 Section 308.545 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK... policy, Form MA-316. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Policy, Form MA-316, may be obtained...

  10. [Research progress and discovery process of facultative methanotrophs--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tiantao; Xing, Zhilin; Zhang, Lijie

    2013-08-04

    Facultative methanotrophs are a group of phylogenetically diverse microorganisms characterized by their ability to use methane and some other compounds containing C-C bond as their sole source of carbon and energy. Recently, which belong to the facultative methanotrophs in the genera Methylocella, Methylocapsa and Methylocystis, which belong to the Alphaproteobacteria, have been reported that can grow on larger organic acids or ethanol for some species, as well as methane. In this paper, the research history of facultative methanotrophs was summarized systematically, some other facultative methane-oxidizing microorganisms were introduced, the metabolic mechanisms of utilizing multi-carbon compounds by facultative methanotrophs were analyzed, and the current problems and the future engineering applications were discussed.

  11. Functional properties of processed pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Germination increased water absorption capacity, bulk density, oil absorption capacity, foaming capacity, foaming stability, emulsion activity, nitrogen solubility and decreased gelatin and wetability of the pigeon pea flour. Germinated pigeon pea flour has great potentials in food prperations that require hydration to improve ...

  12. Substitution Value of toasted Pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and eighty 7-day old broilers were used in a 28-day feeding trial to determine the substitution value of toasted pigeon pea seeds meal (TPSM) for soybean meal and maize in boiler starter diet. The brown coat coloured pigeon pea seeds were toasted at 100oC for 15minutes and milled. The inclusion levels of ...

  13. Functional analysis of mildly refined fractions from yellow pea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Dry fractionation offers an attractive route to sustainably produce protein-enriched plant-based ingredients. For example, fine milling of peas followed by air classification separates starch granules from the protein matrix. Unlike conventional wet isolates, dry-enriched pea fractions consist of a

  14. Fibril Formation from Pea Protein and Sesequent Gel Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munialo, C.D.; Martin, A.H.; Linden, van der E.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20

  15. Fibril formation from pea protein and subsequent gel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munialo, Claire Darizu; Martin, Anneke H; van der Linden, Erik; de Jongh, Harmen H J

    2014-03-19

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20 h at pH 2.0. Following heating of pea proteins, it was observed that all of the proteins were hydrolyzed into peptides and that 50% of these peptides were assembled into fibrils. Changes on a structural level in pea proteins were studied using circular dichroism, transmission electron microscopy, and particle size analysis. During the fibril assembly process, an increase in aggregate size was observed, which coincided with an increase in thioflavin T binding, indicating the presence of β-sheet aggregates. Fibrils made using pea proteins were more branched and curly. Gel formation of preformed fibrils was induced by slow acidification from pH 7.0 to a final pH of around pH 5.0. The ability of pea protein-based fibrillar gels to fracture during an amplitude sweep was comparable to those of soy protein and whey protein-based fibrillar gels, although gels prepared from fibrils made using pea protein and soy protein were weaker than those of whey protein. The findings show that fibrils can be prepared from pea protein, which can be incorporated into protein-based fibrillar gels.

  16. Fibril Formation from Pea Protein and Subsequent Gel Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munialo, XC.D.; Martin, A.H.; Linden, E. van der; Jongh, H.H.J de

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20

  17. Dry fractionation for production of functional pea protein concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Vissers, A.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2013-01-01

    Dry milling in combination with air classification was evaluated as an alternative to conventional wet extraction of protein from yellow field peas (Pisum sativum). Major advantages of dry fractionation are retention of native functionality of proteins and its lower energy and water use. Peas were

  18. The Pisum Genus: Getting out of Pea Soup!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) has long been a model for plant genetics and is a widely grown pulse crop producing protein-rich seeds in a sustainable manner. However, many questions remain open about (sub)species relationships in the Pisumgenus. The ongoing pea genome sequencing project and the recent geno...

  19. KASP assays for powdery mildew resistance breeding in pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew of pea, caused by Erysiphe pisi DC, is a serious production constraint to pea (Pisum sativum L.) production in the U.S. and elsewhere. Utilization of genetic resistance to powdery mildew using er1 has been an effective strategy to manage this disease. This gene, er1, conferring powde...

  20. Revoluntionary Faith and Religious Disillusionment in Enrico Pea's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questa tragedia segna anche un momento cruciale di transizione nella produzione letteraria di Pea e, pur mostrando chiaramente l'influenza delle sue precedenti affinità con il Marxismo e con il movimento anarchico, guarda già in avanti con il profondo interesse e rispetto di Pea per le proprie radici cattoliche che si ...

  1. 78 FR 68410 - United States Standards for Whole Dry Peas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... available for public inspection in the above office during regular business hours (7 CFR 1.27(b)). Please... the fundamental starting point to define commodity quality in the domestic and global marketplace... for whole dry peas, split peas, and lentils in today's marketing environment. According to information...

  2. Yield advantage and water saving in maize/pea intercrop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, L.; Zhang, L.; Li, W.; Werf, van der W.; Sun, J.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Li, L.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is a well-established strategy for maximization of yield from limited land, but mixed results have been obtained as to its performance in terms of water use efficiency. Here, two maize/pea intercrop layouts were studied in comparison to sole maize and sole pea with and without plastic

  3. Effective management of pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) in a crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective management of pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) in a crop/livestock integrated farming system in northern Ghana. ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... Pigeon pea plots with row lengths averaging 11 m and a planting geometry of 80 cm W 50 cm, were either pruned at 60 or 100 cm above ground level or not ...

  4. The effect of Orobanche crenata infection severity in faba bean, field pea, and grass pea productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Fernandez-Aparicio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Broomrape weeds (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp. are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops i.e. faba bean, field pea and grass pea. Regression functions modelled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2 and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The proportion of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host-parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than 4 parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size

  5. The Effect of Orobanche crenata Infection Severity in Faba Bean, Field Pea, and Grass Pea Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Flores, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape weeds ( Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops, i.e., faba bean, field pea, and grass pea. Regression functions modeled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2, and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea, and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The increase of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host-parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than four parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size. In contrast

  6. Environmental distribution and abundance of the facultative methanotroph Methylocella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Chen, Yin; Stralis-Pavese, Nancy; Bodrossy, Levente; Meir, Patrick; McNamara, Niall P; Murrell, J Colin

    2011-06-01

    Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs, which are able to grow not only on methane but also on multicarbon substrates such as acetate, pyruvate or malate. Methylocella spp. were previously thought to be restricted to acidic soils such as peatlands, in which they may have a key role in methane oxidation. There is little information on the abundance and distribution of Methylocella spp. in the environment. New primers were designed, and a real-time quantitative PCR method was developed and validated targeting Methylocella mmoX (encoding the α-subunit of the soluble methane monooxygenase) that allowed the quantification of Methylocella spp. in environmental samples. We also developed and validated specific PCR assays, which target 16S rRNA genes of known Methylocella spp. These were used to investigate the distribution of Methylocella spp. in a variety of environmental samples. It was revealed that Methylocella species are widely distributed in nature and not restricted to acidic environments.

  7. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  8. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsielleae and other facultative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochuba, G U; von Riesen, V L

    1980-01-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebsiella oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carrageenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and Pectobacterium (38%). Pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant. PMID:7396489

  9. Domestication of Pea (Pisum sativum L.): The Case of the Abyssinian Pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Norman F.

    2018-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the Abyssinian pea (Pisum sativum ssp. abyssinicum) to other subspecies and species in the genus were investigated to test between different hypotheses regarding its origin and domestication. An extensive sample of the Pisum sativum ssp. sativum germplasm was investigated, including groups a-1, a-2, b, c, and d as identified by Kwon et al. (2012). A broad sample of P. fulvum but relatively few P. s. ssp. elatius accessions were analyzed. Partial sequences of 18 genes were compared and these results combined with comparisons of additional genes done by others and available in the literature. In total, 54 genes or gene fragment sequences were involved in the study. The observed affinities between alleles in P. ssp. sativum, P. s. ssp. abyssinicum, P. s. ssp. elatius, and P. fulvum clearly demonstrated a close relationship among the three P. sativum subspecies and rejected the hypothesis that the Abyssinian pea was formed by hybridization between one of the P. sativum subspecies and P. fulvum. If hybridization were involved in the generation of the Abyssinian pea, it must have been between P. s. ssp. sativum and P. s. ssp. elatius, although the Abyssinian pea possesses a considerable number of highly unique alleles, implying that the actual P. s. ssp. elatius germplasm involved in such a hybridization has yet to be tested or that the hybridization occurred much longer ago than the postulated 4000 years bp. Analysis of the P. s. ssp. abyssinicum alleles in genomic regions thought to contain genes critical for domestication indicated that the indehiscent pod trait was independently developed in the Abyssinian pea, whereas the loss of seed dormancy was either derived from P. s. ssp. sativum or at least partially developed before the P. s. ssp. abyssinicum lineage diverged from that leading to P. s. ssp. sativum. PMID:29720994

  10. Changes in genomic methylation patterns during the formation of triploid asexual dandelion lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Van Dijk, P.J.; Biere, A.

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that has the potential to affect plant phenotypes and that is responsive to environmental and genomic stresses such as hybridization and polyploidization. We explored de novo methylation variation that arises during the formation of triploid asexual

  11. Mating type gene analysis in apparently asexual Cercospora species is suggestive of cryptic sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Harrington, T.C.; Abeln, E.C.A.; Crous, P.W.

    2006-01-01

    The genus Cercospora consists of numerous important, apparently asexual plant pathogens. We designed degenerate primers from homologous sequences in related species to amplify part of the C. apii, C. apiicola, C. beticola, C. zeae-maydis and C. zeina mating type genes. Chromosome walking was used to

  12. Is meiosis a fundamental cause of inviability among sexual and asexual plants and animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitis, Daniel A; Zimmerman, Kolea; Pringle, Anne

    2017-08-16

    Differences in viability between asexually and sexually generated offspring strongly influence the selective advantage and therefore the prevalence of sexual reproduction (sex). However, no general principle predicts when sexual offspring will be more viable than asexual offspring. We hypothesize that when any kind of reproduction is based on a more complex cellular process, it will encompass more potential failure points, and therefore lower offspring viability. Asexual reproduction (asex) can be simpler than sex, when offspring are generated using only mitosis. However, when asex includes meiosis and meiotic restitution, gamete production is more complex than in sex. We test our hypothesis by comparing the viability of asexual and closely related sexual offspring across a wide range of plants and animals, and demonstrate that meiotic asex does result in lower viability than sex; without meiosis, asex is mechanistically simple and provides higher viability than sex. This phylogenetically robust pattern is supported in 42 of 44 comparisons drawn from diverse plants and animals, and is not explained by the other variables included in our model. Other mechanisms may impact viability, such as effects of reproductive mode on heterozygosity and subsequent viability, but we propose the complexity of cellular processes of reproduction, particularly meiosis, as a fundamental cause of early developmental failure and mortality. Meiosis, the leading cause of inviability in humans, emerges as a likely explanation of offspring inviability among diverse eukaryotes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. "Asexual propagation of a virulent clone complex in human and feline outbreak of sporotrichosis"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Tsui, Clement K M; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paulo; Van Diepeningen, Anne D; Gerrits van den Ende, Bert; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Kano, Rui; Hamelin, Richard C; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila Maria; Ribeiro Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; de Hoog, Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares

    2014-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is one of the most frequent subcutaneous fungal infections to human and animals caused by members of the plant-associated, dimorphic genus Sporothrix. Three of the four medically important Sporothrix species found in Brazil have been considered asexual, as no sexual stage has ever

  14. Induction of cell death on Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stages by Solanum nudum steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Mary Luz; Vommaro, Rossiane; Zalis, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    Solanum nudum Dunal (Solanaceae) is a plant used in traditional medicine in Colombian Pacific Coast, from which five steroids denominated SNs have been isolated. The SNs compounds have antiplasmodial activity against asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum strain 7G8 with an IC50 between 20...

  15. Ontology for the asexual development and anatomy of the colonial chordate Botryllus schlosseri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Manni

    Full Text Available Ontologies provide an important resource to integrate information. For developmental biology and comparative anatomy studies, ontologies of a species are used to formalize and annotate data that are related to anatomical structures, their lineage and timing of development. Here, we have constructed the first ontology for anatomy and asexual development (blastogenesis of a bilaterian, the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri. Tunicates, like Botryllus schlosseri, are non-vertebrates and the only chordate taxon species that reproduce both sexually and asexually. Their tadpole larval stage possesses structures characteristic of all chordates, i.e. a notochord, a dorsal neural tube, and gill slits. Larvae settle and metamorphose into individuals that are either solitary or colonial. The latter reproduce both sexually and asexually and these two reproductive modes lead to essentially the same adult body plan. The Botryllus schlosseri Ontology of Development and Anatomy (BODA will facilitate the comparison between both types of development. BODA uses the rules defined by the Open Biomedical Ontologies Foundry. It is based on studies that investigate the anatomy, blastogenesis and regeneration of this organism. BODA features allow the users to easily search and identify anatomical structures in the colony, to define the developmental stage, and to follow the morphogenetic events of a tissue and/or organ of interest throughout asexual development. We invite the scientific community to use this resource as a reference for the anatomy and developmental ontology of B. schlosseri and encourage recommendations for updates and improvements.

  16. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  17. Pea Marker Database (PMD) - A new online database combining known pea (Pisum sativum L.) gene-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaeva, Olga A; Zhernakov, Aleksandr I; Afonin, Alexey M; Boikov, Sergei S; Sulima, Anton S; Tikhonovich, Igor A; Zhukov, Vladimir A

    2017-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the oldest model object of plant genetics and one of the most agriculturally important legumes in the world. Since the pea genome has not been sequenced yet, identification of genes responsible for mutant phenotypes or desirable agricultural traits is usually performed via genetic mapping followed by candidate gene search. Such mapping is best carried out using gene-based molecular markers, as it opens the possibility for exploiting genome synteny between pea and its close relative Medicago truncatula Gaertn., possessing sequenced and annotated genome. In the last 5 years, a large number of pea gene-based molecular markers have been designed and mapped owing to the rapid evolution of "next-generation sequencing" technologies. However, the access to the complete set of markers designed worldwide is limited because the data are not uniformed and therefore hard to use. The Pea Marker Database was designed to combine the information about pea markers in a form of user-friendly and practical online tool. Version 1 (PMD1) comprises information about 2484 genic markers, including their locations in linkage groups, the sequences of corresponding pea transcripts and the names of related genes in M. truncatula. Version 2 (PMD2) is an updated version comprising 15944 pea markers in the same format with several advanced features. To test the performance of the PMD, fine mapping of pea symbiotic genes Sym13 and Sym27 in linkage groups VII and V, respectively, was carried out. The results of mapping allowed us to propose the Sen1 gene (a homologue of SEN1 gene of Lotus japonicus (Regel) K. Larsen) as the best candidate gene for Sym13, and to narrow the list of possible candidate genes for Sym27 to ten, thus proving PMD to be useful for pea gene mapping and cloning. All information contained in PMD1 and PMD2 is available at www.peamarker.arriam.ru.

  18. Uses Of Gamma Rays In Peas Breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghunim, A.; Mobakher, H.; Salman, S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of peas varieties grown in Syria are introduced and they have variable characteristics and unstable in the productivity. Therefore this study aims to utilize physical mutagens as the developed technology in plant breeding to obtain high, stable productivity and suitable for human consumption and processing. Two green peas vars (onward, local homsi) were used in this study, and their dry seeds were subjected to different doses of Gamma rays (5.0,7.5,10.0) KR and planted conventional used methods at AL Taibba searching station (20 Km from Damascus) in 1985/1986 season. Individual selection from M2 was practiced based on yield traits. Starting from 1991/1992 season the best selected mutants were used in yield trials to be compared with the best common cultivars. After/3/years of yield trials, the advanced lines were incorporated into field test trials. Some morphological and phonological scores, i.e. green pods yield, dry seeds yield per area were achieved in addition to lab tests. Some strains have advanced in yield of green pods and dry seeds per area compared with the local check. Some other strains. Showed an increase in earliness, length of pods, number of seeds per pod, and number of pods per plant than the local check. Therefore these can be called promising strains and as nucleus for new vars. will be used into verifiable fields, and in large-scale cultivation in order to be released. (Authors)

  19. Rheological and qualitative characteristics of pea flour incorporated cracker biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of pea flour for cracker biscuits production was investigated in this study. Pea flour was characterised by high protein (21.46 % and ash (3.11 % content and exhibited relatively high emulsifying (37.50 ml/100 ml and foaming (53.50 ml/100 ml capacity. The effect of pea flour incorporation to wheat dough (substitution levels 0, 10, 20 and 30 % on the rheological properties, physical characteristics and sensory parameters of cracker biscuits were also evaluated. Farinographic measurements showed that pea flour addition resulted in increasing of water absorption (from 58.90 to 61.80 % and dough development time (from 3.55 to 4.50 min, whereas dough stability was decreased (from 6.69 to 3.50 min. It was also found that incorporation of pea flour to cracker biscuits modified physical properties of final products by different ways (decreasing of volume index, width and spread ratio, increasing of thickness. From the sensory evaluation revealed that cracker biscuits prepared from blend flour contained 10 % pea flour showed no significant differences from wheat cracker biscuits. Higher levels of pea flour in the products adversely affected the odour, taste, firmness, colour and overall acceptance of final products.

  20. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nitrate uptake by the pea crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1986-08-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nitrate uptake by pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) were studied in field and pot experiments using the 15 N isotope dilution technique and spring barley as a non-fixing reference crop. Barley, although not ideal, seemed to be a suitable reference for pea in the 15 N-technique. Maximum N 2 fixation activity of 10 kg N fixed per ha per day was reached around the flat pod growth stage, and the activity decreased rapidly during pod-filling. The pea crop fixed between 100 and 250 kg N ha -1 , corresponding to from 45 to 80 per cent of total crop N. The amount of symbiotically fixed N 2 depended on the climatic conditions in the experimental year, the level of soil mineral N and the pea cultivar. Field-grown pea took up 60 to 70 per cent of the N-fertilizer supplied. The supply of 50 kg NO 3 -N ha -1 inhibited the N 2 fixation approximately 15 per cent. Small amounts of fertilizer N, supplied at sowing (starter-N), slightly stimulated the vegetative growth of pea, but the yields of seed dry matter and protein were not significantly influenced. In the present field experiments the environmental conditions, especially the distribution of rainfall during the growth season, seemed to be more important in determining the protein and dry matter yield of the dry pea crop, than the ability of pea to fix nitrogen symbiotically. However, fertilizer N supplied to pot-grown pea plants at the flat pod growth stage or as split applications significantly increased the yield of seed dry matter and protein. (author)

  1. Cryptic sexual populations account for genetic diversity and ecological success in a widely distributed, asexual fungus-growing ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeling, Christian; Gonzales, Omar; Schultz, Ted R; Bacci, Maurício; Garcia, Marcos V B; Verhaagh, Manfred; Ishak, Heather D; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-07-26

    Sex and recombination are central processes in life generating genetic diversity. Organisms that rely on asexual propagation risk extinction due to the loss of genetic diversity and the inability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The fungus-growing ant species Mycocepurus smithii was thought to be obligately asexual because only parthenogenetic populations have been collected from widely separated geographic localities. Nonetheless, M. smithii is ecologically successful, with the most extensive distribution and the highest population densities of any fungus-growing ant. Here we report that M. smithii actually consists of a mosaic of asexual and sexual populations that are nonrandomly distributed geographically. The sexual populations cluster along the Rio Amazonas and the Rio Negro and appear to be the source of independently evolved and widely distributed asexual lineages, or clones. Either apomixis or automixis with central fusion and low recombination rates is inferred to be the cytogenetic mechanism underlying parthenogenesis in M. smithii. Males appear to be entirely absent from asexual populations, but their existence in sexual populations is indicated by the presence of sperm in the reproductive tracts of queens. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus suggests that M. smithii is monophyletic, rendering a hybrid origin of asexuality unlikely. Instead, a mitochondrial phylogeny of sexual and asexual populations suggests multiple independent origins of asexual reproduction, and a divergence-dating analysis indicates that M. smithii evolved 0.5-1.65 million years ago. Understanding the evolutionary origin and maintenance of asexual reproduction in this species contributes to a general understanding of the adaptive significance of sex.

  2. The Evolution of Facultative Conformity Based on Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efferson, Charles; Lalive, Rafael; Cacault, Maria Paula; Kistler, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Conformist social learning can have a pronounced impact on the cultural evolution of human societies, and it can shape both the genetic and cultural evolution of human social behavior more broadly. Conformist social learning is beneficial when the social learner and the demonstrators from whom she learns are similar in the sense that the same behavior is optimal for both. Otherwise, the social learner's optimum is likely to be rare among demonstrators, and conformity is costly. The trade-off between these two situations has figured prominently in the longstanding debate about the evolution of conformity, but the importance of the trade-off can depend critically on the flexibility of one's social learning strategy. We developed a gene-culture coevolutionary model that allows cognition to encode and process information about the similarity between naive learners and experienced demonstrators. Facultative social learning strategies that condition on perceived similarity evolve under certain circumstances. When this happens, facultative adjustments are often asymmetric. Asymmetric adjustments mean that the tendency to follow the majority when learners perceive demonstrators as similar is stronger than the tendency to follow the minority when learners perceive demonstrators as different. In an associated incentivized experiment, we found that social learners adjusted how they used social information based on perceived similarity, but adjustments were symmetric. The symmetry of adjustments completely eliminated the commonly assumed trade-off between cases in which learners and demonstrators share an optimum versus cases in which they do not. In a second experiment that maximized the potential for social learners to follow their preferred strategies, a few social learners exhibited an inclination to follow the majority. Most, however, did not respond systematically to social information. Additionally, in the complete absence of information about their similarity to

  3. The Evolution of Facultative Conformity Based on Similarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Efferson

    Full Text Available Conformist social learning can have a pronounced impact on the cultural evolution of human societies, and it can shape both the genetic and cultural evolution of human social behavior more broadly. Conformist social learning is beneficial when the social learner and the demonstrators from whom she learns are similar in the sense that the same behavior is optimal for both. Otherwise, the social learner's optimum is likely to be rare among demonstrators, and conformity is costly. The trade-off between these two situations has figured prominently in the longstanding debate about the evolution of conformity, but the importance of the trade-off can depend critically on the flexibility of one's social learning strategy. We developed a gene-culture coevolutionary model that allows cognition to encode and process information about the similarity between naive learners and experienced demonstrators. Facultative social learning strategies that condition on perceived similarity evolve under certain circumstances. When this happens, facultative adjustments are often asymmetric. Asymmetric adjustments mean that the tendency to follow the majority when learners perceive demonstrators as similar is stronger than the tendency to follow the minority when learners perceive demonstrators as different. In an associated incentivized experiment, we found that social learners adjusted how they used social information based on perceived similarity, but adjustments were symmetric. The symmetry of adjustments completely eliminated the commonly assumed trade-off between cases in which learners and demonstrators share an optimum versus cases in which they do not. In a second experiment that maximized the potential for social learners to follow their preferred strategies, a few social learners exhibited an inclination to follow the majority. Most, however, did not respond systematically to social information. Additionally, in the complete absence of information about their

  4. Facultative methanotrophs are abundant at terrestrial natural gas seeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; Crombie, Andrew T; Ensminger, Scott A; Baciu, Calin; Murrell, J Colin

    2018-06-28

    Natural gas contains methane and the gaseous alkanes ethane, propane and butane, which collectively influence atmospheric chemistry and cause global warming. Methane-oxidising bacteria, methanotrophs, are crucial in mitigating emissions of methane as they oxidise most of the methane produced in soils and the subsurface before it reaches the atmosphere. Methanotrophs are usually obligate, i.e. grow only on methane and not on longer chain alkanes. Bacteria that grow on the other gaseous alkanes in natural gas such as propane have also been characterised, but they do not grow on methane. Recently, it was shown that the facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris grew on ethane and propane, other components of natural gas, in addition to methane. Therefore, we hypothesised that Methylocella may be prevalent at natural gas seeps and might play a major role in consuming all components of this potent greenhouse gas mixture before it is released to the atmosphere. Environments known to be exposed to biogenic methane emissions or thermogenic natural gas seeps were surveyed for methanotrophs. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed that Methylocella were the most abundant methanotrophs in natural gas seep environments. New Methylocella-specific molecular tools targeting mmoX (encoding the soluble methane monooxygenase) by PCR and Illumina amplicon sequencing were designed and used to investigate various sites. Functional gene-based assays confirmed that Methylocella were present in all of the natural gas seep sites tested here. This might be due to its ability to use methane and other short chain alkane components of natural gas. We also observed the abundance of Methylocella in other environments exposed to biogenic methane, suggesting that Methylocella has been overlooked in the past as previous ecological studies of methanotrophs often used pmoA (encoding the alpha subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase) as a marker gene. New biomolecular tools designed in

  5. The Evolution of Facultative Conformity Based on Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efferson, Charles; Lalive, Rafael; Cacault, Maria Paula; Kistler, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Conformist social learning can have a pronounced impact on the cultural evolution of human societies, and it can shape both the genetic and cultural evolution of human social behavior more broadly. Conformist social learning is beneficial when the social learner and the demonstrators from whom she learns are similar in the sense that the same behavior is optimal for both. Otherwise, the social learner’s optimum is likely to be rare among demonstrators, and conformity is costly. The trade-off between these two situations has figured prominently in the longstanding debate about the evolution of conformity, but the importance of the trade-off can depend critically on the flexibility of one’s social learning strategy. We developed a gene-culture coevolutionary model that allows cognition to encode and process information about the similarity between naive learners and experienced demonstrators. Facultative social learning strategies that condition on perceived similarity evolve under certain circumstances. When this happens, facultative adjustments are often asymmetric. Asymmetric adjustments mean that the tendency to follow the majority when learners perceive demonstrators as similar is stronger than the tendency to follow the minority when learners perceive demonstrators as different. In an associated incentivized experiment, we found that social learners adjusted how they used social information based on perceived similarity, but adjustments were symmetric. The symmetry of adjustments completely eliminated the commonly assumed trade-off between cases in which learners and demonstrators share an optimum versus cases in which they do not. In a second experiment that maximized the potential for social learners to follow their preferred strategies, a few social learners exhibited an inclination to follow the majority. Most, however, did not respond systematically to social information. Additionally, in the complete absence of information about their similarity to

  6. Isolation of obligate and facultative anaerobic bacteria from feline subcutaneous abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshuyama, S; Kanoe, M; Amimoto, A

    1996-03-01

    A total of 113 specimens collected from purulent skin lesions of household cats was examined bacteriologically. Ninety seven isolates obtained from 74 specimens (65.5%). Of these, 11 specimens (9.7%) contained obligate anaerobes only, 18 specimens (15.9%) yielded both obligate and facultative anaerobes. In the obligate anaerobes detected, genus Fusobacterium was the most frequently observed and F. nucleatum was most common species. Pasteurella multocida was the facultative anaerobe which was most frequently detected.

  7. Rumex acetosa Y chromosomes: constitutive or facultative heterochromatin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosiołek, Magdalena; Pasierbek, Paweł; Malarz, Janusz; Moś, Maria; Joachimiak, Andrzej J

    2005-01-01

    Condensed Y chromosomes in Rumex acetosa L. root-tip nuclei were studied using 5-azaC treatment and immunohistochemical detection of methylated histones. Although Y chromosomes were decondensed within root meristem in vivo, they became condensed and heteropycnotic in roots cultured in vitro. 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) treatment of cultured roots caused transitional dispersion of their Y chromosome bodies, but 7 days after removal of the drug from the culture medium, Y heterochromatin recondensed and again became visible. The response of Rumex sex chromatin to 5-azaC was compared with that of condensed segments of pericentromeric heterochromatin in Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Steam roots. It was shown that Rhoeo chromocentres, composed of AT-rich constitutive heterochromatin, did not undergo decondensation after 5-azaC treatment. The Y-bodies observed within male nuclei of R. acetosa were globally enriched with H3 histone, demethylated at lysine 4 and methylated at lysine 9. This is the first report of histone tail-modification in condensed sex chromatin in plants. Our results suggest that the interphase condensation of Y chromosomes in Rumex is facultative rather than constitutive. Furthermore, the observed response of Y-bodies to 5-azaC may result indirectly from demethylation and the subsequent altered expression of unknown genes controlling tissue-specific Y-inactivation as opposed to the global demethylation of Y-chromosome DNA.

  8. Developmental Transcriptome for a Facultatively Eusocial Bee, Megalopta genalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Beryl M; Wcislo, William T; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-08-14

    Transcriptomes provide excellent foundational resources for mechanistic and evolutionary analyses of complex traits. We present a developmental transcriptome for the facultatively eusocial bee Megalopta genalis, which represents a potential transition point in the evolution of eusociality. A de novo transcriptome assembly of Megalopta genalis was generated using paired-end Illumina sequencing and the Trinity assembler. Males and females of all life stages were aligned to this transcriptome for analysis of gene expression profiles throughout development. Gene Ontology analysis indicates that stage-specific genes are involved in ion transport, cell-cell signaling, and metabolism. A number of distinct biological processes are upregulated in each life stage, and transitions between life stages involve shifts in dominant functional processes, including shifts from transcriptional regulation in embryos to metabolism in larvae, and increased lipid metabolism in adults. We expect that this transcriptome will provide a useful resource for future analyses to better understand the molecular basis of the evolution of eusociality and, more generally, phenotypic plasticity. Copyright © 2015 Jones et al.

  9. Indirect evolution of social fitness inequalities and facultative social exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramith R; Fiegna, Francesca; Velicer, Gregory J

    2018-03-28

    Microbial genotypes with similarly high proficiency at a cooperative behaviour in genetically pure groups often exhibit fitness inequalities caused by social interaction in mixed groups. Winning competitors in this scenario have been referred to as 'cheaters' in some studies. Such interaction-specific fitness inequalities, as well as social exploitation (in which interaction between genotypes increases absolute fitness), might evolve due to selection for competitiveness at the focal behaviour or might arise non-adaptively due to pleiotropy, hitchhiking or genetic drift. The bacterium Myxococcus xanthus sporulates during cooperative development of multicellular fruiting bodies. Using M. xanthus lineages that underwent experimental evolution in allopatry without selection on sporulation, we demonstrate that interaction-specific fitness inequalities and facultative social exploitation during development readily evolved indirectly among descendant lineages. Fitness inequalities between evolved genotypes were not caused by divergence in developmental speed, as faster-developing strains were not over-represented among competition winners. In competitions between ancestors and several evolved strains, all evolved genotypes produced more spores than the ancestors, including losers of evolved-versus-evolved competitions, indicating that adaptation in non-developmental contexts pleiotropically increased competitiveness for spore production. Overall, our results suggest that fitness inequalities caused by social interaction during cooperative processes may often evolve non-adaptively in natural populations. © 2018 The Authors.

  10. Pancreatic β-cell regeneration: Facultative or dedicated progenitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afelik, Solomon; Rovira, Meritxell

    2017-04-15

    The adult pancreas is only capable of limited regeneration. Unlike highly regenerative tissues such as the skin, intestinal crypts and hematopoietic system, no dedicated adult stem cells or stem cell niche have so far been identified within the adult pancreas. New β cells have been shown to form in the adult pancreas, in response to high physiological demand or experimental β-cell ablation, mostly by replication of existing β cells. The possibility that new β cells are formed from other sources is currently a point of major controversy. Under particular injury conditions, fully differentiated pancreatic duct and acinar cells have been shown to dedifferentiate into a progenitor-like state, however the extent, to which ductal, acinar or other endocrine cells contribute to restoring pancreatic β-cell mass remains to be resolved. In this review we focus on regenerative events in the pancreas with emphasis on the restoration of β-cell mass. We present an overview of regenerative responses noted within the different pancreatic lineages, following injury. We also highlight the intrinsic plasticity of the adult pancreas that allows for inter-conversion of fully differentiated pancreatic lineages through manipulation of few genes or growth factors. Taken together, evidence from a number of studies suggest that differentiated pancreatic lineages could act as facultative progenitor cells, but the extent to which these contribute to β-cell regeneration in vivo is still a matter of contention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Protein methylation reactions in intact pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Post-translational protein methylation was investigated in Pisum sativum chloroplasts. Intact pea chloroplasts were incubated with ( 3 H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine under various conditions. The chloroplasts were then separated into stromal and thylakoid fractions and analyzed for radioactivity transferred to protein. Light enhanced the magnitude of labeling in both fractions. One thylakoid polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa was labeled only in the light. Several other thylakoid and stromal proteins were labeled in both light and dark-labeling conditions. Both base-labile methylation, carboxy-methylesters and base-stable groups, N-methylations were found. Further characterization of the methyl-transfer reactions will be presented

  12. Facultative methanotrophy: false leads, true results, and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jeremy D; DiSpirito, Alan A; Vuilleumier, Stéphane

    2011-10-01

    Methanotrophs are a group of phylogenetically diverse microorganisms characterized by their ability to utilize methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Early studies suggested that growth on methane could be stimulated with the addition of some small organic acids, but initial efforts to find facultative methanotrophs, i.e., methanotrophs able to utilize compounds with carbon-carbon bonds as sole growth substrates were inconclusive. Recently, however, facultative methanotrophs in the genera Methylocella, Methylocapsa, and Methylocystis have been reported that can grow on acetate, as well as on larger organic acids or ethanol for some species. All identified facultative methanotrophs group within the Alphaproteobacteria and utilize the serine cycle for carbon assimilation from formaldehyde. It is possible that facultative methanotrophs are able to convert acetate into intermediates of the serine cycle (e.g. malate and glyoxylate), because a variety of acetate assimilation pathways convert acetate into these compounds (e.g. the glyoxylate shunt of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway, the citramalate cycle, and the methylaspartate cycle). In this review, we summarize the history of facultative methanotrophy, describe scenarios for the basis of facultative methanotrophy, and pose several topics for future research in this area. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants: powerful tools for unravelling the functional elements of CAM photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2014-07-01

    Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) describes the optional use of CAM photosynthesis, typically under conditions of drought stress, in plants that otherwise employ C3 or C4 photosynthesis. In its cleanest form, the upregulation of CAM is fully reversible upon removal of stress. Reversibility distinguishes facultative CAM from ontogenetically programmed unidirectional C3-to-CAM shifts inherent in constitutive CAM plants. Using mainly measurements of 24h CO2 exchange, defining features of facultative CAM are highlighted in five terrestrial species, Clusia pratensis, Calandrinia polyandra, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, Portulaca oleracea and Talinum triangulare. For these, we provide detailed chronologies of the shifts between photosynthetic modes and comment on their usefulness as experimental systems. Photosynthetic flexibility is also reviewed in an aquatic CAM plant, Isoetes howellii. Through comparisons of C3 and CAM states in facultative CAM species, many fundamental biochemical principles of the CAM pathway have been uncovered. Facultative CAM species will be of even greater relevance now that new sequencing technologies facilitate the mapping of genomes and tracking of the expression patterns of multiple genes. These technologies and facultative CAM systems, when joined, are expected to contribute in a major way towards our goal of understanding the essence of CAM. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Lodging resistant pea line derived after mutagenic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.

    2006-01-01

    Line 1/502 is a new lodging resistant pea ( Pisum sativum L.) developed for the Bulgarian field pea industry. This line is a direct chlorophyll mutant, which originates after treatment of the initial line, cultivar Auralia, with 150 Gy 60 Co γ - radiation. In regional evaluation trials conducted in Sofia over seven successive seasons 1/502 has revealed improved standing ability that most probably is a result from modification of the architecture of the plants appearing in reduction of plant height. The agronomic and morphological characteristics of the mutant line were reported. The upright plant habit and resistance to lodging is especially beneficial for production of high quality peas because pods are held above the soil surface during crop development and during maturity which aids in keeping the peas clean and free of pathogens that can cause discoloration and rotting. (authors)

  15. Effect of Pigeon Pea Hedgerow Alley Management on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year (2010 and 2011 cropping seasons) field investigation conducted at the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, South Eastern Nigeria. Treatments comprised three pigeon pea hedgerow alley populations of 20,000, 33,333 and ...

  16. Induced mutants in beans and peas resistant to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and peas (Pisum sativum) are important leguminous vegetable crops in Egypt. The area planted with beans is about 40,000 acres and peas 22,000 acres. These crops suffer from several diseases, particularly rusts, (Uromyces phaseoli/Uromyces pisi), which are mainly spread in northern Egypt. In our mutation induction programme we used 60 Co gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for two hours before exposure to 8, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical treatments, bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for eight hours and then treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. The M 1 was cultivated in 1978

  17. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in the Genomic Era

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smýkal, P.; Aubert, G.; Burstin, J.; Coyne, C.J.; Ellis, N.T.H.; Flavell, A.J.; Ford, R.; Hýbl, M.; Macas, Jiří; Neumann, Pavel; McPhee, K.E.; Redden, R.J.; Rubiales, D.; Weller, J.L.; Warkentin, T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2012), s. 74-115 ISSN 2073-4395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : breeding * germplasm * genetic diversity * pea Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. Pea (Pisum sativum L. in the Genomic Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Redden

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. was the original model organism used in Mendel’s discovery (1866 of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species. Although the size and repetitive nature of the pea genome has so far restricted its sequencing, comprehensive genomic and post genomic resources already exist. These include BAC libraries, several types of molecular marker sets, both transcriptome and proteome datasets and mutant populations for reverse genetics. The availability of the full genome sequences of three legume species has offered significant opportunities for genome wide comparison revealing synteny and co-linearity to pea. A combination of a candidate gene and colinearity approach has successfully led to the identification of genes underlying agronomically important traits including virus resistances and plant architecture. Some of this knowledge has already been applied to marker assisted selection (MAS programs, increasing precision and shortening the breeding cycle. Yet, complete translation of marker discovery to pea breeding is still to be achieved. Molecular analysis of pea collections has shown that although substantial variation is present within the cultivated genepool, wild material offers the possibility to incorporate novel traits that may have been inadvertently eliminated. Association mapping analysis of diverse pea germplasm promises to identify genetic variation related to desirable agronomic traits, which are historically difficult to breed for in a traditional manner. The availability of high throughput ‘omics’ methodologies offers great promise for the development of novel, highly accurate selective breeding tools for improved pea genotypes that are sustainable under current and future climates and farming systems.

  19. Ly α and UV Sizes of Green Pea Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, Junxian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Jiang, Tianxing [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration (United States); Leitherer, Claus [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wofford, Aida, E-mail: huan.y@asu.edu [National Autonomous University of Mexico, Institute of Astronomy (Mexico)

    2017-03-20

    Green Peas are nearby analogs of high-redshift Ly α -emitting galaxies (LAEs). To probe their Ly α escape, we study the spatial profiles of Ly α and UV continuum emission of 24 Green Pea galaxies using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope . We extract the spatial profiles of Ly α emission from their 2D COS spectra, and of the UV continuum from both 2D spectra and NUV images. The Ly α emission shows more extended spatial profiles than the UV continuum, in most Green Peas. The deconvolved full width at half maximum of the Ly α spatial profile is about 2–4 times that of the UV continuum, in most cases. Because Green Peas are analogs of high z LAEs, our results suggest that most high- z LAEs probably have larger Ly α sizes than UV sizes. We also compare the spatial profiles of Ly α photons at blueshifted and redshifted velocities in eight Green Peas with sufficient data quality, and find that the blue wing of the Ly α line has a larger spatial extent than the red wing in four Green Peas with comparatively weak blue Ly α line wings. We show that Green Peas and MUSE z = 3–6 LAEs have similar Ly α and UV continuum sizes, which probably suggests that starbursts in both low- z and high- z LAEs drive similar gas outflows illuminated by Ly α light. Five Lyman continuum (LyC) leakers in this sample have similar Ly α to UV continuum size ratios (∼1.4–4.3) to the other Green Peas, indicating that their LyC emissions escape through ionized holes in the interstellar medium.

  20. PEA: an integrated R toolkit for plant epitranscriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jingjing; Song, Jie; Cheng, Qian; Tang, Yunjia; Ma, Chuang

    2018-05-29

    The epitranscriptome, also known as chemical modifications of RNA (CMRs), is a newly discovered layer of gene regulation, the biological importance of which emerged through analysis of only a small fraction of CMRs detected by high-throughput sequencing technologies. Understanding of the epitranscriptome is hampered by the absence of computational tools for the systematic analysis of epitranscriptome sequencing data. In addition, no tools have yet been designed for accurate prediction of CMRs in plants, or to extend epitranscriptome analysis from a fraction of the transcriptome to its entirety. Here, we introduce PEA, an integrated R toolkit to facilitate the analysis of plant epitranscriptome data. The PEA toolkit contains a comprehensive collection of functions required for read mapping, CMR calling, motif scanning and discovery, and gene functional enrichment analysis. PEA also takes advantage of machine learning technologies for transcriptome-scale CMR prediction, with high prediction accuracy, using the Positive Samples Only Learning algorithm, which addresses the two-class classification problem by using only positive samples (CMRs), in the absence of negative samples (non-CMRs). Hence PEA is a versatile epitranscriptome analysis pipeline covering CMR calling, prediction, and annotation, and we describe its application to predict N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modifications in Arabidopsis thaliana. Experimental results demonstrate that the toolkit achieved 71.6% sensitivity and 73.7% specificity, which is superior to existing m6A predictors. PEA is potentially broadly applicable to the in-depth study of epitranscriptomics. PEA Docker image is available at https://hub.docker.com/r/malab/pea, source codes and user manual are available at https://github.com/cma2015/PEA. chuangma2006@gmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  1. Profiling the repertoire of phenotypes influenced by environmental cues that occur during asexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrovsky, Aviv; Arthaud, Laury; Ledger, Terence N; Tares, Sophie; Robichon, Alain

    2009-11-01

    The aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum population is composed of different morphs, such as winged and wingless parthenogens, males, and sexual females. The combined effect of reduced photoperiodicity and cold in fall triggers the apparition of sexual morphs. In contrast they reproduce asexually in spring and summer. In our current study, we provide evidence that clonal individuals display phenotypic variability within asexual morph categories. We describe that clones sharing the same morphological features, which arose from the same founder mother, constitute a repertoire of variants with distinct behavioral and physiological traits. Our results suggest that the prevailing environmental conditions influence the recruitment of adaptive phenotypes from a cohort of clonal individuals exhibiting considerable molecular diversity. However, we observed that the variability might be reduced or enhanced by external factors, but is never abolished in accordance with a model of stochastically produced phenotypes. This overall mechanism allows the renewal of colonies from a few adapted individuals that survive drastic episodic changes in a fluctuating environment.

  2. Induced mutations in beans and peas for resistance to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) were applied in a mutation-induction programme for rust resistance in bean and pea. Bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked 2 hours before irradiation with 9, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical mutagen treatments bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked for 8 hours and treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. M 2 seeds of beans and peas were planted in 1979. Resistant M 2 plants were selected for their rust resistance and other morphological characters. M 3 seeds of selected plants were planted in 1980. In 1980 more seeds of the same varieties of beans and peas were treated with 0.1 and 0.3% EMS with the aim to produce rust-resistant mutants. Seed germination was reduced by gamma rays or EMS. Dwarf, malformed and abnormal plants were noticed. Some resistant M 2 plants selected gave high grain yields. Some were different in morphological characters. In the M 3 of selected plants various other mutant characters appeared, such as different height of plants, early and late flowering, resistance to powdery mildew in peas, altered grain yield, thickness of stem, pod shape and flower colour. (author)

  3. Asexual queen succession mediates an accelerated colony life cycle in the termite Silvestritermes minutus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fougeyrollas, R.; Křivánek, Jan; Roy, V.; Dolejšová, Klára; Frechault, S.; Roisin, Y.; Hanus, Robert; Sillam-Dusses, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 12 (2017), s. 3295-3308 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12774S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : asexual queen succession * breeding system * life history * parthenogenesis * Silvestritermes minutus * termites Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  4. Evolutionary history of asexual hybrid loaches (Cobitis: Teleostei) inferred from phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, Karel; Kotlík, Petr; Ráb, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2003), s. 1280-1287 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA206/00/0668; GA ČR GA206/01/0989; GA AV ČR IBS5045111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : asexual vertebrates * Cobitis * maternal ancestry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.010, year: 2003

  5. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Park, Kyungseok; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-09-01

    Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation.

