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Sample records for factors specifically related

  1. The forest and the trees: relational and specific factors in addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R; Moyers, Theresa B

    2015-03-01

    Increased expectations for the use of evidence-based methods in addiction treatment have fueled a debate regarding the relative importance of 'specific' versus 'common' factors in treatment outcome. This review explores the influence of these factors on addiction treatment outcome. The authors review and link findings from four decades of research on specific and general factors in addiction treatment outcome research. Although few would argue that what one does in addiction treatment is immaterial, outcome studies tend to find small to no difference when specific treatment methods are compared with each other or with treatment as usual. In contrast, there are usually substantial differences among therapists in client outcomes, and relational factors such as therapist empathy and therapeutic alliance can be significant determinants of addiction treatment outcome. In addiction treatment, relational factors such as empathy, which are often described as common, non-specific factors, should not be dismissed as 'common' because they vary substantially across providers and it is unclear how common they actually are. Similarly they should not be relegated to 'non-specific' status, because such important relational influences can be specified and incorporated into clinical research and training. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Relation of Stroke Risk Factors with Specific Stroke Subtypes and Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad ASSARZADEGAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the risk factors of ischemic strokes are well defined, there is slight information about their relations with the etiologies of ischemic strokes. This study investigated the distribution of ischemic stroke risk factors and their connections to diverse etiologies of cerebrovascular attack (CVA and specific ischemic regions of brain.Methods: In this cross sectional study, we analyzed the data of patients with definite diagnosis of CVA, excluding hemorrhagic strokes, registered in Imam Hossein Medical Center in Tehran, Iran. The data were collected from entire archived medical records from March 2010 until September 2012, retrospectively. Results: Out of 1696 cases a total of 1011 subjects, 487 (48.2% males and 524 (51.8% females with mean age of 68.91±13.54 yr were included in the study. Patients suffering from atrial fibrillation (AF, valvular heart disease (VHD, and dilated cardiomyopathy were more prone to develop cardioembolic stroke. Those with diabetes mellitus (DM, carotid artery stenosis and dyslipidemia (DLP had a higher prevalence of macroangiopathic stroke. Ischemic heart disease (IHD, AF, and VHD were associated with stroke in the brain territory supplied by middle cerebral artery (MCA while DM and carotid artery stenosis were correspondent with posterior cerebral artery (PCA stroke.Conclusion: The diagnosis of the weight of each risk factor of ischemic strokes on different etiologies and territories of ischemia can assist care providers for a more efficient prevention of strokes. The results of this study can also be a basis for further investigations to corroborate the pathophysiology of such relations. Keywords: Stroke, Cerebral arteries, Risk factors, Iran

  3. Tumor subtype-specific associations of hormone-related reproductive factors on breast cancer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available It is inconclusive whether reproductive factors, which are known as risk factors of breast cancer, also influence survival. We investigated overall and subtype-specific associations between reproductive factors and breast cancer survival.Among 3,430 incident breast cancer patients who enrolled in the Seoul Breast Cancer Study, 269 patients (7.8% died and 528 patients (15.4% recurred. The overall and subtype-specific associations of reproductive factors including age at menarche and menopause, duration of estrogen exposure, menstrual cycle, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy, number of children, age at last birth, time since the last birth, and duration of breastfeeding, on overall and disease-free survival (OS and DFS were estimated by hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model.An older age at menarche (HR for OS=1.10, 95% CI=1.03-1.19, a greater number of children (≥ 4 vs. 2, HR for DFS=1.58, 95% CI=1.11-2.26, and a shorter time since last birth (<5 vs. ≥ 20 years, HR for DFS=1.67, 95% CI=1.07-2.62 were associated with worse survival while longer duration of estrogen exposure with better survival (HR for DFS=0.97, 95% CI=0.96-0.99. In the stratified analyses by subtypes, those associations were more pronounced among women with hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor 2 positive (HR+ HER2+ tumors.It is suggested that reproductive factors, specifically age at menarche, number of children, time since last birth, and duration of estrogen exposure, could influence breast tumor progression, especially in the HR+ HER2+ subtype.

  4. Specific patient-related prognostic factors for rotator cuff repair : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerspink, Frederik O. Lambers; Dorrestijn, Oscar; van Raay, Jos J. A. M.; Diercks, Ron L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many studies that describe factors affecting outcome in primary rotator cuff repair (RCR) have been published, but so far there is no review that summarizes them. This systematic review was conducted to identify prognostic factors influencing functional (clinical) outcome and radiologica

  5. Specific patient-related prognostic factors for rotator cuff repair : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerspink, Frederik O. Lambers; Dorrestijn, Oscar; van Raay, Jos J. A. M.; Diercks, Ron L.

    Background: Many studies that describe factors affecting outcome in primary rotator cuff repair (RCR) have been published, but so far there is no review that summarizes them. This systematic review was conducted to identify prognostic factors influencing functional (clinical) outcome and

  6. Relationships between five-factor personality traits and specific health-related personality dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examinan las relaciones entre 15 rasgos de personalidad relevantes para la investigación en salud, así como sus relaciones con los cinco grandes factores de la personalidad y dos factores de orden superior alfa y beta. El análisis factorial de 15 rasgos de la personalidad relacionados con la salud dio lugar a tres amplios componentes: Afectividad negativa, Control optimista y Pasividad. Los resultados obtenidos indican que los tres componentes relacionados con la salud, y la mayoría de sus medidas, podrían explicarse por la combinación de los cinco factores de la personalidad. Extraversión, Neuroticismo y Apertura están representados en los conceptos relacionados con la salud mucho más que Amabilidad y Responsabilidad. Locus de control de la salud y pasividad mostraron el mayor grado de independencia de los cinco grandes factores de la personalidad. El factor alfa se relaciona principalmente con la baja afectividad negativa, mientras que el factor beta lo hace con un alto control optimista. Los resultados sugieren que los cinco grandes factores, y los factores alfa y beta de orden superior, son útiles como marco general para la investigación en salud y personalidad, aunque también existe la necesidad de utilizar medidas específicas.

  7. Comparing the factors correlated with tuberculosis-specific and non-tuberculosis-specific deaths in different age groups among tuberculosis-related deaths in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Wu

    Full Text Available Nearly 20% of tuberculosis (TB patients die within one year, and TB-related mortality rates remain high in Taiwan. The study aimed to identify factors correlated with TB-specific deaths versus non-TB-specific deaths in different age groups among TB-related mortalities.A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 2006-2008 with newly registered TB patients receiving follow-up for 1 year. The national TB database from the Taiwan-CDC was linked with the National Vital Registry System and the National Health Insurance database. A chi-squared test and logistic regression were used to analyse the correlated factors related to TB-specific and non-TB-specific deaths in different age groups.Elderly age (odds ratio [OR] 2.68-8.09, Eastern residence (OR 2.01, positive sputum bacteriology (OR 2.54, abnormal chest X-ray (OR 2.28, and comorbidity with chronic kidney disease (OR 2.35, stroke (OR 1.74 or chronic liver disease (OR 1.29 were most likely to be the cause of TB-specific deaths, whereas cancer (OR 0.79 was less likely to be implicated. For non-TB-specific deaths in patients younger than 65 years of age, male sex (OR 2.04 and comorbidity with HIV (OR 5.92, chronic kidney disease (OR 8.02, stroke (OR 3.75, cancer (OR 9.79, chronic liver disease (OR 2.71 or diabetes mellitus (OR 1.38 were risk factors.Different factors correlated with TB-specific deaths compared with non-TB-specific deaths, and the impact of comorbidities gradually decreased as age increased. To reduce TB-specific mortality, special consideration for TB patients with old age, Eastern residence, positive sputum bacteriology and comorbidity with chronic kidney disease or stroke is crucial. In particular, Eastern residence increased the risk of TB-specific death in all age groups. In terms of TB deaths among patients younger than 65 years of age, patients with HIV, chronic kidney disease or cancer had a 6-10 times increased risk of non-TB-specific deaths.

  8. The Relative Importance of Three Specific Climatic Factors on North American Breeding Bird Species Richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Lin, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding of the relationships between bird species and environment facilitates protecting avian biodiversity and maintaining nature sustaining. However, the effects of many climatic factors on bird richness have not been fully grasped. To fill this gap, this study investigated the relationships between the richness of three typical North American breeding bird species and three climatic factors at the monthly scale. Based on the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data during 1967-2014, the relationships between the numbers of Carolina wren, Cerulean warbler, and Red-bellied woodpecker and the three climatic factors of precipitation, vapor pressure, and potential evapotranspiration were examined using the method of Pearson linear regression analysis. The results indicated that the three climatic factors have correlations with the richness of the breeding bird species but in different modes, e.g., strong correlations for the non-migratory species but weak correlations for the migratory species.

  9. Burnout in Relation to Specific Contributing Factors and Health Outcomes among Nurses: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamisa, Natasha; Peltzer, Karl; Oldenburg, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Nurses have been found to experience higher levels of stress-related burnout compared to other health care professionals. Despite studies showing that both job satisfaction and burnout are effects of exposure to stressful working environments, leading to poor health among nurses, little is known about the causal nature and direction of these relationships. The aim of this systematic review is to identify published research that has formally investigated relationships between these variables. Six databases (including CINAHL, COCHRANE, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PROQUEST and PsyINFO) were searched for combinations of keywords, a manual search was conducted and an independent reviewer was asked to cross validate all the electronically identified articles. Of the eighty five articles that were identified from these databases, twenty one articles were excluded based on exclusion criteria; hence, a total of seventy articles were included in the study sample. The majority of identified studies exploring two and three way relationships (n = 63) were conducted in developed countries. Existing research includes predominantly cross-sectional studies (n = 68) with only a few longitudinal studies (n = 2); hence, the evidence base for causality is still very limited. Despite minimal availability of research concerning the small number of studies to investigate the relationships between work-related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and the general health of nurses, this review has identified some contradictory evidence for the role of job satisfaction. This emphasizes the need for further research towards understanding causality. PMID:23727902

  10. Sport-related achievement motivation and alcohol outcomes: an athlete-specific risk factor among intercollegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R

    2013-12-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed.

  11. Combined impact of lifestyle-related factors on total and cause-specific mortality among Chinese women: prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Nechuta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol drinking, obesity, and several other well-studied unhealthy lifestyle-related factors each have been linked to the risk of multiple chronic diseases and premature death, little is known about the combined impact on mortality outcomes, in particular among Chinese and other non-Western populations. The objective of this study was to quantify the overall impact of lifestyle-related factors beyond that of active cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Chinese women. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study, an ongoing population-based prospective cohort study in China. Participants included 71,243 women aged 40 to 70 years enrolled during 1996-2000 who never smoked or drank alcohol regularly. A healthy lifestyle score was created on the basis of five lifestyle-related factors shown to be independently associated with mortality outcomes (normal weight, lower waist-hip ratio, daily exercise, never exposed to spouse's smoking, higher daily fruit and vegetable intake. The score ranged from zero (least healthy to five (most healthy points. During an average follow-up of 9 years, 2,860 deaths occurred, including 775 from cardiovascular disease (CVD and 1,351 from cancer. Adjusted hazard ratios for mortality decreased progressively with an increasing number of healthy lifestyle factors. Compared to women with a score of zero, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals for women with four to five factors were 0.57 (0.44-0.74 for total mortality, 0.29 (0.16-0.54 for CVD mortality, and 0.76 (0.54-1.06 for cancer mortality. The inverse association between the healthy lifestyle score and mortality was seen consistently regardless of chronic disease status at baseline. The population attributable risks for not having 4-5 healthy lifestyle factors were 33% for total deaths, 59% for CVD deaths, and 19% for cancer deaths

  12. Combined impact of lifestyle-related factors on total and cause-specific mortality among Chinese women: prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background It is well established that lifestyle-related factors, such as limited physical activity, unhealthy diets, excessive alcohol consumption, and exposure to tobacco smoke are linked to an increased risk of many chronic diseases and premature death. However, few studies have investigated the combined impact of lifestyle-related factors and mortality outcomes, and most of such studies of combinations of established lifestyle factors and mortality have been conducted in ...

  13. The dorsal-related immunity factor, Dif, is a sequence-specific trans-activator of Drosophila Cecropin gene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, U M; Björklund, G; Ip, Y T; Engström, Y

    1995-01-01

    A new member of the Rel family of transcription factors, the dorsal-related immunity factor, Dif, was recently cloned and suggested to be involved in regulating the immune response in Drosophila. Despite its classification as a Rel family member, the Dif cDNA-encoded product has not been proven previously to be a transcription factor. We now present evidence that the Dif gene product trans-activates the Drosophila Cecropin A1 gene in co-transfection assays. The transactivation requires a 40 b...

  14. Sport-Related Achievement Motivation and Alcohol Outcomes: An Athlete-Specific Risk Factor among Intercollegiate Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Cameron C.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Takamatsu, Stephanie K.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Pedersen, Eric R.

    2013-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college stud...

  15. The relation between societal factors and different forms of prejudice: A cross-national approach on target-specific and generalized prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeusen, Cecil; Kern, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the generalizability of prejudice across contexts by analyzing associations between different types of prejudice in a cross-national perspective and by investigating the relation between country-specific contextual factors and target-specific prejudices. Relying on the European Social Survey (2008), results indicated that prejudices were indeed positively associated, confirming the existence of a generalized prejudice component. Next to substantial cross-national differences in associational strength, also within country variance in target-specific associations was observed. This suggested that the motivations for prejudice largely vary according to the intergroup context. Two aspects of the intergroup context - economic conditions and cultural values - showed to be related to generalized and target-specific components of prejudice. Future research on prejudice and context should take an integrative approach that considers both the idea of generalized and specific prejudice simultaneously.

  16. Relations between common and specific factors of anxiety sensitivity and distress tolerance and fear, distress, and alcohol and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Macatee, Richard J; Norr, Aaron M; Raines, Amanda M; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-06-01

    Whereas it has been speculated that the psychopathology risk factors anxiety sensitivity (AS) and distress tolerance (DT) are highly overlapping, no studies have examined whether a core affect sensitivity construct explains this relation. It was hypothesized that, in a sample of 808 treatment-seeking individuals (M(age) = 35.11, SD = 14.94), the best-fitting confirmatory factor analysis model of AS and DT would comprise a common underlying affect sensitivity factor orthogonal to DT and lower-order AS factors (physical, cognitive, and social concerns). It was also hypothesized that specific relations between the factors and fear, distress, and alcohol/substance use disorders would emerge. The best-fitting model comprised a common affect sensitivity factor orthogonal to DT and lower-order AS factors. Whereas the affect sensitivity and DT factors were associated with fear, distress, and alcohol/substance use disorders, AS cognitive concerns was only related to distress disorders and AS social concerns was only related to fear disorders.

  17. Wild soybean roots depend on specific transcription factors and oxidation reduction related genesin response to alkaline stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuanMu, Huizi; Wang, Yang; Bai, Xi; Cheng, Shufei; Deyholos, Michael K; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Li, Dan; Zhu, Dan; Li, Ran; Yu, Yang; Cao, Lei; Chen, Chao; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-11-01

    Soil alkalinity is an important environmental problem limiting agricultural productivity. Wild soybean (Glycine soja) shows strong alkaline stress tolerance, so it is an ideal plant candidate for studying the molecular mechanisms of alkaline tolerance and identifying alkaline stress-responsive genes. However, limited information is available about G. soja responses to alkaline stress on a genomic scale. Therefore, in the present study, we used RNA sequencing to compare transcript profiles of G. soja root responses to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) at six time points, and a total of 68,138,478 pairs of clean reads were obtained using the Illumina GAIIX. Expression patterns of 46,404 G. soja genes were profiled in all six samples based on RNA-seq data using Cufflinks software. Then, t12 transcription factors from MYB, WRKY, NAC, bZIP, C2H2, HB, and TIFY families and 12 oxidation reduction related genes were chosen and verified to be induced in response to alkaline stress by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The GO functional annotation analysis showed that besides "transcriptional regulation" and "oxidation reduction," these genes were involved in a variety of processes, such as "binding" and "response to stress." This is the first comprehensive transcriptome profiling analysis of wild soybean root under alkaline stress by RNA sequencing. Our results highlight changes in the gene expression patterns and identify a set of genes induced by NaHCO3 stress. These findings provide a base for the global analyses of G. soja alkaline stress tolerance mechanisms.

  18. Expression of collagen and related growth factors in rat tendon and skeletal muscle in response to specific contraction types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, K M; Olesen, J L; Haddad, F

    2007-01-01

    Acute exercise induces collagen synthesis in both tendon and muscle, indicating an adaptive response in the connective tissue of the muscle-tendon unit. However, the mechanisms of this adaptation, potentially involving collagen-inducing growth factors (such as transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF......-9 per group) of the medial gastrocnemius, by stimulation of the sciatic nerve. RNA was extracted from medial gastrocnemius and Achilles tendon tissue 24 h after the last training bout, and mRNA levels for collagens I and III, TGF-beta-1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), lysyl oxidase (LOX...... induced in tendon, especially LOX (up to 37-fold), which could indicate a loading-induced increase in cross-linking of tendon collagen. In skeletal muscle, a similar regulation of gene expression was observed, but in contrast to the tendon response, the effect of eccentric training was significantly...

  19. Universal Beliefs and Specific Practices: Students' Math Self-Efficacy and Related Factors in the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to compare and contrast student and school factors that are associated with students' mathematics self-efficacy in the United States and China. Using hierarchical linear regressions to analyze the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 data, this study compares math self-efficacy, achievement, and variables…

  20. Regulation of follicular B cell differentiation by the related E26 transformation-specific transcription factors PU.1, Spi-B, and Spi-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKoter, Rodney P; Geadah, Marc; Khoosal, Sonam; Xu, Li S; Thillainadesan, Gobi; Torchia, Joseph; Chin, Shu Shien; Garrett-Sinha, Lee Ann

    2010-12-15

    Splenic B-2 cells can be divided into two major subsets: follicular (FO) and marginal zone (MZ) B cells. FO and MZ B cells are generated from immature transitional B cells. Few transcription factors have been identified that regulate FO B cell differentiation. The highly related proteins PU.1, Spi-B, and Spi-C are transcription factors of the E26-transformation-specific family and are important for B cell differentiation and function. To determine whether these proteins play a role in the differentiation of FO B cells, we performed a detailed analysis of splenic B cells in mice with inactivating mutations in the genes encoding PU.1 (Sfpi1) or Spi-B (Spib). Sfpi1(+/-) Spib(-/-) (PUB) mice had a 9-fold reduction in the frequency of CD23(+) FO B cells compared with that of wild-type mice. In contrast, PUB mice had a 2-fold increase in the frequency of MZ B cells that was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining. Expression of Spi-C in Eμ-Spi-C transgenic PUB mice partially rescued frequencies of CD23(+) B cells. Gene expression analysis, in vitro reporter assays, and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that transcription of the Fcer2a gene encoding CD23 is activated by PU.1, Spi-B, and Spi-C. These results demonstrate that FO B cell differentiation is regulated by the E26-transformation-specific transcription factors PU.1, Spi-B, and Spi-C.

  1. Two intestinal specific nuclear factors binding to the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase and sucrase-isomaltase promoters are functionally related oligomeric molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, J T; Mitchelmore, C; Sjöström, H

    1994-01-01

    Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) are enterocyte-specific gene products. The identification of regulatory cis-elements in the promoter of these two genes has enabled us to carry out comparative studies of the corresponding intestinal-specific nuclear factors (NF-LPH1...

  2. Feedback Induction of a Photoreceptor-specific Isoform of Retinoid-related Orphan Nuclear Receptor β by the Rod Transcription Factor NRL*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yulong; Liu, Hong; Ng, Lily; Kim, Jung-Woong; Hao, Hong; Swaroop, Anand; Forrest, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Vision requires the generation of cone and rod photoreceptors that function in daylight and dim light, respectively. The neural retina leucine zipper factor (NRL) transcription factor critically controls photoreceptor fates as it stimulates rod differentiation and suppresses cone differentiation. However, the controls over NRL induction that balance rod and cone fates remain unclear. We have reported previously that the retinoid-related orphan receptor β gene (Rorb) is required for Nrl expression and other retinal functions. We show that Rorb differentially expresses two isoforms: RORβ2 in photoreceptors and RORβ1 in photoreceptors, progenitor cells, and other cell types. Deletion of RORβ2 or RORβ1 increased the cone:rod ratio ∼2-fold, whereas deletion of both isoforms in Rorb−/− mice produced almost exclusively cone-like cells at the expense of rods, suggesting that both isoforms induce Nrl. Electroporation of either RORβ isoform into retinal explants from Rorb−/− neonates reactivated Nrl and rod genes but, in Nrl−/− explants, failed to reactivate rod genes, indicating that NRL is the effector for both RORβ isoforms in rod differentiation. Unexpectedly, RORβ2 expression was lost in Nrl−/− mice. Moreover, NRL activated the RORβ2-specific promoter of Rorb, indicating that NRL activates Rorb, its own inducer gene. We suggest that feedback activation between Nrl and Rorb genes reinforces the commitment to rod differentiation. PMID:25296752

  3. Feedback induction of a photoreceptor-specific isoform of retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor β by the rod transcription factor NRL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yulong; Liu, Hong; Ng, Lily; Kim, Jung-Woong; Hao, Hong; Swaroop, Anand; Forrest, Douglas

    2014-11-21

    Vision requires the generation of cone and rod photoreceptors that function in daylight and dim light, respectively. The neural retina leucine zipper factor (NRL) transcription factor critically controls photoreceptor fates as it stimulates rod differentiation and suppresses cone differentiation. However, the controls over NRL induction that balance rod and cone fates remain unclear. We have reported previously that the retinoid-related orphan receptor β gene (Rorb) is required for Nrl expression and other retinal functions. We show that Rorb differentially expresses two isoforms: RORβ2 in photoreceptors and RORβ1 in photoreceptors, progenitor cells, and other cell types. Deletion of RORβ2 or RORβ1 increased the cone:rod ratio ∼2-fold, whereas deletion of both isoforms in Rorb(-/-) mice produced almost exclusively cone-like cells at the expense of rods, suggesting that both isoforms induce Nrl. Electroporation of either RORβ isoform into retinal explants from Rorb(-/-) neonates reactivated Nrl and rod genes but, in Nrl(-/-) explants, failed to reactivate rod genes, indicating that NRL is the effector for both RORβ isoforms in rod differentiation. Unexpectedly, RORβ2 expression was lost in Nrl(-/-) mice. Moreover, NRL activated the RORβ2-specific promoter of Rorb, indicating that NRL activates Rorb, its own inducer gene. We suggest that feedback activation between Nrl and Rorb genes reinforces the commitment to rod differentiation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Associations between specific ApoE genetic variants and their interactions with environmental factors in relation to the lipid profile of black South Africans / Lize Meades

    OpenAIRE

    Meades, Lize

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global mortality and its prevalence is increasing among black South Africans in spite of their favourable lipid profile. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a well-described risk factor for CVD and certain polymorphisms within this gene alter the lipid profile. The author hypothesised that there are population-specific effects within the ApoE gene that are responsible for the favourable lipid profile observed in black South Africans wh...

  5. Specificity of Tumor Necrosis Factor Toxicity for Human Mammary Carcinomas Relative to Normal Mammary Epithelium and Correlation with Response to Doxorubicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollbaum, Charles; Creasey, Abla A.; Dairkee, Shahnaz H.; Hiller, Alan J.; Rudolph, Alfred R.; Lin, Leo; Vitt, Charles; Smith, Helene S.

    1988-07-01

    By using a unique short-term culture system capable of growing both normal and malignant breast epithelial tissue, human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) showed preferential cytotoxicity to malignant cells as compared to the corresponding nonmalignant cells. Most of the malignant specimens were sensitive to TNF with 13 of 18 specimens showing 90% inhibition of clonal growth (ID90) by TNF per ml of culture fluid. In contrast, all 13 nonmalignant specimens tested clustered at the resistant end of the TNF response spectrum, with ID90 values being >5000 units of TNF per ml of culture fluid. This differential sensitivity to TNF was seen in three cases in which malignant and nonmalignant breast epithelial tissues from the same patient were studied. To investigate the mechanism of resistance to TNF by normal cells, the presence of receptors for TNF was determined. Five of six cultures showed specific binding of 125I-labeled TNF and there was no relationship between the degree of resistance and the degree of specific binding. Simultaneous comparison of tumor responsiveness to doxorubicin and TNF revealed a positive correlation in ID90 values; these results may have important implications for the clinical use of TNF in cancer patients heavily pretreated with doxorubicin.

  6. Nasal hyperreactivity in allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: a potential risk factor for non-specific building-related illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusterman, D; Murphy, M A

    2007-08-01

    Self-reported non-allergic nasal symptom triggers in non-allergic ('vasomotor') rhinitis overlap with commonly identified environmental exposures in non-specific building-related illness. These include extremes of temperature and humidity, cleaning products, fragrances, and tobacco smoke. Some individuals with allergic rhinitis also report non-allergic triggers. We wished to explore the phenotypic overlap between allergic and non-allergic rhinitis by ascertaining self-reported non-allergic nasal symptom triggers among allergic rhinitics. Sixty subjects without work-related respiratory exposures or symptoms, aged 19-68 years, stratified by age, gender and (skin test-proven) allergic rhinitis status, were queried with regard to self-reported non-allergic nasal symptom triggers (aggregate score 0-8). In this sample, the number of self-reported non-allergic triggers was bimodal, with peaks at 1 and 5. Forty-two percent of seasonal allergic rhinitic subjects reported more than three non-allergic triggers, compared with only 3% of non-allergic non-rhinitics (P < 0.01). Subjects over 35 years were more likely to report one or more non-allergic triggers, particularly tobacco smoke (P < 0.05). Allergic rhinitics reported more non-allergic symptom triggers than did non-allergic, non-rhinitics. As indexed by self-reported reactivity to non-specific physical and chemical triggers, both non-allergic rhinitics and a subset of allergic rhinitics may constitute susceptible populations for non-specific building-related illness. Judging by self-report, a substantial subset of individuals with allergic rhinitis--along with all individuals with nonallergic rhinitis (by definition)--are hyperreactive to non-allergic triggers. There is overlap between these triggers (elicited in the process of obtaining a clinical diagnosis) and environmental characteristics associated with ''problem buildings.'' Since individuals with self-identified rhinitis report an excess of symptoms in most

  7. Globalization and Income Distribution: A Specific Factors Continuum Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Does globalization widen inequality or increase income risk? In the specific factors continuum model of this paper, globalization widens inequality, amplifying the positive (negative) premia for export (import- competing) sectors. Globalization amplifies the risk from idiosyncratic relative productivity shocks but reduces risk from aggregate shocks to absolute advantage, relative endowments and transfers. Aggregate-shock-induced income risk bears most heavily on the poorest specific factors, ...

  8. Influence of region and site-specific factors on the degree of general validity of ecological and primary-energy-related assessments of biogas; Einfluss regionaler und standortspezifischer Faktoren auf die Allgemeingueltigkeit oekologischer und primaerenergetischer Bewertungen von Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressler, Daniela

    2015-11-01

    As described in this publication, since the early 1990s numerous studies based on the life cycle assessment methodology have been dedicated to assessments of different kinds of bioenergy in comparison with fossil energy resources in terms of their energy balance and environmental impact. On reviewing the results of these studies one finds a strikingly wide range of variation. One major factor of influence on the results of life cycle assessments, besides methodological factors such as the choice of allocation method, is the representativeness of the data used. Thus, widely varying results are also obtained when balance calculations and assessments are performed on energy crops with due consideration to regional and site-specific factors. To address this problem the present study endeavoured to identify region and site-specific factors and assess them in terms of their influence on the life cycle assessment of the cultivation and conversion to biogas of different kinds of energy crops. For this purpose the following questions were explored: What influence do region, site and equipment-specific factors have on the results of ecological and primary-energy-related assessments; and how large are the differences in results between region and site-specific assessments on the one hand and assessments based on general assumptions on the other? It transpires that the results of region and site-specific assessments differ from one another in terms of both the assessment of energy cropping and the assessment of the entire process chain of biogas production and conversion to electricity.

  9. Factors influencing the diabetes-specific health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Andrea; Varga, Beatrix; Kiss-Tóth, Emőke; Soós, Andrea; Barkai, László

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of the anthropometric, clinical variables and maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max) with diabetes-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in youths with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and to find the predictors of HRQoL and blood glucose control. A total of 239 youths with diabetes (124 boys and 115 girls) were recruited from diabetes-based summer camps. HRQoL assessment was carried out with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 3.0 Diabetes Module (Information Resources Centre, Mapi Research Trust, France); Vo2max was evaluated by conducting the 20-m shuttle run test. Higher Vo2max and the insulin pump therapy were significant predictors of the HRQoL in the multiple regression analysis; other clinical and anthropometric variables had no effect. The better blood glucose control was explained only by the higher Vo2max. The good cardiorespiratory fitness (expressed by Vo2max) has clinical and QoL benefits for paediatric patients with T1DM.

  10. Hair cell regeneration or the expression of related factors that regulate the fate specification of supporting cells in the cochlear ducts of embryonic and posthatch chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingling; Jin, Ran; Xu, Jincao; Ji, Yubin; Zhang, Meiguang; Zhang, Xuebo; Zhang, Xinwen; Han, Zhongming; Zeng, Shaoju

    2016-02-01

    Hair cells in posthatch chickens regenerate spontaneously through mitosis or the transdifferentiation of supporting cells in response to antibiotic injury. However, how embryonic chicken cochleae respond to antibiotic treatment remains unknown. This study is the first to indicate that unlike hair cells in posthatch chickens, the auditory epithelium was free from antibiotic injury (25-250 mg gentamicin/kg) in embryonic chickens, although FITC-conjugated gentamicin actually reached embryonic hair cells. Next, we examined and counted the cells and performed labeling for BrdU, Sox2, Atoh1/Math1, PV or p27(kip1) (triple or double labeling) in the injured cochlea ducts after gentamicin treatment at 2 h (h), 15 h, 24 h, 2 days (d), 3 d and 7 d after BrdU treatment in posthatch chickens. Our results indicated that following gentamicin administration, proliferating cells (BrdU+) were labeled for Atoh1/Math1 in the damaged areas 3d after gentamicin administration, whereas hair cells (PV+) renewed through mitosis (BrdU+) or direct transdifferentiation (BrdU-) were evident only after 5 d of gentamicin administration. In addition, Sox2 expression was up-regulated in triggered supporting cells at an early stage of regeneration, but stopped at the advent of mature hair cells. Our study also indicated that p27(kip1) was expressed in both hair cells and supporting cells but was down-regulated in a subgroup of the supporting cells that gave rise to hair cells. These data and the obtained dynamic changes of the cells labeled for BrdU, Sox2, Atoh1/Math1, PV or p27(kip1) are useful for understanding supporting cell behaviors and their fate specification during hair cell regeneration.

  11. Simultaneous inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and enhanced activation of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor-mediated apoptosis induction by an scFv : sTRAIL fusion protein with specificity for human EGFR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, E; Samplonius, DF; van Genne, L; Dijkstra, MH; Kroesen, BJ; de Leij, LFMH; Helfrich, W

    2005-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling inhibition by monoclonal antibodies and EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors has shown clinical efficacy in cancer by restoring susceptibility of tumor cells to therapeutic apoptosis induction. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing lig

  12. Quantitative relations between corruption and economic factors

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Jia; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H Eugene

    2007-01-01

    We report quantitative relations between corruption level and economic factors, such as country wealth and foreign investment per capita, which are characterized by a power law spanning multiple scales of wealth and investments per capita. These relations hold for diverse countries, and also remain stable over different time periods. We also observe a negative correlation between level of corruption and long-term economic growth. We find similar results for two independent indices of corruption, suggesting that the relation between corruption and wealth does not depend on the specific measure of corruption. The functional relations we report have implications when assessing the relative level of corruption for two countries with comparable wealth, and for quantifying the impact of corruption on economic growth and foreign investments.

  13. Factors affecting the implementation of green specifications in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Patrick T I; Chan, Edwin H W; Poon, C S; Chau, C K; Chun, K P

    2010-01-01

    Green specifications constitute one of the important elements in green construction. New sustainability requirements and changing priorities in construction management have spurred the emerging green specifications to a faster pace of development. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted in Hong Kong in 2007 to identify principal factors leading to the success of preparing green specifications. Based on extensive construction management literature, 20 variables concerning sustainable construction were summarized. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, the subtle differences between stakeholders in specifying construction work have been detected even with the high consistency of the responses among the groups. Moreover, five independent factors for successful specification of green construction have been categorized by factor analysis. They are related to (1) green technology and techniques, (2) reliability and quality of specification, (3) leadership and responsibility, (4) stakeholder involvement, and (5) guide and benchmarking systems. Whilst the first and fourth factors are generally more important, different stakeholder groups have different emphases. The results of the survey have been validated against established principles. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: multi-nutrient supplements; survey; children; women's decisions. Factors influencing .... associations between level of education and various factors influencing women's ..... Social marketing improved the use of multivitamin and ...

  15. Related factors of dilated cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyong Huang; Hang Gao; Xiangang Meng; Zhonghua Yan; Xiangquan Kong; Lexin Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the etiology and relative factors of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in Chinese patients. Methods A case-control study was conducted to compare 233 patients with DCM in high-incidence areas (case group) and 150 patients with stable angina pectoris (control group). Life styles and history of diseases information was collected by questionaire; human anti-myocardial antibody IgG (AMA- IgG), human Coxsackie B virus IgG (CBV- IgG) and human adenovirus antibody IgG (ADV- lgG) were measured with ELISA. General chemical and toxicological indicators in drink water from high and low prevalence areas and serum trace elements also were compared. Results 1 ) Compared with the control group, the case group had more farmers (P < 0.01), with low average incomes (P < 0.01), higher alcohol consumption (P < 0.01) and higher incidence of the history of myocarditis (P < 0.01 ). 2) AMA-IgG, CBV-IgG and ADV-IgG levels were low and the positive rates ofAMA-IgG, CBV-IgG and ADV-IgG of patients with DCM were respectively 7.78%, 6.67% and 6.67%, no statistical significance comparing with those in the control group. 3) The content of iron (1.36±2.18 vs 0.39±0.67 mg/L, P<0.05) and manganese (0.384±0.35 vs 0.15±0.14, P<0.01 ) in drinking water of high-incidence areas was significantly higher than that in low-incidence areas. 4) The content of serum iron (69.14±57.8 vs 20.04±17.5 μ mol/L, P<0.01 ) and copper (25.74±4.2 vs 19.7±4.5 μmol/L, P<0.01) in the case group evidently exceeded the normal range and obviously higher than that in the control group. Conclusions 1) The incidence of some DCM is related with low incomes, high alcohol consumption and myocarditis. 2) These data do not support that DCM is related with persistent virus infection and autoimmunization; 3) Iron and manganese contents exceeding standards in drinking water and the high content of serum iron and copper is comparatively related with the incidence of DCM.

  16. Association of daily physical activity level with health-related factors by gender and age-specific differences among Korean adults based on the sixth (2014-2015) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Nana; Park, Hun-Young; Park, Mi-Young; Hwang, Yoon-Young; Lee, Chi-Ho; Han, Jin-Soo; So, Jaemoo; Kim, Jisu; Park, Jonghoon; Lim, Kiwon

    2017-06-30

    This study examined the effects of daily physical activity level on health-related factors according to gender and identified age-specific differences among Korean adults. Using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2014-2015), we selected adults aged 19-64 years who participated in both a health examination and health interview survey. The study included 6,457 participants 19-64 years of age (2,611 men, 3,846 women). Assessment of the differences in health-related factors according to age and physical activity in men and women by repeated two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant interaction effects on total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in male participants, but there were no significant interaction effects for any health-related factors in female participants. The group of female participants aged 40-64 years with daily physical activity levels over 200 kcal showed a significantly increased prevalence of 46% for dyslipidemia compared to that in female participants with daily physical activity levels below 200 kcal. Physical activity was positively correlated with weight and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in men 19-39 years of age, compared to weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), and DBP in men 40-64 years of age, and weight, WC, BMI, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and triglyceride (TG) levels in women 19-39 years of age. In women 40- 64 years of age, physical activity was especially significantly positively correlated with weight, BMI, HDL-C and negatively correlated with fasting glucose and TG levels. In male and female participants, the 40-64-year age group showed negative results for health-related factors compared to those in the 19-39-year age group. The higher the weight, WC, BMI, the higher is the physical activity level. Physical activity levels were significantly positively correlated with health-related variables.

  17. Factors Related to Suicide in LGBT Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2016-09-01

    There is evidence of heightened vulnerability to nonfatal suicidal behaviors among LGBT populations yet a paucity of studies into fatal behaviors. The specific aim of this article was to identify factors related to suicide in LGBT individuals in Australia. The psychological autopsy (PA) method with a matched case-control study design was used. PA interviews were conducted with 27 next-of-kin of an LGBT person that had died by suicide. Three living LGBT controls per suicide case, matched by age and gender, were also interviewed. The key factors relating to suicide in LGBT people were a lack of acceptance by family and self (reflected in higher internalized homophobia and shame), negative feelings about own sexuality/gender, and dissatisfaction with appearance. LGBT people who died by suicide also tended to go through coming out milestones 2 years earlier than controls. There was a higher prevalence of aggressive behaviors and a more predominant history of physical and sexual abuse. Additionally, there was greater incidence of depression and anxiety and alcohol and substance use disorders. Specific predictive factors for suicide in LGBT populations in Australia were identified, including significantly poorer mental health outcomes and more violence across an array of measures.

  18. Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Leonid A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- Napoleonic period. The authors compare the Russian and the July Monarchies (1830—1848 in the context of the current Vienna system of international relations. The article describes the role of the 1830—1831 uprising in Poland, which was an event of particular importance. The monarchies of the two countries had to take into account new social phenomena, which were more pronounced in France. After the suppression of the uprising in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Polish emigrants residing in France became the stumbling block for the development of Russia- France relations. The article explores the role of P. de Barante, Ambassador of France to Russia and describes France and Russia’s trade and economic interests in the Baltic Sea region. The authors conclude that the specificity of Russia-France bilateral relations became more apparent during the First and Second World Wars. However, the Baltic factor has lost its relevance over time.

  19. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael;

    2011-01-01

    available to date. In this study, a canine specific ELISA for measurement of FVII:Ag in plasma was developed and validated. The FVII:Ag ELISA correctly diagnosed homozygous and heterozygous hereditary FVII deficiency. Together with activity based assays, such as FVII:C, the FVII:Ag ELISA should be valuable...

  20. Evaluation of methods for modeling transcription-factor sequence specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirauch, Matthew T.; Cote, Atina; Norel, Raquel; Annala, Matti; Zhao, Yue; Riley, Todd R.; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Cokelaer, Thomas; Vedenko, Anastasia; Talukder, Shaheynoor; Bussemaker, Harmen J.; Morris, Quaid D.; Bulyk, Martha L.; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Genomic analyses often involve scanning for potential transcription-factor (TF) binding sites using models of the sequence specificity of DNA binding proteins. Many approaches have been developed to model and learn a protein’s binding specificity, but these methods have not been systematically compared. Here we applied 26 such approaches to in vitro protein binding microarray data for 66 mouse TFs belonging to various families. For 9 TFs, we also scored the resulting motif models on in vivo data, and found that the best in vitro–derived motifs performed similarly to motifs derived from in vivo data. Our results indicate that simple models based on mononucleotide position weight matrices learned by the best methods perform similarly to more complex models for most TFs examined, but fall short in specific cases (<10%). In addition, the best-performing motifs typically have relatively low information content, consistent with widespread degeneracy in eukaryotic TF sequence preferences. PMID:23354101

  1. CATTELL AND EYSENCK FACTOR SCORES RELATED TO COMREY PERSONALITY FACTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comrey, A L; Duffy, K E

    1968-10-01

    The Eysenck Personality Inventory, the Cattell 16 PF Inventory, and the Comrey Personality Inventory were administered to 272 volunteers. Eysenck and Cattell factor scores were correlated with scores over homogeneous item groups (FHIDs) which define the Comrey test factors. This matrix was factor analyzed to relate the Eysenck and Cattell factor scores to the factor structure underlying the Comrey test. The Eysenck Neuroticism, Comrey Neuroticism, and Cattell second-order Anxiety factors appeared to match. The Eysenck Introversion and the Comrey Shyness factors also matched. The 16 Cattell primary factors overlapped but did not match with the Comrey factors.

  2. An Analysis of the Factors Impacting Employee's Specific Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ai-hua; GE Wen-lei

    2008-01-01

    The amount of specific investment from employees is limited, and the reasons of the under-investment from employees are analyzed in this paper. Based on the relationship of the specific investment and the employee demission, an empirical study has been conducted focusing on the factors influencing the employee turnover and the specific investment. A theoretical model of the factors influencing employee's specific investment is given.

  3. Angiogenic factors in relation to embryo implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Bagheri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances in uterine blood supply are associated with higher perinatal morbidity and mortality caused by preterm delivery, preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction. Adaptation of the uterine vasculature to the rising needs of the fetus occurs through both vasodilation and development of new vessels. Angiogenesis is the process of neovascularization from pre-existing blood vessels in response to hypoxic condition of tissues. The endometrium, decidua and placenta are rich sources of angiogenic growth factors. In general, the angiogenic process is initiated by growth factors such as VEGF, placental growth factor (PlGF or bFGF. Through a complex signal transduction machinery mediated by respective receptor-tyrosine kinases, an increase in the permeability of the maternal vessels is achieved to permit growth and invasion of endothelial cells. Their chemotactic migration, formation of a vessel lumen, and functional maturation of new capillaries complete the angiogenic process that involves the expression of specific adhesion receptors and extracellular matrix-degrading proteases. During vasculogenesis, endothelial progenitor cells--angioblasts--form a primitive vascular network. This process occurs mainly during fetal development, although recruitment of angioblasts from bone marrow and peripheral blood in response to ischemic insult have been described in adults. In this review article we have described a recent complication related to angiogenic involvement in embryo implantation. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 872-879

  4. Ecosystem specific dose conversion factors for Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordlinder, S.; Bergstroem, U.; Mathiasson, Lena [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate ecosystem specific dose conversion factors (EDFs) for three hypothetical sites, Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg, used in the safety analysis SR 97. The EDFs can, in combination with calculated releases of radionuclides from the geosphere, be used to illustrate relative differences in doses to the most exposed individual due to accidental leakage of radionuclides from a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Maps of the three sites were studied and subdivided into areas, which were characterised according to an earlier developed module system. For each of the identified modules, ecosystem transport and exposure model calculations were performed for release of 1 Bq per year during 10 000 years. 44 radionuclides contained within a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel were considered. A preliminary comparison of the EDFs for the three sites showed that the highest relative doses can be expected in Ceberg due to the high frequency of peat bog modules.

  5. Determination and inference of eukaryotic transcription factor sequence specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirauch, Matthew T; Yang, Ally; Albu, Mihai; Cote, Atina G; Montenegro-Montero, Alejandro; Drewe, Philipp; Najafabadi, Hamed S; Lambert, Samuel A; Mann, Ishminder; Cook, Kate; Zheng, Hong; Goity, Alejandra; van Bakel, Harm; Lozano, Jean-Claude; Galli, Mary; Lewsey, Mathew G; Huang, Eryong; Mukherjee, Tuhin; Chen, Xiaoting; Reece-Hoyes, John S; Govindarajan, Sridhar; Shaulsky, Gad; Walhout, Albertha J M; Bouget, François-Yves; Ratsch, Gunnar; Larrondo, Luis F; Ecker, Joseph R; Hughes, Timothy R

    2014-09-11

    Transcription factor (TF) DNA sequence preferences direct their regulatory activity, but are currently known for only ∼1% of eukaryotic TFs. Broadly sampling DNA-binding domain (DBD) types from multiple eukaryotic clades, we determined DNA sequence preferences for >1,000 TFs encompassing 54 different DBD classes from 131 diverse eukaryotes. We find that closely related DBDs almost always have very similar DNA sequence preferences, enabling inference of motifs for ∼34% of the ∼170,000 known or predicted eukaryotic TFs. Sequences matching both measured and inferred motifs are enriched in chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) peaks and upstream of transcription start sites in diverse eukaryotic lineages. SNPs defining expression quantitative trait loci in Arabidopsis promoters are also enriched for predicted TF binding sites. Importantly, our motif "library" can be used to identify specific TFs whose binding may be altered by human disease risk alleles. These data present a powerful resource for mapping transcriptional networks across eukaryotes.

  6. Self-pathology, the five-factor model, and bloated specific factors: A cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, Joshua R; Widiger, Thomas A

    2016-04-01

    The five-factor model (FFM) is widely regarded as a useful model for the structure of both normal and maladaptive personality traits. However, recent factor analytic studies have suggested that deficits in the sense of self fall outside the FFM. The current study replicates and extends these findings, illustrating that factors can be situated outside a higher-order domain by including a relatively large number of closely related scales, forming what is known as a bloated specific factor. A total of 1,553 participants (M age = 37.8 years, SD = 13.1) were recruited across 3 studies. One measure of self-pathology (including 15 scales) and 2 measures of the FFM were administered, along with 17 measures of anxiousness and 12 measures of social withdrawal/sociability. Across 2 independent samples and 2 different measures of the FFM, deficits in the sense of self separated from neuroticism when all 15 scales of self-pathology were included. However, self-pathology loaded with FFM neuroticism when only a subset of the self-pathology scales was included. This finding was replicated with measures of social withdrawal/sociability, although only partially replicated with measures of anxiousness. Implications of these findings for past and future factor analytic studies of the structure of psychopathology are discussed.

  7. Business factors related to manufacturing firms' performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergios Vranakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main goal is to understand the way many factors affect the investment decision making process and business performance. Design/methodology/approach: This study proposes a new conceptual framework for examining the reasons that manufacturing firms decide to invest on the acquisition of new machinery and equipment in order to improve their infrastructure. It incorporates various factors related to the internal business environment (quality management, investment decisions etc. Findings and Originality/value: A new conceptual framework, establishing the relations between many factors, has been developed, allowing the determinants of adoption of many implications to be discussed and to relate them to the peculiarities of the Greek manufacturing industry. Originality/value: This study presents an overview of the impact of machinery and equipment investment on firm’s performance, giving grasp for further research of the inter-organizational relationships that exist between them. 

  8. Stimulus-dependent, promoter-specific binding of transcription factor WRKY1 to Its native promoter and the defense-related gene PcPR1-1 in Parsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Franziska; Zhou, Aifen; Somssich, Imre E

    2004-10-01

    WRKY transcription factors form a large family that plays a role in plant responses to biotic stress and during senescence. Defining in vivo relevant WRKY/promoter relationships has been hampered by the factors' indiscriminate binding to known W box DNA elements and their possible genetic redundance. Employing chromatin immunoprecipitations (ChIP) of cultured cells, we show that parsley (Petroselinum crispum) WRKY1 protein binds to the W boxes of its native promoter as well as to that of PcWRKY3 and the defense-related PR10-class marker gene Pathogenesis-Related1-1 (PcPR1-1). Although present at low concentrations in resting cells, WRKY1 does not appear to play a role in the immediate early gene response upon elicitation because it does not bind to the promoter at this time. Paradoxically, in vivo binding at the PcWRKY1 promoter correlates more with downregulation of gene expression, whereas previous overexpression studies suggested an activating function of WRKY1 on PcWRKY1 expression. By contrast, PcPR1-1 expression remains strong when its promoter is occupied in vivo by WRKY1. Unexpectedly, ChIP revealed that W boxes at promoter sites are constitutively occupied by other WRKY transcription factors, indicating that site recruitment does not seem to play a major role in their regulation. Rather, WRKY proteins very likely act in a network of mutually competing participants with temporal displacement occurring at defined preoccupied sites by other family members in a stimulus-dependent manner.

  9. DNA-binding specificities of human transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolma, Arttu; Yan, Jian; Whitington, Thomas; Toivonen, Jarkko; Nitta, Kazuhiro R; Rastas, Pasi; Morgunova, Ekaterina; Enge, Martin; Taipale, Mikko; Wei, Gonghong; Palin, Kimmo; Vaquerizas, Juan M; Vincentelli, Renaud; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Hughes, Timothy R; Lemaire, Patrick; Ukkonen, Esko; Kivioja, Teemu; Taipale, Jussi

    2013-01-17

    Although the proteins that read the gene regulatory code, transcription factors (TFs), have been largely identified, it is not well known which sequences TFs can recognize. We have analyzed the sequence-specific binding of human TFs using high-throughput SELEX and ChIP sequencing. A total of 830 binding profiles were obtained, describing 239 distinctly different binding specificities. The models represent the majority of human TFs, approximately doubling the coverage compared to existing systematic studies. Our results reveal additional specificity determinants for a large number of factors for which a partial specificity was known, including a commonly observed A- or T-rich stretch that flanks the core motifs. Global analysis of the data revealed that homodimer orientation and spacing preferences, and base-stacking interactions, have a larger role in TF-DNA binding than previously appreciated. We further describe a binding model incorporating these features that is required to understand binding of TFs to DNA.

  10. Birthweight-specific risk factors for necrotising enterocolitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, S R; Thomas, S.J.; Cooke, R W; Low, D C; Fysh, W J; Murphy, J F; Gandy, G. M.; Gamsu, H R

    1987-01-01

    In a multicentre case-control study of necrotising enterocolitis risk factors were found to vary with birthweight of cases. In very low birthweight cases the risk factors identified were those associated with prolonged or recurrent hypoxia (recurrent apnoea, respiratory distress, assisted ventilation, and umbilical artery catheterisation). In heavier birthweight infants the risk factors were, in contrast, related to hypoxia at birth (low 1 minute Apgar score and endotracheal intubation at bir...

  11. A loop of coagulation factor VIIa influencing macromolecular substrate specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelke, Jais R; Persson, Egon; Rasmussen, Hanne B;

    2006-01-01

    Coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) belongs to a family of proteases being part of the stepwise, self-amplifying blood coagulation cascade. To investigate the impact of the mutation Met(298{156})Lys in FVIIa, we replaced the Gly(283{140})-Met(298{156}) loop with the corresponding loop of factor Xa....../Met(298{156})Lys-FVIIa with almost the same activity and specificity profile. We conclude that a lysine residue in position 298{156} of FVIIa requires a hydrophilic environment to be fully accommodated. This position appears critical for substrate specificity among the proteases of the blood coagulation...

  12. Employment status in multiple sclerosis: impact of disease-specific and non-disease-specific factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Ivonne; Kern, Simone; Horntrich, Antje; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2013-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with high rates of early retirement (ER). A German cohort of MS patients and healthy control subjects (HCs) were compared cross-sectionally to investigate disease- and non-disease-specific factors that are associated with employment status (ES) in MS and to identify predictors of ES in MS. A total of 39 ER MS patients, 48 employed MS patients, and 37 HCs completed a brief neuropsychological battery and questionnaires related to depressive symptoms, fatigue, health-related quality of life (HrQoL) and health locus of control (HLC). Neurological disability was assessed by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC). ER compared with employed MS patients scored significantly higher in neurological disability, depressive symptoms and fatigue and significantly lower in cognitive functioning and HrQoL. Further, both groups differed with regard to age, education, disease course and duration but not in HLC. Neurological disability, age and fatigue were identified as significant predictors of ES in MS. ES in MS was associated with demographic aspects, neurological and cognitive status, depressive symptoms, fatigue and HrQoL but was not associated with HLC. Findings confirm neurological disability, age and fatigue as independent predictors of ES in MS.

  13. Relative Specificity: All Substrates Are Not Created Equal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zeng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A biological molecule, e.g., an enzyme, tends to interact with its many cognate substrates, targets, or partners differentially. Such a property is termed relative specificity and has been proposed to regulate important physiological functions, even though it has not been examined explicitly in most complex biochemical systems. This essay reviews several recent large-scale studies that investigate protein folding, signal transduction, RNA binding, translation and transcription in the context of relative specificity. These results and others support a pervasive role of relative specificity in diverse biological processes. It is becoming clear that relative specificity contributes fundamentally to the diversity and complexity of biological systems, which has significant implications in disease processes as well.

  14. Factors Related to Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…

  15. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  16. Context-specific Factors and Contraceptive Use: A Mixed Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The study aimed to outline context-specific factors associated ... Male partner support can drive cultural sensitivities towards accepting use of ... Despite the increase in global contraceptive use, ... An assessment of barriers ... collection were simultaneously carried out: ...... decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among.

  17. Organ-specific chemotactic factors present in lung extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerra, R F; Nathanson, S D

    1989-05-01

    The preferential colonization of a distant organ by a circulating tumor cell (organ specific metastasis) may be regulated by chemotactic factors present within the extracellular matrix of the host organ. Organ-specific extracellular matrix was prepared from murine kidney and lung by high salt extraction and DNAase/RNAase digestion. A soluble protein fraction (S2) from each of the matricies was obtained by 4 M guanidine extraction and was tested for organ-specific chemotactic activity in a modified Boyden chamber. The lung colonizing B16-F10 and B16-BL6 tumor cell lines demonstrated organ-specific motility only toward the lung extract. The low metastasizing B16 parental line and liver colonizing B16-L4b line showed no preference for either lung or kidney. The lung activity resolves into five fractions by gel filtration chromatography, with the highest activity eluting at Mr approximately 71,000. Chemotactic factors present in lung extracellular matrix may regulate the preferential colonization of an organ by stimulating the migration of tumor cells in a specific manner. These factors may be released during the degradation of the extracellular matrix.

  18. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  19. Cow-specific risk factors for clinical mastitis in Brazilian dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, C S F; Hogeveen, H; Botelho, A M; Maia, P V; Coelho, S G; Haddad, J P A

    2015-01-01

    Information related to mastitis risk factors is useful for the design and implementation of clinical mastitis (CM) control programs. The first objective of our study was to model the risk of CM under Brazilian conditions, using cow-specific risk factors. Our second objective was to explore which ris

  20. DETERMINATION OF RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF NONPROLIFERATION FACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Metcalf

    2009-07-01

    Methodologies to determine the proliferation resistance (PR) of nuclear facilities often rely on either expert elicitation, a resource-intensive approach without easily reproducible results, or numeric evaluations, which can fail to take into account the institutional knowledge and expert experience of the nonproliferation community. In an attempt to bridge the gap and bring the institutional knowledge into numeric evaluations of PR, a survey was conducted of 33 individuals to find the relative importance of a set of 62 nonproliferation factors, subsectioned into groups under the headings of Diversion, Transportation, Transformation, and Weaponization. One third of the respondents were self-described nonproliferation professionals, and the remaining two thirds were from secondary professions related to nonproliferation, such as industrial engineers or policy analysts. The factors were taken from previous work which used multi-attribute utility analysis with uniform weighting of attributes and did not include institutional knowledge. In both expert and non-expert groups, all four headings and the majority of factors had different relative importance at a confidence of 95% (p=0.05). This analysis and survey demonstrates that institutional knowledge can be brought into numeric evaluations of PR, if there is a sufficient investment of resources made prior to the evaluation.

  1. Context-specific Factors and Contraceptive Use: A Mixed Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Study among Women, Men and Health Providers in a Rural. Ghanaian ... Keywords: context-specific factors, contraceptive use, access on demand, future contraceptive use, rural Ghana ... préférences spécifiques au contexte de la femme, car l'utilisation secrète est très appréciée. ..... Signals unmet need for ... I don't want.

  2. Kernel-Based Learning for Domain-Specific Relation Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Roberto; Giannone, Cristina; Del Vescovo, Chiara; Moschitti, Alessandro; Naggar, Paolo

    In a specific process of business intelligence, i.e. investigation on organized crime, empirical language processing technologies can play a crucial role. The analysis of transcriptions on investigative activities, such as police interrogatories, for the recognition and storage of complex relations among people and locations is a very difficult and time consuming task, ultimately based on pools of experts. We discuss here an inductive relation extraction platform that opens the way to much cheaper and consistent workflows. The presented empirical investigation shows that accurate results, comparable to the expert teams, can be achieved, and parametrization allows to fine tune the system behavior for fitting domain-specific requirements.

  3. Holography, chiral Lagrangian and form factor relations

    CERN Document Server

    Zuo, Fen

    2013-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of mesonic properties in a class of holographic models of QCD, which is described by the Yang-Mills plus Chern-Simons action. By decomposing the 5 dimensional gauge field into resonances and integrating out the massive ones, we reproduce the Chiral Perturbative Theory Lagrangian up to ${\\cal O}(p^6)$ and obtain all the relevant low energy constants (LECs). The numerical predictions of the LECs show minor model dependence, and agree reasonably with the determinations from other approaches. Interestingly, various model-independent relations appear among them. Some of these relations are found to be the large-distance limits of universal relations between form factors of the anomalous and even-parity sectors of QCD.

  4. Country-specific factors for the development of household smart grid solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Ascarza, Ainhoa; Throndsen, William

    The report provides an overview of relevant country-specific factors in relation to understanding the context of the development of smart grid solutions in Spain, Norway and Denmark (e.g. main characteristics of the energy system) and describes the current status of activities in relation to smart...