  6. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Soon Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation.

  7. Differential evolution of asexual and sexual females in a benign culture environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Terry W.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report one of the first investigations of evolvability of lifespan and reproduction in metazoans, examining both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. We tested effects on senescence of an environmental variable (simulated lake hydroperiod, the length of time an aquatic habitat is inundated), female reproductive physiology (asexual females that reproduce by ameiosis, versus sexual females reproducing by meiosis), and time in a benign culture environment (minimal, if any, external mortality factors). To do this we established chemostat cultures of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis s.s., and maintained the cultures for 385 d. Hydroperiod alone or in interaction with the effects of time in the benign environment (season) or reproductive physiology had no significant effect on the net reproductive rate, generation time, or rate of aging. Yet combining animals from both ephemeral and permanent hydroperiods revealed a 26% increase in asexual female lifespan across seasons (23% decrease in the rate of aging) and a 56% increase in asexual fecundity, suggesting that maintenance in benign laboratory conditions leads to slower aging. The relative stasis of traits for sexual females implies an impact of reproductive physiology on evolvability. In addition we found a positive correlation between fecundity and lifespan, suggesting an absence of trade-offs in life history traits in the benign laboratory environment. PMID:24795527

  8. Evidence of parasexual activity in "asexual amoebae" Cochliopodium spp. (Amoebozoa): extensive cellular and nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekle, Yonas I; Anderson, O Roger; Lecky, Ariel F

    2014-09-01

    The majority of microbial eukaryotes have long been considered asexual, though new evidence indicates sex, or sexual-like (parasexual) behaviors that deviate from the usual union of two gametes, among other variant aspects. Over a dozen amoebozoans are implicated to have sexual stages. However, the exact mechanism by which sex occurs in these lineages remains elusive. This is mainly due to the diverse quality and cryptic nature of their life cycle. In this study we present evidence of some previously unreported aspects of the life cycle of an amoeba, Cochliopodium, that undergoes unusual intraspecific interactions using light microscopy and immunocytochemistry. Similar to other amoebozoans, Cochliopodium, is considered asexual with no published reports of sex or parasexuality. We also investigated environmental conditions that govern the observed intraspecific interactions. Both light microscopic and immunocytochemistry evidence demonstrates Cochliopodium undergoes cellular fusion (plasmogamy) and nuclear fusion (karyogamy). Large plasmodia eventually undergo karyogamy and contain large fused, polyploid, nuclei. These are observed to fragment, subsequently, by karyotomy (nuclear fission) and cytoplasmic fission to yield uninucleated amoebae. This process could lead to a non-meiotic, parasexual exchange of chromosomes in Cochliopodium. These findings strongly suggest that Cochliopodium is involved in parasexual activity and should no longer be considered strictly asexual. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Rumex acetosa Y chromosomes: constitutive or facultative heterochromatin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej J. Joachimiak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Condensed Y chromosomes in Rumex acetosa L. root-tip nuclei were studied using 5-azaC treatment and immunohistochemical detection of methylated histones. Although Y chromosomes were decondensed within root meristem in vivo, they became condensed and heteropycnotic in roots cultured in vitro. 5-azacytidine (5-azaC treatment of cultured roots caused transitional dispersion of their Y chromosome bodies, but 7 days after removal of the drug from the culture medium, Y heterochromatin recondensed and again became visible. The response of Rumex sex chromatin to 5-azaC was compared with that of condensed segments of pericentromeric heterochromatin in Rhoeo spathacea (Sw. Stearn roots. It was shown that Rhoeo chromocentres, composed of AT-rich constitutive heterochromatin, did not undergo decondensation after 5-azaC treatment. The Y-bodies observed within male nuclei of R. acetosa were globally enriched with H3 histone, demethylated at lysine 4 and methylated at lysine 9. This is the first report of histone tail-modification in condensed sex chromatin in plants. Our results suggest that the interphase condensation of Y chromosomes in Rumex is facultative rather than constitutive. Furthermore, the observed response of Y-bodies to 5-azaC may result indirectly from demethylation and the subsequent altered expression of unknown genes controlling tissue-specific Y-inactivation as opposed to the global demethylation of Y-chromosome DNA.

  10. Isolation of thermotolerant, halotolerant, facultative biosurfactant-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghojavand, H; Vahabzadeh, F; Mehranian, M; Radmehr, M; Shahraki, Kh A; Zolfagharian, F; Emadi, M A; Roayaei, E

    2008-10-01

    Several facultative bacterial strains tolerant to high temperature and salinity were isolated from the oil reservoir brines of an Iranian oil field (Masjed-I Soleyman). Some of these isolates were able to grow up to 60 degrees C and at high concentration of NaCl (15% w/v). One of the isolates grew at 40 degrees C, while it was able to grow at 15% w/v NaCl. Tolerances to NaCl levels decreased as the growth temperatures were increased. Surfactant production ability was detected in some of these isolates. The use of biosurfactant is considered as an effective mechanism in microbial-enhanced oil recovery processes detected in some of these isolates. The surfactant producers were able to grow at high temperatures and salinities to about 55 degrees C and 10% w/v, respectively. These isolates exhibited morphological and physiological characteristics of the Bacillus genus. The partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid gene of the selected isolates was assigned them to Bacillus subtilis group. The biosurfactant produced by these isolates caused a substantial decrease in the surface tension of the culture media to 26.7 mN/m. By the use of thin-layer chromatography technique, the presence of the three compounds was detected in the tested biosurfactant. Infrared spectroscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis were used, and the partial structural characterization of the biosurfactant mixture of the three compounds was found to be lipopeptidic in nature. The possibility of use of the selected bacterial strains reported, in the present study, in different sectors of the petroleum industry has been addressed.

  11. Obligatory and facultative brain regions for voice-identity recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswandowitz, Claudia; Kappes, Claudia; Obrig, Hellmuth; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    lobe is only a facultative component of voice-identity recognition in situations where additional face-identity processing is required. PMID:29228111

  12. Obligatory and facultative brain regions for voice-identity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswandowitz, Claudia; Kappes, Claudia; Obrig, Hellmuth; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    only a facultative component of voice-identity recognition in situations where additional face-identity processing is required. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  13. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from [1- 14 C]acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 μM acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl 2 , 1 mM each of the MnCl 2 and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO 3 , and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 μg/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO 3 , divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg 2+ and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor

  14. Protein import into isolated pea root leucoplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Chih eChu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Leucoplasts are important organelles for the synthesis and storage of starch, lipids and proteins. However, molecular mechanism of protein import into leucoplasts and how it differs from that of import into chloroplasts remain unknown. We used pea seedlings for both chloroplast and leucoplast isolations to compare within the same species. We further optimized the isolation and import conditions to improve import efficiency and to permit a quantitative comparison between the two plastid types. The authenticity of the import was verified using a mitochondrial precursor protein. Our results show that, when normalized to Toc75, most translocon proteins are less abundant in leucoplasts than in chloroplasts. A precursor shown to prefer the receptor Toc132 indeed had relatively more similar import efficiencies between chloroplasts and leucoplasts compared to precursors that preferred Toc159. Furthermore we found two precursors that exhibited very high import efficiency into leucoplasts. Their transit peptides may be candidates for delivering transgenic proteins into leucoplasts and for analyzing motifs important for leucoplast import.

  15. Characterization of pea (Pisum sativum) seed protein fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Luis A; Pérez, Alicia; Ruiz, Raquel; Guzmán, M Ángeles; Aranda-Olmedo, Isabel; Clemente, Alfonso

    2014-01-30

    Legume seed proteins have to be chemically characterized in order to properly link their nutritional effects with their chemical structure. Vicilin and albumin fractions devoid of cross-contamination, as assessed by mass peptide fingerprinting analysis, were obtained from defatted pea (Pisum sativum cv. Bilbo) meal. The extracted protein fractions contained 56.7-67.7 g non-starch polysaccharides kg⁻¹. The vicilin fraction was higher than legumins in arginine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine. The most abundant amino acids in the albumin fraction were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine and arginine, and the amounts of methionine were more than double than those in legumins and vicilins. The pea albumin fraction showed a clear enrichment of protease inhibitory activity when compared with the seed meal. In vitro digestibility values for pea proteins were 0.63 ±  0.04, 0.88 ±  0.04 and 0.41 ±  0.23 for legumins, vicilins and albumins respectively. Vicilin and albumin fractions devoid of cross-contamination with other proteins were obtained from pea seed meal. The vicilin fraction also contained low amounts of soluble non-starch polysaccharides and was enriched in isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine. In vitro digestibility values for pea proteins were similar or even numerically higher than those for control proteins. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. PEA3activates CXCL12transcription in MCF-7breast cancer cells%PEA3 activates CXCL12 transcription in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; CHEN Bo-bin; LI Jun-jie; JIN Wei; SHAO Zhi-min

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the activity of PEA3 ( polyomavirus enhancer activator 3 ) on CXCL12 (Chemokine CXC motif ligand 12) transcription and to reveal the role of PEA3 involved in CXCL12-mediated metastasis and angiogenesis in breast cancer. Methods Methods such as cell transfection, ChIP assay (chromatin immunoprecipitation ), and siRNA (small interfering RNA) were applied to demonstrate and confirm the interaction between PEA3 and CXCL12. Results Over-expression of PEA3 could increase the CXCL12 mRNA level and the CXCL12 promoter activity in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ChIP assay demonstrated that PEA3 could bind to the CXCL12 promoter in the cells transfected with PEA3 expression vector. PEA3 siRNA decreased CXCL12 promoter activity and the binding of PEA3 to the CXCL12 promoter in MCF-7 cells. Conclusions PEA3 could activate CXCL12 promoter transcription. It may be a potential mechanism of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis regarding of PEA3 and CXCL12.

  17. Protein nativity explains emulsifying properties of aqueous extracted protein components from yellow pea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Marlies E.J.; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Padt, van der Albert

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the emulsifying properties of a protein-enriched fraction from pea are unravelled. The emulsifying properties of mildly fractionated protein fractions from yellow pea and compared to those of commercial pea protein isolate. The emulsion stability of an oil-in-water emulsions were

  18. Discrete forms of amylose are synthesized by isoforms of GBSSI in pea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, A.; Vincken, J.P.; Suurs, L.C.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Zeeman, S.; Smith, A.; Martin, C.

    2002-01-01

    Amyloses with distinct molecular masses are found in the starch of pea embryos compared with the starch of pea leaves. In pea embryos, a granule-bound starch synthase protein (GBSSIa) is required for the synthesis of a significant portion of the amylose. However, this protein seems to be

  19. The roles of sexual and asexual reproduction in the origin and dissemination of strains causing fungal infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashu, Eta Ebasi; Xu, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    Sexual reproduction commonly refers to the reproductive process in which genomes from two sources are combined into a single cell through mating and then the zygote genomes are partitioned to progeny cells through meiosis. Reproduction in the absence of mating and meiosis is referred to as asexual or clonal reproduction. One major advantage of sexual reproduction is that it generates genetic variation among progeny which may allow for faster adaptation of the population to novel and/or stressful environments. However, adaptation to stressful or new environments can still occur through mutation, in the absence of sex. In this review, we analyzed the relative contributions of sexual and asexual reproduction in the origin and spread of strains causing fungal infectious diseases outbreaks. The necessity of sex and the ability of asexual fungi to initiate outbreaks are discussed. We propose a framework that relates the modes of reproduction to the origin and propagation of fungal disease outbreaks. Our analyses suggest that both sexual and asexual reproduction can play critical roles in the origin of outbreak strains and that the rapid spread of outbreak strains is often accomplished through asexual expansion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lineage dynamics and mutation-selection balance in non-adapting asexual populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pénisson, Sophie; Sniegowski, Paul D.; Colato, Alexandre; Gerrish, Philip J.

    2013-02-01

    In classical population genetics, mutation-selection balance refers to the equilibrium frequency of a deleterious allele established and maintained under two opposing forces: recurrent mutation, which tends to increase the frequency of the allele; and selection, which tends to decrease its frequency. In a haploid population, if μ denotes the per capita rate of production of the deleterious allele by mutation and s denotes the selective disadvantage of carrying the allele, then the classical mutation-selection balance frequency of the allele is approximated by μ/s. This calculation assumes that lineages carrying the mutant allele in question—the ‘focal allele’—do not accumulate deleterious mutations linked to the focal allele. In principle, indirect selection against the focal allele caused by such additional mutations can decrease the frequency of the focal allele below the classical mutation-selection balance. This effect of indirect selection will be strongest in an asexual population, in which the entire genome is in linkage. Here, we use an approach based on a multitype branching process to investigate this effect, analyzing lineage dynamics under mutation, direct selection, and indirect selection in a non-adapting asexual population. We find that the equilibrium balance between recurrent mutation to the focal allele and the forces of direct and indirect selection against the focal allele is closely approximated by γμ/(s + U) (s = 0 if the focal allele is neutral), where γ ≈ eθθ-(ω+θ)(ω + θ)(Γ(ω + θ) - Γ(ω + θ,θ)), \\theta =U/\\tilde {s}, and \\omega =s/\\tilde {s}; U denotes the genomic deleterious mutation rate and \\tilde {s} denotes the geometric mean selective disadvantage of deleterious mutations elsewhere on the genome. This mutation-selection balance for asexual populations can remain surprisingly invariant over wide ranges of the mutation rate.

  1. Effects of functionally asexual reproduction on quantitative genetic variation in the evening primroses (Oenothera, Onagraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Ryan M; Johnson, Marc T J

    2014-11-01

    It has long been predicted that a loss of sexual reproduction leads to decreased heritable variation within populations and increased differentiation between populations. Despite an abundance of theory, there are few empirical tests of how sex affects genetic variation in phenotypic traits, especially for plants. Here we test whether repeated losses of two critical components of sex (recombination and segregation) in the evening primroses (Oenothera L., Onagraceae) affect quantitative genetic variation within and between populations. We sampled multiple genetic families from 3-5 populations from each of eight Oenothera species, which represented four independent transitions between sexual reproduction and a functionally asexual genetic system called "permanent translocation heterozygosity." We used quantitative genetics methods to partition genetic variation within and between populations for eight plant traits related to growth, leaf physiology, flowering, and resistance to herbivores. Heritability was, on average, 74% higher in sexual Oenothera populations than in functionally asexual populations, with plant growth rate, specific leaf area, and the percentage of leaf water content showing the strongest differences. By contrast, genetic differentiation among populations was 2.8× higher in functionally asexual vs. sexual Oenothera species. This difference was particularly strong for specific leaf area. Sexual populations tended to exhibit higher genetic correlations among traits, but this difference was weakly supported. These results support the prediction that sexual reproduction maintains higher genetic variation within populations, which may facilitate adaptive evolution. We also found partial support for the prediction that a loss of sex leads to greater population differentiation, which may elevate speciation rates. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  2. Physiological Studies on Pea Tendrils. IV. Flavonoids and Contact Coiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, M. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1967-01-01

    Pea tendrils contain high concentrations of flavonoids, mainly quercetin-triglucosyl-p-coumarate (QGC). QGC is most abundant near the highly responsive apex of the tendril, and least abundant at the base. After mechanical stimulation, and during coiling of the tendril, the QGC titer drops to about 30% of its original value. The kinetics of flavonoid disappearance are significantly correlated with the kinetics of coiling. Aqueous extracts of unstimulated pea tendrils or 10 μm QGC inhibit contact coiling of excised tendrils. Extracts of coiled tendrils do not. The evidence indicates a possible regulatory role for flavonoids in contact coiling. PMID:16656581

  3. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of vegetable and grain pea (Pisum sativum L. seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding.

  4. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soy sauce substituted with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (Linn.))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnaningsih, C.; Sumardi; Meiliana; Surya, A.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study wasto investigate the physicochemical and sensory properties of the soy sauce substituted with pigeon pea. Soybean was substituted by 20%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of pigeon pea. The observation included viscosity, total solids, protein levels, antioxidant activity, and sensory characteristics. The results showed that the more substitution of pigeon pea, the less the protein content of soy sauce and the more the antioxidant activity as well as total solids. The most favored group was 25% pigeon pea substitution. It is suggested that soy sauce could be prepared using 25% to 75% pigeon pea substitution.

  5. Protein Kinase B/Akt Binds and Phosphorylates PED/PEA-15, Stabilizing Its Antiapoptotic Action

    OpenAIRE

    Trencia, Alessandra; Perfetti, Anna; Cassese, Angela; Vigliotta, Giovanni; Miele, Claudia; Oriente, Francesco; Santopietro, Stefania; Giacco, Ferdinando; Condorelli, Gerolama; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    The antiapoptotic protein PED/PEA-15 features an Akt phosphorylation motif upstream from Ser116. In vitro, recombinant PED/PEA-15 was phosphorylated by Akt with a stoichiometry close to 1. Based on Western blotting with specific phospho-Ser116 PED/PEA-15 antibodies, Akt phosphorylation of PED/PEA-15 occurred mainly at Ser116. In addition, a mutant of PED/PEA-15 featuring the substitution of Ser116→Gly (PEDS116→G) showed 10-fold-decreased phosphorylation by Akt. In intact 293 cells, Akt also i...

  6. Lycosides, Unusual Carotenoid-Derived Terpenoid Glycosides from a Vegetable Juice, Inhibit Asexual Reproduction of the Plant Pathogen Phytophthora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Rika; Han, Chunguang; Govindam, Sudhakar V S; Ojika, Makoto

    2018-01-10

    Vegetable juices, typical culture media for the plant pathogen Phytophthora, effectively induce its asexual reproduction (zoosporangia formation). However, some chromatographic fractions from a vegetable juice were found to inhibit asexual reproduction. Bioassay-guided chromatographic steps led to the isolation of four novel compounds, named lycosides A-D, 1-4, that could be metabolic products from a carotenoid. They showed 50% inhibitory activity against the asexual reproduction of P. capsici at 2.1-7.6 μM. The structure-activity relationship and the universality of the inhibitory activity within the Phytophthora genus were also investigated. In addition, the quantitative analysis of lycosides in fresh vegetables and vegetable juices revealed that tomato is the source of these active substances. These food-derived chemicals could help provide safe agents to control the outbreak of the agricultural pest Phytophthora in fields.

  7. Widespread occurrence of lysine methylation in Plasmodium falciparum proteins at asexual blood stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Inderjeet; Zeeshan, Mohammad; Saini, Ekta; Kaushik, Abhinav; Mohmmed, Asif; Gupta, Dinesh; Malhotra, Pawan

    2016-10-20

    Post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications play a major role in Plasmodium life cycle regulation. Lysine methylation of histone proteins is well documented in several organisms, however in recent years lysine methylation of proteins outside histone code is emerging out as an important post-translational modification (PTM). In the present study we have performed global analysis of lysine methylation of proteins in asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum development. We immunoprecipitated stage specific Plasmodium lysates using anti-methyl lysine specific antibodies that immunostained the asexual blood stage parasites. Using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis, 570 lysine methylated proteins at three different blood stages were identified. Analysis of the peptide sequences identified 605 methylated sites within 422 proteins. Functional classification of the methylated proteins revealed that the proteins are mainly involved in nucleotide metabolic processes, chromatin organization, transport, homeostatic processes and protein folding. The motif analysis of the methylated lysine peptides reveals novel motifs. Many of the identified lysine methylated proteins are also interacting partners/substrates of PfSET domain proteins as revealed by STRING database analysis. Our findings suggest that the protein methylation at lysine residues is widespread in Plasmodium and plays an important regulatory role in diverse set of the parasite pathways.

  8. Characterization of leaf area of Agave fourcroydes Lem. plants obtained from asexual propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryla Sosa del Castillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The henequen (Agave fourcroydes Lem. is a crop of great economic importance. This study was aimed to characterize the leaf surface of henequen plants variety `Sac Ki' obtained by asexual propagation methods. In vitro plants, shoots of bulbils of in vitro plants, shoots of rhizomes of in vitro plants, shoots of bulbils of field plants and shoots of field rhizomes were used. At 7 and 15 months after planting in the nursery, the epidermis was characterized through the stomatal index and stomatal density. Moreover, the conductor vessels and fiber bundles in leaf mesophyll, were characterized. It was found that the leaf surface of henequen plants variety `Sac Ki' obtained by different methods of asexual propagation showed similar anatomical structures. However, it was observed that in vitro plants were different from the rest in terms of stomatal index and stomatal density in both time points. It was suggesting a accommodate response to environmental conditions. Key words: stomatic density, stomatic index, in vitro plants

  9. Memory and obesity affect the population dynamics of asexual freshwater planarians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkel, Jörn; Talbot, Jared; Schötz, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Asexual reproduction in multicellular organisms is a complex biophysical process that is not yet well understood quantitatively. Here, we report a detailed population study for the asexual freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, which can reproduce via transverse fission due to a large stem cell contingent. Our long-term observations of isolated non-interacting planarian populations reveal that the characteristic fission waiting time distributions for head and tail fragments differ significantly from each other. The stochastic fission dynamics of tail fragments exhibits non-negligible memory effects, implying that an accurate mathematical description of future data should be based on non-Markovian tree models. By comparing the effective growth of non-interacting planarian populations with those of self-interacting populations, we are able to quantify the influence of interactions between flatworms and physical conditions on the population growth. A surprising result is the non-monotonic relationship between effective population growth rate and nutrient supply: planarians exhibit a tendency to become 'obese' if the feeding frequency exceeds a critical level, resulting in a decreased reproduction activity. This suggests that these flatworms, which possess many genes homologous to those of humans, could become a new model system for studying dietary effects on reproduction and regeneration in multicellular organisms

  10. A brief review on the early distribution of pea (Pisum sativum L. in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuština Marija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea was a part of the everyday diet of the European hunter-gatherers at the end of the last Ice Age. The major criteria to determine the domestication in pea are non-dehiscent pods, larger seed size and smooth seed testa. Pea seeds were found among the earliest findings of cultivated crops at the site of Tell El-Kerkh, Syria, from 10th millennium BP. Along with cereals and lentil, pea has definitely become associated with the start of the 'agricultural revolution' in the Old World. Pea entered Europe in its southeast regions and progressed into its interior via Danube. Its distribution was rapid, since the available evidence reveals its presence in remote places at similar periods. The linguistic evidence supports the fact that pea had been present in nearly all regions of Europe. Most of European peoples have their own words denoting pea, meaning that it preceded the diversification of their own proto-languages.

  11. Brevibacterium siliguriense sp nov., a facultatively oligotrophic bacterium isolated from river water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.; Ince, I.A.; Kati, A.; Chakraborty, R.

    2013-01-01

    A Gram-positive-staining, rod-shaped, facultatively oligotrophic bacterial strain, designated MB18(T), was isolated from a water sample collected from the River Mahananda at Siliguri (26 degrees 44' 23.20' N, 88 degrees 25' 22.89' a West-Bengal, India. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylocella silvestris TVC, a Facultative Methanotroph Isolated from Permafrost

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing; Geng, Kan; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; Crombie, Andrew; Street, Lorna E.; Wookey, Philip A.; Ma, Ke; Murrell, J. Colin; Pratscher, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Permafrost environments play a crucial role in global carbon and methane cycling. We report here the draft genome sequence of Methylocella silvestris TVC, a new facultative methanotroph strain, isolated from the Siksik Creek catchment in the continuous permafrost zone of Inuvik (Northwest Territories, Canada).

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylocella silvestris TVC, a Facultative Methanotroph Isolated from Permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Geng, Kan; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; Crombie, Andrew; Street, Lorna E; Wookey, Philip A; Ma, Ke; Murrell, J Colin; Pratscher, Jennifer

    2018-02-22

    Permafrost environments play a crucial role in global carbon and methane cycling. We report here the draft genome sequence of Methylocella silvestris TVC, a new facultative methanotroph strain, isolated from the Siksik Creek catchment in the continuous permafrost zone of Inuvik (Northwest Territories, Canada). Copyright © 2018 Wang et al.

  14. Detection of Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria and Others Cultivable Facultative Bacteria in Dental Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio de Souza Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To detect for the presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB and evaluate the possible association between SRB and cultivable facultative bacterial of oral sites with different periodontal conditions. Methods: The study was carried out on 9 samples from different oral sites in 8 patients (two samples were collected from the same patient. Material was collected using modified Postgate E culture medium, indicated for the growth and isolation of SRB. In addition, a reducing solution for anaerobic bacteria was used as a transport solution for facultative bacteria and identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results: SRB was found in 3 patient samples: the first in a root fragment, the second in a root fragment and a healthy tooth with vertical bone loss and a mobility degree of 3; and the third in a healthy tooth extracted for orthodontic treatment. In the final patient, the cultivable facultative species Lactobacillus casei was identified. Other facultative bacterial species were identified in patient 5 (Kurthia Gibsonii and patient 7 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: The detection of SRB in different dental tissues with distinct periodontal features demonstrated that new studies need to be developed in order to determine the true role of SRB in the oral microbiota. In addition, it was possible to verify the presence of Lactobacillus casei together with SRB in one sample.

  15. Host influence on germination and reproduction of the facultative hemi-parasitic weed Rhamphicarpa fistulosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabiri, S.; Ast, van A.; Rodenburg, J.; Bastiaans, L.

    2016-01-01

    Rice Vampireweed, Rhamphicarpa fistulosa, was a minor parasitic weed until recently when rice cultivation in sub-Saharan Africa was expanded into marginal wetlands, that are the parasite's natural habitat. Unlike most of the parasitic weeds, R. fistulosa is facultative, meaning that the parasite

  16. Ecological and evolutionary dynamics of a model facultative pathogen: Agrobacterium and crown gall disease of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Ian S; Fuqua, Clay; Platt, Thomas G

    2018-01-01

    Many important pathogens maintain significant populations in highly disparate disease and non-disease environments. The consequences of this environmental heterogeneity in shaping the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of these facultative pathogens are incompletely understood. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the causative agent for crown gall disease of plants has proven a productive model for many aspects of interactions between pathogens and their hosts and with other microbes. In this review, we highlight how this past work provides valuable context for the use of this system to examine how heterogeneity and transitions between disease and non-disease environments influence the ecology and evolution of facultative pathogens. We focus on several features common among facultative pathogens, such as the physiological remodelling required to colonize hosts from environmental reservoirs and the consequences of competition with host and non-host associated microbiota. In addition, we discuss how the life history of facultative pathogens likely often results in ecological tradeoffs associated with performance in disease and non-disease environments. These pathogens may therefore have different competitive dynamics in disease and non-disease environments and are subject to shifting selective pressures that can result in pathoadaptation or the within-host spread of avirulent phenotypes. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Facultative anadromy in salmonids: linking habitat, individual life history decisions, and population-level consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Jason L. White

    2014-01-01

    Modeling and management of facultative anadromous salmonids is complicated by their ability to select anadromous or resident life histories. Conventional theory for this behavior assumes individuals select the strategy offering highest expected reproductive success but does not predict how population-level consequences such as a stream’s smolt production emerge from...

  18. Genetic and metabolic diversity of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs in phyllosphere of tropical plants

    OpenAIRE

    Balachandar, D.; Raja, P.; Sundaram, SP.

    2008-01-01

    Diversity of Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs (PPFMs) in phyllosphere of cotton, maize and sunflower was determined based on differential carbon-substrate utilization profile and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA data. Results indicate that six diversified groups of PPFMs are found in these crops. Sunflower and maize phyllosphere harbor four different groups of methylobacteria while cotton has only two groups.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of the Facultative Methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens TK 0001 Isolated from Soil in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhelfa, Sophia; Labadie, Karine; Cruaud, Corinne; Aury, Jean-Marc; Roche, David; Bouzon, Madeleine; Salanoubat, Marcel; Döring, Volker

    2018-02-22

    Methylobacterium extorquens TK 0001 (DSM 1337, ATCC 43645) is an aerobic pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic alphaproteobacterium isolated from soil in Poland. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence and annotation of this organism, which consists of a single 5.71-Mb chromosome. Copyright © 2018 Belkhelfa et al.

  20. Genetic and metabolic diversity of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs in phyllosphere of tropical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandar, D; Raja, P; Sundaram, Sp

    2008-01-01

    Diversity of Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs (PPFMs) in phyllosphere of cotton, maize and sunflower was determined based on differential carbon-substrate utilization profile and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA data. Results indicate that six diversified groups of PPFMs are found in these crops. Sunflower and maize phyllosphere harbor four different groups of methylobacteria while cotton has only two groups.

  1. [Modification of the Hungate vessel for cultivation of facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshenko, D V

    2000-01-01

    Modified Hungate vessel made of native penicillinum bottles and chemical vessels has been created and experimentally studied. The vessels can be used for cultivation of facultative and obligate anaerobe microorganisms on liquid and solid nutrient media. Locking devices of the vessel are described.

  2. Non-oral gram-negative facultative rods in chronic periodontitis microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winkelhoff, Arie J; Rurenga, Patrick; Wekema-Mulder, Gepke J; Singadji, Zadnach; Rams, Thomas E

    OBJECTIVE: The subgingival prevalence of gram-negative facultative rods not usually inhabiting or indigenous to the oral cavity (non-oral GNFR), as well as selected periodontal bacterial pathogens, were evaluated by culture in untreated and treated chronic periodontitis patients. METHODS:

  3. Performance of fourteen improved pea lines (Pisum sativum L. in Challapata zone, Oruro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiza Benedicto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Challapata zone, cultivated pea varieties are low yielding and long cycle. The research objective was to determine the performance of fourteen pea lines developed by “Pairumani Fitoecogenetics Investigation Center” (CIFP in Challapata zone (Oruro. The 14 pea lines with local pea variety, were planted in row and column generalized experimental design with four replications in tree location randomly selection in Challapata zone (Oruro, between October 2011 and April 2012. The results indicate, that, in general, all the improved lines were superior in green pod yield to the local pea variety (3.69 t.ha-1, between 6.13 and 16.58 t.ha-1, (65.9 and 349.3% respectively. among the improved lines, Pea5_102-1, Pea5_102-6, Pea5_102-5, Pea5_102-2, Pea5_102-3 and Pea5_102-4, with high green pod yield (13.05 and 16.58 t.ha-1, large pod (8.49 to 9.25 cm, mayor number of grains for pod (5.27 to 7.20 grains and intermediate cycle (85 days to the floración, are the superior performance. The lines Pea5_102-14, Pea5_102-10 (Pairumani 3 and Pea5_102-13, because of their characteristics of high green pod yield, the longest pod, the mayor number of grains for pod, early maturity, preference and wide adaptability, and according to the farmer’s criteria, are the most recommend for their use in Challapata zone (Oruro.

  4. Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Strategic nutrient management requires that the most limiting nutrient is known in order to provide a foundation for designing effective and sustainable soil fertility management ...

  5. The rhizobium-pea symbiosis as affected by high temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frings, J.F.J.

    1976-01-01

    A study has been made concerning the effect of high temperatures on the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum and pea plants (Pisum sativum). At 30°C, no nodules were found on the roots of plants growing in nutrient solution after inoculation with

  6. Determination of mycoflora of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... Mycoflora of pea seeds and the effectiveness of Rhizobium leguminosarum on important seed-borne pathogens ... seed germination and promoted the plants growth under controlled and ..... 27. Table 3. Summary of fungal inoculation test. .... and lettuce by phosphate-solubilizing Rhizobium leguminosarum.

  7. Faba beans and peas in poultry feed: economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskina, Liga; Cerina, Sallija

    2017-10-01

    Broiler diets mainly consist of cereals and protein-rich feed sources; in the EU-27, poultry farming consumes 24% of the total amount of protein-rich feedstuffs. Since the EU produces only 30% of the total quantity of protein crops used for feed, it is necessary to promote the use of traditional European protein crops (beans, peas) for feed in livestock farming. The research aim is to identify economic gains from the production of broiler chicken meat, replacing soybean meal with domestic faba beans and field peas in broiler chicken diets. Adding field peas and faba beans to the broiler feed ration resulted in a significant live weight increase (5.74-11.95%) at the selling age, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio by 0.61-6.06%, and decrease in the product unit cost (15.34-37.06%) as well as an increase in the production efficiency factor (8.70-48.54), compared with the control group. The optimum kind of legume species used in the broiler diet was peas, which were added in the amount of 200 g kg -1 , resulting in live weight gain, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio and an increase in the production efficiency factor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Modeling growth of Clostridium perfringens in pea soup during cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Beumer, R.R.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a pathogen that mainly causes food poisoning outbreaks when large quantities of food are prepared. Therefore, a model was developed to predict the effect of different cooling procedures on the growth of this pathogen during cooling of food: Dutch pea soup. First, a growth

  9. Effect of cooling on Clostridium perfringens in pea soup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beumer, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Foods associated with Clostridium perfringens outbreaks are usually abused after cooking. Because of their short generation times, C. perfringens spores and cells can grow out to high levels during improper cooling. Therefore, the potential of C. perfringens to multiply in Dutch pea soup during

  10. Bitterness of saponins and their content in dry peas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, L.; Vincken, J.P.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Legger, A.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Roozen, J.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The bitterness of a saponin mixture (containing saponin B and DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one) saponin in a ratio of 1:4) and saponin B obtained from dry peas were established by a trained panel using line scaling. Both saponins were found to be bitter. However, the saponin

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF CHAIN OF PEA VARIETIES FOR VEGQ ETABLE CANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Samarin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of seven pea varieties of different groups of ripening are described. These cultivars provide the sustainable row material input in canning factories of Krasnodar region. In bogharic agriculture it takes 24,26 days. When using the irrigation system and different time of sowing it takes 35,40 days.

  12. Symbiotic effectiveness of pea-rhizobia associations and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected strains were isolated from the root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum L.), broad bean (Vicia faba L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris L.) plants in the Loess Plateau of China. Analyses focused on the nodule number, nodule dry weight, plant dry weight, nitrogenase activity, total N accumulation of per plant and seed yield.

  13. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables § 155.172 Canned dry...

  14. Short Communication: Occurrence of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae), on wild annual and perennial leguminous plants was studied at two locations (Adet and Wondata) in West Gojam, Ethiopia in 1999/2000 seasons. Annual and perennial leguminous wild or volunteer plants encountered in the study areas ...

  15. Breeding of a protein pea ideotype for Finnish conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Hovinen

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of protein pea (Pisum sativum L. adapted to cultivation in Finnish conditions were specified. Ideotypes for pure and mixed stands were defined separately. Factors affecting seed yield, protein yield and protein content were determined. Efficiency of biological nitrogen fixation in the varieties was evaluated at two nitrogen application levels, 16 and 80 kg/ha. Selection methods for increasing protein content were discussed. The commercial varieties bred during the programme were presented. The effect of the gene af on different characteristics of the pea was the central object of the studies. The ideotype of peas for cultivation in Finland has to be of the afila-type. This concerns cultivation in both pure and mixed stands. Afila-peas gave seed yields and protein yields as high as the leafed ones. The lodging of afila-peas throughout the generative growth phase was less than that of the conventional leaf types. In mixed cropping the most suitable afila-peas generally formed almost completely unlodged stands together with cereals. The best seed yields were given by the varieties with a stem height of 61 to 94 cm. Due to competition, the corresponding height in mixed stands ranged from 80 to 100 cm. For the same reason, varieties to be used in mixed stands must possess a fairly large seed size and fast growth rate after emergence. The optimum flowering period lasted from 19 to 28 days. The varieties must be early, with a growing time from 91 to 101 days. Late varieties are not adapted to northern conditions, giving low yields and poor quality. The mean yield of the varieties was 4500 kg/ha in pure stands. The high nitrogen application level of 80 kg/ha did not increase pea yield in comparison with the 16 kg/ha level. In contrast, it enhanced the protein content by 1 % and the protein yield slightly. In mixed stands the mean total yield was 4700kg/ha. The hectare yields of crude protein reached levels of 990 and 900 kg

  16. [Biodiversity and enzymes of culturable facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria in saline-alkaline soil in Fukang, Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongguang; Liu, Qing; Wang, Hongfei; Zhang, Daofeng; Chen, Jiyue; Zhang, Yuanming; Li, Wenjun

    2014-02-04

    In order to analyze the biodiversity of cultivable facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria and the enzymes they produced. Total 10 soil samples were collected from saline-alkaline environments of Fukang, Xinjiang province. Facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria strains were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Enzymes including amylase, proteinase, xylanase, and cellulase were detected. Total 116 facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacterial strains and 4 alkali-tolerant actinobacterial strains were isolated from the samples, and those strains were distributed within 22 genera in 13 families and 8 orders of actinobacteria based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The ratio of non-predominant Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis strains were 53.3%. The positive rates of amylase, proteinase, xylanase and cellulase were 35.8, 37.6, 28.3 and 17.5%, respectively. Diverse facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria were discovered from saline-alkaline environments of Fukang. Facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria are a potential source for enzymes. The study would facilitate the knowledge of the diversity of facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria, and provide the technical basis for exploration of facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria resources.

  17. Effect of pea, pea hulls, faba beans and faba bean hulls on the ileal microbial composition in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Panneman, H.; Jansman, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Grain legumes produced in Europe such as pea, faba beans and lupins are alternative vegetable protein sources for imported soy protein in animal feeds. These legume seeds contain constituents that are not digested and may act as a substrate for microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract,

  18. CONTRIBUTIONS OF SEXUAL AND ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION TO POPULATION STRUCTURE IN THE CLONAL SOFT CORAL, ALCYONIUM RUDYI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Catherine S

    1997-02-01

    Numerous studies of population structure in sessile clonal marine invertebrates have demonstrated low genotypic diversity and nonequilibrium genotype frequencies within local populations that are monopolized by relatively few, highly replicated genets. All of the species studied to date produce planktonic sexual propagules capable of dispersing long distances; despite local genotypic disequilibria, populations are often panmictic over large geographic areas. The population structure paradigm these species represent may not be typical of the majority of clonal invertebrate groups, however, which are believed to produce highly philopatric sexual propagules. I used allozyme variation to examine the population structure of the temperate soft coral, Alcyonium rudyi, a typical clonal species whose sexually produced larvae and asexually produced ramets both have very low dispersal capabilities. Like other clonal plants and invertebrates, the local population dynamics of A. rudyi are dominated by asexual reproduction, and recruitment of new sexually produced genets occurs infrequently. As expected from its philopatric larval stage, estimates of genetic differentiation among populations of A. rudyi were highly significant at all spatial scales examined (mean θ = 0.300 among 20 populations spanning a 1100-km range), suggesting that genetic exchange seldom occurs among populations separated by as little as a few hundred meters. Mapping of multilocus allozyme genotypes within a dense aggregation of A. rudyi ramets confirmed that dispersal of asexual propagules is also very limited: members of the same genet usually remain within invertebrates, populations of A. rudyi do not appear to be dominated by a few widespread genets: estimates of genotypic diversity (G o ) within 20 geographically distinct populations did not differ from expectations for outcrossing, sexual populations. Despite theoretical suggestions that philopatric dispersal combined with typically small effective

  19. Effect of pea intercropping on biological efficiencies and economics of some non-legume winter vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, S.A.; Anjum, M.A.; Hussain, S.; Ahmad, S.

    2013-01-01

    Intercropping with legumes makes effective use of land and other resources and results in reduced cost of production. Increased agricultural production through intercropping with minimal cost is need of time to feed increasing population. The reported work evaluates the biological efficiencies and economics of pea, garlic, turnip and cauliflower grown as sole crops and when pea intercropped in garlic, turnip and cauliflower during 2010-12. All the vegetables generally yielded more when grown as single crop compared with when pea was intercropped in these vegetables. In peas in garlic intercropping, pea yield was not significantly affected; however, garlic yield was significantly reduced (65.8%). Pea intercropping in turnip or cauliflower resulted in significantly lower yields of both crops (29.1 and 28.0%, respectively) as compared with their sole cropping. All other characteristics (plant growth and yield components) of all the four crops which indicate biological efficiency generally were greater when grown as single crops and decreased in intercropping combinations. Analysis of intercropping treatments revealed that pea intercropping in turnip resulted in the highest marginal rate of return (8,875%), followed by pea intercropping in cauliflower (6,977%), due to lower input costs incurred per hectare. However, net benefit to the growers was higher (Rs. 327,925) in case of pea intercropping in cauliflower, followed by pea intercropping in garlic (Rs. 213,425). (author)

  20. Protein Kinase A subunits of the ascomycete pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola regulate asexual fructification, filamentation, melanization and osmosensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehrabi, R.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    As in many fungi, asexual reproduction of Mycosphaerella graminicola in planta is a complex process that requires proper differentiation of the infectious hyphae in the substomatal cavities of foliar tissue before pycnidia with conidia can be formed. In this study, we have investigated the role of

  1. Asexual propagation in the coral reef macroalga Halimeda (Chlorophyta, Bryopsidales) : production, dispersal and attachment of small fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, LJ; Coyer, JA; Hunter, CL; Beach, KS; Vroom, PS

    2002-01-01

    Siphonous, green macroalgae of the genus Halimeda are ubiquitous and ecologically important in tropical and subtropical marine environments. It has been hypothesized that the abundance of Halimeda on coral reefs is in part due to the ability of this genus to propagate asexually via vegetative

  2. Discourses Governing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Intersex, and Asexual Teachers' Disclosure of Sexual Orientation and Gender History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower-Phipps, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA) individuals, yet schools remain institutions where sexual and gender diversity are marginalized and/or silenced. Queer theory, a non-linear theory that disrupts dominant beliefs about gender and sexuality and what…

  3. Effect of hot aqueous ethanol treatment on anti-nutritional factors, protein denaturation and functional properties in raw pea and pea protein isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolman, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of hot aqueous ethanol treatment on several nutritionally relevant mainly protein-related parameters in raw peas (var. Solara) and ultra-filtrated pea protein isolate was examined. Of all test samples, water absorptive capacity (WAC), weight loss and protein loss owing to the processing

  4. Photosynthetic alterations of pea leaves infected systemically by pea enation mosaic virus: A coordinated decrease in efficiencies of CO(2) assimilation and photosystem II photochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyseláková, H.; Prokopová, J.; Nauš, J.; Novák, Ondřej; Navrátil, M.; Šafářová, D.; Špundová, M.; Ilík, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 11 (2011), s. 1279-1289 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/08/1649; GA MŠk ED0007/01/01 Keywords : Chlorophyll fluorescence * Pea enation mosaic virus * Pea * Photosynthesis * Photosystem II * Senescence Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2011

  5. Mating type gene analysis in apparently asexual Cercospora species is suggestive of cryptic sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Harrington, Thomas C; Abeln, Edwin C A; Crous, Pedro W

    2006-12-01

    The genus Cercospora consists of numerous important, apparently asexual plant pathogens. We designed degenerate primers from homologous sequences in related species to amplify part of the C. apii, C. apiicola, C. beticola, C. zeae-maydis and C. zeina mating type genes. Chromosome walking was used to determine the full length mating type genes of these species. Primers were developed to amplify and sequence homologous portions of the mating type genes of additional species. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences revealed little variation among members of the C. apii complex, whereas C. zeae-maydis and C. zeina were found to be dissimilar. The presence of both mating types in approximately even proportions in C. beticola, C. zeae-maydis and C. zeina populations, in contrast to single mating types in C. apii (MAT1) and C. apiicola (MAT2), suggests that a sexual cycle may be active in some of these species.

  6. Transmission of a heterologous clade C Symbiodinium in a model anemone infection system via asexual reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Nan U. Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anemones of genus Exaiptasia are used as model organisms for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium endosymbiosis. However, while most reef-building corals harbor Symbiodinium of clade C, Exaiptasia spp. anemones mainly harbor clade B Symbiodinium (ITS2 type B1 populations. In this study, we reveal for the first time that bleached Exaiptasia pallida anemones can establish a symbiotic relationship with a clade C Symbiodinium (ITS2 type C1. We further found that anemones can transmit the exogenously supplied clade C Symbiodinium cells to their offspring by asexual reproduction (pedal laceration. In order to corroborate the establishment of stable symbiosis, we used microscopic techniques and genetic analyses to examine several generations of anemones, and the results of these endeavors confirmed the sustainability of the system. These findings provide a framework for understanding the differences in infection dynamics between homologous and heterologous dinoflagellate types using a model anemone infection system.