  5. Relation between depression and sociodemographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar-Danesh Noori

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in Western countries and is related to increased morbidity and mortality from medical conditions and decreased quality of life. The sociodemographic factors of age, gender, marital status, education, immigrant status, and income have consistently been identified as important factors in explaining the variability in depression prevalence rates. This study evaluates the relationship between depression and these sociodemographic factors in the province of Ontario in Canada using the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 (CCHS-1.2 dataset. Methods The CCHS-1.2 survey classified depression into lifetime depression and 12-month depression. The data were collected based on unequal sampling probabilities to ensure adequate representation of young persons (15 to 24 and seniors (65 and over. The sampling weights were used to estimate the prevalence of depression in each subgroup of the population. The multiple logistic regression technique was used to estimate the odds ratio of depression for each sociodemographic factor. Results The odds ratio of depression for men compared with women is about 0.60. The lowest and highest rates of depression are seen among people living with their married partners and divorced individuals, respectively. Prevalence of depression among people who live with common-law partners is similar to rates of depression among separated and divorced individuals. The lowest and highest rates of depression based on the level of education is seen among individuals with less than secondary school and those with "other post-secondary" education, respectively. Prevalence of 12-month and lifetime depression among individuals who were born in Canada is higher compared to Canadian residents who immigrated to Canada irrespective of gender. There is an inverse relation between income and the prevalence of depression (p Conclusion The patterns uncovered in this

  6. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  7. Digoxin and its related endogenous factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jortani, S A; Valdes, R

    1997-01-01

    The digitalis drugs are plant-derived cardenolide compounds used medicinally for several hundred years. These drugs elicit inotropic and chronotropic effects on the heart, but they also affect many other tissues. The mechanism of action involves inhibition of the ion-transport activity of a membrane-associated protein called Na, K-ATPase (sodium pump). Present theory holds that the sodium pump is the principal molecular receptor for the digitalis drugs. Recent evidence indicates the presence of naturally occurring digitalis-like compounds in mammals. It is believed these compounds, collectively known as either digitalis-like (DLF) or ouabain-like (OLF) factors, may be endogenous hormones regulating the biological activity of the sodium pump and its isoforms. The presence of deglycosylated and other congeners of one specific DLF, the digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF), has very recently been described in humans. Digoxin as a drug is the most widely prescribed digitalis in the U.S., and its measurement in serum has established a model for present-day therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Historically, the accurate measurement of digoxin in blood has been difficult. This article focuses on the present understanding of the clinical use of digoxin, factors that affect the accuracy of measuring digoxin, the principle of measuring metabolically active species of digoxin, and the effects of DLIF and other interfering substances in digoxin immunoassay.

  8. Factoring Algebraic Error for Relative Pose Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, P; Duchaineau, M

    2009-03-09

    We address the problem of estimating the relative pose, i.e. translation and rotation, of two calibrated cameras from image point correspondences. Our approach is to factor the nonlinear algebraic pose error functional into translational and rotational components, and to optimize translation and rotation independently. This factorization admits subproblems that can be solved using direct methods with practical guarantees on global optimality. That is, for a given translation, the corresponding optimal rotation can directly be determined, and vice versa. We show that these subproblems are equivalent to computing the least eigenvector of second- and fourth-order symmetric tensors. When neither translation or rotation is known, alternating translation and rotation optimization leads to a simple, efficient, and robust algorithm for pose estimation that improves on the well-known 5- and 8-point methods.

  9. Corynebacterium endocarditis species-specific risk factors and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak Janet B

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium species are recognized as uncommon agents of endocarditis, but little is known regarding species-specific risk factors and outcomes in Corynebacterium endocarditis. Methods Case report and Medline search of English language journals for cases of Corynebacterium endocarditis. Inclusion criteria required that cases be identified as endocarditis, having persistent Corynebacterium bacteremia, murmurs described by the authors as identifying the affected valve, or vegetations found by echocardiography or in surgical or autopsy specimens. Cases also required patient-specific information on risk factors and outcomes (age, gender, prior prosthetic valve, other prior nosocomial risk factors (infected valve, involvement of native versus prosthetic valve, need for valve replacement, and death to be included in the analysis. Publications of Corynebacterium endocarditis which reported aggregate data were excluded. Univariate analysis was conducted with chi-square and t-tests, as appropriate, with p = 0.05 considered significant. Results 129 cases of Corynebacterium endocarditis involving nine species met inclusion criteria. Corynebacterium endocarditis typically infects the left heart of adult males and nearly one third of patients have underlying valvular disease. One quarter of patients required valve replacement and one half of patients died. Toxigenic C. diphtheriae is associated with pediatric infections (p C. amycolatum has a predilection for women (p = 0.024, while C. pseudodiphtheriticum infections are most frequent in men (p = 0.023. C. striatum, C. jeikeium and C. hemolyticum are associated with nosocomial risk factors (p C. pseudodiphtheriticum is associated with a previous prosthetic valve replacement (p = 0.004. C. jeikeium infections are more likely to require valve replacement (p = 0.026. Infections involving toxigenic C. diphtheriae and C. pseudodiphtheriticum are associated with decreased survival (p = 0

  10. Recurrent acute pancreatitis and its relative factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Hong-Chao Shan; Yan Gu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the causes and the relative factors of recurrent acute pancreatitis.METHODS: From 1997 to 2000, acute pancreatitis relapsed in 77 of 245 acute pancreatitis patients. By reviewing the clinical treatment results and the follow-up data, we analyzed the recurrent factors of acute pancreatitis using univariate analysis and multivariate analysis.RESULTS: Of the 245 acute pancreatitis patients, 77 were patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis. Of them, 56 patients relapsed two times, 19 relapsed three times, each patient relapsed three and four times. Forty-seven patients relapsed in hospital and the other 30 patients relapsed after discharge. Eighteen patients relapsed in 1 year, eight relapsed in 1-3 years, and four relapsed after 3 years. There were 48 cases of biliary pancreatitis, 3 of alcohol pancreatitis, 5 of hyperlipidemia pancreatitis, 21 of idiopathic pancreatitis. Univariate analysis showed that the patients with local complications of pancreas, obstructive jaundice and hepatic function injury were easy to recur during the treatment period of acute pancreatitis (P = 0.022<0.05, P = 0.012<0.05 and P = 0.002<0.05, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that there was no single factor related to recurrence. Of the 47 patients who had recurrence in hospital, 16 had recurrence in a fast period, 31 after refeeding. CONCLUSION: Acute pancreatitis is easy to recur even during treatment. The factors such as changes of pancreas structure and uncontrolled systemic inflammatory reaction are responsible for the recurrence of acute pancreatitis. Early refeeding increases the recurrence of acute pancreatitis. Defining the etiology is essential for reducing the recurrence of acute pancreatitis.

  11. Modeling Relational Data via Latent Factor Blockmodel

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Sheng; Gallinari, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of modeling relational data, which appear in many applications such as social network analysis, recommender systems and bioinformatics. Previous studies either consider latent feature based models but disregarding local structure in the network, or focus exclusively on capturing local structure of objects based on latent blockmodels without coupling with latent characteristics of objects. To combine the benefits of the previous work, we propose a novel model that can simultaneously incorporate the effect of latent features and covariates if any, as well as the effect of latent structure that may exist in the data. To achieve this, we model the relation graph as a function of both latent feature factors and latent cluster memberships of objects to collectively discover globally predictive intrinsic properties of objects and capture latent block structure in the network to improve prediction performance. We also develop an optimization transfer algorithm based on the general...

  12. Factors related to attempted suicide in Davanagere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Gouda M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the factors responsible for suicidal attempts? Objectives: To study the socio-demographic factors, methods and reasons for suicidal attempts. Type of Study: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bapuji and C.G. Hospitals attached to J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere. Participants: A total of 540 suicidal attempters admitted to emergency wards. Methodology: A pretested proforma was administered to the subjects relating the factors responsible for the attempt. The data thus obtained was compiled and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Z -test and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, 61.3% were males and 38.7% were females. Peak occurrence of suicidal attempts was found in the second and third decades (15-29 years. Hindus constituted about 94.6% of the total suicidal attempters. Almost half (52.2% of the subjects had education below or up to matriculation and 83% of them were from the lower (classes IV and V socio-economic groups. Agriculturists, housewives and unskilled workers represented 75% of the total subjects. Fifty-five percent of the subjects were from nuclear families and most (62.4% of them were married; frequent mode of attempting suicides was by organo-phosphorus compounds (66.3% followed by overdosage of tablets (17.8%. Common cause was family problem (27.2% followed by illness (27%.

  13. Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-10-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia.

  14. Identification of Transcription Factors for Lineage-Specific ESC Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamizu, Kohei; Piao, Yulan; Sharov, Alexei A.; Zsiros, Veronika; Yu, Hong; Nakazawa, Kazu; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru S.H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A network of transcription factors (TFs) determines cell identity, but identity can be altered by overexpressing a combination of TFs. However, choosing and verifying combinations of TFs for specific cell differentiation have been daunting due to the large number of possible combinations of ∼2,000 TFs. Here, we report the identification of individual TFs for lineage-specific cell differentiation based on the correlation matrix of global gene expression profiles. The overexpression of identified TFs—Myod1, Mef2c, Esx1, Foxa1, Hnf4a, Gata2, Gata3, Myc, Elf5, Irf2, Elf1, Sfpi1, Ets1, Smad7, Nr2f1, Sox11, Dmrt1, Sox9, Foxg1, Sox2, or Ascl1—can direct efficient, specific, and rapid differentiation into myocytes, hepatocytes, blood cells, and neurons. Furthermore, transfection of synthetic mRNAs of TFs generates their appropriate target cells. These results demonstrate both the utility of this approach to identify potent TFs for cell differentiation, and the unanticipated capacity of single TFs directly guides differentiation to specific lineage fates. PMID:24371809

  15. Experimental strategies for studying transcription factor-DNA binding specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertz, Marcel; Maerkl, Sebastian J

    2010-12-01

    Specific binding of transcription factors (TFs) determines in a large part the connectivity of gene regulatory networks as well as the quantitative level of gene expression. A multiplicity of both experimental and computational methods is currently used to discover and characterize the underlying TF-DNA interactions. Experimental methods can be further subdivided into in vitro- and in vivo-based approaches, each accenting different aspects of TF-binding events. In this review we summarize the flexibility and performance of a selection of both types of experimental methods. In conclusion, we argue that a serial combination of methods with different throughput and data type constitutes an optimal experimental strategy.

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE SPECIFIC FACTORS UPON FINANCING DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacatus Viorel-Dorin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/total assets of some Romanian corporations, focusing on its explanatory variables by including them within simple and multiple econometric models. The panel data indicators computed for the companies in the Cluj area listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange were evaluated with the OLS and FEM techniques.The results have been interpreted, pointing out that company size and asset turnover seem to have a positive influence upon the debt ratio of selected companies, while profitability and liquidity seem to influence the debt ratio of selected companies negatively.

  17. Sport-specific factors predicting player retention in junior cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpey, Scott; Croucher, Tom; Bani Mustafa, Ahmed; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-04-01

    Understanding factors that motivate young athletes to continue participation in sport can help key stakeholders cultivate an environment that fosters long-term participation. This investigation sought to determine the performance and participation factors that influenced continued participation in junior cricket. Administration-level data were collected each annual season across a seven-year period by a community-level junior cricket association in Australia and analysed to identify the performance and participation-based predictors of player retention. All players were males aged <16 years. Players were categorised according to whether they remained in (or departed from) the association at the end of each playing season. A multivariate logistic regression model with a stepwise variable selection was employed to identify significant independent predictors of player retention. The number of innings batted and overs bowled were significant participation-related contributors to junior cricket player retention. Performance factors such as the number of wickets taken and the number of runs scored also significantly influenced player retention. Finally, team age group, the number of previous seasons played and age were also significant factors in player retention. This demonstrates that sufficient opportunity for children to participate in the game and expression of skills competence are key factors for retention in cricket.

  18. Macrostate equivalence of two general ensembles and specific relative entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    The two criteria of ensemble equivalence, i.e., macrostate equivalence and measure equivalence, are investigated for a general pair of states. Macrostate equivalence implies the two ensembles are indistinguishable by the measurement of macroscopic quantities obeying the large-deviation principle, and measure equivalence means that the specific relative entropy of these two states vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. It is shown that measure equivalence implies a macrostate equivalence for a general pair of states by deriving an inequality connecting the large-deviation rate functions to the specific relative Renyi entropies. The result is applicable to both quantum and classical systems. As applications, a sufficient condition for thermalization, the time scale of quantum dynamics of macrovariables, and the second law with strict irreversibility in a quantum quench are discussed.

  19. [Scleroderma related to specific immunotherapy. A report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfín Maciel, Blanca María; Castillo Morfín, Blanca María

    2009-01-01

    It has been described two main phenotypes of helper T cells. On activation, the immune system develops the most effective Th response. Whereas Th1 cells promote cell-mediate immunity against intracellular pathogens and an over expression could favor autoimmune diseases; Th2 cells develop humoral immunity against extracellular pathogens promoting allergic response. Normally, the two profiles coexist in the same individual with different grades of expression. Recently, it has been described a new subset: Th17, which is related to tissue injury in autoimmune diseases. Then, allergic and autoimmune diseases result from an unbalanced response of the immune system. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment of a specific allergy, which leads to a life-long tolerance against allergens. There are no controlled studies about the effectiveness or risks associated with allergen-specific immunotherapy in patients with autoimmune disorders. On the other hand, scleroderma is an autoimmune chronic systemic disorder of unknown etiology characterized by excess collagen deposition in the skin and viscera, along with vascular injury. We report a girl with allergic asthma and with a second degree family history of systemic sclerosis who developed localized scleroderma during allergen specific immunotherapy. Because allergy vaccination alter the balance between effector and regulatory T-cell populations, which regulate immune tolerance, a positive family history of autoimmunity in first or second degree, could be a contraindication for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  20. Legionella pneumophila pangenome reveals strain-specific virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peris-Bondia Francesc

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila is a gram-negative γ-Proteobacterium and the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a form of epidemic pneumonia. It has a water-related life cycle. In industrialized cities L. pneumophila is commonly encountered in refrigeration towers and water pipes. Infection is always via infected aerosols to humans. Although many efforts have been made to eradicate Legionella from buildings, it still contaminates the water systems. The town of Alcoy (Valencian Region, Spain has had recurrent outbreaks since 1999. The strain "Alcoy 2300/99" is a particularly persistent and recurrent strain that was isolated during one of the most significant outbreaks between the years 1999-2000. Results We have sequenced the genome of the particularly persistent L. pneumophila strain Alcoy 2300/99 and have compared it with four previously sequenced strains known as Philadelphia (USA, Lens (France, Paris (France and Corby (England. Pangenome analysis facilitated the identification of strain-specific features, as well as some that are shared by two or more strains. We identified: (1 three islands related to anti-drug resistance systems; (2 a system for transport and secretion of heavy metals; (3 three systems related to DNA transfer; (4 two CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats systems, known to provide resistance against phage infections, one similar in the Lens and Alcoy strains, and another specific to the Paris strain; and (5 seven islands of phage-related proteins, five of which seem to be strain-specific and two shared. Conclusions The dispensable genome disclosed by the pangenomic analysis seems to be a reservoir of new traits that have mainly been acquired by horizontal gene transfer and could confer evolutionary advantages over strains lacking them.

  1. Complement factor H related proteins (CFHRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerka, Christine; Chen, Qian; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Roumenina, Lubka T

    2013-12-15

    Factor H related proteins comprise a group of five plasma proteins: CFHR1, CFHR2, CFHR3, CFHR4 and CFHR5, and each member of this group binds to the central complement component C3b. Mutations, genetic deletions, duplications or rearrangements in the individual CFHR genes are associated with a number of diseases including atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), C3 glomerulopathies (C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN), dense deposit disease (DDD) and CFHR5 nephropathy), IgA nephropathy, age related macular degeneration (AMD) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although complement regulatory functions were attributed to most of the members of the CFHR protein family, the precise role of each CFHR protein in complement activation and the exact contribution to disease pathology is still unclear. Recent publications show that CFHR proteins form homo- as well as heterodimers. Genetic abnormalities within the CFHR gene locus can result in hybrid proteins with affected dimerization or recognition domains which cause defective functions. Here we summarize the recent data about CFHR genes and proteins in order to better understand the role of CFHR proteins in complement activation and in complement associated diseases.

  2. Specific features of domestic banks activity in the factoring services market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygub Olena V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses specific features of formation and development of the domestic factoring market. In the result of the study the article establishes that development of factoring in Ukraine took place due to active participation of banking institutions in this process and nowadays they are leaders in the domestic factoring services market due to possessing significant competitive advantages if compared with non-banking companies that specialise in factoring. The article detects that nowadays the banks are not only offerers of factoring services and finance factoring operations of other market participants, but also take an active part in establishment of factoring branches and are consumers of factoring services. In order to accelerate development of international factoring in Ukraine, the article offers such forms of state support of banks, which render factoring services to domestic exporters. The article recommends to focus banks’ attention, under modern conditions that are characterised with volatility of financial markets, on factoring servicing of those clients, whom they have long business relations with, without jeopardising themselves through provision of factoring services to a big number of small debtors. The article provides schemes of banks’ co-operation in the sphere of “non-classic” factoring with accredited factoring companies.

  3. General and specific factors in the intersensory transfer of form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. L.; Warm, J. S.; Schumsky, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    This study assessed the relative contributions of specific and nonspecific components to intersensory transfer between vision and touch. A paired-associate paradigm was used in which visual metric figures and their tactual analogs served as stimuli, and familiar adjectives were the responses. Positive intersensory transfer, characterized by symmetry across modalities was obtained. The contribution of nonspecific learning to this effect was negligible. Intersensory transfer was found to be less efficient than the empirically determined maximum level of intrasensory transfer possible in this task.

  4. Among perinatal factors, only the Apgar score is associated with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, F.B.; Kroon, M.L. De; Dusseldorp, E.; Snik, A.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of perinatal risk factors with later development of specific language impairment (SLI). METHOD: In a case-control study, 179 children attending special needs schools for SLI were matched with non-affected children attending mainstream schools

  5. Among perinatal factors, only the Apgar score is associated with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, F.B.; Kroon, M.L. de; Dusseldorp, E.; Snik, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of perinatal risk factors with later development of specific language impairment (SLI). METHOD: In a case-control study, 179 children attending special needs schools for SLI were matched with non-affected children attending mainstream schools. Bot

  6. [Are there specific factors in the psychotherapy of anorexia nervosa?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipfel, Stephan; Resmark, Gaby

    2015-01-01

    The present literature review examines the question of how general and specific factors can be differentiated in the psychotherapy of anorexia nervosa. Over the past 10 years different research trends have appeared. On the one hand subclassifications of new therapy approaches from several schools of therapy have been propagated (e.g. CBT-E, FPT), on the other hand generic treatment manuals have been published that are rather adapted to patients needs (e.g. SSCM, TTM). On a third way, currently therapy manuals for special subgroups have been developed, e.g. for chronic patients with anorexia nervosa or family-based manuals for adolescents. A completely different direction follows those approaches that are based on neuropsychological models and deficits in anorexia nervosa. Overall, the results of current studies have been promising, however, there has not been a winner yet, the race is still open!

  7. EFFECTS OF PROJECT-RELATED FACTORS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    performance of every organization, whether large or small, in today's ... improvement of labour productivity should be a major and ... factors based on the theory of motivation. Durdyev and ..... of required work is one of the factors affecting.

  8. Factors Related to Intimidation During Oxytocin Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Claudia A; Cannella, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Patient's safety and quality are foremost issues in healthcare today and are often adversely influenced by communication and issues of perceived intimidation. Labor and delivery nurses are responsible for managing oxytocin infusions, but disagreements between providers and nurses related to the administration have been shown to cause tension and affect patient's care. The purpose of this study was to survey registered nurses in labor and delivery about perceived intimidation and how intimidation influenced actions and decisions. A total of 913 registered nurses who were members of the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses and identified labor and delivery comprised the sample as their clinical focus. Nurses who met the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the survey via e-mail invitation. An online survey assessing workplace intimidation by providers while managing oxytocin inductions, as well as demographic information was completed. Participants reported past issues with intimidation that influenced how they administered oxytocin. Nurses reported that past experiences with intimidation influenced their care and that they had been involved with medication errors where intimidation played a role. Organizational factors perceived supportive management, presence of an organizational code of conduct, and environment where collaboration was encouraged were associated with decreased reports of intimidation.

  9. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  10. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics.Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  11. The Host Specificities of Baculovirus per os Infectivity Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjiao Song

    Full Text Available Baculoviruses are insect-specific pathogens with a generally narrow host ranges. Successful primary infection is initiated by the proper interaction of at least 8 conserved per os infectivity factors (PIFs with the host's midgut cells, a process that remains largely a mystery. In this study, we investigated the host specificities of the four core components of the PIF complex, P74, PIF1, PIF2 and PIF3 by using Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV backbone. The four pifs of HearNPV were replaced by their counterparts from a group I Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV or a group II Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV. Transfection and infection assays showed that all the recombinant viruses were able to produce infectious budded viruses (BVs and were lethal to H. armigera larvae via intrahaemocoelic injection. However, feeding experiments using very high concentration of occlusion bodies demonstrated that all the recombinant viruses completely lost oral infectivity except SpltNPV pif3 substituted pif3-null HearNPV (vHaBacΔpif3-Sppif3-ph. Furthermore, bioassay result showed that the median lethal concentration (LC50 value of vHaBacΔpif3-Sppif3-ph was 23-fold higher than that of the control virus vHaBacΔpif3-Hapif3-ph, indicating that SpltNPV pif3 can only partially substitute the function of HearNPV pif3. These results suggested that most of PIFs tested have strict host specificities, which may account, at least in part, for the limited host ranges of baculoviruses.

  12. Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette

    Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors Jette Østergaard Rathe1, Pia V. Larsen1, Morten Andersen2, Janus L. Thomsen3, Maja S. Paulsen1, Jens Søndergaard1 1. Research Unit of General Practice, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark 2. Centre...... substitutable drug. Data were linked with a prescription database. Results We found no associations between generic substitution and, respectively, gender, age, drug group and polypharmacy. Earlier switches of the index drug are statistically significant associated with acceptance of generic substitution...... generics in the antiepileptic and antidepressant groups (antiepileptics OR 0.37 and antidepressants OR 0.53). Conclusion We did not find any patient-related factors associated with generic substitution; however, patients who have once experienced a generic substitution with a specific drug are more likely...

  13. To open or to close: species-specific stomatal responses to simultaneously applied opposing environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilo, Ebe; Jõesaar, Indrek; Brosché, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes

    2014-04-01

    Plant stomatal responses to single environmental factors are well studied; however, responses to a change in two (or more) factors - a common situation in nature - have been less frequently addressed. We studied the stomatal responses to a simultaneous application of opposing environmental factors in six evolutionarily distant mono- and dicotyledonous herbs representing different life strategies (ruderals, competitors and stress-tolerators) to clarify whether the crosstalk between opening- and closure-inducing pathways leading to stomatal response is universal or species-specific. Custom-made gas exchange devices were used to study the stomatal responses to a simultaneous application of two opposing factors: decreased/increased CO2 concentration and light availability or reduced air humidity. The studied species responded similarly to changes in single environmental factors, but showed species-specific and nonadditive responses to two simultaneously applied opposing factors. The stomata of the ruderals Arabidopsis thaliana and Thellungiella salsuginea (previously Thellungiella halophila) always opened, whereas those of competitor-ruderals either closed in all two-factor combinations (Triticum aestivum), remained relatively unchanged (Nicotiana tabacum) or showed a response dominated by reduced air humidity (Hordeum vulgare). Our results, indicating that in changing environmental conditions species-specific stomatal responses are evident that cannot be predicted from studying one factor at a time, might be interesting for stomatal modellers, too.

  14. The yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase specificity factor, MTF1, is similar to bacterial sigma factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, S H; Jaehning, J A

    1991-11-25

    We have purified the protein that confers selective promoter recognition on the core subunit of the yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase. The N-terminal sequence of the 43-kDa specificity factor identified it as the product of the MTF1 gene described by Lisowsky and Michaelis (1988). We confirmed that MTF1 encoded the specificity factor by analyzing extracts from a yeast strain bearing a disruption of the gene. The extracts contained normal levels of core RNA polymerase but lacked selective transcription activity; adding the purified 43-kDa protein restored selective transcription. Comparison of the MTF1 protein sequence to the family of bacterial sigma factors has revealed striking similarity to domains identified with--10 promoter recognition, promoter melting, and holoenzyme stability.

  15. The 2011 Leona Tyler Award Address: The Relationship--And Its Relationship to the Common and Specific Factors of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E.; Budge, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    A debate exists about whether the common factors or specific ingredients are critical to producing the benefits of psychotherapy. A model of the relationship, based on evolved human characteristics related to healing, is presented that integrates common factors and specific ingredients. After the initial bond is formed, the relationship involves…

  16. Genomic and Biochemical Insights into the Specificity of ETS Transcription Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenhorst, Peter C.; McIntosh, Lawrence P.; Graves, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    ETS proteins are a group of evolutionarily related, DNA-binding transcriptional factors. These proteins direct gene expression in diverse normal and disease states by binding to specific promoters and enhancers and facilitating assembly of other components of the transcriptional machinery. The highly conserved DNA-binding ETS domain defines the family and is responsible for specific recognition of a common sequence motif, 5′-GGA(A/T)-3′. Attaining specificity for biological regulation in such a family is thus a conundrum. We present the current knowledge of routes to functional diversity and DNA binding specificity, including divergent properties of the conserved ETS and PNT domains, the involvement of flanking structured and unstructured regions appended to these dynamic domains, posttranslational modifications, and protein partnerships with other DNA-binding proteins and coregulators. The review emphasizes recent advances from biochemical and biophysical approaches, as well as insights from genomic studies that detect ETS-factor occupancy in living cells. PMID:21548782

  17. Criterion Related Validity of Karate Specific Aerobic Test (KSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabene, Helmi; Hachana, Younes; Franchini, Emerson; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Chamari, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Karate is one the most popular combat sports in the world. Physical fitness assessment on a regular manner is important for monitoring the effectiveness of the training program and the readiness of karatekas to compete. Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the criterion related to validity of the karate specific aerobic test (KSAT) as an indicator of aerobic level of karate practitioners. Patients and Methods: Cardiorespiratory responses, aerobic performance level through both treadmill laboratory test and YoYo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YoYoIRTL1) as well as time to exhaustion in the KSAT test (TE’KSAT) were determined in a total of fifteen healthy international karatekas (i.e. karate practitioners) (means ± SD: age: 22.2 ± 4.3 years; height: 176.4 ± 7.5 cm; body mass: 70.3 ± 9.7 kg and body fat: 13.2 ± 6%). Results: Peak heart rate obtained from KSAT represented ~99% of maximal heart rate registered during the treadmill test showing that KSAT imposes high physiological demands. There was no significant correlation between KSAT’s TE and relative (mL/min kg) treadmill maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.14; P = 0.69; [small]). On the other hand, there was a significant relationship between KSAT’s TE and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max) (r = 0.67; P = 0.03; [large]) as well as the velocity at VO2 corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold (vVO2 VAT) (r = 0.64; P = 0.04; [large]). Moreover, significant relationship was found between TE’s KSAT and both the total distance covered and parameters of intermittent endurance measured through YoYoIRTL1. Conclusions: The KSAT has not proved to have indirect criterion related validity as no significant correlations have been found between TE’s KSAT and treadmill VO2max. Nevertheless, as correlated to other aerobic fitness variables, KSAT can be considered as an indicator of karate specific endurance. The establishment of the criterion related validity of the KSAT

  18. Criterion Related Validity of Karate Specific Aerobic Test (KSAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaabene

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Karate is one the most popular combat sports in the world. Physical fitness assessment on a regular manner is important for monitoring the effectiveness of the training program and the readiness of karatekas to compete. Objectives The aim of this research was to examine the criterion related to validity of the karate specific aerobic test (KSAT as an indicator of aerobic level of karate practitioners. Patients and Methods Cardiorespiratory responses, aerobic performance level through both treadmill laboratory test and YoYo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YoYoIRTL1 as well as time to exhaustion in the KSAT test (TE’KSAT were determined in a total of fifteen healthy international karatekas (i.e. karate practitioners (means ± SD: age: 22.2 ± 4.3 years; height: 176.4 ± 7.5 cm; body mass: 70.3 ± 9.7 kg and body fat: 13.2 ± 6%. Results Peak heart rate obtained from KSAT represented ~99% of maximal heart rate registered during the treadmill test showing that KSAT imposes high physiological demands. There was no significant correlation between KSAT’s TE and relative (mL/min kg treadmill maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.14; P = 0.69; [small]. On the other hand, there was a significant relationship between KSAT’s TE and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max (r = 0.67; P = 0.03; [large] as well as the velocity at VO2 corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold (vVO2 VAT (r = 0.64; P = 0.04; [large]. Moreover, significant relationship was found between TE’s KSAT and both the total distance covered and parameters of intermittent endurance measured through YoYoIRTL1. Conclusions The KSAT has not proved to have indirect criterion related validity as no significant correlations have been found between TE’s KSAT and treadmill VO2max. Nevertheless, as correlated to other aerobic fitness variables, KSAT can be considered as an indicator of karate specific endurance. The establishment of the criterion related validity of the

  19. EFFECTS OF PROCUREMENT RELATED FACTORS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-03-04

    Mar 4, 2013 ... Several Literatures in construction management support the view that procurements have impacts on project performance. .... size, cost, flexibility, complexity, site risk factors ... of the procurement process to client charges are.

  20. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

  1. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Related Clinical Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuan-chong FENG; Zhong-mei LI

    2004-01-01

    @@ As a widely-applied clinical therapy for infertility and sterility, ART has its own merits compared to other techniques and operations; however, the outcome of ART is influenced by various factors ranging from age, endometrial receptivity, reproductive system condition (e.g.uterus, fallopian tube and pelvic factors, etc.), immune system and so on. From our clinical experience and the literatures reviewd, it is strongly recommended that the situation of every infertile couple be evaluated thoroughly before applying therapy.

  2. Exploratory Study of Factors Influencing Job-Related Stress in Japanese Psychiatric Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Yada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the factor structure of psychiatric nurses’ job-related stress and examined the specificity of the related stressors using the job stressor scale of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ. The stressor scale of the BJSQ was administered to 296 nurses and assistant nurses. Answers were examined statistically. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify factor structures; two factors (overload and job environment were valid. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine the two-factor structure and found 11 items with factor loadings of >0.40 (model 1, 13 items with factor loadings from 0.30 to <0.40 (model 2, and 17 items with factor loadings from 0.20 to <0.30 (model 3 for one factor; model 1 demonstrated the highest goodness of fit. Then, we observed that the two-factor structure (model 1 showed a higher goodness of fit than the original six-factor structure. This differed from subscales based on general workers’ job-related stressors, suggesting that the factor structure of psychiatric nurses’ job-related stressors is specific. Further steps may be necessary to reduce job-related stress specifically related to overload including attention to many needs of patients and job environment including complex ethical dilemmas in psychiatric nursing.

  3. Osteoporosis in childhood: related factors and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio González-Jiménez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is defined as a reduction in bone mass. This loss is more important in states of malnutrition, physical inactivity, and with a poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Bone mineralization depends on both genetic and nutritional factors, as well as endocrine, metabolic, and mechanical factors. Several studies in children have shown that the development of osteoporosis in adulthood may be influenced by the nutritional status during childhood, especially with regard to the contributions of calcium and vitamin D. However, currently there are many questions regarding its pathogenesis and diagnosis and its treatment, some of which are reviewed in this paper. The aim of this work has been to provide an update on the main factors associated with the development of osteoporosis and its prevention in infancy.

  4. Unitarily invariant norms related to factors

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Junsheng

    2007-01-01

    Let $\\M$ be a semi-finite von Neumann algebra and $\\J(\\M)$ be the set of operators in $\\M$ with finite range projections. In this paper we obtain a representation theorem for unitarily invariant norms on $\\J(\\M)$ of semi-finite factors $\\M$ in terms of Ky Fan norms. As an application, we prove that the class of unitarily invariant norms on $\\J(\\M)$ of a type ${\\rm II}\\sb \\infty$ (or type ${\\rm I}\\sb \\infty$) factor $\\M$ coincides with the class of symmetric gauge norms on $\\J(L^\\infty[0,\\infty))$ (or $\\J(l^\\infty(\

  5. SELEX-Seq: A Method to Determine DNA Binding Specificities of Plant Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaczniak, Cezary; Angenent, Gerco C; Kaufmann, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) is a method that allows isolating specific nucleotide sequences that interact with a DNA binding protein of choice. By using a transcription factor (TF) and a randomized pool of double-stranded DNA, this technique can be used to characterize TF DNA binding specificities and affinities. The method is based on protein-DNA complex immunoprecipitation with protein-specific antibodies and subsequent DNA selection and amplification. Application of massively parallel sequencing (-seq) at each cycle of SELEX allows determining the relative affinities to any DNA sequence for any transcription factor or TF complex. The resulting TF DNA binding motifs can be used to predict potential DNA binding sites in genomes and thereby direct target genes of TFs.

  6. Work-related risk factors for suicidal behaviour, protective factors and possibilities for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Podlogar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Work is an important part of adult life. As such it is closely connected to health and mental health. Aspects of occupation, work and employment can represent risk factors for suicidal behaviour or protective factors against it. Aim of this article is to present the known work-related risk factors for suicidal behaviour, protective factors and possibilities for preventive activities in this context. An important risk factor for suicidal behaviour is unemployment. Connection between unemployment and suicidality is complex and can be explained in two ways: (i underlying vulnerability leads to both unemployment and suicidal behaviour, while (ii the connection is also thought be causal to some extent. The addressed topic is very important in the period of economic recession, when unemployment rates are high and adverse changes in terms of working conditions can occur. Different psycho-social and other working conditions are also connected to suicidal behaviour. Efficient preventive activities include approaches on multiple levels: active politics of solving economic crisis and improving the labour market conditions, creating and maintaining stimulating working conditions, raising awareness and mental health promotion among the employees, gatekeeper training, and restriction of means for suicide in occupations with access to them. Due to complexity of suicidal behaviour there is a need for further research, which would contribute to better understanding of specific risk factors and especially protective factors in vulnerable groups.

  7. Emotional exhaustion and distress among nurses: how important are AIDS-care specific factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Servellen, G; Leake, B

    1994-01-01

    This study describes distress symptomatology and levels of job-related exhaustion in a sample of 153 hospital nurses currently caring for AIDS patients. While the level of emotional exhaustion in the sample was not alarmingly high, these nurses did report symptoms of distress. Levels of emotional exhaustion were related to a variety of personal demographic, AIDS-specific, and job-related factors. These factors included: age, income, years of practice on the unit, recent change in shift, type of unit, discomfort caring for AIDS patients, willingness to continue caring for AIDS patients, number of AIDS patients cared for, job tension, job influence, and enthusiasm about returning to work. Regression analysis indicated, however, that six general job-related factors accounted for about 46% of the variation in emotional exhaustion. These results suggest that general job-related factors such as 8-hour shifts, changing shifts, level of job tension, and other factors characterizing all hospital care are particularly worthy of future study.

  8. How Does Attention Relate to the Ability-Specific and Position-Specific Components of Reasoning Measured by APM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuezhu; Goldhammer, Frank; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Schweizer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the nature of the ability-specific and position-specific components of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) by relating them to a number of types of attention. The ability-specific component represents the constant part of cognitive performance whereas the position-specific component reflects the…

  9. How Does Attention Relate to the Ability-Specific and Position-Specific Components of Reasoning Measured by APM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuezhu; Goldhammer, Frank; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Schweizer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the nature of the ability-specific and position-specific components of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) by relating them to a number of types of attention. The ability-specific component represents the constant part of cognitive performance whereas the position-specific component reflects the…

  10. LARES: A New Satellite Specifically Designed for Testing General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paolozzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that today several hundred operational satellites are orbiting Earth while many more either have already reentered the atmosphere or are no longer operational. On the 13th of February 2012 one more satellite of the Italian Space Agency has been successfully launched. The main difference with respect to all other satellites is its extremely high density that makes LARES not only the densest satellite but also the densest known orbiting object in the solar system. That implies that the nongravitational perturbations on its surface will have the smallest effects on its orbit. Those design characteristics are required to perform an accurate test of frame dragging and specifically a test of Lense-Thirring effect, predicted by General Relativity. LARES satellite, although passive, with 92 laser retroreflectors on its surface, was a real engineering challenge in terms of both manufacturing and testing. Data acquisition and processing are in progress. The paper will describe the scientific objectives, the status of the experiment, the special feature of the satellite and separation system including some manufacturing issues, and the special tests performed on its retroreflectors.

  11. ANALYSIS OF RELATIONS BETWEEN JUDO TECHNIQUES AND SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Drid

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Specific physical preparation affects the development of motor abilities required for execution of specific movements in judo. When selecting proper specific exercises for judo for a target motor ability, it is necessary to precede it with the study of the structure of specific judo techniques and activities of individual muscle groups engaged for execution of the technique. On the basis of this, one can understand which muscles are most engaged during realization of individual techniques, which serves as a standpoint for selection of a particular complex of specific exercises to produce the highest effects. In addition to the development of particular muscle groups, the means of specific preparation will take effect on the development of those motor abilities which are evaluated as the indispensable for the development of particular qualities which are characteristic for judo. This paper analyses the relationship between judo techniques field and specific motor abilities.

  12. Relation between acute kidney injury and pregnancy-related factors

    OpenAIRE

    Monchai Siribamrungwong; Pawadee Chinudomwong

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious problem during pregnancy. Once occurred, it brings about devastating maternal and fetal outcomes. Among developed nations, the trend of pregnancy-related AKI (PRAKI) is on a decline due to the advances in obstetrics care and the legality of abortion. On the contrary, this situation remains one of the major health problems in the developing countries. Though some improvements have been observed, PRAKI still causes high maternal morbidity and mortality, le...

  13. Preparation and properties of the specific anti-influenza virus transfer factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chongbi; Huang, Lihua; Wang, Yanping; Li, Xiangle; Liang, Shaowei; Zheng, Yingna

    2010-09-13

    Specific anti-influenza virus and normal transfer factors prepared in an experimental animal model, the pig, have been tested for their components, characteristics, and activity of known specificity. Two transfer factors are small molecular mixture which consist entirely or partly of polypeptides and polynucleosides. Moreover, the biological activity of transfer factors could be approved by Rosettes test and specific skin test. The study would lay a foundation for the research and development of other specific transfer factor.

  14. Two Factors Related to Effective Voice Interpreting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, T. Alan

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-two interpreters for the deaf were measured on accuracy and quality of voice interpreting of the same story in two different sign language types: Pidgin Signed English and American Sign Language. Results indicated that previous experience interpreting was significantly related to the effectiveness of voice interpreting both languages.…

  15. [Enviromental factors related to depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Benítez, Catalina Teresa; García-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Leal-Ugarte, Evelia; Peralta-Leal, Valeria; Durán-González, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: debido a su alta prevalencia, la depresión mayor, episodio único (DMEU); la depresión mayor recurrente (DMR); y la distimia son consideradas un problema importante de salud pública. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar y relacionar los factores ambientales en pacientes con DMEU, DMR y distimia. Métodos: 121 pacientes procedentes del Hospital General de Subzona del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) de San Andrés Tuxtla, Veracruz, fueron cuestionados mediante una historia clínica con las variables de riesgo. Resultados: 16 pacientes presentaron DMEU, 72 DMR y 33 distimia. En todos prevaleció el sexo femenino. Los trastornos depresivos se observaron con más frecuencia en personas de más de 40 años, casadas, con un nivel de estudios medio o bajo, provenientes de una familia disfuncional, víctimas de violencia familiar, además de ser hijos intermedios. Las comorbilidades que se presentaron fueron trastornos gastrointestinales, obesidad e hipertensión arterial. Conclusión: los principales factores de riesgo que se identificaron para desarrollar trastornos depresivos fueron: ser mujer, tener más de 40 años de edad y estar casada. Las diferencias obtenidas en este estudio respecto a otros probablemente se deban al tamaño de la muestra, los criterios de selección y el origen de la etnia.

  16. Cow-specific risk factors for clinical mastitis in Brazilian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C S F; Hogeveen, H; Botelho, A M; Maia, P V; Coelho, S G; Haddad, J P A

    2015-10-01

    Information related to mastitis risk factors is useful for the design and implementation of clinical mastitis (CM) control programs. The first objective of our study was to model the risk of CM under Brazilian conditions, using cow-specific risk factors. Our second objective was to explore which risk factors were associated with the occurrence of the most common pathogens involved in Brazilian CM infections. The analyses were based on 65 months of data from 9,789 dairy cows and 12,464 CM cases. Cow-specific risk factors that could easily be measured in standard Brazilian dairy farms were used in the statistical analyses, which included logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression. The first month of lactation, high somatic cell count, rainy season and history of clinical mastitis cases were factors associated with CM for both primiparous and multiparous cows. In addition, parity and breed were also associated risk factors for multiparous cows. Of all CM cases, 54% showed positive bacteriological culturing results from which 57% were classified as environmental pathogens, with a large percentage of coliforms (35%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (16%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus agalactiae (7%) and other Streptococci (9%) were also common pathogens. Among the pathogens analyzed, the association of cow-specific risk factors, such as Zebu breed (OR=5.84, 95%CI 3.77-10.77) and accumulated history of SCC (1.76, 95%CI 1.37-2.27), was different for CM caused by Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and S. agalactiae in comparison to CM caused by coliforms. Our results suggest that CM control programs in Brazil should specially consider the recent history of clinical mastitis cases and the beginning of the lactations, mainly during the rainy season as important risk factor for mastitis.

  17. Relation between acute kidney injury and pregnancy-related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monchai Siribamrungwong; Pawadee Chinudomwong

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious problem during pregnancy. Once occurred, it brings about devastating maternal and fetal outcomes. Among developed nations, the trend of pregnancy-related AKI (PRAKI) is on a decline due to the advances in obstetrics care and the legality of abortion. On the contrary, this situation remains one of the major health problems in the developing countries. Though some improvements have been observed, PRAKI still causes high maternal morbidity and mortality, leading to fetal losses. This article aims to review current studies with regards to obstetrics related AKI. Most of the studies in this review were carried out in observational, both prospective and retrospective, studies. Results demonstrated a variety of major PRAKI causes such as hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, obstetric hemorrhage, sepsis, thrombotic micro-angiopathy and acute fatty liver in pregnancy. Aside from awareness of the etiologies of PRAKI, understanding the physiological renal adaptation during pregnancy is crucial for early detection, diagnosis, and proper management to prevent the obstetric complications.

  18. Relation between acute kidney injury and pregnancy-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monchai Siribamrungwong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a serious problem during pregnancy. Once occurred, it brings about devastating maternal and fetal outcomes. Among developed nations, the trend of pregnancy-related AKI (PRAKI is on a decline due to the advances in obstetrics care and the legality of abortion. On the contrary, this situation remains one of the major health problems in the developing countries. Though some improvements have been observed, PRAKI still causes high maternal morbidity and mortality, leading to fetal losses. This article aims to review current studies with regards to obstetrics related AKI. Most of the studies in this review were carried out in observational, both prospective and retrospective, studies. Results demonstrated a variety of major PRAKI causes such as hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, obstetric hemorrhage, sepsis, thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver in pregnancy. Aside from awareness of the etiologies of PRAKI, understanding the physiological renal adaptation during pregnancy is crucial for early detection, diagnosis, and proper management to prevent the obstetric complications.

  19. Phenotypic factor analysis of psychopathology reveals a new body-related transdiagnostic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Patrizia; Antfolk, Jan; Santtila, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Comorbidity challenges the notion of mental disorders as discrete categories. An increasing body of literature shows that symptoms cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries and interact in shaping the latent structure of psychopathology. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, we reveal the latent sources of covariation among nine measures of psychopathological functioning in a population-based sample of 13024 Finnish twins and their siblings. By implementing unidimensional, multidimensional, second-order, and bifactor models, we illustrate the relationships between observed variables, specific, and general latent factors. We also provide the first investigation to date of measurement invariance of the bifactor model of psychopathology across gender and age groups. Our main result is the identification of a distinct "Body" factor, alongside the previously identified Internalizing and Externalizing factors. We also report relevant cross-disorder associations, especially between body-related psychopathology and trait anger, as well as substantial sex and age differences in observed and latent means. The findings expand the meta-structure of psychopathology, with implications for empirical and clinical practice, and demonstrate shared mechanisms underlying attitudes towards nutrition, self-image, sexuality and anger, with gender- and age-specific features.

  20. Relational Learning via Collective Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    random variables. J. Multi. Anal ., 11(4):581– 598, 1981. [3] D. J. Aldous. Exchangeability and related topics, chapter 1. Springer, 1985. 14 [4] K. S...administration of its programs or activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex or handicap in violation of Title VI of the Civil Rights...pursue," excludes openly gay , lesbian and bisexual students from receiving ROTC scholarships or serving in the military. Nevertheless, all ROTC classes at

  1. Specific Suggestions to Strengthen Relations with Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the two decades ahead, China's development will face a period of important strategic opportunities. While coping with big power relations, China needs to be pluralistic in external relations and economic and trade relations. Therefore, strengthening relations with the developing countries and promoting South South cooperation is in China's interest and an essential link to ensure China's rise in the new century.

  2. Position specific variation in the rate of evolution intranscription factor binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, Alan M.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Kellis, Manolis; Lander, EricS.; Eisen, Michael B.

    2003-08-28

    The binding sites of sequence specific transcription factors are an important and relatively well-understood class of functional non-coding DNAs. Although a wide variety of experimental and computational methods have been developed to characterize transcription factor binding sites, they remain difficult to identify. Comparison of non-coding DNA from related species has shown considerable promise in identifying these functional non-coding sequences, even though relatively little is known about their evolution. Here we analyze the genome sequences of the budding yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus, S. paradoxus and S. mikataeto study the evolution of transcription factor binding sites. As expected, we find that both experimentally characterized and computationally predicted binding sites evolve slower than surrounding sequence, consistent with the hypothesis that they are under purifying selection. We also observe position-specific variation in the rate of evolution within binding sites. We find that the position-specific rate of evolution is positively correlated with degeneracy among binding sites within S. cerevisiae. We test theoretical predictions for the rate of evolution at positions where the base frequencies deviate from background due to purifying selection and find reasonable agreement with the observed rates of evolution. Finally, we show how the evolutionary characteristics of real binding motifs can be used to distinguish them from artifacts of computational motif finding algorithms. As has been observed for protein sequences, the rate of evolution in transcription factor binding sites varies with position, suggesting that some regions are under stronger functional constraint than others. This variation likely reflects the varying importance of different positions in the formation of the protein-DNA complex. The characterization of the pattern of evolution in known binding sites will likely contribute to the effective use of comparative

  3. Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook (Final Report) 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Center for Environmental Assessment Staff (NCEA) have prepared this handbook to provide information on various physiological and behavioral factors commonly used in assessing children’s exposure to environmental chemicals. Children have different exposure circumstanc...

  4. Factors Related to Successful Engineering Team Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczyk, Ronald H.; Zang, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    The perceptions of a sample of 49 engineers and scientists from NASA Langley Research Center toward engineering design teams were evaluated. The respondents rated 60 team behaviors in terms of their relative importance for team success. They also completed a profile of their own perceptions of their strengths and weaknesses as team members. Behaviors related to team success are discussed in terms of those involving the organizational culture and commitment to the team and those dealing with internal team dynamics. The latter behaviors included the level and extent of debate and discussion regarding methods for completing the team task and the efficient use of team time to explore and discuss methodologies critical to the problem. Successful engineering teams may find their greatest challenges occurring during the early stages of their existence. In contrast to the prototypical business team, members on an engineering design share expertise and knowledge which allows them to deal with task issues sooner. However, discipline differences among team members can lead to conflicts regarding the best method or approach to solving the engineering problem.

  5. Anxiety and Related Factors in Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon JG Asmundson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians often encounter patients who present with both chronic pain and elevated levels of anxiety. In some cases, the source of the anxiety is vague and diffuse. For others, there is an identifiable precipitating object, event or situation. For example, some patients with chronic pain are able to attribute their anxiety to the possibility of not regaining lost functional abilities, financial difficulties, feelings of social inadequacy, or uncertainty about the meaning and consequences of pain. The association between chronic pain and anxiety may not be particularly surprising when one considers that, in the acute phase, both pain and target-oriented anxiety (or fear motivate actions that serve to minimize the threat and maximize the likelihood of successful escape. As well, their neurobiology, while distinct, interacts in the reticular system (1. Evaluations of the association between chronic pain and fear-relevant constructs were initiated in the 1960s and 1970s (2,3. It has only been of late, however, that theorists and researchers have begun to focus their attention on delineating the precise nature of the relationship and its specific implications for the assessment and management of pain.

  6. Modulation of DNA binding by gene-specific transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleif, Robert F

    2013-10-01

    The transcription of many genes, particularly in prokaryotes, is controlled by transcription factors whose activity can be modulated by controlling their DNA binding affinity. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which DNA binding affinity is regulated is important, but because forming definitive conclusions usually requires detailed structural information in combination with data from extensive biophysical, biochemical, and sometimes genetic experiments, little is truly understood about this topic. This review describes the biological requirements placed upon DNA binding transcription factors and their consequent properties, particularly the ways that DNA binding affinity can be modulated and methods for its study. What is known and not known about the mechanisms modulating the DNA binding affinity of a number of prokaryotic transcription factors, including CAP and lac repressor, is provided.

  7. The functional consequences of relative substrate specificity in complex biochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eZeng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A biochemical activity, that is, enzymatic reaction or molecular interaction, frequently involves a molecule, for example, an enzyme, capable of interacting with numerous substrates or partners. Specificity is a fundamental property of biochemical activities, and relative specificity refers to the situation whereby a molecule interacts with multiple substrates or partners but with different affinities. Here, a hypothesis is proposed that any molecule, such as an enzyme, would have a range of preferences or relative specificity for its many native substrates, which differentially impacts the phenotypes of these substrates and hence shapes the relevant biological processes in vivo. While the mechanisms underlying the specific recognition between enzymes and individual substrates have been studied extensively, whether any enzyme exhibits intrinsic selectivity towards its ensemble of substrates is often overlooked, and whether this selectivity has any functional consequences is much less appreciated. There are, however, several lines of evidence in the literature that are consistent with the hypothesis and reviewed here. Furthermore, this hypothesis is supported by our analyses of a number of diverse biochemical systems at a large scale. Thus, the human microRNA processing machinery possesses relative specificity towards its hundreds of substrates, which might contribute to differential microRNA biogenesis; the promoter binding affinity of the transcription factor Ndt80 might regulate Ndt80 target mRNA expression in the budding yeast; Cdk1 kinase specificity might lead to variable substrate phosphorylation in vivo; and the density of HuR deposition to its thousands of RNA targets might partly explain differential RNA expression in human cells. It is proposed, therefore, that relative specificity is a universal property of complex biochemical systems and that the hypothesis could denote a general principle in biology.

  8. Gender-specific normative perceptions of alcohol-related protective behavioral strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa A; Rees, Michiko; Lee, Christine M

    2009-09-01

    The present research aimed (a) to determine whether students underestimate gender-specific descriptive normative perceptions for protective behavioral strategies; (b) to evaluate the relationships among perceived gender-specific descriptive and injunctive drinking norms and perceived gender-specific descriptive norms for protective behavioral strategies; and (c) to examine whether normative perceptions for protective behavioral strategies relate to use of these strategies when controlling for relevant drinking behavior factors (i.e., alcohol consumption, negative consequences, and attitude toward drinking behavior) and social norms factors (i.e., perceived descriptive and injunctive norms). Students (N = 666; 56.6% men) completed measures assessing drinking behavior and attitudes toward drinking, perceived descriptive and injunctive norms, perceived protective behavioral strategies, and protective behavioral strategies. Findings demonstrated that students consistently underestimated the use of strategies for the typical male student, whereas results were less consistent for the typical female student. In addition, results indicated that same-sex normative perceptions for protective behavioral strategies were associated with personal use of these strategies, even when controlling for relevant drinking behavior and social norms factors. Results stress the importance of evaluating factors that are associated with use of protective behavioral strategies. Implications for social norms preventative interventions are discussed.

  9. Working memory and language: skill-specific or domain-general relations to mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, David J; Ganley, Colleen M

    2014-06-01

    Children's early mathematics skills develop in a cumulative fashion; foundational skills form a basis for the acquisition of later skills. However, non-mathematical factors such as working memory and language skills have also been linked to mathematical development at a broad level. Unfortunately, little research has been conducted to evaluate the specific relations of these two non-mathematical factors to individual aspects of early mathematics. Thus, the focus of this study was to determine whether working memory and language were related to only individual aspects of early mathematics or related to many components of early mathematics skills. A total of 199 4- to 6-year-old preschool and kindergarten children were assessed on a battery of early mathematics tasks as well as measures of working memory and language. Results indicated that working memory has a specific relation to only a few-but critically important-early mathematics skills and language has a broad relation to nearly all early mathematics skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcription Factor Zbtb20 Controls Regional Specification of Mammalian Archicortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenthal, Eva Helga

    2010-01-01

    Combinatorial expression of sets of transcription factors (TFs) along the mammalian cortex controls its subdivision into functional areas. Unlike neocortex, only few recent data suggest genetic mechanisms controlling the regionalization of the archicortex. TF Emx2 plays a crucial role in patterning...... later on becoming restricted exclusively to postmitotic neurons of hippocampus (Hi) proper, dentate gyrus (DG), and two transitory zones, subiculum (S) and retrosplenial cortex (Rsp). Analysis of Zbtb20-/- mice revealed altered cortical patterning at the border between neocortex and archicortex...

  11. Game-specific characteristics of sport-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Ingo

    2016-09-14

    Concussions are common incidences in sports. However, game-specific characteristics such as tactics, field positions, etc. might positively/negatively contribute to the occurrence of mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in various sports such as soccer, volleyball, handball, or basketball. Thus, the intention of this study was to analyze game- specific characteristics of concussive incidents in active players from the perspective of different sportive disciplines. Four sport-specific questionnaires for soccer, handball, volleyball and basketball were established using an online survey tool. 3001 participants completed the questionnaires. 18% of the participants answered that they had experienced a concussion which significantly differed depending on the sport practiced (χ2(3)=56,868, pconcussions on the amateur level, volleyball players experienced most on the professional level and basketball players during leisure play (χ2(9)=112,667, pconcussions by a collision with another player, volleyball players instead experienced most concussions by hits from the ball (χ2(6)=211,260, pconcussions (χ2(6)=13.617, pconcussions are sport-specific and particularly concern amateurs. This indicates that most concussions in ball games appear in situations, where medical care units are not necessarily present. Preventive measures should therefore especially address amateurs in ball sports.

  12. Analysing relations between specific and total liking scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menichelli, Elena; Kraggerud, Hilde; Olsen, Nina Veflen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present a new statistical approach for the study of consumer liking. Total liking data are extended by incorporating liking for specific sensory properties. The approach combines different analyses for the purpose of investigating the most important aspects of ...

  13. The factor of local cultural specificity and process of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnev, Viacheslav

    2012-12-01

    , especially farming traditions in small-scale, non-industrial societies, has been based not only on the technologies that are "friendly" to Nature, but also (and first of all) on the perception that soil (earth) is the source of all life. This sort of perception was particularly widespread among peoples of pre-industrial societies. The problem of searching for a way to increase long-term productivity in food grain production is complicated. This problem is of global importance for today and the future. The active interest of Modern society in the Folk experiences of using the Nature to achieve sustainable economies is yet to come, but we have much to learn from these small-scale non-industrial societies. Food production needs to be increased. At the same time, the fertility of the soil must be maintained. Achieving a balance between these two necessities is the problem. Changing the present modern human outlook from its egocentric position to one that understands and respects the natural environment, based on ideas of "ecological ethics", looks especially complex, and is directly connected with the problem of forming a new culture. Actually, the global ecological crisis and related ecological problems take priority and the transition to a new model of thinking promises to be accelerated. In this context, making use of Folk heritage, Folk knowledge and experience in observing Nature and using Nature to achieve harmonious interrelations in a "Nature - Society" system, and for the elaboration of a change of attitudes is quite important for modern society on a Global level to achieve ways of Sustainability. Lucius Seneca maintains that subjugation of a Nature is possible only if obeying to Nature. Modern epoch of Globalization in economy and Financial systems creating a potential of high risks for mankind on the Global level. Special attention to local factors (local experience in Nature using, local Folk experience in Life-support activity) in context of globalization problems

  14. Early Numeracy and Literacy: Untangling the Relation between Specific Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, David J.; Napoli, Amy R.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is evident that advanced aspects of numeracy are dependent on the successful acquisition of early skills, this developmental process does not occur in isolation from other academic factors. Early literacy skills are intertwined with the acquisition of early numeracy skills, particularly at the informal numeracy and numeral knowledge…

  15. Factors Related to Sustained Implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Mercer, Sterett H.; Hume, Amanda E.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Turri, Mary G.; Mathews, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with sustainability of school-based interventions and the relative contributions of those factors to predicting sustained implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS). Participants were respondents from 217 schools across 14 U.S. states. Sustainability factors were…

  16. Determination of specificity influencing residues for key transcription factor families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Ronak Y.; Garde, Christian; Stormo, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    -dimensional structure of protein. Structural restraints on the evolution of the amino-acid sequence lead to identification of false SIRs. In this manuscript we extended three methods (direct information, PSICOVand adjusted mutual information) that have been used to disentangle spurious indirect protein residue......-residue contacts from direct contacts, to identify SIRs from joint alignments of amino-acids and specificity. We predicted SIRs for homeodomain (HD), helix-loop-helix, LacI and GntR families of TFs using these methods and compared to MI. Using various measures, we show that the performance of these three methods...