  7. Morphology offers no clues to asexual vs. sexual origin of small Acropora cervicornis (Scleractinia: Acroporidae colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E Williams

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual recruitment of the staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, is accepted to be very rare. Instead, these branching corals proliferate through fragmentation leading to dense mono-specific and possibly monoclonal stands. For acroporid corals, which have suffered drastic population declines, dominance of asexual reproduction results in low levels of genotypic diversity and limited ability to re-colonize extirpated areas. Small colonies with a single encrusting, symmetrical base, and few incipient branches are frequently presumed to be the result of a settled planula (i.e. sexual reproduction. Here, we show that colonies fitting this description (i.e., presumed sexual recruits can result from asexual fragmentation. Acropora cervicornis colonies (~20 cm diameter were tagged and observed over eighteen months. In several cases, colony offshoots fused with the adjacent substrate forming secondary disc-like attachment points. Following natural fragmentation, these discs of tissue became separated from the original colony, and were observed to heal and give rise to smaller colonies with striking similarity to the expected morphology of a sexual recruit. Thus, presuming a colony is a sexual recruit based on appearance is unreliable and may lead to inflated expectations of genetic diversity among populations. The accurate assessment of recruitment and genetic diversity is crucial to predicting the recovery potential of these imperiled and ecologically irreplaceable reef corals. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 145-151. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.Se ha aceptado que el reclutamiento sexual del coral asta de venado, Acropora cervicornis, es muy raro. Por el contrario, estos corales ramificados proliferan a través de fragmentación, generando densas bases monoespecíficas e incluso monoclonales. Para corales acropóridos, los cuales han sufrido disminuciones de población drásticas, la dominancia de reproducción asexual resulta en bajos niveles de diversidad genot

  8. Fixation probability of a nonmutator in a large population of asexual mutators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kavita; James, Ananthu

    2017-11-21

    In an adapted population of mutators in which most mutations are deleterious, a nonmutator that lowers the mutation rate is under indirect selection and can sweep to fixation. Using a multitype branching process, we calculate the fixation probability of a rare nonmutator in a large population of asexual mutators. We show that when beneficial mutations are absent, the fixation probability is a nonmonotonic function of the mutation rate of the mutator: it first increases sublinearly and then decreases exponentially. We also find that beneficial mutations can enhance the fixation probability of a nonmutator. Our analysis is relevant to an understanding of recent experiments in which a reduction in the mutation rates has been observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exposure to bacterial signals does not alter pea aphids' survival upon a second challenge or investment in production of winged offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas ter Braak

    Full Text Available Pea aphids have an obligate nutritional symbiosis with the bacteria Buchneraaphidicola and frequently also harbor one or more facultative symbionts. Aphids are also susceptible to bacterial pathogen infections, and it has been suggested that aphids have a limited immune response towards such pathogen infections compared to other, more well-studied insects. However, aphids do possess at least some of the genes known to be involved in bacterial immune responses in other insects, and immune-competent hemocytes. One possibility is that immune priming with microbial elicitors could stimulate immune protection against subsequent bacterial infections, as has been observed in several other insect systems. To address this hypothesis we challenged aphids with bacterial immune elicitors twenty-four hours prior to live bacterial pathogen infections and then compared their survival rates to aphids that were not pre-exposed to bacterial signals. Using two aphid genotypes, we found no evidence for immune protection conferred by immune priming during infections with either Serratia marcescens or with Escherichia coli. Immune priming was not altered by the presence of facultative, beneficial symbionts in the aphids. In the absence of inducible immune protection, aphids may allocate energy towards other defense traits, including production of offspring with wings that could escape deteriorating conditions. To test this, we monitored the ratio of winged to unwinged offspring produced by adult mothers of a single clone that had been exposed to bacterial immune elicitors, to live E. coli infections or to no challenge. We found no correlation between immune challenge and winged offspring production, suggesting that this mechanism of defense, which functions upon exposure to fungal pathogens, is not central to aphid responses to bacterial infections.

  10. Identification of the facultative heterochromatic X chromosome in females of 25 rodent species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, N; Yosida, T H

    1979-01-01

    Treatment of the chromosomes of 25 rodent species with a 50 degrees C hypotonic solution and Giemsa staining permitted identification of the heterochromatic X chromosome in 24 species. With this technique, the facultative of the heterochromatic X chromosome or the facultative portion of large, composite-type X chromosoms is stained darker than the other chromosomes, allowing it to be distinguished from the homologous euchromatic X chromosome in female metaphase cells. Intense staining of the single X chromosome was not observed in male metaphase cells. It is suggested that this differential staining of one of the two X chromosomes might be due to qualitative differences in chromosomal proteins rather than to differences in the degree of chromosomal condensation or in DNA base sequence.

  11. The utility of anaerobic blood culture in detecting facultative anaerobic bacteremia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kensuke; Komuro, Hisako; Watanabe, Yasushi; Miyairi, Isao

    2013-08-01

    Routine anaerobic blood culture is not recommended in children because obligate anaerobic bacteremia is rare in the pediatric population. However, a number of facultative anaerobic bacteria can cause community and hospital acquired infections in children and the utility of anaerobic blood culture for detection of these organisms is still unclear. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all blood culture samples (n = 24,356) at a children's hospital in Japan from October 2009 to June 2012. Among the samples that had paired aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures, 717 samples were considered clinically significant with 418 (58%) organisms detected from both aerobic and anaerobic cultures, 167 (23%) detected only from aerobic culture and 132 (18%) detected only from anaerobic culture. While most facultative anaerobes were detectable by aerobic culture, over 25% of Enterobacteriaceae and 15% of Staphylococcus sp. were detected from anaerobic cultures bottles only, suggesting its potential role in selected settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Complete genome sequence of the aerobic facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris BL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin; Crombie, Andrew; Rahman, M Tanvir; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B; Alam, Maqsudul; Theisen, Andreas R; Murrell, J Colin; Dunfield, Peter F

    2010-07-01

    Methylocella silvestris BL2 is an aerobic methanotroph originally isolated from an acidic forest soil in Germany. It is the first fully authenticated facultative methanotroph. It grows not only on methane and other one-carbon (C(1)) substrates, but also on some compounds containing carbon-carbon bonds, such as acetate, pyruvate, propane, and succinate. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of the Aerobic Facultative Methanotroph Methylocella silvestris BL2▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin; Crombie, Andrew; Rahman, M. Tanvir; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Theisen, Andreas R.; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    Methylocella silvestris BL2 is an aerobic methanotroph originally isolated from an acidic forest soil in Germany. It is the first fully authenticated facultative methanotroph. It grows not only on methane and other one-carbon (C1) substrates, but also on some compounds containing carbon-carbon bonds, such as acetate, pyruvate, propane, and succinate. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:20472789

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of the Aerobic Facultative Methanotroph Methylocella silvestris BL2▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yin; Crombie, Andrew; Rahman, M. Tanvir; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Theisen, Andreas R.; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    Methylocella silvestris BL2 is an aerobic methanotroph originally isolated from an acidic forest soil in Germany. It is the first fully authenticated facultative methanotroph. It grows not only on methane and other one-carbon (C1) substrates, but also on some compounds containing carbon-carbon bonds, such as acetate, pyruvate, propane, and succinate. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium.

  15. Methylobacterium suomiense sp. nov. and Methylobacterium lusitanum sp. nov., aerobic, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, Nina V; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Kuznetsov, Boris B; Tourova, Tatjana P; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2002-05-01

    Two aerobic, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria, strains F20T and RXM(T), are described taxonomically. On the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic properties, the isolates are proposed as novel species of the genus Methylobacterium, Methylobacterium suomiense sp. nov. (type strain F20T = VKM B-2238T = NCIMB 13778T) and Methylobacterium lusitanum sp. nov. (type strain RXMT = VKM B-2239T = NCIMB 13779T).

  16. Growth and enzymological characteristics of a pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium sp. MB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baev, M V; Kuznetsov, E V; Skladnev, D A; Govorukhina, N I; Sterkin, V E; Tsygankov, Y D

    1992-01-01

    Growth characteristics of batch and continuous cultures of the pink facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium sp. MB1 were determined. The response of a chemostat culture to a pulse increase of methanol concentration was studied. Malate, succinate and oxaloacetate additions to the methanol-supplemented medium decreased batch culture growth inhibition by methanol. The carotenoid content in cells grown in a chemostat decreased with increasing growth rate. The key enzyme activities of C1-metabolism were measured in a chemostat culture at different dilution rates.

  17. DNA:DNA hybridization studies on the pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, D W; Dow, C S; Green, P N

    1987-03-01

    The genomic relatedness among 36 strains of pink-pigmented facultatively methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs) was estimated by determination of DNA base composition and by DNA:DNA hybridization studies. A reproducible hybridization system was developed for the rapid analysis of multiple DNA samples. Results indicated that the PPFMs comprise four major and several minor homology groups, and that they should remain grouped in a single genus, Methylobacterium.

  18. Distribution of Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs on Leaves of Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    MIZUNO, Masayuki; YURIMOTO, Hiroya; YOSHIDA, Naoko; IGUCHI, Hiroyuki; SAKAI, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFMs) on the leaves of various vegetables was studied. All kinds of vegetable leaves tested gave pink-pigmented colonies on agar plates containing methanol as sole carbon source. The numbers of PPFMs on the leaves, colony-forming units (CFU)/g of fresh leaves, differed among the plants, although they were planted and grown at the same farm. Commercial green perilla, Perilla frutescens viridis (Makino) Makino, gave the highest coun...

  19. Validation Hydrodynamic Models of Three Topological Models of Secondary Facultative Ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Aponte-Reyes Alxander

    2014-01-01

    A methodology was developed to analyze boundary conditions, the size of the mesh and the turbulence of a mathematical model of CFD, which could explain hydrodynamic behavior on facultative stabilization ponds, FSP, built to pilot scale: conventional pond, CP, baffled pond, BP, and baffled-mesh pond, BMP. Models dispersion studies were performed in field for validation, taking samples into and out of the FSP, the information was used to carry out CFD model simulations of the three topologies. ...

  20. Evaluation of Pigeon Pea Lines for Biological Soil Decompaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Godoy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil decompaction is generally achieved through mechanical cultivation practices; however biological processes can significantly add to this process through root growth, development, and later senescence. This study was carried out in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil and had the purpose of selecting, among forty one pure pigeon pea lines, the most efficient genotypes that promote soil decompaction by roots penetrating compacted soil layers. Utilizing artificially compacted 30 mm high soil blocks, in a series of experiments, these lines were compared to the cultivar Fava Larga taken as a standard. Three lines were preliminarily selected out of the initial group, and afterwards, in more detailed screenings by monitoring soil resistance to penetration and also evaluating the behavior of Tanzania grass plants seeded after pigeon pea, two of them, g5-94 and g8-95, were selected as possessing the most fit root system to penetrate compacted soil layers.

  1. PIGEON PEA (Cajanus cajan AN ALTERNATIVE IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucia Navarro V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current situation of inadequate nutrition in the population of many countries, including Colombia. Search sources rich in proteins and low-cost alternatives. The pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan is an important legume that contain a mo derate amount of protein, calories, vitamins and minerals, its use in foods is limited by the presence of anti-nutritional factors, which can be reduced or eliminated through the use of treatments. The proteins have functional properties that can be take advantage in meat, dairy and bakery products. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the skills nutritional and functional properties of pigeon pea application opportunities in various applications in the food industry.

  2. Achievements of nuclear applications in chick-pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharwal, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Due to narrow and limited genetic variability available in chick-pea, this crop is ideally suited for genetic improvement through mutation breeding. Thus, the use of nuclear tools for regenerating some of the lost useful variability in this crop particularly for an improved plant type of increased yield and disease resistance appears to offer greater scope and promise. Practical results already achieved through the use of nuclear tools which fulfill these expectations to a large extent are confirmed by the extensive studies on mutation breeding in chick-pea crop carried out at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi; at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan and at the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, Bangladesh

  3. Developmental differences in posttranslational calmodulin methylation in pea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sukheung; Roberts, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    A calmodulin-N-methyltransferase was used to analyze the degree of lysine-115 methylation of pea calmodulin. Calmodulin was isolated from segments of developing roots of young etiolated and green pea plants and was tested for its ability to be methylated by the calmodulin methyltransferase in the presence of 3 H-methyl-S-adenosylmethionine. Calmodulin methylation levels were lower in apical root segments and in the young lateral roots compared with the mature, differentiated root tissues. The methylation of these calmodulin samples occurs specifically at lysine 115 since site-directed mutants of calmodulin with substitutions at this position were not methylated and competitively inhibited methylation. The present findings, combined with previous data showing differences in NAD kinase activation by methylated and unmethylated calmodulins, raise the possibility that posttranslational methylation could affect calmodulin action

  4. Uptake and distribution of 232U in peas and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Cline, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of 232 U from soil and its distribution in peas and barley were examined under conditions which isolated root uptake from deposition on aboveground plant parts. Aboveground plant parts were harvested at maturity and analyzed for 232 U content by alpha-energy-analysis. The ratio of concentration (CR) of 232 U in the dry barley seeds to dry soil was 1.6 x 10 -4 while the CR values of the stem/leaf to dry soil fraction was 3.6 x 10 -3 . The Cr values for the pea seed, stem/pod and leaf components were 5.4 x 10 -4 , 3.3 x 10 -3 and 1.7 x 10 -2 , respectively. This indicates that the CR values used in certain radiological dose-assessment models may be high by about a factor of 100 when evaluating the consumption of seeds of legumes or cereal grains by man. (author)

  5. Intercropping of wheat and pea as influenced by nitrogen fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, B.B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2005-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on crop yield, fertilizer and soil nitrogen (N) use was tested on a sandy loam soil at three levels of urea fertilizer N (0, 4 and 8 g N m−2) applied at sowing. The 15N enrichment and natu...... with lower soil N levels, and vice versa for wheat, paving way for future option to reduce N inputs and negative environmental impacts of agricultural crop production......., grain N concentration, the proportion of N derived from symbiotic N2 fixation, and soil N accumulation. With increasing fertilizer N supply, intercropped and sole cropped wheat responded with increased yield, grain N yield and soil N accumulation, whereas the opposite was the case for pea. Fertilizer N...

  6. The influence of feeding GMO-peas on growth of animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Mares

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of genetically modified (GM food or feed into the commercial sale represents a very complicated process. One of the most important steps in approval process is the evaluation of all risks on the health status of people and animal models. Within our project the genetically modified peas was breeded that showed significant resistance against Pea seed-borne mosaic virus and Pea enation mosaic virus. Preclinical studies have been conducted to found out the effect of GMO peas on animals - rats of outbreeding line Wistar. In a total, 24 male, specific pathogen free Wistar rats were used in the experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, the animals were 28 days old. The three experimental groups with 8 individuals were created. The first group of rats was fed with GMO peas, the second group of rats consumed mix of pea cultivar Raman and the third group was control without pea addition (wheat and soya were used instead of pea. In the present study we focused our attention on health, growth and utility features of rats fed with GM pea. All characteristic were observed during the experiment lasting 35 days. Consumed feed was weighted daily and the weight of the animals was measured every seven days. The average values were compared within the groups. The aim of the experiment was to verify if resistant lines of pea influence the weight growth of animal models. The results of our experiment showed that even a high concentration (30% of GM pea did not influence growth rate of rats to compare with both rats fed with pea of Raman cultivar and control group. We did not observe any health problems of animal models during the experiment.

  7. Effect of isolation techniques on the characteristics of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) protein isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Adenekan, Monilola K.; Fadimu, Gbemisola J.; Odunmbaku, Lukumon A.; Oke, Emmanuel K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the effect of different isolation techniques on the isolated proteins from pigeon pea was investigated. Water, methanol, ammonium sulfate, and acetone were used for the precipitation of proteins from pigeon pea. Proximate composition, and antinutritional and functional properties of the pigeon pea flour and the isolated proteins were measured. Data generated were statistically analyzed. The proximate composition of the water‐extracted protein isolate was moisture 8.30%...

  8. Sex as a response to oxidative stress: the effect of antioxidants on sexual induction in a facultatively sexual lineage.

    OpenAIRE

    Nedelcu, Aurora M; Michod, Richard E

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of sex is one of the long-standing unsolved problems in biology. Although in many lineages sex is an obligatory part of the life cycle and is associated with reproduction, in prokaryotes and many lower eukaryotes, sex is facultative, occurs in response to stress and often involves the formation of a stress-resistant dormant form. The proximate and ultimate causes of the connection between stress and sex in facultatively sexual lineages are unclear. Because most forms of stress r...

  9. Control of Wilt and Rot Pathogens of Tomato by Antagonistic Pink Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophic Delftia lacustris and Bacillus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Janahiraman, Veeranan; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon W.; Sundaram, Subbiah; Karthik Pandi, Veeranan; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Kim, Kiyoon; Samaddar, Sandipan; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    The studies on the biocontrol potential of pink pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria other than the genus Methylobacterium are scarce. In the present study, we report three facultative methylotrophic isolates; PPO-1, PPT-1 and PPB-1, respectively identified as Delftia lacustris, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Hemolytic activity was tested to investigate the potential pathogenicity of isolates to plants and humans, the results indicate...

  10. Obtaining of interspecific hybrids for pea introgressive breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vasilevich Bobkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Overcoming of reproductive isolation, identification and transfer of agronomic value genes from wild relatives into cultivated pea genomes is an important task for pea introgressive breeding. Materials and methods. Reciprocal hybridization of cultivated pea with wide set of P. fulvum accessions was conducted. Identification of hybrids was carried out with use of biochemical and morphological markers. Identification of unique protein was conducted with use of electrophoretic spectra of mature seeds. Results. Pea interspecific hybrids were obtained in two reciprocal directions of crosses. Cross efficiency in Р. sativum × P. fulvum and P. fulvum × Р. sativum combinations was 36 % and 7 %, respectively. All tested seeds in crosses Р. sativum × P. fulvum were hybrids. Crosses in direction P. fulvum × Р. sativum led to formation of puny seeds restricted in embryo growth. Protein markers of one seed derived in cross P. fulvum × Р. sativum proved its hybrid nature. Morphological markers demonstrated that plant derived from another cross was also a hybrid. Culture of immature embryos was developed for recovering plants in interspecific crosses. Morphogenic calli and regenerated plants were obtained in culture of immature embryos P. fulvum (И592589 × Р. sativum (Aest. Identification of unique protein 7 of P. fulvum was conducted. Inheritance of that protein was proved as monogenic dominant. Conclusion. Efficiency of hybridization in combination P. fulvum × Р. sativum was significantly less in compare to reciprocal one. All products of that cross combination were tested as hybrids. Unique protein 7 of P. fulvum was revealed as a result of mature seed electrophoretic spectra analysis. Inheritance of that protein was determined as monogenic dominant.

  11. Investigation of pea seeds treated by 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepold, J.; Soos, T.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of pea seeds were treated by 137 Cs. Radiation doses of 10 and 15 gray, resp. were applied at a dose rate of 480 gray per hour. Both the rate of sprouting and the number of plants per m 2 of the irradiated seeds exceeded the corresponding parameters of the control. The total quantity of the crop and its content of protein and water were higher, too. (L.E.)

  12. Eesti ei pea ümberasujatele midagi tagastama / Helle Kalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalda, Helle, 1950-

    2006-01-01

    Omandireformi aluste seaduse 7 paragrahvi lõikest 3 ja varade tagastamisest nn. järelümberasunutele. Sama ka Meie Maa 12. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Teataja 2. veeb. 2006, lk. 11 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. veeb. 2006, lk. 15 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. veeb. 2006, lk. 15, pealkiri kujul : Ümberasujatele ei pea midagi tagastama

  13. Differential Transcriptional Activation of Genes Encoding Soluble Methane Monooxygenase in a Facultative Versus an Obligate Methanotroph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Angela V; Dunfield, Peter F

    2018-03-06

    Methanotrophs are a specialized group of bacteria that can utilize methane (CH₄) as a sole energy source. A key enzyme responsible for methane oxidation is methane monooxygenase (MMO), of either a soluble, cytoplasmic type (sMMO), or a particulate, membrane-bound type (pMMO). Methylocella silvestris BL2 and Methyloferula stellata AR4 are closely related methanotroph species that oxidize methane via sMMO only. However, Methyloferula stellata is an obligate methanotroph, while Methylocella silvestris is a facultative methanotroph able to grow on several multicarbon substrates in addition to methane. We constructed transcriptional fusions of the mmo promoters of Methyloferula stellata and Methylocella silvestris to a promoterless gfp in order to compare their transcriptional regulation in response to different growth substrates, in the genetic background of both organisms. The following patterns were observed: (1) The mmo promoter of the facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris was either transcriptionally downregulated or repressed by any growth substrate other than methane in the genetic background of Methylocella silvetris ; (2) Growth on methane alone upregulated the mmo promoter of Methylocella silvetris in its native background but not in the obligate methanotroph Methyloferula stellata ; (3) The mmo promoter of Methyloferula stellata was constitutive in both organisms regardless of the growth substrate, but with much lower promoter activity than the mmo promoter of Methylocella silvetris . These results support a conclusion that a different mode of transcriptional regulation of sMMO contributes to the facultative lifestyle of Methylocella silvetris compared to the obligate methanotroph Methyloferula stellata .

  14. Differential Transcriptional Activation of Genes Encoding Soluble Methane Monooxygenase in a Facultative Versus an Obligate Methanotroph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela V. Smirnova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Methanotrophs are a specialized group of bacteria that can utilize methane (CH4 as a sole energy source. A key enzyme responsible for methane oxidation is methane monooxygenase (MMO, of either a soluble, cytoplasmic type (sMMO, or a particulate, membrane-bound type (pMMO. Methylocella silvestris BL2 and Methyloferula stellata AR4 are closely related methanotroph species that oxidize methane via sMMO only. However, Methyloferula stellata is an obligate methanotroph, while Methylocella silvestris is a facultative methanotroph able to grow on several multicarbon substrates in addition to methane. We constructed transcriptional fusions of the mmo promoters of Methyloferula stellata and Methylocella silvestris to a promoterless gfp in order to compare their transcriptional regulation in response to different growth substrates, in the genetic background of both organisms. The following patterns were observed: (1 The mmo promoter of the facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris was either transcriptionally downregulated or repressed by any growth substrate other than methane in the genetic background of Methylocella silvetris; (2 Growth on methane alone upregulated the mmo promoter of Methylocella silvetris in its native background but not in the obligate methanotroph Methyloferula stellata; (3 The mmo promoter of Methyloferula stellata was constitutive in both organisms regardless of the growth substrate, but with much lower promoter activity than the mmo promoter of Methylocella silvetris. These results support a conclusion that a different mode of transcriptional regulation of sMMO contributes to the facultative lifestyle of Methylocella silvetris compared to the obligate methanotroph Methyloferula stellata.

  15. Effective stabilization of CLA by microencapsulation in pea protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A M M; Nunes, J C; Lima, B N B; Pedrosa, C; Calado, V; Torres, A G; Pierucci, A P T R

    2015-02-01

    CLA was microencapsulated by spray drying in ten varied wall systems (WS) consisting of pea protein isolate or pea protein concentrate (PPC) alone at varied core:WS ratios (1:2; 1:3 and 1:4), or blended with maltodextrin (M) and carboxymethylcellulose at a pea protein:carbohydrate ratio of 3:1. The physical-chemical properties of the CLA microparticles were characterised by core retention, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), particle size and moisture. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) showed the most promising results, thus we evaluated the effect of M addition in the WS on other physical-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability (CLA isomer profile, quantification of CLA and volatile compounds by SPME coupled with CG-MS) during two months of storage at room temperature, CLA:PPC (1:4) was selected for comparisons. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) microparticles demonstrated better morphology, solubility, dispersibility and higher glass-transition temperature values. M addition did not influence the oxidative stability of CLA, however its presence improved physical-chemical characteristics necessary for food applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. OPPORTUNITIES TO USE PEA - WHEAT MIXES IN ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigori Ivanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presented the results of productivity and quality of the green mass of pea-wheat mixes grown in conditions of organic farming. Are explored 5 wheat varieties - Sadovo 1, Geia 1, Guinness, Farmer, Liusil and 4 varieties of winter peas -Mir, Vesela, №11, L12AB, at different ratio between them - 50:50 and 30:70%. The selection of varieties is made based on previous studies of their complex characteristics – ripening, yield, chemistry (Angelova S., T.Georgieva, M.Sabeva, 2011. Setting up and raising the experimental mixture of seeds has been made in a medium free of organic and mineral fertilizers. We have studied the changes in green mass yield and the biochemistry of surface biomass. The cultivation of pea–wheat mixtures under conditions of organic farming leads to increased yields of green mass in comparison with the self-seeding of wheat and peas. According to the results obtained at early ripening and the highest crude protein content average of three years is the mixture Sadovo1–Mir 30:70%. The most productive is the mixture Sadovo1-Mir 50-50%.

  17. Selenium and phosphorus interaction in pea (pisum sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahendra; Bhandari, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of selenium and phosphorus on the dry matter yield and concentration and uptake of phosphorus, sulfur and selenium was studied in pea (Pisum sativnum) var. T 163. The fertilizer was tagged with P 32 . It was observed that increased concentration of applied selenium in soil decreased the dry matter yield and increased the concentration and uptake of total P, soil P and selenium in pea plants. Increased concentration of P alone increased dry matter yield, concentration and uptake of total, soil and fertilizer P and selenium which was beyond safe limits, and decreased concentration and uptake of sulphur. Selenium and phosphorus showed strong synergetic relationship by increasing the concentration of each other in plants while both showed antagonistic effect on the concentration of sulphur. Phosphorus compensated the toxic effect of selenium and improved the growth and dry matter yield of pea plants. The highest selenium concentration of 22.4 ppm was observed in 100 ppm phosphorus with 5 ppm selenium treated pots while lowest (0.10 ppm) in control. (author)

  18. Performance of Garden Pea Genotypes in Eastern Hills of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Poudel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Garden pea (Pisum sativum L is an important winter legume used as fresh vegetables and other drier food products. Despite of its importance as cash crop in many parts of Nepal, much study on various aspects for enhancing production and productivity has yet to be done. Therefore, to evaluate the production performance different genotypes of garden pea in eastern hills agro-ecological conditions present experiments were carried out consecutively for two years (2015 and 2016 at Agricultural Research Station, Pakhribas. The experiment comprised of 11 different genotypes of garden pea including a check variety Arkel. The production performance was evaluated in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The seeds were sown at 50 × 10 cm spacing during first week of October for two years. The result showed that DGP-05 genotype had earliest 104 days after sowing. The DGP-08 genotype showed 13 which were the maximum numbers of pods per plant (13, while DGP-01 showed 8 numbers of seeds as the maximum per pod. The DGP-03 genotype had the longest pod of 9.78 cm among others. The highest fresh pod yield of 18.14 t/ha was achieved from genotype DGP-09 followed by Arkel with (16.32 t/ha.

  19. Relating physico-chemical properties of frozen green peas (Pisum sativum L.) to sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nleya, Kathleen M; Minnaar, Amanda; de Kock, Henriëtte L

    2014-03-30

    The acceptability of frozen green peas depends on their sensory quality. There is a need to relate physico-chemical parameters to sensory quality. In this research, six brands of frozen green peas representing product sold for retail and caterer's markets were purchased and subjected to descriptive sensory evaluation and physico-chemical analyses (including dry matter content, alcohol insoluble solids content, starch content, °Brix, residual peroxidase activity, size sorting, hardness using texture analysis and colour measurements) to assess and explain product quality. The sensory quality of frozen green peas, particularly texture properties, were well explained using physico-chemical methods of analysis notably alcohol insoluble solids, starch content, hardness and °Brix. Generally, retail class peas were of superior sensory quality to caterer's class peas although one caterer's brand was comparable to the retail brands. Retail class peas were sweeter, smaller, greener, more moist and more tender than the caterer's peas. Retail class peas also had higher °Brix, a(*) , hue and chroma values; lower starch, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter content and hardness measured. The sensory quality of frozen green peas can be partially predicted by measuring physico-chemical parameters particularly °Brix and to a lesser extent hardness by texture analyser, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter and starch content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Addition of sucralose enhances the release of satiety hormones in combination with pea protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Maartje C P; Troost, Freddy J; Saris, Wim H M

    2012-03-01

    Exposing the intestine to proteins or tastants, particularly sweet, affects satiety hormone release. There are indications that each sweetener has different effects on this release, and that combining sweeteners with other nutrients might exert synergistic effects on hormone release. STC-1 cells were incubated with acesulfame-K, aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, sucrose, pea, and pea with each sweetener. After a 2-h incubation period, cholecystokinin(CCK) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations were measured. Using Ussing chamber technology, the mucosal side of human duodenal biopsies was exposed to sucrose, sucralose, pea, and pea with each sweetener. CCK and GLP-1 levels were measured in basolateral secretions. In STC-1 cells, exposure to aspartame, sucralose, sucrose, pea, and pea with sucralose increased CCK levels, whereas GLP-1 levels increased after addition of all test products. Addition of sucrose and sucralose to human duodenal biopsies did not affect CCK and GLP-1 release; addition of pea stimulated CCK and GLP-1 secretion. Combining pea with sucrose and sucralose induced even higher levels of CCK and GLP-1. Synchronous addition of pea and sucralose to enteroendocrine cells induced higher levels of CCK and GLP-1 than addition of each compound alone. This study shows that combinations of dietary compounds synergize to enhance satiety hormone release. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum sub-proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nicole Meisrimler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L. has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula G. allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins. Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed.

  2. The effect of Normast (PEA) in neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Sven Robert; Bing, Jette; Hansen, Rikke Bod Middelhede

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Neuropathic pain and spasticity after spinal cord injury represent significant problems. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a fatty acid that is produced in many cells in the body, and it is thought to potentiate the body's own cannabis-like substances (endocannabinoids). PEA is suggested...... to reduce pain and inflammation but randomized controlled trials are lacking. Normast is a medical supplement which contains (PEA) approved for use in Denmark. The primary aim is to investigate the effect of Normast (PEA) on neuropathic pain, and secondary to study the effect of Normast on spasticity...

  3. A peptide that binds the pea aphid gut impedes entry of Pea enation mosaic virus into the aphid hemocoel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sijun; Sivakumar, S.; Sparks, Wendy O.; Miller, W. Allen; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2010-01-01

    Development of ways to block virus transmission by aphids could lead to novel and broad-spectrum means of controlling plant viruses. Viruses in the Luteoviridae enhanced are obligately transmitted by aphids in a persistent manner that requires virion accumulation in the aphid hemocoel. To enter the hemocoel, the virion must bind and traverse the aphid gut epithelium. By screening a phage display library, we identified a 12-residue gut binding peptide (GBP3.1) that binds to the midgut and hindgut of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Binding was confirmed by labeling the aphid gut with a GBP3.1-green fluorescent protein fusion. GBP3.1 reduced uptake of Pea enation mosaic virus (Luteoviridae) from the pea aphid gut into the hemocoel. GBP3.1 also bound to the gut epithelia of the green peach aphid and the soybean aphid. These results suggest a novel strategy for inhibiting plant virus transmission by at least three major aphid pest species.

  4. “I am no male or female or any other, I have no sex”: a case report on asexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Hebbar YR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A rather less investigated field of sexual orientation, “asexuality” is spread out within the dimensions on lack of sexual attraction or interest on sexual behaviour, and on self-identification issues, or in combination of these. As sex is considered to be one of the basic instincts of human beings which has been followed since centuries, growing reports of asexuality is a concern against the evolution theory. There is lack of studies to assess the exact prevalence of asexuality in Indian setup. Here we are presenting a case of a 20-year-old male, who presented with self-identity issues with no preference for any particular sexual identity.

  5. speciation through asexuality in fish: postzygotic reproductive isolation may be completed in spite of fertility of hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Janko

    2015-12-01

    Altogether, it appears that initiation of hybrid asexuality and the completion of speciation process through formation of postRIMs are interconnected phenomena. Both processes are linked to the genetic divergence of hybridizing taxa: initially, hybridization between little diverged species leads to recombinant and fertile hybrids allowing intensive gene flow. As the hybridizing taxa continue to diverge, clonally reproducing hybrid females and sterile males become dominant and the gene flow ceases. The speciation may therefore be completed through asexuality of hybrids The work was supported by grant no. 13-12580S provided by the Czech Science Foundation (www.gacr.cz. Further support was provided by the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (www.cas.cz by the grant no. RVO 67985904

  6. Dynamic formation of asexual diploid and polyploid lineages: multilocus analysis of Cobitis reveals the mechanisms maintaining the diversity of clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Janko

    Full Text Available Given the hybrid genomic constitutions and increased ploidy of many asexual animals, the identification of processes governing the origin and maintenance of clonal diversity provides useful information about the evolutionary consequences of interspecific hybridization, asexuality and polyploidy. In order to understand the processes driving observed diversity of biotypes and clones in the Cobitis taenia hybrid complex, we performed fine-scale genetic analysis of Central European hybrid zone between two sexual species using microsatellite genotyping and mtDNA sequencing. We found that the hybrid zone is populated by an assemblage of clonally (gynogenetically reproducing di-, tri- and tetraploid hybrid lineages and that successful clones, which are able of spatial expansion, recruit from two ploidy levels, i.e. diploid and triploid. We further compared the distribution of observed estimates of clonal ages to theoretical distributions simulated under various assumptions and showed that new clones are most likely continuously recruited from ancestral populations. This suggests that the clonal diversity is maintained by dynamic equilibrium between origination and extinction of clonal lineages. On the other hand, an interclonal selection is implied by nonrandom spatial distribution of individual clones with respect to the coexisting sexual species. Importantly, there was no evidence for sexually reproducing hybrids or clonally reproducing non-hybrid forms. Together with previous successful laboratory synthesis of clonal Cobitis hybrids, our data thus provide the most compelling evidence that 1 the origin of asexuality is causally linked to interspecific hybridization; 2 successful establishment of clones is not restricted to one specific ploidy level and 3 the initiation of clonality and polyploidy may be dynamic and continuous in asexual complexes.

  7. Dynamic Formation of Asexual Diploid and Polyploid Lineages: Multilocus Analysis of Cobitis Reveals the Mechanisms Maintaining the Diversity of Clones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, Karel; Kotusz, J.; de Gelas, K.; Šlechtová, Věra; Opoldusová, Zuzana; Drozd, P.; Choleva, Lukáš; Popiolek, M.; Baláž, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 9 (2012), s. 1-14 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1298 Grant - others:University of Wroclav(PL) 10/19/S/MP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : asexual lineages Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  8. Comparative Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses Reveal a FluG-Mediated Signaling Pathway Relating to Asexual Sporulation of Antrodia camphorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua-Xiang; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Zhu, Qing; Gong, Jin-Song; Geng, Yan; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong; Ma, Yan-He

    2017-09-01

    Medicinal mushroom Antrodia camphorata sporulate large numbers of arthroconidia in submerged fermentation, which is rarely reported in basidiomycetous fungi. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying this asexual sporulation (conidiation) remain unclear. Here, we used comparative transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to elucidate possible signaling pathway relating to the asexual sporulation of A. camphorata. First, 104 differentially expressed proteins and 2586 differential cDNA sequences during the culture process of A. camphorata were identified by 2DE and RNA-seq, respectively. By applying bioinformatics analysis, a total of 67 genes which might play roles in the sporulation were obtained, and 18 of these genes, including fluG, sfgA, SfaD, flbA, flbB, flbC, flbD, nsdD, brlA, abaA, wetA, ganB, fadA, PkaA, veA, velB, vosA, and stuA might be involved in a potential FluG-mediated signaling pathway. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of the 18 genes in the proposed FluG-mediated signaling pathway were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. In summary, our study helps elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the asexual sporulation of A. camphorata, and provides also useful transcripts and proteome for further bioinformatics study of this valuable medicinal mushroom. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Distribution of Phoxinus eos, Phoxinus neogaeus, and their asexually-reproducing hybrids (Pisces: Cyprinidae in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Mee

    Full Text Available Hybrid Phoxinus are one of the few asexually reproducing vertebrates species. The distribution of hybrid Phoxinus among lakes in Algonquin Park, Ontario, was evaluated relative to the distribution of parental species and relative to physiochemical lake characteristics. No association between the distribution of hybrids and the distribution of parental species was found, suggesting that the hybrids can successfully coexist with either parental species. In addition, we found no association between hybrid distribution and the physiochemical characteristics of lakes, suggesting that the hybrids are generalists with respect to the ecological niches available in Algonquin Park. There was a difference between the physiochemical characteristics of lakes with and without the parental species P. neogaeus. The lakes containing P. neogaeus were lower elevation than the lakes containing the other parental species, P. eos. The difference in distribution between the parental species may therefore be due to different dispersal abilities, to later arrival following post-glacial dispersal, or to differences in ecology. These results suggest that asexual reproduction is a successful strategy for hybrid Phoxinus in Algonquin Park because these sperm-dependent asexual hybrids are able to survive and persist regardless of which parental species is present, and regardless of the physiochemical characteristics of their habitat.

  10. Asexual sporulation signalling regulates autolysis of Aspergillus nidulans via modulating the chitinase ChiB production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pócsi, I; Leiter, E; Kwon, N-J; Shin, K-S; Kwon, G-S; Pusztahelyi, T; Emri, T; Abuknesha, R A; Price, R G; Yu, J-H

    2009-08-01

    Elucidation of the regulation of ChiB production in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutational inactivation of the A. nidulans chiB gene resulted in a nonautolytic phenotype. To better understand the mechanisms controlling both developmental progression and fungal autolysis, we examined a range of autolysis-associated parameters in A. nidulans developmental and/or autolytic mutants. Investigation of disorganization of mycelial pellets, loss of biomass, extra-/intracellular chitinase activities, ChiB production and chiB mRNA levels in various cultures revealed that, in submerged cultures, initialization of autolysis and stationary phase-induced ChiB production are intimately coupled, and that both processes are controlled by the FluG-BrlA asexual sporulation regulatory pathway. ChiB production does not affect the progression of apoptotic cell death in the aging A. nidulans cultures. The endochitinase ChiB plays an important role in autolysis of A. nidulans, and its production is initiated by FluG-BrlA signalling. Despite the fact that apoptosis is an inseparable part of fungal autolysis, its regulation is independent to FluG-initiated sporulation signalling. Deletion of chiB and fluG homologues in industrial filamentous fungal strains may stabilize the hyphal structures in the autolytic phase of growth and limit the release of autolytic hydrolases into the culture medium.

  11. OncoSimulR: genetic simulation with arbitrary epistasis and mutator genes in asexual populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Uriarte, Ramon

    2017-06-15

    OncoSimulR implements forward-time genetic simulations of biallelic loci in asexual populations with special focus on cancer progression. Fitness can be defined as an arbitrary function of genetic interactions between multiple genes or modules of genes, including epistasis, restrictions in the order of accumulation of mutations, and order effects. Mutation rates can differ among genes, and can be affected by (anti)mutator genes. Also available are sampling from simulations (including single-cell sampling), plotting the genealogical relationships of clones and generating and plotting fitness landscapes. Implemented in R and C ++, freely available from BioConductor for Linux, Mac and Windows under the GNU GPL license. Version 2.5.9 or higher available from: http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/devel/bioc/html/OncoSimulR.html . GitHub repository at: https://github.com/rdiaz02/OncoSimul. ramon.diaz@iib.uam.es. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Boxer crabs induce asexual reproduction of their associated sea anemones by splitting and intraspecific theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisrael Schnytzer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crabs of the genus Lybia have the remarkable habit of holding a sea anemone in each of their claws. This partnership appears to be obligate, at least on the part of the crab. The present study focuses on Lybia leptochelis from the Red Sea holding anemones of the genus Alicia (family Aliciidae. These anemones have not been found free living, only in association with L. leptochelis. In an attempt to understand how the crabs acquire them, we conducted a series of behavioral experiments and molecular analyses. Laboratory observations showed that the removal of one anemone from a crab induces a “splitting” behavior, whereby the crab tears the remaining anemone into two similar parts, resulting in a complete anemone in each claw after regeneration. Furthermore, when two crabs, one holding anemones and one lacking them, are confronted, the crabs fight, almost always leading to the “theft” of a complete anemone or anemone fragment by the crab without them. Following this, crabs “split” their lone anemone into two. Individuals of Alicia sp. removed from freshly collected L. leptochelis were used for DNA analysis. By employing AFLP (Fluorescence Amplified Fragments Length Polymorphism it was shown that each pair of anemones from a given crab is genetically identical. Furthermore, there is genetic identity between most pairs of anemone held by different crabs, with the others showing slight genetic differences. This is a unique case in which one animal induces asexual reproduction of another, consequently also affecting its genetic diversity.

  13. Epidemiology of asexuality induced by the endosymbiotic Wolbachia across phytophagous wasp species: host plant specialization matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, T; Henri, H; Vavre, F; Gidoin, C; Veber, P; Candau, J-N; Magnoux, E; Roques, A; Auger-Rozenberg, M-A

    2014-05-01

    Among eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is by far the most predominant mode of reproduction. However, some systems maintaining sexuality appear particularly labile and raise intriguing questions on the evolutionary routes to asexuality. Thelytokous parthenogenesis is a form of spontaneous loss of sexuality leading to strong distortion of sex ratio towards females and resulting from mutation, hybridization or infection by bacterial endosymbionts. We investigated whether ecological specialization is a likely mechanism of spread of thelytoky within insect communities. Focusing on the highly specialized genus Megastigmus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), we first performed a large literature survey to examine the distribution of thelytoky in these wasps across their respective obligate host plant families. Second, we tested for thelytoky caused by endosymbionts by screening in 15 arrhenotokous and 10 thelytokous species for Wolbachia, Cardinium, Arsenophonus and Rickettsia endosymbionts and by performing antibiotic treatments. Finally, we performed phylogenetic reconstructions using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to examine the evolution of endosymbiont-mediated thelytoky in Megastigmus and its possible connections to host plant specialization. We demonstrate that thelytoky evolved from ancestral arrhenotoky through the horizontal transmission and the fixation of the parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia. We find that ecological specialization in Wolbachia's hosts was probably a critical driving force for Wolbachia infection and spread of thelytoky, but also a constraint. Our work further reinforces the hypothesis that community structure of insects is a major driver of the epidemiology of endosymbionts and that competitive interactions among closely related species may facilitate their horizontal transmission. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Doing the Basics Better in Africa: How School Support, Autonomy, and Accountability Improved Outcomes for Girls in PEAS Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Libby

    2017-01-01

    Promoting Equality in African Schools (PEAS) seeks to expand access to sustainably delivered, quality secondary education in Africa. PEAS builds and runs chains of not-for-profit, low-cost private schools in public-private partnership with governments. External evaluation data show that PEAS schools in Uganda are delivering higher quality…

  15. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). 201.56-6 Section 201.56-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean...

  16. Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Global Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food and feed legume grown across many temperate regions of the world, especially from Asia to Europe and North America. The goal of this study was to use 30 informative pea microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in a global core from the USDA and ...

  17. Vooruit met de geit. Marktkansen voor Geitenvlees! Een duik in de keten van The Green Peas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livestock Research,

    2012-01-01

    De geitensector loopt tegen verschillende problemen aan. The Green Peas is gevraagd door Wageningen UR Livestock Research (WUR) om onderzoek te doen naar het verwaarden van duurzaam, Nederlands geitenvlees. The Green Peas is gevraagd vanwege haar expertise op het gebied van duurzaam voedselonderzoek

  18. In situ localization of chalcone synthase mRNA in pea root nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, W.C.; Canter Cremers, H.C.J.; Hogendijk, P.; Katinakis, P.; Wijffelman, C.A.; Franssen, H.J.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper studies on the role of flavonoids in pea root nodule development are reported. Flavonoid synthesis was followed by localizing chalcone synthase (CHS) mRNA in infected pea roots and in root nodules. In a nodule primordium, CHS mRNA is present in all cells of the primordium. Therefore it

  19. Microsynteny between pea and Medicago truncatula in the SYM2 region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gualtieri, G.; Kulikova, O.; Limpens, E.; Kim, D.J.; Cook, D.R.; Bisseling, T.; Geurts, R.

    2002-01-01

    The crop legume pea (Pisum sativum) is genetically well characterized. However, due to its large genome it is not amenable to efficient positional cloning strategies. The purpose of this study was to determine if the model legume Medicago truncatula, which is a close relative of pea, could be used

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on pollen and seed fertility in pigeon pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed John, S.