  17. Educational aspiration-expectation discrepancies: relation to socioeconomic and academic risk-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Paul; Goldstein, Sara E; DeLorenzo, Tahlia; Savoy, Sarah; Mercado, Ignacio

    2011-08-01

    This study examines whether disconnection between educational aspirations and expectations is associated with socioeconomic status, academic performance, academic risk-related behaviors and related psychosocial factors in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of early adolescents from a public middle school (N = 761). Results suggest that students who aspire to achieve more than they expect to achieve also are likely to have more economically disadvantaged backgrounds and poorer academic performance. These students also show a variety of academic and social risks. Specifically, students whose aspirations exceeded their expectations reported lower levels of school bonding, higher levels of test/performance anxiety, and elevated behavioral/emotional difficulties. Results are discussed in terms of social-cognitive theory as well as applications for promoting student social and academic success.

  18. Sensitivity of wild type and mutant ras alleles to Ras specific exchange factors: Identification of factor specific requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K H; Gredsted, L; Broach, J R; Willumsen, B M

    2001-04-19

    We have investigated the productive interaction between the four mammalian Ras proteins (H-, N-, KA- and KB-Ras) and their activators, the mammalian exchange factors mSos1, GRF1 and GRP, by using a modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae whose growth is dependent on activation of a mammalian Ras protein by its activator. All four mammalian Ras proteins were activated with similar efficiencies by the individual exchange factors. The H-Ras mutant V103E, which is competent for membrane localization, nucleotide binding, intrinsic and stimulated GTPase activity as well as intrinsic exchange, was defective for activation by all factors tested, suggesting that the integrity of this residue is necessary for catalyzed exchange. However, when other H-Ras mutants were studied, some distinct sensitivities to the exchange factors were observed. GRP-mediated, but not mSos1-mediated, exchange was blocked in additional mutants, suggesting different structural requirements for GRP. Analysis of Ras-mediated gene activation in murine fibroblasts confirmed these results.

  19. Analysis of sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors in young high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, A; Seil, R; Urhausen, A; Croisier, J L; Lair, M L; Theisen, D

    2009-12-01

    This study analyzed sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors in young athletes (n=256) from 12 sport disciplines practicing at the national or the international level in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Injury occurrence as a result of sport practice was analyzed retrospectively over the year 2006 using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Overall incidence was not different between girls and boys (1.20 and 1.21 injuries/1000 athlete-hours, respectively), but in the context of team sport competition girls tended to be at a greater risk (rate ratio 2.05, P=0.053). Girls had a higher proportion of injuries in the ankle/foot region compared with boys (34.8% vs 16.8%). No sex-related differences were found regarding injury severity. Multivariate logistic regression (controlling for age and practice volume) revealed that girls' team sports were associated with a greater injury risk compared with individual sports [odds ratio (OR) of 4.76], while in boys this was observed for racket sports (OR=3.31). Furthermore, physical or emotional stress tended to be a specific risk factor in girls. There was a tendency for injury outside sports to be coupled to a higher injury risk in girls and boys. Consideration of sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors could be of importance for effective injury prevention.

  20. Subsite-Specific Dietary Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer: A Review of Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Hjartåker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A shift in the total incidence from left- to right-sided colon cancer has been reported and raises the question as to whether lifestyle risk factors are responsible for the changing subsite distribution of colon cancer. The present study provides a review of the subsite-specific risk estimates for the dietary components presently regarded as convincing or probable risk factors for colorectal cancer: red meat, processed meat, fiber, garlic, milk, calcium, and alcohol. Methods. Studies were identified by searching PubMed through October 8, 2012 and by reviewing reference lists. Thirty-two prospective cohort studies are included, and the estimates are compared by sex for each risk factor. Results. For alcohol, there seems to be a stronger association with rectal cancer than with colon cancer, and for meat a somewhat stronger association with distal colon and rectal cancer, relative to proximal colon cancer. For fiber, milk, and calcium, there were only minor differences in relative risk across subsites. No statement could be given regarding garlic. Overall, many of the subsite-specific risk estimates were nonsignificant, irrespective of exposure. Conclusion. For some dietary components the associations with risk of cancer of the rectum and distal colon appear stronger than for proximal colon, but not for all.

  1. Platelet subpopulation bearing leukocyte specific antigen and tissue factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbasov, Z A; Saburova, O S; Antonova, O A; Golubeva, N V; Khaspekova, S G; Shustova, O N; Zyuryaev, I T; Ruda, M Ya; Mazurov, A V

    2016-11-01

    Platelets bearing leukocyte antigen CD45 were identified in the blood of patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and healthy donors by flow cytofluorimetry. Part of these platelets contained tissue factor (TF)-primary initiator of blood clotting. The number of CD45(+) and CD45(+)/TF(+) platelets in MI patients at the first day was comparable with their level in healthy donors, but was increased at 8-12 days after MI onset. At that time in some patients the amount of CD45(+) and CD45(+)/TF(+) platelets reached 5-6 and 2-3% of their total number. It is assumed that CD45(+)/TF(+) platelets could be formed as a result of platelet interaction with leukocytes or leukocyte produced membrane microparticles.

  2. Surgeon-related factors and outcome in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, G A; Soskolne, C L; Yakimets, W W; Newman, S C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether surgical subspecialty training in colorectal surgery or frequency of rectal cancer resection by the surgeon are independent prognostic factors for local recurrence (LR) and survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Variation in patient outcome in rectal cancer has been shown among centers and among individual surgeons. However, the prognostic importance of surgeon-related factors is largely unknown. METHODS: All patients undergoing potentially curative low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection for primary adenocarcinoma of the rectum between 1983 and 1990 at the five Edmonton general hospitals were reviewed in a historic-prospective study design. Preoperative, intraoperative, pathologic, adjuvant therapy, and outcome variables were obtained. Outcomes of interest included LR and disease-specific survival (DSS). To determine survival rates and to control both confounding and interaction, multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: The study included 683 patients involving 52 surgeons, with > 5-year follow-up obtained on 663 (97%) patients. There were five colorectal-trained surgeons who performed 109 (16%) of the operations. Independent of surgeon training, 323 operations (47%) were done by surgeons performing < 21 rectal cancer resections over the study period. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of LR was increased in patients of both noncolorectal trained surgeons (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.5, p = 0.001) and those of surgeons performing < 21 resections (HR = 1.8, p < 0.001). Stage (p < 0.001), use of adjuvant therapy (p = 0.002), rectal perforation or tumor spill (p < 0.001), and vascular/neural invasion (p = 0.002) also were significant prognostic factors for LR. Similarly, decreased disease-specific survival was found to be independently associated with noncolorectal-trained surgeons (HR = 1.5, p = 0.03) and surgeons performing < 21 resections (HR = 1.4, p = 0.005). Stage (p < 0

  3. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirjana Devi Shrestha

    Full Text Available The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076 with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains.

  4. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Chapman, Patrick; Zhang, Yun; Gijzen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076) with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains.

  5. Trefoil factors: Gastrointestinal-specific proteins associated with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ping; Ling, Hui; Lan, Gang; Liu, Jiao; Hu, Haobin; Yang, Ruirui

    2015-10-23

    Trefoil factor family (TFF), composed of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3, is a cluster of secreted peptides characterized by trefoil domain (s) and C-terminal dimerization domain. TFF1, a gastric tumor suppressor, is a single trefoil peptide originally detected in breast cancer cell lines but expressed mainly in the stomach; TFF2, a candidate of gastric cancer suppressor with two trefoil domains, is abundant in the stomach and duodenal Brunner's glands; and TFF3 is another single trefoil peptide expressed throughout the intestine which can promote the development of gastric carcinoma. According to multiple studies, TFFs play a regulatory function in the mammals' digestive system, namely in mucosal protection and epithelial cell reconstruction, tumor suppression or promotion, signal transduction and the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis. Action mechanisms of TFFs remain unresolved, but the recent demonstration of a GKN (gastrokine) 2-TFF1 heterodimer implicates structural and functional interplay with gastrokines. This review aims to encapsulate the structural and biological characteristics of TFF.

  6. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: specificities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ is a severe complication that has recently emerged in patients treated with intravenous bisphosphonates for malignant diseases. This complication usually presents after a minor local trauma during a dental treatment. Several etiopathogenic mechanisms of this pathological condition have been proposed, but no model can explain all morphological changes observed at the macroscopic and microscopic level. BRONJ is likely to be related to direct toxicity in the bone and soft tissue cells, due to nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates. This review elucidates the clinical indications and mechanism of action of bisphosphonates, reports some clinical diagnostic criteria for BRONJ, describe the histopathological criteria for BRONJ diagnosis, the potential triggering pathways and the available treatment strategies.

  7. Venus Flytrap Seedlings Show Growth-Related Prey Size Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Hatcher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula has had a conservation status of vulnerable since the 1970s. Little research has focussed on the ecology and even less has examined its juvenile stages. For the first time, reliance on invertebrate prey for growth was assessed in seedling Venus flytrap by systematic elimination of invertebrates from the growing environment. Prey were experimentally removed from a subset of Venus flytrap seedlings within a laboratory environment. The amount of growth was measured by measuring trap midrib length as a function of overall growth as well as prey spectrum. There was significantly lower growth in prey-eliminated plants than those utilising prey. This finding, although initially unsurprising, is actually contrary to the consensus that seedlings (traps < 5 mm do not catch prey. Furthermore, flytrap was shown to have prey specificity at its different growth stages; the dominant prey size for seedlings did not trigger mature traps. Seedlings are capturing and utilising prey for nutrients to increase their overall trap size. These novel findings show Venus flytrap to have a much more complex evolutionary ecology than previously thought.

  8. Definition and Relational Specification of Work-around.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Jennifer A; Braden, Carrie Jo

    2012-01-01

    There are many investigations of nursing work-arounds reported in the literature.1 Despite numerous studies the concept remains vague and not logically linked to a theory base. Assumptions associated with many of these studies are not clearly articulated, leading to poor logic fit with analysis. Nursing literature reflects the assumptions that work-arounds are bad and must be eliminated. This paper defines work-around in its full range of variation consistent with a complex adaptive system base from two perspectives: essential attributes when operating as a mediator and as a moderator. Given the need for increased conceptual rigor in Nursing Informatics research, the moderator/mediator delineation is important. Moderating variables tend to be endemic to situations and are relatively resistant to intervention while mediating work-arounds may represent appropriate problem solving management of routine exceptions2 A clearer understanding of work-arounds can inform integration of the Electronic Health Record and safety, quality and efficiency initiatives.

  9. [Mechanisms underlying physiological functions of food factors via non-specific interactions with biological proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Akira

    2015-01-01

      We previously reported that zerumbone, a sesquiterpene found in Zingiber zerumbet SMITH, showed notable cancer preventive effects in various organs of experimental rodents. This agent up-regulated nuclear factor-E2-related factor (Nrf2)-dependent expressions of anti-oxidative and xenobiotics-metabolizing enzymes, leading to an increased self-defense capacity. On the other hand, zerumbone markedly suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, an inducible pro-inflammatory enzyme, by disrupting mRNA stabilizing processes. Binding experiments using a biotin derivative of zerumbone demonstrated that Keap1, an Nrf2 repressive protein, is one of its major binding proteins that promotes their dissociation for inducing Nrf2 transactivation. We then generated a specific antibody against zerumbone-modified proteins and found that zerumbone modified numerous cellular proteins in a non-specific manner, with global distribution of the modified proteins seen not only in cytoplasm but also the nucleus. Based on those observations, zerumbone was speculated to cause proteo-stress, a notion supported by previous findings that it increased the C-terminus of Hsc70 interacting protein-dependent protein ubiquitination and also promoted aggresome formation. Interestingly, zerumbone counteracted proteo-stress and heat stress via up-regulation of the protein quality control systems (PQCs), e.g., heat shock proteins (HSPs), ubiquitin-proteasome, and autophagy. Meanwhile, several phytochemicals, including ursolic acid and curcumin, were identified as marked HSP70 inducers, whereas most nutrients tested were scarcely active. Recent studies have revealed that PQCs play important roles in the prevention of many lifestyle related diseases, such as cancer, thus non-specific binding of phytochemicals to cellular proteins may be a novel and unique mechanism underlying their physiological activities.

  10. Work-related risk factors for suicidal behaviour, protective factors and possibilities for prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Podlogar

    2016-01-01

    Work is an important part of adult life. As such it is closely connected to health and mental health. Aspects of occupation, work and employment can represent risk factors for suicidal behaviour or protective factors against it. Aim of this article is to present the known work-related risk factors for suicidal behaviour, protective factors and possibilities for preventive activities in this context. An important risk factor for suicidal behaviour is unemployment. Connection between unemployme...

  11. Derivation of Accident-Specific Material-at-Risk Equivalency Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason P. Andrus; Dr. Chad L. Pope

    2012-05-01

    A novel method for calculating material at risk (MAR) dose equivalency developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) now allows for increased utilization of dose equivalency for facility MAR control. This method involves near-real time accounting for the use of accident and material specific release and transport. It utilizes all information from the committed effective dose equation and the five factor source term equation to derive dose equivalency factors which can be used to establish an overall facility or process MAR limit. The equivalency factors allow different nuclide spectrums to be compared for their respective dose consequences by relating them to a specific quantity of an identified reference nuclide. The ability to compare spectrums to a reference limit ensures that MAR limits are in fact bounding instead of attempting to establish a representative or bounding spectrum which may lead to unintended or unanalyzed configurations. This methodology is then coupled with a near real time material tracking system which allows for accurate and timely material composition information and corresponding MAR equivalency values. The development of this approach was driven by the complex nature of processing operations in some INL facilities. This type of approach is ideally suited for facilities and processes where the composition of the MAR and possible release mechanisms change frequently but in well defined fashions and in a batch-type nature.

  12. Scientific articles recommendation with topic regression and relational matrix factorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming YANG; Ying-ming LI; Zhongfei(Mark)ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of recommending scientifi c articles to users in an online community with a new perspective of considering topic regression modeling and articles relational structure analysis simultane-ously. First, we present a novel topic regression model, the topic regression matrix factorization (tr-MF), to solve the problem. The main idea of tr-MF lies in extending the matrix factorization with a probabilistic topic modeling. In particular, tr-MF introduces a regression model to regularize user factors through probabilistic topic modeling under the basic hypothesis that users share similar preferences if they rate similar sets of items. Consequently, tr-MF provides interpretable latent factors for users and items, and makes accurate predictions for community users. To incorporate the relational structure into the framework of tr-MF, we introduce relational matrix factorization. Through combining tr-MF with the relational matrix factorization, we propose the topic regression collective matrix factorization (tr-CMF) model. In addition, we also present the collaborative topic regression model with relational matrix factorization (CTR-RMF) model, which combines the existing collaborative topic regression (CTR) model and relational matrix factorization (RMF). From this point of view, CTR-RMF can be considered as an appropriate baseline for tr-CMF. Further, we demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed models on a large subset of the data from CiteULike, a bibliography sharing service dataset. The proposed models outperform the state-of-the-art matrix factorization models with a signifi cant margin. Specifi cally, the proposed models are effective in making predictions for users with only few ratings or even no ratings, and support tasks that are specifi c to a certain fi eld, neither of which has been addressed in the existing literature.

  13. Abella: A System for Reasoning about Relational Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baelde

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Abella interactive theorem prover is based on an intuitionistic logic that allows for inductive and co-inductive reasoning over relations. Abella supports the λ-tree approach to treating syntax containing binders: it allows simply typed λ-terms to be used to represent such syntax and it provides higher-order (pattern unification, the nabla quantifier, and nominal constants for reasoning about these representations. As such, it is a suitable vehicle for formalizing the meta-theory of formal systems such as logics and programming languages. This tutorial exposes Abella incrementally, starting with its capabilities at a first-order logic level and gradually presenting more sophisticated features, ending with the support it offers to the two-level logic approach to meta-theoretic reasoning. Along the way, we show how Abella can be used prove theorems involving natural numbers, lists, and automata, as well as involving typed and untyped λ-calculi and the π-calculus.

  14. Community-related factors militating against effective management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-related factors militating against effective management of ... high rates of out-of-hospital delivery,many affected babies often reach the health facility ... such as female education, mass media campaigns, development of national ...

  15. Perceived health and environment related factors associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived health and environment related factors associated with urban ... as an important resource for meeting the challenges of rapidly growing cities, such ... to livelihood, it also has health and environmental problems associated with it.

  16. School Related Factors as Predictors of Internal Efficiency of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Key Words: School related factors, Internal Efficiency, Public University student,. South-West ... cycle as it will show the promotion rate, repetition rate and drop-out rate. Many ..... School-based variables and internal efficiency of colleges of.

  17. A study of insight and its relative factors in schizophrenia.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical value of the insight and its relative factors in schizophrenic patients. Methods: The insight, the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS), the scale for the assessment of negative symptoms (SANS), the scale for the assessment of

  18. Prognosis related clinical and molecular factors in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify potential prognosis related clinical and molecular factors in malignant pleural mesothelioma(MPM).Methods Seventy-nine patients with MPM treated in Beijing Cancer Hospital from June 1996

  19. Relation of Trigger Factors to Migraine with Aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers from the University of Copenhagen, Denmark studied the relation between natural trigger factors and migraine with aura (MA in 27 patients who reported that bright or flickering light or strenuous exercise would trigger their attacks.

  20. Insights into the Role of the Berry-Specific Ethylene Responsive Factor VviERF045

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leida, Carmen; Dal Rì, Antonio; Dalla Costa, Lorenza; Gómez, Maria D.; Pompili, Valerio; Sonego, Paolo; Engelen, Kristof; Masuero, Domenico; Ríos, Gabino; Moser, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During grape ripening, numerous transcriptional and metabolic changes are required in order to obtain colored, sweet, and flavored berries. There is evidence that ethylene, together with other signals, plays an important role in triggering the onset of ripening. Here, we report the functional characterization of a berry-specific Ethylene Responsive Factor (ERF), VviERF045, which is induced just before véraison and peaks at ripening. Phylogenetic analysis revealed it is close to the SHINE clade of ERFs, factors involved in the regulation of wax biosynthesis and cuticle morphology. Transgenic grapevines lines overexpressing VviERF045 were obtained, in vitro propagated, phenotypically characterized, and analyzed for the content of specific classes of metabolites. The effect of VviERF045 was correlated with the level of transgene expression, with high-expressing lines showing stunted growth, discolored and smaller leaves, and a lower level of chlorophylls and carotenoids. One line with intermediate expression, L15, was characterized at the transcriptomic level and showed 573 differentially expressed genes compared to wild type plants. Microscopy and gene expression analyses point toward a major role of VviERF045 in epidermis patterning by acting on waxes and cuticle. They also indicate that VviERF045 affects phenolic secondary metabolism and induces a reaction resembling a plant immune response with modulation of receptor like-kinases and pathogen related genes. These results suggest also a possible role of this transcription factor in berry ripening, likely related to changes in epidermis and cuticle of the berry, cell expansion, a decrease in photosynthetic capacity, and the activation of several defense related genes as well as from the phenylpropanoid metabolism. All these processes occur in the berry during ripening. PMID:28018369

  1. Relation of tolerance of ambiguity to global and specific paranormal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houran, J; Williams, C

    1998-12-01

    We examined the relationship of tolerance of ambiguity to severe global factors and specific types of anomalous or paranormal experience. 107 undergraduate students completed MacDonald's 1970 AT-20 and the Anomalous Experiences Inventory of Kumar, Pekala, and Gallagher. Scores on the five subscales of the Anomalous Experiences Inventory correlated differently with tolerance of ambiguity. Global paranormal beliefs, abilities, experiences, and drug use were positively associated with tolerance of ambiguity, whereas a fear of paranormal experience showed a negative relation. The specific types of anomalous experiences that correlated with tolerance of ambiguity often involved internal or physiological experience, e.g., precognitive dreams, memories of reincarnation, visual apparitions, and vestibular alterations. We generally found no effects of age of sex. These results are consistent with the idea that some paranormal experiences are misattributions of internal experience to external ('paranormal') sources, a process analogous to mechanisms underpinning delusions and hallucinations.

  2. Locus-specific epigenetic remodeling controls addiction- and depression-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Elizabeth A; Cates, Hannah M; Peña, Catherine J; Sun, Haosheng; Shao, Ningyi; Feng, Jian; Golden, Sam A; Herman, James P; Walsh, Jessica J; Mazei-Robison, Michelle; Ferguson, Deveroux; Knight, Scott; Gerber, Mark A; Nievera, Christian; Han, Ming-Hu; Russo, Scott J; Tamminga, Carol S; Neve, Rachael L; Shen, Li; Zhang, H Steve; Zhang, Feng; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-12-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse or stress regulates transcription factors, chromatin-modifying enzymes and histone post-translational modifications in discrete brain regions. Given the promiscuity of the enzymes involved, it has not yet been possible to obtain direct causal evidence to implicate the regulation of transcription and consequent behavioral plasticity by chromatin remodeling that occurs at a single gene. We investigated the mechanism linking chromatin dynamics to neurobiological phenomena by applying engineered transcription factors to selectively modify chromatin at a specific mouse gene in vivo. We found that histone methylation or acetylation at the Fosb locus in nucleus accumbens, a brain reward region, was sufficient to control drug- and stress-evoked transcriptional and behavioral responses via interactions with the endogenous transcriptional machinery. This approach allowed us to relate the epigenetic landscape at a given gene directly to regulation of its expression and to its subsequent effects on reward behavior.

  3. Review on risk factors related to lower back disorders at workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    A' Tifah Jaffar, Nur; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    This review examines the evidence of the occurrence of risk exposure on work-related lower back disorders in the workplace. This review also investigates potential interactions between the risk factors in the workplace which include heavy physical work risk factor, static work postures risk factor, frequent bending and twisting risk factor, lifting risk factor, pushing and pulling risk factor, repetitive work risk factor, vibration risk factor, psychological and psychosocial risk factor that may be associated with symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders of lower back. These risk factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or social factors. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching using databases and the searching strategy was used combined keyword for risk factors, work-related lower back disorders, heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting, pushing and pulling, repetitive work, vibration, psychological and psychosocial risk factor. A total of 67 articles were identified and reviewed. The risk factors identified that related for low back disorder are seven which are heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting, pushing and pulling, repetitive work, vibration, psychological and psychosocial risk factor and the level of evidence supporting the relationship with lower back disorders also described such as strong, moderate, insufficient, limited and no evidence. This result confirms that, existing of higher physical and psychosocial demand related to reported risk factors of low back disorders. The result also showed that previous reviews had evaluated relationship between risk factors of low back disorders and specific types of musculoskeletal disorders. This review also highlights the scarves evidence regarding some of the frequently reported risk factors for work related lower back disorders.

  4. Temperament factors and dimensional, latent bifactor models of child psychopathology: Transdiagnostic and specific associations in two youth samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Snyder, Hannah; Young, Jami F; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A

    2017-06-01

    Common emotional and behavioral symptoms co-occur and are associated with core temperament factors. This study investigated links between temperament and dimensional, latent psychopathology factors, including a general common psychopathology factor (p factor) and specific latent internalizing and externalizing liabilities, as captured by a bifactor model, in two independent samples of youth. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that temperament factors of negative affectivity (NA), positive affectivity (PA), and effortful control (EC) could serve as both transdiagnostic and specific risks in relation to recent bifactor models of child psychopathology. Sample 1 included 571 youth (average age 13.6, SD =2.37, range 9.3-17.5) with both youth and parent report. Sample 2 included 554 preadolescent children (average age 7.7, SD =1.35, range =5-11 years) with parent report. Structural equation modeling showed that the latent bifactor models fit in both samples. Replicated in both samples, the p factor was associated with lower EC and higher NA (transdiagnostic risks). Several specific risks replicated in both samples after controlling for co-occurring symptoms via the p factor: internalizing was associated with higher NA and lower PA, lower EC related to externalizing problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The relative importance of performance factors in Korean archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Byul; Kim, Sae-Hyung; So, Wi-Young

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the factors affecting archery performance by calculating their relative importance in Korean archery. This study used the Delphi technique and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). After reviewing the literature and collecting data on performance factors in archery, the importance of factors affecting archery performance was calculated by holding meetings with experts (20 archery experts) and conducting confirmatory factor analysis (463 archers) and the AHP (36 archery experts). Performance factors were divided into mental, skill, and fitness categories. Fitness factors affecting performance included "drawing a bow without an arrow," "lower-body weight training," and "upper-body weight training." Skill factors affecting performance included "extending by maintaining left and right shoulder balance during aiming," "shooting skill over a regular clicker time," "maintaining pace and direction at release," and "drawing skill by maintaining left and right shoulder balance." Mental factors affecting performance were "confidence," "concentration," "emotion control," and "positive thinking." "Confidence" was identified as the most important factor among the 11 subfactors. The performance factors identified in this study and their relative importance in determining successful performance can be used in training for optimal archery performance worldwide.

  6. General and Specific Genetic Polymorphism of Cytokines-Related Gene in AITD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD shows the highest incidence among organ-specific autoimmune diseases and is the most common thyroid disease in humans, including Graves’ disease (GD and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT. The susceptibility to autoimmune diseases is affected by increased autoantibody levels, susceptibility gene polymorphisms, environmental factors, and psychological factors, but the pathogenesis remains unclear. Various cytokines and related genes encoding them play important roles in the development and progression of AITD. CD152, an expression product of the CTLA-4 gene, downregulates T cell activation. The A/A genotype polymorphism in the CT60 locus may reduce the production of thyroid autoantibodies. The C1858T polymorphism of the PTNP22 gene reduces the expression of its encoded LYP, which increases the risk of GD and HT. GD is an organ-specific autoimmune disease involving increased secretion of thyroid hormone, whereas HT may be associated with the destruction of thyroid gland tissue and hypothyroidism. These two diseases exhibit similar pathogenesis but opposite trends in the clinical manifestations. In this review, we focus on the structure and function of these cytokines and related genes in AITD, as well as the association of polymorphisms with susceptibility to GD and HT, and attempt to describe their differences in pathogenesis and clinical manifestations.

  7. General and Specific Genetic Polymorphism of Cytokines-Related Gene in AITD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizhou, Mei; Bei, He; Huilong, Li; Xin, Wang; Rui, Hu; Lu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) shows the highest incidence among organ-specific autoimmune diseases and is the most common thyroid disease in humans, including Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). The susceptibility to autoimmune diseases is affected by increased autoantibody levels, susceptibility gene polymorphisms, environmental factors, and psychological factors, but the pathogenesis remains unclear. Various cytokines and related genes encoding them play important roles in the development and progression of AITD. CD152, an expression product of the CTLA-4 gene, downregulates T cell activation. The A/A genotype polymorphism in the CT60 locus may reduce the production of thyroid autoantibodies. The C1858T polymorphism of the PTNP22 gene reduces the expression of its encoded LYP, which increases the risk of GD and HT. GD is an organ-specific autoimmune disease involving increased secretion of thyroid hormone, whereas HT may be associated with the destruction of thyroid gland tissue and hypothyroidism. These two diseases exhibit similar pathogenesis but opposite trends in the clinical manifestations. In this review, we focus on the structure and function of these cytokines and related genes in AITD, as well as the association of polymorphisms with susceptibility to GD and HT, and attempt to describe their differences in pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. PMID:28133421

  8. Low back pain during labor and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Su, Tsann-Juu

    2008-09-01

    A substantial proportion of women in labor suffer from low back pain, yet this issue has only been specifically evaluated in a few Western studies. The purpose of this research was to (1) describe the following characteristics of low back pain during labor: prevalence, anatomic region(s) affected, type, pattern, intensity trend, effective interventions, and exacerbating factors; (2) identify the factors relating to intrapartum low back pain in Taiwan women. A correlational design with repeated measures was used to conduct this investigation. Ninety-three low-risk women in labor were recruited from a medical center in central Taiwan. Low back pain was repeatedly measured during the latent phase (cervix dilated 2-4 cm), early active phase (cervix dilated 5-7 cm), and late active phase (cervix dilated 8-10 cm) of labor. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, repeated measurement ANOVA, and logistic regression. The results showed as many as 75.3% of the participants suffered episodes of low back pain during labor. The mean pain scores were 36.66-76.20 in the various stages of labor. Pain intensified as labor progressed. The location of the pain also changed with the progression of labor. The type of low back pain in 54.29% of women in labor was "muscle soreness and pain"; The pattern of pain in 45.71% women was continuous. Massage was chosen as the most effective intervention to alleviate low back pain by 65.3% of women. The women in labor who suffered from low back pain during pregnancy (OR = 3.23; p low back pain group. In conclusion, our study demonstrates low back pain intensified with the progression of labor, suggesting early prevention is necessary, especially in the case of women who had low back pain during pregnancy and heavier body weight when hospitalized.

  9. Alkaline-stress response in Glycine soja leaf identifies specific transcription factors and ABA-mediated signaling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ying; Li, Yong; Lv, De-Kang; Bai, Xi; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Wang, Ao-Xue; Zhu, Yan-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Transcriptome of Glycine soja leaf tissue during a detailed time course formed a foundation for examining transcriptional processes during NaHCO(3) stress treatment. Of a total of 2,310 detected differentially expressed genes, 1,664 genes were upregulated and 1,704 genes were downregulated at various time points. The number of stress-regulated genes increased dramatically after a 6-h stress treatment. GO category gene enrichment analysis revealed that most of the differentially expressed genes were involved in cell structure, protein synthesis, energy, and secondary metabolism. Another enrichment test revealed that the response of G. soja to NaHCO(3) highlights specific transcription factors, such as the C2C2-CO-like, MYB-related, WRKY, GARP-G2-like, and ZIM families. Co-expressed genes were clustered into ten classes (P < 0.001). Intriguingly, one cluster of 188 genes displayed a unique expression pattern that increases at an early stage (0.5 and 3 h), followed by a decrease from 6 to 12 h. This group was enriched in regulation of transcription components, including AP2-EREBP, bHLH, MYB/MYB-related, C2C2-CO-like, C2C2-DOF, C2C2, C3H, and GARP-G2-like transcription factors. Analysis of the 1-kb upstream regions of transcripts displaying similar changes in abundance identified 19 conserved motifs, potential binding sites for transcription factors. The appearance of ABA-responsive elements in the upstream of co-expression genes reveals that ABA-mediated signaling participates in the signal transduction in alkaline response.

  10. Genome-wide Transcription Factor Gene Prediction and their Expressional Tissue-Specificities in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Jiang; Biao Zeng; Hainan Zhao; Mei Zhang; Shaojun Xie; Jinsheng Lai

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are important regulators of gene expression.To better understand TFencoding genes in maize (Zea mays L.),a genome-wide TF prediction was performed using the updated B73 reference genome.A total of 2 298 TF genes were identified,which can be classified into 56 families.The largest family,known as the MYB superfamily,comprises 322 MYB and MYB-related TF genes.The expression patterns of 2014 (87.64%) TF genes were examined using RNA-seq data,which resulted in the identification of a subset of TFs that are specifically expressed in particular tissues (including root,shoot,leaf,ear,tassel and kernel).Similarly,98 kernel-specific TF genes were further analyzed,and it was observed that 29 of the kernel-specific genes were preferentially expressed in the early kernel developmental stage,while 69 of the genes were expressed in the late kernel developmental stage.Identification of these TFs,particularly the tissue-specific ones,provides important information for the understanding of development and transcriptional regulation of maize.

  11. Klotho is a serum factor related to human aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖能明; 张焱明; 郑权; 顾军

    2004-01-01

    Background Does klotho (KL) protein exist in human serum, and is there any correlation between KL protein in serum with human aging? In order to answer those questions, we identified KL protein in human serum and established the correlation between KL protein in human serum and aging.Methods We prepared a polyclonal antibody against human KL protein that was able to recognize the C-terminal of human secreted KL protein. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to identify KL protein in human serum.Results In Western blot, the antibody specifically recognized a 60-kD KL protein in both human and mice serum. The population aged from 0 to 91 years screened by ELISA revealed that the level of serum KL declined while age increased, though each individual level was variable and that the trend of decreasing in serum KL had no difference in sex.Conclusion Our data suggest that KL is a serum factor related to human aging.

  12. Parental Factors Associated with Rumination Related Metacognitive Beliefs in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ka-Wai; Lo, Barbara C Y

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of research studies have suggested that metacognition is associated with individuals' mental health. Specifically, metacognitive beliefs about rumination was proposed to link to the onset and maintenance of depression according to the metacognitive model of depression. The current study aimed to serve as a pilot study exploring how parents' metacognitive beliefs and parenting characteristics are associated with rumination related metacognitive beliefs in adolescents. Eighty-five parent-youth dyads were invited to complete a set of questionnaires examining their metacognitive beliefs about rumination followed by a difficult puzzle task, in which parent-adolescent interaction patterns were recorded to examine the parenting style. Results found that parents' and adolescents' positive metacognitive beliefs about rumination were significantly associated with each other. In addition, parental negativity was significantly associated with adolescents' positive metacognitive beliefs of rumination and parental over-involvement was marginally associated with adolescents' negative metacognitive beliefs of rumination. The findings highlighted the association between parental factors and adolescents' metacognitive beliefs about rumination. Implications on the prevention of adolescent's depression were discussed.

  13. Dispersion Relation for the Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Furuichi, Susumu; Watanbe, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    Elastic electromagnetic form factors of nucleons are investigated both for the time-like and the space-like momentums by using the unsubtracted dispersion relation with QCD constraints. It is shown that the calculated form factors reproduce the experimental data reasonably well; they agree with recent experimental data for the neutron magnetic form factors for the space-like data obtained by the CLAS collaboration and are compatible with the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors for the time-like momentum obtained by the BABAR collaboration.

  14. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery treatments and specific targeting therapy for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tai-Chi; Hung, Kuo-Hsuan; Peng, Chi-Hsien; Liu, Jorn-Hon; Woung, Lin-Chung; Tsai, Ching-Yao; Chen, Shih-Jen; Chen, Yan-Ting; Hsu, Chih-Chien

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticles combined with cells, drugs, and specially designed genes provide improved therapeutic efficacy in studies and clinical setting, demonstrating a new era of treatment strategy, especially in retinal diseases. Nanotechnology-based drugs can provide an essential platform for sustaining, releasing and a specific targeting design to treat retinal diseases. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid is the most widely used biocompatible and biodegradable polymer approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Many studies have attempted to develop special devices for delivering small-molecule drugs, proteins, and other macromolecules consistently and slowly. In this article, we first review current progress in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Then, we discuss the function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the pharmacological effects of anti-VEGF-A antibodies and soluble or modified VEGF receptors. Lastly, we summarize the combination of antiangiogenic therapy and nanomedicines, and review current potential targeting therapy in age-related macular degeneration.

  15. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery treatments and specific targeting therapy for age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Chi Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles combined with cells, drugs, and specially designed genes provide improved therapeutic efficacy in studies and clinical setting, demonstrating a new era of treatment strategy, especially in retinal diseases. Nanotechnology-based drugs can provide an essential platform for sustaining, releasing and a specific targeting design to treat retinal diseases. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid is the most widely used biocompatible and biodegradable polymer approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Many studies have attempted to develop special devices for delivering small-molecule drugs, proteins, and other macromolecules consistently and slowly. In this article, we first review current progress in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Then, we discuss the function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and the pharmacological effects of anti-VEGF-A antibodies and soluble or modified VEGF receptors. Lastly, we summarize the combination of antiangiogenic therapy and nanomedicines, and review current potential targeting therapy in age-related macular degeneration.

  16. Specificity characterization of the α-mating factor hormone by Kex2 protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Marcella Araújo; Antunes, Alyne Alexandrino; Jesus, Larissa de Oliveira Passos; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Juliano, Luiz; Judice, Wagner Alves de Souza

    2016-12-01

    Kex2 is a Ca(2+)-dependent serine protease from S. cerevisiae. Characterization of the substrate specificity of Kex2 is of particular interest because this protease serves as the prototype of a large family of eukaryotic subtilisin-related proprotein-processing proteases that cleave sites consisting of pairs or clusters of basic residues. Our goal was to study the prime region subsite S' of Kex2 because previous studies have only taken into account non-prime sites using AMC substrates but not the specificity of prime sites identified through structural modeling or predicted cleavage sites. Therefore, we used peptides derived from Abz-KR↓EADQ-EDDnp and Abz-YKR↓EADQ-EDDnp based on the pro-α-mating factor sequence. The specificity of Kex2 due to basic residues at P1' is affected by the type of residue in the P3 position. Some residues in P1' with large or bulky side chains yielded poor substrate specificity. The kcat/KM values for peptides with P2' substitutions containing Tyr in P3 were higher than those obtained for the peptides without Tyr. In fact, P' and P modifications mainly promoted changes in kcat and KM, respectively. The pH profile of Kex2 was fit to a double-sigmoidal pH-titration curve. The specificity results suggest that Kex2 might be involved in the processing of the putative cleavage sites in a polypeptide involved in cell elongation, hyphal formation and the processing of a toxin, which result in host cell lysis. In summary, the specificity of Kex2 is dependent on the set of interactions with prime and non-prime subsites, resulting in synergism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Risk Factors for Specific Language Impairment: A Prospective Pregnancy Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Shelton, W. M. R.; Ing, Caleb; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although genetic factors are known to play a causal role in specific language impairment (SLI), environmental factors may also be important. This study examined whether there are prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors that are associated with childhood SLI. Method: Participants were members of the Raine Study, a prospective cohort…

  18. Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Risk Factors for Specific Language Impairment: A Prospective Pregnancy Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Shelton, W. M. R.; Ing, Caleb; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although genetic factors are known to play a causal role in specific language impairment (SLI), environmental factors may also be important. This study examined whether there are prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors that are associated with childhood SLI. Method: Participants were members of the Raine Study, a prospective cohort…

  19. Porphyromonas gingivalis Uses Specific Domain Rearrangements and Allelic Exchange to Generate Diversity in Surface Virulence Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashper, Stuart G.; Mitchell, Helen L.; Seers, Christine A.; Gladman, Simon L.; Seemann, Torsten; Bulach, Dieter M.; Chandry, P. Scott; Cross, Keith J.; Cleal, Steven M.; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen of chronic periodontitis. The virulence of P. gingivalis is reported to be strain related and there are currently a number of strain typing schemes based on variation in capsular polysaccharide, the major and minor fimbriae and adhesin domains of Lys-gingipain (Kgp), amongst other surface proteins. P. gingivalis can exchange chromosomal DNA between strains by natural competence and conjugation. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic variability of P. gingivalis strains sourced from international locations over a 25-year period and to determine if variability in surface virulence factors has a phylogenetic basis. Whole genome sequencing was performed on 13 strains and comparison made to 10 previously sequenced strains. A single nucleotide polymorphism-based phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a shallow tri-lobed phylogeny. There was a high level of reticulation in the phylogenetic network, demonstrating extensive horizontal gene transfer between the strains. Two highly conserved variants of the catalytic domain of the major virulence factor the Kgp proteinase (KgpcatI and KgpcatII) were found. There were three variants of the fourth Kgp C-terminal cleaved adhesin domain. Specific variants of the cell surface proteins FimA, FimCDE, MfaI, RagAB, Tpr, and PrtT were also identified. The occurrence of all these variants in the P. gingivalis strains formed a mosaic that was not related to the SNP-based phylogeny. In conclusion P. gingivalis uses domain rearrangements and genetic exchange to generate diversity in specific surface virulence factors. PMID:28184216

  20. Study on the mortality in Ecuador related to dietary factors

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Alejandro Neira-Mosquera; Fernando Pérez-Rodríguez; Sungey Sánchez-Llaguno; Rafael Moreno Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible r...

  1. Analysis of related risk factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Song Yu; He-Chao Huang; Feng Ding; Xin-Bo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the related risk factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy to provide a theoretical evidence for effectively preventing the occurrence of pancreatic fistula.Methods:A total of 100 patients who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2012 to January, 2015 and had performed pancreaticoduodenectomy were included in the study. The related risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula were collected for single factor and Logistic multi-factor analysis.Results:Among the included patients, 16 had pancreatic fistula, and the total occurrence rate was 16% (16/100). The single-factor analysis showed that the upper abdominal operation history, preoperative bilirubin, pancreatic texture, pancreatic duct diameter, intraoperative amount of bleeding, postoperative hemoglobin, and application of somatostatin after operation were the risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula (P<0.05). The multi-factor analysis showed that the upper abdominal operation history, the soft pancreatic texture, small pancreatic duct diameter, and low postoperative hemoglobin were the dependent risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula (OR=4.162, 6.104, 5.613, 4.034,P<0.05).Conclusions:The occurrence of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy is closely associated with the upper abdominal operation history, the soft pancreatic texture, small pancreatic duct diameter, and low postoperative hemoglobin; therefore, effective measures should be taken to reduce the occurrence of pancreatic fistula according to the patients’own conditions.

  2. Risk Factors for SARS-Related Deaths in 2003, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN LIU; WAN-NIAN LIANG; QI CHEN; XUE-QIN XIE; JIANG WU; XIONG HE; ZE-JUN LIU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the potential risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndromes (SARS)-related deaths in Beijing. Methods Epidemiological data were collected among the confirmed SARS patients officially reported by Beijing Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (BCDC), and information was also supplemented by a follow-up case survey. Chi-square test and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Old age (over 60 years) was found to be significantly associated with SARS-related deaths in the univariate analysis. Also, history of contacting SARS patients within 2 weeks prior to the onset of illness, health occupation, and inferior hospital ranking as well as longer interval of clinic consulting (longer than 1 day) were the risk factors for SARS-related deaths. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis found four risk factors for SARS-related deaths. Conclusion Old age (over 60 years) is the major risk factor for SARS-related deaths.Moreover, hospital health workers, the designated hospitals for SARS clinical services and the interval of consulting doctors (less than 1 day) are protective factors for surviving from SARS.

  3. Specific features of domestic banks activity in the factoring services market

    OpenAIRE

    Trygub Olena V.

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses specific features of formation and development of the domestic factoring market. In the result of the study the article establishes that development of factoring in Ukraine took place due to active participation of banking institutions in this process and nowadays they are leaders in the domestic factoring services market due to possessing significant competitive advantages if compared with non-banking companies that specialise in factoring. The article detects that nowad...

  4. Physical fitness of 9 year olds in England: related factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, S; Rona, R J; Chinn, S

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the influence of social factors, passive smoking, and other parental health related factors, as well as anthropometric and other measurements on children's cardiorespiratory fitness. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional study. SETTING--The analysis was based on 22 health areas in England. PARTICIPANTS--The subjects were 299 boys and 282 girls aged 8 to 9 years. Parents did not give positive consent for 15% of the eligible sample. A further 25% of the eligible sample ...

  5. Integrated Analysis Identifies Molecular Signatures and Specific Prognostic Factors for Different Gastric Cancer Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Min

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. As an effective and easily performed method, microscopy-based Lauren classification has been widely accepted by gastrointestinal surgeons and pathologists for GC subtyping, but molecular characteristics of different Lauren subtypes were poorly revealed. METHODS: GSE62254 was used as a derivation cohort, and GSE15459 was used as a validation cohort. The difference between diffuse and intestinal GC on the gene expression level was measured. Gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis was performed for both subgroups. Hierarchical clustering and heatmap exhibition were also performed. Kaplan-Meier plot and Cox proportional hazards model were used to evaluate survival grouped by the given genes or hierarchical clusters. RESULTS: A total of 4598 genes were found differentially expressed between diffuse and intestinal GC. Immunity- and cell adhesion–related GOs were enriched for diffuse GC, whereas DNA repair– and cell cycle–related GOs were enriched for intestinal GC. We proposed a 40-gene signature (χ2 = 30.71, P < .001 that exhibits better discrimination for prognosis than Lauren classification (χ2 = 12.11, P = .002. FRZB [RR (95% CI = 1.824 (1.115-2.986, P = .017] and EFEMP1 [RR (95% CI = 1.537 (0.969-2.437, P = .067] were identified as independent prognostic factors only in diffuse GC but not in intestinal GC patients. KRT23 [RR (95% CI = 1.616 (0.938-2.785, P = .083] was identified as an independent prognostic factor only in intestinal GC patients but not in diffuse GC patients. Similar results were achieved in the validation cohort. CONCLUSION: We found that GCs with different Lauren classifications had different molecular characteristics and identified FRZB, EFEMP1, and KRT23 as subtype-specific prognostic factors for GC patients.

  6. Job-related motivational factors among Malaysian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshor, Amat Taap; Abdullah, Adilah

    2002-12-01

    This study identified job-related motivational factors among Malaysian employees in several telecommunication companies. Responses were obtained from 1,179 employees at all levels up to senior managers and six different functional divisions, sales and marketing, human resources, finance, technical, information, technology, and support division. All employees were asked to rate the importance of Kovach's 10 job-motivational factors. These factors were good wages, job security, opportunity for career growth in the organization, good working conditions, interesting work, company loyalty to employees, tactful discipline, full appreciation of work done, sympathetic help with personal problems, and feeling of being involved in the organization. The top five factors employees identified as motivating them in their jobs were good wages, job security, company loyalty to employees, good working conditions, and full appreciation for work done. Findings were in accordance with Kovach for U.S. employees, in which the top motivational factors were good wages and job security.

  7. Age-related changes of task-specific brain activity in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Chung; Chou, Chia-Yi; Huang, Chin-Fei; Lin, Yu-Te; Shih, Ching-Sen; Han, Shiang-Yi; Shen, Ming-Hsun; Chen, Tsung-Ching; Liang, Chi-lin; Lu, Ming-Chi; Liu, Chia-Ju

    2012-01-17

    An important question in healthcare for older patients is whether age-related changes in cortical reorganization can be measured with advancing age. This study investigated the factors behind such age-related changes, using time-frequency analysis of event-related potentials (ERPs). We hypothesized that brain rhythms was affected by age-related changes, which could be reflected in the ERP indices. An oddball task was conducted in two experimental groups, namely young participants (N=15; mean age 23.7±2.8 years) and older participants (N=15; mean age 70.1±7.9 years). Two types of stimuli were used: the target (1 kHz frequency) and standard (2 kHz frequency). We scrutinized three ERP indices: event-related spectral power (ERPSP), inter-trial phase-locking (ITPL), and event-related cross-phase coherence (ERPCOH). Both groups performed equally well for correct response rate. However, the results revealed a statistically significant age difference for inter-trial comparison. Compared with the young, the older participants showed the following age-related changes: (a) power activity decreased; however, an increase was found only in the late (P3, 280-450 ms) theta (4-7 Hz) component over the bilateral frontal and temporo-frontal areas; (b) low phase-locking in the early (N1, 80-140 ms) theta band over the parietal/frontal (right) regions appeared; (c) the functional connections decreased in the alpha (7-13 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) bands, but no difference emerged in the theta band between the two groups. These results indicate that age-related changes in task-specific brain activity for a normal aging population can be depicted using the three ERP indices.

  8. Platelet-activating factor in liver injury: A relational scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolaos P Karidis; Gregory Kouraklis; Stamatios E Theocharis

    2006-01-01

    The hepatocyte, the main cellular component of the liver, exhibits variable susceptibility to different types of injury induced by endogenous or exogenous factors.Hepatocellular dysfunction or death and regeneration are dependent upon the complicated interactions between numerous biologically active molecules. Plateletactivating factor (PAF) seems to play a pivotal role as the key mediator of liver injury in the clinical and experimental setting, as implied by the beneficial effects of its receptor antagonists. A comprehensive up-todate overview of the specific functional and regulatory properties of PAF in conditions associated with liver injury is attempted in this review.

  9. Unscrambling cyanobacteria community dynamics related to environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia eBertos-Fortis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a two-year monthly time-series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An epidemic population structure (dominance of a single cluster was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this cluster simultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs e.g. Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formed a consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocyanobacteria and

  10. The flagellar-specific transcription factor, sigma28, is the Type III secretion chaperone for the flagellar-specific anti-sigma28 factor FlgM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Phillip D; Karlinsey, Joyce E; Aldridge, Christine; Birchall, Christopher; Thompson, Danielle; Yagasaki, Jin; Hughes, Kelly T

    2006-08-15

    The sigma(28) protein is a member of the bacterial sigma(70)-family of transcription factors that directs RNA polymerase to flagellar late (class 3) promoters. The sigma(28) protein is regulated in response to flagellar assembly by the anti-sigma(28) factor FlgM. FlgM inhibits sigma(28)-dependent transcription of genes whose products are needed late in assembly until the flagellar basal motor structure, the hook-basal body (HBB), is constructed. A second function for the sigma(28) transcription factor has been discovered: sigma(28) facilitates the secretion of FlgM through the HBB, acting as the FlgM Type III secretion chaperone. Transcription-specific mutants in sigma(28) were isolated that remained competent for FlgM-facilitated secretion separating the transcription and secretion-facilitation activities of sigma (28). Conversely, we also describe the isolation of mutants in sigma(28) that are specific for FlgM-facilitated secretion. The data demonstrate that sigma(28) is the Type III secretion chaperone for its own anti-sigma factor FlgM. Thus, a novel role for a sigma(70)-family transcription factor is described.

  11. Office workers' risk factors for the development of non-specific neck pain: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksaichol, Arpalak; Janwantanakul, Prawit; Purepong, Nithima; Pensri, Praneet; van der Beek, Allard J

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective cohort studies to gain insights into risk factors for the development of non-specific neck pain in office workers as well as to assess the strength of evidence. Publications were systematically searched from 1980 - March 2011 in several databases. The following key words were used: neck pain paired with risk or prognostic factors and office or computer or visual display unit or visual display terminal. Relevant studies were retrieved and assessed for methodological quality by two independent reviewers. The strength of the evidence was based on methodological quality and consistency of the results. Five high-quality and two low-quality prospective cohort studies investigating the predictive value of 47 individual, work-related physical and work-related psychosocial factors for the onset of non-specific neck pain in office workers were included in this review. Strong evidence was found for female gender and previous history of neck complaints to be predictors of the onset of neck pain. Interestingly, for a large number of factors that have been mentioned in the literature as risk factors for neck pain, such as high physical leisure activity, low social support, and high psychosocial stress, we found no predictive value for future neck pain in office workers. Literature with respect to the development of non-specific neck pain in office workers is scant. Only female gender and previous history of neck complaints have been identified as risk factors that predict the onset of neck pain.

  12. THE MAIN COST-RELATED FACTORS IN AIRLINES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Suntsova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the main factors that affect the strategies to reduce airlines costs. These costs factors were presented to experts from the airline industry through two rounds of questionnaires in sense tobe weighed. It was applied a method based on the structure of the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and the results show that the main important factors for a cost-related airlines strategy are, in importance: routestructure and mesh; type and characteristics of the aircraft; cost of labor and management quality. This hierarchycan help the decision maker when facing the need of defining priorities in reduction costs. past decades despitethe increase in air transportation and significant decrease in average operation costs, it is observed that airlineshave low profitability. The liberalization of the markets and increase opportunities for competition diminishesprices, even when airlines face increasing costs. Considering that advantage in costs is an important strategy forcarriers to remain in the market, this paper analyzes the main factors that affect the strategies to reduce airlinescosts. These costs factors were presented to experts from the airline industry through two rounds ofquestionnaires in sense to be weighed. It was applied a method based on the structure of the AHP (AnalyticHierarchy Process and the results show that the main important factors for a cost-related airlines strategy are, inorder of importance: route structure and mesh; type and characteristics ofthe aircraft; cost of labor andmanagement quality. This hierarchy can help the decision maker when facing the need of defining priorities inreduction costs.

  13. Four factors Constituting Friendly Tang-Tubo Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuFengzhen; ChenQuan

    2003-01-01

    During the 200 or more years of Tang-Tubo bilateral relations, and despite the wars that often occurred owing to conflict between the ruling classes of each side, harmony and friendliness nevertheless prevailed. So what were the reasons behind this friendly Tang-Tubo relationship? This article attempts to generalize four factors and briefly discuss each one.

  14. Factors Related to Union Formation among Single Mothers in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourdais, Ciline; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Using data on 1,257 women from a 1984 survey, attempts to identify factors associated with union formation among single mothers in Canada. Found that the age of mothers at the beginning of their first episode of single parenthood appears closely related to their chances of forming a union. Other results are discussed. (RJM)

  15. Behavioural factors related to metabolic control in patients with phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, MR; van Spronsen, FJ; Oudshoorn, K; Bekhof, J; van Rijn, G; Verkerk, PH

    2005-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of parental factors possibly related to dietary control in early and continuously treated patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). Methods. A questionnaire was disseminated among parents of 238 patients with PKU born after the natio

  16. The Relative Importance of Job Factors: A New Measurement Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealey, Stanley M.

    This paper reports on a new two-phase measurement technique that permits a direct comparison of the perceived relative importance of economic vs. non-economic factors in a job situation in accounting for personnel retention, the willingness to produce, and job satisfaction. The paired comparison method was used to measure the preferences of 91…

  17. Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

  18. Complement factor d in age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanton, C.M.; Yates, J.R.W.; Hollander, A.I. den; Seddon, J.M.; Swaroop, A.; Stambolian, D.; Fauser, S.; Hoyng, C.B.; Yu, Y.; Atsuhiro, K.; Branham, K.; Othman, M.; Chen, W.; Kortvely, E.; Chalmers, K.; Hayward, C.; Moore, A.T.; Dhillon, B.; Ueffing, M.; Wright, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the role of complement factor D (CFD) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by analysis of genetic association, copy number variation, and plasma CFD concentrations. Methods. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CFD gene were genotyped and the results analyzed by

  19. Longitudinal Analysis of Personal and Work-Related Factors Associated With Turnover Among Nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estryn-Behar, Madeleine; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Fry, Clementine; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin

    2010-01-01

    AB Background: Although many scholars have acknowledged the relationship between personal and work-related factors associated with job search and actual turnover, there is a lack of longitudinal designs that test this relationship empirically. Objectives: This longitudinal study examines specific

  20. Alcohol-related genes show an enrichment of associations with a persistent externalizing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenhurst, James R; Harden, K Paige; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2016-10-01

    Research using twins has found that much of the variability in externalizing phenotypes-including alcohol and drug use, impulsive personality traits, risky sex, and property crime-is explained by genetic factors. Nevertheless, identification of specific genes and variants associated with these traits has proven to be difficult, likely because individual differences in externalizing are explained by many genes of small individual effect. Moreover, twin research indicates that heritable variance in externalizing behaviors is mostly shared across the externalizing spectrum rather than specific to any behavior. We use a longitudinal, "deep phenotyping" approach to model a general externalizing factor reflecting persistent engagement in a variety of socially problematic behaviors measured at 11 assessment occasions spanning early adulthood (ages 18 to 28). In an ancestrally homogenous sample of non-Hispanic Whites (N = 337), we then tested for enrichment of associations between the persistent externalizing factor and a set of 3,281 polymorphisms within 104 genes that were previously identified as associated with alcohol-use behaviors. Next, we tested for enrichment among domain-specific factors (e.g., property crime) composed of residual variance not accounted for by the common factor. Significance was determined relative to bootstrapped empirical thresholds derived from permutations of phenotypic data. Results indicated significant enrichment of genetic associations for persistent externalizing, but not for domain-specific factors. Consistent with twin research findings, these results suggest that genetic variants are broadly associated with externalizing behaviors rather than unique to specific behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. The Five-Factor Model And Career Self-Efficacy: General and Domain-Specific Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Robert O.; Betz, Nancy E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the hypothesis that the big five personality factors could exert two kinds of effects on career self-efficacy: (a) generalized or nonspecific effects and (b) domain-specific, content-correspondence effects. The hypothesis is examined using relationships of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory to 24 distinct domains of…

  2. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...

  3. Modus operandi of the bacterial RNA polymerase containing the sigma54 promoter-specificity factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh; Bose, Daniel; Burrows, Patricia C; Joly, Nicolas; Schumacher, Jörg; Rappas, Mathieu; Pape, Tillmann; Zhang, Xiaodong; Stockley, Peter; Severinov, Konstantin; Buck, Martin

    2008-05-01

    Bacterial sigma (sigma) factors confer gene specificity upon the RNA polymerase, the central enzyme that catalyses gene transcription. The binding of the alternative sigma factor sigma(54) confers upon the RNA polymerase special functional and regulatory properties, making it suited for control of several major adaptive responses. Here, we summarize our current understanding of the interactions the sigma(54) factor makes with the bacterial transcription machinery.

  4. A Method, Computer Program and System for Inferring Relations Between Cultural Specific Concepts in Two Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method, computer program and system for inferring relations between cultural specific concepts (CSC) in two cultures at least comprising the steps of - extracting and listing said cultural specific concepts (CSCs) and features of said CSCs from at least a first...

  5. Health related quality of life and influencing factors among welders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.

  6. Spontaneous ipsilateral subconjunctival hemorrhage and the related risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas Ziakas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the report is to assess the risk factors among patients with spontaneous ipsilateral subconjunctival hemorrhage (SCH who presented to the outpatients’ department in General Hospital of Veria, Veria, Greece. Thirty-five patients with SCH participated in the study. A thorough case history was taken and a full ophthalmic examination was performed to identify the risk factors related to the clinical finding. The common hematological parameters associated with the coagulation profile of each patient were evaluated. With the exception of SCH, the ophthalmic examination was normal in all patients. Identified risk factors include history of systemic hypertension (21 patients [60%], mean systolic value: 170 mmHg±15 mmHg, strenuous exercise [19 patients (54%] and minor ocular trauma [5 patients (14%]. Other risk factors [each in 2 patients (6%] included: diabetes mellitus, smoking, severe cough, straining at stool, and weight lifting. Seven patients (20% were under medication related to bleeding diathesis. The values of the blood coagulation parameters were within the normal limits in all patients. Twenty-nine patients (83% had elevated blood pressure during the ophthalmological examination. Our study provides documentation regarding the potential risk factors associated with SCH. It is interesting to observe the high incidence of hypertension among the patients with SCH. Therefore, it is highly recommended that the blood pressure be checked in all patients with SCH and that the patients be referred to a general practitioner for further management if indicated.

  7. Sex-Specific Muscular Maturation Responses Following Prenatal Exposure to Methylation-Related Micronutrients in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Michael; Trakooljul, Nares; Reyer, Henry; Zeyner, Annette; Muráni, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Supplementation of micronutrients involved in DNA methylation, particularly during pregnancy, is recommended because of its impacts on human health, but further evidence is needed regarding the effects of over-supplementation and differences between sexes. Here, a porcine model was used to assess effects of maternal supplementation with one-carbon-cycle compounds during prenatal and postnatal stages on offspring muscle development. Sows received either a standard diet (CON) or a standard diet supplemented with folate, B6, B12, methionine, choline, and zinc (MET) throughout gestation. Myogenesis-, growth-, and nutrient utilization-related transcript expression was assessed using quantitative PCR. Organismal phenotype and gene expression effects differed significantly between males and females. Male MET-offspring showed increased fetal weight during late pregnancy but decreased live weight postnatally, with compensatory transcriptional responses comprising myogenic key drivers (Pax7, MyoD1, myogenin). In contrast, female weights were unaffected by diet, and mRNA abundances corresponded to a phenotype of cellular reorganization via FABP3, FABP4, SPP1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor-signaling. These findings in an animal model suggest that supplementation during pregnancy with methylation-related micronutrients can promote sex-specific myogenic maturation processes related to organismal growth and muscle metabolism. The usage of maternal dietary supplements should be more carefully considered regarding its ability to promote fetal and postnatal health. PMID:28106759

  8. Finding Color in Conformity: A Commentary on Culturally Specific Risk Factors for Violence in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Stephane M

    2015-11-01

    This article outlines the current utility of Indigenous culturally specific risk factors for violence and the ramifications for cross-cultural risk prediction. The Indigenous culturally specific violence risk factor literature has provided a rich body of contextual information outlining Indigenous patterns of criminal behaviour. This information has the capacity to facilitate offender responsivity and treatment targets in addition to assisting clinicians identify the presence of risk markers among Indigenous clients. However, if intended for inclusion in risk prediction models, culturally specific risk items then require further quantitative analysis to establish robust associations and probability estimates for recidivistic outcome.

  9. Brain-Specific Homeobox Factor as a Target Selector for Glucocorticoid Receptor in Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Kim, Sun-Gyun; Kim, Juhee; Choi, Kwan Yong; Lee, Soo-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The molecular basis underlying the physiologically well-defined orexigenic function of glucocorticoid (Gc) is unclear. Brain-specific homeobox factor (Bsx) is a positive regulator of the orexigenic neuropeptide, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), in AgRP neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Here, we show that in response to fasting-elevated Gc levels, Gc receptor (GR) and Bsx synergize to direct activation of AgRP transcription. This synergy is dictated by unique sequence features in a novel Gc response element in AgRP (AgRP-GRE). In contrast to AgRP-GRE, Bsx suppresses transactivation directed by many conventional GREs, functioning as a gene context-dependent modulator of GR actions or a target selector for GR. Consistent with this finding, AgRP-GRE drives fasting-dependent activation of a target gene specifically in GR+ Bsx+ AgRP neurons. These results define AgRP as a common orexigenic target gene of GR and Bsx and provide an opportunity to identify their additional common targets, facilitating our understanding of the molecular basis underlying the orexigenic activity of Gc and Bsx. PMID:23671185

  10. Brain-specific homeobox factor as a target selector for glucocorticoid receptor in energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Kim, Sun-Gyun; Kim, Juhee; Choi, Kwan Yong; Lee, Seunghee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Jae W

    2013-07-01

    The molecular basis underlying the physiologically well-defined orexigenic function of glucocorticoid (Gc) is unclear. Brain-specific homeobox factor (Bsx) is a positive regulator of the orexigenic neuropeptide, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), in AgRP neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Here, we show that in response to fasting-elevated Gc levels, Gc receptor (GR) and Bsx synergize to direct activation of AgRP transcription. This synergy is dictated by unique sequence features in a novel Gc response element in AgRP (AgRP-GRE). In contrast to AgRP-GRE, Bsx suppresses transactivation directed by many conventional GREs, functioning as a gene context-dependent modulator of GR actions or a target selector for GR. Consistent with this finding, AgRP-GRE drives fasting-dependent activation of a target gene specifically in GR(+) Bsx(+) AgRP neurons. These results define AgRP as a common orexigenic target gene of GR and Bsx and provide an opportunity to identify their additional common targets, facilitating our understanding of the molecular basis underlying the orexigenic activity of Gc and Bsx.

  11. E2fl1 is a meiosis-specific transcription factor in the protist Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Miao; Yan, Guan-Xiong; Shodhan, Anura; Miao, Wei

    2017-01-02

    Members of the E2F family of transcription factors have been reported to regulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle control, DNA replication, and DNA repair in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, E2FL1, a meiosis-specific E2F transcription factor gene, was identified in the model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Loss of this gene resulted in meiotic arrest prior to anaphase I. The cytological experiments revealed that the meiotic homologous pairing was not affected in the absence of E2FL1, but the paired homologous chromosomes did not separate and assumed a peculiar tandem arrangement. This is the first time that an E2F family member has been shown to regulate meiotic events. Moreover, BrdU incorporation showed that DSB processing during meiosis was abnormal upon the deletion of E2FL1. Transcriptome sequencing analysis revealed that E2FL1 knockout decreased the expression of genes involved in DNA replication and DNA repair in T. thermophila, suggesting that the function of E2F is highly conserved in eukaryotes. In addition, E2FL1 deletion inhibited the expression of related homologous chromosome segregation genes in T. thermophila. The result may explain the meiotic arrest phenotype at anaphase I. Finally, by searching for E2F DNA-binding motifs in the entire T. thermophila genome, we identified 714 genes containing at least one E2F DNA-binding motif; of these, 235 downregulated represent putative E2FL1 target genes.

  12. Risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Nano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To assess the risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina using a case-control study. METHODS: Surveys were used for subjects' antioxidant intake, age/gender, race, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (and type of treatment, smoking, sunlight exposure, red meat consumption, fish consumption, presence of age-related macular degeneration and family history of age-related macular degeneration. Main effects models for logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: There were 175 cases and 175 controls with a mean age of 75.4 years and 75.5 years, respectively, of whom 236 (67.4% were female. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration, 159 (45.4% had age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 154 (44.0% in their right eyes, and 138 (39.4% in both eyes. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 47.8% had the dry type, 40.3% had the wet type, and the type was unknown for 11.9%. The comparable figures for right eyes were: 51.9%, 34.4%, and 13.7%, respectively. The main effects model was dominated by higher sunlight exposure (OR [odds ratio]: 3.3 and a family history of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 4.3. Other factors included hypertension (OR: 2.1, smoking (OR: 2.2, and being of the Mestizo race, which lowered the risk of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 0.40. Red meat/fish consumption, body mass index, and iris color did not have an effect. Higher age was associated with progression to more severe age-related macular degeneration. CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure, family history of age-related macular degeneration, and an older age were the significant risk factors. There may be other variables, as the risk was not explained very well by the existing factors. A larger sample may produce different and better results.

  13. Risk factors of gastric cancer specific for tumor location and histology in Cali, Colombia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francia Campos; Gabriel Carrasquilla; Chihaya Koriyama; Mauricio Serra; Edwin Carrascal; Tetsuhiko Itoh; Mitsuharu Nomoto; Suminori Akiba

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine histology- and tumor-location specific risk factors of gastric cancer (GC).METHODS: This was a case-control study. The study subjects were 216 GC patients newly diagnosed during the period 2000-2002 and 431 controls selected from non-cancer patients matching in age, gender, and hospital. We obtained information on lifestyles, dietary habits, and others by a questionnaire.RESULTS: The subjects who were not eldest among his/her siblings were at a slightly elevated GC risk (OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.8-2.0). Salting meals before tasting was related to an increased GC risk (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.6-7.3). Frequent consumptions of fruits (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-1.0) and vegetables (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-1.0) were related to decreased GC risks. On the other hand, frying foods (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.0-3.6) and cooking with coal (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.6) were related to increased GC risks.Neither Lauren's histological classification (intestinal and diffuse types) nor tumor location significantly affected those associations except birth order. The subjects who were not eldest among his/her siblings had an increased risk of GCs in the distal and middle thirds, and their ORs were 1.7 (95% CI 1.0-2.8) and 1.9 (95% CI 0.8-4.3),respectively. The corresponding OR in the upper third stomach was 0.3 (95% CI 0.1-0.9). The differences of those three ORs were statistically significant (P = 0.010).CONCLUSION: The present study shows that birth order, salt intake, consumption of fruits and vegetables,the type of cooking, and cigarette smoking are related to GC risk. In histology and tumor-location specific analyses, non-eldest person among their siblings is related to an increased GC risk in the distal and middle thirds of the stomach, and is related to a decreased GC risk in the cardia.

  14. The Relation of Socio-Ecological Factors to Adolescents' Health-Related Behaviour: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…

  15. Relative deprivation and risk factors for obesity in Canadian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J; Xie, Annie; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; White, James; Pickett, Kate E

    2016-03-01

    Research on socioeconomic differences in overweight and obesity and on the ecological association between income inequality and obesity prevalence suggests that relative deprivation may contribute to lifestyle risk factors for obesity independently of absolute affluence. We tested this hypothesis using data on 25,980 adolescents (11-15 years) in the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation was applied to the HBSC Family Affluence Scale, an index of common material assets, with more affluent schoolmates representing the comparative reference group. Regression analysis tested the associations between relative deprivation and four obesity risk factors (skipping breakfasts, physical activity, and healthful and unhealthful food choices) plus dietary restraint. Relative deprivation uniquely related to skipping breakfasts, less physical activity, fewer healthful food choices (e.g., fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads), and a lower likelihood of dieting to lose weight. Consistent with Runciman's (1966) theory of relative deprivation and with psychosocial interpretations of the health consequences of income inequality, the results indicate that having mostly better off schoolmates can contribute to poorer health behaviours independently of school-level affluence and subjective social status. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the social origins of obesity and targeting health interventions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk Factors Associated with Peritoneal-Dialysis-Related Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kerschbaum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Peritonitis represents a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD. The aim of this paper was to systematically collect data on patient-related risk factors for PD-associated peritonitis, to analyze the methodological quality of these studies, and to summarize published evidence on the particular risk factors. Methods. Studies were identified by searches of Pubmed (1990–2012 and assessed for methodological quality by using a modified form of the STROBE criteria. Results. Thirty-five methodologically acceptable studies were identified. The following nonmodifiable risk factors were considered valid and were associated with an increased risk of peritonitis: ethnicity, female gender, chronic lung disease, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, antihepatitis C virus antibody positivity, diabetes mellitus, lupus nephritis or glomerulonephritis as underlying renal disease, and no residual renal function. We also identified the following modifiable, valid risk factors for peritonitis: malnutrition, overweight, smoking, immunosuppression, no use of oral active vitamin D, psychosocial factors, low socioeconomic status, PD against patient’s choice, and haemodialysis as former modality. Discussion. Modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors analyzed in this paper might serve as a basis to improve patient care in peritoneal dialysis.

  17. Primary biliary cirrhosis-specific autoantibodies in first degree relatives of Greek primary biliary cirrhosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theodoros A Zografos; Nikolaos Gatselis; Kalliopi Zachou; Christos Liaskos; Stella Gabeta; George K Koukoulis; George N Dalekos

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine the prevalence and significance of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)-specific autoantibodies in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of Greek PBC patients.METHODS:The presence of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and PBC-specific antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were determined using indirect immunofluorescence assays,dot-blot assays,and molecularly based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 101 asymptomatic for liver-related symptoms FDRs of 44 PBC patients.In order to specify our results,the same investigation was performed in 40 healthy controls and in a disease control group consisting of 40 asy.mptomatic for liver-related symptoms FDRs of patients with other autoimmune liver diseases namely,autoimmune hepatitis-1 or primary sclerosing cholangitJs (AIH-1/PSC).RESULTS:AMA positivity was observed in 19 (only 4 with abnormal liver function tests) FDRs of PBC patients and none of the healthy controls.The prevalence of AMA was significantly higher in FDRs of PBC patients than in AIH-1/PSC FDRs and healthy controls [18.8%,95% confidence interval (CI):12%-28.1% vs 2.5%,95% CI:0.1%-14.7%,P =0.01; 18.8%,95% CI:12%-28.1% vs 0%,95% CI:0%-10.9%,P =0.003,respectively].PBC-specific ANA positivity was observed in only one FDR from a PSC patient.Multivariate analysis showed that having a proband with PBC independently associated with AMA positivity (odds ratio:11.24,95% CI:1.27-25.34,P =0.03) whereas among the investigated comorbidities and risk factors,a positive past history for urinary tract infections (UTI)was also independently associated with AMA detection in FDRs of PBC patients (odds ratio:3.92,95% CI:1.25-12.35,P =0.02).CONCLUSION:In FDRs of Greek PBC patients,AMA prevalence is significantly increased and independently associated with past UTI.PBC-specific ANA were not detected in anyone of PBC FDRs.

  18. Study on the mortality in Ecuador related to dietary factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alejandro Neira-Mosquera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible relationship with Ecuadorian consumption habits. For that, mortality rates (2001-2008 associated with five different disease groups related to dietary factors (cancer of colon, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and liver diseases were collected, analyzed and compared to consumption patterns in Ecuador. According to results, Ecuador has a low level of cancer of colon in comparison with developed countries (e.g. Spain. The group with the highest number of deaths corresponded to cardiovascular diseases followed by cerebrovas-cular diseases. The mortality study per province revealed that Amazonian provinces showed few deaths in relation to other provinces in Ecuador. This could be due to different factors including fails in the disease surveillance information systems, environmental factors and consumption patterns. In this sense, further investigation on native products consumption such as "chontaduro" might help to find valuable foods contributing to healthier Ecuadorian diet. These results, though preliminary, evidence that a major effort should be made by national and international organisations to collect data on consumption patterns and nutritional aspects of the Ecuadorian population in order to better support the development of effective food security and nutrition policies.

  19. Study on the mortality in Ecuador related to dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Sánchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Moreno Rojas, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible relationship with Ecuadorian consumption habits. For that, mortality rates (2001-2008) associated with five different disease groups related to dietary factors (cancer of colon, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and liver diseases) were collected, analyzed and compared to consumption patterns in Ecuador. According to results, Ecuador has a low level of cancer of colon in comparison with developed countries (e.g. Spain). The group with the highest number of deaths corresponded to cardiovascular diseases followed by cerebrovascular diseases. The mortality study per province revealed that Amazonian provinces showed few deaths in relation to other provinces in Ecuador. This could be due to different factors including fails in the disease surveillance information systems, environmental factors and consumption patterns. In this sense, further investigation on native products consumption such as "chontaduro" might help to find valuable foods contributing to healthier Ecuadorian diet. These results, though preliminary, evidence that a major effort should be made by national and international organisations to collect data on consumption patterns and nutritional aspects of the Ecuadorian population in order to better support the development of effective food security and nutrition policies.

  20. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.

  1. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  2. Auditory Processing in Specific Language Impairment (SLI): Relations With the Perception of Lexical and Phrasal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Susan; Goswami, Usha

    2015-08-01

    We investigated whether impaired acoustic processing is a factor in developmental language disorders. The amplitude envelope of the speech signal is known to be important in language processing. We examined whether impaired perception of amplitude envelope rise time is related to impaired perception of lexical and phrasal stress in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twenty-two children aged between 8 and 12 years participated in this study. Twelve had SLI; 10 were typically developing controls. All children completed psychoacoustic tasks measuring rise time, intensity, frequency, and duration discrimination. They also completed 2 linguistic stress tasks measuring lexical and phrasal stress perception. The SLI group scored significantly below the typically developing controls on both stress perception tasks. Performance on stress tasks correlated with individual differences in auditory sensitivity. Rise time and frequency thresholds accounted for the most unique variance. Digit Span also contributed to task success for the SLI group. The SLI group had difficulties with both acoustic and stress perception tasks. Our data suggest that poor sensitivity to amplitude rise time and sound frequency significantly contributes to the stress perception skills of children with SLI. Other cognitive factors such as phonological memory are also implicated.

  3. Degenerate specificity of PDZ domains from RhoA-specific nucleotide exchange factors PDZRhoGEF and LARG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smietana, Katarzyna; Kasztura, Monika; Paduch, Marcin; Derewenda, Urszula; Derewenda, Zygmunt S; Otlewski, Jacek

    2008-01-01

    PDZ domains are ubiquitous protein-protein interaction modules which bind short, usually carboxyterminal fragments of receptors, other integral or membrane-associated proteins, and occasionally cytosolic proteins. Their role in organizing multiprotein complexes at the cellular membrane is crucial for many signaling pathways, but the rules defining their binding specificity are still poorly understood and do not readily explain the observed diversity of their known binding partners. Two homologous RhoA-specific, multidomain nucleotide exchange factors PDZRhoGEF and LARG contain PDZ domains which show a particularly broad recognition profile, as suggested by the identification of five diverse biological targets. To investigate the molecular roots of this phenomenon, we constructed a phage display library of random carboxyterminal hexapeptides. Peptide variants corresponding to the sequences identified in library selection were synthesized and their affinities for both PDZ domains were measured and compared with those of peptides derived from sequences of natural partners. Based on the analysis of the binding sequences identified for PDZRhoGEF, we propose a sequence for an 'optimal' binding partner. Our results support the hypothesis that PDZ-peptide interactions may be best understood when one considers the sum of entropic and dynamic effects for each peptide as a whole entity, rather than preferences for specific residues at a given position.

  4. Acoustic and non-acoustic factors in modeling listener-specific performance of sagittal-plane sound localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr eMajdak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of sound-source localization in sagittal planes (along the top-down and front-back dimension varies considerably across listeners. The directional acoustic spectral features, described by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs, also vary considerably across listeners, a consequence of the listener-specific shape of the ears. It is not clear whether the differences in localization ability result from differences in the encoding of directional information provided by the HRTFs, i.e., acoustic factors, or from differences in auditory processing of those cues (e.g., spectral-shape sensitivity, i.e., non-acoustic factors.We addressed this issue by analyzing the listener-specific localization ability in terms of localization performance. Directional responses to spatially distributed broadband stimuli from 18 listeners were used. A model of sagittal-plane localization was fit individually for each listener by considering the actual localization performance, the listener-specific HRTFs representing the acoustic factor, and an uncertainty parameter representing the non-acoustic factors. The model was configured to simulate the condition of complete calibration of the listener to the tested HRTFs. Listener-specifically calibrated model predictions yielded correlations of, on average, 0.93 with the actual localization performance. Then, the model parameters representing the acoustic and non-acoustic factors were systematically permuted across the listener group.While the permutation of HRTFs affected the localization performance, the permutation of listener-specific uncertainty had a substantially larger impact. Our findings suggest that across-listener variability in sagittal-plane localization ability is only marginally determined by the acoustic factor, i.e., the quality of directional cues found in typical human HRTFs. Rather, the non-acoustic factor, supposed to represent the listeners' efficiency in processing directional cues, appears

  5. Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.

  6. On factors related to car accidents on German Autobahn connectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnowski, Martin; Manner, Hans

    2011-09-01

    We make an attempt to identify factors that explain accidents on German Autobahn connectors. To find these factors we perform an empirical study making use of count data models with fixed and random coefficients. The findings are based on a set of 197 ramps, which we classify into three distinct types of ramps. For these ramps, accident data is available for a period of 3 years (January 2003 until December 2005). The negative binomial model with some random coefficients proved to be an appropriate model in our cross-sectional setting for detecting factors that are related to accidents. The most significant variable is a measure of the average daily traffic. For geometric variables, not only continuous effects were found to be significant, but also threshold effects indicating the exceedance of certain values. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunoaffinity purification of factor IX (Christmas factor) by using conformation-specific antibodies directed against the factor IX-metal complex.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Factor IX is a vitamin K-dependent blood clotting zymogen that is functionally defective or absent in patients with hemophilia B. A method of immunoaffinity chromatography has been developed for a one-step high yield purification of factor IX directly from plasma. The technique utilizes conformation-specific antibodies that bind solely to the metal-stabilized factor IX conformer, but not to the conformer of factor IX found in the absence of metal ions. Anti-factor IX-Ca(II) antibodies were im...

  8. Cosmological General Relativity With Scale Factor and Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Firmin J

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the four-dimensional space-velocity Cosmological General Relativity of Carmeli is developed by a general solution to the Einstein field equations. The metric is given in the Tolman form and the vacuum mass density is included in the energy-momentum tensor. The scale factor redshift equation is obtained, forming the basis for deriving the various redshift-distance relations of cosmological analysis. A linear equation of state dependent on the scale factor is assumed to account for the effects of an evolving dark energy in the expansion of the universe. Modeling simulations are provided for a few combinations of mass density, vacuum density and state parameter values over a sample of high redshift SNe Ia data. Also, the Carmeli cosmological model is derived as a special case of the general solution.

  9. Lifestyle-related factors and access to medically assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, W; de Wert, G; Pennings, G; Shenfield, F; Devroey, P; Tarlatzis, B; Barri, P

    2010-03-01

    Lifestyle is increasingly recognized as an outcome-determining factor in assisted reproduction, not only with regard to the cost-effectiveness but also in view of the balance of benefits and risks, including risks related to the welfare of the future child. This document briefly summarizes the evidence concerning the impact of three lifestyle-related factors (obesity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption) on both natural and assisted reproduction (IVF) and discusses the implications of this for the practice of medically assisted reproduction in the light of relevant ethical principles. The central question is whether and to what extent fertility treatment of obese, smoking or drinking patients should be made conditional on prior lifestyle changes.

  10. Factors related to adherence to treatment for systemic hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Coelho Leite Fava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to seek the evidence available in the literature regarding the factors related to adherence to treatment for systemic hypertension. It used the method of integrative review in the databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, and LILACS, using the keywords: hypertension, compliance, non-compliance, adherence, non-adherence, patient compliance, in the period 2004 – 2008, and articles in Portuguese, English and Spanish, with the use of a validated instrument and content analysis. 28 studies were selected, 64.3% of which had level of evidence VI. The following were identified as factors related to adherence to treatment: treatment costs, educational activities, sex, physician-patient relationship, physiological and behavioral aspects, drug therapy, attending checkups and lifestyle. The use of combined strategies is suggested in order to increase the individuals’ adherence to the treatment. Gaps point to the valorization of dialogic relationships for integrated and more efficacious health practices.

  11. Factor H-related proteins determine complement-activating surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsi, Mihály; Tortajada, Agustin; Uzonyi, Barbara; Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago

    2015-06-01

    Complement factor H-related proteins (FHRs) are strongly associated with different diseases involving complement dysregulation, which suggests a major role for these proteins regulating complement activation. Because FHRs are evolutionarily and structurally related to complement inhibitor factor H (FH), the initial assumption was that the FHRs are also negative complement regulators. Whereas weak complement inhibiting activities were originally reported for these molecules, recent developments indicate that FHRs may enhance complement activation, with important implications for the role of these proteins in health and disease. We review these findings here, and propose that FHRs represent a complex set of surface recognition molecules that, by competing with FH, provide improved discrimination of self and non-self surfaces and play a central role in determining appropriate activation of the complement pathway.

  12. Impact Of Firm Specific Factors On Capital Structure Decision: An Empirical Study Of Albanian Firms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila Çekrezi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to explore the impact of firm specific factors on capital structuredecision for a sample of 65 non- listed firms, which operate in Albania, over the period2008-2011.In this paper are used three capital structure measures ; short –term debt tototal assets (STDA, long- term debt to total assets (LTDA and total debt to total assets(TDTA as dependent variables and four dependent variables: tangibility(TANG,liquidity (LIQ, profitability(ROA=return on assets and size (SIZE. The investigationuses panel data procedure and the data are taken from balance sheets and include onlyaccounting measures on the firm’s leverage. This study found that tangibility (the ratio offixed assets to total assets, liquidity (the ratio of current assets to current liabilitiesprofitability (the ratio of earnings after taxes to total assets and size (natural logarithm oftotal assets have a significant impact on leverage. Also empirical evidence reveals asignificant negative relation of ROA to leverage and a significant positive relation ofSIZE to leverage. And the second objective of this study is to identify the impact ofindustry classification on firm’s leverage, using a dummy variable for the trade sector. Soone of the hypothesis tested is if financial leverage is independent of industryclassification. Results reveal that long term debt to total assets and total debt to totalassets ratios are significantly different across Albanian industries.

  13. Conceptual issues specifically related to health-related quality of life in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, Jose G. M.; van Stel, Henk F.; Schrijvers, Augustinus J. P.; Rommes, Johannes H.; Bakker, Jan; Spronk, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    During recent years increasing attention has been given to the quality of survival in critical care. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important issue both for patients and their families. Furthermore, admission to the intensive care unit can have adverse psychological effects in critical

  14. Parental Factors Associated with Rumination Related Metacognitive Beliefs in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Ka-wai; Barbara C Y Lo

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of research studies have suggested that metacognition is associated with individuals’ mental health. Specifically, metacognitive beliefs about rumination was proposed to link to the onset and maintenance of depression according to the metacognitive model of depression. The current study aimed to serve as a pilot study exploring how parents’ metacognitive beliefs and parenting characteristics are associated with rumination related metacognitive beliefs in adolescents. Eigh...

  15. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...... disease seems to be influenced by age, gender, drinking pattern and type of alcohol....

  16. Psychosocial Factors Related to Underuse of Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G; Brook, David W

    2016-08-01

    In this longitudinal study, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the historical, predisposing, enabling/barrier, and need factors as related to the underuse of medical services during early midlife. We gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort of community-dwelling men and women (N = 548) followed from adolescence to early midlife. The findings supported a mediational model: A mutually affectionate parent-child relationship in early adolescence was inversely related to underuse of medical services in early midlife via the mediational roles played by later predisposing factors (i.e., depressive mood and cigarette smoking), need factor (i.e., physical health problems), barriers (i.e., financial difficulty), and enabling factors (i.e., social support for health services in early midlife). In addition, satisfaction with medical services in the neighborhood had an association with less underuse of medical services in early midlife. Family therapy focused on an increase in the affectionate relationship between the adolescents and his/her parents and cognitive-behavioral treatment of depressive mood may lead to a decrease in the underuse of medical services.

  17. Nosocomial infections and related factors in southern khorasan hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Nosocomial infections are defined as infections occurring during a patient's stay at hospital (48-72h after admission).Nosocomial infections are one of the important problems of health. This study aimed was determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections, and related factors in hospitals with more than 100 beds in south Khorasan Province. Materials and Methods: In this crass-sectional study, an investigator-administered questionnaire was completed for each patien...

  18. Smoking and Its Related Factors Among Iranian High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Sajedinejad, Sima; Nazemi, Saeed; Fereidoon Mohasseli, Khadije; Valizade, Behzad; Vahedi, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Amiri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: In different studies, the prevalence of tobacco consumption has been growing in high schools boys. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its related factors among Iranian high school students in 2011. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 450 male students from 15 high schools of Shahroud (northeast of Iran) were selected for evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding tobacco consumption...

  19. EXPLORING FACTORS OF E-LEARNING RELATED TO STUDENT ENGAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on exploring the factors which relate learner engagement with E-Learning.It tries to explorethe strength of the link between learner engagement and E-Learning.E-Learning in today’s world has become a common mode of study and knowledge dissemination. E-Learning is an educational, training and learning method which is spreading widely and becoming a popular method of delivery among both educational and corporate environments. Is it beneficial for educational institut...

  20. Angiopoietin-related growth factor level in preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim. Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) is associated with angiogenesis but it can also affect glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine AGF levels in preeclampsia. Method. The study included 32 women with preeclampsia (preeclampsia group) and 32 non-preeclamptic, healthy, third trimester pregnant women (Control group). We analyzed serum levels of AGF and other biochemical and anthropometric markers in all subjects. Results. Serum AGF levels were sig...

  1. Gyromagnetic factor of rotating disks of electrically charged dust in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu Pynn, Yu-Chun; Macedo, Rodrigo Panosso; Breithaupt, Martin; Palenta, Stefan; Meinel, Reinhard

    2016-11-01

    We calculated the dimensionless gyromagnetic ratio ("g -factor") of self-gravitating, uniformly rotating disks of dust with a constant specific charge ɛ . These disk solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell equations depend on ɛ and a "relativity parameter" γ (0 <γ ≤1 ) up to a scaling parameter. Accordingly, the g -factor is a function g =g (γ ,ɛ ). The Newtonian limit is characterized by γ ≪1 , whereas γ →1 leads to a black-hole limit. The g -factor, for all ɛ , approaches the values g =1 as γ →0 and g =2 as γ →1 .

  2. Gyromagnetic factor of rotating disks of electrically charged dust in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Pynn, Yu-Chun; Breithaupt, Martin; Palenta, Stefan; Meinel, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    We calculated the dimensionless gyromagnetic ratio ("$g$-factor") of self-gravitating, uniformly rotating disks of dust with a constant specific charge $\\epsilon$. These disk solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell equations depend on $\\epsilon$ and a "relativity parameter" $\\gamma$ ($0<\\gamma\\le 1$) up to a scaling parameter. Accordingly, the $g$-factor is a function $g=g(\\gamma,\\epsilon)$. The Newtonian limit is characterized by $\\gamma \\ll 1$, whereas $\\gamma\\to 1$ leads to a black-hole limit. The $g$-factor, for all $\\epsilon$, approaches the values $g=1$ as $\\gamma\\to 0$ and $g=2$ as $\\gamma\\to 1$.

  3. Factors associated with functional capacity test results in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Abbema, Renske; Lakke, Sandra E; Reneman, Michiel F; van der Schans, Cees P; van Haastert, Corrien J M; Geertzen, Jan H B; Wittink, Harriët

    2011-12-01

    Functional capacity tests are standardized instruments to evaluate patients' capacities to execute work-related activities. Functional capacity test results are associated with biopsychosocial factors, making it unclear what is being measured in capacity testing. An overview of these factors was missing. The objective of this review was to investigate the level of evidence for factors that are associated with functional capacity test results in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain. A systematic literature review was performed identifying relevant studies from an electronic journal databases search. Candidate studies employed a cross-sectional or RCT design and were published between 1980 and October 2010. The quality of these studies was determined and level of evidence was reported for factors that were associated with capacity results in at least 3 studies. Twenty-two studies were included. The level of evidence was reported for lifting low, lifting high, carrying, and static lifting capacity. Lifting low test results were associated with self-reported disability and specific self-efficacy but not with pain duration. There was conflicting evidence for associations of lifting low with pain intensity, fear of movement/(re)injury, depression, gender and age. Lifting high was associated with gender and specific self-efficacy, but not with pain intensity or age. There is conflicting evidence for the association of lifting high with the factors self-reported disability, pain duration and depression. Carrying was associated with self-reported disability and not with pain intensity and there is conflicting evidence for associations with specific self-efficacy, gender and age. Static lifting was associated with fear of movement/(re)injury. Much heterogeneity was observed in investigated capacity tests and candidate associated factors. There was some evidence for biological and psychological factors that are or are not associated with capacity results but there

  4. The two-factor structure of sleep complaints and its relation to depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffel, Erin; Watson, David

    2009-02-01

    Although sleep complaints are common in depression and anxiety, there is little agreement as to how they should be organized and assessed. It is also unclear whether sleep complaints show specificity with certain disorders or whether they are nonspecific symptoms. The authors examined the structure of sleep complaints and the relations of these complaints to depression and anxiety in 3 samples: college students, older adults, and psychiatric patients. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that sleep complaints consistently defined 2 distinct dimensions: Insomnia and Lassitude. The Insomnia factor included indicators of early, middle, and late insomnia, as well as poor sleep quality. The Lassitude factor included measures of hypersomnia, fatigue, and sleepiness. Both factors were significantly related to symptoms and diagnoses of depression and anxiety. However, Lassitude was more strongly related to symptoms of depression and anxiety than was Insomnia. In addition, Lassitude showed specificity to measures and diagnoses of depression compared with anxiety disorders. This specificity can be explained by Lassitude's relation with negative and positive emotionality, both of which are components of depression.

  5. Tissue-specific pioneer factors associate with androgen receptor cistromes and transcription programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlajamaa, Päivi; Sahu, Biswajyoti; Lyly, Lauri; Aittomäki, Viljami; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Jänne, Olli A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) binds male sex steroids and mediates physiological androgen actions in target tissues. ChIP-seq analyses of AR-binding events in murine prostate, kidney and epididymis show that in vivo AR cistromes and their respective androgen-dependent transcription programs are highly tissue specific mediating distinct biological pathways. This high order of tissue specificity is achieved by the use of exclusive collaborating factors in the three androgen-responsive tissues. We find two novel collaborating factors for AR signaling in vivo—Hnf4α (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α) in mouse kidney and AP-2α (activating enhancer binding protein 2α) in mouse epididymis—that define tissue-specific AR recruitment. In mouse prostate, FoxA1 serves for the same purpose. FoxA1, Hnf4α and AP-2α motifs are over-represented within unique AR-binding loci, and the cistromes of these factors show substantial overlap with AR-binding events distinct to each tissue type. These licensing or pioneering factors are constitutively bound to chromatin and guide AR to specific genomic loci upon hormone exposure. Collectively, liganded receptor and its DNA-response elements are required but not sufficient for establishment of tissue-specific transcription programs. PMID:24451200

  6. Heart involvement in cystic fibrosis: A specific cystic fibrosis-related myocardial changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labombarda, Fabien; Saloux, Eric; Brouard, Jacques; Bergot, Emmanuel; Milliez, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a complex multi-systemic chronic disease characterized by progressive organ dysfunction with development of fibrosis, possibly affecting the heart. Over the last four decades pathological, experimental, and clinical evidence points towards the existence of a specific myocardial involvement in cystic fibrosis. Multi-modality cardiac imaging, especially recent echocardiographic techniques, evidenced diastolic and/or systolic ventricular dysfunction in cystic fibrosis leading to the concept of a cystic fibrosis-related cardiomyopathy. Hypoxemia and inflammation are among the most important factors for heart involvement in cystic fibrosis. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator was found to be involved in the regulation of cardiomyocyte contraction and may also account for cystic fibrosis-related myocardial dysfunction. This review, mainly focused on echocardiographic studies, seeks to synthesize the existing literature for and against the existence of heart involvement in cystic fibrosis, its mechanisms and prognostic implications. Careful investigation of the heart function may be helpful for risk stratification and therapeutic decisions in patients with cystic fibrosis.

  7. Racial disparities in adult all-cause and cause-specific mortality among us adults: mediating and moderating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, M A; Beydoun, H A; Mode, N; Dore, G A; Canas, J A; Eid, S M; Zonderman, A B

    2016-10-22

    Studies uncovering factors beyond socio-economic status (SES) that would explain racial and ethnic disparities in mortality are scarce. Using prospective cohort data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), we examined all-cause and cause-specific mortality disparities by race, mediation through key factors and moderation by age (20-49 vs. 50+), sex and poverty status. Cox proportional hazards, discrete-time hazards and competing risk regression models were conducted (N = 16,573 participants, n = 4207 deaths, Median time = 170 months (1-217 months)). Age, sex and poverty income ratio-adjusted hazard rates were higher among Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) vs. Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). Within the above-poverty young men stratum where this association was the strongest, the socio-demographic-adjusted HR = 2.59, p education, diet quality, allostatic load and self-rated health, were among key mediators explaining NHB vs. NHW disparity in mortality. The Hispanic paradox was observed consistently among women above poverty (young and old). NHBs had higher CVD-related mortality risk compared to NHW which was explained by factors beyond SES. Those factors did not explain excess risk among NHB for neoplasm-related death (fully adjusted HR = 1.41, 95 % CI: 1.02-2.75, p = 0.044). Moreover, those factors explained the lower risk of neoplasm-related death among MA compared to NHW, while CVD-related mortality risk became lower among MA compared to NHW upon multivariate adjustment. In sum, racial/ethnic disparities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality (particularly cardiovascular and neoplasms) were partly explained by socio-demographic, SES, health-related and dietary factors, and differentially by age, sex and poverty strata.

  8. Unexpected Learning by Neophyte Principals: Factors Related to Success of First Year Principals in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Walker

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the findings related to the International Beginning Principals study, which examined factors perceived by first year principals to both complicate, and account for, first year principalship successes in rural jurisdictions. Specifically, for this paper we deal with factors seen as significant in establishing oneself as a first time principal in a rural Canadian school. The general findings from this study centred on training and experience related to administration of schools. Many first time principals in rural schools had limited specific preparation for the principalship, or other related administrative roles such as the vice principalship. Such findings have taken on more importance in the last several years as school districts find it increasingly difficult to recruit principals for smaller rural schools.

  9. Relation of anthropometric variables to coronary artery disease risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra C Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Anthropometric variables and their relation to conventional coronary artery disease (CAD risk factors in railway employees have been inadequately studied in India. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Solapur division of the Central railway in the year 2004, to assess the anthropometric variables in railway employees and their relation to conventional CAD risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 995 railway employees, with 872 males and 123 females participated in this cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar level. Various anthropometric indices were calculated for body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, and abdominal volume index (AVI. Statistical analysis was done by EPI Info 6 statistical software. Results: Compared to all other obesity indices, WHtR was most prevalent in both genders. High WHtR was present in 699 (80.16% males and 103 (83.73% females. Age ≥45 years, high systolic BP, high diastolic BP, low HDL, high triglyceride, and diabetes mellitus were positively correlated with high BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI. High BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI were negatively associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions: Over all, anthropometric variables in both genders were significantly deranged in subjects with coronary risk factors. Compared to all other anthropometric variables, WHtR was statistically significantly associated with a majority of coronary artery risk factors. Hence we recommend inclusion of WHtR as a parameter of obesity to predict coronary artery disease risk factor along with WC, WHR, and BMI in epidemiologic studies.

  10. The contributions of sleep-related risk factors to diurnal car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Violani, Cristiano; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca

    2013-03-01

    This study was intended to estimate the presence and number of individual sleep-related risk factors in a sample of diurnal car accidents and to analyze the extent to which these risk factors tended to be more represented in diurnal accidents involving only one vehicle, involving young drivers or occurring on non-urban roads. Two hundred fifty-three drivers involved in diurnal accidents were interviewed immediately after the accidents to assess their sleepiness-related personal conditions and the circumstances prior to the accident (i.e., individual sleep-related risk factors), such as poor sleep, changes in habitual sleeping patterns, prolonged wakefulness, self-reported acute sleepiness and daytime sleepiness, night-shift jobs and insomnia. A total of 12.3% of the drivers were classified as having at least one of the seven risk factors assessed in the study, supporting the general notion that drivers' sleepiness conditions are crucial, even in diurnal driving circumstances in which they are less likely to depend on chrono-biological processes. Furthermore, consistent with the guiding hypotheses, specific sleep-related risk factors were more evident in single (vs. multiple) car accidents, among young drivers and in car accidents occurring on non-urban roads. In summary, sleep-related risk factors seemed to have a negative impact on drivers' safety in circumstances of diurnal driving, especially when the accidents involved young individuals and occurred on non-urban roads. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors related to physical activity: a study of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, R; Thorlindsson, T

    1998-09-01

    Although the consequences of physical activity have been carefully documented, less is known about its correlates, particularly among children and youth. Based on a representative national survey of 1131 Icelandic adolescents, the study examined various physical, psychological, social and demographic factors related to physical activity. Male sex, significant others' involvement in physical activity (father, friend and older brother), sociability, perceived importance of sport and of health improvement and satisfaction with mandatory gym classes in school, were all related to more involvement, whereas hours of paid work and TV-viewing were related to less. Furthermore, the data suggested that the influence of friend's participation in physical activity depends on his or her emotional significance. Influential others appeared to affect males and females in the same way. The meaning of the results and their implications for future research are discussed.

  12. [Effect of disturbing factors on the specificity of exfoliative urinary cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Y; vom Dorp, F; Schenck, M; Rossi, R; Witschier, J; Rübben, H

    2007-09-01

    In the clarification of hematuria and subsequent treatment, a high specificity is expected from urinary cytology when no tumor is present, because false positive results lead to unnecessary diagnostic measures. The aim of this study was to investigate different disturbing factors to determine the specificity of urinary cytology and whether the specificity can be increased by cytometry. Out of 150 patients with no malignant disease, 125 were affected by the following disturbing factors: urinary infection, urolithiasis, transurethral electroresection, utilisation of hypo-osmolar flushing solution or administration of contrast agents. In 5 patients who were diagnosed with urinary infection or urolithiasis, the urine was falsely cytologically determined to be tumor positive, an error which was corrected by cytometric analysis. Therefore, cytometric analysis should be carried out in patients in whom a tumor has been cytologically diagnosed in order to increase the specificity of urinary cytology.

  13. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sicknes......: Certain physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors were important determinants of incidence of sickness, independently of each other. Some of the associations were sex specific.......OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness...... (sick leave events and person-days at risk). Information on explanatory factors was obtained by a postal questionnaire, and incidence of sickness was based on administrative files of the company. RESULTS: Complaints about heavy lifting and monotonous movements were associated with increased risk of high...

  14. Receptors for T cell-replacing factor/interleukin 5. Specificity, quantitation, and its implication

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    T cell-replacing factor (TRF)/IL-5 is a glycosylated polypeptide that acts as a key factor for B cell growth and differentiation. Since IL-5 action is probably mediated by specific cell surface receptor(s), we have characterized the binding of IL-5 to cells using biosynthetically [35S]methionine-labeled IL-5 and 125I-IL-5 that had been prepared using Bolton-Hunter reagent. The radiolabeled IL-5 binds specifically to BCL1- B20 (in vitro line) (a murine chronic B cell leukemic cell line previou...

  15. Loneliness and Its Related Factors among Elderly People in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Vakili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Old people appear to be most prone to loneliness and depression perhaps because of decrease in their ability in daily livings, increase in morbidity, loss of close ties caused by loss of friends and spouses. This study was conducted for investigation of the loneliness and its related factors in elderly people in Yazd. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 200 old people (over 60 years old from three zone; health centers, nursing home and retirement center by convenient sampling method. Data was collected by UCLA Loneliness Scale that was consisting of 20 items for loneliness measurement. Scores 41 and more defined as loneliness. Collected data was analyzed by proper statistical tests with SPSS software. Results: Results showed that 71 % of subjects had Not Feel Lonely, 24 % moderate and 5 % severe felling of loneliness. Factors such as level of education, marital status, numbers of daughter and sons, previous job, residence site, current job status, living in nursing home, insufficient income, place of praying, sleep quantity and quality of sleep and feeling of healthy were associated with  loneliness status (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Our findings showed loneliness is common in elderly that support needs for more investigations and attention to loneliness related factors, educational courses conduction for family to take care of their elders, preparing of recreational measures and social support groups to decrease the loneliness in old people and so they spend this period by good and healthy sensation. 

  16. Subjective sleep quality in perimenopausal women and its related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Zhang; Fen Lia; Yongjie Lin; Qiu Sheng; Xuewen Yu; Xinwen Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sleep quality and its related factors among perimenopausal women. Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was administered to 506 perimenopausal women. The questionnaire included the influencing factors on the sleep quality, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales (SDS), the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety (SAS) and the Modified Kupperman Index (KI). Data were analyzed by SPSS11.5. Results: The mean PSQI was 5.97±4.30.Twenty-four percent of perimenopausal women reported poor sleep. Age and perimenopausal symptoms were significantly correlated with sleep quality. The sleep quality of the 45~49 age group was the poorest and the 40~44 age group was the best. The women who had higher Kupperman index were more likely to be poor sleepers. There was no significant correlation between occupation and sleep quality. Night sweat, depression, anxiety, hot flash, stressful life event, and regular exercise were significantly and independently related with sleep quality. Among them, regular exercise was a protective factor of sleep quality. Conclusion:High incidence of poor sleep quality exists among perimenopausal women. Some effective interventions should be taken to improve the sleep quality of perimenopausal women.

  17. Factors related to the performance of Specialized Dental Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Christiane de Azevedo Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Specialized Dental Care Centers (SDCC have the mission to expand access to public medium complexity dental care and support the primary health care actions at this level of complexity. However, it is necessary to ensure the quality of services and to evaluate such services continuously to identify weaknesses and strengths that support the processes of leadership/management. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of studies on the assessment of oral health in specialized care that may indicate which factors should be investigated. Therefore, this integrated literature review sought to explore the plethora of publications on the evaluation of SDCC in the LILACS and MEDLINE data bases in October 2013 to identify factors possibly related to the performance of such health services. Thus, 13 references were included in this review pointing to forms of organization and management of work processes related to the creation of healthcare networks (operation of regulation centers and setting up of health consortiums. They include the contextual characteristics of the places where SDCCs are located (population size, Family Health Strategy coverage, Municipal Human Development Index, governance, governing capacity were factors that influenced the SDCCs performance.

  18. C. elegans BED domain transcription factor BED-3 controls lineage-specific cell proliferation during organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Takao; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    The control of cell division is critical to organogenesis, but how this control is achieved is not fully understood. We found that mutations in bed-3, encoding a BED Zn-finger domain transcription factor, confer a phenotype where a specific set of cell divisions during vulval organogenesis is lost. Unlike general cell cycle regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans, the function of bed-3 is restricted to specific lineages. Transcriptional reporters suggest that bed-3 is expressed in a limited numb...

  19. Sulindac sulfide inhibits colon cancer cell growth and downregulates specificity protein transcription factors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xi; Pathi, Satya S.; Safe, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors play pivotal roles in maintaining the phenotypes of many cancers. We hypothesized that the antineoplastic effects of sulindac and its metabolites were due, in part, to targeting downregulation of Sp transcription factors. Methods The functional effects of sulindac, sulindac sulfone and sulindac sulfide on colon cancer cell proliferation were determined by cell counting. Effects of these compounds on expression of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4 and pro-...

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of WAIS-III/WMS-III demographically corrected factor scores in neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J; Heaton, R K

    2001-11-01

    This study explored the neurodiagnostic utility of 6 factor scores identified by recent exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the WAIS-III and WMS-III: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Processing Speed, Working Memory, Auditory Memory and Visual Memory. Factor scores were corrected for age. education, sex and ethnicity to minimize their influences on diagnostic accuracy. Cut-offs at 1, 1.5 and 2 standard deviations (SDs) below the standardization sample mean were applied to data from the overlapping test normative samples (N = 1073) and 6 clinical samples described in the WAIS-III/WMS-III Technical Manual (N = 126). The analyses suggest that a I SD cut-off yields the most balanced levels of sensitivity and specificity; more strict (1.5 or 2 SD) cut-offs generally result in trading modest gains in specificity for larger losses in sensitivity. Finally, using combinations of WAIS-III/WMS-III factors together as test batteries, we explored the sensitivity and specificity implications of varying diagnostic decision rules (e.g.,1 vs. 2 impaired factors = "impairment"). For most of the disorders considered here, even a small (e.g., 3 factor) WAIS-III/WMS-III battery provides quite good overall diagnostic accuracy.

  1. Generation of a Monoclonal Antibody Specifically Reacting with Neuron-specific TATA-Box Binding Protein-Associated Factor 1 (N-TAF1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Tamiya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available TATA-box binding protein-associated factor 1 (TAF1, the largest subunit of the transcription factor IID complex, plays an important role in the RNA polymerase II-mediated gene transcription pathway regulating the transcription of a large number of genes related to cell division. The neuron-specific isoform of the TAF1 gene (N-TAF1 may have an essential role in neurons through transcriptional regulation of many neuron-specific genes. The present study reports the preparation and properties of a monoclonal antibody directed against N-TAF1. The monoclonal antibody, 3A-11F, specifically recognized N-TAF1 protein with no reactivity to TAF1 protein, as evidenced by immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation using cultured cells expressing recombinant N-TAF1 or TAF1 protein. Immunohistochemistry using 3A-11F showed that N-TAF1-imunoreactivity was detected in the nuclear region of neurons in the rat brain. The 3A-11F monoclonal antibody promises to be a useful tool for determining the expression pattern and biological function of N-TAF1 in the brain.

  2. Functional state of knee arthritis patients and related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Kim, Jung-Hee; Chung, EunJung; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study is to provide a direction for efficient management of arthritis through the analysis of multiple factors related to the functional state of patients. [Subjects and Methods] The Visual Analog Scale, Knee Society Knee Score & Function Score, Hospital for Special Surgery, Short Form-36 Health Survey and Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for a total of 135 patients with knee arthritis were determined with a survey. [Results] There is a significant correlation between age, pain, Knee Society Knee Score, Hospital for Special Surgery, Knee Society Function Score, and Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score. [Conclusion] It is necessary to improve the factors that affect knee function and quality of life, and a study on knee joint muscle strength is suggested as a follow-up study. PMID:28265166

  3. Myocardin-related transcription factor regulates Nox4 protein expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozycki, Matthew; Bialik, Janne Folke; Speight, Pam

    2016-01-01

    TGFβ-induced expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is essential for fibroblast-myofibroblast transition. Rho has been implicated in Nox4 regulation, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), a Rho/actin polymerization-controlled coactivator...... translocation of MRTF. Because the Nox4 promoter harbors a serum response factor/MRTF cis-element (CC(A/T)6GG box), we asked if MRTF (and thus cytoskeleton organization) could regulate Nox4 expression. We show that Nox4 protein is robustly induced in kidney tubular cells exclusively by combined application...... of contact uncoupling and TGFβ. Nox4 knockdown abrogates epithelial-myofibroblast transition-associated reactive oxygen species production. Laser capture microdissection reveals increased Nox4 expression in the tubular epithelium also during obstructive nephropathy. MRTF down-regulation/inhibition suppresses...

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life and Related Factors in Children and Adolescents With Epilepsy in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Maryam; Ghanbari, Atefeh; Bidabadi, Elham; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh

    2015-12-01

    The effects of epilepsy may disturb the ability of the child and family to function and has detrimental effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We determined HRQOL and related factors in children and adolescents with epilepsy in Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed in a private neurology pediatric clinic in Guilan Province (North of Iran). We evaluated 108 children and adolescents with epilepsy. Data were collected by interview with parents and review of medical records. Generic and specific HRQOL was evaluated by Child Health Questionnaire and QOL in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire, respectively. The mean of overall generic HRQOL score was 71.05 ± 11.31. The lowest score was related to parental impact: emotional (52.59 ± 15.49). The average total specific HRQOL score was 71.95 ± 11.16. The lowest score dedicated to general health (51.21 ± 18.25). In multivariate regression analysis, duration of epilepsy (p < .016) was independently associated with generic HRQOL scores. Variables were independently associated with specific HRQOL scores including gender (p < .003), duration of epilepsy (p < .011), and family history of epilepsy (p < .005). We found that epilepsy duration was the strongest predictor of both generic and specific HRQOL in children and adolescents with epilepsy. This will be useful for clinicians in epilepsy management, which will enhance HRQOL.

  5. Relative contributions of measles virus hemagglutinin- and fusion protein- specific serum antibodies to virus neutralization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); S. Yüksel (Selma); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe relative contribution of measles virus hemagglutinin (H)- or fusion protein (F)-specific antibodies to virus neutralization (VN) has not been demonstrated. We have depleted these specific antibodies from sera collected from young adults, who had been vaccinated during childhood, by

  6. Relative contributions of measles virus hemagglutinin- and fusion protein- specific serum antibodies to virus neutralization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); S. Yüksel (Selma); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe relative contribution of measles virus hemagglutinin (H)- or fusion protein (F)-specific antibodies to virus neutralization (VN) has not been demonstrated. We have depleted these specific antibodies from sera collected from young adults, who had been vaccinated during childhood, by p

  7. Microtubule-Actin Cross-Linking Factor 1: Domains, Interaction Partners, and Tissue-Specific Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryunov, Dmitry; Liem, Ronald K H

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeleton of most eukaryotic cells is composed of three principal filamentous components: actin filaments, microtubules (MTs), and intermediate filaments. It is a highly dynamic system that plays crucial roles in a wide range of cellular processes, including migration, adhesion, cytokinesis, morphogenesis, intracellular traffic and signaling, and structural flexibility. Among the large number of cytoskeleton-associated proteins characterized to date, microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1 (MACF1) is arguably the most versatile integrator and modulator of cytoskeleton-related processes. MACF1 belongs to the plakin family of proteins, and within it, to the spectraplakin subfamily. These proteins are characterized by the ability to bridge MT and actin cytoskeletal networks in a dynamic fashion, which underlies their involvement in the regulation of cell migration, axonal extension, and vesicular traffic. Studying MACF1 functions has provided insights not only into the regulation of the cytoskeleton but also into molecular mechanisms of both normal cellular physiology and cellular pathology. Multiple MACF1 isoforms exist, composed of a large variety of alternatively spliced domains. Each of these domains mediates a specific set of interactions and functions. These functions are manifested in tissue and cell-specific phenotypes observed in conditional MACF1 knockout mice. The conditional models described to date reveal critical roles of MACF1 in mammalian skin, nervous system, heart muscle, and intestinal epithelia. Complete elimination of MACF1 is early embryonic lethal, indicating an essential role for MACF1 in early development. Further studies of MACF1 domains and their interactions will likely reveal multiple new roles of this protein in various tissues.

  8. Stage-specific effects of fibroblast growth factor 2 on the differentiation of dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagomonyants, Karen; Mina, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Dentinogenesis is a complex and multistep process, which is regulated by various growth factors, including members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. Both positive and negative effects of FGFs on dentinogenesis have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms of these conflicting results are still unclear. To gain a better insight into the role of FGF2 in dentinogenesis, we used dental pulp cells from various transgenic mice, in which fluorescent protein expression identifies cells at different stages of odontoblast differentiation. Our results showed that the continuous exposure of pulp cells to FGF2 inhibited mineralization and revealed both the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of FGF2 on the expression of markers of dentinogenesis and various transgenes. During the proliferation phase of in vitro growth, FGF2 increased the expression of markers of dentinogenesis and the percentages of dentin matrix protein 1/green fluorescent protein (DMP1-GFP)-positive functional odontoblasts and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP)-Cerulean-positive odontoblasts. Additional exposure to FGF2 during the differentiation/mineralization phase of in vitro growth decreased the extent of mineralization and the expression of markers of dentinogenesis and of the DMP1-GFP and DSPP-Cerulean transgenes. Recovery experiments showed that the inhibitory effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis were related to the blocking of the differentiation of cells into mature odontoblasts. These observations together showed the stage-specific effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis by dental pulp cells, and they provide critical information for the development of improved treatments for vital pulp therapy and dentin regeneration.

  9. Autism-specific covariation in perceptual performances: "g" or "p" factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrée-Anne S Meilleur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autistic perception is characterized by atypical and sometimes exceptional performance in several low- (e.g., discrimination and mid-level (e.g., pattern matching tasks in both visual and auditory domains. A factor that specifically affects perceptive abilities in autistic individuals should manifest as an autism-specific association between perceptual tasks. The first purpose of this study was to explore how perceptual performances are associated within or across processing levels and/or modalities. The second purpose was to determine if general intelligence, the major factor that accounts for covariation in task performances in non-autistic individuals, equally controls perceptual abilities in autistic individuals. METHODS: We asked 46 autistic individuals and 46 typically developing controls to perform four tasks measuring low- or mid-level visual or auditory processing. Intelligence was measured with the Wechsler's Intelligence Scale (FSIQ and Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM. We conducted linear regression models to compare task performances between groups and patterns of covariation between tasks. The addition of either Wechsler's FSIQ or RPM in the regression models controlled for the effects of intelligence. RESULTS: In typically developing individuals, most perceptual tasks were associated with intelligence measured either by RPM or Wechsler FSIQ. The residual covariation between unimodal tasks, i.e. covariation not explained by intelligence, could be explained by a modality-specific factor. In the autistic group, residual covariation revealed the presence of a plurimodal factor specific to autism. CONCLUSIONS: Autistic individuals show exceptional performance in some perceptual tasks. Here, we demonstrate the existence of specific, plurimodal covariation that does not dependent on general intelligence (or "g" factor. Instead, this residual covariation is accounted for by a common perceptual process (or "p" factor, which may

  10. Cultural Competence and Related Factors Among Taiwanese Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Nu; Mastel-Smith, Beth; Alfred, Danita; Lin, Yu-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan is a multicultural and multiethnic society with a growing number of immigrants who have diverse ethnic, racial, and cultural needs. Although this diversity highlights the pressing need for culturally competent healthcare providers, cultural competence is a concept that is little understood and implemented only sporadically in Taiwan. This study investigates the cultural competence of Taiwanese nurses and the related factors of influence. An online self-report survey was used to collect data from 221 Taiwanese nurses from December 2012 through January 2013. Data from the demographic questionnaire, the Nurses' Cultural Competence Scale, and the Perceived Nurses' Cultural Competence Rating were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, independent sample t tests, and multiple regressions. The cultural competence of the participants was in the "low to moderate" range, with relatively higher mean scores for the subscales of cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity and relatively lower scores for the subscales of cultural knowledge and cultural skills. Participants generally perceived themselves as being "not culturally competent." Variables found to predict cultural competence included years of work experience, hours of continuing education related to cultural nursing care, and frequency of caring for clients from culturally and ethnically diverse backgrounds. Participating Taiwanese nurses rated their level of cultural competence as in the low-to-moderate range and self-perceived as being not culturally competent. These findings support the need to further expand and enhance cultural-competence-related continuing education and to address the topic of cultural care in the nursing curricula.