    1997-01-01

    A study was undertaken in pigeon pea parents and their F 1 hybrid to analyse the pollen and seed fertility following gamma irradiation. It is found that the reduction of pollen and seed fertility in pigeon pea was lesser over those of black gram and cowpea. 5 refs., 1 tab

  1. Use of Cowpea and Pigeon pea as Nutritional Ingredients in Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Cowpea and Pigeon pea as Nutritional Ingredients in Culture Media. ... Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences ... Cheap, locally available plant seeds such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) could be used in the design and formulation of microbial culture media in order to reduce the cost.

  2. Effect of enzyme treatment on pea starch physicomechanical properties of biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sh. Zakirova; T. N. Manahova; A. V. Kanarskiy; Z. A. Kanarskaya

    2013-01-01

    The regularities of change in physical and mechanical properties of biofilms based on pea starch treated with pullulanase enzyme preparation were obtained. The possibility of formation of linear pea starch amylopectin polymers, which contribute to improvement of the mechanical and rheological properties of biofilms was identified.

  3. Effect of enzyme treatment on pea starch physicomechanical properties of biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Zakirova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of change in physical and mechanical properties of biofilms based on pea starch treated with pullulanase enzyme preparation were obtained. The possibility of formation of linear pea starch amylopectin polymers, which contribute to improvement of the mechanical and rheological properties of biofilms was identified.

  4. Exploring variation in pea protein composition by natural selection and genetic transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzitzikas, E.

    2005-01-01

    Pea (Pisumsativum L.) seeds are a rich and valuable source of proteins, which can have potential for food industrial applications. Pea storage proteins are classified into two major classes: the salt-soluble globulins, and the water-soluble

  5. Deletion of PEA-15 in mice is associated with specific impairments of spatial learning abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Gregory

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PEA-15 is a phosphoprotein that binds and regulates ERK MAP kinase and RSK2 and is highly expressed throughout the brain. PEA-15 alters c-Fos and CREB-mediated transcription as a result of these interactions. To determine if PEA-15 contributes to the function of the nervous system we tested mice lacking PEA-15 in a series of experiments designed to measure learning, sensory/motor function, and stress reactivity. Results We report that PEA-15 null mice exhibited impaired learning in three distinct spatial tasks, while they exhibited normal fear conditioning, passive avoidance, egocentric navigation, and odor discrimination. PEA-15 null mice also had deficient forepaw strength and in limited instances, heightened stress reactivity and/or anxiety. However, these non-cognitive variables did not appear to account for the observed spatial learning impairments. The null mice maintained normal weight, pain sensitivity, and coordination when compared to wild type controls. Conclusion We found that PEA-15 null mice have spatial learning disabilities that are similar to those of mice where ERK or RSK2 function is impaired. We suggest PEA-15 may be an essential regulator of ERK-dependent spatial learning.

  6. Effect of Gamma Radiation and temperature on storage quality of Pea (Pisum sativum L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Hossain, M. M.; Hossain, M. A.; Alam, M. K.; Sarder, A. H.

    2004-01-01

    Effect of radiation, storage temperature and storage period of pea was investigated. During the entire storage period of 12 months, no major changes occurred in weight loss, insect infestation, moisture content, water activity (a w ) and protein content of the pea stored at room temperature (RT) and at 4 0 C. Reconstitution properties and tenderness after cooking were affected at room temperature storage. Both reconstitution properties and tenderness gradually decreased with the increase of storage period when pea was stored at RT. The initial reconstitution properties (94%) decreased to 77% at the end of 12 months and the initial tenderness (97%) decreased to 13% when pea was stored at room temperature. On the other hand the reconstitution properties and tenderness were found 92% and 83% respectively in pea stored at 4 0 C.(author)

  7. The comparison of nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and of crop residue management on crop yield, NO3- leaching and N balance in the cropping system was tested in a 2-year lysimeter experiment on a temperate sandy loam soil. The crop rotation...... cropping. Crops received no fertilizer in the experimental period. Natural N-15 abundance techniques were used to determine pea N-2 fixation. The pea-barley intercrop yielded 4.0 Mg grain ha(-1), which was about 0.5 Mg lower than the yields of sole cropped pea but about 1.5 Mg greater than harvested...... was pea and barley sole and intercrops followed by winter-rye and a fallow period. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER), which is defined as the relative land area under sole crops that is required to produce the yields achieved in intercropping, was used to compare intercropping performance relative to sole...

  8. Barley uptake of N deposited in the rhizosphere of associated field pea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    N deposited in the rhizosphere of a legume may contribute to the N-nutrition of an intercropped non-legume. The process of deposition and subsequent uptake by a neighbouring plant is often termed N-transfer. The N-transfer from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) to associated spring barley (Hordeum...... debris. Separating the root systems reduced the barley recovery of pea-derived N to about half the amount recovered in the association where root systems grew in the same compartment. The death of pea, caused by spraying with a herbicide, increased the amount of N recovered in barley, whereas shading...... the pea plant had no effect on the amount of pea-derived N taken up in barley. The N deposited up to 45 days of growth contributed

  9. GREEN PEA GALAXIES REVEAL SECRETS OF Lyα ESCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, Junxian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E. [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration (United States); Gronke, Max; Dijkstra, Mark [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo (Norway); Jaskot, Anne [Smith College, Northampton, MA (United States); Zheng, Zhenya, E-mail: yanghuan@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: huan.y@asu.edu, E-mail: Sangeeta.Malhotra@asu.edu, E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-04-01

    We analyze archival Lyα spectra of 12 “Green Pea” galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, model their Lyα profiles with radiative transfer models, and explore the dependence of the Lyα escape fraction on various properties. Green Pea galaxies are nearby compact starburst galaxies with [O iii] λ5007 equivalent widths (EWs) of hundreds of Å. All 12 Green Pea galaxies in our sample show Lyα lines in emission, with an Lyα EW distribution similar to high-redshift Lyα emitters. Combining the optical and UV spectra of Green Pea galaxies, we estimate their Lyα escape fractions and find correlations between Lyα escape fraction and kinematic features of Lyα profiles. The escape fraction of Lyα in these galaxies ranges from 1.4% to 67%. We also find that the Lyα escape fraction depends strongly on metallicity and moderately on dust extinction. We compare their high-quality Lyα profiles with single H i shell radiative transfer models and find that the Lyα escape fraction anticorrelates with the derived H i column densities. Single-shell models fit most Lyα profiles well, but not the ones with the highest escape fractions of Lyα. Our results suggest that low H i column density and low metallicity are essential for Lyα escape and make a galaxy an Lyα emitter.

  10. Gestion de bibliothèque au niveau de la Faculté de technologie

    OpenAIRE

    Mekkioui, Nadjet; Belhadj, Fatima Zohra

    2014-01-01

    Notre projet consiste à développer un logiciel permettant la gestion automatique de la bibliothèque de la Faculté de technologie. Cette automatisation concerne la gestion de prêt d’ouvrages, et ce en utilisant la méthode d'informatisation Merise. Cette dernière permet de concevoir un système d'information pour implanter le logiciel de gestion qui est développé dans un environnement Delphi. Nous avons focalisé notre projet sur la gestion automatique de prêt au niveau de la bibli...

  11. Epinephrine mediates facultative carbohydrate-induced thermogenesis in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    1989-01-01

    The thermic effect of carbohydrate has a component mediated by the sympathoadrenal system but of unknown anatomical localization. We have studied the contribution of skeletal muscle to the thermic effect of a carbohydrate-rich natural meal (115 g of carbohydrate, approximately 80% of energy...... postprandially and coinciding with the peak in arterial epinephrine. The present study provides evidence of a facultative thermogenic component in skeletal muscle, mediated by epinephrine via beta 2-adrenoreceptors. However, it also points to a nonmuscle component mediated through beta 1-adrenoceptors...... by norepinephrine released from the sympathetic nervous system. Consequently, the sympathoadrenal system seems to play a physiological role in the daily energy balance....

  12. Characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers for a facultatively eusocial sweat bee (Megalopta genalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapheim, Karen M; Pollinger, John P; Wcislo, William T; Wayne, Robert K

    2009-11-01

    We developed a library of twelve polymorphic di- and tri-nucleotide microsatellite markers for Megalopta genalis, a facultatively eusocial sweat bee. We tested each locus in a panel of 23 unrelated females and found 7-20 alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.65 to 0.96 and from 0.69 to 0.95 respectively. None of the loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium proportions or was found to be in gametic disequilibrium. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. The effect of salinity and moisture stress on pea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, A.Abd-El Ghany

    1985-01-01

    Four experiments were carried out in the green house in Inchas, Atomic Energy Establishment, to study the effect os salinity and moisture stress on pea plants. Salinity experiments were conducted in 1981/1982, 1982/1983 and 1983/1984 seasons to study the effect of NaCl and/or CaC l 2 as single or mixed salts and radiation combined with salinity. Water stress studies were conducted in 1983/1984 growing season to investigate the effect of soil moisture stress on growth, yield and water use efficiency

  14. Stamina pistilloida: a new mutation induced in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, L M; Devreux, M

    1969-01-01

    After diethylsulphate treatment of seeds of the pea variety 'Parvus', a new floral mutation was isolated in the second generation. This mutation, named stamina pistilloida, is characterized by a partial fusion of the androecium with the gynoecium; the two marginal stamens of the staminal column are transformed in rudimentary carpels more or less differentiated according to ecoclimatic conditions. The genetic analysis has shown the monogenic and recessive behaviour of the mutation (gene proposed stp) and its linkage with the gene oh in the chromosome II.

  15. Mutation studies in gamma-ray treated peas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narsinghani, V G; Kumar, S [Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (India). Dept. of Plant Breeding

    1976-01-01

    Pea Seeds (Pisum Sativum L. 2n=14) irradiated with four doses of gamma rays viz, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kR revealed a reduction in seedling height, survival percentage, pods and seed yield and pollen fertility during X/sub 1/ and X/sub 2/ generations. Chlorophyll and leaf mutations were noted. The mitotic cells indicated chromosomal aberrations which were dose dependent. In meiosis, translocated rings and chains of 4,6 and 8 chromosomes; paracentric and pericentric inversions, fragments, laggards and unequal distribution of chromosomes were observed. Besides, the frequency of aberrations were lower during X/sub 2/ as compared to X/sub 1/.

  16. Biomass production and nitrogen accumulation in pea, oat, and vetch green manure mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannink, J.L.; Liebman, M.; Merrick, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    Interest in the use of green manures has revived because of their role in improving soil quality and their beneficial N and non-N rotation effects. This study evaluated biomass production, N content, radiation interception (RI), and radiation use efficiency (RUE) of pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) mixtures. Treatments were a three-way factorial of pea genotype ('Century' vs 'Tipu'), pea planting density (90 vs 224 kg ha -1 ), and cropping mixture (solecropped pea vs pea planted with a mixture of oat and hairy vetch). A mixture of oat and vetch without pea was also planted. Treatments were planted in early June on a Caribou gravelly loam (coarse-loamy, mixed, frigid Typic Haplorthods) in Presque Isle, ME, in 1993 and 1994. Biomass production and radiation interception were measured by repeated sampling. Mixture biomass was affected by a year x pea density interaction: respective yields for mixtures containing low-density and high-density pea were 770 and 880 g m -2 in 1993 vs 820 and 730 g m -2 in 1994. Mixture N content paralleled biomass production and averaged 209 g m -2 across all treatments. While pea sole crops did not consistently produce biomass or N equal to three-species mixtures the two-species mixture of oat and vetch did, yielding 820 g m -2 of biomass and 21.7 g m -2 of N, averaged over the 2 yr. Multiple regression showed that 61% of the variability in mixture biomass production was accounted for by a combination of early-season pea RI and midseason total mixture RUE. Economic analyses showed that rotation including these green manures may be economically competitive with a conventional rotation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) undersown with clover (Trifolium spp.) in a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production system

  17. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen acquisition by field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on a sandy loam soil and availability of N in three subsequent sequences of a cropping system were studied in an outdoor pot experiment. The effect of crop residues on the N availability was evaluated....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...

  18. Hidden Genetic Diversity in an Asexually Reproducing Lichen Forming Fungal Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Del-Prado

    Full Text Available Asexual species with vegetative propagation of both symbiont partners (soredia in lichens may harbor lower species diversity because they may indeed represent evolutionary dead ends or clones. In this study we aim to critically examine species boundaries in the sorediate lichen forming fungi Parmotrema reticulatum-Parmotrema pseudoreticulatum complex applying coalescent-based approaches and other recently developed DNA-based methods. To this end, we gathered 180 samples from Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, North and South America and generated sequences of internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS and DNA replication licensing factor MCM7 (MCM7. The dataset was analysed using different approaches such as traditional phylogeny-maximum likelihood and Bayesian-genetic distances, automatic barcode gap discovery and coalescent-based methods-PTP, GMYC, spedeSTEM and *Beast-in order to test congruence among results. Additionally, the divergence times were also estimated to elucidate diversification events. Delimitations inferred from the different analyses are comparable with only minor differences, and following a conservative approach we propose that the sampled specimens of the P. reticulatum-P. pseudoreticulatum complex belong to at least eight distinct species-level lineages. Seven are currently classified under P. reticulatum and one as P. pseudoreticulatum. In this work we discuss one of only few examples of cryptic species that have so far been found in sorediate reproducing lichen forming fungi. Additionally our estimates suggest a recent origin of the species complex-during the Miocene. Consequently, the wide distribution of several of the cryptic species has to be explained by intercontinental long-distance dispersal events.

  19. Sexual dimorphism in white campion: deletion on the Y chromosome results in a floral asexual phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbos, I.; Veuskens, J.; Vyskot, B.; Oliveira, M.; Hinnisdaels, S.; Aghmir, A.; Mouras, A.; Negrutiu, I.

    1999-01-01

    White campion is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic X and Y sex chromosomes. In male plants, a filamentous structure replaces the pistil, while in female plants the stamens degenerate early in flower development. Asexual (asx) mutants, cumulating the two developmental defects that characterize the sexual dimorphism in this species, were produced by gamma ray irradiation of pollen and screening in the M1 generation. The mutants harbor a novel type of mutation affecting an early function in sporogenous/parietal cell differentiation within the anther. The function is called stamen-promoting function (SPF). The mutants are shown to result from interstitial deletions on the Y chromosome. We present evidence that such deletions tentatively cover the central domain on the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome (Y2 region). By comparing stamen development in wild-type female and asx mutant flowers we show that they share the same block in anther development, which results in the production of vestigial anthers. The data suggest that the SPF, a key function(s) controlling the sporogenous/parietal specialization in premeiotic anthers, is genuinely missing in females (XX constitution). We argue that this is the earliest function in the male program that is Y-linked and is likely responsible for ''male dimorphism'' (sexual dimorphism in the third floral whorl) in white campion. More generally, the reported results improve our knowledge of the structural and functional organization of the Y chromosome and favor the view that sex determination in this species results primarily from a trigger signal on the Y chromosome (Y1 region) that suppresses female development. The default state is therefore the ancestral hermaphroditic state

  20. Asexual propagation of a virulent clone complex in a human and feline outbreak of sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Tsui, Clement K M; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paulo; Van Diepeningen, Anne D; van den Ende, Bert Gerrits; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Kano, Rui; Hamelin, Richard C; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila Maria; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; de Hoog, Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares

    2015-02-01

    Sporotrichosis is one of the most frequent subcutaneous fungal infections in humans and animals caused by members of the plant-associated, dimorphic genus Sporothrix. Three of the four medically important Sporothrix species found in Brazil have been considered asexual as no sexual stage has ever been reported in Sporothrix schenckii, Sporothrix brasiliensis, or Sporothrix globosa. We have identified the mating type (MAT) loci in the S. schenckii (strain 1099-18/ATCC MYA-4821) and S. brasiliensis (strain 5110/ATCC MYA-4823) genomes by using comparative genomic approaches to determine the mating type ratio in these pathogen populations. Our analysis revealed the presence of a MAT1-1 locus in S. schenckii while a MAT1-2 locus was found in S. brasiliensis representing genomic synteny to other Sordariomycetes. Furthermore, the components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-pheromone pathway, pheromone processing enzymes, and meiotic regulators have also been identified in the two pathogens, suggesting the potential for sexual reproduction. The ratio of MAT1-1 to MAT1-2 was not significantly different from 1:1 for all three Sporothrix species, but the population of S. brasiliensis in the outbreaks originated from a single mating type. We also explored the population genetic structure of these pathogens using sequence data of two loci to improve our knowledge of the pattern of geographic distribution, genetic variation, and virulence phenotypes. Population genetics data showed significant population differentiation and clonality with a low level of haplotype diversity in S. brasiliensis isolates from different regions of sporotrichosis outbreaks in Brazil. In contrast, S. schenckii isolates demonstrated a high degree of genetic variability without significant geographic differentiation, indicating the presence of recombination. This study demonstrated that two species causing the same disease have contrasting reproductive strategies and genetic variability

  1. Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Colleen M; Zeiner, Carolyn A; Santelli, Cara M; Webb, Samuel M

    2012-07-31

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems.

  2. The cytosolic glyoxalases of Plasmodium falciparum are dispensable during asexual blood-stage development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cletus A. Wezena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The enzymes glyoxalase 1 and 2 (Glo1 and Glo2 are found in most eukaryotes and catalyze the glutathione-dependent conversion of 2-oxoaldehydes to 2-hydroxycarboxylic acids. Four glyoxalases are encoded in the genome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, the cytosolic enzymes PfGlo1 and PfcGlo2, the apicoplast enzyme PftGlo2, and an inactive Glo1-like protein that also carries an apicoplast-targeting sequence. Inhibition or knockout of the Plasmodium glyoxalases was hypothesized to lead to an accumulation of 2-oxoaldehydes and advanced glycation end-products (AGE in the host-parasite unit and to result in parasite death. Here, we generated clonal P. falciparum strain 3D7 knockout lines for PFGLO1 and PFcGLO2 using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Although 3D7Δglo1 knockout clones had an increased susceptibility to external glyoxal, all 3D7Δglo1 and 3D7Δcglo2 knockout lines were viable and showed no significant growth phenotype under standard growth conditions. Furthermore, the lack of PfcGlo2, but not PfGlo1, increased gametocyte commitment in the knockout lines. In summary, PfGlo1 and PfcGlo2 are dispensable during asexual blood-stage development while the loss of PfcGlo2 may induce the formation of transmissible gametocytes. These combined data show that PfGlo1 and PfcGlo2 are most likely not suited as targets for selective drug development.

  3. Dieback Disease Predictive Model for Sexually and Asexually Propagated Dalbergia Sissoo (Shisham)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Siddiqui, M. T.; Nawaz, M. F.; Asif, M.; Atiq, M.; Gul, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dieback disease is a potential threat to Dalbergia sissoo (Shisham) which is a multipurpose tree of the Indian subcontinent. Different factors have been found associated with inciting shisham dieback. Fungal pathogens have been recognized as the major causal organism but changing climate is a main threat to forest dieback. Sexually (seedlings) and asexually (cuttings) propagated shisham were inoculated with the different fungi (Fusarium solani, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata and Ganoderma lucidum). As environmental factors play critical role in the development of the disease, so the present study was designed to observe the impact of rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity on the disease and for the management of disease predictive model was developed. A significant negative correlation was observed between disease and relative humidity both for seedlings (r = - 0.97) and cuttings (r = -0.487), respectively while maximum temperature expressed significant positive correlation with seedlings and cuttings with coefficient of correlation r = 0.734 and r = 0.629, respectively. Path analysis expressed that with one unit increase in rainfall the disease would rise by 7.58 and 15.04 and for maximum temperature it was 2.47 and 5.27 units in seedlings and cuttings, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that coefficient of determination (R/sup 2/) value was 0.62 and 0.48 for cuttings and seedlings, respectively. Normed fit index (NFI) and comparative fit index (CFI) values indicate that model is quite a good fit. Similarly comparison of observed and predicted data also validated the model for forecasting the disease. (author)

  4. Presence and Functionality of Mating Type Genes in the Supposedly Asexual Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ryuta; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Yamaguchi, Haruka; Yamamoto, Nanase; Wagu, Yutaka; Paoletti, Mathieu; Archer, David B.; Dyer, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    The potential for sexual reproduction in Aspergillus oryzae was assessed by investigating the presence and functionality of MAT genes. Previous genome studies had identified a MAT1-1 gene in the reference strain RIB40. We now report the existence of a complementary MAT1-2 gene and the sequencing of an idiomorphic region from A. oryzae strain AO6. This allowed the development of a PCR diagnostic assay, which detected isolates of the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genotypes among 180 strains assayed, including industrial tane-koji isolates. Strains used for sake and miso production showed a near-1:1 ratio of the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 mating types, whereas strains used for soy sauce production showed a significant bias toward the MAT1-2 mating type. MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isogenic strains were then created by genetic manipulation of the resident idiomorph, and gene expression was compared by DNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) methodologies under conditions in which MAT genes were expressed. Thirty-three genes were found to be upregulated more than 10-fold in either the MAT1-1 host strain or the MAT1-2 gene replacement strain relative to each other, showing that both the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genes functionally regulate gene expression in A. oryzae in a mating type-dependent manner, the first such report for a supposedly asexual fungus. MAT1-1 expression specifically upregulated an α-pheromone precursor gene, but the functions of most of the genes affected were unknown. The results are consistent with a heterothallic breeding system in A. oryzae, and prospects for the discovery of a sexual cycle are discussed. PMID:22327593

  5. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, Jan; Pekárik, Ladislav; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis). We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA). Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  6. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Majtánová

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis. We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA. Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  7. Does the silver moss Bryum argenteum exhibit sex-specific patterns in vegetative growth rate, asexual fitness or prezygotic reproductive investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Kimberly; Stark, Lloyd R; McLetchie, D Nicholas

    2011-05-01

    Expected life history trade-offs associated with sex differences in reproductive investment are often undetected in seed plants, with the difficulty arising from logistical issues of conducting controlled experiments. By controlling genotype, age and resource status of individuals, a bryophyte was assessed for sex-specific and location-specific patterns of vegetative, asexual and sexual growth/reproduction across a regional scale. Twelve genotypes (six male, six female) of the dioecious bryophyte Bryum argenteum were subcultured to remove environmental effects, regenerated asexually to replicate each genotype 16 times, and grown over a period of 92 d. Plants were assessed for growth rates, asexual and sexual reproductive traits, and allocation to above- and below-ground regenerative biomass. The degree of sexual versus asexual reproductive investment appears to be under genetic control, with three distinct ecotypes found in this study. Protonemal growth rate was positively correlated with asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction, whereas asexual reproduction was negatively correlated (appeared to trade-off) with vegetative growth (shoot production). No sex-specific trade-offs were detected. Female sex-expressing shoots were longer than males, but the sexes did not differ in growth traits, asexual traits, sexual induction times, or above- and below-ground biomass. Males, however, had much higher rates of inflorescence production than females, which translated into a significantly higher (24x) prezygotic investment for males relative to females. Evidence for three distinct ecotypes is presented for a bryophyte based on regeneration traits. Prior to zygote production, the sexes of this bryophyte did not differ in vegetative growth traits but significantly differed in reproductive investment, with the latter differences potentially implicated in the strongly biased female sex ratio. The disparity between males and females for prezygotic reproductive investment is

  8. Strigolactones positively regulate chilling tolerance in pea and in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James W; Hu, Yan; Beyyoudh, Leila; Yildiz Dasgan, H; Kunert, Karl; Beveridge, Christine A; Foyer, Christine H

    2018-01-17

    Strigolactones (SL) fulfil important roles in plant development and stress tolerance. Here we characterised the role of SL in the dark chilling tolerance of pea and Arabidopsis by analysis of mutants that are defective in either SL synthesis or signalling. Pea mutants (rms3, rms4, rms5) had significantly greater shoot branching with higher leaf chlorophyll a/b ratios and carotenoid contents than the wild type. Exposure to dark chilling significantly decreased shoot fresh weights but increased leaf numbers in all lines. However, dark chilling treatments decreased biomass (dry weight) accumulation only in rms3 and rms5 shoots. Unlike the wild type plants, chilling-induced inhibition of photosynthetic carbon assimilation was observed in the rms lines and also in max3-9, max4-1, max2-1 mutants that are defective in SL synthesis or signalling. When grown on agar plates the max mutant rosettes accumulated less biomass than the wild type. The synthetic SL, GR24 decreased leaf area in the wild type, max3-9 and max4-1 mutants but not in max2-1 in the absence of stress. Moreover, a chilling-induced decrease in leaf area was observed in all the lines in the presence of GR24. We conclude that SL plays an important role in the control of dark chilling tolerance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Fluidity of pea root plasma membranes under altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchuk, D. O.; Baranenko, V. V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Dubovoy, V. D.

    This investigation aims to determine whether clinorotation 2 rev min of pea Pisum sativum L seedlings induces the alterations in the physical-chemical properties of cellular membranes including the plasma membrane fluidity The last is an important regulator of functional activity of membrane enzymes The plasma membranes were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning from roots of 6-day old pea seedlings The membrane fluidity was examined by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene probe The plasma membrane vesicles with known protein concentration were added to the incubation buffer to a final concentration of 50 mu g of protein per ml A small amount by 1 mu l of pyrene solution in 2-propanol was added to the incubation mixture to a final probe concentration 5 mu M at constant mixing Fluorescence spectra were measured using a Perkin-Elmer LS-50 spectrofluorometer Perkin-Elmer England Pyrene was excited at 337 nm and fluorescence intensity of monomers I M and excimers I E were measured at 393 and 470 nm respectively The I E I M ratios were 0 081 pm 0 003 and 0 072 pm 0 004 in preparations obtained from clinorotated and the control seedlings respectively This fact indicates that rotation on the clinostat increases the membrane fluidity Compared with controls clinorotated seedlings have also showed a reduced growth and a higher level of total unsaturated fatty acids determined by gas chromatography The factors that influence on the fluidity of membrane lipids in bilayer appear to be the

  10. Methionine metabolism and ethylene formation in etiolated pea stem sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, N.; Kende, H.

    1979-01-01

    Stem sections of etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were incubated overnight on tracer amounts of L-[U- 14 C]methionine and, on the following morning, on 0.1 millimolar indoleacetic acid to induce ethylene formation. Following the overnight incubation, over 70% of the radioactivity in the soluble fraction was shown to be associated with S-methylmethionine (SMM). The specific radioactivity of the ethylene evolved closely paralleled that of carbon atoms 3 and 4 of methionine extracted from the tissue and was always higher than that determined for carbon atoms 3 and 4 of extracted SMM. Overnight incubation of pea stem sections on 1 millimolar methionine enhanced indoleacetic acid-induced ethylene formation by 5 to 10%. Under the same conditions, 1 millimolar homocysteine thiolactone increased ethylene synthesis by 20 to 25%, while SMM within a concentration range of 0.1 to 10 millimolar did not influence ethylene production. When unlabeled methionine or homocysteine thiolactone was applied to stem sections which had been incubated overnight in L-[U- 14 C]methionine, the specific radioactivity of the ethylene evolved was considerably lowered. Application of unlabeled SMM reduced the specific radioactivity of ethylene only slightly

  11. Atomic force microscopy of pea starch: origins of image contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridout, Michael J; Parker, Mary L; Hedley, Cliff L; Bogracheva, Tatiana Y; Morris, Victor J

    2004-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to image the internal structure of pea starch granules. Starch granules were encased in a nonpenetrating matrix of rapid-set Araldite. Images were obtained of the internal structure of starch exposed by cutting the face of the block and of starch in sections collected on water. These images have been obtained without staining, or either chemical or enzymatic treatment of the granule. It has been demonstrated that contrast in the AFM images is due to localized absorption of water within specific regions of the exposed fragments of the starch granules. These regions swell, becoming "softer" and higher than surrounding regions. The images obtained confirm the "blocklet model" of starch granule architecture. By using topographic, error signal and force modulation imaging modes on samples of the wild-type pea starch and the high amylose r near-isogenic mutant, it has been possible to demonstrate differing structures within granules of different origin. These architectural changes provide a basis for explaining the changed appearance and functionality of the r mutant. The growth-ring structure of the granule is suggested to arise from localized "defects" in blocklet distribution within the granule. It is proposed that these defects are partially crystalline regions devoid of amylose.

  12. The Facultative Symbiont Rickettsia Protects an Invasive Whitefly against Entomopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Tory A; Hunter, Martha S; Baltrus, David A

    2014-12-01

    Facultative endosymbionts can benefit insect hosts in a variety of ways, including context-dependent roles, such as providing defense against pathogens. The role of some symbionts in defense may be overlooked, however, when pathogen infection is transient, sporadic, or asymptomatic. The facultative endosymbiont Rickettsia increases the fitness of the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in some populations through mechanisms that are not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Rickettsia in mediating the interaction between the sweet potato whitefly and Pseudomonas syringae, a common environmental bacterium, some strains of which are pathogenic to aphids. Our results show that P. syringae multiplies within whiteflies, leading to host death, and that whiteflies infected with Rickettsia show a decreased rate of death due to P. syringae. Experiments using plants coated with P. syringae confirmed that whiteflies can acquire the bacteria at a low rate while feeding, leading to increased mortality, particularly when the whiteflies are not infected with Rickettsia. These results suggest that P. syringae may affect whitefly populations in nature and that Rickettsia can ameliorate this effect. This study highlights the possible importance of interactions among opportunistic environmental pathogens and endosymbionts of insects. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Regulation of methane oxidation in the facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris BL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Andreas R; Ali, M Hanif; Radajewski, Stefan; Dumont, Marc G; Dunfield, Peter F; McDonald, Ian R; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Miguez, Carlos B; Murrell, J Colin

    2005-11-01

    The molecular regulation of methane oxidation in the first fully authenticated facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris BL2 was assessed during growth on methane and acetate. Problems of poor growth of Methylocella spp. in small-scale batch culture were overcome by growth in fermentor culture. The genes encoding soluble methane monooxygenase were cloned and sequenced, which revealed that the structural genes for soluble methane monooxygenase, mmoXYBZDC, were adjacent to two genes, mmoR and mmoG, encoding a sigma54 transcriptional activator and a putative GroEL-like chaperone, located downstream (3') of mmoC. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the genes were all cotranscribed from a sigma54-dependent promoter located upstream (5') of mmo X. The transcriptional start site was mapped. Transcriptional analysis of soluble methane monooxygenase genes and expression studies on fermentor grown cultures showed that acetate repressed transcription of sMMO in M. silvestris BL2. The possibility of the presence of a particulate, membrane-bound methane monooxygenase enzyme in M. silvestris BL2 and the copper-mediated regulation of soluble methane monooxygenase was investigated. Both were shown to be absent. A promoter probe vector was constructed and used to assay transcription of the promoter of the soluble methane monoxygenase genes of M. silvestris BL2 grown under various conditions and with different substrates. These data represent the first insights into the molecular physiology of a facultative methanotroph.

  14. Serratia symbiotica from the aphid Cinara cedri: a missing link from facultative to obligate insect endosymbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Lamelas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The genome sequencing of Buchnera aphidicola BCc from the aphid Cinara cedri, which is the smallest known Buchnera genome, revealed that this bacterium had lost its symbiotic role, as it was not able to synthesize tryptophan and riboflavin. Moreover, the biosynthesis of tryptophan is shared with the endosymbiont Serratia symbiotica SCc, which coexists with B. aphidicola in this aphid. The whole-genome sequencing of S. symbiotica SCc reveals an endosymbiont in a stage of genome reduction that is closer to an obligate endosymbiont, such as B. aphidicola from Acyrthosiphon pisum, than to another S. symbiotica, which is a facultative endosymbiont in this aphid, and presents much less gene decay. The comparison between both S. symbiotica enables us to propose an evolutionary scenario of the transition from facultative to obligate endosymbiont. Metabolic inferences of B. aphidicola BCc and S. symbiotica SCc reveal that most of the functions carried out by B. aphidicola in A. pisum are now either conserved in B. aphidicola BCc or taken over by S. symbiotica. In addition, there are several cases of metabolic complementation giving functional stability to the whole consortium and evolutionary preservation of the actors involved.

  15. Assessment of facultative anaerobes from the root canals of deciduous molars: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Chandwani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The current research aimed to assess the prevalence of facultative anaerobes isolated from the root canals of deciduous molars. Methods. The present research enrolled 60 children in the 6‒9-year age group based on clinical and radiographic findings. Under aseptic conditions, access cavities were prepared followed by collection of samples from infected root canals with the help of sterile paper points. The samples thus obtained were subjected for microbial assay. Results. It was found that Enterococcus faecalis was isolated in 30% of cases, Escherichia coli in 28.4%, Staphylococcus aureus in 25%, α-hemolytic Streptococci in 15% and Proteus mirabilis in 1.6% of cases. Conclusion. It was concluded from the results of the present study that the root canals of deciduous molars had predominance of facultative anaerobes, confirming its polymicrobial nature. This identification of microbes is crucial as it aids in understanding the pathogenesis of pulpal and periradicular diseases to provide effective antimicrobial irrigation and medicament for endodontic treatment.

  16. No facultative worker policing in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Kevin J.; Seeley, Thomas D.; Mattila, Heather R.

    2013-05-01

    Kin selection theory predicts that in colonies of social Hymenoptera with multiply mated queens, workers should mutually inhibit ("police") worker reproduction, but that in colonies with singly mated queens, workers should favor rearing workers' sons instead of queens' sons. In line with these predictions, Mattila et al. (Curr Biol 22:2027-2031, 2012) documented increased ovary development among workers in colonies of honey bees with singly mated queens, suggesting that workers can detect and respond adaptively to queen mating frequency and raising the possibility that they facultative police. In a follow-up experiment, we test and reject the hypothesis that workers in single-patriline colonies prefer worker-derived males and are able to reproduce directly; we show that their eggs are policed as strongly as those of workers in colonies with multiply mated queens. Evidently, workers do not respond facultatively to a kin structure that favors relaxed policing and increased direct reproduction. These workers may instead be responding to a poor queen or preparing for possible queen loss.

  17. Physiological variation as a mechanism for developmental caste-biasing in a facultatively eusocial sweat bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapheim, Karen M; Smith, Adam R; Ihle, Kate E; Amdam, Gro V; Nonacs, Peter; Wcislo, William T

    2012-04-07

    Social castes of eusocial insects may have arisen through an evolutionary modification of an ancestral reproductive ground plan, such that some adults emerge from development physiologically primed to specialize on reproduction (queens) and others on maternal care expressed as allo-maternal behaviour (workers). This hypothesis predicts that variation in reproductive physiology should emerge from ontogeny and underlie division of labour. To test these predictions, we identified physiological links to division of labour in a facultatively eusocial sweat bee, Megalopta genalis. Queens are larger, have larger ovaries and have higher vitellogenin titres than workers. We then compared queens and workers with their solitary counterparts-solitary reproductive females and dispersing nest foundresses-to investigate physiological variation as a factor in caste evolution. Within dyads, body size and ovary development were the best predictors of behavioural class. Queens and dispersers are larger, with larger ovaries than their solitary counterparts. Finally, we raised bees in social isolation to investigate the influence of ontogeny on physiological variation. Body size and ovary development among isolated females were highly variable, and linked to differences in vitellogenin titres. As these are key physiological predictors of social caste, our results provide evidence for developmental caste-biasing in a facultatively eusocial bee.

  18. [Isolation and identification of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria in the oral cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenxin; Wu, Fanzi; Zhou, Xinxuan; Wu, Lan; Li, Mingyun; Ren, Biao; Guo, Qiang; Huang, Ruijie; Li, Jiyao; Xiao, Liying; Li, Yan

    2015-12-01

    To establish a systematic method for isolation and identification of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria in the oral cavity. Samples of the saliva, dental plaque and periapical granulation tissue were collected from 20 subjects with healthy oral condition and from 8 patients with different oral diseases. The bacteria in the samples were identified by morphological identification, VITEK automatic microorganism identification and 16s rRNA gene sequencing. VITEK automatic microorganism identification and 16s rRNA gene sequencing showed an agreement rate of 22.39% in identifying the bacteria in the samples. We identified altogether 63 bacterial genus (175 species), among which Streptococcus, Actinomyces and Staphylococcus were the most common bacterial genus, and Streptococcus anginosus, Actinomyces oris, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis were the most common species. Streptococcus anginosus was commonly found in patients with chronic periapical periodontitis. Streptococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus aureus were common in patients with radiation caries, and in patients with rampant caries, Streptococcus mutans was found at considerably higher rate than other species. Aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria are commonly found in the oral cavity, and most of them are gram-positive. 16s rRNA gene sequencing is more accurate than VITEK automatic microorganism identification in identifying the bacteria.

  19. Mechanisms of protection of pea plants by polysaccharides extracted from a strain of Rhizobium against Orobanche crenata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairi, Hanene; Temani, Randa

    2009-01-01

    The Broomrape causes notable damage on the leguminous crops and became major factor limiting production of pea in the Mediterranean region. The effect of the polysaccharides extracted from P.SOM Rhizobium strain on the development of Orobanche crenata on pea was studied. The results showed that the lipopolysaccharides significantly reduce the infestation of pea by O. crenata. This limitation of infestation results from the reduction of seeds germination rates of the parasite resulting in reduction of the tubercles number on pea roots. Moreover, necrosis of orobanche before or after attachment on pea roots treated by LPS can explain this reduction of parasitism. A correlation was observed between the reduction of pea infection by the broomrape and the activation phenolic compounds pathway. This activation resulted to increase of two enzymes (peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase) activities these enzymes are implicated in plant defense. The results of our study showed that the LPS seem implied in the induction of pea resistance against the broomrape.

  20. PEA3 activates CXCR4 transcription in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengmei Gu; Li Chen; Qi Hong; Tingting Yan; Zhigang Zhuang; Qiaoqiao wang; Wei Jin; Hua Zhu; Jiong Wu

    2011-01-01

    CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a cell surface receptor that has been shown to mediate the metastasis of many solid tumors including lung,breast,kidney,and prostate tumors.In this study,we found that overexpression of ets variant gene 4 (PEA3) could elevate CXCR4 mRNA level and CXCR4 promoter activity in human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells.PEA3 promoted CXCR4 expression and breast cancer metastasis.Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that PEA3 could bind to the CXCR4 promoter in the cells transfected with PEA3 expression vector.PEA3 siRNA attenuated CXCR4 promoter activity and the binding of PEA3 to the CXCR4 promoter in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells.These results indicated that PEA3 could activate CXCR4 promoter transcription and promote breast cancer metastasis.

  1. A possible mechanism to control the spread and growth of facultative marine fungus Aspergillus niger using magnetic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vala, A. K.; Desai, R.; Upadhyay, R. V.; Mehta, R. V.

    2008-12-01

    Interaction of facultative marine fungus Aspergillus niger with a Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic fluid (MF) has been studied. The fungus exhibited a luxuriant growth in the presence of magnetic fluid at test concentrations. Though the biomass accumulation was found to be almost similar, mycelial spread was found to be rapid in the presence of MF if compared to the control one. The MF also exhibited a positive effect on the biomass accumulation during prolonged incubation. These preliminary observations provide a baseline information for possible exploitation of the magnetic fluid-facultative marine fungal interaction for bioremediation purposes. Figs 5, Refs 13.

  2. Hypolipidemic effect of dietary pea proteins: Impact on genes regulating hepatic lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, Elena; Parolini, Cinzia; Marchesi, Marta; Diani, Erika; Brambilla, Stefano; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia

    2010-05-01

    Controversial data on the lipid-lowering effect of dietary pea proteins have been provided and the mechanisms behind this effect are not completely understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate a possible hypolipidemic activity of a pea protein isolate and to determine whether pea proteins could affect the hepatic lipid metabolism through regulation of genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis. Rats were fed Nath's hypercholesterolemic diets for 28 days, the protein sources being casein or a pea protein isolate from Pisum sativum. After 14 and 28 days of dietary treatment, rats fed pea proteins had markedly lower plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels than rats fed casein (pPea protein-fed rats displayed higher hepatic mRNA levels of LDL receptor versus those fed casein (ppea protein-fed rats than in rats fed casein (ppea proteins in rats. Moreover, pea proteins appear to affect cellular lipid homeostasis by upregulating genes involved in hepatic cholesterol uptake and by downregulating fatty acid synthesis genes.

  3. Germinated Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan): a novel diet for lowering oxidative stress and hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchegbu, Nneka N; Ishiwu, Charles N

    2016-09-01

    This work studied the antioxidant activity of extract of germinated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Germination was carried out in a dark chamber under room temperature (28°C). The total phenolic, 1,1,diphenyl-2-picrylhy-drazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase were done in vitro and blood glucose levels of the animal were investigated. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic and DPPH scavenging activity increased by 30% and 63%, respectively, after germinating pigeon pea. Also after germination there was an increase in the inhibitory potential of pigeon pea extract against α-glucosidase compared with the nongerminated pigeon pea extract. There was a significant increase (P pigeon pea extract gave rise to a reduced fasting blood glucose level in diabetic rats. On administration of germinated pigeon pea extract, LPO reduced drastically but there was an increase in the level of GSH. This study concluded that intake of germinated pigeon pea is a good dietary supplement for controlling hyperglycemia and LPO.

  4. De Novo Assembly of the Pea (Pisum sativum L. Nodule Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Zhukov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large size and complexity of the garden pea (Pisum sativum L. genome hamper its sequencing and the discovery of pea gene resources. Although transcriptome sequencing provides extensive information about expressed genes, some tissue-specific transcripts can only be identified from particular organs under appropriate conditions. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of polyadenylated transcripts from young pea nodules and root tips on an Illumina GAIIx system, followed by de novo transcriptome assembly using the Trinity program. We obtained more than 58,000 and 37,000 contigs from “Nodules” and “Root Tips” assemblies, respectively. The quality of the assemblies was assessed by comparison with pea expressed sequence tags and transcriptome sequencing project data available from NCBI website. The “Nodules” assembly was compared with the “Root Tips” assembly and with pea transcriptome sequencing data from projects indicating tissue specificity. As a result, approximately 13,000 nodule-specific contigs were found and annotated by alignment to known plant protein-coding sequences and by Gene Ontology searching. Of these, 581 sequences were found to possess full CDSs and could thus be considered as novel nodule-specific transcripts of pea. The information about pea nodule-specific gene sequences can be applied for gene-based markers creation, polymorphism studies, and real-time PCR.

  5. The effect of sex on the mean and variance of fitness in facultatively sexual rotifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becks, L; Agrawal, A F

    2011-03-01

    The evolution of sex is a classic problem in evolutionary biology. While this topic has been the focus of much theoretical work, there is a serious dearth of empirical data. A simple yet fundamental question is how sex affects the mean and variance in fitness. Despite its importance to the theory, this type of data is available for only a handful of taxa. Here, we report two experiments in which we measure the effect of sex on the mean and variance in fitness in the monogonont rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus. Compared to asexually derived offspring, we find that sexual offspring have lower mean fitness and less genetic variance in fitness. These results indicate that, at least in the laboratory, there are both short- and long-term disadvantages associated with sexual reproduction. We briefly review the other available data and highlight the need for future work. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. The occurrence of gibberellin-binding protein(s) in pea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.H.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from epicotyls of dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Progress No. 9) and tall pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were investigated using ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} in a DEAE filter paper assay at 0-3 C. The binding obtained is saturable, reversible, and temperature labile in dwarf pea, and has a half-life of dissociation of 5-6 min. By varying the concentration of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} in the incubation medium the Kd was estimated to be 120-140 nM in dwarf pea and 70 nM in tall pea. The number of binding sites (n) was estimated to be 0.66 and 0.43 pmole mg{sup {minus}1} soluble protein in dwarf pea and in tall pea, respectively. In competition binding assays, biologically active GAs, such as GA{sub 3} and GA{sub 4} could reduce the level of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} binding much more than the biologically inactive GA{sub 4} methyl ester and epi-GA{sub 4}. Changes in gibberellin-binding protein(s) were studied during seed germination. While the Kd of the binding protein(s) for ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} remained the same, there was a marked increase in the number of binding sites from 24 h soaked seed to 8-day old seedlings. Also, the Kd and the number of binding sites in the GA-responsive apical part and in the nonresponsive basal part in the epicotyl were similar. The effect of light on gibberellin-binding protein in dwarf pea was also studied. The GA-binding protein in dwarf pea was partially purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography.