  11. Risk factors for osteoporosis and factors related to the use of DXA in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M. P.; Rubin, K. H.; Gram, J.

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: To evaluate the case-finding strategy for osteoporosis in Norway, a questionnaire concerning risk factors for osteoporosis and history of osteodensitometry was mailed to a population-based cohort of 6000 men and 6000 women. Suboptimal examination rates among high risk and reallocation...... of scanning capacity to seemingly low-risk individuals was found. PURPOSE: In Norway, a case-finding strategy for osteoporosis has been used. No data exist regarding the efficacy of this approach. The aim was to examine the prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis and factors related to the use of dual X......-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in Norway. METHODS: Questionnaires regarding previous history of DXA, risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture were sent to an age-stratified, nationwide cross-sectional sample of 6000 men and 6000 women aged 40-90 years, drawn from the Norwegian Civil Registration System. RESULTS: Valid...

  12. Evidence for a unique species-specific hypersensitive epitope in Mycobacterium tuberculosis derived cord factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Ashley M; Hwang, Shen-An; O'Shea, Kelly; Aliru, Maureen L; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2013-12-01

    Presensitization with Mtb-derived trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM; cord factor) followed by challenge with the same glycolipid species resulted in elicitation of stronger inflammatory responses than when mice were similarly challenged with M. bovis-derived TDM. Mice presensitized to the homologous Mtb-derived TDM demonstrated cachexic over a 6 day period, whereas similarly presensitized mice challenged with the M. bovis-derived TDM, or with emulsion control, did not experience weight loss. Examination of inflammatory responses demonstrated increased lung histopathology in the Mtb-derived TDM challenged group, evidenced by severe tissue disruption, cellular influx, vascular occlusion and lymphocytic cuffing, and endothelial cell damage. Histological analysis demonstrated that lung pathology in the M. bovis challenged group was strikingly similar to that of the acute model challenge. Examination of proinflammatory mediators also showed findings consistent with histological manifestation, with significantly elevated TNF-α and IL-1β, as well as IFN-γ, in the homologous TDM challenged group relative to all other groups. Overall, these findings indicate a difference in hypersensitive immune responses to TDM derived from different mycobacterial strains. Development of specific adaptive immune responses to the Mtb-derived TDM were demonstrated that had limited cross-reactivity to that of M. bovis, thus strongly suggesting the presence of hypersensitive epitopes exclusive to Mtb TDM not present on M. bovis-derived TDM.

  13. The evolution of gene expression and binding specificity of the largest transcription factor family in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapopoulou, Adamandia; Mathew, Lisha; Wong, Alex; Trono, Didier; Jensen, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    The KRAB-containing zinc finger (KRAB-ZF) proteins represent the largest family of transcription factors (TFs) in humans, yet for the great majority, their function and specific genomic target remain unknown. However, it has been shown that a large fraction of these genes arose from segmental duplications, and that they have expanded in gene and zinc finger number throughout vertebrate evolution. To determine whether this expansion is linked to selective pressures acting on different domains, we have manually curated all KRAB-ZF genes present in the human genome together with their orthologous genes in three closely related species and assessed the evolutionary forces acting at the sequence level as well as on their expression profiles. We provide evidence that KRAB-ZFs can be separated into two categories according to the polymorphism present in their DNA-contacting residues. Those carrying a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in their DNA-contacting amino acids exhibit significantly reduced expression in all tissues, have emerged in a recent lineage, and seem to be less strongly constrained evolutionarily than those without such a polymorphism. This work provides evidence for a link between age of the TF, as well as polymorphism in their DNA-contacting residues and expression levels-both of which may be jointly affected by selection.

  14. Color-factor symmetry and BCJ relations for QCD amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    Tree-level $n$-point gauge-theory amplitudes with $n-2k$ gluons and $k$ pairs of (massless or massive) particles in the fundamental (or other) representation of the gauge group are invariant under a set of symmetries that act as momentum-dependent shifts on the color factors in the cubic decomposition of the amplitude. These symmetries lead to gauge-invariant constraints on the kinematic numerators. They also directly imply the BCJ relations among the Melia-basis primitive amplitudes previously obtained by Johansson and Ochirov.

  15. Celecoxib inhibits Helicobacter pylori colonization-related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of celecoxib,a selective COX-2 inhibitor,on Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) colonization-related factors and its mechanism.METHODS:After co-incubation with celecoxib,morphology of H.pylori strain 26695 was observed under a transmission electron microscope.Flagella motility was assessed by stab agar motility test.Adherence of H.pylori to AGS cells was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.Levels of mRNA expression in flagellar genes(flaA,flaB),urease genes(ureA,ureB)and ...

  16. Auger relative sensitivivity factors for CdTe oxide

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bartolo-Pérez; J. L. Peña; M.H. Farías

    1999-01-01

    The Auger lineshape of Te MNN in measurements of Auger spectra of CdTe oxide films with various degrees of oxidation was analyzed. By using standards from stoichiometric compounds, Auger relative sensitivity factors (RSF´s) of Cd, Te and O for CdTe oxide thin films were obtained. The value of the RFS of oxygen is about constant, 0.27-0.28, for the standard compound, CdO, TeO2 and CdTeO3 (considering the RSF of Cd as 1). However, the obtained RSF of Te changes from 0.69 in CdTe up to 0.87 in C...

  17. [Discussion on the influence of factors related organic on Deqi in acupuncture treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yu-Qi; Li, Chun-Hua; Yuan, Hong-Wen; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Chi; Xin, Si-Yuan; Guo, Zheng-Rong; Ma, Liang-Xiao; Zhu, Jiang

    2013-04-01

    To discuss the influence of factors related organic on deqi in acupuncture treatment and provide scientific evidence for further research on the influencing factors of deqi sensation. China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, VIP-Chinese scientific and technological journal database, Chinese biological medical (CBM) database and PubMed database were retrieved. There were 30 articles about the organic influencing factors of deqi and they were analyzed. The organic related factors which includes individual constitution, syndrome classification, physical condition, specificity of acupoint function, tolerance and psychological factors play an important part in deqi in acupancture treatment, which should be brought to the forefront for acupuncture practitioners and researchers. The organic factors are influencing the deqi sensation in many ways but most of the present studies are resting on the affirmation of the phenomenon. Further studies about organic related influencing factors on deqi should be carried out and scientific, objective indices of deqi sensation should be explored which may improve the clinical and research level of acupuncture.

  18. Binding site turnover produces pervasive quantitative changes in transcription factor binding between closely related Drosophila species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K Bradley

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in gene expression play an important role in evolution, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying regulatory evolution are poorly understood. Here we compare genome-wide binding of the six transcription factors that initiate segmentation along the anterior-posterior axis in embryos of two closely related species: Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila yakuba. Where we observe binding by a factor in one species, we almost always observe binding by that factor to the orthologous sequence in the other species. Levels of binding, however, vary considerably. The magnitude and direction of the interspecies differences in binding levels of all six factors are strongly correlated, suggesting a role for chromatin or other factor-independent forces in mediating the divergence of transcription factor binding. Nonetheless, factor-specific quantitative variation in binding is common, and we show that it is driven to a large extent by the gain and loss of cognate recognition sequences for the given factor. We find only a weak correlation between binding variation and regulatory function. These data provide the first genome-wide picture of how modest levels of sequence divergence between highly morphologically similar species affect a system of coordinately acting transcription factors during animal development, and highlight the dominant role of quantitative variation in transcription factor binding over short evolutionary distances.

  19. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during...... admission. Most studies are based on low power, thus compromising quality and generalisability. The few studies with sufficient statistical power mainly identified non-modifiable risk predictors such as male gender, diagnosis, or recent deliberate self-harm. Also, the predictive value of these predictors......People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time...

  20. Structural Basis for DNA Binding Specificity by the Auxin-Dependent ARF Transcription Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, D.R.; Freire Rios, A.; Berg, van den W.A.M.; Saaki, T.; Manfield, I.W.; Kepinski, S.; López-Vidrieo, I.; Franco-Zorilla, J.M.; Vries, de S.C.; Solano, R.; Weijers, D.; Coll, M.

    2014-01-01

    Auxin regulates numerous plant developmental processes by controlling gene expression via a family of functionally distinct DNA-binding auxin response factors (ARFs), yet the mechanistic basis for generating specificity in auxin response is unknown. Here, we address this question by solving

  1. Are There Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Suicidal Activity among Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Faull, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Are there gender-specific risk factors for suicidal activity among patients with schizophrenia and depression? A total of 74 schizophrenia patients (51 men, 23 women) and 77 unipolar nonpsychotic depressed patients (26 men, 51 women) from the Chicago Follow-up Study were studied prospectively at 2 years posthospitalization and again at 7.5 years.…

  2. General Factor Loadings and Specific Effects of the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Jennifer L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Acklie, Teresa J.; Houston, Lawrence, III

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the "g" loadings and specific effects of the core and diagnostic composite scores from the Differential Abilities Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II; Elliott, 2007a). Scores from a subset of the DAS-II standardization sample for ages 3:6 to 17:11 were submitted to principal factor analysis. Four composites,…

  3. General Factor Loadings and Specific Effects of the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Jennifer L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Acklie, Teresa J.; Houston, Lawrence, III

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the "g" loadings and specific effects of the core and diagnostic composite scores from the Differential Abilities Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II; Elliott, 2007a). Scores from a subset of the DAS-II standardization sample for ages 3:6 to 17:11 were submitted to principal factor analysis. Four…

  4. Structural determinants of host specificity of complement Factor H recruitment by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achila, David; Liu, Aizhuo; Banerjee, Rahul; Li, Yue; Martinez-Hackert, Erik; Zhang, Jing-Ren; Yan, Honggao

    2015-01-15

    Many human pathogens have strict host specificity, which affects not only their epidemiology but also the development of animal models and vaccines. Complement Factor H (FH) is recruited to pneumococcal cell surface in a human-specific manner via the N-terminal domain of the pneumococcal protein virulence factor choline-binding protein A (CbpAN). FH recruitment enables Streptococcus pneumoniae to evade surveillance by human complement system and contributes to pneumococcal host specificity. The molecular determinants of host specificity of complement evasion are unknown. In the present study, we show that a single human FH (hFH) domain is sufficient for tight binding of CbpAN, present the crystal structure of the complex and identify the critical structural determinants for host-specific FH recruitment. The results offer new approaches to the development of better animal models for pneumococcal infection and redesign of the virulence factor for pneumococcal vaccine development and reveal how FH recruitment can serve as a mechanism for both pneumococcal complement evasion and adherence.

  5. The Relation between Work-related Psychosocial Factors and the Development of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Conrad, Nicole; Bech, Per

    2008-01-01

    the evidence. Social support at work was associated with a decrease in risk for future depression, as all four studies dealing with this exposure showed  associations with relative risks of about 0.6. Even if this literature study has identified work-related psychosocial factors that in high......This review is based on a literature search made in January 2007 on request by the Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries. The search in PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO resulted in more than 1,000 publications. This was reduced to 14 after the titles, abstracts, and papers were evaluated...... by using the following criteria: 1) a longitudinal study, 2) exposure to work-related psychosocial factors, 3) the outcome a measure of depression, 4) relevant statistical estimates, and 5) nonduplicated publication. Of the 14 studies, seven used standardized diagnostic instruments as measures...

  6. Risk factors of HIV-related oral lesions in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Noel Marzano Rodrigues Petruzzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk factors in the occurrence of oral lesions in HIV-positive adults. METHODS: A retrospective analytical-descriptive survey was conducted using the medical/dental records of 534 patients with oral lesions associated with HIV. The data were collected from five referral centers for managing HIV and associated comorbidities in the city of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, between 1996 and 2011. Using a standardized form, socio-demographic and clinical data were recorded. Exclusively and definitively diagnosed oral pathologies were included and classified according to ECC criteria on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. For data analysis cross-tabulations, Chi-squared tests and logistic regression models were used where appropriate. RESULTS: CD4+ counts lower than 350 cells/mm³ (p < 0.001, alcohol consumption (p = 0.011 and female gender (p = 0.031 were predisposing factors for oral candidiasis. The occurrence of hairy leukoplakia was independently associated with CD4+ counts below 500 cells/mm³, (p = 0.029 a viral load above 5,000 copies/mm³ (p = 0.003 and smoking (p = 0.005. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate and severe degrees of immunodeficiency and detectable viral loads were risk factors for the onset of oral lesions. Smoking and alcohol consumption also increased susceptibility to the development of opportunistic infections in HIV-positive adults from Porto Alegre, irrespective of the use of antiretroviral therapy.

  7. Risk Factors Related to Low Birth Weight in Cienfuegos Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rafael Zerquera Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the low birth weight still constitutes a complex a complex health problem. It is determined by some factors and it is the most important predictive index of infantile mortality. Objective: identifying the risk factors related to low birth weight. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted. There were analyzed the 77 birth of children with inferior weigh to 2500g, occurred in 2010 at the municipality of Cienfuegos, puerperas were included, mothers of those children. The pregnancy's follow-up cards, patient’s clinical records and municipal and provincial statistics were checked. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics, the nutritional state, numbers of pregnancies, heavy profit during pregnancy, age, toxic habits and diseases correlated to pregnancy were analyzed. Results: the index of low birth weigh oscillated between 3.6 and 6.7 per month. The 52% of low birth weight newborn’s mothers had school university level. The 74 % of mothers work. The 70.1 % were smokers and the 57, 1 % developed a gravidum hypertensive disease. Conclusions: the most associated factors to low birth weight were, the mother’s habit to smoke, as well as the diseases that affected them during pregnancy, fundamentally the hypertensive disease and the vaginal sepsis.

  8. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Tyson; Lozada, Remedios; Anderson, Christy M; Patterson, Thomas L; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2011-04-08

    To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing). Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs.

  9. Study Of Socio- Economic Factors In Relation To Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahjabeen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: what are the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy and their implications? Objectives: (i To study the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy.(ii To assess the impact of disease on patients’ job/income. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting and Participants: Patients attending the dermatology OPD, J.N. Medical college hospital, A.M.U., Aligarh. Sample size: 200 leprosy patients. Study variables: education, occupation, social class, incapacitation, change in job, reduction in income. Statically analysis: Chi-square test Results: 46% of the leprosy patients were illiterate. A large majority of patients (78% were involved in heavy manual work as farmers and labourers. 68.5% patients belonged to low social classes (IV and V. More males (26.3% suffered from incapacitation than females (8.5%. 2.5% patients lost their job or were unable to work and 11.5% had to change their jobs due to the disease or disability caused by it. 17.5% patients had a history of reduction in their income after occurrence of leprosy.

  10. [Relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-ping; Xu, Jing; Bi, Bao-gui

    2009-03-01

    To clarify the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors is of significance to the prediction and evaluation of landslide and debris flow hazards. Base on the latitudinal and longitudinal information of 18431 landslide and debris flow hazards in China, and the 1 km x 1 km grid data of elevation, elevation difference, slope, slope aspect, vegetation type, and vegetation coverage, this paper analyzed the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards in this country to above-mentioned environmental factors by the analysis method of frequency ratio. The results showed that the landslide and debris flow hazards in China more occurred in lower elevation areas of the first and second transitional zones. When the elevation difference within a 1 km x 1 km grid cell was about 300 m and the slope was around 30 degree, there was the greatest possibility of the occurrence of landslide and debris hazards. Mountain forest land and slope cropland were the two land types the hazards most easily occurred. The occurrence frequency of the hazards was the highest when the vegetation coverage was about 80%-90%.

  11. Age at Natural Menopause and Related Factors in Isfahan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshiri, Parastoo; Abdollahzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to evaluate the age at natural menopause and related factors among women in a population based study in 2015 in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study 960 menopausal women were selected by cluster sampling. Demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle behavior and reproductive history aspects were collected using a structured questionnaire. Woman and her husband's educational level and occupation with family income were the variables to construct socioeconomic status using principal component analysis. Results Mean and median of natural menopause age were 48.66 and 48 years, respectively. Women body mass index (BMI) more than 30 kg/m2 had significantly higher menopausal age than women with lower BMI (P value = 0.022). The mean of menopausal age was not statistically significant in regard to marital status, physical activity, smoking status, menarche age, age at first pregnancy and history of abortion. Menopause age with pregnancy numbers and age at last pregnancy had a significant positive association. Women with better socioeconomic status had significantly higher natural menopause age. Multiple linear regression shows significant relationship between lower age at menopause with higher age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Age at menopause in our studied sample is similar to previous estimates reported for other Iranian populations. Age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status were the significant factors in relations to age at menopause. PMID:27617243

  12. Emotional stress as a health-related risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lažetić Bogosav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Emotions represent reactions of living organisms to changes of one's inner sphere, as well as to different factors from our surroundings. Emotions manifest in many ways. Failing to fulfill one's needs on chronic or acute basis leads to conflict situations. These needs may be either biological or social. Conflict situations occur prior to stress itself. Emotional stress Modern technology development provides no friendly environment for workers, with many consequences causing psycho-somatic disorders. Researches have been made to evaluate the amount of inflicted stress on patients. One of successful theories regarding this question is the theory of functional systems. The idea was to quantify processes of everyday living. Prophylaxis and rehabilitation of persons exposed to emotional stress The primary goal was to measure one's adaptation abilities. In order to follow up these parameters a machine was created. This appliance can determine the level of stress, by measuring certain physiological parameters. That is way scientists may apply preventive measures in order to increase stress resistance. Conclusion We differ hereditary and individual resistance to stress factors. That is why it is necessary to assess each patient individually. This type of individual approach offers an opportunity to create a specific program, in order to increase stress resistance.

  13. Common and Specific Emotion-Related Predictors of Anxious and Depressive Symptoms in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Hoffman, Brian; Zeman, Janice L.; Thomassin, Kristel

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether specific emotion-related constructs may be uniquely related to anxious or depressive symptoms in youth. Although anxiety and depression are comorbid in both youth and adult populations, delineation of these disorders is a worthwhile endeavor given that such differentiation may lead to a clearer conceptualization of the…

  14. Multiplexed massively parallel SELEX for characterization of human transcription factor binding specificities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolma, Arttu; Kivioja, Teemu; Toivonen, Jarkko; Cheng, Lu; Wei, Gonghong; Enge, Martin; Taipale, Mikko; Vaquerizas, Juan M.; Yan, Jian; Sillanpää, Mikko J.; Bonke, Martin; Palin, Kimmo; Talukder, Shaheynoor; Hughes, Timothy R.; Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Ukkonen, Esko; Taipale, Jussi

    2010-01-01

    The genetic code—the binding specificity of all transfer-RNAs—defines how protein primary structure is determined by DNA sequence. DNA also dictates when and where proteins are expressed, and this information is encoded in a pattern of specific sequence motifs that are recognized by transcription factors. However, the DNA-binding specificity is only known for a small fraction of the ∼1400 human transcription factors (TFs). We describe here a high-throughput method for analyzing transcription factor binding specificity that is based on systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) and massively parallel sequencing. The method is optimized for analysis of large numbers of TFs in parallel through the use of affinity-tagged proteins, barcoded selection oligonucleotides, and multiplexed sequencing. Data are analyzed by a new bioinformatic platform that uses the hundreds of thousands of sequencing reads obtained to control the quality of the experiments and to generate binding motifs for the TFs. The described technology allows higher throughput and identification of much longer binding profiles than current microarray-based methods. In addition, as our method is based on proteins expressed in mammalian cells, it can also be used to characterize DNA-binding preferences of full-length proteins or proteins requiring post-translational modifications. We validate the method by determining binding specificities of 14 different classes of TFs and by confirming the specificities for NFATC1 and RFX3 using ChIP-seq. Our results reveal unexpected dimeric modes of binding for several factors that were thought to preferentially bind DNA as monomers. PMID:20378718

  15. Socio Demographic Factors Related to Smoking among Rural Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of premature death, disease, and disability. Adolescence is the period of physical, psychological and social maturation from childhood to adulthood and adolescent smoking is a continuous process which is related to many disease factors. Objective: To find out the factors related to smoking among rural adolescents. Materials and method: One hundred and fifty one male adolescent aged 13 to 19 years from rural areas were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire during January to June 2013, at Dhamrai Upazilla Health Complex, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The socio demographic details, smoking and depression history were recorded. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D Scale was used to measure the presence of depression. Smoking behavior was measured by a number of questions. Results: Mean(±SD age of the study subjects was 16.8(±1.9 years. Most of the respondents started smoking around the average age of 14.3 years. The study shows that 64% respondents were smokers. Among smokers 80% were influenced by their friends about smoking. Seventy eight percent of the smokers were suffering from depression while 22% of nonsmokers were depressed (p<0.001. Majority (72% of the issues of the smoker parents were smoker (p<0.5. Domestic violence (p<0.001 and stressful events in life (p<0.05 also played significant roles for smoking. Conclusion: Depression, parent smoking and peer smoking, domestic violence, and stressful life events are important factors to start smoking in rural adolescents.

  16. Epidemiology of knee osteoarthritis in India and related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Chandra Prakash; Singh, Pulkesh; Chaturvedi, Sanjay; Pruthi, Kaushal Kumar; Vij, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Among the chronic rheumatic diseases, hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent and is a leading cause of pain and disability in most countries worldwide. Its prevalence increases with age and generally affects women more frequently than men. OA is strongly associated with aging and heavy physical occupational activity, a required livelihood for many people living in rural communities in developing countries. Determining region-specific OA prevalence and risk factor profiles will provide important information for planning future cost effective preventive strategies and health care services. Materials and Methods: The study was a community based cross sectional study to find out the prevalence of primary knee OA in India which has a population of 1.252 billion. The study was done across five sites in India. Each site was further divided into big city, small city, town, and village. The total sample size was 5000 subjects. Tools consisted of a structured questionnaire and plain skiagrams for confirmation of OA. Diagnosis was done using Kellgren and Lawrence scale for osteoarthritis. Results: Overall prevalence of knee OA was found to be 28.7%. The associated factors were found to be female gender (prevalence of 31.6%) (P = 0.007), obesity (P = 0.04), age (P = 0.001) and sedentary work (P = 0.001). Conclusions: There is scarcity of studies done in India which has varied socio geographical background and communities. We conducted this study for analyzing the current prevalence of OA in different locations. This study has evidenced a large percentage of population as borderline OA; therefore, it depends mainly on the prevention of modifiable risk factors to preserve at ease movement in elderly population through awareness programs.

  17. The Two-Factor Structure of Sleep Complaints and Its Relation to Depression and Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Koffel, Erin; Watson, David

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep complaints are common in depression and anxiety, there is little agreement as to how they should be organized and assessed. It is also unclear whether sleep complaints show specificity with certain disorders or if they are nonspecific symptoms. We examined the structure of sleep complaints and the relations of these complaints to depression and anxiety in three samples: college students, older adults, and psychiatric patients. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indica...

  18. Cooperativity and Rapid Evolution of Cobound Transcription Factors in Closely Related Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Stefflova, Klara,; Thybert, David; Wilson, Michael D.; Streeter, Ian; Aleksic, Jelena; Karagianni, Panagiota; Brazma, Alvis; Adams, David J.; Talianidis, Iannis; Marioni, John C.; Flicek, Paul; Odom, Duncan T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary To mechanistically characterize the microevolutionary processes active in altering transcription factor (TF) binding among closely related mammals, we compared the genome-wide binding of three tissue-specific TFs that control liver gene expression in six rodents. Despite an overall fast turnover of TF binding locations between species, we identified thousands of TF regions of highly constrained TF binding intensity. Although individual mutations in bound sequence motifs can influence ...

  19. On the Relative Relevance of Subject-Specific Geometries and Degeneration-Specific Mechanical Properties for the Study of Cell Death in Human Intervertebral Disk Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrino, Andrea; Pozo, José M.; Castro-Mateos, Isaac; Frangi, Alejandro F.; van Rijsbergen, Marc M.; Ito, Keita; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Dao, Tien Tuan; Ho Ba Tho, Marie-Christine; Noailly, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Capturing patient- or condition-specific intervertebral disk (IVD) properties in finite element models is outmost important in order to explore how biomechanical and biophysical processes may interact in spine diseases. However, disk degenerative changes are often modeled through equations similar to those employed for healthy organs, which might not be valid. As for the simulated effects of degenerative changes, they likely depend on specific disk geometries. Accordingly, we explored the ability of continuum tissue models to simulate disk degenerative changes. We further used the results in order to assess the interplay between these simulated changes and particular IVD morphologies, in relation to disk cell nutrition, a potentially important factor in disk tissue regulation. A protocol to derive patient-specific computational models from clinical images was applied to different spine specimens. In vitro, IVD creep tests were used to optimize poro-hyperelastic input material parameters in these models, in function of the IVD degeneration grade. The use of condition-specific tissue model parameters in the specimen-specific geometrical models was validated against independent kinematic measurements in vitro. Then, models were coupled to a transport-cell viability model in order to assess the respective effects of tissue degeneration and disk geometry on cell viability. While classic disk poro-mechanical models failed in representing known degenerative changes, additional simulation of tissue damage allowed model validation and gave degeneration-dependent material properties related to osmotic pressure and water loss, and to increased fibrosis. Surprisingly, nutrition-induced cell death was independent of the grade-dependent material properties, but was favored by increased diffusion distances in large IVDs. Our results suggest that in situ geometrical screening of IVD morphology might help to anticipate particular mechanisms of disk degeneration. PMID:25717471

  20. On the relative relevance of subject-specific geometries and degeneration-specific mechanical properties for the study of cell death in human intervertebral disk models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrino, Andrea; Pozo, José M; Castro-Mateos, Isaac; Frangi, Alejandro F; van Rijsbergen, Marc M; Ito, Keita; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Dao, Tien Tuan; Ho Ba Tho, Marie-Christine; Noailly, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Capturing patient- or condition-specific intervertebral disk (IVD) properties in finite element models is outmost important in order to explore how biomechanical and biophysical processes may interact in spine diseases. However, disk degenerative changes are often modeled through equations similar to those employed for healthy organs, which might not be valid. As for the simulated effects of degenerative changes, they likely depend on specific disk geometries. Accordingly, we explored the ability of continuum tissue models to simulate disk degenerative changes. We further used the results in order to assess the interplay between these simulated changes and particular IVD morphologies, in relation to disk cell nutrition, a potentially important factor in disk tissue regulation. A protocol to derive patient-specific computational models from clinical images was applied to different spine specimens. In vitro, IVD creep tests were used to optimize poro-hyperelastic input material parameters in these models, in function of the IVD degeneration grade. The use of condition-specific tissue model parameters in the specimen-specific geometrical models was validated against independent kinematic measurements in vitro. Then, models were coupled to a transport-cell viability model in order to assess the respective effects of tissue degeneration and disk geometry on cell viability. While classic disk poro-mechanical models failed in representing known degenerative changes, additional simulation of tissue damage allowed model validation and gave degeneration-dependent material properties related to osmotic pressure and water loss, and to increased fibrosis. Surprisingly, nutrition-induced cell death was independent of the grade-dependent material properties, but was favored by increased diffusion distances in large IVDs. Our results suggest that in situ geometrical screening of IVD morphology might help to anticipate particular mechanisms of disk degeneration.

  1. Chemical-specific adjustment factors (inter-species toxicokinetics) to establish the ADI for steviol glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ashley; Lynch, Barry; Rogerson, Rebecca; Renwick, Andrew; Kern, Hua; Coffee, Matthew; Cuellar-Kingston, Nicole; Eapen, Alex; Crincoli, Christine; Pugh, George; Bhusari, Sachin; Purkayastha, Sidd; Carakostas, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The acceptable daily intake (ADI) of commercially available steviol glycosides is currently 0-4 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, based on application of a 100-fold uncertainty factor to a no-observed-adverse-effect-level value from a chronic rat study. Within the 100-fold uncertainty factor is a 10-fold uncertainty factor to account for inter-species differences in toxicokinetics (4-fold) and toxicodynamics (2.5-fold). Single dose pharmacokinetics of stevioside were studied in rats (40 and 1000 mg/kg bw) and in male human subjects (40 mg/kg bw) to generate a chemical-specific, inter-species toxicokinetic adjustment factor. Tmax values for steviol were at ∼8 and ∼20 h after administration in rats and humans, respectively. Peak concentrations of steviol were similar in rats and humans, while steviol glucuronide concentrations were significantly higher in humans. Glucuronidation in rats was not saturated over the dose range 40-1000 mg/kg bw. The AUC0-last for steviol was approximately 2.8-fold greater in humans compared to rats. Chemical-specific adjustment factors for extrapolating toxicokinetics from rat to human of 1 and 2.8 were established based on Cmax and AUC0-last data respectively. Because these factors are lower than the default value of 4.0, a higher ADI for steviol glycosides of between 6 and 16 mg/kg bw/d is justified.

  2. A protective role of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in inflammatory disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jiyoung [National Research Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Young-Nam [Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon 382-751 (Korea, Republic of); Surh, Young-Joon, E-mail: surh@plaza.snu.ac.kr [National Research Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-07

    Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor that plays a central role in cellular defense against oxidative and electrophilic insults by timely induction of antioxidative and phase-2 detoxifying enzymes and related stress-response proteins. The 5'-flanking regions of genes encoding these cytoprotective proteins contain a specific consensus sequence termed antioxidant response element (ARE) to which Nrf2 binds. Recent studies have demonstrated that Nrf2-ARE signaling is also involved in attenuating inflammation-associated pathogenesis, such as autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, emphysema, gastritis, colitis and atherosclerosis. Thus, disruption or loss of Nrf2 signaling causes enhanced susceptibility not only to oxidative and electrophilic stresses but also to inflammatory tissue injuries. During the early-phase of inflammation-mediated tissue damage, activation of Nrf2-ARE might inhibit the production or expression of pro-inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines, cell adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. It is likely that the cytoprotective function of genes targeted by Nrf2 may cooperatively regulate the innate immune response and also repress the induction of pro-inflammatory genes. This review highlights the protective role of Nrf2 in inflammation-mediated disorders with special focus on the inflammatory signaling modulated by this redox-regulated transcription factor.

  3. Development of Disease-specific, Context-specific Surveillance Models: Avian Influenza (H5N1)-Related Risks and Behaviours in African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasina, F O; Njage, P M K; Ali, A M M; Yilma, J M; Bwala, D G; Rivas, A L; Stegeman, A J

    2016-02-01

    Avian influenza virus (H5N1) is a rapidly disseminating infection that affects poultry and, potentially, humans. Because the avian virus has already adapted to several mammalian species, decreasing the rate of avian-mammalian contacts is critical to diminish the chances of a total adaptation of H5N1 to humans. To prevent the pandemic such adaptation could facilitate, a biology-specific disease surveillance model is needed, which should also consider geographical and socio-cultural factors. Here, we conceptualized a surveillance model meant to capture H5N1-related biological and cultural aspects, which included food processing, trade and cooking-related practices, as well as incentives (or disincentives) for desirable behaviours. This proof of concept was tested with data collected from 378 Egyptian and Nigerian sites (local [backyard] producers/live bird markets/village abattoirs/commercial abattoirs and veterinary agencies). Findings revealed numerous opportunities for pathogens to disseminate, as well as lack of incentives to adopt preventive measures, and factors that promoted epidemic dissemination. Supporting such observations, the estimated risk for H5N1-related human mortality was higher than previously reported. The need for multidimensional disease surveillance models, which may detect risks at higher levels than models that only measure one factor or outcome, was supported. To develop efficient surveillance systems, interactions should be captured, which include but exceed biological factors. This low-cost and easily implementable model, if conducted over time, may identify focal instances where tailored policies may diminish both endemicity and the total adaptation of H5N1 to the human species.

  4. Muscle Specific Fragile X Related Protein 1 Isoforms are Sequestered in the Nucleus of Undifferentiated Myoblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandjian Edouard W

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of Fragile X Mental Retardation Proteins is composed of three members: Fragile Mental Retardation 1, Fragile X Related 1 and X Related 2 proteins. These proteins are associated with mRNPs within translating ribosomes and have the capacity to shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Great attention has been given to FMRP due to its implication in human hereditary mental retardation while FXR1P and FXR2P have only recently been studied. Results Using antibodies directed against several epitopes of FXR1P, we have detected protein isoforms generated by small peptides pocket inserts. Four isoforms of MW 70, 74, 78, 80 kDa are widely distributed in mouse organs, while in striated muscles these isoforms are replaced by proteins of 82 and 84 kDa containing an extra pocket of 27 aa. Expression of these muscle isoforms is an early event during in vitro differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes and correlates with the activation of muscle-specific genes. However, while FXR1P82,84 are associated with cytoplasmic mRNPs in myotubes, they are sequestered in the nuclei of undifferentiated myoblasts. These observations suggest that, in addition to a cytoplasmic function yet to be defined, FXR1P82,84 may play a nuclear role in pre-mRNA metabolism. Conclusions The pattern of subcellular partitioning of FXR1P isoforms during myogenesis is unique among the family of the FXR proteins. The model system described here should be considered as a powerful tool for ongoing attempts to unravel structure-function relationships of the different FMR family members since the potential role(s of FXR1P as a compensatory factor in Fragile X syndrome is still elusive.

  5. System-related factors contributing to diagnostic errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Thammasitboon, Supat; Singhal, Geeta

    2013-10-01

    Several studies in primary care, internal medicine, and emergency departments show that rates of errors in test requests and result interpretations are unacceptably high and translate into missed, delayed, or erroneous diagnoses. Ineffective follow-up of diagnostic test results could lead to patient harm if appropriate therapeutic interventions are not delivered in a timely manner. The frequency of system-related factors that contribute directly to diagnostic errors depends on the types and sources of errors involved. Recent studies reveal that the errors and patient harm in the diagnostic testing loop have occurred mainly at the pre- and post-analytic phases, which are directed primarily by clinicians who may have limited expertise in the rapidly expanding field of clinical pathology. These errors may include inappropriate test requests, failure/delay in receiving results, and erroneous interpretation and application of test results to patient care. Efforts to address system-related factors often focus on technical errors in laboratory testing or failures in delivery of intended treatment. System-improvement strategies related to diagnostic errors tend to focus on technical aspects of laboratory medicine or delivery of treatment after completion of the diagnostic process. System failures and cognitive errors, more often than not, coexist and together contribute to the incidents of errors in diagnostic process and in laboratory testing. The use of highly structured hand-off procedures and pre-planned follow-up for any diagnostic test could improve efficiency and reliability of the follow-up process. Many feedback pathways should be established so that providers can learn if or when a diagnosis is changed. Patients can participate in the effort to reduce diagnostic errors. Providers should educate their patients about diagnostic probabilities and uncertainties. The patient-safety strategies focusing on the interface between diagnostic system and therapeutic

  6. Musculoskeletal Disorders and Their Related Risk Factors Among Iranian Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghinejad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are one of the most occupational problems among nurses and often cause many physical and psychological complications for nurses, and are a financial burden for health-care systems. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence MSDs and their related risk factors among Iranian nurses. Patients and Methods This descriptive-correlational study included 240 hospital nurses, with a baccalaureate nursing degree, who worked at three public hospitals of the Ilam province of Iran. Data were collected through a validated self-administered questionnaire. Finally, 156 questionnaires were returned (response rate: 65% and 135 questionnaires qualified for subsequent analysis. The data were analyzed using the SPSS version 15.0 software. Descriptive and inferential statistics (logistic regression were used. Results Overall, 97 (71.9% hospital nurses experienced MSDs in at least one anatomical site within the last year. Low back pain was the most prevalent MSDs (40% and hip and thigh were the least (11.1% frequent sites. Most of the nurses with MSDs worked at surgery wards (17.8%, emergency (15.6% and intensive care units (12.6%. Pain (48.1% and cramps (31.9% were the most frequent symptoms of MSDs and loss of limbs control (5.9% was the least frequent symptom. Bend or twist at waist for performing nursing procedures, patient transfer from and to beds, working with the hands higher than shoulder height and changing position of patients in beds were the most frequent occupational factors that influenced MSDs. Increased age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI and gender had no significant association with MSDs. However, being single and involved in any kinds of physical activity were significantly associated with the prevalence of MSDs (P < 0.05. Conclusions The study findings indicated high prevalence of worked-related MSDs among Iranian hospital nurses. Accordingly, appropriate policies

  7. The polyadenylation factor subunit CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR30: A key factor of programmed cell death and a regulator of immunity in arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Bruggeman, Quentin

    2014-04-04

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for several aspects of plant life, including development and stress responses. Indeed, incompatible plant-pathogen interactions are well known to induce the hypersensitive response, a localized cell death. Mutational analyses have identified several key PCD components, and we recently identified the mips1 mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is deficient for the key enzyme catalyzing the limiting step of myoinositol synthesis. One of the most striking features of mips1 is the light-dependent formation of lesions on leaves due to salicylic acid (SA)-dependent PCD, revealing roles for myoinositol or inositol derivatives in the regulation of PCD. Here, we identified a regulator of plant PCD by screening for mutants that display transcriptomic profiles opposing that of the mips1 mutant. Our screen identified the oxt6 mutant, which has been described previously as being tolerant to oxidative stress. In the oxt6 mutant, a transfer DNA is inserted in the CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR30 (CPSF30) gene, which encodes a polyadenylation factor subunit homolog. We show that CPSF30 is required for lesion formation in mips1 via SA-dependent signaling, that the prodeath function of CPSF30 is not mediated by changes in the glutathione status, and that CPSF30 activity is required for Pseudomonas syringae resistance. We also show that the oxt6 mutation suppresses cell death in other lesion-mimic mutants, including lesion-simulating disease1, mitogen-activated protein kinase4, constitutive expressor of pathogenesis-related genes5, and catalase2, suggesting that CPSF30 and, thus, the control of messenger RNA 3′ end processing, through the regulation of SA production, is a key component of plant immune responses. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Conformational Dynamics and the Binding of Specific and Nonspecific DNA by the Autoinhibited Transcription Factor Ets-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Geneviève; Okon, Mark; Graves, Barbara J; McIntosh, Lawrence P

    2016-07-26

    The affinity of the Ets-1 transcription factor for DNA is autoinhibited by an intrinsically disordered serine-rich region (SRR) and a helical inhibitory module (IM) appended to its winged helix-turn-helix ETS domain. Using NMR spectroscopy, we investigated how Ets-1 recognizes specific versus nonspecific DNA, with a focus on the roles of protein dynamics and autoinhibition in these processes. Upon binding either DNA, the two marginally stable N-terminal helices of the IM predominantly unfold, but still sample partially ordered conformations. Also, on the basis of amide chemical shift perturbation mapping, Ets-1 associates with both specific and nonspecific DNA through the same canonical ETS domain interface. These interactions are structurally independent of the SRR, and thus autoinhibition does not impart DNA-binding specificity. However, relative to the pronounced NMR spectroscopic changes in Ets-1 resulting from specific DNA binding, the spectra of the nonspecific DNA complexes showed conformational exchange broadening and lacked several diagnostic amide and indole signals attributable to hydrogen bonding interactions seen in reported X-ray crystallographic structures of this transcription factor with its cognate DNA sequences. Such differences are highlighted by the chemical shift and relaxation properties of several interfacial lysine and arginine side chains. Collectively, these data support a general model in which Ets-1 interacts with nonspecific DNA via dynamic electrostatic interactions, whereas hydrogen bonding drives the formation of well-ordered complexes with specific DNA.

  9. Engineering the substrate and inhibitor specificities of human coagulation Factor VIIa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Katrine S; Østergaard, Henrik; Bjelke, Jais R;

    2007-01-01

    of the selective active site in defining specificity. Being a trypsin-like serine protease, FVIIa had P1 specificity exclusively towards arginine and lysine residues. In the S2 pocket, threonine, leucine, phenylalanine and valine residues were the most preferred amino acids. Both S3 and S4 appeared to be rather...... promiscuous, however, with some preference for aromatic amino acids at both positions. Interestingly, a significant degree of interdependence between the S3 and S4 was observed and, as a consequence, the optimal substrate for FVIIa could not be derived directly from a subsite-directed specificity screen...... for FVIIa by marked changes in primary substrate specificity and decreased rates of antithrombin III inhibition. Interestingly, these changes do not necessarily coincide with an altered ability to activate Factor X, demonstrating that inhibitor and macromolecular substrate selectivity may be engineered...

  10. Changes in chromosome territory position within the nucleus reflect alternations in gene expression related to embryonic lineage specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsztynowicz, Maciej; Lechniak, Dorota; Pawlak, Piotr; Kociucka, Beata; Kubickova, Svatava; Cernohorska, Halina; Madeja, Zofia Eliza

    2017-01-01

    Loss of totipotentcy in an early embryo is directed by molecular processes responsible for cell fate decisions. Three dimensional genome organisation is an important factor linking chromatin architecture with stage specific gene expression patterns. Little is known about the role of chromosome organisation in gene expression regulation of lineage specific factors in mammalian embryos. Using bovine embryos as a model we have described these interactions at key developmental stages. Three bovine chromosomes (BTA) that differ in size, number of carried genes, and contain loci for key lineage regulators OCT4, NANOG and CDX2, were investigated. The results suggest that large chromosomes regardless of their gene density (BTA12 gene-poor, BTA5 gene-rich) do not significantly change their radial position within the nucleus. Gene loci however, may change its position within the chromosome territory (CT) and relocate its periphery, when stage specific process of gene activation is required. Trophectoderm specific CDX2 and epiblast precursor NANOG loci tend to locate on the surface or outside of the CTs, at stages related with their high expression. We postulate that the observed changes in CT shape reflect global alternations in gene expression related to differentiation.

  11. Nurses’ working motivation sources and related factors: A questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Bodur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motivation is an important issue for personnel management in health care settings, as it is related to both performance and intention to quit. Objectives: The study was aimed to determine nurses’ working motivation sources and related factors in hospitals. Design: Descriptive study. Settings: A state university hospital and a public hospital in Turkey. Participants: Two hundred and two nurses were randomly selected from each department in a university and in a public hospital. Methods: Data were collected using a socio-demographic questionnaire and the Motivation Sources Inventory and were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Among five motivation sources, internal self-concept-based motivation was the highest and intrinsic process motivation was the lowest in nurses. There was a significant relation between scores of some motivation sources and managerial experience, income level, satisfaction from the unit, staff roles, and perception of work stress. Conclusions: Intrinsic process motivation, instrumental motivation, and external self-concept-based motivation sources may be improved to increase nurses’ total motivation.

  12. Relationship between oral health in children and poverty related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squassi, Aldo; Mauro, Silvia; Mauro, María José; Sánchez, Gabriel; Bordoni, Noemí

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze the variables related to poverty and its influence on oral health in children living in a suburban area ofBuenos Aires, Argentina. The study population consisted of 1,049 children. 579 children at social risk (Group I) were recruited from five neighborhoods with critical lacks (Katzman, 1989) and divided into 2 subgroups according to age: (A) preschool children and (B) school children. 470 preschool and school children from the same district but living in homes without critical lacks served as controls (Group II). The following variables associated with poverty were analyzed: (a) parents' instructional level, (b) employment conditions, and (c) accessibilty to regular oral health care. Group I comprised children from five neighborhoods categorized according to the incidence rate of each variable. Clinical examinations were performed under similar conditions by three calibrated investigators. DMFS, dmfs, total DMFS + dmfs, DS + ds, Care Index and Loe & Silness plaque index were recorded and analyzed using Students t test, ANOVA and Chi square test (level of significance p poverty-related variables rose. The highest number of children with high cariogenic risk was observed in neighborhoods with the highest social risk (c2 = 30.48; p poverty-related variables seemed to be associated with factors that play a role in the dental caries development process in school and preschool children living in the Metropolitan area of Buenos Aires.

  13. Sequence motifs in MADS transcription factors responsible for specificity and diversification of protein-protein interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aalt D J van Dijk

    Full Text Available Protein sequences encompass tertiary structures and contain information about specific molecular interactions, which in turn determine biological functions of proteins. Knowledge about how protein sequences define interaction specificity is largely missing, in particular for paralogous protein families with high sequence similarity, such as the plant MADS domain transcription factor family. In comparison to the situation in mammalian species, this important family of transcription regulators has expanded enormously in plant species and contains over 100 members in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we provide insight into the mechanisms that determine protein-protein interaction specificity for the Arabidopsis MADS domain transcription factor family, using an integrated computational and experimental approach. Plant MADS proteins have highly similar amino acid sequences, but their dimerization patterns vary substantially. Our computational analysis uncovered small sequence regions that explain observed differences in dimerization patterns with reasonable accuracy. Furthermore, we show the usefulness of the method for prediction of MADS domain transcription factor interaction networks in other plant species. Introduction of mutations in the predicted interaction motifs demonstrated that single amino acid mutations can have a large effect and lead to loss or gain of specific interactions. In addition, various performed bioinformatics analyses shed light on the way evolution has shaped MADS domain transcription factor interaction specificity. Identified protein-protein interaction motifs appeared to be strongly conserved among orthologs, indicating their evolutionary importance. We also provide evidence that mutations in these motifs can be a source for sub- or neo-functionalization. The analyses presented here take us a step forward in understanding protein-protein interactions and the interplay between protein sequences and

  14. Length-weight relation and condition factor of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ in the Cochin Backwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.; Nair, K.K.C.; Balasubramanian, T.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Aravindakshan, P.N.; Kutty, M.K.

    specific. Condition factors (@ik@@) was estimated for both species and was quite high indicating the presence of adequate food in the environment. Condition factor was higher for @iM. dobsoni@@ and it remained relatively constant with respect to size...

  15. Episode-specific risk factors for progression of acute diarrhoea to persistent diarrhoea in west African children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study, carried out in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, was to identify episode-specific risk factors for persistent diarrhoea (PD) related to clinical observations and management efforts. We followed 319 episodes of childhood diarrhoea by repeated household interviews until...... prior (OR = 6.52 (95% CI 1.69-25.1)), mother had to force breast feeding (OR = 8.01 (2.99-21.5)) and current infection with Cryptosporidium (OR = 5.53 (2.10-14.6)) were the most important independent risk factors for the development of PD. Late consultation (> 48 h) was associated with PD, reflecting....... We were unable to identify management factors with a significant influence on the risk of developing PD....

  16. Clinical features and related factors to anxiety disorders in adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the social and psychological risk factors to anxiety disorders in adolescents,and to screen protective factors and risk factors and establish the prediction model.Methods The Screen for Child Anxiety

  17. Association of Serum Phosphate and Related Factors in ESRD-Related Vascular Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Mei Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is common in ESRD patients and is important in increasing mortality from cardiovascular complications in these patients. Hyperphosphatemia related to chronic kidney disease is increasingly known as major stimulus for vascular calcification. Hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification become popular discussion among nephrologist environment more than five decades, and many researches have been evolved. Risk factors for calcification are nowadays focused for the therapeutic prevention of vascular calcification with the hope of reducing cardiovascular complications.

  18. Oral health-related quality of life of removable partial denture wearers and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghian, S; Taghva, M; Abduo, J; Bagheri, R

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a group of removable partial denture (RPD) wearers in Shiraz (Iran), using the Persian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Two hundred removable partial denture wearers had completed a questionnaire regarding patients' demographic characteristics and denture-related factors. In addition, the OHIP-14 questionnaire was filled out by interviewing the patients. Two measures of interpreting the OHIP-14 scales were utilised: OHIP-14 sum and OHIP-14 prevalence. The relationship of the patients' demographic characteristics and denture-related factors, with their OHRQoL was investigated. The mean OHIP-14 sum and OHIP-14 prevalence of RPD wearers were 13·80 (±10·08) and 44·5%, respectively. The most problematic aspects of OHIP-14 were physical disability and physical pain. Twenty-seven percentage and 24% of participants had reported meal interruption and eating discomfort, respectively. OHIP-14 prevalence and OHIP-14 sum were found to be significantly associated with factors representing RPD wearer's oral health such as self-reported oral health and frequency of denture cleaning. Furthermore, OHIP-14 prevalence and OHIP-14 sum were significantly associated with factors related to frequency of denture use such as hours of wearing the denture during the day and wearing the denture while eating and sleeping. Therefore, it can be concluded that the OHRQoL of the patients of the study was generally not optimal and found to be strongly associated with oral health.

  19. GATA transcription factors as tissue-specific master regulators for induced responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Dena Hs; Shapira, Michael

    2015-01-01

    GATA transcription factors play important roles in directing developmental genetic programs and cell differentiation, and are conserved in animals, plants and fungi. C. elegans has 11 GATA-type transcription factors that orchestrate development of the gut, epidermis and vulva. However, the expression of certain GATA proteins persists into adulthood, where their function is less understood. Accumulating evidence demonstrates contributions of 2 terminal differentiation GATA transcription factors, ELT-2 and ELT-3, to epithelial immune responses in the adult intestine and epidermis (hypodermis), respectively. Involvement in other stress responses has also been documented. We recently showed that ELT-2 acted as a tissue-specific master regulator, cooperating with 2 transcription factors activated by the p38 pathway, ATF-7 and SKN-1, to control immune responses in the adult C. elegans intestine. Here, we discuss the broader implications of these findings for understanding the involvement of GATA transcription factors in adult stress responses, and draw parallels between ELT-2 and ELT-3 to speculate that the latter may fulfill similar tissue-specific functions in the epidermis.

  20. [Quality-of-life-related factors in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Serrano, Marta; Martínez-Montilla, José Manuel; Guerra-Martín, María Dolores; Vargas-Martínez, Ana Magdalena; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín S

    2016-08-23

    To determine quality of life (QoL) and its relationship to lifestyles in adolescents in high schools. Cross-sectional, observational study with 256 students aged 12 to 17 in Seville (Spain). Multiple linear regression models were tested (p <0.05). The boys had higher scores in most of the QoL areas. The female gender was inversely related to physical, psychological, familial QoL areas and the general QoL index. Family functionality and performing physical activity were the factors most associated with better QoL in all areas. All multivariate models were statistically significant and explained from 11% of social QoL variability to 35% of the general QoL index. The findings could be useful for developing interventions to promote health in schools, with the objective of promoting healthy lifestyles and QoL. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors related to posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooner, Kate B; Linares, L Oriana; Batinjane, Jessica; Kramer, Rachel A; Silva, Raul; Cloitre, Marylene

    2012-07-01

    Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescence published from 2000 to 2011 indicate that adolescents are at greater risk of experiencing trauma than either adults or children, and that the prevalence of PTSD among adolescents is 3-57%. Age, gender, type of trauma, and repeated trauma are discussed as factors related to the increased rates of adolescent PTSD. PTSD in adolescence is also associated with suicide, substance abuse, poor social support, academic problems, and poor physical health. PTSD may disrupt biological maturational processes and contribute to the long-term emotion and behavior regulation problems that are often evident in adolescents with the disorder. Recommendations are presented for practice and research regarding the promotion of targeted prevention and intervention services to maximize adolescents' strengths and minimize vulnerabilities. Public policy implications are discussed.

  2. Nosocomial infections and related factors in southern khorasan hospitals

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    Bita Bijari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Nosocomial infections are defined as infections occurring during a patient's stay at hospital (48-72h after admission.Nosocomial infections are one of the important problems of health. This study aimed was determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections, and related factors in hospitals with more than 100 beds in south Khorasan Province. Materials and Methods: In this crass-sectional study, an investigator-administered questionnaire was completed for each patient with nosocomial infections diagnosis in hospitals with more than 100 beds in South Khorasan. This questionnaire conation demographic characteristic of patients, department, duration of admission, kind of pathogen and risk factors that was designed according to standard questionnaire of Iranian Nasocomial infections surveillance system (INIS of Center for communicable Disease Control, Ministry of Health. Data were analyzed with SPSS 16 software. Results and discussion: Number of patients with nosocomial infection was 358. The incidence of nosocomial infection was 0.9%. ICU had the highest incidence rate (17.3%. The most common nosocomial infection was pneumonia (43%, and urinary tract infection (UTI (15.1%. In 33.5% culture result were negative. In other cases, culture results showed klebsiella spp. (12.8% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8% were the most prevalent bacteria. Most factors associated with nosocomial infection in patients were urinary catheters (70.4%, suction (66.8% and tracheal tube (54.2%. 24% of patients expired. The results showed lower ratio of nosocomial infection, that the main reason is failure to detection and reporting of actual cases of nosocomial infection. Promoting detection and reporting system for Prevention and control of nosocomial infection was recommended

  3. Factors related to orthodontic treatment time in adult patients

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    Ana Camila Esteves de Oliveira Melo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The length of time that it takes an orthodontist to treat adult patients varies widely. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate how different variables influence treatment time. METHODS: Seventy clinical case reports of successfully treated adult patients were examined. The patients were selected from 4,723 records held by three experienced orthodontists. The influence exerted by the following variables on treatment time was assessed: age, sex, facial pattern, severity of malocclusion (measured by the PAR index, sagittal relationship of canines, type of brackets (ceramic or metal, tooth extractions, missed appointments and orthodontic appliance issues/breakages, the latter being the dependent variable. Assessment was performed by multiple linear regression analysis, followed by the stepwise method with P < 0.05. RESULTS: The number of times a patient missed their appointment (no-show (R² = 14.4%, p < 0.0001 and the number of appliance issues/breakages (R² = 29.71%, p = 0.0037 significantly affected variability in treatment time, and these two variables together can predict 43.75% (R² total of the overall variability in treatment time. Other factors, such as canine relationship at the beginning of treatment, bracket type (metal or ceramic, tooth extractions, age at start of treatment, severity of the initial malocclusion, sex and facial pattern had no significant bearing on treatment time. CONCLUSIONS: The duration of orthodontic treatment in adults, when performed by experienced orthodontists, is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. However, several factors which were not included in this study may contribute to variability in orthodontic treatment time.

  4. Nursing Diagnosis of overweight and related factors in adolescents

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    Caroline Evelin Nascimento Kluczynik Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective.The objective of the study was to compare the related factors to the nursing diagnosis (ND of overweight in adolescents with and without overweight. Methodology. Transversal study conducted in 2013 with 347 adolescents that attended public schools in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, answered a questionnaire and had anthroprometric evaluation. The subjects were divided into two groups, the group without ND (n=247 and the group with ND (n=100. Results. The prevalence of adolescents with ND overweight was 28.8%. The groups presented an unsatisfactory frequency of physical activity and a low consumption of healthy foods. The group with the ND overweight showed greater chance of consuming sweets and fried foods. The group with ND overweight had higher frequency of history family of illnesses. Conclusion. The prevalence of the ND overweight among adolescents in the public schools of Natal constitute a relevant nutritional deviance and the associated factors diet and family history disease are an alert for nursing in activities of prevention and follow-up for this population.

  5. Smoking and Its Related Factors Among Iranian High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Sajedinejad, Sima; Nazemi, Saeed; Fereidoon Mohasseli, Khadije; Valizade, Behzad; Vahedi, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Amiri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: In different studies, the prevalence of tobacco consumption has been growing in high schools boys. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its related factors among Iranian high school students in 2011. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 450 male students from 15 high schools of Shahroud (northeast of Iran) were selected for evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding tobacco consumption. Results: Overall, 51% (95% CI: 46.5 - 55.7) of the students had positive history of smoking for at least one time and 7.1% (95% CI: 5 - 10) of them were current smokers. The most prevalent source of information about smoking was TV and radio programs (48%) and friends were the second source (22%). Based on the students’ opinions, entertainment and smoker friends were the most important reasons for smoking tendency. There was significant statistical association between students smoking and positive family history of smoking (P value < 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking experince was very high among high school students. The most prevalent source of information about smoking was Iranian broadcasting companies. Positive family history of smoking and smoker friends were the important motivating factors toward smoking. PMID:26834798

  6. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.

  7. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaloyan Kamenov

    Full Text Available Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.

  8. Post-operative pain after knee arthroscopy and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, G I; Stavropoulos, N I; Katsis, A; Kesidis, K; Kazakos, K; Verettas, D-A

    2008-06-13

    The aim of this study was to explore the intensity of post-arthroscopy knee pain during the first 24 hours, and to study the influence of pre-operative pain, tourniquet time and amount of surgical trauma on post-arthroscopy pain. In 78 male patients that underwent elective arthroscopic menisectomy or diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee, preoperative and post-operative pain were registered using the Visual Analogue Scale. Variance for repeated measures and for independent observations was analysed. Supplementary analgesia was required for 23% of the patients, more often in the recovery room and between 2 and 8 hours postoperatively. Of all factors analyzed, only time was statistically significant in determining the level of post-operative pain. Supplementary analgesia was required only in patients that underwent operative arthroscopy, and more often in patients with tourniquet time of more than 40 minutes. In conclusions, post-operative time is the most significant factor related to the post-arthroscopy knee pain.

  9. Post-Operative Pain after Knee Arthroscopy and Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Sutariya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the intensity of post-arthroscopy knee pain during the first 24 hours, and to study the influence of pre-operative pain, tourniquet time and amount of surgical trauma on post-arthroscopy pain. Methods: In 78 male patients that underwent elective arthroscopic menisectomy or diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee, preoperative and post-operative pain was registered using the Visual Analogue Scale. Variance for repeated measures and for independent observations was analysed. Results: Supplementary analgesia was required for 23% of the patients, more often in the recovery room and between 2 and 8 hours postoperatively. Of all factors analyzed, only time was statistically significant in determining the level of post-operative pain. Supplementary analgesia was required only in patients that underwent operative arthroscopy, and more often in patients with tourniquet time of more than 40 minutes. Conclusion: In conclusions, post-operative time is the most significant factor related to the post-arthroscopy knee pain. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 75-78

  10. Conversion during thoracoscopic lobectomy: related factors and learning curve impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E; Dietrich, Agustin; Nicolas, Matias; Da Lozzo, Alejandro; Beveraggi, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy has become a standard procedure for lung cancer treatment. Conversion-related factors and learning curve impacts, were poorly described. The aim of this study was to review the reasons and related factor for conversion in VATS lobectomy and the impact on this of the surgeon's learning curve. From June 2009 to May 2014, 154 patients who underwent a VATS lobectomy were included in our study. Patients' characteristics, pathology background, operative times, overall length of stay, overall morbidity and type of major complications were recorded for all patients and compared between non converted (n = 133) and converted (n = 21) patients. To evaluate surgeon's learning curve, we analyzed rates and causes of conversion in the first period (first 77 patients) and in the last period (78-154 patients). Patients characteristics were similar between converted and non-converted groups. Patients who were converted to open thoracotomy presented more frecuently tumors >3 cms (P = 0.02). The average of operative times and the length of stay were not significantly different between groups. Overall morbidity and major complications were also similar in both groups. There were no impact of surgeon's learning curve in overall rate conversion in both groups. Emergency conversion was always secondary to vascular accidents, all in the first group (p = 0.059). Surgeons should be expecting to perform a conversion to a thoracotomy in patients who present in preoperative studies, tumors greater than 3 cms. Learning curve only affected the emergency conversion, occurred all in the first half of our series.

  11. Specific cerebellar regions are related to force amplitude and rate of force development

    OpenAIRE

    Spraker, M B.; Corcos, D.M.; Kurani, A.S.; Prodoehl, J; Swinnen, S.P.; Vaillancourt, D E

    2011-01-01

    The human cerebellum has been implicated in the control of a wide variety of motor control parameters, such as force amplitude, movement extent, and movement velocity. These parameters often covary in both movement and isometric force production tasks, so it is difficult to resolve whether specific regions of the cerebellum relate to specific parameters. In order to address this issue, the current study used two experiments and SUIT normalization to determine whether BOLD activation in the ce...

  12. Experimental and Statistical Evaluation of Cutting Methods in Relation to Specific Energy and Rock Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Irfan Celal; Bayram, Fatih; Yasitli, Nazmi Erhan

    2013-07-01

    In a processing plant, natural stone can be cut by methods such as circular sawing (CS), frame sawing (FS), water jet cutting (WJC) and abrasive water jet cutting (AWJC). The efficiency of cutting systems can be compared using various parameters. In this study, the specific energy values were determined and compared to evaluate the efficiency of rock-cutting methods. Rock-cutting experiments were performed on 12 different types of rock samples using a circular sawing machine and an AWJC machine. The experimental results showed that the specific energy values in AWJC were generally higher than in CS. In addition, the relationships between specific energy values and rock properties were explained in this study. The Shore hardness and abrasion resistance were found to be strongly related to the specific energy values, and according to these parameters prediction charts of specific energy values were created.

  13. Specific cerebellar regions are related to force amplitude and rate of force development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraker, M B; Corcos, D M; Kurani, A S; Prodoehl, J; Swinnen, S P; Vaillancourt, D E

    2012-01-16

    The human cerebellum has been implicated in the control of a wide variety of motor control parameters, such as force amplitude, movement extent, and movement velocity. These parameters often covary in both movement and isometric force production tasks, so it is difficult to resolve whether specific regions of the cerebellum relate to specific parameters. In order to address this issue, the current study used two experiments and SUIT normalization to determine whether BOLD activation in the cerebellum scales with the amplitude or rate of change of isometric force production or both. In the first experiment, subjects produced isometric pinch-grip force over a range of force amplitudes without any constraints on the rate of force development. In the second experiment, subjects varied the rate of force production, but the target force amplitude remained constant. The data demonstrate that BOLD activation in separate sub-areas of cerebellar regions lobule VI and Crus I/II scales with both force amplitude and force rate. In addition, BOLD activation in cerebellar lobule V and vermis VI was specific to force amplitude, whereas BOLD activation in lobule VIIb was specific to force rate. Overall, cerebellar activity related to force amplitude was located superior and medial, whereas activity related to force rate was inferior and lateral. These findings suggest that specific circuitry in the cerebellum may be dedicated to specific motor control parameters such as force amplitude and force rate.

  14. Identification of High-Impact cis-Regulatory Mutations Using Transcription Factor Specific Random Forest Models.

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    Dmitry Svetlichnyy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer genomes contain vast amounts of somatic mutations, many of which are passenger mutations not involved in oncogenesis. Whereas driver mutations in protein-coding genes can be distinguished from passenger mutations based on their recurrence, non-coding mutations are usually not recurrent at the same position. Therefore, it is still unclear how to identify cis-regulatory driver mutations, particularly when chromatin data from the same patient is not available, thus relying only on sequence and expression information. Here we use machine-learning methods to predict functional regulatory regions using sequence information alone, and compare the predicted activity of the mutated region with the reference sequence. This way we define the Predicted Regulatory Impact of a Mutation in an Enhancer (PRIME. We find that the recently identified driver mutation in the TAL1 enhancer has a high PRIME score, representing a "gain-of-target" for MYB, whereas the highly recurrent TERT promoter mutation has a surprisingly low PRIME score. We trained Random Forest models for 45 cancer-related transcription factors, and used these to score variations in the HeLa genome and somatic mutations across more than five hundred cancer genomes. Each model predicts only a small fraction of non-coding mutations with a potential impact on the function of the encompassing regulatory region. Nevertheless, as these few candidate driver mutations are often linked to gains in chromatin activity and gene expression, they may contribute to the oncogenic program by altering the expression levels of specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.

  15. Are indigenous personality dimensions culture specific? Philippine inventories and the five-factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katigbak, Marcia S; Church, A Timothy; Guanzon-Lapeña, Ma Angeles; Carlota, Annadaisy J; del, PilarGregorioH

    2002-01-01

    The authors addressed the culture specificity of indigenous personality constructs, the generalizability of the 5-factor model (FFM), and the incremental validity of indigenous measures in a collectivistic culture. Filipino college students (N = 508) completed 3 indigenous inventories and the Filipino version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). On the basis of the factor and regression analyses, they concluded that (a) most Philippine dimensions are well encompassed by the FFM and thus may not be very culture specific: (b) a few indigenous constructs are less well accounted for by the FFM: these constructs are not unknown in Western cultures, but they may be particularly salient or composed somewhat differently in the Philippines; (c) the structure of the NEO-PI-R FFM replicates well in the Philippines: and (d) Philippine inventories add modest incremental validity beyond the FFM in predicting selected culture-relevant criteria.

  16. Multiple factors confer specific Cdc42 and Rac protein activation by dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) nucleotide exchange factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Kiran; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Ziguo; Barford, David

    2011-07-15

    DOCK (dedicator of cytokinesis) guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activate the Rho-family GTPases Rac and Cdc42 to control cell migration, morphogenesis, and phagocytosis. The DOCK A and B subfamilies activate Rac, whereas the DOCK D subfamily activates Cdc42. Nucleotide exchange is catalyzed by a conserved DHR2 domain (DOCK(DHR2)). Although the molecular basis for DOCK(DHR2)-mediated GTPase activation has been elucidated through structures of a DOCK9(DHR2)-Cdc42 complex, the factors determining recognition of specific GTPases are unknown. To understand the molecular basis for DOCK-GTPase specificity, we have determined the crystal structure of DOCK2(DHR2) in complex with Rac1. DOCK2(DHR2) and DOCK9(DHR2) exhibit similar tertiary structures and homodimer interfaces and share a conserved GTPase-activating mechanism. Multiple structural differences between DOCK2(DHR2) and DOCK9(DHR2) account for their selectivity toward Rac1 and Cdc42. Key determinants of selectivity of Cdc42 and Rac for their cognate DOCK(DHR2) are a Phe or Trp residue within β3 (residue 56) and the ability of DOCK proteins to exploit differences in the GEF-induced conformational changes of switch 1 dependent on a divergent residue at position 27. DOCK proteins, therefore, differ from DH-PH GEFs that select their cognate GTPases through recognition of structural differences within the β2/β3 strands.

  17. Evaluation of Risk Factors Related to Recidivism Among Sentenced Males

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    Sinem Yıldız

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is taking the place of dangerousness in recent criminal research. Detection of static and dynamic risk factors related and/or interacting to recidivism in accordance with personality characteristics and crime types may help crime prevention strategies to improve. Out of all participants 35% (n=41 are sentenced for manslaughter/physical injury, 35% (n=41 sexual crime and 30% (n=35 theft. The mean age of the participants is 33.81 (sd=9-12 years. During the interview, a questionnaire which is prepared by the researcher by reviewing the literature, Symptom Checklist Short Form, aggression inventory was used. Interviews are conducted face to face by the researcher at the relevant correctional facilities with the permissions of Ministry of Justice and ethical committee. Recidivism is found related to having a period far away from nuclear family before age 18, criminal and drag-alcohol abusing friends, anti-social behaviors; abusing illegal drags, displaying disciplinary problems in prison and during military service. Discussion: Results are evaluated under demographics, relationships in family and close friends, childhood abuse by leaning on current literature. Key words: prevention and control, crime, risk assessment

  18. Correction factors for ionization chamber dosimetry in CyberKnife: Machine-specific, plan-class, and clinical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago-Arias, Araceli; Antolin, Elena; Fayos-Ferrer, Francisco; Simon, Rocio; Gonzalez-Castano, Diego M.; Palmans, Hugo; Sharpe, Peter; Gomez, Faustino; Pardo-Montero, Juan [Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Facultad de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, A Coruna 15782 (Spain); Servicio de Fisica Medica, Hospital Ruber Internacional, Madrid 28034 (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Facultad de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, A Coruna 15782, Spain and Laboratorio de Radiofisica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, A Coruna 15782 (Spain); National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middx TW11 OLW (United Kingdom); Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Facultad de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, A Coruna 15782, Spain and Laboratorio de Radiofisica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, A Coruna 15782 (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Facultad de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, A Coruna 15782 (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    overall correction factors associated with the proposed intermediate calibration fields and the clinical fields under investigation show that depending on the clinical field and the detector used, either a machine-specific reference field or a plan-class specific reference field is more representative for the clinical field. Given the experimental and numerical uncertainties and the small number of clinical fields considered in this study the significance of these observations is limited and it remains unclear for the CyberKnife if there would be a significant gain in using a pcsr field rather than a msr field as reference field for relative dosimetry.

  19. The Role of Trauma-Specific Irrational Beliefs and Sociodemographic Risk Factors in Posttraumatic Stress Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress responses have been linked to a range of social-cognitive and sociodemographic factors. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy suggests that responding to a traumatic life event with a set of irrational beliefs should play a crucial role in predicting the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD: Ellis, 2001). The current study assessed the role of trauma-specific irrational beliefs in the prediction of clinically relevant posttraumatic stress responses, while contr...

  20. Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Sextro, Richard G.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-07-07

    Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides--in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors--estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange-rate 20 m{sup 3} chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes.

  1. Firm-specific Factors, Shareholding Structure and Corporate Performance of the Japanese manufacturing Investments in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    MOURAD, MANSOUR; Yasuo, Hoshino; University of Tsukuba

    2000-01-01

    Direct investment by Japanese firms into European manufacturing industries increased substantially during the 1980s. What determines the performance of overseas operations of Multinational enterprises has been an important topic of research. This study aims at providing further evidence on the influence of entry mode and firm specific factors on the performance of Japanese-affiliated manufacturing investments in Europe, based on data for the period 1994-1997 compiled from Toyo Keizai Database...

  2. Factors related to depression and anxiety in adults with bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgün Niksarlioglu EY

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Elif Yelda Özgün Niksarlioglu,1 Gülcihan Özkan,2 Gülşah Günlüoğlu,1 Mehmet Atilla Uysal,1 Sule Gül,1 Lütfiye Kilic,1 Ayse Yeter,1 Güngör Çamsarı1 1Department of Chest Disease, Yedikule Chest Disease and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, 2Department of Chest Disease, Yeniyüzyıl University Gaziosmanpasa Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Introduction and background: Patients with chronic lung diseases frequently have depressive and anxiety symptoms, but there are very few studies looking at this in patients with bronchiectasis. Aim: This study aimed to investigate depression and anxiety and related factors among patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.Patients and methods: This was a prospective study of 133 patients with bronchiectasis. Patients with confirmed diagnosis of bronchiectasis with high-resolution computed tomography were enrolled in the study. Patients that were clinically stable in the previous 4 weeks were evaluated with the Hospital Depression and Anxiety scale. Symptoms, pulmonary function tests, and medical treatments were recorded.Results: The mean age of patients was 49.5±14.5 years (range, 18–77 years, and 81 (60.9% patients were females. Twenty-eight (21.1% patients had depression, and 53 (39.8% had anxiety. Depression score was related to family situation (living with a partner, previous depression history and admission to an emergency department within the last year. Anxiety score was related to female gender, the family situation (living with a partner, previous depression history, and admission to an emergency department within the last year (P<0.05. Depression was positively correlated with hemoptysis, admission to an emergency department within the last year and living with a partner. Anxiety was positively correlated with education level, previous depression history, admission to an emergency department within the last year, and living with a partner.Conclusion: Patients with non

  3. Memory deficit in patients with schizophrenia and posttraumatic stress disorder: relational vs item-specific memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung W

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wookyoung Jung,1 Seung-Hwan Lee1,2 1Clinical Emotions and Cognition Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, Goyang, Korea Abstract: It has been well established that patients with schizophrenia have impairments in cognitive functioning and also that patients who experienced traumatic events suffer from cognitive deficits. Of the cognitive deficits revealed in schizophrenia or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients, the current article provides a brief review of deficit in episodic memory, which is highly predictive of patients’ quality of life and global functioning. In particular, we have focused on studies that compared relational and item-specific memory performance in schizophrenia and PTSD, because measures of relational and item-specific memory are considered the most promising constructs for immediate tangible development of clinical trial paradigm. The behavioral findings of schizophrenia are based on the tasks developed by the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS initiative and the Cognitive Neuroscience Test Reliability and Clinical Applications for Schizophrenia (CNTRACS Consortium. The findings we reviewed consistently showed that schizophrenia and PTSD are closely associated with more severe impairments in relational memory compared to item-specific memory. Candidate brain regions involved in relational memory impairment in schizophrenia and PTSD are also discussed. Keywords: schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder, episodic memory deficit, relational memory, item-specific memory, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus

  4. Factors related to drug approvals: predictors of outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, Lawrence; Breckenridge, Alasdair; Hoekman, Jarno; McAuslane, Neil; Stolk, Pieter; Leufkens, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    There is growing interest in characterising factors associated with positive regulatory outcomes for drug marketing authorisations. We assessed empirical studies published over the past 15 years seeking to identify predictive factors. Factors were classified to one of four 'factor clusters': evidentiary support; product or indication characteristics; company experience or strategy; social and regulatory factors. We observed a heterogeneous mix of technical factors (e.g., study designs, clinical evidence of efficacy) and less studied social factors (e.g., company-regulator interactions). We confirmed factors known to be of relevance to drug approval decisions (imperative) and a cohort of less understood (compensatory) social factors. Having robust supportive clinical evidence, addressing rare or serious illness, following scientific advice and prior company experience were associated with positive outcomes, which illustrated the multifactorial nature of regulatory decision making and factors need to be considered holistically while having varying, context-dependent importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Patient- and Disease-Specific Factors Associated With Operative Management of de Quervain Tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmers, Nikolas H; Liu, Tiffany C; Gordon, Joshua A; Bozentka, David J; Steinberg, David R; Gray, Benjamin L

    2017-09-07

    It remains unclear which factors, patient- or disease-specific, are associated with electing to undergo operative management for de Quervain tendinopathy. Our null hypothesis was that no patient- or disease-specific factors would be associated with the choice of surgical treatment of de Quervain tendinopathy. We performed a retrospective review of consecutive patients diagnosed with de Quervain tendinopathy over 3 years by 1 of 3 fellowship-trained hand surgeons at an urban academic institution. Descriptive statistics were calculated for patient baseline and disease-specific characteristics. Cohorts were compared using bivariate analysis for all collected variables. Binary logistic regression with backward stepwise term selection was performed including independent predictors identified by bivariate analysis. A total of 200 patients were identified for inclusion. Bivariate analysis revealed that surgically treated patients were significantly more likely to have Medicaid insurance, psychiatric illness history, and disabled work status. Regression analysis revealed an association between surgical treatment and 2 of the factors evaluated: Medicaid insurance status and psychiatric illness history. Psychiatric illness and Medicaid insurance status are associated with undergoing surgical release of the first dorsal compartment. These findings support the use of a biopsychosocial framework when treating patients with de Quervain tendinopathy. Prognostic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural basis by which alternative splicing confers specificity in fibroblast growth factor receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Brian K; Igarashi, Makoto; Eliseenkova, Anna V; Plotnikov, Alexander N; Sher, Ifat; Ron, Dina; Aaronson, Stuart A; Mohammadi, Moosa

    2003-03-04

    Binding specificity between fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) is essential for mammalian development and is regulated primarily by two alternatively spliced exons, IIIb ("b") and IIIc ("c"), that encode the second half of Ig-like domain 3 (D3) of FGFRs. FGF7 and FGF10 activate only the b isoform of FGFR2 (FGFR2b). Here, we report the crystal structure of the ligand-binding portion of FGFR2b bound to FGF10. Unique contacts between divergent regions in FGF10 and two b-specific loops in D3 reveal the structural basis by which alternative splicing provides FGF10-FGFR2b specificity. Structure-based mutagenesis of FGF10 confirms the importance of the observed contacts for FGF10 biological activity. Interestingly, FGF10 binding induces a previously unobserved rotation of receptor Ig domain 2 (D2) to introduce specific contacts with FGF10. Hence, both D2 and D3 of FGFR2b contribute to the exceptional specificity between FGF10 and FGFR2b. We propose that ligand-induced conformational change in FGFRs may also play an important role in determining specificity for other FGF-FGFR complexes.

  7. Childhood bruxism: Related factors and impact on oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Castilho, Thuanny; Marinho, Marcello; Fraga, Renato Silva; Antunes, Leonardo Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess childhood bruxism relating associated factors and the bruxism's impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). A case-control study was performed with 3- to 6-year-old children obtained from public preschools in Brazil. The case and control groups had 21 and 40 children, respectively. Associations between bruxism and respiratory problems (p = 0.04, OR: 0.33, CI: 0.09 to 1.14), dental wear (p 0.05). The association between presence and absence of impact with bruxism or other variables showed no statistical relationship (p > 0.05). It could be concluded that childhood bruxism is related to respiratory problems, dental wear, dental caries, and malocclusion. Despite being a topic that demands special care in dentistry, bruxism does not significantly affect the OHRQoL.

  8. Validation of the bipolar disorder etiology scale based on psychological behaviorism theory and factors related to the onset of bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woo Park

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors related to the onset of bipolar I disorder (BD. To do so, the Bipolar Disorder Etiology Scale (BDES, based on psychological behaviorism, was developed and validated. Using the BDES, common factors related to both major depressive disorder (MDD and BD and specific factors related only to BD were investigated. METHOD: The BDES, which measures 17 factors based on psychological behaviorism hypotheses, was developed and validated. This scale was administered to 113 non-clinical control subjects, 30 subjects with MDD, and 32 people with BD. ANOVA and post hoc analyses were conducted. Subscales on which MDD and BD groups scored higher than controls were classified as common factors, while those on which the BD group scored higher than MDD and control groups were classified as specific factors. RESULTS: The BDES has acceptable reliability and validity. Twelve common factors influence both MDD and BD and one specific factor influences only BD. Common factors include the following: learning grandiose self-labeling, learning dangerous behavior, reinforcing impulsive behavior, exposure to irritability, punishment of negative emotional expression, lack of support, sleep problems, antidepressant problems, positive arousal to threat, lack of social skills, and pursuit of short-term pleasure. The specific factor is manic emotional response. CONCLUSIONS: Manic emotional response was identified as a specific factor related to the onset of BD, while parents' grandiose labeling is a candidate for a specific factor. Many factors are related to the onset of both MDD and BD.

  9. Validation of the bipolar disorder etiology scale based on psychological behaviorism theory and factors related to the onset of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Woo; Park, Kee Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors related to the onset of bipolar I disorder (BD). To do so, the Bipolar Disorder Etiology Scale (BDES), based on psychological behaviorism, was developed and validated. Using the BDES, common factors related to both major depressive disorder (MDD) and BD and specific factors related only to BD were investigated. The BDES, which measures 17 factors based on psychological behaviorism hypotheses, was developed and validated. This scale was administered to 113 non-clinical control subjects, 30 subjects with MDD, and 32 people with BD. ANOVA and post hoc analyses were conducted. Subscales on which MDD and BD groups scored higher than controls were classified as common factors, while those on which the BD group scored higher than MDD and control groups were classified as specific factors. The BDES has acceptable reliability and validity. Twelve common factors influence both MDD and BD and one specific factor influences only BD. Common factors include the following: learning grandiose self-labeling, learning dangerous behavior, reinforcing impulsive behavior, exposure to irritability, punishment of negative emotional expression, lack of support, sleep problems, antidepressant problems, positive arousal to threat, lack of social skills, and pursuit of short-term pleasure. The specific factor is manic emotional response. Manic emotional response was identified as a specific factor related to the onset of BD, while parents' grandiose labeling is a candidate for a specific factor. Many factors are related to the onset of both MDD and BD.

  10. Acute myeloid leukemia induced by graded reduction of a lineage-specific transcription factor, PU.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Frank; Wagner, Katharina; Kutok, Jeffery L; Iwasaki, Hiromi; Le Beau, Michelle M; Okuno, Yutaka; Akashi, Koichi; Fiering, Steven; Tenen, Daniel G

    2004-06-01

    Transcription factors are believed to have a dominant role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This idea is supported by analysis of gene-knockout mice, which uncovered crucial roles of several transcription factors in normal hematopoiesis, and of individuals with leukemia, in whom transcription factors are frequently downregulated or mutated. However, analysis of knockout animals has not shown a direct link between abrogated transcription factors and the pathogenesis of AML. Sfpi1, encoding the lineage-specific transcription factor PU.1, is indispensable for normal myeloid and lymphoid development. We found that mice carrying hypomorphic Sfpi1 alleles that reduce PU.1 expression to 20% of normal levels, unlike mice carrying homo- or heterozygous deletions of Sfpi1, developed AML. Unlike complete or 50% loss, 80% loss of PU.1 induced a precancerous state characterized by accumulation of an abnormal precursor pool retaining responsiveness to G-CSF with disruption of M- and GM-CSF pathways. Malignant transformation was associated with a high frequency of clonal chromosomal changes. Retroviral restoration of PU.1 expression rescued myeloid differentiation of mutant progenitors and AML blasts. These results suggest that tightly graded reduction, rather than complete loss, of a lineage-indispensable transcription factor can induce AML.

  11. STRUCTURAL AND CONTENT-RELATED SPECIFICITY OF PROGRAMME LITERARY CRITICISM TEXTS IN THE JOURNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilnikova Olga Gennadyevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article specifies the notions of the structural, content-related, figurative, and functional characteristics of the texts which are traditionally referred to the group of informational genres of journalism. This lets us update the system of factors that influence the formation of the texts' genre specificity in the mass media. The analysis of programme literary criticism speeches published in the journals of N.M. Karamzin – Moskovsky Zhurnal, Vestnik Evropy – shows that not only rational and logical structures accomplish the constructive function in the text-formation mechanisms of such publications. The use of imaginative resources of journalistic and artistic discourses plays an important role in the implementation of the author's intentions. The supplementation of programme texts with the components non-typical of informational genres (lyrical and biographical fragments, expressive lexis, artistic and journalistic forms of the author's subjectivity expression is conditioned by organic interaction of several pragmatic goals in the texts, such as: informational, author's individual (Karamzin as a personality, and author's professional (Karamzin as an editor, writer, literary critic. These peculiarities together with a subtext contribute to the formation of new features of programme publications, which are not common for informational genres such as aesthetic function and multi-discursivity, reflected in semantic, expressive and vocabulary redundance. They also expand the range of possible effects on audience – cognitive, emotive, behavioral and communicative. As a result, a unique informational text of a programme type is formed. Therefore, a strict differentiation of genre forms of journal texts is only possible when taking into consideration all the possible text goals, as well as its role in the organization of common-journal discourse and publication policy.

  12. [Rheumatoid factor activity as a disturbing factor in the serological diagnosis of specific IgM antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenschmidt, E G

    1984-04-01

    Rheumatoid factors (RF) are autoantibodies mainly directed against autologous IgG. They belong at most to the IgM class antibodies. It is demonstrated at groups with unsolved hepatitis B, rubella, syphilis and toxoplasmose infection that RF do occur not rarely at these patients even without rheumatoid arthritis. This is probably due to stimulation by antigen-IgG-complexes. During serologic detection of specific IgM antibodies they present an antigen independent mu-specificity. So the test for specific IgM might even loose its diagnostic and possibly therapy indicating value. It is shown how the disturbance by RF can be calculated after adsorption with aggregated IgG. Also RF can be titrated by an enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). With IgG coated latex particles RF can be eliminated prior to the IgM-test. Solid phase techniques which are applied with enzyme-coupled antigen instead of marked anti-IgM cannot be disturbed by RF significantly.

  13. Factors Affecting Two Types of Memory Specificity: Particularization of Episodes and Details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willén, Rebecca M; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif A

    2016-01-01

    Memory for repeated events is relevant to legal investigations about repeated occurrences. We investigated how two measures of specificity (number of events referred to and amount of detail reported about the events) were influenced by interviewees' age, number of experienced events, interviewer, perceived unpleasantness, and memory rehearsal. Transcribed narratives consisting of over 40.000 utterances from 95 dental patients, and the corresponding dental records, were studied. Amount of detail was measured by categorizing the utterances as generic, specific, or specific-extended. We found that the two measures were affected differently by all five factors. For instance, number of experienced events positively influenced number of referred events but had no effect on amount of detail provided about the events. We make suggestions for future research and encourage reanalysis of the present data set and reuse of the material.

  14. Gender specific associations of serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molendijk, Marc L.; Bus, Boudewijn A. A.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Prickaerts, Jos; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; Elzinga, Bernet M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Whereas animal models indicate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in anxiety-related behaviour, little is known about BDNF in patients with an anxiety disorder. We tested the hypothesis that serum BDNF levels are low in patients with an anxiety disorder as compare

  15. A presynaptic role for the ADP ribosylation factor (ARF)-specific GDP/GTP exchange factor msec7-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashery, U; Koch, H; Scheuss, V; Brose, N; Rettig, J

    1999-02-01

    ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs) represent a family of small monomeric G proteins that switch from an inactive, GDP-bound state to an active, GTP-bound state. One member of this family, ARF6, translocates on activation from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane and has been implicated in regulated exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells. Because GDP release in vivo is rather slow, ARF activation is facilitated by specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors like cytohesin-1 or ARNO. Here we show that msec7-1, a rat homologue of cytohesin-1, translocates ARF6 to the plasma membrane in living cells. Overexpression of msec7-1 leads to an increase in basal synaptic transmission at the Xenopus neuromuscular junction. msec7-1-containing synapses have a 5-fold higher frequency of spontaneous synaptic currents than control synapses. On stimulation, the amplitudes of the resulting evoked postsynaptic currents of msec7-1-overexpressing neurons are increased as well. However, further stimulation leads to a decline in amplitudes approaching the values of control synapses. This transient effect on amplitude is strongly reduced on overexpression of msec7-1E157K, a mutant incapable of translocating ARFs. Our results provide evidence that small G proteins of the ARF family and activating factors like msec7-1 play an important role in synaptic transmission, most likely by making more vesicles available for fusion at the plasma membrane.

  16. Investigating Commercial Cellulase Performances Toward Specific Biomass Recalcitrance Factors Using Reference Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Xiaohui; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Xiao

    2014-04-01

    Three commercial cellulase preparations, Novozymes Cellic® Ctec2, Dupont Accellerase® 1500, and DSM Cytolase CL, were evaluated for their hydrolytic activity using a set of reference biomass substrates with controlled substrate characteristics. It was found that lignin remains a significant recalcitrance factor to all the preparations, although different enzyme preparations respond to the inhibitory effect of lignin differently. Also, different types of biomass lignin can inhibit cellulose enzymes in different manners. Enhancing enzyme activity toward biomass fiber swelling is an area significantly contributing to potential improvement in cellulose performance. While the degree of polymerization of cellulose in the reference substrates did not present a major recalcitrance factor to Novozymes Cellic® Ctec2, cellulose crystallite has been shown to have a significant lower reactivity toward all enzyme mixtures. The presence of polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs) in Novozymes Ctec2 appears to enhance enzyme activity toward decrystallization of cellulose. This study demonstrated that reference substrates with controlled chemical and physical characteristics of structural features can be applied as an effective and practical strategy to identify cellulosic enzyme activities toward specific biomass recalcitrance factor(s) and provide specific targets for enzyme improvement.

  17. An Improved Algorithm for Generating Database Transactions from Relational Algebra Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Dougherty

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alloy is a lightweight modeling formalism based on relational algebra. In prior work with Fisler, Giannakopoulos, Krishnamurthi, and Yoo, we have presented a tool, Alchemy, that compiles Alloy specifications into implementations that execute against persistent databases. The foundation of Alchemy is an algorithm for rewriting relational algebra formulas into code for database transactions. In this paper we report on recent progress in improving the robustness and efficiency of this transformation.

  18. The moderating role of safety-specific trust on the relation between safety-specific leadership and safety citizenship behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchie, Stacey M; Donald, Ian J

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined whether safety-specific trust moderates or mediates the relationship between safety-specific transformational leadership and subordinates' safety citizenship behavior. Data from 139 subordinate-supervisor dyads were collected from the United Kingdom construction industry and analyzed using hierarchical regression models. Results showed that safety-specific trust moderated rather than mediated the effects of safety-specific transformational leaders on subordinates' behavior. Specifically, in conditions of high and moderate safety-specific trust, leaders had a significant effect on subordinates' safety citizenship behavior. However, in conditions of low safety-specific trust, leaders did not significantly influence subordinates' safety citizenship behavior. The implications of these findings for general safety theory and practice are discussed.

  19. Domain-specific reports of visual imagery vividness are not related to perceptual expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Mackenzie; McGugin, Rankin W; Gauthier, Isabel

    2016-04-08

    Just as people vary in their perceptual expertise with a given domain, they also vary in their abilities to imagine objects. Visual imagery and perception share common mechanisms. However, it is unclear whether domain-specific expertise is relevant to visual imagery. Although the vividness of visual imagery is typically measured as a domain-general construct, a component of this vividness may be domain-specific. For example, individuals who have gained perceptual expertise with a specific domain might experience clearer mental images within this domain. Here we investigated whether perceptual expertise for cars relates to visual imagery vividness in the same domain, by assessing the correlations between a widely used domain-general measure of visual imagery vividness (the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire; Marks in British Journal of Psychology, 64, 17-24, 1973), a new measure of visual imagery vividness specific to cars, and behavioral tests of car expertise. We found that domain-specific imagery relates most strongly to general imagery vividness and less strongly to self-reported expertise, while it does not relate to perceptual or semantic expertise.

  20. Gait speed and related factors in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paker, Nurdan; Bugdayci, Derya; Goksenoglu, Goksen; Demircioğlu, Demet Tekdöş; Kesiktas, Nur; Ince, Nurhan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gait speed and various factors in ambulatory patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. [Subjects] Fifty ambulatory patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease who were admitted to an outpatient clinic were included in this cross-sectional study. [Methods] The Hoehn and Yahr Scale was used for measurement of the disease severity. Gait speed was measured by the 10-Meter Walk Test. Mobility status was assessed by Timed Up and Go Test. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used for evaluation of emotional state. Cognitive status was examined with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The Downton Index was used for fall risk assessment. Balance was evaluated with the Berg Balance Scale. Comorbidity was measured with the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey was completed for measurement of quality of life. [Results] The mean age was 66.7 (47–83) years. Twenty-eight (56%) patients were men. Gait speed was correlated positively with height, male gender, Mini-Mental Examination score, Berg Balance Scale score and physical summary scores of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. On the other hand, there was a negative correlation between gait speed and age, disease severity, TUG time, Downton Index, fear of falling, previous falls and the anxiety and depression scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. There was no correlation between gait speed and comorbidity. [Conclusion] The factors related with the slower gait speed are, elder age, clinically advanced disease, poor mobility, fear of falling, falling history, higher falling risk, and mood disorder. PMID:26834330

  1. Reproductive factors related to childbearing and mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghjyan, Lusine; Colditz, Graham A; Rosner, Bernard; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the associations of reproductive factors related to childbearing with percent breast density, absolute dense and nondense areas, by menopausal status. This study included 4110 cancer-free women within the Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II cohorts. Percent breast density, absolute dense and nondense areas were measured from digitized mammography film images with computerized techniques. All density measures were square root-transformed in all the analyses to improve normality. The data on reproductive variables and other breast cancer risk factors were obtained from biennial questionnaires, at the time of the mammogram date. As compared to nulliparous women, parous postmenopausal women had lower percent density (β = -0.60, 95 % CI -0.84; -0.37), smaller absolute dense area (β = -0.66, 95 % CI -1.03; -0.29), and greater nondense area (β = 0.72, 95 % CI 0.27; 1.16). Among parous women, number of children was inversely associated with percent density in pre- (β per one child = -0.12, 95 % CI -0.20; -0.05) and postmenopausal women (β per one child = -0.07, 95 % CI -0.12; -0.02). The positive associations of breastfeeding with absolute dense and nondense areas were limited to premenopausal women, while the positive association of the age at first child's birth with percent density and the inverse association with nondense area were limited to postmenopausal women. Women with greater number of children and younger age at first child's birth have more favorable breast density patterns that could explain subsequent breast cancer risk reduction.

  2. Allelic-specific expression in relation to Bombyx mori resistance to Bt toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yazhou; Li, Muwang; Islam, Iftakher; You, Lang; Wang, Yueqiang; Li, Zhiqian; Ling, Lin; Zeng, Baosheng; Xu, Jun; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the mechanism of Bt resistance is one of the key elements of the effective application of Bt in pest control. The lepidopteran model insect, the silkworm, demonstrates qualities that make it an ideal species to use in achieving this understanding. We screened 45 strains of silkworm (Bombyx mori) using a Cry1Ab toxin variant. The sensitivity levels of the strains varied over a wide range. A resistant strain (P50) and a phylogenetically related susceptible strain (Dazao) were selected to profile the expressions of 12 Bt resistance-related genes. The SNPs in these genes were detected based on EST analysis and were validated by allelic-specific PCR. A comparison of allelic-specific expression between P50 and Dazao showed that the transcript levels of heterozygous genes containing two alleles rather than an imbalanced allelic expression contribute more to the resistance of P50 against Bt. The responses of the allelic-specific expression to Bt in hybrid larvae were then investigated. The results showed that the gene expression pattern of an ATP-binding cassette transporter C2 (ABCC2) and an aminopeptidase N (APN3), changed in an allelic-specific manner, with the increase of the resistant allele expression correlated with larval survival. The results suggest that a trans-regulatory mechanism in ABCC2 and APN3 allelic-specific expression is involved in the insect's response to the Bt toxin. The potential role of allelic-specific gene regulation in insect resistance to Bt toxins is discussed.

  3. MOTHER – CHILD RELATION AND FACTORS AFFECTING T H I S RELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma TEZEL ŞAHİ N

    2014-09-01

    in order to make him attain his personality. In this circle where enough support is given to the child, the qualities of the discipline and education given by the mother are positive. The child is grown up as brave and adaptive persons to the society. He learns to build his life upon positive efforts. The purpose of the current study wa s to determine a healthy mother - child relation, its importance and factors affecting mother - child relation. In this line, the studies regarding the issue were discussed and some recommendations were given over the studies to be carried out.

  4. Determination of risk factors for drug-related problems: a multidisciplinary triangulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Carole P; Stämpfli, Dominik; Hersberger, Kurt E; Lampert, Markus L

    2015-03-20

    Drug-related problems (DRPs) constitute a frequent safety issue among hospitalised patients leading to patient harm and increased healthcare costs. Because many DRPs are preventable, the specific risk factors that facilitate their occurrence are of considerable interest. The objective of our study was to assess risk factors for the occurrence of DRPs with the intention to identify patients at risk for DRPs to guide and target preventive measures where they are needed most in patients. Triangulation process using a mixed methods approach. We conducted an expert panel, using the nominal group technique (NGT) and a qualitative analysis, to gather risk factors for DRPs. The expert panel consisted of two consultant hospital physicians (internal medicine and geriatrics), one emergency physician, one independent general practitioner, one clinical pharmacologist, one clinical pharmacist, one registered nurse, one home care nurse and two independent community pharmacists. The literature was searched for additional risk factors. Gathered factors from the literature search and the NGT were assembled and validated in a two-round Delphi questionnaire. The NGT resulted in the identification of 33 items with 13 additional risk factors from the qualitative analysis of the discussion. The literature search delivered another 39 risk factors. The 85 risk factors were refined to produce 42 statements for the Delphi online questionnaire. Of these, 27 risk factors were judged to be 'important' or 'rather important'. The gathered risk factors may help to characterise and identify patients at risk for DRPs and may enable clinical pharmacists to guide and target preventive measures in order to limit the occurrence of DRPs. As a further step, these risk factors will serve as the basis for a screening tool to identify patients at risk for DRPs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1068 - Emission-Related Parameters and Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission-Related Parameters and Specifications II Appendix II to Part 1068 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Pt. 1068, App. II Appendix...

  6. Specific Coping Behaviors in Relation to Adolescent Depression and Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific…

  7. The Rise of International Relations Programs in the Brazilian Federal Universities: Curriculum Specificities and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcos Alan S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this reflection is to study the new international relations (IR) programs introduced by Brazilian federal universities, looking comparatively at their curriculum specificities and current challenges. In recent years, Brazil has seen an increase of IR programs launched in several regions. Since 2003, the Ministry of Education is in the…

  8. Constructing Domain-Specific Knowledge in Kindergarten: Relations among Knowledge, Intelligence, and Strategic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Joyce M.; Johnson, Kathy E.; Leibham, Mary E.; DeBauge, Christiane

    2005-01-01

    Thirty kindergarten children from two classrooms participated in a 3-week curricular unit on dinosaurs designed to teach taxonomic relations and distinguishing features aligned with 15 dinosaur species. Both domain-specific learning and strategic performance on a Twenty Questions game were assessed twice throughout the curriculum, as well as…

  9. Relation between visual function index and falls-related factors in patients with age-related cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Na Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the relation between vision function index and falls-related factors in patients with age-related cataract.METHODS:Ninety-six patients with age-related cataract were interviewed using a seven-item visual function questionnaire(VF-7, then classified into poor, moderate, or good visual function group. The differences of the three groups on visual acuity, balance and mobility function, cognition, depressive symptoms, self-reported fear of falling were analyzed. RESULTS:The patients in poor visual function group had older age, tendency to depression, was more afraid of falling, compared with groups with higher score in VF-7, and they had worse visual acuity, performed worse on all balance and mobility tests. CONCLUSION:Poor visual function is related to worse visual acuity, weaker balance and mobility performance in patients with age-related cataract. The VF-7, as a simple and convenient self-reported method, can be used as a falling risk monitoring in patients with age-related cataract.

  10. A sex-specific transcription factor controls male identity in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Tracy; Collins, James J; Brubacher, John L; Zarkower, David; Newmark, Phillip A

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary transitions between hermaphroditic and dioecious reproductive states are found in many groups of animals. To understand such transitions, it is important to characterize diverse modes of sex determination utilized by metazoans. Currently, little is known about how simultaneous hermaphrodites specify and maintain male and female organs in a single individual. Here we show that a sex-specific gene, Smed-dmd-1 encoding a predicted doublesex/male-abnormal-3 (DM) domain transcription factor, is required for specification of male germ cells in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. dmd-1 has a male-specific role in the maintenance and regeneration of the testes and male accessory reproductive organs. In addition, a homologue of dmd-1 exhibits male-specific expression in Schistosoma mansoni, a derived, dioecious flatworm. These results demonstrate conservation of the role of DM domain genes in sexual development in lophotrochozoans and suggest one means by which modulation of sex-specific pathways can drive the transition from hermaphroditism to dioecy.

  11. Feasibility of developing a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research: Design specifications. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.

    1998-01-01

    A two-phase, multi-year research program entitled ``development of a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research was recently completed. The primary objective of the project was to develop a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) that will allow driver performance data to be collected using a large variety of vehicle types and that would be capable of being installed on a given vehicle type within a relatively short-time frame. During Phase 1 a feasibility study for designing and fabricating DASCAR was conducted. In phase 2 of the research DASCAR was actually developed and validated. This technical memorandum documents the results from the feasibility study. It is subdivided into three volumes. Volume one addresses the last five items in the phase 1 research and the first issue in the second phase of the project. Volume 2 presents the related appendices. Volume three (this report) displays the design specifications developed for DASCAR during the ``develop design requirements and specifications for a portable driver performance data acquisition system`` task. Design specifications were assembled for each DASCAR element. The specifications were prepared in sufficient detail to allow a third party to use them to design, develop, procure, and subsequently construct the data acquisition system. This report also covers the background to the program.

  12. Environmental factors related to multiple sclerosis in Indian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaithra Malli

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is less prevalent among Indians when compared to white populations. Genetic susceptibility remaining the same it is possible that environmental associations may have a role in determining disease prevalence.To determine whether childhood infections, vaccination status, past infection with Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori, diet, socioeconomic and educational status were associated with MS.139 patients and 278 matched control subjects were selected. A validated environmental exposure questionnaire was administered. Estimation of serum H.pylori IgG antibody was done by ELISA. Patients and controls were genotyped for HLA-DRB1*15:01.In our cohort a significant association was seen with measles (p < 0.007, vegetarian diet (p < 0.001, higher educational status (p < 0.0001 and urban living (p < 0.0001. An inverse relationship was seen with H.Pylori infection and MS (p < 0.001. Measles infection (OR 6.479, CI 1.21-34.668, p < 0.029 and high educational status (OR 3.088, CI 1.212-7.872, p < 0.018 were significant risk factors associated with MS. H.pylori infection was inversely related to MS (OR 0. 319, CI 0.144- 0.706, p < 0.005.Environmental influences may be important in determining MS prevalence.

  13. Related factors of comprehensive treatment effect on anisometropic amblyopia children

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    Ai-Xin Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the related factors of comprehensive treatment effect on anisometropic amblyopia children, and to provide a theoretical basis for clinical intervention. METHODS: Totally 100 cases of anisometropic amblyopia children in our hospital from October 2013 to October 2014 were selected and were divided into groups A, B and C according to curative effect after 6~18mo's treatment. Fifty-four cases of group A were judged to be cured, 34 cases of group B were judged to be improved, and 12 cases of group C was invalid. The age, compliance, anisometropia degree, anisometropia type, amblyopia degree and fixation behavior were analyzed. RESULTS: Anisometropia type among the three groups of patients showed no significant difference(P>0.05. While the age, compliance, anisometropia degree, amblyopia degree and fixation behavior among three groups of patients had statistically significant differences(PCONCLUSION: There are closed relationship between comprehensive treatment effect and age, compliance, anisometropia degree, amblyopia degree, fixation behavior, but there is no significant correlation between anisometropia type and comprehensive treatment effect.

  14. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome, Periodic Limb Movements and Related Factors

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    Osman Özgür Yalın

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is characterized by nocturnal repetitive apnea episodes. Periodic limb movements (PLMs is nocturnal, stereotypic, repetitive movements of the lower extremities. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of periodic limb movements in OSAS patients and correlation of PLM with OSAS severity. METHODS: One hundred and forty one OSAS suspected patients was enrolled into the study. All subjects’ blood pressure, heart rate measurements and neurologic examinations were made by the same neurologist. Sociodemographic characteristics were recorded. One night polysomnography (PSG was performed to all patients and results were analyzed. Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI ≥ 5 subjects were accepted as OSAS, and PLM Index (PLMI ≥ 5 subjects were accepted as having PLM. RESULTS: One hundred and two patients were diagnosed as OSAS. The control group consisted of 39 patients who had normal polysomnographic findings. OSAS patients’ were older and body mass index (BMI were higher than the control group. Systolic blood pressure was higher in OSAS group. Alcohol use was determined as a risk factor for OSAS. PLM were more common in OSAS group than the control group (% 30,3 - % 10,2. PLM frequency was associated with the severity of OSAS. CONCLUSION: In OSAS patients presence of PLM was related with OSAS severity, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and REM sleep depletion. PLM in OSAS patients could be regarded as an indicator of disease severity and also could aware clinician for increased complication rates.

  15. Compliance with antimicrobial therapy: Evaluating the related factors

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    Mandana Moradi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncontrolled and irrational use of antibiotics increases the rate of antimicrobial resistance and treatment failure. Compliance with antibiotics is an important indicator to show how patients use their prescribed drugs and it can explain the relationship between drug administration and treatment outcome that needs to be monitored and promoted. We decided to evaluate compliance to antimicrobial drugs in this study.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 100 patients referring to 4 different specialists’ offices were enrolled. The rate and type of non prescribed antibiotic administration were evaluated using predesigned questionnaires. The data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software using descriptive statistics and chi-square test for categorical data.Results: Our results showed that 62.4% of the study population had poor compliance and 37.6 % had good compliance with their prescribed regimen. “Feeling better “and “getting worse” on prescribed regimen were major reasons for drug discontinuation. About 70% of our study population get non prescribed antibiotic from pharmacies at least once a year. Most of the requested antibiotics were not first line options. Level of education was the only factor significantly related to the rate of patient compliance. Conclusion: This study shows the high rate of non prescribed antibiotic administration and low rate of compliance among the study population that emerge the need for particular patient education and putting restrictive rules to bound  non-prescribed and unsupervised  antibiotic marketing.

  16. Celecoxib inhibits Helicobacter pylori colonization-related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei-Hong; Li, Jiang; Liu, Fang-Xun

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization-related factors and its mechanism. METHODS: After co-incubation with celecoxib, morphology of H. pylori strain 26695 was observed under a transmission electron microscope. Flagella motility was assessed by stab agar motility test. Adherence of H. pylori to AGS cells was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of mRNA expression in flagellar genes (flaA, flaB), urease genes (ureA, ureB) and adhesin genes (babA, sabA, alpA, alpB, hpaA, hopZ) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Separation and non-integrity of bacterial cell wall, rarefaction and asymmetry of cytoplasm, and even lysis of H. pylori were observed in the presence of celecoxib. When H. pylori strains were incubated in the presence of celecoxib, their flagellar motility and adherence to AGS cells were inhibited. The expression of ureA, ureB, babA, sabA, alpA, alpB, hpaA, hopZ was up-regulated while the expression of flaA, flaB was down-regulated in the presence of celecoxib. CONCLUSION: Celecoxib inhibits flagellar motility and adherence of H. pylori to AGS cells, and destructs their normal structure in vitro. PMID:20143463

  17. Factors related to smoking habits of male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-09-15

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  18. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naing Nyi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1 the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2 mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3 there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  19. Ligand-specific sequential regulation of transcription factors for differentiation of MCF-7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyoda Tetsuro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sharing a common ErbB/HER receptor signaling pathway, heregulin (HRG induces differentiation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells while epidermal growth factor (EGF elicits proliferation. Although cell fates resulting from action of the aforementioned ligands completely different, the respective gene expression profiles in early transcription are qualitatively similar, suggesting that gene expression during late transcription, but not early transcription, may reflect ligand specificity. In this study, based on both the data from time-course quantitative real-time PCR on over 2,000 human transcription factors and microarray of all human genes, we identified a series of transcription factors which may control HRG-specific late transcription in MCF-7 cells. Results We predicted that four transcription factors including EGR4, FRA-1, FHL2, and DIPA should have responsibility of regulation in MCF-7 cell differentiation. Validation analysis suggested that one member of the activator protein 1 (AP-1 family, FOSL-1 (FRA-1 gene, appeared immediately following c-FOS expression, might be responsible for expression of transcription factor FHL2 through activation of the AP-1 complex. Furthermore, RNAi gene silencing of FOSL-1 and FHL2 resulted in increase of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation of which duration was sustained by HRG stimulation. Conclusion Our analysis indicated that a time-dependent transcriptional regulatory network including c-FOS, FRA-1, and FHL2 is vital in controlling the ERK signaling pathway through a negative feedback loop for MCF-7 cell differentiation.

  20. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonisation in Danish and Norwegian broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck Høg, B; Sommer, H M; Larsen, L S; Sørensen, A I V; David, B; Hofshagen, M; Rosenquist, H

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacteriosis has become the leading bacterial zoonosis in humans in the European Union and other developed countries. There are many sources of human Campylobacter infections, but broilers and broiler meat have been shown to be the most important. In order to implement effective interventions that reduce the probability of Campylobacter colonisation of broiler flocks, it is essential to fully understand the risk factors involved. We present a bi-national risk factor survey comprising Campylobacter data from more than 5200 Danish and Norwegian indoor, conventional broiler flocks and the responses to a standardised questionnaire, with more than 40 explanatory variables from 277 Danish and Norwegian farms. We explored several models by using different combinations of the Danish and Norwegian data, including models with single-country datasets. All models were analysed using a generalized linear model using backwards elimination and forward selection. The results show that Norwegian broiler flocks had a lower risk of being colonised than Danish flocks. Farm specific variables that increased the risk of flocks becoming colonised with Campylobacter in both countries were: broiler houses older than five years; longer downtime (no. of days between flocks), probably a consequence of longer downtimes being associated with less focus on maintaining a high biosecurity level; broiler houses without a separate ante-room or barrier; and the use of the drinker nipples with cups or bells compared with nipples without cups. Additional country specific risk factors were also identified. For Norway, the risk of colonisation increased with increasing numbers of houses on a farm and when the water used for the broilers originated from surface water or bore holes instead of mains. For Denmark, having boot dips or low stocking density increased the risk of a flock becoming Campylobacter positive. The different model approaches allowed us to explore the effect of having a large

  1. Prognostic significance of specific injury patterns in casualties of traffic-related accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calosevic, Srdjan; Lovric, Zvonimir

    2015-11-01

    Fatal triad and ipsilateral dyad are patterns of pedestrian injuries related to significant mortality in traffic-related accidents. The aim of this research was to investigate the correlation between specific injury patterns and fatal outcome in other participants of traffic-related accidents. This was a retrospective study of traffic-related accidents in the broader area of the city of Osijek in a five-year period from 1995 to 1999. Autopsy results from the Institute of Pathology and Forensic Medicine of the Clinical Hospital Centre Osijek were analysed of individuals who died after their accident. The total severity of injuries was measured using the ISS. Logistic regression analysis was used for assessing the correlation between specific injury patterns and an early outcome from the severe injury. There were 213 individuals included in the study: 72 pedestrians and 141 other participants (drivers, assistant drivers, passengers, cyclists and motorcyclists). A total of129 individuals died on the spot and 84 died in the hospital during the first 48h. Femoral and pelvic fracture, fatal triad and both variants of ipsilateral dyad were related to higher ISS values. Ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremities (ipsilateral dyad 1) was associated with a 4.59 times higher risk of an immediate fatal outcome in the total sample. In pedestrians, the risk was 5.99 higher, and in other participants, the risk was 4.11 times higher. Specific skeletal injuries and injury patterns are a significant indicator for total injury severity and related poor prognosis for all participants of traffic-related injuries, not only for pedestrians. In this study, the ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremity was related to the largest total severity of injuries and the poorest prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The relations between parents' Big Five personality factors and parenting: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzie, Peter; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Deković, Maja; Reijntjes, Albert H A; Belsky, Jay

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the association between Big Five personality factors and three dimensions of parenting-warmth, behavioral control, and autonomy support-the authors conducted meta-analyses using 5,853 parent-child dyads that were included in 30 studies. Effect sizes were significant and robust across mother and father reports and across assessment methods of parenting (self-report versus observations) but were generally small in magnitude. Higher levels of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness and lower levels of Neuroticism were related to more warmth and behavioral control, whereas higher levels of Agreeableness and lower levels of Neuroticism were related to more autonomy support. Several factors moderated the relationship between specific personality dimensions and parenting: child and parental age, reliability of observational assessment of parenting behavior, and study design. Taken together, these results indicate that personality can be seen as an inner resource that affects parenting.

  3. Immune Reactions Against Elongation Factor 2 Kinase: Specific Pathogenesis of Gastric Ulcer from Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Ayada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is a definite causative factor for gastric ulcers (GUs. In the present study we detected a specific antigen of gastric epithelial cells (HGC-27 using cell ELISA, which was recognized by the sera of GU patients (n=20 but not in patients with chronic gastritis (CG; n=20 or in healthy volunteers (HC; n=10. This antigen was over-expressed by a stressful (heat-stressed environment, and was identified as elongation factor 2 kinase (EF-2K by western blotting. The GU patients' lymphocytes stimulated by H. pylori specifically disrupted heat-stressed HGC-27 cells in a cytotoxic assay. In flow cytometry, the effector cells (lymphocytes from GU patients were significantly differentiated to T helper type 1 lymphocyte (Th1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL as opposed to those from CG patients. The target cells (HGC-27 expressed EF-2K and MHC-class I together with costimulatory molecules from heat stress. This antigen specific immune mechanism could have a prominent role in the pathogenesis of GU.

  4. Firm-specific factors and financial performance of firms in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathirawasam Chandrapala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the role of internal factors in generating financial performance of firms in the Czech Republic. The paper examines the impact of firm specific factors on company financial performance of 974 firms in the Czech Republic over the period 2005 to 2008, using data in the Albertina database. Pooled and panel cross-sectional time series techniques are used for the data analysis. Return on Assets (ROA is the dependent variable of the model and eight firm specific factors are introduced as the explanatory variables. Using Return on Assets as the dependent variable, it is established that the firm size, sales growth and capital turnover are having significant positive impact on financial performance of firms. At the same time, debt ratio and inventory reflect significant negative impact on financial performance of firms. Overall explanatory powers of the two models are low and further research is necessary to increase the statistical power of the model. The results from the present study may be very encouraging and useful for managers as well as investors to plan investment and operational activities to achieve profitability objectives more efficiently and effectively. The findings have important managerial implications.

  5. Age related differences in dynamics of specific memory B cell populations after clinical pertussis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inonge van Twillert

    Full Text Available For a better understanding of the maintenance of immune mechanisms to Bordetella pertussis (Bp in relation to age, we investigated the dynamic range of specific B cell responses in various age-groups at different time points after a laboratory confirmed pertussis infection. Blood samples were obtained in a Dutch cross sectional observational study from symptomatic pertussis cases. Lymphocyte subpopulations were phenotyped by flowcytometry before and after culture. Memory B (Bmem cells were differentiated into IgG antibody secreting cells (ASC by polyclonal stimulation and detected by an ELISPOT assay specific for pertussis antigens pertussis toxin (Ptx, filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA and pertactin (Prn. Bp antigen specific IgG concentrations in plasma were determined using multiplex technology. The majority of subjects having experienced a clinical pertussis episode demonstrated high levels of both Bp specific IgG and Bmem cell levels within the first 6 weeks after diagnosis. Significantly lower levels were observed thereafter. Waning of cellular and humoral immunity to maintenance levels occurred within 9 months after antigen encounter. Age was found to determine the maximum but not base-line frequencies of Bmem cell populations; higher levels of Bmem cells specific for Ptx and FHA were reached in adults and (pre- elderly compared to under-fours and schoolchildren in the first 6 weeks after Bp exposure, whereas not in later phases. This age effect was less obvious for specific IgG levels. Nonetheless, subjects' levels of specific Bmem cells and specific IgG were weakly correlated. This is the first study to show that both age and closeness to last Bp encounter impacts the size of Bp specific Bmem cell and plasma IgG levels.