  7. Importance of new winter pea genotyp in production of the milk on family farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Županac

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Forage pea (Pisum sativum L. is becoming more represented gorage leguminoza on the fields Republic of Croatia. Three year field trials (2003-2005 were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on productivity of new winter pea genotype G3 in production of milk on family farms. Just before sowing the inoculation of pea seed was performed by the variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1001 which is part of the microbiological collection of the Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The results of the research showed that the highest total nodule number on pea root (39.7 nodule/plant as well as nodule dry matter weight (0.203 g/plant was determined on the inoculated variant. Average highest yield of winter pea dry matter was, once more, determined on the inoculated variant (4.33 t ha-1. Total dry matter yield of winter pea and wheat mixture were ranging from 8.92 t ha-1 (control up to 10.64 t ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Average highest yield of winter pea crude protein was, once more, determined on the inoculated variant (266 kg ha-1 in 2003, (672 kg ha-1 in 2004 and (853 kg ha-1 in 2005. The conclusion of this research is that the highest dry matter yield (4.33 t ha-1 and crude protein yield was obtained with the inoculation of new genotype winter pea G3.

  8. Influence of the inclusion of cooked cereals and pea starch in diets based on soy or pea protein concentrate on nutrient digestibility and performance of young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parera, N; Lázaro, R P; Serrano, M P; Valencia, D G; Mateos, G G

    2010-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare different dietary vegetable sources of starch and protein on the coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of energy and nutrients and performance of piglets from 29 to 60 d of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 treatments arranged factorially with 3 sources of starch (cooked-flaked corn, cooked-flaked rice, and pea starch) and 2 sources of protein [soy protein concentrate (SPC) and pea protein concentrate (PPC)]. The pea starch and the PPC used were obtained by dehulling and grinding pea seeds to a mean particle size of 30 microm. Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 pigs per pen). For the entire experiment, piglets fed cooked rice had greater ADG than piglets fed pea starch with piglets fed cooked corn being intermediate (471, 403, and 430 g/d, respectively; P Protein source did not have any effect on piglet performance. The CATTD of DM, OM, and GE were greater (P pea starch being intermediate. Crude protein digestibility was not affected by source of starch but was greater for the diets based on SPC than for diets based on PPC (0.836 vs. 0.821; P Protein source did not affect the digestibility of any of the other dietary components. It is concluded that cooked rice is an energy source of choice in diets for young pigs. The inclusion of PPC in the diet reduced protein digestibility but had no effects on energy digestibility or piglet performance. Therefore, the finely ground starch and protein fractions of peas can be used in substitution of cooked corn or SPC, respectively, in diets for young pigs.

  9. PEA-15 Induces Autophagy in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells and is Associated with Prolonged Overall Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Rosen, Daniel; Wei, Caimiao; Kazansky, Anna; Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Takahashi, Takeshi; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Kondo, Seiji; Liu, Jinsong; Ueno, Naoto T.

    2008-01-01

    Phospho-enriched protein in astrocytes (PEA-15) is a 15-kDa phosphoprotein that slows cell proliferation by binding to and sequestering extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the cytoplasm, thereby inhibiting ERK-dependent transcription and proliferation. In previous studies of E1A human gene therapy for ovarian cancer, we discovered that PEA-15 induced the antitumor effect of E1A by sequestering activated ERK in the cytoplasm of cancer cells. Here, we investigated the role of PEA-15 ...

  10. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    .05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P pea to be a high-digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T...

  11. Pea-barley intercropping and short-term subsequent crop effects across European organic cropping conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    . In the replacement design the total relative plant density is kept constant, while the additive design uses the optimal sole crop density for pea supplementing with ‘extra’ barley plants. The pea and barley crops were followed by winter wheat with and without N application. Additional experiments in Denmark......) to grain N yield with 25–30% using the Land Equivalent ratio. In terms of absolute quantities, sole cropped pea accumulated more N in the grains as compared to the additive design followed by the replacement design and then sole cropped barley. The post harvest soil mineral N content was unaffected...

  12. Resistance to rusts (uromyces pisi and u. viciae-fabae) in pea

    OpenAIRE

    Barilli, Eleonora; Sillero, Josefina C.; Prats, Elena; Rubiales, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Pea is the second most important food legume crop in the world. Rust is a pea disease widely distributed, particularly in regions with warm, humid weather. Pea rust can be incited by Uromyces viciae-fabae and by U. pisi. U. viciae-fabae prevails in tropical and subtropical regions such as India and China, while U. pisi prevails in temperate regions. Chemical control of rust is possible, but the use of host plant resistance is the most desired means of rust control. In this paper we revise and...

  13. Environmental control of asexual reproduction and somatic growth of Aurelia spp. (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) polyps from the Adriatic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Hubot, Nathan; Lucas, Cathy H.; Piraino, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Polyps of two moon jellyfish species, Aurelia coerulea and A.relicta, from two Adriatic Sea coastal habitats were incubated under multiple combinations of temperature (14, 21 °C), salinity (24, 37 ppt) and food regime (9.3, 18.6, 27.9 μg C ind‾¹ week‾¹) to comparatively assess how these factors may influence major asexual reproduction processes in the two species. Both species exhibited a shared pattern of budding mode (Directly Budded Polyps: DBP; Stolonal Budded Polyps: SBP), with DBP favo...

  14. Mutation accumulation and fitness effects in hybridogenetic populations: a comparison to sexual and asexual systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri Homayoun C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female only unisexual vertebrates that reproduce by hybridogenesis show an unusual genetic composition. They are of hybrid origin but show no recombination between the genomes of their parental species. Instead, the paternal genome is discarded from the germline prior to meiosis, and gametes (eggs only contain solely unrecombined maternal genomes. Hence hybridogens only transmit maternally inherited mutations. Hybridity is restored each generation by backcrossing with males of the sexual parental species whose genome was eliminated. In contrast, recombining sexual species propagate an intermixed pool of mutations derived from the maternal and paternal parts of the genome. If mutation rates are lower in female gametes than males, it raises the possibility for lower mutation accumulation in a hybridogenetic population, and consequently, higher population fitness than its sexual counterpart. Results We show through Monte-Carlo simulations that at higher male to female mutation ratios, and sufficiently large population sizes, hybridogenetic populations can carry a lower mutation load than sexual species. This effect is more pronounced with synergistic forms of epistasis. Mutations accumulate faster on the sexual part of the genome, and with the purifying effects of epistasis, it makes it more difficult for mutations to be transmitted on the clonal part of the genome. In smaller populations, the same mechanism reduces the speed of Muller's Ratchet and the number of fixed mutations compared to similar asexual species. Conclusion Since mutation accumulation can be less pronounced in hybridogenetic populations, the question arises why hybridogenetic organisms are so scarce compared to sexual species. In considering this, it is likely that comparison of population fitnesses is not sufficient. Despite competition with the sexual parental species, hybrid populations are dependent on the maintenance of – and contact with – their

  15. Development of pea protein-based bioplastics with antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Puyana, Víctor; Felix, Manuel; Romero, Alberto; Guerrero, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, bioplastics from renewable polymers were studied in order to reduce the huge generation of plastic wastes, causing an environmental problem that continues owing to the increasing demand for plastic products. Bioplastics with much better antimicrobial properties, in particular against Gram-positive bacteria, were obtained with the addition of nisin to the initial protein/plasticizer mixture. However, the addition of nisin produces more rigid but less deformable bioplastics (higher Young's modulus but lower strain at break). The results obtained are useful to demonstrate the antimicrobial properties of pea protein-based bioplastics by adding nisin and make them suitable as potential candidates to replace conventional plastics in food packaging. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Coupling of solute transport and cell expansion in pea stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalstig, J. G.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    As cells expand and are displaced through the elongation zone of the epicotyl of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. var Alaska) seedlings, there is little net dilution of the cell sap, implying a coordination between cell expansion and solute uptake from the phloem. Using [14C] sucrose as a phloem tracer (applied to the hypogeous cotyledons), the pattern of label accumulation along the stem closely matched the growth rate pattern: high accumulation in the growing zone, little accumulation in nongrowing regions. Several results suggest that a major portion of phloem contents enters elongating cells through the symplast. We propose that the coordination between phloem transport and cell expansion is accomplished via regulatory pathways affecting both plasmodesmata conductivity and cell expansion.

  17. Phloem unloading and cell expansion in pea stems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalstig, J.G.; Cosgrove, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Phloem unloading into elongating stems of dark-grown pea seedlings was greater in regions with higher relative growth rates. Phloem transport was monitored over 1 h by measuring accumulation of radiolabel from 14 C-sucrose added between the cotyledons. The apical hook and plumule and 8 mm of the growing region of an intact plant were sealed in a pressure chamber and the pressure was raised to stop elongation. Phloem unloading was inhibited in the pressurized zone of elongation and accelerated in the apical hook and plumule, with the result that the magnitude of phloem transport into the stem was unchanged. The results demonstrate a coupling between cell expansion and phloem unloading

  18. Induction of mutation in peas (Pisum sativum) in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Pando, L.; Torres Aranda, M.; Romero Loli, M.

    1984-01-01

    The production of peas, a staple food in Peru, can be increased by crop rotation with cereals in high lands (3000 m and above). Cultivation in high lands not only gives cultivar of higher proteic content but also improves the fertility of the soils. However, the low temperature (in the freezing region) in the high lands and the associated plant diseases are the major problems for this kind of cultivation. The present report describes the development of freezing and disease resistant mutants through mutagenesis with gamma radiation. Two varieties, Alderman and Amarilla, which had been adopted to high lands are selected for the present study. Two doses were used, 14 and 18 Krad, employing 4600 seeds/dose for the Alderman variety and 3600 seeds/dose for Amarilla. Preliminary results are presented

  19. Macromolecular organization of xyloglucan and cellulose in pea epicotyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Maclachlan, G.

    1984-01-01

    Xyloglucan is known to occur widely in the primary cell walls of higher plants. This polysaccharide in most dicots possesses a cellulose-like main chain with three of every four consecutive residues substituted with xylose and minor addition of other sugars. Xyloglucan and cellulose metabolism is regulated by different processes; since different enzyme systems are probably required for the synthesis of their 1,4-β-linkages. A macromolecular complex composed of xyloglucan and cellulose only was obtained from elongating regions of etiolated pea stems. It was examined by light microscopy using iodine staining, by radioautography after labeling with [ 3 H]fructose, by fluorescence microscopy using a fluorescein-lectin (fructose-binding) as probe, and by electron microscopy after shadowing. The techniques all demonstrated that the macromolecule was present in files of cell shapes, referred to here as cell-wall ghosts, in which xyloglucan was localized both on and between the cellulose microfibrils

  20. Symbiosis regulation in a facultatively symbiotic temperate coral: zooxanthellae division and expulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, J.; Carrington, E.

    2008-09-01

    Zooxanthellae mitotic index (MI) and expulsion rates were measured in the facultatively symbiotic scleractinian Astrangia poculata during winter and summer off the southern New England coast, USA. While MI was significantly higher in summer than in winter, mean expulsion rates were comparable between seasons. Corals therefore appear to allow increases in symbiont density when symbiosis is advantageous during the warm season, followed by a net reduction during the cold season when zooxanthellae may draw resources from the coral. Given previous reports that photosynthesis in A. poculata symbionts does not occur below approximately 6°C, considerable zooxanthellae division at 3°C and in darkness suggests that zooxanthellae are heterotrophic at low seasonal temperatures. Finally, examination of expulsion as a function of zooxanthellae density revealed that corals with very low zooxanthellae densities export a significantly greater proportion of their symbionts, apparently allowing them to persist in a stable azooxanthellate state.

  1. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.

  2. Xyloglucan galactosyl- and fucosyltransferase activity from pea epicotyl microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faik, A.; Chileshe, C.; Sterling, J.; Maclachlan, G.

    1997-01-01

    Microsomal membranes from growing tissue of pea (Pisum sativum L.) epicotyls were incubated with the substrate UDP-[14C]galactose (Gal) with or without tamarind seed xyloglucan (XG) as a potential galactosyl acceptor. Added tamarind seed XG enhanced incorporation of [14C]Gal into high-molecular-weight products (eluted from columns of Sepharose CL-6B in the void volume) that were trichloroacetic acid-soluble but insoluble in 67% ethanol. These products were hydrolyzed by cellulase to fragments comparable in size to XG subunit oligosaccharides. XG-dependent galactosyltransferase activity could be solubilized, along with XG fucosyltransferase, by the detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1 propanesulfonate. When this enzyme was incubated with tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed XG or nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) seed XG that had been partially degalactosylated with an XG-specific beta-galactosidase, the rates of Gal transfer increased and fucose transfer decreased compared with controls with native XG. The reaction products were hydrolyzed by cellulase to 14C fragments that were analyzed by gel-filtration and high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation with pulsed amperometric detection. The major components were XG subunits, namely one of the two possible monogalactosyl octasaccharides (-XXLG-) and digalactosyl nonasaccharide (-XLLG-), whether the predominant octasaccharide in the acceptor was XXLG (as in tamarind seed XG) or XLXG (as in nasturtium seed XG). It is concluded that the first xylosylglucose from the reducing end of the subunits was the Gal acceptor locus preferred by the solubilized pea transferase. These observations are incorporated into a model for the biosynthesis of cell wall XGs

  3. Physiological responses of PEA (Pisum sativum cv. meteor) to irrigation salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.; Pervez, M.A.; Balal, R.M.; Azhar, N.; Shahzad, J.; Ubaidullah

    2008-01-01

    The effects of irrigation water or soil salinity on physiological aspects of pea (Pisum sativum cv.Meteor) were contrived. Ten weeks old pea plants were treated with NaCl at 0, 40, 90 and 140 mM in nutrient solution Plants were grown in controlled environment and harvested at each 3 days interval for decisiveness 0 physiological parameters. Photosynthetic rate, relative water content, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll contents reduced by increasing the NaCI concentration while CO/sub 2/ concentration and free proline content intensified. By experiment it was adumbrated that high salinity level along with prolonged accentuate duration is more drastic to pea plants physiology. Results also exhibited that pea plants could indulge 40 and 90 mM NaCl but are sensitive to 140 mM. (author)

  4. Effect of Root-Zone Moisture Variations on Growth of Lettuce and Pea Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Iliana; Ivanova, Tania

    2008-06-01

    Variations in substrate moisture lead to changes in water and oxygen availability to plant roots. Ground experiments were carried out in the laboratory prototype of SVET-2 Space Greenhouse to study the effect of variation of root-zone moisture conditions on growth of lettuce and pea plants. The effect of transient increase (for 1 day) and drastic increase (waterlogging for 10 days) of substrate moisture was studied with 16-day old pea and 21-day old lettuce plants respectively. Pea height and fresh biomass accumulation were not affected by transient substrate moisture increase. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of pea plants showed fast response to substrate moisture variation, while chlorophyll content did not change. Drastic change of substrate moisture suppressed lettuce Pn, chlorophyll biosynthesis and plant growth. These parameters slowly recovered after termination of waterlogging treatment but lettuce yield was greatly affected. The results showed that the most sensitive physiological parameter to substrate moisture variations is photosynthesis.

  5. Effect of cadmium on growth, protein content and peroxidase activity in pea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavi, K.; Kholdebarin, B.

    2011-01-01

    n this study the effects of different cadmium chloride concentrations (5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mu M) on some physiological and biochemical processes including seed germination, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, protein content and peroxidase activity in peas (Cicer arietinum cv. pars) were investigated. Cadmium did not have any significant effect on the rate of pea seed germination. However, it affected the subsequent growth rate in these plants. Higher cadmium concentrations specially at 50 and 100 mu M reduced plant growth significantly. Leaf chlorosis, wilting and leaf abscission were observed in plants treated with cadmium. Protein content in pea roots reduced significantly in the presence of high cadmium concentrations. Low concentrations of CdCl/sub 2/ resulted in higher peroxidase activity both in roots and shoots of pea plants. (author)

  6. Competition for and utilisation of sulfur in sole and intercrops of pea and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Klindt; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2007-01-01

    gave barley a growth and nutrient use advantage compared to pea (REIc values importance of initial size differences decreased relative to the effect of species identity in determining the competitive strength of the two species and by the end...

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of stored pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Akanbi, Charles T

    2013-09-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation at various doses (5, 10, 15, 20 kGy) was observed on pigeon pea flour stored for 3 months on proximate composition, functional properties, and peroxide value. Sensory evaluation was also carried out on bean cake (moinmoin) made from nonirradiated and irradiated pigeon pea flour. The results showed that stored gamma-irradiated samples had significantly lower (P flours showed slight increase in water absorption capacity, swelling capacity and bulk density. The peroxide value of crude oil increased significantly with dose increases for the period of storage. The sensory evaluation of moinmoin samples prepared from irradiated pigeon pea flour showed no significant difference from the moinmoin sample prepared from nonirradiated flour. It can be concluded that gamma irradiation can extend the shelf life of pigeon pea flour.

  8. Nitrogen immobilization and mineralization during initial decomposition of 15N-labelled pea and barley residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The immobilization and mineralization of N following plant residue incorporation were studied in a sandy loam soil using N-15-labelled field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw. Both crop residues caused a net immobilization of soil-derived inorganic N during...... the complete incubation period of 84 days. The maximum rate of N immobilization was found to 12 and 18 mg soil-derived N g(-1) added C after incorporation of pea and barley residues, respectively. After 7 days of incubation, 21% of the pea and 17% of the barley residue N were assimilated by the soil microbial...... the decomposition of the barley residue. The net mineralization of residue-derived N was 2% in the barley and 22% in the pea residue treatment after 84 days of incubation. The results demonstrated that even if crop residues have a relative low C/N ratio (15), transient immobilization of soil N in the microbial...

  9. Breeding high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.E.; Wanjari, K.B.

    1994-01-01

    The present communication emphasis the developing of high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutation with disease resistance in these crops. This would help in stabilisation of the higher yield potential

  10. The content of arbitration agreement: Facultative elements as an instrument for exercising contractual freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of an arbitration agreement is of great practical importance, given the effect its provisions may have on the rights and interests of the parties in the arbitration proceedings. Beside the mandatory elements, an arbitration agreement may include numerous facultative provisions, where parties express their contractual freedom, limited only by the imperative law and institutional arbitration rules. Even in cases when contractual provisions are contrary to the imperative law, in many states, the policy of maintaining arbitration agreement would result in ignoring the problematic provisions. The list of facultative elements of an arbitration agreement is practically limitless; among other elements, it may include: time limitations on the validity of an arbitration agreement; determinations referring to the composition of the arbitration tribunal; detailed rules pertaining to the procedure, decision-making processes and content of the arbitration award as well as its annulment; provisions on the choice of law; the right of third parties to intervene; joinder, consolidation and the authority of arbitration tribunal to decide as amiable compositeur or ex aequo et bono. The development of international commerce as well as arbitration legislature and practice, featuring transactions of ever-increasing complexity, have brought about the need to establish dispute resolution mechanisms modulated according to their specific characteristics. The customary practice of concluding arbitration agreements in the form of standardized and simple clauses is being challenged by the growing complexity of international trade. Therefore, not only should a modern arbitration agreement clearly demonstrate the parties' intent to submit a dispute to arbitration but it should also conform the arbitration procedure (as much as possible] to the content of the parties' relationship and the dispute that has emerged or may arise thereof.

  11. Enhanced start-up of anaerobic facultatively autotrophic biocathodes in bioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zaybak, Zehra; Pisciotta, John M.; Tokash, Justin C.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Biocathodes in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) can be used to convert CO2 into diverse organic compounds through a process called microbial electrosynthesis. Unfortunately, start-up of anaerobic biocathodes in BESs is a difficult and time consuming process. Here, a pre-enrichment method was developed to improve start-up of anaerobic facultatively autotrophic biocathodes capable of using cathodes as the electron donor (electrotrophs) and CO2 as the electron acceptor. Anaerobic enrichment of bacteria from freshwater bog sediment samples was first performed in batch cultures fed with glucose and then used to inoculate BES cathode chambers set at -0.4V (versus a standard hydrogen electrode; SHE). After two weeks of heterotrophic operation of BESs, CO2 was provided as the sole electron acceptor and carbon source. Consumption of electrons from cathodes increased gradually and was sustained for about two months in concert with a significant decrease in cathode chamber headspace CO2. The maximum current density consumed was -34±4mA/m2. Biosynthesis resulted in organic compounds that included butanol, ethanol, acetate, propionate, butyrate, and hydrogen gas. Bacterial community analyses based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed Trichococcus palustris DSM 9172 (99% sequence identity) as the prevailing species in biocathode communities, followed by Oscillibacter sp. and Clostridium sp. Isolates from autotrophic cultivation were most closely related to Clostridium propionicum (99% sequence identity; ZZ16), Clostridium celerecrescens (98-99%; ZZ22, ZZ23), Desulfotomaculum sp. (97%; ZZ21), and Tissierella sp. (98%; ZZ25). This pre-enrichment procedure enables simplified start-up of anaerobic biocathodes for applications such as electrofuel production by facultatively autotrophic electrotrophs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Enhanced start-up of anaerobic facultatively autotrophic biocathodes in bioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zaybak, Zehra

    2013-12-01

    Biocathodes in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) can be used to convert CO2 into diverse organic compounds through a process called microbial electrosynthesis. Unfortunately, start-up of anaerobic biocathodes in BESs is a difficult and time consuming process. Here, a pre-enrichment method was developed to improve start-up of anaerobic facultatively autotrophic biocathodes capable of using cathodes as the electron donor (electrotrophs) and CO2 as the electron acceptor. Anaerobic enrichment of bacteria from freshwater bog sediment samples was first performed in batch cultures fed with glucose and then used to inoculate BES cathode chambers set at -0.4V (versus a standard hydrogen electrode; SHE). After two weeks of heterotrophic operation of BESs, CO2 was provided as the sole electron acceptor and carbon source. Consumption of electrons from cathodes increased gradually and was sustained for about two months in concert with a significant decrease in cathode chamber headspace CO2. The maximum current density consumed was -34±4mA/m2. Biosynthesis resulted in organic compounds that included butanol, ethanol, acetate, propionate, butyrate, and hydrogen gas. Bacterial community analyses based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed Trichococcus palustris DSM 9172 (99% sequence identity) as the prevailing species in biocathode communities, followed by Oscillibacter sp. and Clostridium sp. Isolates from autotrophic cultivation were most closely related to Clostridium propionicum (99% sequence identity; ZZ16), Clostridium celerecrescens (98-99%; ZZ22, ZZ23), Desulfotomaculum sp. (97%; ZZ21), and Tissierella sp. (98%; ZZ25). This pre-enrichment procedure enables simplified start-up of anaerobic biocathodes for applications such as electrofuel production by facultatively autotrophic electrotrophs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  13. [Markers of antimicrobial drug resistance in the most common bacteria of normal facultative anaerobic intestinal flora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavsić, Teodora

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria of normal intestinal flora are frequent carriers of markers of antimicrobial drug resistance. Resistance genes may be exchanged with other bacteria of normal flora as well as with pathogenic bacteria. The increase in the number of markers of resistance is one of the major global health problems, which induces the emergence of multi-resistant strains. The aim of this study is to confirm the presence of markers of resistance in bacteria of normal facultative anaerobic intestinal flora in our region. The experiment included a hundred fecal specimens obtained from a hundred healthy donors. A hundred bacterial strains were isolated (the most numerous representatives of the normal facultative-anaerobic intestinal flora) by standard bacteriological methods. The bacteria were cultivated on Endo agar and SS agar for 24 hours at 37 degrees C. Having been incubated, the selected characteristic colonies were submitted to the biochemical analysis. The susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs was tested by standard disc diffusion method, and the results were interpreted according to the Standard of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2010. The marker of resistance were found in 42% of the isolated bacteria. The resistance was the most common to ampicillin (42% of isolates), amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (14% of isolates), cephalexin (14%) and cotrimoxazole (8%). The finding of 12 multiresistant strains (12% of isolates) and resistance to ciprofloxacin were significant. The frequency of resistance markers was statistically higher in Klebsiella pneumoniae compared to Escherichia coli of normal flora. The finding of a large number of markers of antimicrobial drug resistance among bacteria of normal intestinal flora shows that it is necessary to begin with systematic monitoring of their antimicrobial resistance because it is an indicator of resistance in the population.

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Renter, David G.; Volkova, Victoriya V.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host’s enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  15. The effect of nitrogen availability and water conditions on competition between a facultative CAM plant and an invasive grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kailiang; D'Odorico, Paolo; Carr, David E; Personius, Ashden; Collins, Scott L

    2017-10-01

    Plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) are increasing their abundance in drylands worldwide. The drivers and mechanisms underlying the increased dominance of CAM plants and CAM expression (i.e., nocturnal carboxylation) in facultative CAM plants, however, remain poorly understood. We investigated how nutrient and water availability affected competition between Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (a model facultative CAM species) and the invasive C 3 grass Bromus mollis that co-occur in California's coastal grasslands. Specifically we investigated the extent to which water stress, nutrients, and competition affect nocturnal carboxylation in M. crystallinum . High nutrient and low water conditions favored M. crystallinum over B. mollis , in contrast to high water conditions. While low water conditions induced nocturnal carboxylation in 9-week-old individuals of M. crystallinum , in these low water treatments, a 66% reduction in nutrient applied over the entire experiment did not further enhance nocturnal carboxylation. In high water conditions M. crystallinum both alone and in association with B. mollis did not perform nocturnal carboxylation, regardless of the nutrient levels. Thus, nocturnal carboxylation in M. crystallinum was restricted by strong competition with B. mollis in high water conditions. This study provides empirical evidence of the competitive advantage of facultative CAM plants over grasses in drought conditions and of the restricted ability of M. crystallinum to use their photosynthetic plasticity (i.e., ability to switch to CAM behavior) to compete with grasses in well-watered conditions. We suggest that a high drought tolerance could explain the increased dominance of facultative CAM plants in a future environment with increased drought and nitrogen deposition, while the potential of facultative CAM plants such as M. crystallinum to expand to wet environments is expected to be limited.

  16. Efficient in vitro import of a cytosolic heat shock protein into pea chloroplasts

    OpenAIRE

    Lubben, Thomas H.; Keegstra, Kenneth

    1986-01-01

    In order to further our understanding of the targeting of nuclear-encoded proteins into intracellular organelles, we have investigated the import of chimeric precursor proteins into pea chloroplasts. Two different chimeric precursor proteins were produced by in vitro expression of chimeric genes. One chimeric precursor contained the transit peptide of the small subunit of soybean ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and the mature peptide of the same protein from pea. The second contained th...

  17. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-06-08

    This study determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from the high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg (dry weight) for peas and oats, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1 μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet supplemented with 20, 30, or 40 μg Se/kg from peas or oats, respectively. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for yellow peas and oats to those for l-selenomethionine (SeMet; used as a reference) by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in Se concentrations of plasma, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and kidneys. The overall bioavailability was approximately 88% for Se from yellow peas and 92% from oats, compared to SeMet. It was concluded that Se from naturally produced high-Se yellow peas or oats is highly bioavailable in this model and that these high-Se foods may be a good dietary source of Se.

  18. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum) after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy; Wielbo, Jerzy; Kidaj, Dominika; Szarlip, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides). To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M) or water (control) before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurement...

  19. Polymorphism and methylation patterns in Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' plants propagated asexually by three different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Martínez, Miriam; Nava-Cedillo, Alejandro; Guzmán-López, José Alfredo; Escobar-Guzmán, Rocío; Simpson, June

    2012-04-01

    Genetic variation in three forms of asexually propagated Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' plants namely offsets, bulbils and in vitro cultured individuals was studied by AFLP analysis. Low levels of variation were observed between mother plants and offsets and a higher level between mother plant and bulbils. Families obtained from commercial plantations showed lower levels of variation in comparison to families grown as ornamentals. No variation was observed between the original explant and four generations of in vitro cultured plants. Epigenetic variation was also studied by analyzing changes in methylation patterns between mother plants and offspring in each form of asexual reproduction. Offsets and bulbils showed an overall decrease in methylation whereas in vitro cultured plants showed patterns specific to each generation: Generations 1 and 4 showed overall demethylation whereas Generations 2 and 3 showed increased methylation. Analysis of ESTs associated with transposable elements revealed higher proportions of ESTs from Ty1-copia-like, Gypsy and CACTA transposable elements in cDNA libraries obtained from pluripotent tissue suggesting a possible correlation between methylation patterns, expression of transposable element associated genes and somaclonal variation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sex in an uncertain world: environmental stochasticity helps restore competitive balance between sexually and asexually reproducing populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, A W; Vandekerkhove, J; Michalakis, Y

    2014-08-01

    Like many organisms, individuals of the freshwater ostracod species Eucypris virens exhibit either obligate sexual or asexual reproductive modes. Both types of individual routinely co-occur, including in the same temporary freshwater pond (their natural habitat in which they undergo seasonal diapause). Given the well-known two-fold cost of sex, this begs the question of how sexually reproducing individuals are able to coexist with their asexual counterparts in spite of such overwhelming costs. Environmental stochasticity in the form of 'false dawn' inundations (where the first hydration is ephemeral and causes loss of early hatching individuals) may provide an advantage to the sexual subpopulation, which shows greater variation in hatching times following inundation. We explore the potential role of environmental stochasticity in this system using life-history data analysis, climate data, and matrix projection models. In the absence of environmental stochasticity, the population growth rate is significantly lower in sexual subpopulations. Climate data reveal that 'false dawn' inundations are common. Using matrix projection modelling with and without environmental stochasticity, we demonstrate that this phenomenon can restore appreciable balance to the system, in terms of population growth rates. This provides support for the role of environmental stochasticity in helping to explain the maintenance of sex and the occurrence of geographical parthenogenesis. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Plasmodium falciparum Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 2 Is Critical for Male Gametocyte Exflagellation but Not Essential for Asexual Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhisheka Bansal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drug development efforts have focused mostly on the asexual blood stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Except for primaquine, which has its own limitations, there are no available drugs that target the transmission of the parasite to mosquitoes. Therefore, there is a need to validate new parasite proteins that can be targeted for blocking transmission. P. falciparum calcium-dependent protein kinases (PfCDPKs play critical roles at various stages of the parasite life cycle and, importantly, are absent in the human host. These features mark them as attractive drug targets. In this study, using CRISPR/Cas9 we successfully knocked out PfCDPK2 from blood-stage parasites, which was previously thought to be an indispensable protein. The growth rate of the PfCDPK2 knockout (KO parasites was similar to that of wild-type parasites, confirming that PfCDPK2 function is not essential for the asexual proliferation of the parasite in vitro. The mature male and female gametocytes of PfCDPK2 KO parasites become round after induction. However, they fail to infect female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes due to a defect(s in male gametocyte exflagellation and possibly in female gametes.

  2. A Global Survey of ATPase Activity in Plasmodium falciparum Asexual Blood Stages and Gametocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Corrie; Frando, Andrew; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Fleck, Neil; Flannery, Erika L.; Fishbaugher, Matthew; Murphree, Taylor A.; Hansen, Joshua R.; Smith, Richard D.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.; Wright, Aaron T.; Grundner, Christoph

    2017-10-27

    Effective malaria control and elimination in hyperendemic areas of the world will require treatment of disease-causing Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) blood stage infection but also blocking parasite transmission from humans to mosquito to prevent disease spread. Numerous antimalarial drugs have become ineffective due to parasite drug resistance and many currently used therapies do not kill gametocytes, highly specialized sexual parasite stages with distinct physiology that are necessary for transmission from the human host to the mosquito vector. Further confounding next generation drug development against Pf is the lack of known biochemical activity for most parasite gene products as well as the unknown metabolic needs of non-replicating gametocyte. Here, we take a systematic activity-based proteomics approach to survey the large and druggable ATPase family that is associated with replicating blood stage asexual parasites and transmissible gametocytes. We experimentally confirm existing annotation and predict ATPase function for 38 uncharacterized proteins. ATPase activity broadly changes during the transition from asexual schizonts to gametocytes, indicating altered metabolism and regulatory roles of ATPases specific for each lifecycle stage. By mapping the activity of ATPases associated with gametocytogenesis, we assign biochemical activity to a large number of uncharacterized proteins and identify new candidate transmission blocking targets.

  3. FvSTR1, a striatin orthologue in Fusarium virguliforme, is required for asexual development and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Kazi T; Bond, Jason P; Fakhoury, Ahmad M

    2017-08-01

    The soil-borne fungus Fusarium virguliforme causes sudden death syndrome (SDS), one of the most devastating diseases of soybean in North and South America. Despite the importance of SDS, a clear understanding of the fungal pathogenicity factors that affect the development of this disease is still lacking. We have identified FvSTR1, a F. virguliforme gene, which encodes a protein similar to a family of striatin proteins previously reported to regulate signalling pathways, cell differentiation, conidiation, sexual development, and virulence in filamentous fungi. Striatins are multi-domain proteins that serve as scaffolding units in the striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex in fungi and animals. To address the function of a striatin homologue in F. virguliforme, FvSTR1 was disrupted and functionally characterized using a gene knock out strategy. The resulting Fvstr1 mutants were largely impaired in conidiation and pigmentation, and displayed defective conidia and conidiophore morphology compared to the wild-type and ectopic transformants. Greenhouse virulence assays revealed that the disruption of FvSTR1 resulted in complete loss of virulence in F. virguliforme. Microtome studies using fluorescence microscopy showed that the Fvstr1 mutants were defective in their ability to colonize the vascular system. The Fvstr1 mutants also showed a reduced transcript level of genes involved in asexual reproduction and in the production of secondary metabolites. These results suggest that FvSTR1 has a critical role in asexual development and virulence in F. virguliforme.

  4. The effects of fermentation and enzymatic treatment of pea on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Senz, M; Kozłowski, K; Boros, D; Wisniewska, M; Rose, D; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2017-10-01

    The present study examined the impacts of native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas (Pisum sativum L.) inclusion in broiler diets, on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. For the fermentation process, Madonna pea was mixed with water (1/1) containing 2.57×108 Bacillus subtilis (GalliPro®) spores/kg pea and then, incubated for 48 h at 30 °C. For the enzymatic treatment process, the used water for dough production contained three enzymes, AlphaGalTM (α-galactosidase), RONOZYME® ProAct and VP (protease and pectinases respectively - DSM, Switzerland) and the pea dough incubated for 24 h at 30°C. Nine corn-wheat-soybean diets were formulated by supplying 10%, 20% and 30% of the required CP with either native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas. Performance was recorded weekly and at the end of the experiment (day 35), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP, amino acids (AA), crude fat, starch, Ca, P and K were determined. Data were subjected to ANOVA using GLM procedure with a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Both processes reduced α-galactosides, phytate, trypsin inhibitor activity and resistant starch in peas. Increasing levels of pea products up to 300 g/kg diet, reduced BW gain and feed intake (P⩽0.05). Broilers fed diets containing enzymatically treated pea had the best feed conversion ratio at day 35. Different types of pea product and their inclusion levels had no effect on AID of all nutrients. The interaction between type of the pea products and inclusion levels was significant for AID of starch. For native pea diets, 10% group showed similar AID of starch to 20% native pea but it had higher AID than 30% native pea. For fermented and enzymatically treated groups, all three levels displayed similar AID of starch. In conclusion, enzymatic treatment and fermentation could improve the nutritional quality of pea. Inclusion of enzymatically treated pea in broiler diets could improve broiler performance compared with other pea

  5. Hypocholesterolaemic effects of lupin protein and pea protein/fibre combinations in moderately hypercholesterolaemic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Triolo, Michela; Bosisio, Raffaella; Bondioli, Alighiero; Calabresi, Laura; De Vergori, Viviana; Gomaraschi, Monica; Mombelli, Giuliana; Pazzucconi, Franco; Zacherl, Christian; Arnoldi, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of plant proteins (lupin protein or pea protein) and their combinations with soluble fibres (oat fibre or apple pectin) on plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels. A randomised, double-blind, parallel group design was followed: after a 4-week run-in period, participants were randomised into seven treatment groups, each consisting of twenty-five participants. Each group consumed two bars containing specific protein/fibre combinations: the reference group consumed casein+cellulose; the second and third groups consumed bars containing lupin or pea proteins+cellulose; the fourth and fifth groups consumed bars containing casein and oat fibre or apple pectin; the sixth group and seventh group received bars containing combinations of pea protein and oat fibre or apple pectin, respectively. Bars containing lupin protein+cellulose ( - 116 mg/l, - 4·2%), casein+apple pectin ( - 152 mg/l, - 5·3%), pea protein+oat fibre ( - 135 mg/l, - 4·7%) or pea protein+apple pectin ( - 168 mg/l, - 6·4%) resulted in significant reductions of total cholesterol levels (Ppea protein+cellulose. The present study shows the hypocholesterolaemic activity and potential clinical benefits of consuming lupin protein or combinations of pea protein and a soluble fibre, such as oat fibre or apple pectin.

  6. NUTRALYS® pea protein: characterization of in vitro gastric digestion and in vivo gastrointestinal peptide responses relevant to satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Overduin

    2015-04-01

    Design: Under in vitro simulated gastric conditions, the digestion of NUTRALYS® pea protein was compared to that of two dairy proteins, slow-digestible casein and fast-digestible whey. In vivo, blood glucose and gastrointestinal hormonal (insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin [CCK], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], and peptide YY [PYY] responses were monitored in nine male Wistar rats following isocaloric (11 kcal meals containing 35 energy% of either NUTRALYS® pea protein, whey protein, or carbohydrate (non-protein. Results: In vitro, pea protein transiently aggregated into particles, whereas casein formed a more enduring protein network and whey protein remained dissolved. Pea-protein particle size ranged from 50 to 500 µm, well below the 2 mm threshold for gastric retention in humans. In vivo, pea-protein and whey-protein meals induced comparable responses for CCK, GLP-1, and PYY, that is, the anorexigenic hormones. Pea protein induced weaker initial, but equal 3-h integrated ghrelin and insulin responses than whey protein, possibly due to the slower gastric breakdown of pea protein observed in vitro. Two hours after meals, CCK levels were more elevated in the case of protein meals compared to that of non-protein meals. Conclusions: These results indicate that 1 pea protein transiently aggregates in the stomach and has an intermediately fast intestinal bioavailability in between that of whey and casein; 2 pea-protein- and dairy-protein-containing meals were comparably efficacious in triggering gastrointestinal satiety signals.

  7. Effect of Processing on the in Vitro and in Vivo Protein Quality of Yellow and Green Split Peas (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosworthy, Matthew G; Franczyk, Adam J; Medina, Gerardo; Neufeld, Jason; Appah, Paulyn; Utioh, Alphonsus; Frohlich, Peter; House, James D

    2017-09-06

    In order to determine the effect of extrusion, baking, and cooking on the protein quality of yellow and green split peas, a rodent bioassay was conducted and compared to an in vitro method of protein quality determination. The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) of green split peas (71.4%) was higher than that of yellow split peas (67.8%), on average. Similarly, the average Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) of green split peas (69%) was higher than that of yellow split peas (67%). Cooked green pea flour had lower PDCAAS and DIAAS values (69.19% and 67%) than either extruded (73.61%, 70%) or baked (75.22%, 70%). Conversely, cooked yellow split peas had the highest PDCCAS value (69.19%), while extruded yellow split peas had the highest DIAAS value (67%). Interestingly, a strong correlation was found between in vivo and in vitro analysis of protein quality (R 2 = 0.9745). This work highlights the differences between processing methods on pea protein quality and suggests that in vitro measurements of protein digestibility could be used as a surrogate for in vivo analysis.

  8. The ERK MAP kinase-PEA3/ETV4-MMP-1 axis is operative in oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keld, Richard

    2010-12-09

    Abstract Background Many members of the ETS-domain transcription factor family are important drivers of tumourigenesis. In this context, their activation by Ras-ERK pathway signaling is particularly relevant to the tumourigenic properties of many ETS-domain transcription factors. The PEA3 subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors have been implicated in tumour metastasis in several different cancers. Results Here, we have studied the expression of the PEA3 subfamily members PEA3\\/ETV4 and ER81\\/ETV1 in oesophageal adenocarcinomas and determined their role in oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell function. PEA3 plays an important role in controlling both the proliferation and invasive properties of OE33 oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells. A key target gene is MMP-1. The ERK MAP kinase pathway activates PEA3 subfamily members and also plays a role in these PEA3 controlled events, establishing the ERK-PEA3-MMP-1 axis as important in OE33 cells. PEA3 subfamily members are upregulated in human adenocarcinomas and expression correlates with MMP-1 expression and late stage metastatic disease. Enhanced ERK signaling is also more prevalent in late stage oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Conclusions This study shows that the ERK-PEA3-MMP-1 axis is upregulated in oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells and is a potentially important driver of the metastatic progression of oesophageal adenocarcinomas.

  9. Genetic diversity and trait genomic prediction in a pea diversity panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstin, Judith; Salloignon, Pauline; Chabert-Martinello, Marianne; Magnin-Robert, Jean-Bernard; Siol, Mathieu; Jacquin, Françoise; Chauveau, Aurélie; Pont, Caroline; Aubert, Grégoire; Delaitre, Catherine; Truntzer, Caroline; Duc, Gérard

    2015-02-21

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.), a major pulse crop grown for its protein-rich seeds, is an important component of agroecological cropping systems in diverse regions of the world. New breeding challenges imposed by global climate change and new regulations urge pea breeders to undertake more efficient methods of selection and better take advantage of the large genetic diversity present in the Pisum sativum genepool. Diversity studies conducted so far in pea used Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Retrotransposon Based Insertion Polymorphism (RBIP) markers. Recently, SNP marker panels have been developed that will be useful for genetic diversity assessment and marker-assisted selection. A collection of diverse pea accessions, including landraces and cultivars of garden, field or fodder peas as well as wild peas was characterised at the molecular level using newly developed SNP markers, as well as SSR markers and RBIP markers. The three types of markers were used to describe the structure of the collection and revealed different pictures of the genetic diversity among the collection. SSR showed the fastest rate of evolution and RBIP the slowest rate of evolution, pointing to their contrasted mode of evolution. SNP markers were then used to predict phenotypes -the date of flowering (BegFlo), the number of seeds per plant (Nseed) and thousand seed weight (TSW)- that were recorded for the collection. Different statistical methods were tested including the LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage ans Selection Operator), PLS (Partial Least Squares), SPLS (Sparse Partial Least Squares), Bayes A, Bayes B and GBLUP (Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction) methods and the structure of the collection was taken into account in the prediction. Despite a limited number of 331 markers used for prediction, TSW was reliably predicted. The development of marker assisted selection has not reached its full potential in pea until now. This paper shows that the high-throughput SNP arrays that are being

  10. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Nutritional evaluation of low-phytate peas (Pisum sativum L.) for young broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Philip; Deep, Aman; Petri, Daniel; Warkentin, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This experiment determined the effects of including normal and low-phytate peas in diets fed to young broiler chickens on performance, phosphorus availability and bone strength. A total of 180, day-old, male broilers (Ross-308 line) were assigned to six treatments. The control was based on corn and soybean meal while two additional corn-based diets were formulated containing 30% of either normal or low-phytate pea providing 0.45% available phosphorus. For each of these three diets, a similar diet was formulated by reducing the amount of dicalcium phosphate to produce a diet with 0.3% available phosphorus. The total tract apparent availability (TTAA) of phosphorus was higher (p = 0.02) for broilers fed the low-phytate pea than for birds fed the normal pea diets. Birds fed diets containing the lower level of phosphorus had a higher TTAA of phosphorus (50.64 vs. 46.68%) than broilers fed diets adequate in phosphorus. Protein source had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Broilers fed the low phosphorus diets had lower weight gain (p = 0.04) and feed intake (p pea than for those fed diets based on normal pea or soybean meal. Increasing the availability of the phosphorus in peas could mean that less inorganic phosphorus would be required in order to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers. Since inorganic phosphorus sources tend to be expensive, a reduction in their use would lower ration costs. In addition, increased availability of phosphorus would reduce the amount of phosphorus excreted thus reducing the amount of phosphorus that can potentially pollute the environment.

  12. Fusion: a tale of recombination in an asexual fungus: The role of nuclear dynamics and hyphal fusion in horizontal chromosome transfer in Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that not only meiotic recombination is responsible for the fast evolution of fungal pathogens. In the asexual fungus F. oxysporum (Fo) the "fast" evolving part of the genome is organized into small chromosomes and one such chromosome houses all effector genes and is

  13. The role of sexual vs. asexual recruitment of Artemisia wudanica in transition zone habitats between inter-dune lowlands and active dunes in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongcui; Alberto, Busso Carlos; Jiang, Deming; Ala, Musa; Li, Xuehua; Zhou, Quanlai; Lin, Jixiang; Ren, Guohua; Jia, Lian

    2016-04-01

    Artemisia wudanica is an endemic, perennial, pioneering psammophyte species in the sand dune ecosystems of western Horqin Sand Land in northern China. However, no studies have addressed how sexual and asexual reproduction modes of A. wudanica perform at the transitional zones between active dune inter-dune lowlands and active dunes. In early spring, quadrats were randomly set up in the study area to monitor surviving seedling and/or ramet density and frequency coming from sexual/asexual reproduction of A. wudanica. Iron sticks were inserted near each quadrat to determine wind erosion intensity (WE). Additionally, soil samples were collected nearby each quadrat to test for soil moisture (SM), organic matter (OM) and pH. Surviving seedlings of A. wudanica showed an inverse response in comparison with ramets to SM, OM and WE. Soil moisture showed the most positive effect, and WE the negative effect, on surviving, sexual reproduction seedlings. Contrarily, WE had the most positive effect, and SM the negative effect, on asexual reproduction ramets. This suggests that increases in SM and decreases in WE should benefit recruitment of A. wudanica seedlings. On the contrary, ramets coming from asexual reproduction showed a different response to environmental factors in transition zone habitats. While SM was not a key constraint for the survival of seedlings, they showed a better, positive response to wind erosion environments. Overall, various study environmental parameters could be improved to foster A. wudanica invasion and settlement in the plant community through different reproductive modes, thereby promoting vegetation restoration and rehabilitation.

  14. A Gene Expressed during Sexual and Asexual Sporulation in Phytophthora infestans is a Member of the Puf Family of Translational Regulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvitanich, Cristina; Judelson, Howard S.

    2003-01-01

    and persisted in mature oospores. Expression was also observed in hyphal tips just prior to asexual sporulation, in sporangiophores, in mature sporangia, and in zoospores. The signal quickly disappeared once spores made the transition to hyphae after germination. Nutrient limitation did not induce the gene...

  15. The Influence of Lead on Generation of Signalling Molecules and Accumulation of Flavonoids in Pea Seedlings in Response to Pea Aphid Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Woźniak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an abiotic factor, i.e., lead at various concentrations (low causing a hormesis effect and causing high toxicity effects, on the generation of signalling molecules in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Cysterski seedlings and then during infestation by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris. The second objective was to verify whether the presence of lead in pea seedling organs and induction of signalling pathways dependent on the concentration of this metal trigger defense responses to A. pisum. Therefore, the profile of flavonoids and expression levels of genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (phenylalanine ammonialyase and chalcone synthase were determined. A significant accumulation of total salicylic acid (TSA and abscisic acid (ABA was recorded in the roots and leaves of pea seedlings growing on lead-supplemented medium and next during infestation by aphids. Increased generation of these phytohormones strongly enhanced the biosynthesis of flavonoids, including a phytoalexin, pisatin. This research provides insights into the cross-talk between the abiotic (lead and biotic factor (aphid infestation on the level of the generation of signalling molecules and their role in the induction of flavonoid biosynthesis.

  16. Identification of a Golgi apparatus protein complex important for the asexual erythrocytic cycle of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallée, Stéphanie; Thériault, Catherine; Gagnon, Dominic; Kehrer, Jessica; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Mair, Gunnar R; Richard, Dave

    2018-03-26

    Compared with other eukaryotic cell types, malaria parasites appear to possess a more rudimentary Golgi apparatus being composed of dispersed, unstacked cis and trans-cisternae. Despite playing a central role in the secretory pathway of the parasite, few Plasmodium Golgi resident proteins have been characterised. We had previously identified a new Golgi resident protein of unknown function, which we had named Golgi Protein 1, and now show that it forms a complex with a previously uncharacterised transmembrane protein (Golgi Protein 2, GP2). The Golgi Protein complex localises to the cis-Golgi throughout the erythrocytic cycle and potentially also during the mosquito stages. Analysis of parasite strains where GP1 expression is conditionally repressed and/or the GP2 gene is inactivated reveals that though the Golgi protein complex is not essential at any stage of the parasite life cycle, it is important for optimal asexual development in the blood stages. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Analyses of pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus-encoded proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenz, Björn; Schießl, Ingrid; Greiner, Eva; Krapp, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV) is a multipartite, circular, single-stranded DNA plant virus. PNYDV encodes eight proteins and the function of three of which remains unknown-U1, U2, and U4. PNYDV proteins cellular localization was analyzed by GFP tagging and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) studies. The interactions of all eight PNYDV proteins were tested pairwise in planta (36 combinations in total). Seven interactions were identified and two (M-Rep with CP and MP with U4) were characterized further. MP and U4 complexes appeared as vesicle-like spots and were localized at the nuclear envelope and cell periphery. These vesicle-like spots were associated with the endoplasmatic reticulum. In addition, a nuclear localization signal (NLS) was mapped for U1, and a mutated U1 with NLS disrupted localized at plasmodesmata and therefore might also have a role in movement. Taken together, this study provides evidence for previously undescribed nanovirus protein-protein interactions and their cellular localization with novel findings not only for those proteins with unknown function, but also for characterized proteins such as the CP.

  18. Application of fast neutrons in the mutagenesis of peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huczkowski, J.; Kubajak, A.

    1976-01-01

    Air dry seeds of two varieties of peas were irradiated with fast neutrons of average energy of 5,6 MeV obtained in the U-120 cyclotron at the Cracow Institute of Nuclear Physics. The doses varied from 60 to 1600 rads. It was found that even very low doses (less than 100 rads) cause a conspicuous delay of germination; a significant decrease of seedling height was only observed at doses higher than 200 rads. In the 170-620 rad range seedling height diminished lineraly with increase of dose. On the basis of the greenhouse experiment five doses were chosen for field experiments: 200, 300, 500, 800 and 1000 rads. It was found that a dose of about 500 rads was the maximum that could be applied for breeding purposes: the survival and fertility rate at that dose was about 40% of the control, doses of 800 to 900 rads caused full mortality. The M2 seeds were sown in the greenhouse and the frequency of chlorophyl mutations was examined in generation M2. It was found to be very high: for doses of 200 t0 300 rads the mutations ocurred in about 4% of M2 seedlings. (author)

  19. Strigolactones suppress adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis and pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Mason, Michael Glenn; De Cuyper, Carolien; Brewer, Philip B; Herold, Silvia; Agusti, Javier; Geelen, Danny; Greb, Thomas; Goormachtig, Sofie; Beeckman, Tom; Beveridge, Christine Anne

    2012-04-01

    Adventitious root formation is essential for the propagation of many commercially important plant species and involves the formation of roots from nonroot tissues such as stems or leaves. Here, we demonstrate that the plant hormone strigolactone suppresses adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and pea (Pisum sativum). Strigolactone-deficient and response mutants of both species have enhanced adventitious rooting. CYCLIN B1 expression, an early marker for the initiation of adventitious root primordia in Arabidopsis, is enhanced in more axillary growth2 (max2), a strigolactone response mutant, suggesting that strigolactones restrain the number of adventitious roots by inhibiting the very first formative divisions of the founder cells. Strigolactones and cytokinins appear to act independently to suppress adventitious rooting, as cytokinin mutants are strigolactone responsive and strigolactone mutants are cytokinin responsive. In contrast, the interaction between the strigolactone and auxin signaling pathways in regulating adventitious rooting appears to be more complex. Strigolactone can at least partially revert the stimulatory effect of auxin on adventitious rooting, and auxin can further increase the number of adventitious roots in max mutants. We present a model depicting the interaction of strigolactones, cytokinins, and auxin in regulating adventitious root formation.

  20. Induced mutations in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) millsp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potdukhe, N.R.; Narkhede, M.N.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds of pigeon pea cv.ICPL-87119 were treated separately with gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and sodium azide (SA). Physical and chemical mutagens were found effective in affecting the germination and survival of plants in M 1 , M 2 and M 3 generations. However, reduction in survival was more pronounced in M 1 as compared to M 2 and M 3 generation and was increased as the dose or concentration increased. The survival of plants was comparatively affected more than germination of seeds due to the fact that the seedlings failed to grow after primary leaf stage due to shoot and root damage. Seedling damage and reduction in pollen fertility revealed linear trend with increase in dosage of three mutagens. As regards the pollen diameter of both fertile and sterile pollen reduction was more pronounced in EMS and sodium azide as compared to gamma rays. Among the mutagens, sodium azide was the most effective and EMS the least in causing irregularities. The meiotic cell division in the PMC's of morphological variant viz., simple leaf mutant, robust leaf mutant, dwarf and bushy mutant, xantha, branchless, uniculm and bunchy flowered mutant etc. isolated in M 2 generation. (author)

  1. ESTIMATION OF PEA GRAIN YIELD STABILITY (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Čupić

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to determine yield and estimate pea grain yield stability of newly-created lines JSG-1 (cultivar in recognition process as well as compare with foreign origin cultivars in agroecological area of east Slavonia. The trial was set up by a randomized block design on the experimental field of Agricultural Institute Osijek in four replicates in the five-year period (1998 – 2002. Six (five foreign and one inland cultivars were included by the trial: Eiffil, Erbi, JP-5, JSG-1 (in a recognition process, Torsz and Baccara. Stability parameters were calculated by the grouping method after Francis and Kannenberg (1978 and by the model of individual stability estimation after Eberhart and Russel method (1966. According to Francis and Kannenberg, cultivars Eiffil, Erbi, JSG-1 and Baccara belonged to group I known for high yield and low trait varying coefficient, thus, represent stabile yield cultivars. According to regression coefficient and regression deviation variance the most stabile cultivar appeared to be cultivar JSG-1 (bi =1.06 and S2 di=0.010 and the lowest one was Torsz (bi =0.67 and S2 di =0.160. Cultivar Baccara (bi = 1.22 and S2 di =0.034 was comprised by the group of unstabile and adaptible for high-yielding environments.

  2. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, M.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.

    1989-11-01

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137 Cs and 134 Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137 Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134 Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  3. Formation of putative chloroplast cytochromes in isolated developing pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaver, S.S.; Bhava, D.; Castelfranco, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    In addition to chlorophyll-protein complexes, other proteins were labeled when isolated developing pea chloroplasts were incubated with [ 14 C]-5-aminolevulinic acid [ 14 C]-ALA. The major labeled band (M/sub r/ = 43 kDa by LDS-PAGE) was labeled even in the presence of chloramphenicol. Heme-dependent peroxidase activity (as detected by the tetramethyl benzidine-H 2 O 2 stain) was not visibly associated with this band. The radioactive band was stable to heat, 5% HCl in acetone, and was absent if the incubation with [ 14 C]-5-aminolevulinic acid was carried out in the presence of N-methyl protoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (a specific inhibitor of ferrochelatase). Organic solvent extraction procedures for the enrichment of cytochrome f from chloroplast membranes also extracted this unknown labeled product. It was concluded that this labeled product was probably a c-type cytochrome. The effect of exogenous iron, iron chelators, gabaculine (an inhibitor of ALA synthesis) and other incubation conditions upon the in vitro formation of putative chloroplast cytochromes will be discussed

  4. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION STUDY VIA LINEAR POLARIZATION IN PEAS CAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Costa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the corrosion of tinplate can for peas. Firstly, the characterization of canning solution was made. The values of pH, conductivity, Brix, viscosity, density and content of Fe were, respectively, 5.88; 32.6 mS/cm; 6.6%; 3,42cP; 1.026 g/ml; 12.05 mg/kg. The corrosion rate in the cans was determined by linear polarization technique. The electrodes with and without varnish were analyzed in the first and fifth day of the experiment for the 3 parts of the can. The corrosion rate increased significantly when the coating was removed and the body showed a higher corrosion rate, reaching 1.7 mm/year in the absence of varnish. The microstructure of the samples was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. The increase of iron on the surface, evidenced by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS may have contributed to the corrosion in the samples without varnish.

  5. THE ORIGIN AND OPTICAL DEPTH OF IONIZING RADIATION IN THE 'GREEN PEA' GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Although Lyman-continuum (LyC) radiation from star-forming galaxies likely drove the reionization of the universe, observations of star-forming galaxies at low redshift generally indicate low LyC escape fractions. However, the extreme [O III]/[O II] ratios of the z = 0.1-0.3 Green Pea galaxies may be due to high escape fractions of ionizing radiation. To analyze the LyC optical depths and ionizing sources of these rare, compact starbursts, we compare nebular photoionization and stellar population models with observed emission lines in the Peas' Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra. We focus on the six most extreme Green Peas, the galaxies with the highest [O III]/[O II] ratios and the best candidates for escaping ionizing radiation. The Balmer line equivalent widths and He I {lambda}3819 emission in the extreme Peas support young ages of 3-5 Myr, and He II {lambda}4686 emission in five extreme Peas signals the presence of hard ionizing sources. Ionization by active galactic nuclei or high-mass X-ray binaries is inconsistent with the Peas' line ratios and ages. Although stacked spectra reveal no Wolf-Rayet (WR) features, we tentatively detect WR features in the SDSS spectra of three extreme Peas. Based on the Peas' ages and line ratios, we find that WR stars, chemically homogeneous O stars, or shocks could produce the observed He II emission. If hot stars are responsible, then the Peas' optical depths are ambiguous. However, accounting for emission from shocks lowers the inferred optical depth and suggests that the Peas may be optically thin. The Peas' ages likely optimize the escape of LyC radiation; they are old enough for supernovae and stellar winds to reshape the interstellar medium, but young enough to possess large numbers of UV-luminous O or WR stars.

  6. Aerobic and facultative microorganisms isolated from corroded metallic structures in a hydroeletric power unit in the amazon region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Amabel Fernandes; Segoviae, Jorge Federico Orellana; Bezerra, Roberto Messias; Gonçalves, Magda Celeste Alvares; Ornelas, Sócrates Souza; Silveira, Dâmaris; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares; Diniz, Sérgio Paulo Severo de Souza; Kanzaki, Luis Isamu Barros

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic and facultative bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Bacillaceae, Corynebacteriaceae and Streptococcaceae families have been isolated from corroded metallic structures of a hydroelectric power unit in the Amazon region of Brazil. In addition to anamorphic dematiaceous and moniliaceous fungi, members of the archeobacteria kingdom were also detected in the same samples. Scanning electron micrographs of metal bars cultivated with consortia of the isolated micro...

  7. Sexual imprinting misguides species recognition in a facultative interspecific brood parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Michael D; Hauber, Mark E; Derrickson, Scott R

    2010-10-22

    Sexual reproduction relies on the recognition of conspecifics for breeding. Most experiments in birds have implicated a critical role for early social learning in directing subsequent courtship behaviours and mating decisions. This classical view of avian sexual imprinting is challenged, however, by studies of megapodes and obligate brood parasites, species in which reliable recognition is achieved despite the lack of early experience with conspecifics. By rearing males with either conspecific or heterospecific brood mates, we experimentally tested the effect of early social experience on the association preferences and courtship behaviours of two sympatrically breeding ducks. We predicted that redheads (Aythya americana), which are facultative interspecific brood parasites, would show a diminished effect of early social environment on subsequent courtship preferences when compared with their host and congener, the canvasback (Aythya valisineria). Contrary to expectations, cross-fostered males of both species courted heterospecific females and preferred them in spatial association tests, whereas control males courted and associated with conspecific females. These results imply that ontogenetic constraints on species recognition may be a general impediment to the initial evolution of interspecific brood parasitism in birds. Under more natural conditions, a variety of mechanisms may mitigate or counteract the effects of early imprinting for redheads reared in canvasback broods.

  8. Facultative parasitism by the bivalve Kurtiella pedroana in the sand crab Emerita analoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Ritin; Valentich-Scott, Paul; Hilgers, Mark; Singh, Rajvir; Hickman, Mikaila; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    It is rare that an organism capable of independent or commensalistic existence can also become endoparasitic on a host. In this study, we documented a potential step toward parasitism in the commensal clam Kurtiella pedroana (Bivalvia: Galeommatoidea). Galeommatoideans are known commensals of various invertebrates, including crustaceans. Emerita analoga (Decapoda: Hippidae) is an abundant intertidal decapod inhabiting sandy beaches of the Pacific coast of North and South America. Crabs collected from Monterey Bay, California, were measured and examined externally and internally for associated molluscs. Out of the 520 crabs, 37 large female individuals harbored 49 bivalves (prevalence of 7.11% and mean intensity of 1.3). Forty-one ectocommensal clams were either inside the crab's branchial chambers or on their lateroventral surfaces, and were attached by byssal threads. Our key finding was eight clams that lacked byssal threads and were living in the hemocoel. These internal clams were significantly smaller than the ectocommensals. Because these internal clams lacked access to their normal food, we hypothesize they might have fed on their host's hemolymph as would a parasite. This clam species likely can't reproduce inside its host, implying that endoparasitism is a dead-end state for K. pedroana. Facultative parasitism in a free-living or an ectocommensal is uncommon and suggests a pathway to parasitism.

  9. A case of a facultative life-cycle diversification in the fluke Pleurogenoides sp. (Lecithodendriidae, Plagiorchiida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassl, Andreas R

    2010-10-01

    Numerous specimens of the native, intestinal digenean fluke Pleurogenoides sp. (Lecithodendriidae, Plagiorchiida), a genus known for the simultaneous co-existence of genuine adults and progenetic, adult-like metacercaria, were found by chance parasitizing in the oesophagus of a recently imported, tropical Bristly Bush Viper (Atheris hispida). The snake had before been force-fed with native water frogs, the assumed definitive host of these flukes. Hence water frogs act as the second intermediate host or as a paratenic host for Pleurogenoides flukes, as they must house progenetic fluke larvae, which develop to genuine adults when transmitted to an appropriate consecutive host, the ancestral definitive host, a reptile. The European Pleurogenoides fluke species seem to display a facultative life-cycle diversification, they can adjust their life-history strategy according to their immediate transmission opportunities. This phenotypic plasticity allows the parasite to respond quickly to any changes in the abundance of a host; usually this biological oddity results in a life-cycle truncation by the elimination of the definitive host.

  10. Methylopila capsulata gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel non-pigmented aerobic facultatively methylotrophic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, N V; Trotsenko, Y A; Krausova, V I; Boulygina, E S; Tourova, T P

    1998-10-01

    A new genus, Methylopila, and one new species are described for a group of seven strains of facultatively methylotrophic bacteria with the serine pathway of C1 assimilation. These bacteria are aerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore--forming, motile, colourless rods that multiply by binary fission. Their DNA base content ranges from 66 to 70 mol % G + C. Their cellular fatty acid profile consists primarily of C18:1 omega 7 cis-vaccenic and C19:0 cyclopropane acids. The major hydroxy acid is 3-OH C14:0. The main ubiquinone is Q-10. The dominant cellular phospholipids are phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. The new isolates have a low level of DNA-DNA homology (5-10%) with the type strains of the serine pathway methylobacteria belonging to the genera Methylobacterium, Aminobacter, Hyphomicrobium and Methylorhabdus. Another approach, involving 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain IM1T, has shown that the new isolates represent a separate branch within the alpha-2 subclass of the Proteobacteria. The type species of the new genus is Methylopila capsulata sp. nov., with the type strain IM1T (= VKM B-1606T).

  11. [Advenella kashmirensis subsp. methylica PK1, a facultative methylotroph from carex rhizosphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poroshina, M N; Doronina, N V; Kaparullina, E N; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2015-01-01

    A strain (PK1) of facultative methylobacteria growing on methanol as a carbon and energy source was isolated from carex rhizosphere (Pamukkale National Park, Turkey). The cells were nonmotile gram-negative rods propagating by binary fission. The organism was a strict anaerobe, oxidase- and catalase-positive. Optimal growth occurred at 29°C, pH 8.0-8.5, and 0.5% NaCl; no growth occurred at 2% NaCl. The organism used the ribulose bisphosphate pathway of C1 assimilation. Predominant fatty acids were 11-octodecenoic (18:1ω7) and cis-hexadecenoic (16:1ω7c). Phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol were the dominant phospholipids. Q8 was the main ubiquinone. DNA G+C content was 55.4 mol % (mp). Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that strain PK1 belonged to the genus Advenella with 98.8 and 99.2% similarity to the type strains A. incenata CCUG 45225T and A. kashmirensis WT001T, respectively. DNA-DNA homology of strain PK1 and A. kashmirensis WT001T was 70%. While MALDI analysis confirmed their close clusterization, RAPD analysis revealed the differences between strain PKI and other Advenella strains. Based on its geno- and phenotypic properties, the isolate PK1 was classified as A. kashmirensis subsp. methylica PK1 (VKM-B 2850 = DSM 27514), the first known methylotroph of the genus Advenella.

  12. Low interbasin connectivity in a facultatively diadromous fish: evidence from genetics and otolith chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jane M; Schmidt, Daniel J; Macdonald, Jed I; Huey, Joel A; Crook, David A

    2014-03-01

    Southern smelts (Retropinna spp.) in coastal rivers of Australia are facultatively diadromous, with populations potentially containing individuals with diadromous or wholly freshwater life histories. The presence of diadromous individuals is expected to reduce genetic structuring between river basins due to larval dispersal via the sea. We use otolith chemistry to distinguish between diadromous and nondiadromous life histories and population genetics to examine interbasin connectivity resulting from diadromy. Otolith strontium isotope ((87) Sr:(86) Sr) transects identified three main life history patterns: amphidromy, freshwater residency and estuarine/marine residency. Despite the potential for interbasin connectivity via larval mixing in the marine environment, we found unprecedented levels of genetic structure for an amphidromous species. Strong hierarchical structure along putative taxonomic boundaries was detected, along with highly structured populations within groups using microsatellites (FST  = 0.046-0.181), and mtDNA (ΦST  = 0.498-0.816). The presence of strong genetic subdivision, despite the fact that many individuals reside in saline water during their early life history, appears incongruous. However, analysis of multielemental signatures in the otolith cores of diadromous fish revealed strong discrimination between river basins, suggesting that diadromous fish spend their early lives within chemically distinct estuaries rather than the more homogenous marine environment, thus avoiding dispersal and maintaining genetic structure. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Development of a system for genetic manipulation of the facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris BL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, Andrew; Murrell, J Colin

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of the metabolism and metabolic regulation of the facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris BL2 is required to understand its role in methane oxidation in the environment, and methods for genetics manipulation are essential tools in these investigations. In addition, the ability to engineer the metabolic capabilities of M. silvestris may well have useful biotechnological applications. We describe a simple and effective method of genetic manipulation for this organism which relies on the electroporation of a linear DNA fragment to introduce chromosomal gene deletions. In a two-step procedure, the gene of interest is first replaced with an antibiotic-resistance cassette which is subsequently removed, resulting in an unmarked gene deletion. This method is illustrated by the deletion of isocitrate lyase, which abolished growth on one-carbon and severely disabled growth on two-carbon compounds. Subsequent complementation with the wild-type gene and promoter restored growth, demonstrating stable transcription from the broad-host-range plasmid employed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-oral gram-negative facultative rods in chronic periodontitis microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winkelhoff, Arie J; Rurenga, Patrick; Wekema-Mulder, Gepke J; Singadji, Zadrach M; Rams, Thomas E

    2016-05-01

    The subgingival prevalence of gram-negative facultative rods not usually inhabiting or indigenous to the oral cavity (non-oral GNFR), as well as selected periodontal bacterial pathogens, were evaluated by culture in untreated and treated chronic periodontitis patients. Subgingival biofilm specimens from 102 untreated and 101 recently treated adults with chronic periodontitis in the Netherlands were plated onto MacConkey III and Dentaid selective media with air-5% CO2 incubation for isolation of non-oral GNFR, and onto enriched Oxoid blood agar with anaerobic incubation for recovery of selected periodontal bacterial pathogens. Suspected non-oral GNFR clinical isolates were identified to a species level with the VITEK 2 automated system. A total of 87 (42.9%) out of 203 patients yielded subgingival non-oral GNFR. Patients recently treated with periodontal mechanical debridement therapy demonstrated a greater prevalence of non-oral GNFR (57.4% vs 28.4%, P chronic periodontitis patients yielded cultivable non-oral GNFR in periodontal pockets, particularly among those recently treated with periodontal mechanical debridement therapy. Since non-oral GNFR species may resist mechanical debridement from periodontal pockets, and are often not susceptible to many antibiotics frequently used in periodontal practice, their subgingival presence may complicate periodontal treatment in species-positive patients and increase risk of potentially dangerous GNFR infections developing at other body sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genomes of three facultatively symbiotic Frankia sp. strainsreflect host plant biogeography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, Philippe; Lapierre, Pascal; Tisa, Louis S.; Gogarten, J.Peter; Alloisio, Nicole; Bagnarol, Emilie; Bassi, Carla A.; Berry,Alison; Bickhart, Derek M.; Choisne, Nathalie; Couloux, Arnaud; Cournoyer, Benoit; Cruveiller, Stephane; Daubin, Vincent; Demange, Nadia; Francino, M. Pilar; Ggoltsman, Eugene; Huang, Ying; Kopp, Olga; Labarre,Laurent; Lapidus, Alla; Lavire, Celine; Marechal, Joelle; Martinez,Michele; Mastronunzio, Juliana E.; Mullin, Beth; Niemann, James; Pujic,Pierre; Rawnsley, Tania; Rouy, Zoe; Schenowitz, Chantal; Sellstedt,Anita; Tavares, Fernando; Tomkins, Jeffrey P.; Vallenet, David; Valverde,Claudio; Wall, Luis; Wang, Ying; Medigue, Claudine; Benson, David R.

    2006-02-01

    Filamentous actinobacteria from the genus Frankia anddiverse woody trees and shrubs together form N2-fixing actinorhizal rootnodule symbioses that are a major source of new soil nitrogen in widelydiverse biomes 1. Three major clades of Frankia sp. strains are defined;each clade is associated with a defined subset of plants from among theeight actinorhizal plant families 2,3. The evolution arytrajectoriesfollowed by the ancestors of both symbionts leading to current patternsof symbiont compatibility are unknown. Here we show that the competingprocesses of genome expansion and contraction have operated in differentgroups of Frankia strains in a manner that can be related to thespeciation of the plant hosts and their geographic distribution. Wesequenced and compared the genomes from three Frankia sp. strains havingdifferent host plant specificities. The sizes of their genomes variedfrom 5.38 Mbp for a narrow host range strain (HFPCcI3) to 7.50Mbp for amedium host range strain (ACN14a) to 9.08 Mbp for a broad host rangestrain (EAN1pec.) This size divergence is the largest yet reported forsuch closely related bacteria. Since the order of divergence of thestrains is known, the extent of gene deletion, duplication andacquisition could be estimated and was found to be inconcert with thebiogeographic history of the symbioses. Host plant isolation favoredgenome contraction, whereas host plant diversification favored genomeexpansion. The results support the idea that major genome reductions aswell as expansions can occur in facultatively symbiotic soil bacteria asthey respond to new environments in the context of theirsymbioses.

  16. Juvenile hormone levels reflect social opportunities in the facultatively eusocial sweat bee Megalopta genalis (Hymenoptera: Halictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam R; Kapheim, Karen M; Pérez-Ortega, Betzi; Brent, Colin S; Wcislo, William T

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of eusociality is hypothesized to have involved de-coupling parental care from reproduction mediated by changes in endocrine regulation. While data for obligately eusocial insects are consistent with this hypothesis, we lack information from species representative of the transition from solitary reproduction to eusociality. Here we report the first evidence for a link between endocrine processes and social behavior in a facultatively eusocial bee, Megalopta genalis (Halictidae). Using females that varied in social, reproductive, and ecological context, we measured juvenile hormone (JH), a major regulator of colony caste dynamics in other eusocial species. JH was low at adult emergence, but elevated after 10 days in all nesting females. Females reared in cages with ad lib nutrition, however, did not elevate JH levels after 10 days. All reproductive females had significantly more JH than all age-matched non-reproductive females, suggesting a gonadotropic function. Among females in established nests, JH was higher in queens than workers and solitary reproductives, suggesting a role for JH in social dominance. A lack of significant differences in JH between solitary reproductives and non-reproductive workers suggests that JH content reflects more than reproductive status. Our data support the hypothesis that endocrine modifications are involved in the evolutionary decoupling of reproductive and somatic effort in social insects. These are the first measurements of JH in a solitary-nesting hymenopteran, and the first to compare eusocial and solitary nesting individuals of the same species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. A primordial and reversible TCA cycle in a facultatively chemolithoautotrophic thermophile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunoura, Takuro; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Izaki, Rikihisa; Suwa, Takashi; Sato, Takaaki; Harada, Takeshi; Mori, Koji; Kato, Yumiko; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Shimamura, Shigeru; Yanagawa, Katsunori; Shuto, Aya; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Atomi, Haruyuki; Takai, Ken

    2018-02-02

    Inorganic carbon fixation is essential to sustain life on Earth, and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle is one of the most ancient carbon fixation metabolisms. A combination of genomic, enzymatic, and metabolomic analyses of a deeply branching chemolithotrophic Thermosulfidibacter takaii ABI70S6 T revealed a previously unknown reversible TCA cycle whose direction was controlled by the available carbon source(s). Under a chemolithoautotrophic condition, a rTCA cycle occurred with the reverse reaction of citrate synthase (CS) and not with the adenosine 5'-triphosphate-dependent citrate cleavage reactions that had been regarded as essential for the conventional rTCA cycle. Phylometabolic evaluation suggests that the TCA cycle with reversible CS may represent an ancestral mode of the rTCA cycle and raises the possibility of a facultatively chemolithomixotrophic origin of life. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  18. Fungi treated with small chemicals exhibit increased antimicrobial activity against facultative bacterial and yeast pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutz, Christoph; Bandian, Dragana; Neumayer, Bernhard; Speringer, Franz; Gorfer, Markus; Wagner, Martin; Strauss, Joseph; Rychli, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    For decades, fungi have been the main source for the discovery of novel antimicrobial drugs. Recent sequencing efforts revealed a still high number of so far unknown "cryptic" secondary metabolites. The production of these metabolites is presumably epigenetically silenced under standard laboratory conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of six small mass chemicals, of which some are known to act as epigenetic modulators, on the production of antimicrobial compounds in 54 spore forming fungi. The antimicrobial effect of fungal samples was tested against clinically facultative pathogens and multiresistant clinical isolates. In total, 30 samples of treated fungi belonging to six different genera reduced significantly growth of different test organisms compared to the untreated fungal sample (growth log reduction 0.3-4.3). For instance, the pellet of Penicillium restrictum grown in the presence of butyrate revealed significant higher antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and multiresistant S. aureus strains and displayed no cytotoxicity against human cells, thus making it an ideal candidate for antimicrobial compound discovery. Our study shows that every presumable fungus, even well described fungi, has the potential to produce novel antimicrobial compounds and that our approach is capable of rapidly filling the pipeline for yet undiscovered antimicrobial substances.

  19. Facultative symbiont Hamiltonella confers benefits to Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), an invasive agricultural pest worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qi; Oliver, Kerry M; Pan, Huipeng; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Liu, Baiming; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Xu, Baoyun; White, Jennifer A; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial symbionts infect most insect species, including important pests such as whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and often exert important effects on host ecology. The facultative symbiont Hamiltonella is found at high frequencies in the B. tabaci MED (type: Mediterranean-MED) in China. The prevalence of this symbiont in natural populations suggests beneficial effects of infection or manipulation of host reproduction. To date, however, no empirical studies on the biological role of Hamiltonella on the host B. tabaci have been reported. Here, we investigated the effects of Hamiltonella infection on the sex ratio and several fitness parameters in B. tabaci MED by comparing Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies with Hamiltonella-free ones. We found that Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies produced significantly more eggs, exhibited significantly higher nymphal survival, faster development times, and larger adult body size in comparison with Hamiltonella-free whiteflies, while no evidence of reproductive manipulation by Hamiltonella were found in B. tabaci MED. In conclusion, Hamiltonella infection substantially enhanced B. tabaci MED performance. This beneficial role may, at least partially, explain the high prevalence of Hamiltonella in B. tabaci MED populations and may also contribute to their effectiveness in spread of the plant pathogens tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

  20. Isolation and characterization of new facultative alkaliphilic Bacillus flexus strains from maize processing waste water (nejayote).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, M; Blanco-Gamez, A; Escalante, A; Valladares, A G; Olvera, C; Parra, R

    2011-04-01

    This work describes the isolation and characterization of two new alkaliphilic micro-organisms present in nejayote. Samples of fresh industrial nejayote were plated on nejayote medium and incubated for 4 days at 37 °C. Isolates were identified based on morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Two gram-positive strains, NJY2 and NJY4, able to hydrolyse starch, xylan, and gelatin were isolated from nejayote. Comparative sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and phylogenetic studies indicate that the micro-organisms studied were closely related to members of the Bacillus flexus species. The strains were identified as facultative alkaliphilic salt tolerant bacteria. Isolate NJY2 produced cell associated phenolic acid esterases, able to release ferulic acid from nixtamalised corn bran and ethyl and methyl esters. The isolated strains of B. flexus NJY2 and NJY4 showed important physiological properties to produce high-value molecules from agroindustrial by-products. This is the first report about the isolation of alkaliphilic micro-organisms from nejayote and the first report of phenolic acid esterases synthesised by alkaliphiles. The new alkaliphilic micro-organisms have potential application in the treatment and transformation of tortilla industry residues. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Requirement of carbon dioxide for initial growth of facultative methylotroph, Acidomonas methanolica MB58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Ryoji; Katayama, Hiroko; Tanaka, Mitsuo

    2015-07-01

    The facultative methylotrophic bacterium Acidomonas methanolica MB58 can utilize C1 compounds via the ribulose monophosphate pathway. A large gene cluster comprising three components related to C1 metabolism was found in the genome. From upstream, the first was an mxa cluster encoding proteins for oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde; the second was the rmp cluster encoding enzymes for formaldehyde fixation; and the third was the cbb gene cluster encoding proteins for carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation. Examination of CO2 requirements for growth of A. methanolica MB58 cells demonstrated that it did not grow on any carbon source under CO2-free conditions. Measurement of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated enzymatic activity was detected in A. methanolica MB58 at growth phase, regardless of carbon sources. However, methanol dehydrogenase and 3-hexlose-6-phosphate synthase expression was regulated by methanol or formaldehyde; it were detected during growth and apparently differed from ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase expression. These results suggested that A. methanolica MB58 may be initially dependent on autotrophic growth and that carbon assimilation was subsequently coupled with the ribulose monophosphate pathway at early- to mid-log phases during methylotrophic growth. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Methylobacterium gossipiicola sp. nov., a pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium isolated from the cotton phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Senthilkumar, Murugaiyan; Lee, Jung-Sook; Lee, Keun-Chul

    2012-01-01

    A pink, aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic, motile, Gram-negative rod, designated Gh-105(T), was isolated from the phyllosphere of cotton from Coimbatore (Tamilnadu, India). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed clearly that the isolate belonged to the Methylobacterium cluster. Strain Gh-105(T) was most closely related to Methylobacterium adhaesivum AR27(T) (99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Methylobacterium iners 5317S-33(T) (97.5%). The isolate grew with C(1) compounds such as methanol and dichloromethane, but not with formaldehyde, formate, methylamine, trimethylamine or methane, as sole carbon sources and carried mxaF, which encodes methanol dehydrogenase and supports methylotrophic metabolism. The major fatty acid was C(18:1)ω7c and the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 64.2 mol%. Physiological and biochemical data and DNA-DNA relatedness with M. adhaesivum KACC 12195(T) and M. iners KACC 11765(T) revealed clear phenotypic and genotypic differences. For this reason, we propose that strain Gh-105(T) (=CCM 7572(T) =NRRL B-51692(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species, with the name Methylobacterium gossipiicola sp. nov.

  3. Roseimarinus sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic bacterium isolated from coastal sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Jie; Liu, Qian-Qian; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2015-07-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile and pink-pigmented bacterium, designated strain HF08(T), was isolated from marine sediment of the coast of Weihai, China. Cells were rod-shaped, and oxidase- and catalase-positive. The isolate grew optimally at 33 °C, at pH 7.5-8.0 and with 2-3% (w/v) NaCl. The dominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0. Menaquinone 7 (MK-7) was the major respiratory quinone and the DNA G+C content was 44.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate was a member of the class Bacteroidia, and shared 88-90% sequence similarity with the closest genera Sunxiuqinia, Prolixibacter, Draconibacterium, Mariniphaga and Meniscus. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence presented, a novel species in a new genus of the family Prolixibacteraceae is proposed, with the name Roseimarinus sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Roseimarinus sediminis is HF08(T) ( = KCTC 42261(T) = CICC 10901(T)).

  4. Oxidative phosphorylation in a thermophilic, facultative chemoautotroph, Hydrogenophilus thermoluteolus, living prevalently in geothermal niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Satoshi; Masanari, Misa; Ikeda, Takumi; Yamaguchi, Naho; Ueshima, Saori; Watanabe, Kaori; Nishihara, Hirofumi; Sambongi, Yoshihiro

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogenophilus is a thermophilic, facultative chemoautotroph, which lives prevalently in high temperature geothermal niches. Despite the environmental distribution, little is known about its oxidative phosphorylation. Here, we show that inverted membrane vesicles derived from Hydrogenophilus thermoluteolus cells autotrophically cultivated with H2 formed a proton gradient on the addition of succinate, dl-lactate, and NADH, and exhibited oxidation activity toward these three organic compounds. These indicate the capability of mixotrophic growth of this bacterium. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the same vesicles contained an F-type ATP synthase. The F1 sector of the ATP synthase purified from H. thermoluteolus membranes exhibited optimal ATPase activity at 65°C. Transformed Escherichia coli membranes expressing H. thermoluteolus F-type ATP synthase exhibited the same temperature optimum for the ATPase. These findings shed light on H. thermoluteolus oxidative phosphorylation from the aspects of membrane bioenergetics and ATPase biochemistry, which must be fundamental and advantageous in the biogeochemical cycles occurred in the high temperature geothermal niches. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Interactions between marine facultative epiphyte Chlamydomonas sp. (Chlamydomonadales, Chlorophyta) and ceramiaceaen algae (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klochkova, Tatyana A; Cho, Ga Youn; Boo, Sung Min; Chung, Ki Wha; Kim, Song Ja; Kim, Gwang Hoon

    2008-07-01

    Previously unrecorded marine Chlamydomonas that grew epiphytic on ceramiaceaen algae was collected from the western coast of Korea and isolated into a unialgal culture. The isolate was subjected to 18S rDNA phylogenetic analysis as well as ultrastructure and life cycle studies. It had an affinity with the marine Chlamydomonas species and was less related to freshwater/terrestrial representatives of this genus. It had flagella shorter than the cell body two-layered cell wall with striated outer surface and abundant mucilaginous material beneath the innermost layer and no contractile vacuoles. This alga grew faster in mixed cultures with ceramiaceaen algae rather than in any tested unialgal culture condition; the cells looked healthier and zoosporangia and motile flagellated vegetative cells appeared more often. These results suggested that this Chlamydomonas might be a facultative epiphyte benefiting from its hosts. Several ceramiaceaen algae were tested as host plants. Meanwhile, cell deformation or collapse of the whole thallus was caused to Aglaothamnion byssoides, and preliminary study suggested that a substance released from Chlamydomonas caused the response. This is first report on harmful epiphytic interactions between Chlamydomonas species and red ceramiaceaen algae.

  6. Comparative Genomics of Facultative Bacterial Symbionts Isolated from European Orius Species Reveals an Ancestral Symbiotic Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pest control in agriculture employs diverse strategies, among which the use of predatory insects has steadily increased. The use of several species within the genus Orius in pest control is widely spread, particularly in Mediterranean Europe. Commercial mass rearing of predatory insects is costly, and research efforts have concentrated on diet manipulation and selective breeding to reduce costs and improve efficacy. The characterisation and contribution of microbial symbionts to Orius sp. fitness, behaviour, and potential impact on human health has been neglected. This paper provides the first genome sequence level description of the predominant culturable facultative bacterial symbionts associated with five Orius species (O. laevigatus, O. niger, O. pallidicornis, O. majusculus, and O. albidipennis from several geographical locations. Two types of symbionts were broadly classified as members of the genera Serratia and Leucobacter, while a third constitutes a new genus within the Erwiniaceae. These symbionts were found to colonise all the insect specimens tested, which evidenced an ancestral symbiotic association between these bacteria and the genus Orius. Pangenome analyses of the Serratia sp. isolates offered clues linking Type VI secretion system effector–immunity proteins from the Tai4 sub-family to the symbiotic lifestyle.

  7. Comparative Genomics of Facultative Bacterial Symbionts Isolated from European Orius Species Reveals an Ancestral Symbiotic Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaorui; Hitchings, Matthew D.; Mendoza, José E.; Balanza, Virginia; Facey, Paul D.; Dyson, Paul J.; Bielza, Pablo; Del Sol, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Pest control in agriculture employs diverse strategies, among which the use of predatory insects has steadily increased. The use of several species within the genus Orius in pest control is widely spread, particularly in Mediterranean Europe. Commercial mass rearing of predatory insects is costly, and research efforts have concentrated on diet manipulation and selective breeding to reduce costs and improve efficacy. The characterisation and contribution of microbial symbionts to Orius sp. fitness, behaviour, and potential impact on human health has been neglected. This paper provides the first genome sequence level description of the predominant culturable facultative bacterial symbionts associated with five Orius species (O. laevigatus, O. niger, O. pallidicornis, O. majusculus, and O. albidipennis) from several geographical locations. Two types of symbionts were broadly classified as members of the genera Serratia and Leucobacter, while a third constitutes a new genus within the Erwiniaceae. These symbionts were found to colonise all the insect specimens tested, which evidenced an ancestral symbiotic association between these bacteria and the genus Orius. Pangenome analyses of the Serratia sp. isolates offered clues linking Type VI secretion system effector–immunity proteins from the Tai4 sub-family to the symbiotic lifestyle. PMID:29067021

  8. Direct fitness correlates and thermal consequences of facultative aggregation in a desert lizard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison R Davis Rabosky

    Full Text Available Social aggregation is a common behavioral phenomenon thought to evolve through adaptive benefits to group living. Comparing fitness differences between aggregated and solitary individuals in nature--necessary to infer an evolutionary benefit to living in groups--has proven difficult because communally-living species tend to be obligately social and behaviorally complex. However, these differences and the mechanisms driving them are critical to understanding how solitary individuals transition to group living, as well as how and why nascent social systems change over time. Here we demonstrate that facultative aggregation in a reptile (the Desert Night Lizard, Xantusia vigilis confers direct reproductive success and survival advantages and that thermal benefits of winter huddling disproportionately benefit small juveniles, which can favor delayed dispersal of offspring and the formation of kin groups. Using climate projection models, however, we estimate that future aggregation in night lizards could decline more than 50% due to warmer temperatures. Our results support the theory that transitions to group living arise from direct benefits to social individuals and offer a clear mechanism for the origin of kin groups through juvenile philopatry. The temperature dependence of aggregation in this and other taxa suggests that environmental variation may be a powerful but underappreciated force in the rapid transition between social and solitary behavior.

  9. Extracellular requirements for the endocytosis of carcinogenic crystalline nickel sulfide particles by facultative phagocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, J.D.; Costa, M.

    1982-01-01

    Various culture medium components were examined for their effect upon the phagocytosis of carcinogenic crystalline and non-carcinogenic amorphous NiS by cultured fibroblastic cells using both a visual and radioactive assay for phagocytosis. Crystalline 63 NiS was phagocytosed by cells in a simple salts/glucose maintenance medium to an extent similar to that observed in complex culture medium fortified with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), suggesting that serum proteins and other components in complex culture medium exert little influence upon the uptake of these heavy metal particles. Phagocytosis of crystalline NiS was shown to be highly dependent upon Ca 2+ since omission of Ca 2+ from the salts/glucose medium substantially reduced phagocytosis, while readdition of Ca 2+ stimulated uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. The uptake of the NiS particles was inhibited by trifluoperazine, a calmodulin antagonist, implicating intracellular Ca 2+ in this phagocytosis process. Since the opposite surface charge of crystalline and amorphous NiS has been related to their different phagocytic uptake by cells whose primary function is not phagocytosis (facultative phagocytes), these results show that the culture medium components do not modify the surface charge of these particles in a way that significantly influences their uptake. (Auth.)