  6. Sex-specific risk factors for childhood wheeze and longitudinal phenotypes of wheeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Sze Man; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Coull, Brent A; Litonjua, Augusto A; Oken, Emily; Gold, Diane R

    2016-12-01

    Although sexual dimorphism in wheeze and asthma prevalence are well documented, sex-specific risk factors for wheeze and longitudinal wheeze phenotypes have not been well elucidated. By using a large prebirth cohort, this study aimed to identify sex-specific risk factors for wheeze from birth through midchildhood and identify distinct longitudinal wheeze phenotypes and the sex-specific risk factors associated with these phenotypes. Mothers reported child wheeze symptoms over the past year approximately yearly on 9 occasions starting at age 1 year. We identified sex-specific predictors of wheeze, wheeze phenotypes, and sex-specific predictors of these phenotypes by using generalized estimating equations, latent class mixed models, and multinomial logistic analysis, respectively. A total of 1623 children had information on wheeze at 1 or more time points. Paternal asthma was a stronger predictor of ever wheezing in boys (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95% CI, 1.74-2.66) than in girls (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.19-1.96; P for sex by paternal asthma interaction = .03), whereas being black or Hispanic, birth weight for gestational age z score, and breast-feeding duration had stronger associations among girls. We identified 3 longitudinal wheeze phenotypes: never/infrequent wheeze (74.1%), early transient wheeze (12.7%), and persistent wheeze (13.1%). Compared with never/infrequent wheeze, maternal asthma, infant bronchiolitis, and atopic dermatitis were associated with persistent wheeze in both sexes, but paternal asthma was associated with persistent wheeze in boys only (OR, 4.27; 95% CI, 2.33-7.83; P for sex by paternal asthma interaction = .02), whereas being black or Hispanic was a predictor for girls only. We identified sex-specific predictors of wheeze and longitudinal wheeze patterns, which might have important prognostic value and allow for a more personalized approach to wheeze and asthma treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  7. Noise as an explanatory factor in work-related fatality reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshaies, Pierre; Martin, Richard; Belzile, Danny; Fortier, Pauline; Laroche, Chantal; Leroux, Tony; Nélisse, Hugues; Girard, Serge-André; Arcand, Robert; Poulin, Maurice; Picard, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Noise exposure in the workplace is a common reality in Québec, Canada as it is elsewhere. However, the extent to which noise acts as a causal or contributive factor in industrial work-related accidents has not been studied thoroughly despite its plausibility. This article aims to describe the importance or potential importance, during investigations looking into the specific causes of each work-related fatal accident, of noise as an explanatory factor. The written information contained in the accident reports pertaining to contextual and technical elements were used. The study used multiple case qualitative content analysis. This descriptive study was based on the content analysis of the 788 reports from the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec [Workers' Compensation Board (WCB)] investigating the fatal work-related accidents between 1990 and 2005. The study was descriptive (number and percentages). Noise was explicitly stated as one of the explanatory factors for the fatal outcome in 2.2% (17/788) of the fatal accidents, particularly when the work involved vehicular movement or the need to communicate between workers. Noise was not typically considered a unique cause in the accident, notably because the investigators considered that the accident would have probably occurred due to other risk factors (for example, disregard of safety rules, shortcomings in work methods, and inadequate training). Noise is an important risk factor when communication is involved in work. Since noise is ubiquitous and may also interfere with vigilance and other risk factors for accidents, it may be a much more important contributing factor to accidents than is currently recognized.

  8. Risk factor(s) related to high membrane permeability in peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Aydin; Sipahioglu, Murat Hayri; Kocyigit, Ismail; Tunca, Onur; Tokgoz, Bulent; Oymak, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients have different peritoneal membrane permeability (transport) characteristics. High peritoneal membrane permeability is associated with increased mortality risk in the patient population. In this study, we aimed to investigate possible risk factor(s) related to high peritoneal membrane permeability. The study included 475 PD patients (46.1 ± 14.5 years of mean age; 198 female and 277 male). The patients were divided two groups according to peritoneal equilibration test (PET) result: high-permeability group (high and high-average) and low- permeability group (low-average and low). In both the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, it was found that diabetes mellitus and hypoalbuminemia was significantly associated with high peritoneal membrane permeability [relative risk (RR): 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26-2.86, p: 0.002 and RR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.44-3.18, ppermeability. Diabetic patients had 1.9 times the likelihood of having high permeability. However, the relationship between hypoalbuminemia and high peritoneal permeability appears to be a result rather than cause.

  9. Differential specificity between closely related corals and abundant Endozoicomonas endosymbionts across global scales

    KAUST Repository

    Neave, Matthew J.

    2016-07-08

    Reef-building corals are well regarded not only for their obligate association with endosymbiotic algae, but also with prokaryotic symbionts, the specificity of which remains elusive. To identify the central microbial symbionts of corals, their specificity across species and conservation over geographic regions, we sequenced partial SSU ribosomal RNA genes of Bacteria and Archaea from the common corals Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora verrucosa across 28 reefs within seven major geographical regions. We demonstrate that both corals harbor Endozoicomonas bacteria as their prevalent symbiont. Importantly, catalyzed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD–FISH) with Endozoicomonas-specific probes confirmed their residence as large aggregations deep within coral tissues. Using fine-scale genotyping techniques and single-cell genomics, we demonstrate that P. verrucosa harbors the same Endozoicomonas, whereas S. pistillata associates with geographically distinct genotypes. This specificity may be shaped by the different reproductive strategies of the hosts, potentially uncovering a pattern of symbiont selection that is linked to life history. Spawning corals such as P. verrucosa acquire prokaryotes from the environment. In contrast, brooding corals such as S. pistillata release symbiont-packed planula larvae, which may explain a strong regional signature in their microbiome. Our work contributes to the factors underlying microbiome specificity and adds detail to coral holobiont functioning.

  10. Study of Relation of Psychological Factors of Empowerment and Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad G. Chegini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Today, organizations are able to survive that have dynamic requirements and potentials and can make a proper response to changes and equip their human sources to the knowledge and skill of generative entrepreneurship through establishing necessary aspects. The increasing rate of changes in scientific, economic and social areas is one of the most common features of the century. The purpose of this research is to study the relationship between the psychological factors of empowerment and entrepreneurship of trainers of Northern provinces, technico-vocational skill organizations (Mazandaran, Golestan, Guilan of Iran. Approach: The research with respect to the methodology and nature is descriptive, it is of kind of adhesion in regret to the relation of psychological factors of empowerment with entrepreneurship and it is applicable with respect to the aim because it can be implemented. The 566-people statistic community included the total of trainers employed in three Iranian Northern provinces that based on the Cochran formula, 270 people selected as samples. The may of collecting field information and data collection tool has been questionnaire. The admissibility of the questionnaire was studied in regard to the content and professional consultants gave some ideas about it and it’s durability calculated by using Cronbach Alfa test, that competed 92 and 87% for entrepreneurship and empowerment respectively. Statistical techniques used include: Descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Pearson adhesion coefficient and analyzing data done by using software SPSS. Results: That there is a meaningful and positive relationship between all psychological dimensions of empowerment (self-efficiency, self-determination, personal consequence, meaning, trust in others and entrepreneurship as feeling to be meaningful is first, feeling of self-efficiency is second, feeling to be efficient is third, feeling of self-determination is fourth and

  11. Examining the unique relations between anxiety sensitivity factors and suicidal ideation and past suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Norr, Aaron M; Boffa, Jay W; Durmaz, Daphne; Raines, Amanda M; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-30

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) has recently been linked to suicidality. Specifically, AS cognitive concerns has been implicated as a risk factor, and AS physical concerns as a protective factor, for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, no studies have used structural equation modeling (SEM) to address issues of skewed suicide variables and bifactor modeling of AS to address the high degree of overlap between the lower-order dimensions of AS that limit interpretation of these past findings. AS, suicidal ideation, past suicide attempts, and depression were assessed in a clinical sample of 267 individuals (M age=35.45 years, SD=16.53; 52.1% female). The global AS and AS cognitive concerns factors were positively, significantly associated with suicidal ideation, though these effects were nonsignificant controlling for depression. The global AS factor was positively, significantly associated with suicide attempts, controlling for depression. The current study demonstrated that the relations between AS and suicidal ideation are not maintained when accounting for depression, suggesting that the relation between AS and suicidal ideation may be mediated by depression. The positive relation between global AS and suicide attempts is consistent with theories positing suicide attempts as a consequence of an inability to cope with intolerable distress.

  12. Relative specificities of water and ammonia losses from backbone fragments in collision-activated dissociation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savitski, Mikhail M; Kjeldsen, Frank; Nielsen, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of a database containing over 20,000 high-resolution collision-activation mass spectra of tryptic peptide dications was employed to study the relative specificity of neutral losses from backbone fragments. The high resolution of the FTMS instrument allowed for the first time the first...... isotope of the water loss and the monoisotope of the ammonia loss to be distinguished. Contrary to a popular belief, water losses from y' ions are not specific enough to rely upon for detecting the presence of amino acids with oxygen in the side chains. At the same time, ammonia loss from b ions...

  13. Specific regulation of mRNA cap methylation by the c-Myc and E2F1 transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael D.; Cowling, Victoria H.

    2009-01-01

    Methylation of the mRNA 5′ guanosine cap is essential for efficient gene expression. The 5′methyl cap binds to eIF4E, which is the first step in the recruitment of mRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit. To investigate whether mRNA cap methylation is regulated in a gene-specific manner, we established a method to detect the relative level of cap methylation on specific mRNAs. We found that two transcription factors, c-Myc and E2F1, induce cap methylation of their transcriptional target genes, and therefore, c-Myc and E2F1 upregulate gene expression by simultaneously inducing transcription and promoting translation. c-Myc-induced cap methylation is greater than transcriptional induction for the majority of its target genes, indicating that this is a major mechanism by which Myc regulates gene expression. PMID:19137018

  14. Competitiveness as a moderator of the relation between appearance-related factors and disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleien, Jenna L; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined competitiveness as a moderator of the relationships between appearance-related factors (i.e., thin-ideal internalization, appearance contingent self-worth) and disordered eating behaviors (i.e., dieting, excessive exercise). Participants were 441 undergraduate females for cross-sectional analyses, with 237 also contributing data longitudinally, 1 year later. Results showed that, in a model including thin-ideal internalization and appearance contingent self-worth and their interactions with competitiveness, thin-ideal internalization (but not appearance contingent self-worth) interacted with competitiveness to identify concurrent levels of both dieting and excessive exercise. Individuals high in both thin-ideal internalization and competitiveness exhibited the highest levels of concurrent dieting and excessive exercise. After controlling for baseline levels of the dependent variables, neither appearance-related factor interacted with competitiveness to predict dieting or excessive exercise. These findings suggest that individuals who are both competitive and accept and strive to achieve the thin ideal may be at risk for disordered eating behaviors.

  15. Elf5 is an epithelium-specific, fibroblast growth factor-sensitive transcription factor in the embryonic lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, David E; Xu, Yan; Shannon, John M

    2007-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling has been shown to be essential for many aspects of normal lung development. To determine epithelial targets of FGF signaling, we cultured embryonic day (E) 11.5 mouse lungs for 24 hr in the presence or absence of the FGF receptor antagonist SU5402, which inhibited branching morphogenesis. Affymetrix gene chip analysis of treated and control epithelia identified several genes regulated by FGF signaling, including Elf5, a member of the Epithelial-specific Ets family of transcription factors. SU5402 reduced Elf5 expression in mesenchyme-free cultures of E12.5 epithelium, demonstrating that the inhibition was direct. In situ hybridization revealed that Elf5 had a dynamic pattern of expression during lung development. We found that expression of Elf5 was induced by FGF7 and FGF10, ligands that primarily bind FGFR2b. To further define the pathways by which FGFs activate Elf5 expression, we cultured E11.5 lung tips in the presence of compounds to inhibit FGF receptors (SU5402), PI3-Kinase/Akt-mediated signaling (LY294002), and MAP Kinase/Erk-mediated signaling (U0126). We found that SU5402 and LY294002 significantly reduced Elf5 expression, whereas U0126 had no effect. LY294002 also reduced Elf5 expression in cultures of purified epithelium. Finally, pAkt was coexpressed with Elf5 in the proximal epithelial airways of E17.5 lungs. These results demonstrate that Elf5 is an FGF-sensitive transcription factor in the lung with a dynamic pattern of expression and that FGF regulation of Elf5 by means of FGFR2b occurs through the PI3-Kinase/Akt pathway.

  16. Health-related quality of life in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: contribution of demographic factors, disease-related factors, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krab, Lianne C; Oostenbrink, R; de Goede-Bolder, Arja; Aarsen, Femke K; Elgersma, Ype; Moll, Henriëtte A

    2009-03-01

    To investigate health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) with parental reports and children's self-reports, and to investigate the potential contribution of demographic factors, disease-specific factors, and problems in school performance or behavior. In a prospective observational study, parents of 58 children with NF1 (32 boys, 26 girls, age 12.2 +/- 2.5 years) visiting a university clinic, and their 43 children 10 years or older were assessed with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ). Potential determinants of domain scores were assessed in 3 explorative regression models. Parents reported a significant impact of NF1 on 9/13 CHQ scales, with moderate effect sizes on 8 (general health perceptions, physical functioning, general behavior, mental health, self esteem, family activities, role functioning emotional/behavioral, and parent emotional impact). Children report an impact on bodily pain, and an above average general behavior. Multiple CHQ scales were sensitive to demographic factors and behavioral problems, and 1 to NF1 severity. NF1 visibility and school problems did not influence HR-QOL. Parents, but not the children with NF1, report a profound impact of NF1 on physical, social, behavioral, and emotional aspects of HR-QOL. Multiple HR-QOL domains were most sensitive to behavioral problems, which points to an exciting potential opportunity to improve HR-QOL in children with NF1 by addressing these behavioral problems.

  17. Associations between general parenting styles and specific food-related parenting practices and children's food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Carine; Legiest, Erwin; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea

    2009-01-01

    Explore the impact of general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices on children's dietary habits. Cross-sectional study of sixth graders and their parents. Data were gathered (in 2003) in 69 of 100 randomly selected elementary schools in Belgium. All sixth graders (N = 1957) were invited to participate; 82.4% of their parents gave consent and completed questionnaires, resulting in 1614 parent-child pairs. Children's consumption of breakfast, fruit, vegetables, soft drinks, and sweets was assessed by self-administered food frequency questionnaires. Parents completed questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics, general parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, or neglecting) and specific food-related parenting practices (pressure, reward, encouragement through negotiation, catering on children's demands, permissiveness, avoiding negative modeling, and praise). Logistic regression analyses were performed, with general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices as predictors and dietary habits as dependent variables, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and children's weight status. General parenting style did not show any significant impact on dietary habits. In contrast, the food-related parenting practice "encouragement through negotiation" showed a significant positive impact, whereas "pressure," "catering on demand," and "permissiveness" were practices with an unhealthy impact. Nutrition education programs that guide parents in firm but not coercive food parenting skills are likely to have a positive impact upon children's dietary habits.

  18. Retinol as a micronutrients related to cervical local immunity: The expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha specifically stimulated with E6 epitope of human papillomavirus type-16 and ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cell in natural history of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, T. W.; Aziz, M. F.; Ibrahim, F.; Andrijono

    2017-08-01

    Retinol is one of the antioxidant micronutrients that plays essential roles in the immune system, by preventing the persistence of modulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and cytokines production. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) is an acute pro-inflammatory cytokine which has many crucial roles in controlling HPV. In contrast, when persistent infection occurs, TNF-α induces carcinogenesis. The ratio of CD4+ cells to CD8+ T cells and adequate TNF-α production in acute HPV infection are key points for clearance. The aim of this research is to analyze the sufficiency level of retinol deposit, the expression of TNF-α, and the ratio of CD4+: CD8+ T cells in a normal cervix, clearance and persistent HPV subclinical infection, and cervical cancer group. The sufficiency level of retinol deposit was analyzed from peripheral blood using the ELISA method. The cervico-vaginal secretions, which were incubated for 24 hours, were stimulated specifically by E6 epitope HPV type-16, measuring TNF-α expression semi-quantitatively by the ELISpot method and CD4+/CD8+ T cells quantitatively by flowcytometry method. The sufficient level of retinol deposit in a normal cervix, clearance HPV subclinical infection, persistent, and cervical cancer group was 85%, 75% (OR 1.89), 33.3% (OR 11.33), and 75% (OR 1.89), respectively. The expression of TNF-α in normal cervix group was 10%, while for cervical cancer it was 75% (OR 27.00; p < 0.001). There was no expression in clearance and persistent HPV subclinical infection groups. A high ratio of CD4+: CD8+ T cells in the normal cervix and cervical cancer group was 10% and 25% (OR 0.33). There was no high ratio of CD4+: CD8+ T cells in clearance (OR 1.22) and persistent (OR 0.95) HPV subclinical infection groups. This study was able to prove that the normal cervix group has the highest retinol deposit sufficiency level and the cervical cancer group has the highest TNF-α expression (OR 27; p < 0.001). The lowest of retinol deposit sufficiency

  19. Specific immunoradiometric assay of insulin-like growth factor I with use of monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.G.; Cuca, G.C.; Petersen, J.R.; Lyle, L.R.; Burleigh, B.D.; Daughaday, W.H.

    1987-11-01

    We identified two monoclonal antibodies that bind spatially distinct epitopes on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Using these two antibodies, we developed a simultaneous, two-site immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) specific for IGF-I. This IRMA has no detectable cross reactivity with insulin, proinsulin, prolactin, or somatotropin, and less than 2% crossreactivity with IGF-II. The assay response varies linearly with IGF-I concentrations of 0-800 micrograms/L in serum; the detection limit is about 10 micrograms/L. A comparison of 26 IGF-I serum values from the IRMA and from a previously reported IGF-I specific RIA gave a correlation coefficient of 0.96 with no substantial bias (slope = 1.10). IGF-I values for serum, as an aid in assessing growth abnormalities, are easily (only three pipetting steps) obtained in less than 4 h.

  20. Specific immunoradiometric assay of insulin-like growth factor I with use of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M G; Cuca, G C; Petersen, J R; Lyle, L R; Burleigh, B D; Daughaday, W H

    1987-11-01

    We identified two monoclonal antibodies that bind spatially distinct epitopes on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Using these two antibodies, we developed a simultaneous, two-site immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) specific for IGF-I. This IRMA has no detectable cross reactivity with insulin, proinsulin, prolactin, or somatotropin, and less than 2% crossreactivity with IGF-II. The assay response varies linearly with IGF-I concentrations of 0-800 micrograms/L in serum; the detection limit is about 10 micrograms/L. A comparison of 26 IGF-I serum values from the IRMA and from a previously reported IGF-I specific RIA gave a correlation coefficient of 0.96 with no substantial bias (slope = 1.10). IGF-I values for serum, as an aid in assessing growth abnormalities, are easily (only three pipetting steps) obtained in less than 4 h.

  1. BaalChIP: Bayesian analysis of allele-specific transcription factor binding in cancer genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santiago, Ines; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Ke; O'Reilly, Martin; Chilamakuri, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Ponder, Bruce A J; Meyer, Kerstin B; Markowetz, Florian

    2017-02-24

    Allele-specific measurements of transcription factor binding from ChIP-seq data are key to dissecting the allelic effects of non-coding variants and their contribution to phenotypic diversity. However, most methods of detecting an allelic imbalance assume diploid genomes. This assumption severely limits their applicability to cancer samples with frequent DNA copy-number changes. Here we present a Bayesian statistical approach called BaalChIP to correct for the effect of background allele frequency on the observed ChIP-seq read counts. BaalChIP allows the joint analysis of multiple ChIP-seq samples across a single variant and outperforms competing approaches in simulations. Using 548 ENCODE ChIP-seq and six targeted FAIRE-seq samples, we show that BaalChIP effectively corrects allele-specific analysis for copy-number variation and increases the power to detect putative cis-acting regulatory variants in cancer genomes.

  2. pipsqueak Encodes a Factor Essential for Sequence-Specific Targeting of a Polycomb Group Protein Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Der-HwaHuang; Yuh-LongChang; Chih-ChaoYang; I-ChingPan; BalasKing

    2005-01-01

    The Polycomb (Pc) group (Pc-G) of repressors is essential for transcriptional silencing of homeotic genes that determine the axial development of metazoan animals. It is generally believed that the multimeric complexes formed by these proteins nucleate certain chromatin structures to silence promoter activity upon binding to Pc-G response elements (PRE). Little is known, however, about the molecular mechanism involved in sequence-specific binding of these complexes. Here, we show that an immunoa ffinity-purified Pc protein complex contains a DNA binding activity specific to the (GA), motif in a PRE from the bithoraxoid region. We found that this activity can be attributed primarily to the large protein isoform encoded by pipsqueak (psq) instead of to the well-characterized GAGA factor. The functional relevance ofpsq to the silencing mechanismis strongly supported by its synergistic interactions with a subset of Pc-G that cause misexpression of homeotic genes.

  3. European Clearinghouse - Contributing Factors to Incidents Related to Reactivity Management

    OpenAIRE

    BRUYNOOGHE Christiane; NOEL MARC

    2009-01-01

    In this paper shortcomings in reactivity management reported to the IAEA Incident Reporting System in the period 1981-2008 are investigated and contributing factors to reactivity management incidents are analysed. The aim of theworkwas to identify the initiating factors and associated root causes. Five of the seven factors identified for all events were present in the 1999 Shika-1 event where criticality has been unexpectedly reached and maintained during fifteen minutes. Most of the events r...

  4. C. elegans BED domain transcription factor BED-3 controls lineage-specific cell proliferation during organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takao; Sternberg, Paul W

    2010-02-15

    The control of cell division is critical to organogenesis, but how this control is achieved is not fully understood. We found that mutations in bed-3, encoding a BED Zn-finger domain transcription factor, confer a phenotype where a specific set of cell divisions during vulval organogenesis is lost. Unlike general cell cycle regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans, the function of bed-3 is restricted to specific lineages. Transcriptional reporters suggest that bed-3 is expressed in a limited number of cell types including vulval cells whose divisions are affected in bed-3 mutants. A bed-3 mutation also affects the expression pattern of the cdh-3 cadherin gene in the vulva. The phenotype of bed-3 mutants is similar to the phenotype caused by mutations in cog-1 (Nkx6), a component of a gene regulatory network controlling cell type specific gene expression in the vulval lineage. These results suggest that bed-3 is a key component linking the gene regulatory network controlling cell-type specification to control of cell division during vulval organogenesis.

  5. Conversion of MyoD to a Neurogenic Factor: Binding Site Specificity Determines Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham P. Fong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MyoD and NeuroD2, master regulators of myogenesis and neurogenesis, bind to a “shared” E-box sequence (CAGCTG and a “private” sequence (CAGGTG or CAGATG, respectively. To determine whether private-site recognition is sufficient to confer lineage specification, we generated a MyoD mutant with the DNA-binding specificity of NeuroD2. This chimeric mutant gained binding to NeuroD2 private sites but maintained binding to a subset of MyoD-specific sites, activating part of both the muscle and neuronal programs. Sequence analysis revealed an enrichment for PBX/MEIS motifs at the subset of MyoD-specific sites bound by the chimera, and point mutations that prevent MyoD interaction with PBX/MEIS converted the chimera to a pure neurogenic factor. Therefore, redirecting MyoD binding from MyoD private sites to NeuroD2 private sites, despite preserved binding to the MyoD/NeuroD2 shared sites, is sufficient to change MyoD from a master regulator of myogenesis to a master regulator of neurogenesis.

  6. The transcription factor TEAD1 represses smooth muscle-specific gene expression by abolishing myocardin function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Xiaobo; Hu, Guoqing; Wang, Yong; Zhou, Jiliang

    2014-02-07

    The TEAD (transcriptional enhancer activator domain) proteins share an evolutionarily conserved DNA-binding TEA domain, which binds to the MCAT cis-acting regulatory element. Previous studies have shown that TEAD proteins are involved in regulating the expression of smooth muscle α-actin. However, it remains undetermined whether TEAD proteins play a broader role in regulating expression of other genes in vascular smooth muscle cells. In this study, we show that the expression of TEAD1 is significantly induced during smooth muscle cell phenotypic modulation and negatively correlates with smooth muscle-specific gene expression. We further demonstrate that TEAD1 plays a novel role in suppressing expression of smooth muscle-specific genes, including smooth muscle α-actin, by abolishing the promyogenic function of myocardin, a key mediator of smooth muscle differentiation. Mechanistically, we found that TEAD1 competes with myocardin for binding to serum response factor (SRF), resulting in disruption of myocardin and SRF interactions and thereby attenuating expression of smooth muscle-specific genes. This study provides the first evidence demonstrating that TEAD1 is a novel general repressor of smooth muscle-specific gene expression through interfering with myocardin binding to SRF.

  7. Cardiac fibroblasts are predisposed to convert into myocyte phenotype: Specific effect of transforming growth factor. beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eghbali, M.; Tomek, R.; Woods, C.; Bhambi, B. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts are mainly responsible for the synthesis of major extracellular matrix proteins in the heart, including fibrillar collagen types I and III and fibronectin. In this report we show that these cells, when stimulated by transforming growth factor {beta}{sub 1} (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}), acquire certain myocyte-specific properties. Cultured cardiac fibroblasts from adult rabbit heart were treated with TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, (10-15 ng/ml) for different periods of time. Northern hybridization analysis of total RNA showed that cells treated with TGF-{beta}{sub 1} became stained with a monoclonal antibody to muscle-specific actin. After treatment of quiescent cells with TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, cell proliferation (as measured by ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation) was moderately increased. Cultured cardiac fibroblasts at the subconfluent stage, when exposed to TGF-{beta}{sub 1} in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum, gave rise to a second generation of slowly growing cells that expressed muscle-specific actin filaments. The findings demonstrate that cardiac fibroblasts can be made to differentiate into cells that display many characteristics of cardiac myocytes. TGF-{beta}{sub 1} seems to be a specific inducer of such conversion.

  8. Erythroid cell-specific alpha-globin gene regulation by the CP2 transcription factor family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ho Chul; Chae, Ji Hyung; Lee, Yeon Ho; Park, Mi-Ae; Shin, June Ho; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Cho, Yoon Shin; Fiering, Steven; Kim, Chul Geun

    2005-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that ubiquitously expressed CP2c exerts potent erythroid-specific transactivation of alpha-globin through an unknown mechanism. This mechanism is reported here to involve specific CP2 splice variants and protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1). We identify a novel murine splice isoform of CP2, CP2b, which is identical to CP2a except that it has an additional 36 amino acids encoded by an extra exon. CP2b has an erythroid cell-specific transcriptional activation domain, which requires the extra exon and can form heteromeric complexes with other CP2 isoforms, but lacks the DNA binding activity found in CP2a and CP2c. Transcriptional activation of alpha-globin occurred following dimerization between CP2b and CP2c in erythroid K562 and MEL cells, but this dimerization did not activate the alpha-globin promoter in nonerythroid 293T cells, indicating that an additional erythroid factor is missing in 293T cells. PIAS1 was confirmed as a CP2 binding protein by the yeast two-hybrid screen, and expression of CP2b, CP2c, and PIAS1 in 293T cell induced alpha-globin promoter activation. These results show that ubiquitously expressed CP2b exerts potent erythroid cell-specific alpha-globin gene expression by complexing with CP2c and PIAS1.

  9. Erythroid Cell-Specific α-Globin Gene Regulation by the CP2 Transcription Factor Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ho Chul; Chae, Ji Hyung; Lee, Yeon Ho; Park, Mi-Ae; Shin, June Ho; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Cho, Yoon Shin; Fiering, Steven; Kim, Chul Geun

    2005-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that ubiquitously expressed CP2c exerts potent erythroid-specific transactivation of α-globin through an unknown mechanism. This mechanism is reported here to involve specific CP2 splice variants and protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1). We identify a novel murine splice isoform of CP2, CP2b, which is identical to CP2a except that it has an additional 36 amino acids encoded by an extra exon. CP2b has an erythroid cell-specific transcriptional activation domain, which requires the extra exon and can form heteromeric complexes with other CP2 isoforms, but lacks the DNA binding activity found in CP2a and CP2c. Transcriptional activation of α-globin occurred following dimerization between CP2b and CP2c in erythroid K562 and MEL cells, but this dimerization did not activate the α-globin promoter in nonerythroid 293T cells, indicating that an additional erythroid factor is missing in 293T cells. PIAS1 was confirmed as a CP2 binding protein by the yeast two-hybrid screen, and expression of CP2b, CP2c, and PIAS1 in 293T cell induced α-globin promoter activation. These results show that ubiquitously expressed CP2b exerts potent erythroid cell-specific α-globin gene expression by complexing with CP2c and PIAS1. PMID:15988015

  10. Language laterality in English/Welsh bilinguals: language-acquisitional and language-specific factors in the development of lateralisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, L; Brookman, F; Mayer, P; Rees, V; Bellin, W

    2000-10-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that monolinguals differ from bilinguals in their pattern of language lateralisation and to examine the relative merits of language-acquisitional versus language-specific factors, two experiments involving divided screen presentation of two languages were conducted using Welsh/English speaking participants. In the first experiment 80 monolingual teenagers were compared to 80 bilingual teenagers on a tachistoscopic "visual half-field" test of Welsh and English nouns and verbs. ANOVA revealed a greater left hemisphere advantage for Welsh-English bilinguals as compared to English monolinguals. Thus, in contrast to previous studies, in our bilinguals there was evidence of greater left hemisphere involvement in the processing of language. In the second experiment, four separate groups of 40 teenagers, varying in the age and manner of acquisition of their languages, were compared on the same test of Welsh and English words. These groups can be viewed as graded from the early to late bilinguals. ANOVA revealed a greater left hemisphere advantage when processing Welsh as compared to English words for all four groups. However no significant difference was observed between the four groups in respect of laterality for Welsh and English, indicating an equally greater left hemisphere bias for all four groups when processing Welsh words. We discuss these results in terms of a language-specific effect and suggest the specific orthography of the Welsh language (for individually presented nouns and verbs) promotes a left hemisphere advantage over and above language-acquisitional factors.

  11. The phosphorylation state of eucaryotic initiation factor 2 alters translational efficiency of specific mRNAs.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, R J; Davies, M V; Pathak, V K; Hershey, J W

    1989-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the eucaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF-2 alpha) by the double-stranded RNA-activated inhibitor (DAI) kinase correlates with inhibition of translation initiation. The importance of eIF-2 alpha phosphorylation in regulating translation was studied by expression of specific mutants of eIF-2 alpha in COS-1 cells. DNA transfection of certain plasmids could activate DAI kinase and result in poor translation of plasmid-derived mRNAs. In these cases,...

  12. Cdk phosphorylation of the Ste11 transcription factor constrains differentiation-specific transcription to G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, Søren; Andersen, Nicoline Resen; Borup, Mia Trolle;

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells normally differentiate from G(1); here we investigate the mechanism preventing expression of differentiation-specific genes outside G(1). In fission yeast, induction of the transcription factor Ste11 triggers sexual differentiation. We find that Ste11 is only active in G(1) when...... S phase. When we mutated T82 to aspartic acid, mimicking constant phosphorylation, cells no longer underwent differentiation. Conversely, changing T82 to alanine rendered Ste11-controlled transcription constitutive through the cell cycle, and allowed mating from S phase with increased frequency...

  13. Selenium Content, Influential Factors Within the Plant and the Transformation of Different Selenium Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yuan-yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper collected relevant literatures on selenium and explored the function to plant, selenium content, influential factors and selenium specification and transformation. We believed that there should be more deep researches on function of selenium to plant. Approaches of molecular, genetic engineering and isotope could be employed to breed selenium rich crops and possibilities in practice. More efforts should be spent on the technologies research for improving selenium level in crops under natural soil conditions to sustainably utilize the selenium resources.

  14. Community reintegration and related factors in a Nigerian stroke sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akosile, Christopher; Nworah, Chioma; Okoye, Emmanuel; Adegoke, Babatunde; Umunnah, Joseph; Fabunmi, Ayodeji

    2016-09-01

    The goal of stroke rehabilitation has shifted from mere survival of a victim to how well a survivor can be effectively reintegrated back into the community. The present study determined the level of satisfaction with community reintegration (CR) and related factors among Nigerian community-dwelling stroke survivors (CDSS). This was a cross-sectional survey of 71 volunteering CDSS (35 males, 36 females) from selected South-Eastern Nigerian communities. Reintegration to Normal Living Index was used to assess participants' CR. Data was analysed using Spearman rank-order correlation, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at p≤0.05. Participants generally had deficits in CR which was either mild/moderate (52.1%) or severe (47.9%). Scores in the CR domains of distance mobility, performance of daily activities, recreational activities and family roles were particularly low (median scores ≤ 4). CR was significantly correlated with and influenced by age (r=-0.35; p=0.00) and presence/absence of diabetes mellitus (u=3.56.50; p=0.01), pre- (k=6.13; p=0.05) and post-stroke employment (k=18.26; p=0.00) status, type of assistive mobility device being used (AMD) (k=25.39; p=0.00) and support from the community (k=7.15; p=0.03) respectively. CR was generally poor for this CDSS sample. Survivors who are older, having diabetes as co-morbidity, using AMD (particularly wheel-chair) and without employment pre- and/or post-stroke may require keener attention. Rehabilitation focus may be targeted at enhancing mobility functions, vocational and social skills.

  15. Specificity and structural analysis of a guinea pig transfer factor-like activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnick, W A; Bach, F H

    1977-06-01

    A transfer factor-like activity was prepared by Sephadex G-25 chromatography of immune guinea pig leukocyte lysates. This isolated material leads to antigen-dependent migration inhibition and thymidine uptake by nonimmune lymphoid cells. Tests of the "transfer factor" from guinea pigs immunized to either ovalbumin or bovine gamma-globulin demonstrated the donor specificity of the in vitro activity. The activity is susceptible to heat (56 degrees C), alkali (0.5 M sodium hydroxide), pronase, and phosphodiesterase. The pronase susceptibility is blocked by traysylol, a protease inhibitor; the phosphodiesterase susceptibility is not bocked by traysylol. The guinea pig factor was purified further by alkaline phosphatase treatment. Sephadex G-25 chromatography, and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The final product, active in vitro, represents about 0.03% of the cellular material absorbing 260 nm light, and contains polymerized amines and phosphate. Gel electrophoresis of the fluram-reactive components suggests a limited heterogeneity of the DEAE-cellulose-purified material. These data are consistent with the active "transfer factor" molecule including both peptide and phosphate-containing components.

  16. Interacting factors and cellular localization of SR protein-specific kinase Dsk1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhaohua, E-mail: ztang@jsd.claremont.edu [W.M. Keck Science Center, The Claremont Colleges, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Luca, Maria; Taggart-Murphy, Laura; Portillio, Jessica; Chang, Cathey; Guven, Ayse [W.M. Keck Science Center, The Claremont Colleges, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Lin, Ren-Jang [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States); Murray, Johanne; Carr, Antony [Genome Damage and Stability Center, University of Sussex, Falmer, BN1 9RQ (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dsk1 is an SR protein-specific kinase (SRPK), whose homologs have been identified in every eukaryotic organism examined. Although discovered as a mitotic regulator with protein kinase activity toward SR splicing factors, it remains largely unknown about what and how Dsk1 contributes to cell cycle and pre-mRNA splicing. In this study, we investigated the Dsk1 function by determining interacting factors and cellular localization of the kinase. Consistent with its reported functions, we found that pre-mRNA processing and cell cycle factors are prominent among the proteins co-purified with Dsk1. The identification of these factors led us to find Rsd1 as a novel Dsk1 substrate, as well as the involvement of Dsk1 in cellular distribution of poly(A){sup +} RNA. In agreement with its role in nuclear events, we also found that Dsk1 is mainly localized in the nucleus during G{sub 2} phase and at mitosis. Furthermore, we revealed the oscillation of Dsk1 protein in a cell cycle-dependent manner. This paper marks the first comprehensive analysis of in vivo Dsk1-associated proteins in fission yeast. Our results reflect the conserved role of SRPK family in eukaryotic organisms, and provide information about how Dsk1 functions in pre-mRNA processing and cell-division cycle.

  17. First Steps into Language? Examining the Specific Longitudinal Relations between Walking, Exploration and Linguistic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Volman, M Chiel J M; Leseman, Paul P M

    2016-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence demonstrates relationships between motor and language development that are partially mediated by exploration. This is in line with the embodied cognition approach to development that views language as grounded in real-life sensorimotor interactions with the environment. This view implies that the relations between motor and linguistic skills should be specific. Moreover, as motor development initially changes the possibilities children have to explore the environment, initial relations between motor and linguistic skills should become weaker over time. Empirical evidence pertaining to the duration and specificity of these relations is still lacking. The current study investigated longitudinal relations between attainment of walking and the development of several linguistic skills, and tested whether exploration through self-locomotion mediated these relations. Linguistic skills were measured at age 43 months, which is later than the age used in previous studies. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) the relations between walking and language found at younger ages will decrease over time (2) exploration through self-locomotion will remain an important predictor of spatial language (3) no relation will be found between walking, exploration and the use of grammatical and lexical categories and between exploration and general vocabulary. Thirty-one Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. Parents reported about age of attainment of walking. Exploration through self-locomotion was measured using observations of play with a standard set of toys at age 20 months. Receptive vocabulary, spatial language and use of grammatical and lexical categories were measured at age 43 months using (standard) tests. Results reveal that age of walking does not directly predict spatial language at age 43 months. Exploration through self-locomotion does significantly and completely mediate the indirect effect of age of walking on spatial language. Moreover

  18. First steps into language? Examining the specific longitudinal relations between walking, exploration and linguistic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ora Oudgenoeg-Paz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical evidence demonstrates relationships between motor and language development that are partially mediated by exploration. This is in line with the embodied cognition approach to development that views language as grounded in real-life sensorimotor interactions with the environment. This view implies that the relations between motor and linguistic skills should be specific. Moreover, as motor development initially changes the possibilities children have to explore the environment, initial relations between motor and linguistic skills should become weaker over time. Empirical evidence pertaining to the duration and specificity of these relations is still lacking. The current study investigated longitudinal relations between attainment of walking and the development of several linguistic skills, and tested whether exploration through self-locomotion mediated these relations. Linguistic skills were measured at age 43 months, which is later than the age used in previous studies. Three hypotheses were tested: (1 the relations between walking and language found at younger ages will decrease over time (2 exploration through self-locomotion will remain an important predictor of spatial language (3 no relation will be found between walking, exploration and the use of grammatical and lexical categories and between exploration and general vocabulary. Thirty-one Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. Parents reported about age of attainment of walking. Exploration through self-locomotion was measured using observations of play with a standard set of toys at age 20 months. Receptive vocabulary, spatial language and use of grammatical and lexical categories were measured at age 43 months using (standard tests. Results reveal that age of walking does not directly predict spatial language at age 43 months. Exploration through self-locomotion does significantly and completely mediate the indirect effect of age of walking on spatial

  19. First Steps into Language? Examining the Specific Longitudinal Relations between Walking, Exploration and Linguistic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Volman, M(Chiel). J. M.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence demonstrates relationships between motor and language development that are partially mediated by exploration. This is in line with the embodied cognition approach to development that views language as grounded in real-life sensorimotor interactions with the environment. This view implies that the relations between motor and linguistic skills should be specific. Moreover, as motor development initially changes the possibilities children have to explore the environment, initial relations between motor and linguistic skills should become weaker over time. Empirical evidence pertaining to the duration and specificity of these relations is still lacking. The current study investigated longitudinal relations between attainment of walking and the development of several linguistic skills, and tested whether exploration through self-locomotion mediated these relations. Linguistic skills were measured at age 43 months, which is later than the age used in previous studies. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) the relations between walking and language found at younger ages will decrease over time (2) exploration through self-locomotion will remain an important predictor of spatial language (3) no relation will be found between walking, exploration and the use of grammatical and lexical categories and between exploration and general vocabulary. Thirty-one Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. Parents reported about age of attainment of walking. Exploration through self-locomotion was measured using observations of play with a standard set of toys at age 20 months. Receptive vocabulary, spatial language and use of grammatical and lexical categories were measured at age 43 months using (standard) tests. Results reveal that age of walking does not directly predict spatial language at age 43 months. Exploration through self-locomotion does significantly and completely mediate the indirect effect of age of walking on spatial language. Moreover

  20. The changing trends of peritoneal dialysis related peritonitis and novel risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozisik, Lale; Ozdemir, Fatma Nurhan; Tanriover, Mine Durusu

    2015-07-01

    Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) has become a treatment modality for end stage renal disease with a peak of its use in 1990 s. The aim of this study was to examine the peritonitis rates, causative organisms and the risk factors of peritonitis in a large group of patients in our center. The study was conducted in the Nephrology Department of a University Hospital in Turkey. Patients in the PD programme between January 2000 and January 2006 were included. Cohort-specific and subject specific peritonitis incidence, and peritonitis-free survival were calculated. Causative organisms and risk factors were evaluated. Totally 620 episodes of peritonitis occurred in 440 patients over the six years period. Peritonitis rates showed a decreasing trend through the years (0.79 episodes/patient-year 2000-2003 and 0.46 episodes/patient-year 2003-2006). Cohort-specific peritonitis incidence was 0.62 episodes/patient-years and median subject-specific peritonitis incidence was 0.44 episodes/patient-years. The median peritonitis-free survival was 15.25 months (%95 CI, 9.45-21.06 months). The proportion of gram-negative organisms has increased from 9.8% to 17.3%. There was a significant difference in the percentage of culture negative peritonitis between the first three and the last three years (53.1% vs. 43.2%, respectively). Peritonitis incidence was higher in patients who had been transferred from HD, who had catheter related infection and who had HCV infection without cirrhosis. Our study showed significant trends in the peritonitis rates, causative organisms and antibiotic resistance. Prior HD therapy, catheter related infections and HCV infection were found to be risk factors for peritonitis.

  1. Locus-Specific Epigenetic Remodeling Controls Addiction- and Depression-Related Behaviors (NN-A50213-T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Elizabeth A.; Cates, Hannah M.; Peña, Catherine J.; Sun, Haosheng; Shao, Ningyi; Feng, Jian; Golden, Sam A.; Herman, James P.; Walsh, Jessica J.; Mazei-Robison, Michelle; Ferguson, Deveroux; Knight, Scott; Gerber, Mark A.; Nievera, Christian; Han, Ming-Hu; Russo, Scott J.; Tamminga, Carol S.; Neve, Rachael L.; Shen, Li; Zhang, H. Steve; Zhang, Feng; Nestler, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse or stress regulates transcription factors, chromatin modifying enzymes, and histone posttranslational modifications in discrete brain regions. Due to the promiscuity of the enzymes involved, it has not yet been possible to obtain direct causal evidence to implicate the regulation of transcription and consequent behavioral plasticity by chromatin remodeling that occurs at a single gene. Here, we investigate the mechanism linking chromatin dynamics to neurobiological phenomena by applying engineered transcription factors to selectively modify chromatin at a specific gene in vivo. We found that histone methylation or acetylation at the FosB locus in nucleus accumbens—a brain reward region—is sufficient to control drug- and stress-evoked transcriptional and behavioral responses via interactions with the endogenous transcriptional machinery. This approach allows us to relate the epigenetic landscape at a given gene directly to regulation of its expression and to its subsequent effects on reward behavior. PMID:25347353

  2. Predictive factors for bleeding-related re-exploration after cardiac surgery: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Camila T; Brunori, Evelise H Fadini Reis; Santos, Vinicius Batista; Moorhead, Sue A; Lopes, Juliana de Lima; de Barros, Alba L Bottura Leite

    2016-04-01

    Bleeding-related re-exploration is a life-threatening complication after cardiac surgery. Nurses must be aware of important risk factors for this complication so that their assessment, monitoring and evaluation activities can be prioritized, focused and anticipated. To identify the predictive factors for bleeding-related re-exploration after cardiac surgery and to describe the sources of postoperative bleeding. This is a prospective cohort study at a tertiary cardiac school-hospital in São Paulo/SP, Brazil. Adult patients (n=323) submitted to surgical correction of acquired cardiac diseases were included. Potential risk factors for bleeding-related re-exploration within the 24 hours following admission to the intensive care unit were investigated in the patients' charts. A univariate analysis and a multiple analysis through logistic regression were conducted to identify the outcome predictors. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was calculated as a measure of accuracy considering the cut-off points with the highest sensitivity and specificity. The univariate factors significantly associated with bleeding-related re-exploration were a lower preoperative platelet count, a lower number of bypasses in coronary artery bypass surgery and postoperatively, a lower body temperature, infusion of lower intravenous volume, a higher positive end-expiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation and transfusion of blood products. The independent predictors of bleeding-related re-exploration included postoperative red blood cell transfusion, and transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, platelet or cryoprecipitate units. These predictors had a sensitivity of 87.5%, a specificity of 99.28% and an accuracy of 97.93%. Blood product transfusion postoperatively is an independent predictor of bleeding-related re-exploration. Surgical errors prevailed as sources of bleeding. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  3. Insights into the role of the grapevine berry-specific ethylene responsive factor VviERF045.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Leida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During grape ripening, numerous transcriptional and metabolic changes are required in order to obtain colored, sweet, and flavored berries. There is evidence that ethylene, together with other signals, plays an important role in triggering the onset of ripening. Here, we report the functional characterization of a berry-specific Ethylene Responsive Factor (ERF, VviERF045, which is induced just before véraison and peaks at ripening. Phylogenetic analysis revealed it is close to the SHINE clade of ERFs, factors involved in the regulation of wax biosynthesis and cuticle morphology. Transgenic grapevines lines overexpressing VviERF045 were obtained, in vitro propagated, phenotypically characterized, and analyzed for the content of specific classes of metabolites. The effect of VviERF045 was correlated with the level of transgene expression, with high-expressing lines showing stunted growth, discolored and smaller leaves, and a lower level of chlorophylls and carotenoids. One line with intermediate expression, L15, was characterized at the transcriptomic level and showed 573 differentially expressed genes compared to wild type plants. Microscopy and gene expression analyses point towards a major role of VviERF045 in epidermis patterning by acting on waxes and cuticle. They also indicate that VviERF045 affects phenolic secondary metabolism and induces a reaction resembling a plant immune response with modulation of receptor like-kinases and pathogen related genes. These results suggest also a possible role of this transcription factor in berry ripening, likely related to changes in epidermis and cuticle of the berry, cell expansion, a decrease in photosynthetic capacity, and the activation of several defense related genes as well as from the phenylpropanoid metabolism. All these processes occur in the berry during ripening.

  4. Factores relacionados con rehusar el tratamiento antirretroviral en prisión Factors related to refuse antiretroviral therapy in prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sordo del Castillo

    2008-04-01

    Andalusia (Spain. The dependent variable was being under treatment or refusal to be so. The independent variables were sociodemographic and psychosocial factors related to the prison environment and clinical factors related to health status and drug addiction. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which factors were related with refusal to accept HAART. Results: HAART was recommended to 73.1% of seropositive prisoners. This treatment was refused by 23.1% of these prisoners and was accepted by 76.9%. The factors related to refusal to accept HAART were high viral load, worse self-perceived health status, a greater number of stays in prison, and being visited by persons other than relatives. Conclusions: There is a group of prisoners with specific characteristics that refuse HAART. Specific interventions should be performed in these prisoners to make them aware of the effects of their decision on the course of their disease.

  5. The deformed uncertainty relation and the corresponding beam quality factor

    CERN Document Server

    Li, K; Wang, S M; Li, Kang; Zhao, Dao Mu; Wang, Shao Min

    1996-01-01

    By using the theory of deformed quantum mechanics, we study the deformed light beam theoretically. The deformed beam quality factor M_q^2 is given explicitly under the case of deformed light in coherent state. When the deformation parameter q being a root of unity, the beam quality factor M_q^2 \\leq 1.

  6. Factors related to staff stress in HIV/AIDS related palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Prabha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Staff stress in HIV related palliative care has been identified as an important problem worldwide. This study aimed at estimating prevalence of staff stress and its correlates in a sample of palliative caregivers in HIV/AIDS in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two participants (29 female and 23 male completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, AIDS Contact Scale (ACS and AIDS Stress Scale (ASS and a semi-structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The majority (92% had average to high scores on at least one domain of MBI. High scores on the factors Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalisation, and Personal Accomplishment were seen in 10%, 17% and 58% of the sample respectively. ASS score, severity of stress in dealing with persons living with AIDS and having considered leaving HIV related work were predictors of high Emotional Exhaustion scores. ASS score, ACS score and severity of stress with death of a person with AIDS were predictors of high Depersonalisation scores. Female gender was a predictor of a high Personal Accomplishment score. CONCLUSIONS: The study emphasises the need to address issues related to staff burnout in HIV palliative care.

  7. ProteDNA: a sequence-based predictor of sequence-specific DNA-binding residues in transcription factors

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the design of a sequence-based predictor named ProteDNA for identifying the sequence-specific binding residues in a transcription factor (TF). Concerning protein–DNA interactions, there are two types of binding mechanisms involved, namely sequence-specific binding and nonspecific binding. Sequence-specific bindings occur between protein sidechains and nucleotide bases and correspond to sequence-specific recognition of genes. Therefore, sequence-specific bindings are esse...

  8. Development of a C-terminal-region-specific radioimmunoassay of parathyroid hormone-related protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Masumi; Adachi, Ryoji; Horikawa, Shuji; Tanaka, Shuichi; Tachibana, Seiji (Daiichi Radioisotope Labs. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-04-01

    Few data are published regarding the molecular forms or concentrations of circulating and urinary parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in normal subjects and patients with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM). We have developed a C-terminal-region-specific radioimmunoassay for human PTHrP 109-141 (C-PTHrP radioimmunoassay) using a sheep antiserum immunized with a novel synthetic human PTHrP 109-141 for immunogen and a novel synthetic [Tyr[sup 108

  9. Education and adult cause-specific mortality--examining the impact of family factors shared by 871 367 Norwegian siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Oyvind; Hoff, Dominic A; Lawlor, Debbie;

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the impact family factors shared by siblings has on the association between length of education and cause-specific mortality in adulthood.......To estimate the impact family factors shared by siblings has on the association between length of education and cause-specific mortality in adulthood....

  10. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These

  11. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account

  12. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These

  13. Time of elevation of head of bed for patients receiving mechanical ventilation and its related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Hereu, L; Arreciado Marañón, A

    2017-06-08

    The semirecumbent position is a widespread recommendation for the prevention of pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation. To identify the time of elevation of head of bed for patients under mechanical ventilation and the factors related to such elevation in an intensive care unit. An observational, descriptive cross-sectional study. Conducted in an intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital from April to June 2015. The studied population were mechanically ventilated patients. Daily hours in which patients remained with the head of the bed elevated (≥30°), socio-demographic data and clinical variables were recorded. 261 head elevation measurements were collected. The average daily hours that patients remained at ≥30° was 16h28' (SD ±5h38'), equivalent to 68.6% (SD ±23.5%) of the day. Factors related to elevations ≥30° for longer were: enteral nutrition, levels of deep sedation, cardiac and neurocritical diagnostics. Factors that hindered the position were: sedation levels for agitation and abdominal pathologies. Sex, age and ventilation mode did not show a significant relationship with bed head elevation. Although raising the head of the bed is an easy to perform, economical and measurable preventive measure, its compliance is low due to specific factors specific related o the patient's clinical condition. Using innovations such as continuous measurement of the head position helps to evaluate clinical practice and allows to carry out improvement actions whose impact is beneficial to the patient. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychiatric factors related to sexual functioning in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotková, Petra; Weiss, Petr

    2013-04-01

    This research deals with the topic of sexual life among people suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) and with selected factors related to sexual functioning in these patients. Parkinson's disease is a serious chronic disease whose symptoms as well as treatment substantially affect the sexual life of the patients. Despite this fact, very little published work has dealt with this topic. This research focuses on describing the structure of deterioration of sexual functions of the patients suffering from PD, and statistical analysis of the interdependence of selected factors (age, duration of the disease, subjective score of the impact of the disease, depression, anxiety) as well as the patients' sexual satisfaction. The most substantial factors influencing sexual satisfaction of men and women with PD are analysed and their impact assessed, the greatest stress being put on psychiatric factors. The research project examined a group of 103 people with PD. In order to identify the specifics of the patients' sexual lives, two questionnaire-sets were designed (separate for men and women), containing psychological (BDI-II, STAI) and sexological (FSFI, IIEF, GRISS) questionnaires. The main outcome measures were depression, state and trait anxiety, sexual satisfaction, erectile function, the Female Sexual Function Index. The acquired data was statistically elaborated using the programme SPSS. The results of the sexological questionnaires show a decrease in overall sexual functioning and the presence of sexual dysfunctions related to PD. With the help of regression models it was elicited that in case of men with this illness, the most influential factor on their sexual life is depression and their subjective scoring of the illness, in the case of women the prevailing factors are depression and anxiety. Sexuality for people suffering from Parkinson's disease is a very complex issue and psychiatric factors (depression, anxiety) have an important impact on the sexual functioning

  15. Is diabetes-specific health literacy associated with diabetes-related outcomes in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takashi; Kart, Cary S

    2011-06-01

     The present study examined the association between a measure of diabetes-specific health literacy and three different Type 2 diabetes outcome indicators in a national sample of older adults. Data were taken from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) 2003 Diabetes module and the HRS 2002 core wave. Analysis was performed on data from 1318 respondents aged 42-96 years [mean (±SD) 67.96 ± 8.65 years] who submitted responses on all relevant independent variable measures along with an HbA1c test kit. The index of diabetes-specific health literacy was constructed from responses to 10 diabetes self-care regimen items (α = 0.927). Using a multivariate regression strategy to analyze weighted data, the diabetes-specific health literacy index was significantly and positively associated with self-graded assessment of diabetes self-care (R2 = 0.231). However, diabetes-specific health literacy was not independently associated with the HbA1c level or the average number of days five recommended self-management behaviors were practiced each week.  No previous single study has focused on the relationship between diabetes-specific health literacy and multiple diabetes-related outcomes. The direct association of diabetes-specific health literacy with patients' assessment of their self-care practice acumen is useful information for the design of effective patient intervention and/or communication strategies. Health literacy is a broad, multidimensional construct that bridges basic literacy skills and various health and illness contexts. Because it is so important to adults engaged in the self-management of chronic illness, indicators of disease-specific knowledge and/or understanding should be included in efforts to measure health literacy. © 2011 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Structural basis for converting a general transcription factor into an operon-specific virulence regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belogurov, Georgiy A; Vassylyeva, Marina N; Svetlov, Vladimir; Klyuyev, Sergiy; Grishin, Nick V; Vassylyev, Dmitry G; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2007-04-13

    RfaH, a paralog of the general transcription factor NusG, is recruited to elongating RNA polymerase at specific regulatory sites. The X-ray structure of Escherichia coli RfaH reported here reveals two domains. The N-terminal domain displays high similarity to that of NusG. In contrast, the alpha-helical coiled-coil C domain, while retaining sequence similarity, is strikingly different from the beta barrel of NusG. To our knowledge, such an all-beta to all-alpha transition of the entire domain is the most extreme example of protein fold evolution known to date. Both N domains possess a vast hydrophobic cavity that is buried by the C domain in RfaH but is exposed in NusG. We propose that this cavity constitutes the RNA polymerase-binding site, which becomes unmasked in RfaH only upon sequence-specific binding to the nontemplate DNA strand that triggers domain dissociation. Finally, we argue that RfaH binds to the beta' subunit coiled coil, the major target site for the initiation sigma factors.

  17. Preparation and identification of transfer factor specific to Staphylococcus aureus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianwei; Kong, Cui; Wang, Xiukui; Shao, Jun; Feng, Lin; Zhang, Zhaocai

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the methods for preparing transfer factor specific to Staphylococcus aureus (SA-STF) in vitro. Under the optimum conditions, the spleen cells of rabbits were immunized with SA in vitro to prepare SA-STF, and the immune activities were identified with the phagocytosis and sterilization, skin delayed-type hypersensitivity, and immune protection tests. The concentration of polypeptide was 2.26 ± 0.27 mg/mL, and ribose was 0.684 ± 0.094 mg/mL. The phagocytosis and sterilization rates of the STF group were 70.9 ± 12.4% and 62.1 ± 12.2%, respectively, and compared with the non-specific transfer factor (NTF) group, there were no significant differences (P = 0.074 and 0.069, respectively). The skin was inflamed and marked nodules formed at the injection site in the mice of the STF group rather than the NTF and control groups. The survival rate of the STF-1 group was significantly higher than the survival rates of the STF-2 (P = 0.024) and NTF groups (P = 0.016). SA-STF was prepared and characterized successfully in vitro, and it probably is a biological candidate for therapy or adjuvant therapy for diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Domain-specific physical activity and health-related quality of life in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedišić, Zeljko; Rakovac, Marija; Titze, Sylvia; Jurakić, Danijel; Oja, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Information on the relationship between domain-specific physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the general population and specific groups is still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between PA in work, transport, domestic and leisure-time domains and HRQoL among university students. PA and HRQoL were assessed in a random stratified sample of 1750 university students using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - long form and 12-item Short Form Health Survey, respectively. The Spearman's rank correlations, adjusted for age, community size, personal monthly budget, body mass index, smoking habits and alcohol intake ranged from -0.11 to 0.18 in female students and -0.29 to 0.19 in male students. Leisure-time, domestic, transport-related PA and total PA were positively related to HRQoL. Inverse correlations with HRQoL were only found for work-related PA in male students. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only leisure-time PA was related to the Physical Summary Component score (β = 0.08 for females and β = 0.10 for males, P HRQoL, future studies should not only analyse total PA levels but also domain-specific PA levels. The evidence on the positive relationship of leisure-time, transport and domestic PA with HRQoL can potentially be used to support evidence-based promotion of PA in a university setting, and as a hypothesis for future longitudinal studies on such potential causal relationships.