  10. Evaluation of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria for phosphate solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayashree, Shanmugam; Vadivukkarasi, Ponnusamy; Anand, Kirupanithi; Kato, Yuko; Seshadri, Sundaram

    2011-08-01

    Thirteen pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) strains isolated from Adyar and Cooum rivers in Chennai and forest soil samples in Tamil Nadu, India, along with Methylobacterium extorquens, M. organophilum, M. gregans, and M. komagatae were screened for phosphate solubilization in plates. P-solubilization index of the PPFMs grown on NBRIP-BPB plates for 7 days ranged from 1.1 to 2.7. The growth of PPFMs in tricalcium phosphate amended media was found directly proportional to the glucose concentration. Higher phosphate solubilization was observed in four strains MSF 32 (415 mg l(-l)), MDW 80 (301 mg l(-l)), M. komagatae (279 mg l(-l)), and MSF 34 (202 mg l(-l)), after 7 days of incubation. A drop in the media pH from 6.6 to 3.4 was associated with an increase in titratable acidity. Acid phosphatase activity was more pronounced in the culture filtrate than alkaline phosphatase activity. Adherence of phosphate to densely grown bacterial surface was observed under scanning electron microscope after 7-day-old cultures. Biochemical characterization and screening for methanol dehydrogenase gene (mxaF) confirmed the strains as methylotrophs. The mxaF gene sequence from MSF 32 clustered towards M. lusitanum sp. with 99% similarity. This study forms the first detailed report on phosphate solubilization by the PPFMs.

  11. Distribution of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs on leaves of vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Masayuki; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Yoshida, Naoko; Iguchi, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFMs) on the leaves of various vegetables was studied. All kinds of vegetable leaves tested gave pink-pigmented colonies on agar plates containing methanol as sole carbon source. The numbers of PPFMs on the leaves, colony-forming units (CFU)/g of fresh leaves, differed among the plants, although they were planted and grown at the same farm. Commercial green perilla, Perilla frutescens viridis (Makino) Makino, gave the highest counts of PPFMs (2.0-4.1×10(7) CFU/g) of all the commercial vegetable leaves tested, amounting to 15% of total microbes on the leaves. The PPFMs isolated from seeds of two varieties of perilla, the red and green varieties, exhibited high sequence similarity as to the 16S rRNA gene to two different Methylobacterium species, M. fujisawaense DSM5686(T) and M. radiotolerans JCM2831(T) respectively, suggesting that there is specific interaction between perilla and the PPFMs.

  12. Methylobacterium phyllosphaerae sp. nov., a pink-pigmented, facultative methylotroph from the phyllosphere of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Sa, Tong-Min

    2009-01-01

    A pink-pigmented, aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic bacterial strain, CBMB27T, isolated from leaf tissues of rice (Oryza sativa L. 'Dong-Jin'), was analysed using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis placed the strain in a clade with the species Methylobacterium oryzae, Methylobacterium fujisawaense and Methylobacterium mesophilicum; strain CBMB27T showed sequence similarities of 98.3, 98.5 and 97.3 %, respectively, to the type strains of these three species. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed low levels (<38 %) of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain CBMB27T and its closest relatives. The sequence of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase gene (acdS) in strain CBMB27T differed from those of close relatives. The major fatty acid of the isolate was C(18 : 1)omega7c and the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 66.8 mol%. Based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, and physiological and biochemical characterization, which enabled the isolate to be differentiated from all recognized species of the genus Methylobacterium, it was concluded that strain CBMB27T represents a novel species in the genus Methylobacterium for which the name Methylobacterium phyllosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed (type strain CBMB27T =LMG 24361T =KACC 11716T =DSM 19779T).

  13. Effects of substrate concentrations on the growth of heterotrophic bacteria and algae in secondary facultative ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayombo, S; Mbwette, T S A; Katima, J H Y; Jorgensen, S E

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the effect of substrate concentration on the growth of a mixed culture of algae and heterotrophic bacteria in secondary facultative ponds (SFPs) utilizing settled domestic sewage as a sole source of organic carbon. The growth of the mixed culture was studied at the concentrations ranging between 200 and 800 mg COD/l in a series of batch chemostat reactors. From the laboratory data, the specific growth rate (micro) was determined using the modified Gompertz model. The maximum specific growth rate ( micro(max)) and half saturation coefficients (K(s)) were calculated using the Monod kinetic equation. The maximum observed growth rate ( micro(max)) for heterotrophic bacteria was 3.8 day(-1) with K(s) of 200 mg COD/l. The micro(max) for algal biomass based on suspended volatile solids was 2.7 day(-1) with K(s) of 110 mg COD/l. The micro(max) of algae based on the chlorophyll-a was 3.5 day(-1) at K(s) of 50mg COD/l. The observed specific substrate removal by heterotrophic bacteria varied between the concentrations of substrate used and the average value was 0.82 (mg COD/mg biomass). The specific substrate utilization rate in the bioreactors was direct proportional to the specific growth rate. Hence, the determined Monod kinetic parameters are useful for the definition of the operation of SFPs.

  14. Introduire l'ELAO dans une Faculté de Lettres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bogaards

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article je me propose de décrire les stratégies qui ont été utilisées pour introduire l'enseignement des langues assisté par ordinateur (ELAO dans la Faculté de Lettres de l'Université de Leyde (Pays-Bas. Je crois que l'approche choisie, si elle ne peut aucunement prétendre à servir de modèle, est tout de même suffisamment exemplaire pour pouvoir donner des idées, voire de l'espoir, à ceux et celles qui sont appelés à faire bénéficier l'enseignement des langues des acquis des technologies nouvelles dans des situations qui, à première vue, ne s'y prêtent guère. Très souvent les structures universitaires sont telles que toute modernisation doit se faire au prix de luttes qui demandent des sacrifices personnels. Mais une fois que les oppositions les plus féroces ont été vaincues, il s'agit de procéder de façon méthodique pour introduire les moyens informatiques dans le curriculum et pour faire en sorte que le plus grand nombre d'enseignants et d'étudiants puissent en profiter.

  15. Developing Ecological Models on Carbon and Nitrogen in Secondary Facultative Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aponte-Reyes Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecological models formulated for TOC, CO2, NH4+, NO3- and NTK, based in literature reviewed and field work were obtained monitoring three facultative secondary stabilization ponds, FSSP, pilots: conventional pond, CP, baffled pond, BP, and baffled-meshed pond, BMP. Models were sensitive to flow inlet, solar radiation, pH and oxygen content; the sensitive parameters in Carbon Model were KCOT Ba, umax Ba, umax Al, K1OX, VAl, R1DCH4, YBh. The sensitive parameters in the Nitrogen model were KCOT Ba, umax Ba, umax Al, VAl, KOPH, KOPA, r4An. The test t–paired showed a good simulating of Carbon model refers to TOC in FSSP; on the other side, the Nitrogen model showed a good simulating of NH4+. Different topological models modify ecosystem ecology forcing different transformation pathways of Nitrogen; equal transformations of the Carbon BMP topology could be achieved using lower volumes, however, a calibration for a new model would be required. Carbon and Nitrogen models developed could be coupled to hydrodynamics models for better modeling of FSSP.

  16. Facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria have the potential for multimodality therapy of solid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ming Q; Ellem, Kay A O; Dunn, Paul; West, Malcolm J; Bai, Chun Xue; Vogelstein, Bert

    2007-02-01

    Recent understanding of the unique pathology of solid tumours has shed light on the difficult and disappointing nature of their clinical treatment. All solid tumours undergo angiogenesis that results in biological changes and adaptive metabolisms, i.e. formation of defective vessels, appearance of hypoxic areas, and emergence of an heterogeneous tumour cell population. This micro-milieu provides a haven for anaerobic bacteria. The strictly anaerobic clostridia have several advantages over other facultative anaerobes such as salmonella or lactic acid-producing, Gram-positive, obligate, anaerobic bifidobacteria. Both pathogenic and non-pathogenic clostridia have been demonstrated to specifically colonise and destroy solid tumours. Early trials of non-pathogenic strains in humans had shown plausible safety. Genetic modifications and adaptation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains have further created improved features. However, these manipulations rarely generate strains that resulted in complete tumour control alone. Combined modalities of therapies with chemo and radiation therapies, on the other hand, often perform better, including 'cure' of solid tumours in a high percentage of animals. Considering that clostridia have unlimited capacities for genetic improvement, we predict that designer clostridia forecast a promising future for the development of potent strains for tumour destruction, incorporating mechanisms such as immunotherapy to overcome immune suppression and to elicit strong anti-tumour responses.

  17. Sulfobacillus benefaciens sp. nov., an acidophilic facultative anaerobic Firmicute isolated from mineral bioleaching operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D Barrie; Joulian, Catherine; d'Hugues, Patrick; Hallberg, Kevin B

    2008-11-01

    Gram-positive bacteria found as the sole Firmicutes present in two mineral bioleaching stirred tanks, and a third bacterium isolated from a heap leaching operation, were shown to be closely related to each other but distinct from characterized acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Sulfobacillus, to which they were affiliated. One of the isolates (BRGM2) was shown to be a thermo-tolerant (temperature optimum 38.5 degrees C, and maximum 47 degrees C) obligate acidophile (pH optimum 1.5, and minimum 0.8), and also noted to be a facultative anaerobe, growing via ferric iron respiration in the absence of oxygen. Although isolates BRGM2 and TVK8 were able to metabolize many monomeric organic substrates, their propensity for autotrophic growth was found to be greater than that of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans and the related acidophile, Sb. acidophilus. Faster growth rates of the novel isolates in the absence of organic carbon was considered to be a major reason why they, rather than Sb. thermosulfidooxidans (which shared many physiological characteristics) more successfully exploited conditions in the stirred tanks. Based on their phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics, the isolates are designated strains of the proposed novel species, Sulfobacillus benefaciens, with isolate BRGM2 nominated as the type strain.

  18. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Mary H.; Kelly, Terra R.; Rideout, Bruce A.; Eng, Curtis; Wynne, Janna; Braun, Josephine; Johnson, Christine K.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats. PMID:26606755

  19. Differential effects of lesion mimic mutants in barley on disease development by facultative pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrann, Graham R. D.; Steed, , Andrew; Burt, Christopher; Nicholson, Paul; Brown, James K. M.

    2015-01-01

    Lesion mimic mutants display spontaneous necrotic spots and chlorotic leaves as a result of mis-regulated cell death programmes. Typically these mutants have increased resistance to biotrophic pathogens but their response to facultative fungi that cause necrotrophic diseases is less well studied. The effect of altered cell death regulation on the development of disease caused by Ramularia collo-cygni, Fusarium culmorum and Oculimacula yallundae was explored using a collection of barley necrotic (nec) lesion mimic mutants. nec8 mutants displayed lower levels of all three diseases compared to nec9 mutants, which had increased R. collo-cygni but decreased F. culmorum disease symptoms. nec1 mutants reduced disease development caused by both R. collo-cygni and F. culmorum. The severity of the nec1-induced lesion mimic phenotype and F. culmorum symptom development was reduced by mutation of the negative cell death regulator MLO. The significant reduction in R. collo-cygni symptoms caused by nec1 was completely abolished in the presence of the mlo-5 allele and both symptoms and fungal biomass were greater than in the wild-type. These results indicate that physiological pathways involved in regulation of cell death interact with one another in their effects on different fungal pathogens. PMID:25873675

  20. Effects of competition on induction of crassulacean acid metabolism in a facultative CAM plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kailiang; D'Odorico, Paolo; Li, Wei; He, Yongli

    2017-06-01

    Abiotic drivers of environmental stress have been found to induce CAM expression (nocturnal carboxylation) in facultative CAM species such as Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. The role played by biotic factors such as competition with non-CAM species in affecting CAM expression, however, remains largely understudied. This research investigated the effects of salt and water conditions on the competition between M. crystallinum and the C 3 grass Bromus mollis with which it is found to coexist in California's coastal grasslands. We also investigated the extent to which CAM expression in M. crystallinum was affected by the intensity of the competition with B. mollis. We found that M. crystallinum had a competitive advantage over B. mollis in drought and saline conditions, while B. mollis exerted strong competitive effects on M. crystallinum in access to light and soil nutrients in high water conditions. This strong competitive effect even outweighed the favorable effects of salt or water additions in increasing the biomass and productivity of M. crystallinum in mixture. Regardless of salt conditions, M. crystallinum did not switch to CAM photosynthesis in response to this strong competitive effect from B. mollis. Disturbance (i.e., grass cutting) reduced the competitive pressure by B. mollis and allowed for CAM expression in M. crystallinum when it was grown mixed with B. mollis. We suggest that moderate competition with other functional groups can enhance CAM expression in M. crystallinum, thereby affecting its plasticity and ability to cope with biological stress.

  1. Translocations of chromosome end-segments and facultative heterochromatin promote meiotic ring formation in evening primroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golczyk, Hieronim; Massouh, Amid; Greiner, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    Due to reciprocal chromosomal translocations, many species of Oenothera (evening primrose) form permanent multichromosomal meiotic rings. However, regular bivalent pairing is also observed. Chiasmata are restricted to chromosomal ends, which makes homologous recombination virtually undetectable. Genetic diversity is achieved by changing linkage relations of chromosomes in rings and bivalents via hybridization and reciprocal translocations. Although the structural prerequisite for this system is enigmatic, whole-arm translocations are widely assumed to be the mechanistic driving force. We demonstrate that this prerequisite is genome compartmentation into two epigenetically defined chromatin fractions. The first one facultatively condenses in cycling cells into chromocenters negative both for histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 4 and for C-banding, and forms huge condensed middle chromosome regions on prophase chromosomes. Remarkably, it decondenses in differentiating cells. The second fraction is euchromatin confined to distal chromosome segments, positive for histone H3 lysine 4 dimethylation and for histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation. The end-segments are deprived of canonical telomeres but capped with constitutive heterochromatin. This genomic organization promotes translocation breakpoints between the two chromatin fractions, thus facilitating exchanges of end-segments. We challenge the whole-arm translocation hypothesis by demonstrating why reciprocal translocations of chromosomal end-segments should strongly promote meiotic rings and evolution toward permanent translocation heterozygosity. Reshuffled end-segments, each possessing a major crossover hot spot, can furthermore explain meiotic compatibility between genomes with different translocation histories.

  2. Strong social relationships are associated with decreased longevity in a facultatively social mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Williams, Dana M; Lim, Alexandra N; Kroeger, Svenja; Martin, Julien G A

    2018-01-31

    Humans in strong social relationships are more likely to live longer because social relationships may buffer stressors and thus have protective effects. However, a shortcoming of human studies is that they often rely on self-reporting of these relationships. By contrast, observational studies of non-human animals permit detailed analyses of the specific nature of social relationships. Thus, discoveries that some social animals live longer and healthier lives if they are involved in social grooming, forage together or have more affiliative associates emphasizes the potential importance of social relationships on health and longevity. Previous studies have focused on the impact of social metrics on longevity in obligately social species. However, if sociality indeed has a key role in longevity, we might expect that affiliative relationships should also influence longevity in less social species. We focused on socially flexible yellow-bellied marmots ( Marmota flaviventer ) and asked whether female longevity covaries with the specific nature of social relationships. We quantified social relationships with social network statistics that were based on affiliative interactions, and then estimated the correlation between longevity and sociality using bivariate models. We found a significant negative phenotypic correlation between affiliative social relationship strength and longevity; marmots with greater degree, closeness and those with a greater negative average shortest path length died at younger ages. We conclude that sociality plays an important role in longevity, but how it does so may depend on whether a species is obligately or facultatively social. © 2018 The Author(s).

  3. Purification and characterization of ornithine transcarbamylase from pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. D.; Richardson, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) was purified to homogeneity from leaf homogenates in a single-step procedure, using delta-N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-ornithine-Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. The 1581-fold purified OTC enzyme exhibited a specific activity of 139 micromoles citrulline per minute per milligram of protein at 37 degrees C, pH 8.5. Pea OTC represents approximately 0.05% of the total soluble protein in the leaf. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was approximately 108,200, as estimated by Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein ran as a single molecular weight band of 36,500 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results suggest that the pea OTC is a trimer of identical subunits. The overall amino acid composition of pea OTC is similar to that found in other eukaryotic and prokaryotic OTCs, but the number of arginine residues is approximately twofold higher. The increased number of arginine residues probably accounts for the observed isoelectric point of 7.6 for the pea enzyme, which is considerably more basic than isoelectric point values that have been reported for other OTCs.

  4. Antioxidant activity of pea protein hydrolysates produced by batch fermentation with lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević Nemanja S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine Lactobacillus strains known for surface proteinase activity were chosen from our collection and tested for their ability to grow in pea seed protein-based medium, and to hydrolyze purified pea proteins in order to produce peptides with antioxidant (AO activity. Two strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 and Lactobacillus zeae LMG17315, exhibited strong proteolytic activity against pea proteins. The AO activity of the pea hydrolysate fraction, MW <10 kDa, obtained by the fermentation of purified pea proteins with Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10, was tested by standard spectrophotometric assays (DPPH, ABTS, Fe3+-reducing capacity and the recently developed direct current (DC polarographic assay. The low molecular weight fraction of the obtained hydrolysate was separated using ion exchange chromatography, while the AO activity of eluted fractions was determined by means of a sensitive DC polarographic assay without previous concentration of samples. Results revealed that the fraction present in low abundance that contained basic peptides possessed the highest antioxidant activity. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 should be further investigated as a candidate strain for large-scale production of bioactive peptides from legume proteins. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173005 i br. 173026

  5. Marker-trait association analysis of frost tolerance of 672 worldwide pea (Pisum sativum L.) collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Fang, Li; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jinguo; Zhang, Hongyan; Han, Wenliang; Hua, Zeke; Hao, Junjie; Zong, Xuxiao

    2017-07-19

    Frost stress is one of the major abiotic stresses causing seedling death and yield reduction in winter pea. To improve the frost tolerance of pea, field evaluation of frost tolerance was conducted on 672 diverse pea accessions at three locations in Northern China in three growing seasons from 2013 to 2016 and marker-trait association analysis of frost tolerance were performed with 267 informative SSR markers in this study. Sixteen accessions were identified as the most winter-hardy for their ability to survive in all nine field experiments with a mean survival rate of 0.57, ranging from 0.41 to 0.75. Population structure analysis revealed a structured population of two sub-populations plus some admixtures in the 672 accessions. Association analysis detected seven markers that repeatedly had associations with frost tolerance in at least two different environments with two different statistical models. One of the markers is the functional marker EST1109 on LG VI which was predicted to co-localize with a gene involved in the metabolism of glycoproteins in response to chilling stress and may provide a novel mechanism of frost tolerance in pea. These winter-hardy germplasms and frost tolerance associated markers will play a vital role in marker-assisted breeding for winter-hardy pea cultivar.

  6. Biocompatibility of Poly(ester amide (PEA Microfibrils in Ocular Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kropp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery systems (DDS are able to deliver, over long periods of time, therapeutic concentrations of drugs requiring frequent administration. Two classes of DDS are available, biodegradable and non-biodegradable. The larger non-biodegradable implants ensure long-term delivery, but require surgical interventions. Biodegradable biomaterials are smaller, injectable implants, but degrade hydrolytically and release drugs in non-zero order kinetics, which is inefficient for long-term sustained drug release. Biodegradable poly(ester amides (PEAs may overcome these difficulties. To assess their ocular biocompatibility and long-term behavior, PEA fibrils were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, incubation in vitreous humor changes to PEA structure, suggests degradation by surface erosion, enabling drug release with zero order kinetics. Clinical and histological analysis of PEA fibrils implanted subconjunctivally and intravitreally showed the absence of an inflammatory response or other pathological tissue alteration. This study shows that PEA fibrils are biocompatible with ocular environment and degrade by surface erosion.

  7. Recognition of ERK MAP kinase by PEA-15 reveals a common docking site within the death domain and death effector domain

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Justine M.; Vaidyanathan, Hema; Ramos, Joe W.; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Werner, Milton H.

    2002-01-01

    PEA-15 is a multifunctional protein that modulates signaling pathways which control cell proliferation and cell death. In particular, PEA-15 regulates the actions of the ERK MAP kinase cascade by binding to ERK and altering its subcellular localization. The three-dimensional structure of PEA-15 has been determined using NMR spectroscopy and its interaction with ERK defined by characterization of mutants that modulate ERK function. PEA-15 is composed of an N-terminal death effector domain (DED...

  8. Temporal and spatial distribution of roots and competition for nitrogen in pea-barley intercrops - a field study employing P-32 technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    was the dominant component of the pea-barley intercrop, obtaining 90% of its sole crop yield, while pea produced only 15% of the grains of a sole crop pea. Intercropping of pea and barley improved the utilization of plant growth resources (LER > 1) as compared to sole crops. Root system distribution in time...... and space can partly explain interspecific competition. The P-32 methodology proved to be a valuable tool for determining root dynamics in intercropping systems....

  9. Influence of Pea Protein Aggregates on the Structure and Stability of Pea Protein/Soybean Polysaccharide Complex Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoru Yin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry have been hampered by their precipitation in acidic solution. In this study, pea protein isolate (PPI with poor dispersibility in acidic solution was used to form complexes with soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS, and the effects of PPI aggregates on the structure and stability of PPI/SSPS complex emulsions were investigated. Under acidic conditions, high pressure homogenization disrupts the PPI aggregates and the electrostatic attraction between PPI and SSPS facilitates the formation of dispersible PPI/SSPS complexes. The PPI/SSPS complex emulsions prepared from the PPI containing aggregates prove to possess similar droplet structure and similar stability compared with the PPI/SSPS emulsions produced from the PPI in which the aggregates have been previously removed by centrifugation. The oil droplets are protected by PPI/SSPS complex interfacial films and SSPS surfaces. The emulsions show long-term stability against pH and NaCl concentration changes. This study demonstrates that PPI aggregates can also be used to produce stable complex emulsions, which may promote the applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry.

  10. Influence of pea protein aggregates on the structure and stability of pea protein/soybean polysaccharide complex emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baoru; Zhang, Rujing; Yao, Ping

    2015-03-20

    The applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry have been hampered by their precipitation in acidic solution. In this study, pea protein isolate (PPI) with poor dispersibility in acidic solution was used to form complexes with soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS), and the effects of PPI aggregates on the structure and stability of PPI/SSPS complex emulsions were investigated. Under acidic conditions, high pressure homogenization disrupts the PPI aggregates and the electrostatic attraction between PPI and SSPS facilitates the formation of dispersible PPI/SSPS complexes. The PPI/SSPS complex emulsions prepared from the PPI containing aggregates prove to possess similar droplet structure and similar stability compared with the PPI/SSPS emulsions produced from the PPI in which the aggregates have been previously removed by centrifugation. The oil droplets are protected by PPI/SSPS complex interfacial films and SSPS surfaces. The emulsions show long-term stability against pH and NaCl concentration changes. This study demonstrates that PPI aggregates can also be used to produce stable complex emulsions, which may promote the applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry.

  11. Acute effects of pea protein and hull fibre alone and combined on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake in healthy young men--a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Smith, Christopher; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-12-01

    Whether pulse components can be used as value-added ingredients in foods formulated for blood glucose (BG) and food intake (FI) control requires investigation. The objective of this study was to examine of the effects of pea components on FI at an ad libitum meal, as well as appetite and BG responses before and after the meal. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, men (n = 15) randomly consumed (i) pea hull fibre (7 g), (ii) pea protein (10 g), (iii) pea protein (10 g) plus hull fibre (7 g), (iv) yellow peas (406 g), and (v) control. Pea hull fibre and protein were served with tomato sauce and noodles, while yellow peas were served with tomato sauce. Control was noodles and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal (135 min). Appetite and BG were measured pre-pizza (0-135 min) and post-pizza (155-215 min). Protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower pre-pizza BG area under the curve compared with fibre and control. At 30 min, BG was lower after protein plus fibre and yellow peas compared with fibre and control, whereas at 45 and 75 min, protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p pea components as value-added ingredients in foods designed to improve glycemic control.

  12. Large-scale evaluation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) germplasm for cold tolerance in the open field during winter in Qingdao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a cool season crop, pea (Pisum sativum L.) can tolerate frost at the vegetative stage but has yield loss when freezing stress occurs at reproductive stage. Cold tolerance improvement of pea varieties is important for the stable yield and the expansion of winter pea planting area. Under the natura...

  13. ADAPTIVITY EVALUATION OF PEA VARIETIES SUITABLE F OR FREEZING IN THE SOUTHWEST-ERN OF CENTRAL CHERNOZEM ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Shulpekov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of adaptability of 24 pea varieties to justify the use of the assortment in the technology of conveyor cultivation of raw green peas for freezing in conditions of the south-west of the CCZ is presented.

  14. Quantitative analysis of the network structure that underlines the transitioning in mechanical responses of pea protein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munialo, C.D.; Linden, van der E.; Ako, K.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze quantitatively the network structure that underlines the transitioning in the mechanical responses of heat-induced pea protein gels. To achieve this, gels were prepared from pea proteins at varying pHs from 3.0 to 4.2 at a fixed 100 mg/mL protein

  15. Characterization of Pea Vicilin. 1. Denoting Convicilin as the α-Subunit of the Pisum Vicilin Family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Kane, F.E.; Happe, R.P.; Vereijken, J.M.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van

    2004-01-01

    Vicilin, a major globulin protein of pea that has been described as "extremely heterogeneous in terms of its polypeptide composition", was extracted from pea flour under alkaline conditions and subsequently fractionated by salt under acid conditions. This procedure induced the separation of vicilin

  16. Effect of the combinations between pea proteins and soluble fibres on cholesterolaemia and cholesterol metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Cinzia; Manzini, Stefano; Busnelli, Marco; Rigamonti, Elena; Marchesi, Marta; Diani, Erika; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia

    2013-10-01

    Many functional foods and dietary supplements have been reported to be beneficial for the management of dyslipidaemia, one of the major risk factors for CVD. Soluble fibres and legume proteins are known to be a safe and practical approach for cholesterol reduction. The present study aimed at investigating the hypocholesterolaemic effect of the combinations of these bioactive vegetable ingredients and their possible effects on the expression of genes regulating cholesterol homeostasis. A total of six groups of twelve rats each were fed, for 28 d, Nath's hypercholesterolaemic diets, differing in protein and fibre sources, being, respectively, casein and cellulose (control), pea proteins and cellulose (pea), casein and oat fibres (oat), casein and apple pectin (pectin), pea proteins and oat fibres (pea+oat) and pea proteins and apple pectin (pea+pectin). Administration of each vegetable-containing diet was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations compared with the control. The combinations (pea+oat and pea+pectin) were more efficacious than fibres alone in modulating cholesterolaemia ( - 53 and - 54%, respectively, at 28 d; Ppea proteins, a lower hepatic cholesterol content (Ppea proteins and oat fibres or apple pectin are extremely effective in lowering plasma cholesterol concentrations in rats and affect cellular cholesterol homeostasis by up-regulating genes involved in hepatic cholesterol turnover.

  17. Assessment of the feeding value of South Dakota-grown field peas (Pisum sativum l.) for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H H; Benzoni, G; Bohlke, R A; Peters, D N

    2004-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the feeding value of South Dakota-grown field peas (Pisum sativum L.) for growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 96 pigs (initial BW = 22 +/- 3.35 kg) were allotted to four treatment groups (four pigs per pen, six replicate pens per treatment) and fed growing (0.95% Lys) and finishing (0.68% Lys) diets containing 0, 12, 24, or 36% field peas (as-fed basis). There were no differences among the treatment groups in ADG, ADFI, or G:F. Likewise, there were no differences in backfat thickness or lean meat percent among treatment groups, but pigs fed diets containing 12, 24, or 36% field peas had greater (P feed ingredients. Experiment 4 was an energy balance experiment conducted to measure the DE and ME concentrations in field peas and corn. Six growing pigs (initial BW = 85.5 +/- 6.5 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and fed diets based on field peas or corn and arranged in a two-period switch-back design. The DE values for field peas and corn (3,864 and 3,879 kcal/kg DM, respectively) were similar, but the ME of corn was higher (P Dakota-grown field peas are highly digestible by growing pigs. Therefore, such field peas may be included in diets for nursery pigs and growing-finishing pigs in amounts of at least 18 and 36%, respectively, without negatively affecting pig performance.

  18. PEA3/ETV4-related transcription factors coupled with active ERK signalling are associated with poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keld, R

    2011-06-28

    Background: Transcription factors often play important roles in tumourigenesis. Members of the PEA3 subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors fulfil such a role and have been associated with tumour metastasis in several different cancers. Moreover, the activity of the PEA3 subfamily transcription factors is potentiated by Ras-ERK pathway signalling, which is itself often deregulated in tumour cells.\\r\

  19. Pea powdery mildew er1 resistance is associated to loss-of-function mutations at a MLO homologous locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavan, S.N.C.; Schiavulli, A.; Appiano, M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Bai, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The powdery mildew disease affects several crop species and is also one of the major threats for pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivation all over the world. The recessive gene er1, first described over 60 years ago, is well known in pea breeding, as it still maintains its efficiency as a powdery mildew

  20. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA)—‘Promiscuous’ anti-inflammatory and analgesic molecule at the interface between nutrition and pharma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppel Hesselink, J.M.; Kopsky, D.J.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (N-palmitoylethanolamine or PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide belonging to the N-acylethanolamine (NAE) class of signalling molecules. Earliest reports on the anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties of PEA date back to 1957 when its isolation from soy lecithin,

  1. Importance of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi in production of the milk on family farms in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two year field trials (1999-2001 were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on number and nodule dry weight g/plant of pea root and also on the yield of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi and triticale cv. Clercal mixture. Just before sowing the inoculation of pea seeds was performed by the variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae which is part of the microbial collection of the Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The highest total nodule number on pea root (28 nodule/plant was determined on the inoculated variant 2 as well as nodule dry weight (0,175 g/plant. Average pea seed yield were ranging from 1327 kg ha-1 (control up to 1825 kg ha-1 (inoculation. Average triticale grain yield were ranging from 2375 kg ha-1 (control up to 3345 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Average total grain yield of winter peas in mixture triticale were ranging from 3702 kg ha-1 (control up to 5045 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. This paper and given results are a humble contribution to the research of pea growth in the Republic of Croatia.

  2. The early nodulin transcript ENOD2 is located in the nodule parenchyma (inner cortex) of pea and soybean root nodules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.; Scheres, B.; Franssen, H.J.; Lierop, van M.J.; Lammeren, van A.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.

    1990-01-01

    A pea cDNA clone homologous to the soybean early nodulin clone pGmENOD2 that most probably encodes a cell wall protein was isolated. The derived amino acid sequence of the pea ENOD2 protein shows that it contains the same repeating pentapeptides, ProProHisGluLys and ProProGluTyrGln, as the soybean

  3. The early nodulin transcript ENOD2 is located in the nodule parenchyma (inner cortex) of pea and soybean root nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, C. van de; Scheres, B.J.G.; Franssen, H.; Lierop, M.-J.; Lammeren, A. van; Kammen, A. van; Bisseling, T.

    1990-01-01

    A pea cDNA clone homologous to the soybean early nodulin clone pGmENOD2 that most probably encodes a cell wall protein was isolated. The derived amino acid sequence of the pea ENOD2 protein shows that it contains the same repeating pentapeptides, ProProHisGluLys and ProProGluTyrGln, as the soybean

  4. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of urease from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe, E-mail: pkarthe@hotmail.com [Centre of Advanced Study in Crystallography and Biophysics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2008-07-01

    Urease from pigeon pea was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected at 2.5 Å resolution. Urease is a seed protein that is common to most Leguminosae. It also occurs in many bacteria, fungi and several species of yeast. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, thus allowing organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source. Urease from pigeon pea seeds has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography techniques. The pigeon pea urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. The crystals belong to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.29, c = 346.44 Å.

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of urease from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2008-01-01

    Urease from pigeon pea was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected at 2.5 Å resolution. Urease is a seed protein that is common to most Leguminosae. It also occurs in many bacteria, fungi and several species of yeast. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, thus allowing organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source. Urease from pigeon pea seeds has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography techniques. The pigeon pea urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. The crystals belong to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.29, c = 346.44 Å

  6. Polyamine Spermine Protects Young Pea Plants Against Ultraviolet-C Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovska, D.; Katerova, Z.; Shopova, E.; Nikolova, A.; Georgieva, N.; Sergiev, I.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet-C - UV-C irradiation and polyamine spermine on the content of some stress marker and non-enzymatic antioxidants in leaves of young pea plants were investigated. UV-C irradiation led to a decrease in pea fresh weight, the content of leaf pigments and free proline, accompanied with an increase in malondialdehyde. The initial augmentation in the free thiol levels was transient in UV-C treated plants and finally a substantial decrease was found. Spermine led to a significant augmentation of free thiols and proline content along with a decline in total phenols, but these alterations diminished during the experimental period. Based on comparative analyses of the results obtained for plants treated with UV-C and polyamine, it could be concluded that preliminary application of spermine protects pea plants against irradiation, by maintaining normal plant growth, stabilizing cell membranes and activating non-enzymatic antioxidants

  7. Rhizodeposition of N by pea and barley and its effect on soil N dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Rhizodeposition of N during plant growth influences the microbial activity in the rhizosphere and constitutes a source of labile organic N, but has not been quantified to the same degree as the rhizodeposition of C. The rhizodeposition of N, defined as root-derived N present in the soil after...... removal of visible roots and root fragments, was determined during field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) growth in a sandy soil at a low concentration of mineral N using a continuous split-root N-15-labelling technique. The N rhizodeposition constituted 15 and 48......% of the below-ground N in pea when determined 7 and 14 (maturity) wk after planting (WAP), respectively. In barley 32 and 71% of the below-ground N were present in rhizodeposits at the two samplings. At maturity the rhizodeposition of N amounted to 19 mg N plant(-1) (7% of total plant N) for pea and 17 mg N...

  8. Suitability of some green pea (Pisum sativum L. varieties for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokanović Marija R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Green pea (Pisum sativum L. has a long tradition in Serbia and Montenegro as a processing crop. Short growing season, relatively simple production, pleasant taste and high nutritional value stimulate both production and consumption of peas. The objective of this paper is to present the main characteristics of two pea varieties, domestic cultivar Tamis and imported cultivar Jof and the influence of prolonged time between harvest and processing on the changes of main characteristics. Both cultivars have grains of very high quality that can be used for industrial processing as well as for garden growing (the green market. In the present paper the results of one-year study are shown: cultivar characteristics, growing season length, and physico-chemical (tenderometer value (TM, dry matter, alcohol insoluble solids (AIS, sugar and starch measurements for texture determination. According to the results, the optimal way of processing for each variety was recommended. .

  9. The Response Strategy of Maize, Pea and Broad Bean Plants to Different Osmotic Potential Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to study the tolerance strategy of maize, broad bean and pea plants to salinity stress with exogenous applications of proline or phenylalanine on seed germination and seedlings growth. From the results obtained, it can be observed that osmotic stress affected adversely the rate of germination in maize, broad bean and pea plants. The excessive inhibition was more prominent at higher concentration of NaCl. The seeds and grains tested were exhibited some differential responses to salinity, in a manner that the inhibitory effect of salinity on seed germination ran in the order, maize higher than broad bean and the later was higher than pea plant. Treatment with proline or phenylalanine (100 ppm significantly increased these seed germination and seedlings growth characteristics even at lowest salinity level tested.

  10. Deficit irrigation and organic compost improve growth and yield of quinoa and pea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Supplying organic matter under deficit irrigation conditions could be a practical solution to compensate the negative effect of water stress. For this purpose, studies in pea as a legume and quinoa as a new drought-tolerant crop were conducted in the south of Morocco between October 2011 and March...... significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased seed yield by 18 and 11% under stress conditions and by 13 and 3% under full irrigation for quinoa and by 24 and 11% under full irrigation and by 41 and 25% under water-deficit irrigation for pea. It can be concluded that organic amendment improved significantly yield...... harvested yield was affected significantly (P seed yields (3.3 t ha-1 for quinoa and 5.6 t ha-1 for pea) were recorded under full irrigation and 10 t ha-1 of compost. Results indicated that organic amendment of 10 t ha-1 and 5 t ha-1...

  11. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Siczek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides. To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M or water (control before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurements of nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay, nodule number and mass, and top growth by shoot mass, leaf area, and seed and protein yield. Nod factors generally improved pea yield and nitrogenase activity in the relatively dry growing season 2012, but not in the wet growing season in 2013 due to different weather conditions.

  12. Study the Stability of SSR Repeats of pEA29 Plasmid of the Casual Agent of Fire Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baghaee Ravari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fire blight disease causes by Erwinia amylovora infects a wide variety of rosaceous plants. It was first recorded from pear trees in Karaj in year 1990. After that it was observed in many pear and apple orchards of the country. E. amylovora isolates differed slightly in virulence, symptoms and host range which ca be related to different plasmid content. The presence of an universal plasmid, pEA29, has been observed in majority of E. amylovora strains. Short-sequence DNA repeat with eight nt were repeated 3 to 15 times in the PstI fragment of the pEA29 plasmid. Here, the stability of SSR units and efficiency of this method to categorize strains was checked. For this reseaon two methods including amplification and cloning of whole and part of PstI fragment was done and the sequences were compared to eachother. In addition stability was evaluated based on three treatments including long time propagation, keeping strains in cold situation and re-isolation of infected tissues. Materials and Methods In this study 20 strains were purchased from the Iranian Plant Protection Research Institute. Their typical phenotypic tests were examined for all strains. All of then were checked with lateral flow immune chromatography in different serial dilutions. The pathogenicity were aassayed using complete fruit. Direct PCR with A/B primers and nested PCR with AJ75/AJ76 were applied for studied strains. Ten representative strains were selected snf part of PstI fragment amplified using RS1/RS2 primers. The PCR products were purified by QIAquick PCR purification kit (Qiagen, USA, cloned in pGEM-T and were sequenced (Macrogen Inc., Korea. Five of 10 were chosen for stability tests including long time propagation and sub culturing each two week for three months, keeping strains in refrigerator for three months and re-isolation of infected tissues. Results and Discussion In phenotypic tests all studies strains were facultative anaerobic growth, oxidase

  13. Valor nutricional de produtos de ervilha em comparação com a ervilha fresca Nutritional value of pea products in comparison to fresh peas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Guidolin Canniatti-Brazaca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar a composição centesimal e os teores de minerais, taninos e a disponibilidade de ferro e digestibilidade de proteínas em produtos de ervilha comercializados em Piracicaba/SP, em comparação com a ervilha fresca. Ocorreram alterações na composição centesimal, especialmente nas fibras, que se apresentaram em maiores quantidades na ervilha fresca. Os teores de taninos foram baixos. O teor de ferro foi maior na ervilha fresca (27,16 mg/Kg como também sua disponibilidade (28,5%, em conjunto com a sopa liofilizada (27,08%. O menor valor foi apresentado pela ervilha enlatada (14,04%, seguida pela sopa creme congelada (17,81%. Para a digestibilidade, a variação foi de 64,59 a 79,33%, sendo a proteína da sopa liofilizada a de menor digestibilidade. Foi concluído que o consumo de ervilha fresca seria o mais recomendado do ponto de vista nutricional, considerando os parâmetros analisados.The aim of this research was to evaluate the composition, amount of minerals and tannin, and iron availability in pea products sold in the city of Piracicaba, São Paulo state, and compare them with fresh peas. Alterations occurred in the components of compositions, especially in fibers which presented a high quantity of fresh peas. Tannin was very low and iron was the highest in fresh peas (27.16 mg/Kg also the availability (28.5%, such as freeze drying soup (27.08%. The lowest value was for canned peas (14.04%, in sequence freezing soup (17.81%. The digestibility range from 64.59 to 79.33%, freeze drying soup presented the lowest digestibility. It was concluded that the consumption of fresh peas was the most recommended from a nutritional point of view, when the analysed parameters were considered.

  14. Extraordinary proliferation of microorganisms in aposymbiotic pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabachi, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Hajime; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2003-03-01

    Aposymbiotic pea aphids, which were deprived of their intracellular symbiotic bacterium, Buchnera, exhibit growth retardation and no fecundity. High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis revealed that these aposymbiotic aphids, when reared on broad bean plants, accumulated a large amount of histamine. To assess the possibility of extraordinary proliferation of microorganisms other than Buchnera, we enumerated eubacteria and fungi in aphids using the real-time quantitative PCR method that targets genes encoding small-subunit rRNAs. The result showed that these microorganisms were extremely abundant in the aposymbiotic aphids reared on plants. Microbial communities in aposymbiotic aphids were further profiled by phylogenetic analysis of small-subunit rDNAs. Of 172 nonchimeric sequences of fungal 18S rDNAs, 138 (80.2%) belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. Among them, 21 clustered within a monophyletic group consisting of insect-pathogenic fungi and yeast-like symbionts of homopteran insects. Thirty-one (18.0%), two (1.2%), and one (0.6%) clones were clustered within the Basidiomycota, Zygomycota, and Oomycota, respectively. Of 167 nonchimeric sequences of eubacterial 16S rDNAs, 84 (50.3%) belonged to the gamma-subdivision of Proteobacteria to which most primary endosymbionts of insects and prolific histamine producers belong. Forty (24.0%), 25 (15.0%), 10 (6.0%), and five (3.0%) clones were clustered within alpha-Proteobacteria, Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group, Actinobacteria, and beta-Proteobacteria, respectively. Three had no phylogenetic association with known taxonomic divisions. None of the sequences studied in this study coincided exactly with those deposited in GenBank.

  15. Cytokinins and polar transport of auxin in axillary pea buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kalousek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cytokinin on auxin transport during release of axillary buds from apical dominance was studied. Expression of auxin-carrier coding genes PsAUX1 (AUXIN RESISTANT 1 and PsPIN1 (PIN-FORMED 1 was explored in axillary buds of the 2nd node of 7-day pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Vladan after decapitation or after exogenous application of benzyladenine (6-benzylaminopurine onto axillary buds of intact plants. Localization of the PsPIN1 protein, the key factor for polar transport of auxin in axillary buds, was visualised by immunohistochemistry. After exogenous application of cytokinin the expression of PsAUX1 and PsPIN1 rapidly increased with a simultaneous rapid decrease in PsDRM1 and PsAD1 expression – genes related to bud dormancy. The same changes in expression were observed after decapitation, however they were markedly slower. The PsPIN1 auxin efflux carrier in the inhibited axillary buds of intact plants was localised in a non-polar manner. After exogenous application of cytokinin gradual polarisation of the PsPIN1 protein occurred on the basal pole of polar auxin transport competent cells. Despite the fact that direct auxin application to buds of intact plants led to an increase in PsAUX1 and PsPIN1 expression, the buds remained dormant (non-growing what was accompanied by persistent expression of the dormancy markers PsDRM1 and PsAD1. The results indicate a possible effect of cytokinins on biosynthesis, and/or transport of auxin in axillary buds and they highlight the importance of auxin-cytokinin crosstalk in the regulation of bud outgrowth after breaking of apical dominance.

  16. Mrk 71/NGC 2366: The Nearest Green Pea Analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheva, Genoveva; Oey, M. S. [University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States); Jaskot, Anne E. [Department of Astronomy, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); James, Bethan L. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We present the remarkable discovery that the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 2366 is an excellent analog of the Green Pea (GP) galaxies, which are characterized by extremely high ionization parameters. The similarities are driven predominantly by the giant H ii region Markarian 71 (Mrk 71). We compare the system with GPs in terms of morphology, excitation properties, specific star-formation rate, kinematics, absorption of low-ionization species, reddening, and chemical abundance, and find consistencies throughout. Since extreme GPs are associated with both candidate and confirmed Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters, Mrk 71/NGC 2366 is thus also a good candidate for LyC escape. The spatially resolved data for this object show a superbubble blowout generated by mechanical feedback from one of its two super star clusters (SSCs), Knot B, while the extreme ionization properties are driven by the ≲1 Myr-old, enshrouded SSC Knot A, which has ∼10 times higher ionizing luminosity. Very massive stars (>100 M {sub ⊙}) may be present in this remarkable object. Ionization-parameter mapping indicates that the blowout region is optically thin in the LyC, and the general properties also suggest LyC escape in the line of sight. Mrk 71/NGC 2366 does differ from GPs in that it is one to two orders of magnitude less luminous. The presence of this faint GP analog and candidate LyC emitter (LCE) so close to us suggests that LCEs may be numerous and commonplace, and therefore could significantly contribute to the cosmic ionizing budget. Mrk 71/NGC 2366 offers an unprecedentedly detailed look at the viscera of a candidate LCE, and could clarify the mechanisms of LyC escape.

  17. Social aggregation in pea aphids: experiment and random walk modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Nilsen

    Full Text Available From bird flocks to fish schools and ungulate herds to insect swarms, social biological aggregations are found across the natural world. An ongoing challenge in the mathematical modeling of aggregations is to strengthen the connection between models and biological data by quantifying the rules that individuals follow. We model aggregation of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Specifically, we conduct experiments to track the motion of aphids walking in a featureless circular arena in order to deduce individual-level rules. We observe that each aphid transitions stochastically between a moving and a stationary state. Moving aphids follow a correlated random walk. The probabilities of motion state transitions, as well as the random walk parameters, depend strongly on distance to an aphid's nearest neighbor. For large nearest neighbor distances, when an aphid is essentially isolated, its motion is ballistic with aphids moving faster, turning less, and being less likely to stop. In contrast, for short nearest neighbor distances, aphids move more slowly, turn more, and are more likely to become stationary; this behavior constitutes an aggregation mechanism. From the experimental data, we estimate the state transition probabilities and correlated random walk parameters as a function of nearest neighbor distance. With the individual-level model established, we assess whether it reproduces the macroscopic patterns of movement at the group level. To do so, we consider three distributions, namely distance to nearest neighbor, angle to nearest neighbor, and percentage of population moving at any given time. For each of these three distributions, we compare our experimental data to the output of numerical simulations of our nearest neighbor model, and of a control model in which aphids do not interact socially. Our stochastic, social nearest neighbor model reproduces salient features of the experimental data that are not captured by the control.

  18. Vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-processing industry byproduct using edible filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Filho, Pedro F; Nair, Ramkumar B; Andersson, Dan; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2018-01-01

    Currently around one billion people in the world do not have access to a diet which provides enough protein and energy. However, the production of one of the main sources of protein, animal meat, causes severe impacts on the environment. The present study investigates the production of a vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-industry byproduct (PpB), using edible filamentous fungi, with potential application in human nutrition. Edible fungal strains of Ascomycota ( Aspergillus oryzae , Fusarium venenatum , Monascus purpureus , Neurospora intermedia ) and Zygomycota ( Rhizopus oryzae ) phyla were screened and selected for their protein production yield. A. oryzae had the best performance among the tested fungi, with a protein yield of 0.26 g per g of pea-processing byproduct from the bench scale airlift bioreactor cultivation. It is estimated that by integrating the novel fungal process at an existing pea-processing industry, about 680 kg of fungal biomass attributing to about 38% of extra protein could be produced for each 1 metric ton of pea-processing byproduct. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate the potential of the pea-processing byproduct to be used by filamentous fungi to produce vegan-mycoprotein for human food applications. The pea-processing byproduct (PpB) was proved to be an efficient medium for the growth of filamentous fungi to produce a vegan-protein concentrate. Moreover, an industrial scenario for the production of vegan-mycoprotein concentrate for human nutrition is proposed as an integrated process to the existing PPI production facilities.

  19. Studies on the infection process by Erysiphe polygoni in resistant and susceptible peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirulli, M.; Montemurro, G.; Ciccarese, F.; Smilari, F.

    1976-01-01

    The infection of pea by Erysiphe polygoni was investigated. The susceptible cultivar ''Sprinter'' and the resistant varieties ''Stratagem Resistant'' (er 1 er 1 Er 2 Er 2 ) and ''Mexique-4'' (er 1 er 1 er 2 er 2 ) were used. Observations of germination of conidia, formation of primary appressoria, differentiation of secondary hyphae, number of secondary hyphae per conidium, and number of branches on the longest hyphae per conidium were made at different times from inoculation. The rate of conidial germination was not affected by the host genotypes. The formation of short germ tubes with primary appressoria were found to be similar on the susceptible ''Sprinter'' as well as on the ''Stratagem Resistant'' and ''Mexique-4''. No statistical difference in the growth of germ tubes with appressorium between susceptible and resistant peas was observed at 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 hrs after inoculation. In resistant peas formation of primary appressoria was not followed by further mycelial growth. Conversely, in the susceptible pea, germinating conidia produced multiple germ tubes and branching hyphae. The establishment of a compatible relationship between host and pathogen appears to occur at or near the stage of formation of the primary appressorium. Most conidia on the leaves formed primary appressoria as early as 2 hrs after inoculation. The Course of the host/pathogen relationship is apparently decided at a very early stage after pathogen contact with the host, such as the length of the longest hyphae, number of germ tubes per conidium and branching of the longest, and the difference in the macroscopic fungal fructification. E. polygoni activity in susceptible pea is evidently influenced by temperature whereas the gene action of the genetic factors remains unaffected in resistant pea

  20. Organic cultivation of field pea by use of products with different action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgieva, N.; Nikolova, I.; Delchev, G.

    2015-07-01

    The possibilities for increasing the productivity and control of the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.) in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) organic cultivation by the use of following bioproducts NeemAzal T/S and Pyrethrum FS-EC (insecticides), applied individually and in combination with Polyversum (growth regulator and fungicide) and Biofa (foliar fertilizer), as well as to evaluate the stability of the used mixtures were studied. Synthetic products Nurelle D and Flordimex 420 (alone and in combination) were used as a standard. The products were applied once (at budding stage) or twice (at budding and flowering stages). The results showed that forage pea productivity was influenced positively by the application of all organic products. The plants treated with the organic combinations formed an average yield of 3190.2 kg/ha, which was only 4.7% lower than that for the synthetic combination of Flordimex+Nurelle D. The highest yield was produced under application of two mixtures: Biofa+Pyrethrum and Polyversum+Pyrethrum at budding and flowering stages (22.0 and 21.8% above untreated control, respectively). These combinations were also distinguished for their most pronounced protective effect against the attack of the pea weevil and decrease in its numbers of 37.0 and 38.5%, respectively. Pyrethrum was distinguished for a lower degree of damaged seeds and a toxic effect against the pea weevil in comparison with NeemAzal. Technologically the most valuable variant, which united high stability, productivity and protection against pea weevil, was the combination of Biofa+Pyrethrum applied twice. Further investigations are indispensible to expand the range of products (bioinsectides, biofertilizers and growth regulators), which provides good insect control and high prod. (Author)

  1. Asexual reproduction induces a rapid and permanent loss of sexual reproduction capacity in the rice fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae: results of in vitro experimental evolution assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Dounia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual reproduction is common in eukaryotic microorganisms, with few species reproducing exclusively asexually. However, in some organisms, such as fungi, asexual reproduction alternates with episodic sexual reproduction events. Fungi are thus appropriate organisms for studies of the reasons for the selection of sexuality or clonality and of the mechanisms underlying this selection. Magnaporthe oryzae, an Ascomycete causing blast disease on rice, reproduces mostly asexually in natura. Sexual reproduction is possible in vitro and requires (i two strains of opposite mating types including (ii at least one female-fertile strain (i.e. a strain able to produce perithecia, the female organs in which meiosis occurs. Female-fertile strains are found only in limited areas of Asia, in which evidence for contemporary recombination has recently been obtained. We induced the forced evolution of four Chinese female-fertile strains in vitro by the weekly transfer of asexual spores (conidia between Petri dishes. We aimed to determine whether female fertility was rapidly lost in the absence of sexual reproduction and whether this loss was controlled genetically or epigenetically. Results All the strains became female-sterile after 10 to 19 rounds of selection under asexual conditions. As no single-spore isolation was carried out, the observed decrease in the production of perithecia reflected the emergence and the invasion of female-sterile mutants. The female-sterile phenotype segregated in the offspring of crosses between female-sterile evolved strains and female-fertile wild-type strains. This segregation was maintained in the second generation in backcrosses. Female-sterile evolved strains were subjected to several stresses, but none induced the restoration of female fertility. This loss of fertility was therefore probably due to genetic rather than epigenetic mechanisms. In competition experiments, female-sterile mutants produced similar

  2. Effects of Organic Matter on Soil Erosion and Runoff Peanuts and Green Pea in Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Sukataatmaja, Sukandi; Sato, Yohei; Yamaji, Eiji; Ishikawa, Masaya

    2002-01-01

    Organic matter from manure are used not only for fertilizer but also can be used for preventing soil erosion and runoff. How to manage manure to soil for peanut and green pea CUltivation is especially important, because most farmers plant these crops. The objective of this research is to identify effect of: 1) organicmatter from chicken manure, cow manure and sheep manure on soil erosion and runoff in peanuts and green pea cultivations, 2) mulch from paddy, corn and leaf of banana on soil ero...

  3. Age-dependent variation in membrane lipid synthesis in leaves of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Sandelius, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    To study membrane lipid synthesis during the lifespan of a dicotyledon leaf, the second oldest leaf of 10-40-d-old plants of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) was labelled with [1-C- 14]acetate and the distribution of radioactivity between the major membrane lipids was followed for 3 d. In the expand......To study membrane lipid synthesis during the lifespan of a dicotyledon leaf, the second oldest leaf of 10-40-d-old plants of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) was labelled with [1-C- 14]acetate and the distribution of radioactivity between the major membrane lipids was followed for 3 d...

  4. Size measuring techniques as tool to monitor pea proteins intramolecular crosslinking by transglutaminase treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoullah, Attaf; Krechiche, Ghali; Husson, Florence; Saurel, Rémi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, techniques for monitoring the intramolecular transglutaminase cross-links of pea proteins, based on protein size determination, were developed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles of transglutaminase-treated low concentration (0.01% w/w) pea albumin samples, compared to the untreated one (control), showed a higher electrophoretic migration of the major albumin fraction band (26 kDa), reflecting a decrease in protein size. This protein size decrease was confirmed, after DEAE column purification, by dynamic light scattering (DLS) where the hydrodynamic radius of treated samples appears to be reduced compared to the control one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiation capture and use as affected by morphologicallycontrasting maize/pea in sole and intercropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanton, R.A.L.; Dennett, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Field Unit of the School of Plant Sciences in Reading, UK, during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to compare the radiation capture and use efficiency of morphologically and physiologically contrasting maize/pea intercrops with sole crops. The maize cultivars comprised Nancis with erect and Sophy with floppy leaves whilst the peas consisted of Maro, a conventional leaved, and Princess, a semi-leafless cultivar. Radiation capture by the sole and intercrops was measured using a Sunflek Ceptometer (Delta T Devices), with a sensor length of 80 cm. Measurements were taken at four equidistant positions in each plot, 1 m away from the edges of the plot. Before the maize grew above the peas, measurements were taken at the top of the canopy and below. When the canopies were distinct, three measurements were taken, above the canopy, above peas and below the canopy from 9.30 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. at weekly intervals. In both seasons the intercrops and sole pea crops intercepted more radiation compared to the sole maize crops. Towards the end of the season the intercrops and sole maize had similar interception. Intercropping both maize cultivars in 2000 with the conventional pea had the greatest interception in 2001. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) was measured by taking the respective changes in above ground dry weight and dividing by the respective changes in cumulative absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). The RUE were highest at mid-season for both intercrops and sole crops in both seasons. Comparisons were also made using cumulative radiation use efficiencies (CRUE), representing the RUE from emergence to any time. Sole pea had the lowest RUE in both seasons. The sole maize in 2000 had highest CRUE. However, in 2001 intercrops had similar RUE to sole maize, suggesting an increase in RUE of peas in intercrops. Nancis had consistently higher RUE in both seasons compared to Sophy. The results emphasize that radiation capture and

  6. Radiation capture and use as affected by morphologically contrasting maize/pea in sole and intercropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanton, R. A. L.; Dennett, M. D.

    2008-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Field Unit of the School of Plant Sciences in Reading, UK, during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to compare the radiation capture and use efficiency of morphologically and physiologically contrasting maize/pea intercrops with sole crops. The maize cultivars comprised Nancis with erect and Sophy with floppy leaves whilst the peas consisted of Maro, a conventional leaved, and Princess, a semi-leafless cultivar. Radiation capture by the sole and intercrops was measured using a Sunflek Ceptometer (Delta T Devices), with a sensor length of 80 cm. Measurements were taken at four equidistant positions in each plot, 1 m away from the edges of the plot. Before the maize grew above the peas, measurements were taken at the top of the canopy and below. When the canopies were distinct, three measurements were taken, above the canopy, above peas and below the canopy from 9.30 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. at weekly intervals. In both seasons the intercrops and sole pea crops intercepted more radiation compared to the sole maize crops. Towards the end of the season the intercrops and sole maize had similar interception. Intercropping both maize cultivars in 2000 with the conventional pea had the greatest interception in 2001. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) was measured by taking the respective changes in above ground dry weight and dividing by the respective changes in cumulative absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). The RUE were highest at mid-season for both intercrops and sole crops in both seasons. Comparisons were also made using cumulative radiation use efficiencies (CRUE), representing the RUE from emergence to any time. Sole pea had the lowest CRUE in both seasons. The sole maize in 2000 had highest CRUE. However, in 2001 intercrops had similar CRUE to sole maize, suggesting an increase in RUE of peas in intercrops. Nancis had consistently higher CRUE in both seasons compared to Sophy. The results emphasize that radiation capture

  7. Effects of hormonal priming on seed germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LARISSA C. SNEIDERIS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated whether priming with auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and ethylene, alters the physiological responses of seeds of pigeon pea germinated under water and cadmium stress. Seeds treated with water or non-treated seeds were used as control. Although compared to non-treated seeds we found that the hormone treatments improve the germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress, however, these treatments did not differ from water. However, we also observed a trend of tolerance to the effects of cadmium in the presence of ethylene, suggesting that the use of this hormone may be an efficient method to overcome seed germination under metal stress.

  8. Pea protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal protein in sea bass diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Badini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea seeds, even if lower in protein than oilseed meals, have been shown to successfully replace moderate amounts of fish meal protein in diets for carnivorous fish species (Kaushik et al., 1993, Gouveia and Davies, 2000. A further processing of such pulses provides concentrated protein products which look very promising as fish meal substitutes in aquafeeds (Thiessen et al., 2003. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility, growth response, nutrient and energy retention efficiencies and whole body composition of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. fed complete diets in which a pea protein concentrate (PPC was used to replace graded levels of fish meal protein.

  9. Determination of the optimum irradiation dose for shelf-life of peas and cherry tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, M. B.; Hayumbu, P.; Siwale, J.; Mutale, C.; Kabwe, L.

    1991-01-01

    Green peas (Pisum Sativum), cultivar (mangetout) and yellow cherry tomatoes (lycoperscum esculantum), cultivar (cerasiforme) were irradiated for different absorbed doses, and their physical characteristics observed under cold storage conditions, in order to extend their shelf lives. Results suggest that 580 Gy is the maximum optimum dose. At this dose the shelf life of cherry tomatoes is shown to be extended. No beneficial effect was recorded on the storage life of green peas. A good correlation was found between the degradation of chlorophill and the spread of spotting disease for this product. (author)., 19 refs., 2 tab

  10. Simple Identification of the Neutral Chlorinated Auxin in Pea by Thin Layer Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1980-01-01

    to small volumes and chromatographed in CHCl3 or CCl4 solvent systems separating the chlorinated auxin from indoleacetonitrile and the methyl or ethyl esters of indoleacetic acid. Colour reaction was carried out with some of the Salkowski FeCl3 sprays of which Ehmann's FeCl3/dimethylaminobenzaldehyde......One of the neutral chlorinated auxins of immature pea seeds was readily identified by thin layer procedures simple enough to serve in student's laboratory courses. 4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was extracted from 50 g of commercial, frozen peas by either water or acetone, concentrated...

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of stored pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour

    OpenAIRE

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Akanbi, Charles T

    2013-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation at various doses (5, 10, 15, 20 kGy) was observed on pigeon pea flour stored for 3 months on proximate composition, functional properties, and peroxide value. Sensory evaluation was also carried out on bean cake (moinmoin) made from nonirradiated and irradiated pigeon pea flour. The results showed that stored gamma-irradiated samples had significantly lower (P < 0.05) value of protein and little or no effect on moisture content. There were slight decreases in c...

  12. Nutrient composition, functional, and pasting properties of unripe cooking banana, pigeon pea, and sweetpotato flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohizua, Ehimen R; Adeola, Abiodun A; Idowu, Micheal A; Sobukola, Olajide P; Afolabi, T Adeniyi; Ishola, Raphael O; Ayansina, Simeon O; Oyekale, Tolulope O; Falomo, Ayorinde

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated some quality attributes of unripe cooking banana (UBF), pigeon pea (PPF), and sweetpotato (SPF) flour blends. Simplex centroid mixture design was used to obtain 17 blends from the flours. The nutrient composition, color, and functional properties of the blends were evaluated using standard methods. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and treatment means were compared using Duncan's multiple range test at 5% probability level. There were significant ( p  pigeon pea-sweetpotato flour blends are desirable for alleviating malnutrition in Nigeria and developing new food formulations.

  13. Characterization of Five Fungal Endophytes Producing Cajaninstilbene Acid Isolated from Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Jin Tong; Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphologi...

  14. Isolation and expression of a pea vicilin cDNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, M D; Lambert, N; Delauney, A; Yarwood, J N; Croy, R R; Gatehouse, J A; Wright, D J; Boulter, D

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA clone containing the complete coding sequence for vicilin from pea (Pisum sativum L.) was isolated. It specifies a 50,000-Mr protein that in pea is neither post-translationally processed nor glycosylated. The cDNA clone was expressed in yeast from a 2 micron plasmid by using the yeast phosphoglycerate kinase promoter and initiator codon. The resultant fusion protein, which contains the first 16 amino acid residues of phosphoglycerate kinase in addition to the vicilin sequence, was puri...

  15. Facultative control of matrix production optimizes competitive fitness in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilm models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jonas S; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Squyres, Georgia R; Price-Whelan, Alexa; de Santiago Torio, Ana; Song, Angela; Cornell, William C; Sørensen, Søren J; Xavier, Joao B; Dietrich, Lars E P

    2015-12-01

    As biofilms grow, resident cells inevitably face the challenge of resource limitation. In the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, electron acceptor availability affects matrix production and, as a result, biofilm morphogenesis. The secreted matrix polysaccharide Pel is required for pellicle formation and for colony wrinkling, two activities that promote access to O2. We examined the exploitability and evolvability of Pel production at the air-liquid interface (during pellicle formation) and on solid surfaces (during colony formation). Although Pel contributes to the developmental response to electron acceptor limitation in both biofilm formation regimes, we found variation in the exploitability of its production and necessity for competitive fitness between the two systems. The wild type showed a competitive advantage against a non-Pel-producing mutant in pellicles but no advantage in colonies. Adaptation to the pellicle environment selected for mutants with a competitive advantage against the wild type in pellicles but also caused a severe disadvantage in colonies, even in wrinkled colony centers. Evolution in the colony center produced divergent phenotypes, while adaptation to the colony edge produced mutants with clear competitive advantages against the wild type in this O2-replete niche. In general, the structurally heterogeneous colony environment promoted more diversification than the more homogeneous pellicle. These results suggest that the role of Pel in community structure formation in response to electron acceptor limitation is unique to specific biofilm models and that the facultative control of Pel production is required for PA14 to maintain optimum benefit in different types of communities. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Socially induced brain development in a facultatively eusocial sweat bee Megalopta genalis (Halictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam R; Seid, Marc A; Jiménez, Lissette C; Wcislo, William T

    2010-07-22

    Changes in the relative size of brain regions are often dependent on experience and environmental stimulation, which includes an animal's social environment. Some studies suggest that social interactions are cognitively demanding, and have examined predictions that the evolution of sociality led to the evolution of larger brains. Previous studies have compared species with different social organizations or different groups within obligately social species. Here, we report the first intraspecific study to examine how social experience shapes brain volume using a species with facultatively eusocial or solitary behaviour, the sweat bee Megalopta genalis. Serial histological sections were used to reconstruct and measure the volume of brain areas of bees behaving as social reproductives, social workers, solitary reproductives or 1-day-old bees that are undifferentiated with respect to the social phenotype. Social reproductives showed increased development of the mushroom body (an area of the insect brain associated with sensory integration and learning) relative to social workers and solitary reproductives. The gross neuroanatomy of young bees is developmentally similar to the advanced eusocial species previously studied, despite vast differences in colony size and social organization. Our results suggest that the transition from solitary to social behaviour is associated with modified brain development, and that maintaining dominance, rather than sociality per se, leads to increased mushroom body development, even in the smallest social groups possible (i.e. groups with two bees). Such results suggest that capabilities to navigate the complexities of social life may be a factor shaping brain evolution in some social insects, as for some vertebrates.

  17. Support for maternal manipulation of developmental nutrition in a facultatively eusocial bee, Megalopta genalis (Halictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapheim, Karen M; Bernal, Sandra P; Smith, Adam R; Nonacs, Peter; Wcislo, William T

    2011-06-01

    Developmental maternal effects are a potentially important source of phenotypic variation, but they can be difficult to distinguish from other environmental factors. This is an important distinction within the context of social evolution, because if variation in offspring helping behavior is due to maternal manipulation, social selection may act on maternal phenotypes, as well as those of offspring. Factors correlated with social castes have been linked to variation in developmental nutrition, which might provide opportunity for females to manipulate the social behavior of their offspring. Megalopta genalis is a mass-provisioning facultatively eusocial sweat bee for which production of males and females in social and solitary nests is concurrent and asynchronous. Female offspring may become either gynes (reproductive dispersers) or workers (non-reproductive helpers). We predicted that if maternal manipulation plays a role in M. genalis caste determination, investment in daughters should vary more than for sons. The mass and protein content of pollen stores provided to female offspring varied significantly more than those of males, but volume and sugar content did not. Sugar content varied more among female eggs in social nests than in solitary nests. Provisions were larger, with higher nutrient content, for female eggs and in social nests. Adult females and males show different patterns of allometry, and their investment ratio ranged from 1.23 to 1.69. Adult body weight varied more for females than males, possibly reflecting increased variation in maternal investment in female offspring. These differences are consistent with a role for maternal manipulation in the social plasticity observed in M. genalis.

  18. Methylobacterium pseudosasae sp. nov., a pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium isolated from the bamboo phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj

    2014-02-01

    A pink-pigmented, Gram negative, aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium, strain BL44(T), was isolated from bamboo leaves and identified as a member of the genus Methylobacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed similarity values of 98.7-97.0 % with closely related type strains and showed highest similarity to Methylobacterium zatmanii DSM 5688(T) (98.7 %) and Methylobacterium thiocyanatum DSM 11490(T) (98.7 %). Methylotrophic metabolism in this strain was confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the mxaF gene coding for the α-subunit of methanol dehydrogenase. Strain BL44(T) produced three known quorum sensing signal molecules with similar retention time to C8, C10 and C12-HSLs when characterized by GC-MS. The fatty acid profiles contained major amounts of C18:1 ω7c, iso-3OH C17:0 and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH), which supported the grouping of the isolate in the genus Methylobacterium. The DNA G+C content was 66.9 mol%. DNA relatedness of the strain BL44(T) to its most closely related strains ranged from 12-43.3 %. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain BL44(T) is assigned to a novel species of the genus Methylobacterium for which the name Methylobacterium pseudosasae sp. nov. is proposed (type strain BL44(T) = NBRC 105205(T) = ICMP 17622(T)).

  19. Growth of the facultative anaerobe Shewanella putrefaciens by elemental sulfur reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D. P.; Nealson, K. H.

    1996-01-01

    The growth of bacteria by dissimilatory elemental sulfur reduction is generally associated with obligate anaerobes and thermophiles in particular. Here we describe the sulfur-dependent growth of the facultatively anaerobic mesophile Shewanella putrefaciens. Six of nine representative S. putrefaciens isolates from a variety of environments proved able to grow by sulfur reduction, and strain MR-1 was chosen for further study. Growth was monitored in a minimal medium (usually with 0.05% Casamino Acids added as a growth stimulant) containing 30 mM lactate and limiting concentrations of elemental sulfur. When mechanisms were provided for the removal of the metabolic end product, H2S, measurable growth was obtained at sulfur concentrations of from 2 to 30 mM. Initial doubling times were ca. 1.5 h and substrate independent over the range of sulfur concentrations tested. In the cultures with the highest sulfur concentrations, cell numbers increased by greater than 400-fold after 48 h, reaching a maximum density of 6.8 x 10(8) cells ml-1. Yields were determined as total cell carbon and ranged from 1.7 to 5.9 g of C mol of S(0) consumed-1 in the presence of the amino acid supplement and from 0.9 to 3.4 g of C mol of S(0-1) in its absence. Several lines of evidence indicate that cell-to-sulfur contact is not required for growth. Approaches for the culture of sulfur-metabolizing bacteria and potential ecological implications of sulfur reduction in Shewanella-like heterotrophs are discussed.

  20. Draft genome of an Aerophobetes bacterium reveals a facultative lifestyle in deep-sea anaerobic sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Aerophobetes (or CD12) is a recently defined bacterial phylum, of which the metabolic processes and ecological importance remain unclear. In the present study, we obtained the draft genome of an Aerophobetes bacterium TCS1 from saline sediment near the Thuwal cold seep in the Red Sea using a genome binning method. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes of TCS1 and close relatives revealed wide distribution of Aerophobetes in deep-sea sediments. Phylogenetic relationships showed affinity between Aerophobetes TCS1 and some thermophilic bacterial phyla. The genome of TCS1 (at least 1.27 Mbp) contains a full set of genes encoding core metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and pyruvate fermentation to produce acetyl-CoA and acetate. The identification of cross-membrane sugar transporter genes further indicates its potential ability to consume carbohydrates preserved in the sediment under the microbial mat. Aerophobetes bacterium TCS1 therefore probably carried out saccharolytic and fermentative metabolism. The genes responsible for autotrophic synthesis of acetyl-CoA via the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway were also found in the genome. Phylogenetic study of the essential genes for the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway implied relative independence of Aerophobetes bacterium from the known acetogens and methanogens. Compared with genomes of acetogenic bacteria, Aerophobetes bacterium TCS1 genome lacks the genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, sulfur metabolism, signal transduction and cell motility. The metabolic activities of TCS1 might depend on geochemical conditions such as supplies of CO2, hydrogen and sugars, and therefore the TCS1 might be a facultative bacterium in anaerobic saline sediments near cold seeps. © 2016, Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. Abyssnian pea (Lathyrus schaeferi Kosterin pro Pisum abyssinicum A. Br. – a problematic taxon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Kosterin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This is an English translation of a paper published in Russian (but with proper Latin formulations at taxonomical novelties to make them validly published on March 15, 2017 in Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Vol. 22 (2: 158-169. The Abyssinian pea (Pisum abyssinicum A. Br., concerned in this review, is known from Ethiopia and Yemen, where it is cultivated along with the common pea (Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum. The continuously reproduced notion of its possible spontaneous occurrence in the wild ascends to suppositions made in the XIX century and is not based on any actual data. P. abyssinicum is of practical interest owing to its extra early ripening and resistance to bacterial blight. Morphologically it is very similar to P. sativum but its crossability with it is bad as either seed or pollen parent. Traditionally this reproductive barrier was associated with karyological differences. The Abyssinian pea karyotype is variable as 1–2 reciprocal translocations were reported. At the same time there are accessions not differing from the standard karyotype of P. sativum with respect to reciprocal translocations, yet their crossability with the latter is very low and the pollen fertility of F1 and F2 hybrids is lowered. Data were reported on influence of the region of Linkage Group III, containing a gene known to participate in the conflict of nucleus and plastids in remote crosses of peas, on the pollen fertility of hybrids with abyssinian pea. With their karyological variability, the known accessions of the Abyssinian pea are very close to each other genetically, as they diverged just about 4 000 years ago. The presence of alleles of molecular markers common with Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Smith on the one hand and with P. sativum L. subsp. elatius (Bieb. Schmalh. on the other hand evidences in favour of an old hypotheses by L.I. Govorov that the Abyssinian pea originated from their spontaneous hybrid. This spontaneous cross may

  2. Sponge budding is a spatiotemporal morphological patterning process: Insights from synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography into the asexual reproduction of Tethya wilhelma

    OpenAIRE

    Hammel, J. U.; Herzen, J.; Beckmann, F.; Nickel, M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary agametic-asexual reproduction mechanisms such as budding and fission are present in all non-bilaterian and many bilaterian animal taxa and are likely to be metazoan ground pattern characters. Cnidarians display highly organized and regulated budding processes. In contrast, budding in poriferans was thought to be less specific and related to the general ability of this group to reorganize their tissues. Here we test the hypothesis of morphological pattern formation ...

  3. The gynogenetic reproduction of diploid and triploid hybrid spined loaches (Cobitis: Teleostei), and their ability to establish successful clonal lineages - on the evolution of polyploidy in asexual vertebrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, Karel; Bohlen, Jörg; Lamatsch, D.; Flajšhans, Martin; Epplen, J. T.; Ráb, Petr; Kotlík, Petr; Šlechtová, Věra

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 131, - (2007), s. 185-194 ISSN 0016-6707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/05/P586 Grant - others:EU Marie Curie Research amd Training Network(EU) MCRTN-CT-2004-512492; German Research Foundation(DE) SFB 567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : asexual reproduction * evolution of polyploidy * hybridisation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.396, year: 2007

  4. Evaluation of competitive and economic indices in canola and pea intercropping at different rates of nitrogen fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyfollah fallah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in order to evaluate of competitive and economic indices in canola and pea intercropping at different rates of nitrogen fertilizer at Shahrekord University research farm during 1390 - 1391. Intercropping and sole cropping treatments (100% canola; 66% canola + 33% pea, 50% canola + 50% pea; 33% canola + 66% pea; 100% pea were evaluated as the first factor and nitrogen rates (100% need; 75% need and 50% need as the second factor in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The calculated competitive indices were included land equivalent ratio (LER, relative crowding coefficient (K, aggressively (A, the system production index (SPI, actual yield loss (AYL, competitive ratio (CR and economy indices included monetary advantage index (MAI, and the intercropping advantage (IA. Results showed that all the competitive and economic indices had the highest amount in 50 and 75% of nitrogen requirement. The amounts of AYLt and SPI and economic indices (MAI and IA were positive for all intercropping ratios. Also, LERt and Kt for all intercropping ratio were greater than one, that indicating the superiority of intercropping over sole cropping any of the two plants. The positive values aggressively index and the greater than one values competitive ratio for canola, indicated canola was superior competitor in compared to pea. In conclusion, the evaluation of competitive and economic indices appropriately describes intercropping advantage of canola with pea in reduced nitrogen fertilizer conditions.

  5. Influence of grinding on the nutritive value of peas for ruminants: comparison between in vitro and in situ approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger-Reverdin, Sylvie; Maaroufi, Chiraze; Chapoutot, Patrick; Peyronnet, Corinne; Sauvant, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, peas are characterized by high protein solubility and degradability, which impair its protein value estimated by the official in situ method. Grinding can be used as a technological treatment of pea seeds to modify their nutritional value. The aim of this study was to compare the in situ method with an in vitro method on the same pea either in a coarse pea flour form (PCF) or in a ground pea fine flour form (PFF) to understand the effect of grinding. Both forms were also reground (GPCF and GPFF). PCF presented a lower rate of in vitro degradation than PFF, and more stable fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia, soluble carbohydrates) even if gas production was higher for the PCF after 48 h of incubation. In situ dry matter and protein degradation were lower for PCF than those for PFF; these differences were more marked than with the in vitro method. Reground peas were very similar to PFF. The values for pea protein digestible in the intestine (PDI) were higher for PCF than those for PFF. This study points out the high sensitivity of the in situ method to grinding. The study needs to be validated by in vivo measurements. PMID:25473488

  6. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto)-fermented pigeon pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bao-Hong; Lai, Yi-Syuan; Wu, She-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto-fermented pigeon pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Hong Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension.

  8. Control of wilt and rot pathogens of tomato by antagonistic pink pigmented facultative methylotrophic Delftia lacustris and Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeranan Janahiraman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the biocontrol potential of pink pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM bacteria other than the genus Methylobacterium are scarce. In the present study, we report three facultative methylotrophic isolates; PPO-1, PPT-1 and PPB-1, respectively identified as Delftia lacustris, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Hemolytic activity was tested to investigate the potential pathogenicity of isolates to plants and humans, the results indicates that the isolates PPO-1, PPT-1 and PPB-1 are not pathogenic strains. Under in vitro conditions, D. lacustris PPO-1, B. subtilis PPT-1 and B. cereus PPB-1 showed direct antagonistic effect by inhibiting the mycelial growth of fungal pathogens; Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (2.15, 2.05 and 1.95 cm, Sclerotium rolfsii (2.14, 2.04 and1.94 cm, Pythium ultimum (2.12, 2.02 and 1.92cm, and Rhizoctonia solani (2.18, 2.08 and 1.98 cm and also produced volatile inhibitory compounds. Under plant growth chamber condition methylotrophic bacterial isolates; D. lacustris PPO-1, B. subtilis PPT-1 and B. cereus PPB-1 significantly reduced the disease incidence of tomato. Under greenhouse condition, D. lacustris PPO-1, B. subtilis PPT-1 and B. cereus PPB-1 inoculated tomato plants, when challenged with F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, S. rolfsii, P. ultimum and R. solani, increased the pathogenesis related proteins (β-1, 3-glucanase and chitinase and defense enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and catalase on day 5 after inoculation. In the current study, we first report the facultative methylotrophy in pink pigmented Delftia lacustris, B. subtilis, and B. cereus and their antagonistic potential against fungal pathogens. Direct antagonistic and ISR effects of these isolates against fungal pathogens of tomato evidenced their possible use as a biocontrol agent.

  9. Robust inducible Cre recombinase activity in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum enables efficient gene deletion within a single asexual erythrocytic growth cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christine R; Das, Sujaan; Wong, Eleanor H; Andenmatten, Nicole; Stallmach, Robert; Hackett, Fiona; Herman, Jean-Paul; Müller, Sylke; Meissner, Markus; Blackman, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Asexual blood stages of the malaria parasite, which cause all the pathology associated with malaria, can readily be genetically modified by homologous recombination, enabling the functional study of parasite genes that are not essential in this part of the life cycle. However, no widely applicable method for conditional mutagenesis of essential asexual blood-stage malarial genes is available, hindering their functional analysis. We report the application of the DiCre conditional recombinase system to Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most dangerous form of malaria. We show that DiCre can be used to obtain rapid, highly regulated site-specific recombination in P. falciparum, capable of excising loxP-flanked sequences from a genomic locus with close to 100% efficiency within the time-span of a single erythrocytic growth cycle. DiCre-mediated deletion of the SERA5 3' UTR failed to reduce expression of the gene due to the existence of alternative cryptic polyadenylation sites within the modified locus. However, we successfully used the system to recycle the most widely used drug resistance marker for P. falciparum, human dihydrofolate reductase, in the process producing constitutively DiCre-expressing P. falciparum clones that have broad utility for the functional analysis of essential asexual blood-stage parasite genes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Pea mutant risnod27 as reference line for field assessment of impact of symbiotic nitrogen fixation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biedermannová, E.; Novák, Karel; Vondrys, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 9 (2002), s. 2051-2066 ISSN 0190-4167 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/00/0937 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : pea mutant * symbiotic nodules Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.593, year: 2002

  11. Cultivar preference and sensory evaluation of vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in Eastern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preference and acceptability of twelve vegetable pigeon pea genotypes of medium maturity was evaluated in Eastern Kenya based on six seed cultivar parameters of color, appearance, taste, odor, tenderness and overall seed acceptability. The sensory characteristics were scored by consumers and farmers...

  12. Pea DNA topoisomerase I is phosphorylated and stimulated by casein kinase 2 and protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Narendra; Reddy, Malireddy Kodandarami; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Yadav, Badam Singh; Chandok, Meena Rani; Sopory, Sudhir Kumar

    2003-08-01

    DNA topoisomerase I catalyzes the relaxation of superhelical DNA tension and is vital for DNA metabolism; therefore, it is essential for growth and development of plants. Here, we have studied the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of topoisomerase I from pea (Pisum sativum). The purified enzyme did not show autophosphorylation but was phosphorylated in an Mg(2+)-dependent manner by endogenous protein kinases present in pea nuclear extracts. This phosphorylation was abolished with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase and lambda phosphatase. It was also phosphorylated by exogenous casein kinase 2 (CK2), protein kinase C (PKC; from animal sources), and an endogenous pea protein, which was purified using a novel phorbol myristate acetate affinity chromatography method. All of these phosphorylations were inhibited by heparin (inhibitor of CK2) and calphostin (inhibitor of PKC), suggesting that pea topoisomerase I is a bona fide substrate for these kinases. Spermine and spermidine had no effect on the CK2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting that it is polyamine independent. Phospho-amino acid analysis showed that only serine residues were phosphorylated, which was further confirmed using antiphosphoserine antibody. The topoisomerase I activity increased after phosphorylation with exogenous CK2 and PKC. This study shows that these kinases may contribute to the physiological regulation of DNA topoisomerase I activity and overall DNA metabolism in plants.

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... phytosanitary certificate of inspection issued by the national plant protection organization of Kenya bearing... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319.56-45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  14. A pea chloroplast translation elongation factor that is regulated by abiotic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.N.; Mishra, R.N.; Agarwal, Pradeep K.; Goswami, Mamta; Nair, Suresh; Sopory, S.K.; Reddy, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    We report the cloning and characterization of both the cDNA (tufA) and genomic clones encoding for a chloroplast translation elongation factor (EF-Tu) from pea. The analysis of the deduced amino acids of the cDNA clone reveals the presence of putative transit peptide sequence and four GTP binding domains and two EF-Tu signature motifs in the mature polypeptide region. Using in vivo immunostaining followed by confocal microscopy pea EF-Tu was localized to chloroplast. The steady state transcript level of pea tufA was high in leaves and not detectable in roots. The expression of this gene is stimulated by light. The differential expression of this gene in response to various abiotic stresses showed that it is down-regulated in response to salinity and ABA and up-regulated in response to low temperature and salicylic acid treatment. These results indicate that regulation of pea tufA may have an important role in plant adaptation to environmental stresses

  15. Validation of quantitative method for azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelraheem, Ehab M H; Hassan, Sayed M; Arief, Mohamed M H; Mohammad, Somaia G

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a method validation for extraction and quantitative analysis of azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas using HPLC-UV and the results confirmed by GC-MS. The employed method involved initial extraction with acetonitrile after the addition of salts (magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride), followed by a cleanup step by activated neutral carbon. Validation parameters; linearity, matrix effect, LOQ, specificity, trueness and repeatability precision were attained. The spiking levels for the trueness and the precision experiments were (0.1, 0.5, 3 mg/kg). For HPLC-UV analysis, mean recoveries ranged between 83.69% to 91.58% and 81.99% to 107.85% for green beans and peas, respectively. For GC-MS analysis, mean recoveries ranged from 76.29% to 94.56% and 80.77% to 100.91% for green beans and peas, respectively. According to these results, the method has been proven to be efficient for extraction and determination of azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A highly infective plant-associated bacterium influences reproductive rates in pea aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Tory A; Clark, Kelley J; Baltrus, David A

    2016-02-01

    Pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, have the potential to increase reproduction as a defence against pathogens, though how frequently this occurs or how infection with live pathogens influences this response is not well understood. Here we determine the minimum infective dose of an environmentally common bacterium and possible aphid pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, to determine the likelihood of pathogenic effects to pea aphids. Additionally, we used P. syringae infection to investigate how live pathogens may alter reproductive rates. We found that oral bacterial exposure decreased subsequent survival of aphids in a dose-dependent manner and we estimate that ingestion of less than 10 bacterial cells is sufficient to increase aphid mortality. Pathogen dose was positively related to aphid reproduction. Aphids exposed to low bacterial doses showed decreased, although statistically indistinguishable, fecundity compared to controls. Aphids exposed to high doses reproduced significantly more than low dose treatments and also more, but not significantly so, than controls. These results are consistent with previous studies suggesting that pea aphids may use fecundity compensation as a response to pathogens. Consequently, even low levels of exposure to a common plant-associated bacterium may therefore have significant effects on pea aphid survival and reproduction.

  17. Translocation of metals in pea plants grown on various amendment of electroplating industrial sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sutapa; Chandrayan, Sudarshana; Rai, Vivek; Bhattacharyya, A K; Ramanathan, A L

    2008-07-01

    A pot-culture experiment was conducted to observe the effects of acidic sludge addition to the soils on bioavailability and uptake of heavy metals in different parts of pea plant as well as its influence on the growth of that plant. It is observed from our result the abundances of total and bio-available heavy metals in sludge vary as follows: Fe>Mn>Cr>Ni>Cu>Pb>Zn>Cd and Fe>Ni>Mn>Cr>Cu>Zn>Pb>Cd. Sludge applications increased both the total metals, DTPA-extractable metals and total N in the soils. On the other hand lime application has decreased the bioavailability of heavy metals with no change in total N in sludge amended soils. Organic carbon showed positive correlation with all metals except Zn, Cr and Pb. CEC also showed a strong positive correlation (R(2)>0.7) with the low translocation efficiency of pea plants. The value of translocation factor from shoot to seed was found to be smaller than root to shoot of pea plants. Our study thus shows that pea plants were found to be well adapted to the soil amended with 10% sludge with 0.5% lime treatment, minimizing most of the all metal uptake in the shoot of that plant. So, on the basis of the present study, possible treatment may be recommended for the secure disposal of acidic electroplating sludge.

  18. Genotype × Environment Interaction in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L. Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Polignano

    2009-01-01

    performance of lines in each year. The analyses used arranged the lines into groups that were differentiable in terms of performances and stability. Our results provide useful information to aid the choice of grass pea lines in the Mediterranean marginal areas.

  19. Synergistic enhancement in the co-gelation of salt-soluble pea proteins and whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Douglas; Vasanthan, Thava; Ozimek, Lech

    2013-12-15

    This paper investigated the enhancement of thermal gelation properties when salt-soluble pea proteins were co-gelated with whey proteins in NaCl solutions, using different blend ratios, total protein concentrations, pH, and salt concentrations. Results showed that the thermal co-gelation of pea/whey proteins blended in ratio of 2:8 in NaCl solutions showed synergistic enhancement in storage modulus, gel hardness, paste viscosity and minimum gelation concentrations. The highest synergistic enhancement was observed at pH 6.0 as compared with pH 4.0 and 8.0, and at the lower total protein concentration of 10% as compared with 16% and 22% (w/v), as well as in lower NaCl concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0% as compared with 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5%, and 3.0% (w/v). The least gelation concentrations were also lower in the different pea/whey protein blend ratios than in pure pea or whey proteins, when dissolved in 1.0% or 2.5% (w/v) NaCl aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pea VEGETATIVE2 Is an FD Homolog That Is Essential for Flowering and Compound Inflorescence Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmilch, Frances C; Berbel, Ana; Hecht, Valérie; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Madueño, Francisco; Weller, James L

    2015-04-01

    As knowledge of the gene networks regulating inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana improves, the current challenge is to characterize this system in different groups of crop species with different inflorescence architecture. Pea (Pisum sativum) has served as a model for development of the compound raceme, characteristic of many legume species, and in this study, we characterize the pea VEGETATIVE2 (VEG2) locus, showing that it is critical for regulation of flowering and inflorescence development and identifying it as a homolog of the bZIP transcription factor FD. Through detailed phenotypic characterizations of veg2 mutants, expression analyses, and the use of protein-protein interaction assays, we find that VEG2 has important roles during each stage of development of the pea compound inflorescence. Our results suggest that VEG2 acts in conjunction with multiple FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) proteins to regulate expression of downstream target genes, including TERMINAL FLOWER1, LEAFY, and MADS box homologs, and to facilitate cross-regulation within the FT gene family. These findings further extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying compound inflorescence development in pea and may have wider implications for future manipulation of inflorescence architecture in related legume crop species. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.