  19. Adiponectin stimulates Wnt inhibitory factor-1 expression through epigenetic regulations involving the transcription factor specificity protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Lam, Janice B B; Chow, Kim H M; Xu, Aimin; Lam, Karen S L; Moon, Randall T; Wang, Yu

    2008-11-01

    Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipokine possessing growth inhibitory activities against various types of cancer cells. Our previous results demonstrated that ADN could impede Wnt/beta-catenin-signaling pathways in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells [Wang,Y. et al. (2006) Adiponectin modulates the glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta/beta-catenin signaling pathway and attenuates mammary tumorigenesis of MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice. Cancer Res., 66, 11462-11470]. Here, we extended our studies to elucidate the effects of ADN on regulating the expressions of Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF1), a Wnt antagonist frequently silenced in human breast tumors. Our results showed that ADN time dependently stimulated WIF1 gene and protein expressions in MDA-MB-231 cells. Overexpression of WIF1 exerted similar inhibitory effects to those of ADN on cell proliferations, nuclear beta-catenin activities, cyclin D1 expressions and serum-induced phosphorylations of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta. Blockage of WIF1 activities significantly attenuated the suppressive effects of ADN on MDA-MB-231 cell growth. Furthermore, our in vivo studies showed that both supplementation of recombinant ADN and adenovirus-mediated overexpression of this adipokine substantially enhanced WIF1 expressions in MDA-MB-231 tumors implanted in nude mice. More interestingly, we found that ADN could alleviate methylation of CpG islands located within the proximal promoter region of WIF1, possibly involving the specificity protein 1 (Sp1) transcription factor and its downstream target DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Upon ADN treatment, the protein levels of both Sp1 and DNMT1 were significantly decreased. Using silencing RNA approaches, we confirmed that downregulation of Sp1 resulted in an increased expression of WIF1 and decreased methylation of WIF1 promoter. Taken together, these data suggest that ADN might elicit its antitumor activities at least partially through promoting WIF1 expressions.

  20. Exploring women's postpartum sexuality: social, psychological, relational, and birth-related contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, Lauren E; Kane Low, Lisa; van Anders, Sari M

    2012-09-01

    Women's postpartum sexuality can be influenced by factors related to physical, personal, and relationship transitions after the newborn arrives. Despite this, many experiential and social factors remain unexplored. This study aims to (i) investigate a range of variables thought to influence postpartum sexuality; (ii) expand the focus beyond latency to penis-vagina intercourse; and (iii) assess positive aspects of postpartum sexuality. Via retrospective reporting on the first 3 months postpartum, 304 women completed an online questionnaire. The main outcome measures were retrospective reports of sexual desire (Sexual Desire Inventory), latency to resumption of sexual activity, and perceptions of partner's sexual desire. Other measures were birth experience (Questionnaire Measuring Attitudes About Labor and Delivery), breastfeeding status, perceptions of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), stress (Perceived Stress Scale), and body image (Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale). Significant differences in time to resumption were found. Women performed oral sex on their partners earlier than engaging in masturbation, which was followed by intercourse and then receiving oral sex. Post hoc analyses identified birth experience, social support, importance of partner's sexual fulfillment, and perception of partner's desire as contributors to this pattern. Women's postpartum sexual desire was influenced by their perceptions of their partner's postpartum sexuality and individual's level of fatigue. Results suggested that postpartum desire was not significantly influenced by breastfeeding status, vaginal issues, or psychosocial variables including stress, body image, or social support. Results suggest that women's perceptions of their partner's sexuality impact postpartum sexuality more than the physical factors most commonly studied (e.g., vaginal trauma and breastfeeding). These results portray postpartum sexuality as a multidimensional

  1. Factors related to treatment intensity in Swiss primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzi Beat

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Questions about the existence of supplier-induced demand emerge repeatedly in discussions about governing Swiss health care. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the interrelationship between structural factors of supply and the volume of services that are provided by primary care physicians in Switzerland. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional investigation, based on the complete claims data from all Swiss health care insurers for the year 2004, which covered information from 6087 primary care physicians and 4.7 million patients. Utilization-based health service areas were constructed and used as spatial units to analyze effects of density of supply. Hierarchical linear models were applied to analyze the data. Results The data showed that, within a service area, a higher density of primary care physicians was associated with higher mortality rates and specialist density but not with treatment intensity in primary care. Higher specialist density was weakly associated with higher mortality rates and with higher treatment intensity density of primary care physicians. Annual physician-level data indicate a disproportionate increase of supplied services irrespective of the size of the number of patients treated during the same year and, even in high volume practices, no rationing but a paradoxical inducement of consultations occurred. The results provide empirical evidence that higher densities of primary care physicians, specialists and the availability of out-patient hospital clinics in a given area are associated with higher volume of supplied services per patient in primary care practices. Analyses stratified by language regions showed differences that emphasize the effect of the cantonal based (fragmented governance of Swiss health care. Conclusion The study shows high volumes in Swiss primary care and provides evidence that the volume of supply is not driven by medical needs alone. Effects related to the

  2. Application of decision-tree technique to assess herd specific risk factors for coliform mastitis in sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imke Gerjets

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate factors associated with coliform mastitis in sows, determined at herd level, by applying the decision-tree technique. Coliform mastitis represents an economically important disease in sows after farrowing that also affects the health, welfare and performance of the piglets. The decision-tree technique, a data mining method, may be an effective tool for making large datasets accessible and different sow herd information comparable. It is based on the C4.5-algorithm which generates trees in a top-down recursive strategy. The technique can be used to detect weak points in farm management. Two datasets of two farms in Germany, consisting of sow-related parameters, were analysed and compared by decision-tree algorithms. Data were collected over the period of April 2007 to August 2010 from 987 sows (499 CM-positive sows and 488 CM-negative sows and 596 sows (322 CM-positive sows and 274 CM-negative sows, respectively. Depending on the dataset, different graphical trees were built showing relevant factors at the herd level which may lead to coliform mastitis. To our understanding, this is the first time decision-tree modeling was used to assess risk factors for coliform mastitis. Herd specific risk factors for the disease were illustrated what could prove beneficial in disease and herd management.

  3. Sex-specific differences in risk factors for sarcopenia amongst community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, L; Ding, Y Y; Leung, B P; Ismail, N H; Yeo, A; Yew, S; Tay, K S; Tan, C H; Chong, M S

    2015-12-01

    With considerable variation including potential sex-specific differential rate of skeletal muscle loss, identifying modifiable factors for sarcopenia will be pivotal to guide targeted interventions. This study seeks to identify clinical and biological correlates of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults, with emphasis on the role of anabolic and catabolic stimuli, and special reference to gender specificity. In this cross-sectional study involving 200 community-dwelling and functionally independent older adults aged ≥50 years, sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Comorbidities, cognitive and functional performance, physical activity and nutritional status were routinely assessed. Biochemical parameters included haematological indices, lipid panel, vitamin D level, anabolic hormones [insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), free testosterone (males only)] and catabolic markers [inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein) and myostatin]. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors for sarcopenia. Age was associated with sarcopenia in both genders. Malnutrition conferred significantly higher odds for sarcopenia in women (OR = 5.71, 95% CI 1.13-28.84.44, p = 0.035) while higher but acceptable range serum triglyceride was protective in men (OR = 0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.52, p = 0.012). Higher serum myostatin independently associated with higher odds for sarcopenia in men (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.24, p = 0.041). Serum IGF-1 was significantly lower amongst female sarcopenic subjects, with demonstrable trend for protective effect against sarcopenia in multiple regression models, such that each 1 ng/ml increase in IGF-1 was associated with 1% decline in odds of sarcopenia in women (p = 0.095). Our findings support differential pathophysiological mechanisms for sarcopenia that, if corroborated, may have clinical utility in guiding sex-specific targeted

  4. Factors influencing the implicitation of discourse relations across languages

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Relations that hold between discourse segments can, but need not, be made explicit by means of discourse connectives. Even though the explicit signaling of discourse relations is optional, not all relations can be easily conveyed implicitly. It has been proposed that readers and listeners have certain expectations about discourse and that discourse relations that are in line with these expectations (default) are more often implicit than the ones that are not (non-default). In this paper, we a...

  5. Functional and Activity Analysis of Cattle UCP3 Promoter with MRFs-Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 is mainly expressed in muscle. It plays an important role in muscle, but less research on the regulation of cattle UCP3 has been performed. In order to elucidate whether cattle UCP3 can be regulated by muscle-related factors, deletion of cattle UCP3 promoter was amplified and cloned into pGL3-basic, pGL3-promoter and PEGFP-N3 vector, respectively, then transfected into C2C12 myoblasts cells and UCP3 promoter activity was measured using the dual-Luciferase reporter assay system. The results showed that there is some negative-regulatory element from −620 to −433 bp, and there is some positive-regulatory element between −433 and −385 bp. The fragment (1.08 kb of UCP3 promoter was cotransfected with muscle-related transcription factor myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs and myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A. We found that UCP3 promoter could be upregulated by Myf5, Myf6 and MyoD and downregulated by MyoG and MEF2A.

  6. Factors influencing the implicitation of discourse relations across languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Jet; Zufferey, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Relations that hold between discourse segments can, but need not, be made explicit by means of discourse connectives. Even though the explicit signaling of discourse relations is optional, not all relations can be easily conveyed implicitly. It has been proposed that readers and listeners have certa

  7. The Drosophila Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Ouija Board Controls Ecdysteroid Biosynthesis through Specific Regulation of spookier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Komura-Kawa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones are crucial for many biological events in multicellular organisms. In insects, the principal steroid hormones are ecdysteroids, which play essential roles in regulating molting and metamorphosis. During larval and pupal development, ecdysteroids are synthesized in the prothoracic gland (PG from dietary cholesterol via a series of hydroxylation and oxidation steps. The expression of all but one of the known ecdysteroid biosynthetic enzymes is restricted to the PG, but the transcriptional regulatory networks responsible for generating such exquisite tissue-specific regulation is only beginning to be elucidated. Here, we report identification and characterization of the C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factor Ouija board (Ouib necessary for ecdysteroid production in the PG in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Expression of ouib is predominantly limited to the PG, and genetic null mutants of ouib result in larval developmental arrest that can be rescued by administrating an active ecdysteroid. Interestingly, ouib mutant animals exhibit a strong reduction in the expression of one ecdysteroid biosynthetic enzyme, spookier. Using a cell culture-based luciferase reporter assay, Ouib protein stimulates transcription of spok by binding to a specific ~15 bp response element in the spok PG enhancer element. Most remarkable, the developmental arrest phenotype of ouib mutants is rescued by over-expression of a functionally-equivalent paralog of spookier. These observations imply that the main biological function of Ouib is to specifically regulate spookier transcription during Drosophila development.

  8. Myogenic factors that regulate expression of muscle-specific microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Prakash K; Kumar, Roshan M; Farkhondeh, Mina; Baskerville, Scott; Lodish, Harvey F

    2006-06-01

    Since their discovery as key regulators of early animal development, microRNAs now are recognized as widespread regulators of gene expression. Despite their abundance, little is known regarding the regulation of microRNA biogenesis. We show that three highly conserved muscle-specific microRNAs, miR-1, miR-133 and miR-206, are robustly induced during the myoblast-myotube transition, both in primary human myoblasts and in the mouse mesenchymal C2C12 stem cell line. These microRNAs were not induced during osteogenic conversion of C2C12 cells. Moreover, both loci encoding miR-1, miR-1-1, and miR-1-2, and two of the three encoding miR-133, miR-133a-1 and miR-133a-2, are strongly induced during myogenesis. Some of the induced microRNAs are in intergenic regions, whereas two are transcribed in the opposite direction to the nonmuscle-specific gene in which they are embedded. By using CHIP analysis, we demonstrate that the myogenic factors Myogenin and MyoD bind to regions upstream of these microRNAs and, therefore, are likely to regulate their expression. Because miR-1 and miR-206 are predicted to repress similar mRNA targets, our work suggests that induction of these microRNAs is important in regulating the expression of muscle-specific proteins.

  9. Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Drywall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy; Russell, Marion; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-06-01

    Imported drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. To support an investigation of those building materials by the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) measured chemical-specific emission factors for 30 samples of drywall materials. Emission factors are reported for 75 chemicals and 30 different drywall samples encompassing both domestic and imported stock and incorporating natural, synthetic, or mixed gypsum core material. CPSC supplied all drywall materials. First the drywall samples were isolated and conditioned in dedicated chambers, then they were transferred to small chambers where emission testing was performed. Four sampling and analysis methods were utilized to assess (1) volatile organic compounds, (2) low molecular weight carbonyls, (3) volatile sulfur compounds, and (4) reactive sulfur gases. LBNL developed a new method that combines the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) with small emission chambers to measure the reactive sulfur gases, then extended that technique to measure the full suite of volatile sulfur compounds. The testing procedure and analysis methods are described in detail herein. Emission factors were measured under a single set of controlled environmental conditions. The results are compared graphically for each method and in detailed tables for use in estimating indoor exposure concentrations.

  10. R7 Photoreceptor Specification in the Developing Drosophila Eye: The Role of the Transcription Factor Deadpan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Emmanuel Mavromatakis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As cells proceed along their developmental pathways they make a series of sequential cell fate decisions. Each of those decisions needs to be made in a robust manner so there is no ambiguity in the state of the cell as it proceeds to the next stage. Here we examine the decision made by the Drosophila R7 precursor cell to become a photoreceptor and ask how the robustness of that decision is achieved. The transcription factor Tramtrack (Ttk inhibits photoreceptor assignment, and previous studies found that the RTK-induced degradation of Ttk was critically required for R7 specification. Here we find that the transcription factor Deadpan (Dpn is also required; it is needed to silence ttk transcription, and only when Ttk protein degradation and transcriptional silencing occur together is the photoreceptor fate robustly achieved. Dpn expression needs to be tightly restricted to R7 precursors, and we describe the role played by Ttk in repressing dpn transcription. Thus, Dpn and Ttk act as mutually repressive transcription factors, with Dpn acting to ensure that Ttk is effectively removed from R7, and Ttk acting to prevent Dpn expression in other cells. Furthermore, we find that N activity is required to promote dpn transcription, and only in R7 precursors does the removal of Ttk coincide with high N activity, and only in this cell does Dpn expression result.

  11. The Effect of Relation-Specific Investments in the Supply Chain Triad on Innovation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gelei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a comprehensive survey, this paper analyzes the effect of committed and heavy supply chain relationships characterized by high levels of relation-specific investments in innovation performance in Hungary, an emerging economy in Central and Eastern Europe. For this research, we carry out a two-step analysis. First, we investigate the effect of Relation Specific Investments (RSI on four different innovation-related performance dimensions of a focal firm. In contrast to previous research, we did not limit our analysis to the dyadic relationship level, but rather, we analyzed the triadic supply chain relationships. Uniquely, this paper conceptualizes and measures innovation performance in a complex way, both product and process, but also analyzes incremental and radical innovations. As a second step, the effect of internationalization on the focal firm is tested. Triad level RSI has a positive effect on all innovation related performance dimensions. A test of the moderation effect produced mixed results, indicating the need to treat innovation in a complex, sophisticated way in future research.

  12. Maternal anxiety versus depressive disorders: specific relations to infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, J; Wittchen, H-U; Einsle, F; Martini, J

    2016-03-01

    Maternal depression has been associated with excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems, but the specificity of maternal depression, as compared with maternal anxiety remains unclear and manifest disorders prior to pregnancy have been widely neglected. In this prospective longitudinal study, the specific associations of maternal anxiety and depressive disorders prior to, during and after pregnancy and infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems were investigated in the context of maternal parity. In the Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) Study, n = 306 primiparous and multiparous women were repeatedly interviewed from early pregnancy until 16 months post partum with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V) to assess DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders. Information on excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems was obtained from n = 286 mothers during postpartum period via questionnaire and interview (Baby-DIPS). Findings from this study revealed syndrome-specific risk constellations for maternal anxiety and depressive disorders as early as prior to pregnancy: Excessive infant crying (10.1%) was specifically associated with maternal anxiety disorders, especially in infants of younger and lower educated first-time mothers. Feeding problems (36.4%) were predicted by maternal anxiety (and comorbid depressive) disorders in primiparous mothers and infants with lower birth weight. Infant sleeping problems (12.2%) were related to maternal depressive (and comorbid anxiety) disorders irrespective of maternal parity. Primiparous mothers with anxiety disorders may be more prone to anxious misinterpretations of crying and feeding situations leading to an escalation of mother-infant interactions. The relation between maternal depressive and infant sleeping problems may be better explained by a transmission of unsettled maternal sleep to the fetus during pregnancy or a lack of daily

  13. Identification of a fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases closely related to tyrosine kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongtao Zhao

    Full Text Available Tyrosine kinases (TKs specifically catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in proteins and play essential roles in many cellular processes. Although TKs mainly exist in animals, recent studies revealed that some organisms outside the Opisthokont clade also contain TKs. The fungi, as the sister group to animals, are thought to lack TKs. To better understand the origin and evolution of TKs, it is important to investigate if fungi have TK or TK-related genes. We therefore systematically identified possible TKs across the fungal kingdom by using the profile hidden Markov Models searches and phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirmed that fungi lack the orthologs of animal TKs. We identified a fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases (FslK that appears to be a sister group closely related to TKs. Sequence analysis revealed that members of the FslK clade contain all the conserved protein kinase sub-domains and thus are likely enzymatically active. However, they lack key amino acid residues that determine TK-specific activities, indicating that they are not true TKs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the last common ancestor of fungi may have possessed numerous members of FslK. The ancestral FslK genes were lost in Ascomycota and Ustilaginomycotina and Pucciniomycotina of Basidiomycota during evolution. Most of these ancestral genes, however, were retained and expanded in Agaricomycetes. The discovery of the fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases closely related to TKs helps shed light on the origin and evolution of TKs and also has potential implications for the importance of these kinases in mushroom fungi.

  14. Identification of a fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases closely related to tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongtao; Jin, Qiaojun; Xu, Jin-Rong; Liu, Huiquan

    2014-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases (TKs) specifically catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in proteins and play essential roles in many cellular processes. Although TKs mainly exist in animals, recent studies revealed that some organisms outside the Opisthokont clade also contain TKs. The fungi, as the sister group to animals, are thought to lack TKs. To better understand the origin and evolution of TKs, it is important to investigate if fungi have TK or TK-related genes. We therefore systematically identified possible TKs across the fungal kingdom by using the profile hidden Markov Models searches and phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirmed that fungi lack the orthologs of animal TKs. We identified a fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases (FslK) that appears to be a sister group closely related to TKs. Sequence analysis revealed that members of the FslK clade contain all the conserved protein kinase sub-domains and thus are likely enzymatically active. However, they lack key amino acid residues that determine TK-specific activities, indicating that they are not true TKs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the last common ancestor of fungi may have possessed numerous members of FslK. The ancestral FslK genes were lost in Ascomycota and Ustilaginomycotina and Pucciniomycotina of Basidiomycota during evolution. Most of these ancestral genes, however, were retained and expanded in Agaricomycetes. The discovery of the fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases closely related to TKs helps shed light on the origin and evolution of TKs and also has potential implications for the importance of these kinases in mushroom fungi.

  15. Improved technical specifications and related improvements to safety in commercial Nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.R.; Demitrack, T.; Schiele, R.; Jones, J.C. [EXCEL Services Corporation, 11921 Rockville Pike, Suite 100, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)]. e-mail: donaldh@excelservices.com

    2004-07-01

    Many of the commercial nuclear power plants in the United States (US) have been converting a portion of the plant operating license known as the Technical Specifications (TS) in accordance with a document published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The TS prescribe commercial nuclear power plant operating requirements. There are several types of nuclear power plants in the US, based on the technology of different vendors, and there is an NRC document that supports each of the five different vendor designs. The NRC documents are known as the Improved Standard Technical Specifications (ISTS) and are contained in a separate document (NUREG series) for each one of the designs. EXCEL Services Corporation (hereinafter EXCEL) has played a major role in the development of the ISTS and in the development, licensing, and implementation of the plant specific Improved Technical Specifications (ITS) (which is based on the ISTS) for the commercial nuclear power plants in the US that have elected to make this conversion. There are currently 103 operating commercial nuclear power plants in the US and 68 of them have successfully completed the conversion to the ITS and are now operating in accordance with their plant specific ITS. The ISTS is focused mainly on safety by ensuring the commercial nuclear reactors can safely shut down and mitigate the consequences of any postulated transient and accident. It accomplishes this function by including requirements directly associated with safety in a document structured systematically and taking into account some key human factors and technical initiatives. This paper discusses the ISTS including its format, content, and detail, the history of the ISTS, the ITS development, licensing, and implementation process, the safety improvements resulting from a plant conversion to ITS, and the importance of the ITS Project to the industry. (Author)

  16. Specificity of emotion regulation difficulties related to anxiety in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Brittany L; Kerns, Kathryn A; Ciesla, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Etiological models identify difficulties in emotion regulation as potential contributors to the development and maintenance of anxiety. To date, studies with adolescents have not tested whether different types of anxiety symptoms are related to different emotion regulation difficulties. The current study aimed to examine specificity of associations between emotion regulation difficulties and symptoms of social and generalized anxiety in early adolescence. Ninety adolescents (ages 11-14 years) completed measures of emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms. Social and generalized anxiety symptoms showed similar bivariate correlations with emotion regulation. However, when controlling for generalized anxiety, social anxiety symptoms were uniquely related to emotion understanding, acceptance, evaluation, and reactivity. Generalized anxiety symptoms were uniquely related to emotion modification. The current study suggests that social and generalized anxiety symptoms have both common and unique associations with emotion regulation difficulties in early adolescence, and has implications for which emotion regulation skills to target in clinical interventions.

  17. The NLstart2run study : Training-related factors associated with running-related injuries in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas; van der Worp, Henk; Huisstede, Bionka M A; Hartgens, Fred; Diercks, Ron; Verhagen, Evert; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The incidence of running-related injuries is high. Some risk factors for injury were identified in novice runners, however, not much is known about the effect of training factors on injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the associations between training factors

  18. Brain-specific ablation of Efr3a promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis via the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qi; Liu, Qiuji; Zhou, Dongming; Pan, Hongyu; Liu, Zhiwei; He, Fangping; Ji, Suying; Wang, Dongpi; Bao, Wangxiao; Liu, Xinyi; Liu, Zhaoling; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Mingkai; Xu, Ying; Huang, Fude; Luo, Benyan; Sun, Binggui

    2017-02-13

    Efr3 is a newly identified plasma membrane protein and plays an important role in the phosphoinositide metabolism on the plasma membrane. However, although it is highly expressed in the brain, the functional significance of Efr3 in the brain is not clear. In the present study, we generated Efr3a(f/f) mice and then crossed them with Nestin-Cre mice to delete Efr3a, one of the Efr3 isoforms, specifically in the brain. We found that brain-specific ablation of Efr3a promoted adult hippocampal neurogenesis by increasing survival and maturation of newborn neurons without affecting their dendritic tree morphology. Moreover, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) signaling pathway was significantly enhanced in the hippocampus of Efr3a-deficient mice, as reflected by increased expression of BDNF, TrkB, and the downstream molecules, including phospho-MAPK and phospho-Akt. Furthermore, the number of TUNEL(+) cells was decreased in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus in Efr3a-deficient mice compared with that of control mice. Our data suggest that brain-specific deletion of Efr3a could promote adult hippocampal neurogenesis, presumably by upregulating the expression of BDNF and its receptor, TrkB, and therefore provide new insight into the roles of Efr3 in the brain.-Qian, Q., Liu, Q., Zhou, D., Pan, H., Liu, Z., He, F., Ji, S., Wang, D., Bao, W., Liu, X., Liu, Z., Zhang, H., Zhang, X., Zhang, L., Wang, M., Xu, Y., Huang, F., Luo, B., Sun B. Brain-specific ablation of Efr3a promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis via the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway.

  19. Preparation, Characterization, and Determination of Immunological Activities of Transfer Factor Specific to Human Sperm Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to prepare, characterize, and determine immunological activities of specific transfer factor (STF specific to human sperm antigen (HSA for the preparation of antisperm contraceptive vaccine that can be used as an immunocontraceptive. Methods. HSA-STF was prepared using the spleens of rabbits vaccinated with HSA. The specific immunological activities were examined by lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT, leukocyte adhesion inhibition test (LAIT, and by determining the concentrations of IL-4, γ-IFN, and IL-21. HSA-STF was a helveolous substance, having a pH value of 7.0±0.4 and UV absorption maxima at 258 ± 6 nm. It contained seventeen amino acids; glycine and glutamic acids were the highest in terms of concentrations (38.8 μg/mL and 36.3 μg/mL, resp.. Results. The concentration of polypeptide was 2.34±0.31 mg/mL, and ribose was 0.717±0.043 mg/mL. The stimulation index for lymphocyte proliferation test was 1.84, and the leukocyte adhesion inhibition rate was 37.7%. There was a statistically significant difference between the cultural lymphocytes with HSA-STF and non-HSA-STF for γ-IFN and IL-21 (P0.05. Conclusion. HSA-STF was prepared and characterized successfully. It had immunological activity which could transfer the immune response specific to HSA and prove to be a potential candidate for the development of male immunocontraceptive agents.

  20. Sex-specific genetic diversity is shaped by cultural factors in Inner Asian human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Nina; Hegay, Tatyana; Mennecier, Philippe; Georges, Myriam; Laurent, Romain; Whitten, Mark; Endicott, Philipp; Aldashev, Almaz; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Nasyrova, Firuza; Chichlo, Boris; Ségurel, Laure; Heyer, Evelyne

    2017-04-01

    Sex-specific genetic structures have been previously documented worldwide in humans, even though causal factors have not always clearly been identified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ethnicity, geography and social organization on the sex-specific genetic structure in Inner Asia. Furthermore, we explored the process of ethnogenesis in multiple ethnic groups. We sampled DNA in Central and Northern Asia from 39 populations of Indo-Iranian and Turkic-Mongolic native speakers. We focused on genetic data of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. First, we compared the frequencies of haplogroups to South European and East Asian populations. Then, we investigated the genetic differentiation for eight Y-STRs and the HVS1 region, and tested for the effect of geography and ethnicity on such patterns. Finally, we reconstructed the male demographic history, inferred split times and effective population sizes of different ethnic groups. Based on the haplogroup data, we observed that the Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-Mongolic-speaking populations have distinct genetic backgrounds. However, each population showed consistent mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups patterns. As expected in patrilocal populations, we found that the Y-STRs were more structured than the HVS1. While ethnicity strongly influenced the genetic diversity on the Y chromosome, geography better explained that of the mtDNA. Furthermore, when looking at various ethnic groups, we systematically found a genetic split time older than historical records, suggesting a cultural rather than biological process of ethnogenesis. This study highlights that, in Inner Asia, specific cultural behaviors, especially patrilineality and patrilocality, leave a detectable signature on the sex-specific genetic structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Gender differences in the relations between work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2004-01-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints might be explained by differences in the effect of exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to examine gender differences in the relations between these risk factors and muscu

  2. The relative importance of geophysical constraints, amenity values, and farm-related factors in the dynamics of grassland set-aside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold; Bøcher, Peder Klith

    2013-01-01

    -suitability of an area), (2) amenity values (nature conservation and aesthetic values), and (3) farming-related factors (e.g., field size and livestock density). The spatial distribution of set-aside was influenced by both geophysical constraints and amenity values and only some extent farming-related factors. More...... specifically, set-aside was predominantly located in areas with steep slopes, high wetness and to a lesser extent low soil fertility, a large nature area, and low livestock densities, though not as pronounced in 2008 as in 2007. These were also the areas with the strongest loss in set-aside area from 2007...

  3. Specific infections, infection-related behavior, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajdic, Claire M; Grulich, Andrew E; Kaldor, John M; Fritschi, Lin; Benke, Geza; Hughes, Ann Maree; Kricker, Anne; Turner, Jennifer J; Milliken, Sam; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2006-06-01

    Infections were examined as possible risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a population-based case-control study in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, Australia. Incident cases (n = 694) had no history of HIV infection or transplantation. Controls (n = 694) were randomly selected from electoral rolls and frequency matched to cases by age, sex, and area of residence. A postal questionnaire and telephone interview measured history of specific infections, occupational exposures, and behavioral and other risk factors for infection. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to human T-lymphotrophic virus type I and hepatitis C virus. Logistic regression models included the three matching variables and ethnicity. There was no association between risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and any of the variables analyzed, including sexually transmitted infections, sexual behavior, blood transfusions, influenza, acne, and either occupational or domestic exposure to zoonotic infections. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk was nonsignificantly elevated (odds ratio, 2.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-11.51) for those with a history of injecting drug use. Three cases and two controls (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-7.98) tested positive to hepatitis C virus infection and none tested positive to human T-lymphotrophic virus type I/II infection. This study provides consistent evidence that sexually transmitted infections and zoonoses are not risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  4. Factores de riesgo asociados con la maloclusión Malocclusion-related risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohany Duque de Estrada Riverón

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio analítico del tipo de casos y controles en el municipio de Colón, provincia de Matanzas, en el período comprendido del año 2000-2002. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por 939 niños de 9, 12 y 15 años de edad, de los cuales se tomó una muestra aleatoria equivalente a 120 niños: 63 femeninos y 57 masculinos. Se caracterizaron los riesgos relacionados con hábitos bucales deformantes (40 %, hipotonía muscular (16,70 %, comportamiento de la herencia (32,50 %, malnutrición (20 %, caries dental (56,70 % y dientes perdidos (25 %. Se calculó el Odds ratio relacionado con hábitos bucales (7,69, hipotonía muscular (12,43 y herencia (3,90, lo que significó la probabilidad de riesgo de enfermar en presencia de los factores de riesgo considerados, que permite establecer un sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica al respecto.An analytical case-control study was performed in Colon municipality, Matanzas province, Cuba, from 2000 to 2002. The universe of study was made up of 939 children aged 9, 12 and 15 years, from whom 120 were taken as equivalent random sample (63 females and 57 males. The risk characterization was based on deforming oral habits (40%, muscular hypotonia (16,70%, heredity performance (32,5%, malnutrition (20%, dental caries (56,70% and lost teeth (25%. The estimated odds ratio was more related to oral habits (7,69% muscular hypotonia (12,43% and heredity (3,90%, which means that there exists the probability of getting sick in the face of the considered risk factors. This allows setting up an epidemiological surveillance system on this issue.

  5. The clinical course and prognostic factors of non-specific neck pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghouts, J A; Koes, B W; Bouter, L M

    1998-07-01

    Neck pain occurs frequently in western societies. In the majority of cases, no specific cause can be identified. In order to gain insight into the clinical course and prognostic factors of non-specific neck pain, a systematic review was conducted. A computerized literature search was carried out to identify observational studies on non-specific neck pain and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on conservative treatment of non-specific neck pain. Two reviewers scored independently, the methodological quality of all identified publications, using a standardized set of 13 criteria which were divided into five categories according to: study population, study design, follow-up, outcome measures and analysis/data presentation. To determine prognosis per study, an overall percentage of recovery for the most important outcome measures (pain, general improvement, functional status, health care utilization and lost days of work) was calculated. In total 23 eligible publications were identified (six observational studies and 17 RCTs). Only seven of 23 studies scored 50% or more of the 13 items, indicating a generally poor quality of methods. The most prevalent methodological shortcomings appeared to be selection of the study population, the sample size and analysis techniques. Most information regarding the clinical course is available for the group of patients with complaints for more than 6 months, who are treated in a secondary care or an occupational setting. In this group of patients, 46% (median) had less pain, with a range of 22-79% and a general improvement that ranged between 37 and 95% (47% median). The reduction in the use of analgesics ranged between 32 and 80% (37% median). Six studies reported on prognostic factors. Bearing in mind the limited number of studies and the low methodological quality, there are some indications that the localization (radiation to the arms/neurologic signs) and radiologic findings (degenerative changes in the discs and joints) are not

  6. Sleep-related cognitive processes, arousal, and emotion dysregulation in insomnia disorder: the role of insomnia-specific rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagini, Laura; Moretto, Umberto; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Carney, Colleen

    2017-02-01

    Insomnia-specific rumination has presented in subjects with insomnia. Research has identified hyperarousal as a key factor, with both trait and state components. It has been shown that emotion dysregulation also plays a role in insomnia. Hence, the aim was to investigate how insomnia rumination is associated with both trait- and state-dependent arousal and emotion dysregulation in insomnia. Sixty-eight subjects with insomnia disorder (DSM-5) and 36 good sleepers were evaluated using: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Daytime Insomnia Symptom Response Scale (DISRS), Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS), Pre-sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS), and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses and mediation analyses were performed. Subjects with insomnia (F 41, mean age 50.2 ± 10) presented higher scores than good sleepers (F 22, mean age 49.7 ± 14) in all the scales (ISI, DISRS, APS, PSAS, DERS; p cognitive B = 0.22, p cognitive and somatic arousal (p = 0.02), and the association between trait hyperarousal and emotion dysregulation (Z = 2.3, p = 0.04). In insomnia, specific rumination is related to both trait predisposition to arousal and to state-dependent arousal. It is also related to emotion dyregulation. Insomnia-specific ruminative response style may modulate the complex association between trait- and state-dependent arousal factors and arousal and emotion regulation in insomnia. In this framework, a broad range of cognitive processes may be considered when dealing with subjects with insomnia: the use of rumination-oriented psychological strategies could be important. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An anther-specific chalcone synthase-like gene D5 related to rice pollen development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It was shown in a previous analysis that D5 gene from rice (Oryza sativa L.) was an anther-specific gene encoding a chalcone synthase-related protein. In this study, D5 gene was found specifically expressed in tapetum cells as well as in the peripheral cells of the vascular bundle of rice anthers by RNA in situ hybridization. In order to study its function, D5 was transformed into rice in both sense and antisense directions driven by a rice Actin 1 promoter. It has been observed that the pollen grains from the antisense D5 transgenic rice plants are abnormal, indicating that D5 plays a critical role in rice pollen development.

  8. Related lectins from snowdrop and maize differ in their carbohydrate-binding specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquaert, Elke; Smith, David F; Peumans, Willy J; Proost, Paul; Balzarini, Jan; Savvides, Savvas N; Damme, Els J M Van

    2009-03-01

    Searches in an EST database from maize revealed the expression of a protein related to the Galanthus nivalis (GNA) agglutinin, referred to as GNA(maize). Heterologous expression of GNA(maize) in Pichia pastoris allowed characterization of the first nucleocytoplasmic GNA homolog from plants. GNA(maize) is a tetrameric protein which shares 64% sequence similarity with GNA. Glycan microarray analyses revealed important differences in the specificity. Unlike GNA, which binds strongly to high-mannose N-glycans, the lectin from maize reacts almost exclusively with more complex glycans. Interestingly, GNA(maize) prefers complex glycans containing beta1-2 GlcNAc residues. The obvious difference in carbohydrate-binding properties is accompanied by a 100-fold reduced anti-HIV activity. Although the sequences of GNA and GNA(maize) are clearly related they show only 28% sequence identity. Our results indicate that gene divergence within the family of GNA-related lectins leads to changes in carbohydrate-binding specificity, as shown on N-glycan arrays.

  9. Inhibitory control in bilinguals and musicians: event related potential (ERP evidence for experience-specific effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Moreno

    Full Text Available Bilinguals and musicians exhibit behavioral advantages on tasks with high demands on executive functioning, particularly inhibitory control, but the brain mechanisms supporting these differences are unclear. Of key interest is whether these forms of experience influence cognition through similar or distinct information processing mechanisms. Here, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs in three groups - bilinguals, musicians, and controls - who completed a visual go-nogo task that involved the withholding of key presses to rare targets. Participants in each group achieved similar accuracy rates and responses times but the analysis of cortical responses revealed significant differences in ERP waveforms. Success in withholding a prepotent response was associated with enhanced stimulus-locked N2 and P3 wave amplitude relative to go trials. For nogo trials, there were altered timing-specific ERP differences and graded amplitude differences observed in the neural responses across groups. Specifically, musicians showed an enhanced early P2 response accompanied by reduced N2 amplitude whereas bilinguals showed increased N2 amplitude coupled with an increased late positivity wave relative to controls. These findings demonstrate that bilingualism and music training have differential effects on the brain networks supporting executive control over behavior.

  10. Inhibitory Control in Bilinguals and Musicians: Event Related Potential (ERP) Evidence for Experience-Specific Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Wodniecka, Zofia; Tays, William; Alain, Claude; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Bilinguals and musicians exhibit behavioral advantages on tasks with high demands on executive functioning, particularly inhibitory control, but the brain mechanisms supporting these differences are unclear. Of key interest is whether these forms of experience influence cognition through similar or distinct information processing mechanisms. Here, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in three groups – bilinguals, musicians, and controls – who completed a visual go-nogo task that involved the withholding of key presses to rare targets. Participants in each group achieved similar accuracy rates and responses times but the analysis of cortical responses revealed significant differences in ERP waveforms. Success in withholding a prepotent response was associated with enhanced stimulus-locked N2 and P3 wave amplitude relative to go trials. For nogo trials, there were altered timing-specific ERP differences and graded amplitude differences observed in the neural responses across groups. Specifically, musicians showed an enhanced early P2 response accompanied by reduced N2 amplitude whereas bilinguals showed increased N2 amplitude coupled with an increased late positivity wave relative to controls. These findings demonstrate that bilingualism and music training have differential effects on the brain networks supporting executive control over behavior. PMID:24743321

  11. Adaptive memory: the survival scenario enhances item-specific processing relative to a moving scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Daniel J; Hart, Joshua; Griffith, Samantha E; Burns, Amy D

    2013-01-01

    Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada (2007) found that retention of words rated for their relevance to survival is superior to that of words encoded under numerous other deep processing conditions. They suggested that our memory systems might have evolved to confer an advantage for survival-relevant information. Burns, Burns, and Hwang (2011) suggested a two-process explanation of the proximate mechanisms responsible for the survival advantage. Whereas most control tasks encourage only one type of processing, the survival task encourages both item-specific and relational processing. They found that when control tasks encouraged both types of processing, the survival processing advantage was eliminated. However, none of their control conditions included non-survival scenarios (e.g., moving, vacation, etc.), so it is not clear how this two-process explanation would explain the survival advantage when scenarios are used as control conditions. The present experiments replicated the finding that the survival scenario improves recall relative to a moving scenario in both a between-lists and within-list design and also provided evidence that this difference was accompanied by an item-specific processing difference, not a difference in relational processing. The implications of these results for several existing accounts of the survival processing effect are discussed.

  12. Structural basis of human transcription factor Sry-related box 17 binding to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nana; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Hai; Cheng, Zhong; Qian, Huolian; Si, Shuyi; Xie, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Sry-related box (Sox) transcription factors share a conserved high-mobility-group box domain (HMG-domain) that binds DNA in the minor groove and bends DNA for further assembly of transcriptional machineries. During organogenesis, each member of the Sox family triggers a specific cell lineage differentiation, indicating that their interactions with DNA are different from each other. Therefore, investigating structural rearrangement of each Sox transcription factor HMG-domain upon binding to DNA would help to elucidate the distinctive molecular mechanism by which they interact with DNA. Previous studies have determined the crystal structures of Sox2 HMG-domain/DNA, Sox4 HMGdomain/ DNA, Sox9 HMG-domain/DNA and Sox17 HMG-domain/DNA complexes. However, major gaps remain in the structural information on the Sox transcription factor HMG-domains. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human Sox17 HMG-domain alone at 2.4 A resolution. Comparing this structure and the structure of the mouse Sox17 HMGdomain/ DNA complex provides structural understanding of the mechanism of Sox17 binding to DNA. Specifically, after electrostatic interactions attract Sox17 to DNA, Asn73, Ser99, and Trp106 form hydrogen bonds with DNA, Arg70, Lys80, Arg83, His94, and Asn95 on Sox17 undergo conformational changes and form hydrogen bonds with DNA, contributing to the electrostatic interaction between Sox17 and DNA.

  13. [Work-related musculoskeletal diseases in dental professionals. 1. Prevalence and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorio, F; Vercelli, S; Ferriero, G; D'Angelo, F; Migliario, M; Franchignoni, M

    2005-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a sharp rise in the incidence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD). All occupations are involved; in dental professionals (dentists, dental hygienists and dental auxiliaries) this problem occurs in 54-93% of subjects, with higher risk in elderly subjects and women. Spine, shoulder, elbow and hand are mostly involved. Prevention of WMSD is becoming crucial and requires the identification and modification of risk factors. Individual characteristics of the worker--such as gender, age, stature, physical condition, strength, etc.--may contribute to the occurrence of these musculoskeletal disorders. Moreover, the specific occupation and work organisation may be the source of ergonomic hazards. Awkward postures, prolonged repetitive movements, intense work schedules or fast work pace represent important risk factors for WMSD. Sometimes the dentist's workstation is not suited to the specific professional characteristics and an ergonomic improvement is needed. Finally, factors connected with professional equipment (such as vibrations, or sharp and hard surfaces causing pressure points) may also contribute to generating WMSD in dental professionals.

  14. Subject-specific increases in serum S-100B distinguish sports-related concussion from sports-related exertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kiechle

    Full Text Available The on-field diagnosis of sports-related concussion (SRC is complicated by the lack of an accurate and objective marker of brain injury.To compare subject-specific changes in the astroglial protein, S100B, before and after SRC among collegiate and semi-professional contact sport athletes, and compare these changes to differences in S100B before and after non-contact exertion.Longitudinal cohort study.From 2009-2011, we performed a prospective study of athletes from Munich, Germany, and Rochester, New York, USA. Serum S100B was measured in all SRC athletes at pre-season baseline, within 3 hours of injury, and at days 2, 3 and 7 post-SRC. Among a subset of athletes, S100B was measured after non-contact exertion but before injury. All samples were collected identically and analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescent assay to quantify serum S100B levels.Forty-six athletes (30 Munich, 16 Rochester underwent baseline testing. Thirty underwent additional post-exertion S100B testing. Twenty-two athletes (16 Rochester, 6 Munich sustained a SRC, and 17 had S100B testing within 3 hours post-injury. The mean 3-hour post-SRC S100B was significantly higher than pre-season baseline (0.099±0.008 µg/L vs. 0.058±0.006 µg/L, p = 0.0002. Mean post-exertion S100B was not significantly different than the preseason baseline. S100B levels at post-injury days 2, 3 and 7 were significantly lower than the 3-hour level, and not different than baseline. Both the absolute change and proportional increase in S100B 3-hour post-injury were accurate discriminators of SRC from non-contact exertion without SRC (AUC 0.772 and 0.904, respectively. A 3-hour post-concussion S100B >0.122 µg/L and a proportional S100B increase of >45.9% over baseline were both 96.7% specific for SRC.Relative and absolute increases in serum S100B can accurately distinguish SRC from sports-related exertion, and may be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SRC.

  15. Assessing infertility-related stress: the factor structure of the Fertility Problem Inventory in Italian couples undergoing infertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donarelli, Zaira; Gullo, Salvatore; Lo Coco, Gianluca; Marino, Angelo; Scaglione, Piero; Volpes, Aldo; Allegra, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    The factor structure of the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI) and its invariance across gender were examined in Italian couples undergoing infertility treatment. About 1000 subjects (both partners of 500 couples) completed two questionnaires prior to commencing infertility treatment at a private Clinic in Palermo, Italy. Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that the original factor structure of the FPI was partially confirmed. Two correlated factors (Infertility Life Domains and Importance of Parenthood) were obtained via a post hoc Exploratory Factor Analysis. Finally, the invariance of this factor structure across gender was confirmed. The study supported the relevance of two interrelated factors specific to infertility stress which could help clinicians to focus on the core infertility-related stress domains of infertile couples.

  16. Relative effects at work : Bayes factors for order hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeken, J.; Mulder, J.; Wood, S.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the relative importance of predictors has been of historical importance in a variety of disciplines including management, medicine, economics, and psychology. When approaching hypotheses on the relative ordering of the magnitude of predicted effects (e.g., the effects of discrimination fro

  17. CULTURAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL FACTORS RELATING TO LEARNING DEVELOPMENT. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACCOBY, MICHAEL; MODIANO, NANCY

    THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO COMPARE CULTURAL AND CHARACTER VARIABLES AND RELATE THEM TO THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF MEXICAN PEASANT CHILDREN. THE CULTURAL VARIABLES STUDIED INCLUDE ECONOMIC LEVELS, MORAL AND AFFECTIVE JUDGMENTS, AND THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PARENTS AND CHILDREN. MODES OF ASSIMILATION, SOCIAL RELATIONS, FIXATIONS,…

  18. Physiological responses to environmental factors related to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    Physiological procedures and instrumentation developed for the measurement of hemodynamic and metabolic parameters during prolonged periods of weightlessness are described along with the physiological response of monkeys to weightlessness. Specific areas examined include: cardiovascular studies; thyroid function; blood oxygen transport; growth and reproduction; excreta analysis for metabolic balance studies; and electrophoretic separation of creatine phosphokinase isoenzymes in human blood.

  19. Incidence and risk factors of running-related injuries during preparation for a 4-mile recreational running event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, I.; Bredeweg, S. W.; Bessem, B.; van Mechelen, W.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Diercks, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective In this study, the incidence and the sex-specific predictors of running-related injury (RRI) among a group of recreational runners training for a 4-mile running event were determined and identified, respectively. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Several potential risk factors were

  20. Demographic and Predeparture Factors Associated with Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences for College Students Completing Study Abroad Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Aresi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Study abroad students are at risk for increased and problematic drinking behavior. As few efforts have been made to examine this at-risk population, the authors predicted drinking and alcohol-related consequences abroad from predeparture and site-specific factors. Participants: The sample consisted of 339 students completing study…

  1. Demographic and Predeparture Factors Associated with Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences for College Students Completing Study Abroad Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Aresi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Study abroad students are at risk for increased and problematic drinking behavior. As few efforts have been made to examine this at-risk population, the authors predicted drinking and alcohol-related consequences abroad from predeparture and site-specific factors. Participants: The sample consisted of 339 students completing study…

  2. Estimation of Specific Energy Factor in Marble Cutting Process Using ANFIS and ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURAT CANER

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of the marble cutting parameters on energy consumption was estimated by using Artificial Neural Network and ANFIS. In both of these estimation methods, marble's hardness, speed of circular saw rotation and cutting speed parameters were used as inputs, specific energy factor, cutting energy in per unit volume was taken as output. The data for training networks were taken from a PC based block cutter machine (S/T with circular diamond saw blade at Afyon Kocatepe University Labs. These data are cutting parameters of "Denizli Travertine" and "Bilecik Beige" type marbles. Some of these data were used for training and then all data were used for testing stage of the networks. To show the effectiveness of the study, estimated data were compared with experimental data. As conclusion, it was reported that estimated data were quite close to experimental result.

  3. Design, construction, and analysis of specific zinc finger nucleases for microphthalmia - associate transcription factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the design, construction, and cleavage analysis of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs that could cut the specific sequences within microphthalmia - associate transcription factor (mitfa of zebra fish. The target site and ZFPs were selected and designed with zinc finger tools, while the ZFPs were synthesized using DNAWorks and two-step PCR. The ZFNs were constructed, expressed, purified, and analyzed in vitro. As expected, the designed ZFNs could create a double-stand break (DSB at the target site in vitro. The DNAWorks, two-step PCR, and an optimized process of protein expression were firstly induced in the construction of ZFNs successfully, which was an effective and simplified protocol. These results could be useful for further application of ZFNs - mediated gene targeting.

  4. A Bartlett correction factor for tests on the cointegrating relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Likelihood ratio tests for restrictions on cointegrating vectors are asymptotically [chi]2 distributed. For some values of the parameters this asymptotic distribution does not give a good approximation to the finite sample distribution. In this paper we derive the Bartlett correction factor...

  5. Patient and social work factors related to successful placement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have led to changes in attitudes towards the management of psychiatric .... since 2005.36 In that project the hospital-based social workers liaised with and paid ... be identified of patient factors that are associated with successful community ...

  6. Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahieh Moradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

  7. Factors Related to Teachers' Intention to Leave the Classroom Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippens, Abby; Ricketts, John C.; Morgan, A. Christian; Navarro, Marie; Flanders, Frank B.

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of retaining teachers in the profession of agricultural education is a prevalent and growing problem in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine the primary factors contributing to intention to leave the profession among Georgia agriculture teachers. Teacher-participants responded to a web-based survey which…

  8. Factors Related to Rural School Administrators' Satisfaction with Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Hannum, Wallace H.; de la Varre, Claire; Farmer, Thomas W.; Keane, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rural school district administrators' satisfaction with distance education in the United States and to identify factors that may contribute to their satisfaction. Telephone interviews were conducted with administrators in randomly selected rural districts across the country. Analyses revealed that students'…

  9. The influence of psychosocial factors on pregnancy related pelvic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, G. van de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis encloses studies which are separate analyses of the PRIMIS Study. In the PRIMIS Study a cohort of healthy women who expected their first child was followed up from early pregnancy to one year after delivery. Self-report questionnaires regarding psychosocial factors, urogenital symptoms a

  10. Factors Related to Students' Learning of Biomechanics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, ChengTu; Smith, Jeremy D.; Bohne, Michael; Knudson, Duane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand a previous study to identify the factors that affect students' learning of biomechanical concepts. Students were recruited from three universities (N = 149) located in the central and western regions of the United States. Data from 142 students completing the Biomechanics Concept Inventory…

  11. Overweight and Obesity and Related Factors in Urban Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Urban Iranian Population Aged Between. 20 to 84 Years ... aimed to provide population‑based data on the prevalence of obesity and estimation the risk of some .... in Tehran, capital of Iran. ..... Prevalence and risk factors associated with obesity in the elderly ... obesity and central fat accumulation among Tehranian adults.

  12. THE SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PROMOTIONAL JOURNALISM – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITH OTHER RELATED CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRINA ANIŞOARA TRIFAN (LICA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose statement – This paper’s purpose is to contribute to the development of a specific know-how through the establishment of a theoretical framework of reference. This can facilitate the research steps which follow the identification; analysis; and interpretation of a new marketing instrument – promotional journalism. The objectives, of this study, relate not only to the establishment of theoretical but, also, to the practical characteristics, of promotional journalism. These are based on a comparative analysis with other related concepts and, also, on a qualitative analysis of the contents of the specific materials. Design – The research problem imposes a methodological interdisciplinary approach; this enables the identification; systematization; analysis; and theoretical interpretation of the fundamental concepts, theories and ideas, from the specialized literature, to be orientated towards studies and articles from separate fields. From the perspective of the research objectives and this interdisciplinary study of specilized literature, there was added a qualitative analysis of the content of the materials specific to promotional journalism found between 2002 and 2006, in the fashion magazine, Elle Romania. Overview - The specialized literature presented key-concepts; different terminologies; and meanings apparently for the same studied “reality“. This made the achievement of the process of conceptual delimitations even more difficult to the extent that promotional journalism was situated at the intersection of various sciences and the acknowledgment, of its related terms, were either similar or stated vaguely. Originality – This paper’s originality stems from the interdisciplinary perspective to the approach to the problematical aspect and the analysis and interpretitive complexity of the research results. These might prove useful both to the accomplishment of the studies in the field and for the practitioners and

  13. Appraisal of work ability in relation to job-specific health requirements in ambulance workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaaijk, A; Boschman, J S; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-01-01

    To gain insight into which job-specific health requirements relate to work ability, the following two research questions were formulated: Which job-specific health requirements are associated with the appraisal of work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? How are appraisals of physical and mental work ability associated with the appraisal of overall work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? Workers Health Surveillance cross-sectional data of 506 ambulance workers (236 drivers and 270 paramedics) were used. The tests for specific job requirements were divided into six categories. Work ability was appraised as overall, physical and mental/emotional. Multiple linear stepwise regression analyses were used to model the associations. Outcomes in 'raised alertness and judgment ability' (R (2) = 0.09), 'job-specific physical abilities' (R (2) = 0.10) and 'emotional peak load' (R (2) = 0.07) significantly explained appraised overall, physical and mental/emotional work ability. Physical and mental/emotional work ability together explained 48.3% of the variance of overall work ability. The explained variance by physical and mental/emotional work ability was almost 4% higher in drivers than in paramedics. Overall work ability was significantly explained by outcomes in 'raised alertness and judgment ability' and 'emotional peak load.' Physical work ability was significantly explained by 'job-specific physical abilities' and 'raised alertness and judgment ability' outcomes, while 'emotional peak load' and 'raised alertness and judgment ability' outcomes significantly explained mental/emotional work ability. Physical and mental/emotional work ability explains the same proportion of variance in overall work ability.

  14. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis by Shade Relies on Specific Subsets of Antagonistic Transcription Factors and Cofactors1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Torrent, Jordi; Toledo-Ortiz, Gabriela; Ortiz-Alcaide, Miriam; Cifuentes-Esquivel, Nicolas; Halliday, Karen J.; Martinez-García, Jaime F.; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are photosynthetic pigments essential for the protection against excess light. During deetiolation, their production is regulated by a dynamic repression-activation module formed by PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1) and LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5). These transcription factors directly and oppositely control the expression of the gene encoding PHYTOENE SYNTHASE (PSY), the first and main rate-determining enzyme of the carotenoid pathway. Antagonistic modules also regulate the responses of deetiolated plants to vegetation proximity and shade (i.e. to the perception of far-red light-enriched light filtered through or reflected from neighboring plants). These responses, aimed to adapt to eventual shading from plant competitors, include a reduced accumulation of carotenoids. Here, we show that PIF1 and related photolabile PIFs (but not photostable PIF7) promote the shade-triggered decrease in carotenoid accumulation. While HY5 does not appear to be required for this process, other known PIF antagonists were found to modulate the expression of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PSY gene and the biosynthesis of carotenoids early after exposure to shade. In particular, PHYTOCHROME-RAPIDLY REGULATED1, a transcriptional cofactor that prevents the binding of true transcription factors to their target promoters, was found to interact with PIF1 and hence directly induce PSY expression. By contrast, a change in the levels of the transcriptional cofactor LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR RED1, which also binds to PIF1 and other PIFs to regulate shade-related elongation responses, did not impact PSY expression or carotenoid accumulation. Our data suggest that the fine-regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in response to shade relies on specific modules of antagonistic transcriptional factors and cofactors. PMID:26082398

  15. Solvable Hamiltonians and Fermionization Transformations Obtained from Operators Satisfying Specific Commutation Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Kazuhiko

    2016-02-01

    It is shown that a solvable Hamiltonian can be obtained from a series of operators satisfying specific commutation relations. A transformation that diagonalize the Hamiltonian is obtained simultaneously. The two-dimensional Ising model with periodic interactions, the one-dimensional XY model with period 2, the transverse Ising chain, the one-dimensional Kitaev model and the cluster model, and other composite quantum spin chains are diagonalized following this procedure. The Jordan-Wigner transformation, the transformation from the Pauli spin operators to the Majorana fermion used by Shankar and Murthy, and the transformation introduced by Nambu, are special cases of this treatment.

  16. RELATIONS BETWEEN MOTORIC ABILITIES AND SPECIFIC MOTORIC BASKETBALL SKILLS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Milenković; Igor Stanojević

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation between motoric and specific motoric basketball skills in physical education classes for elementary school students. The sample was taken from a population of boys and girls in four elementary schools in Niš. Boys (66) and girls (58), have been students of elementary school, 10 years old and all of them have been attending regular physical education classes three times a week. For the assessment of motoric abilities, a set of 12 motoric test...

  17. Mental health problems during puberty: Tanner stage-related differences in specific symptoms. The TRAILS study

    OpenAIRE

    Albertine J Oldehinkel; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 +/- 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 +/- 0.53, 51.0% girls). Mental health was assessed by the Youth Self-Report, pubertal (Tanner) stage by parent-rated drawings of secondary sex characteristics. Overall, higher Tanner stages were related t...

  18. metagene Profiles Analyses Reveal Regulatory Element's Factor-Specific Recruitment Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly Beauparlant, Charles; Lamaze, Fabien C; Deschênes, Astrid; Samb, Rawane; Lemaçon, Audrey; Belleau, Pascal; Bilodeau, Steve; Droit, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    ChIP-Sequencing (ChIP-Seq) provides a vast amount of information regarding the localization of proteins across the genome. The aggregation of ChIP-Seq enrichment signal in a metagene plot is an approach commonly used to summarize data complexity and to obtain a high level visual representation of the general occupancy pattern of a protein. Here we present the R package metagene, the graphical interface Imetagene and the companion package similaRpeak. Together, they provide a framework to integrate, summarize and compare the ChIP-Seq enrichment signal from complex experimental designs. Those packages identify and quantify similarities or dissimilarities in patterns between large numbers of ChIP-Seq profiles. We used metagene to investigate the differential occupancy of regulatory factors at noncoding regulatory regions (promoters and enhancers) in relation to transcriptional activity in GM12878 B-lymphocytes. The relationships between occupancy patterns and transcriptional activity suggest two different mechanisms of action for transcriptional control: i) a "gradient effect" where the regulatory factor occupancy levels follow transcription and ii) a "threshold effect" where the regulatory factor occupancy levels max out prior to reaching maximal transcription. metagene, Imetagene and similaRpeak are implemented in R under the Artistic license 2.0 and are available on Bioconductor.

  19. metagene Profiles Analyses Reveal Regulatory Element’s Factor-Specific Recruitment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samb, Rawane; Lemaçon, Audrey; Bilodeau, Steve; Droit, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    ChIP-Sequencing (ChIP-Seq) provides a vast amount of information regarding the localization of proteins across the genome. The aggregation of ChIP-Seq enrichment signal in a metagene plot is an approach commonly used to summarize data complexity and to obtain a high level visual representation of the general occupancy pattern of a protein. Here we present the R package metagene, the graphical interface Imetagene and the companion package similaRpeak. Together, they provide a framework to integrate, summarize and compare the ChIP-Seq enrichment signal from complex experimental designs. Those packages identify and quantify similarities or dissimilarities in patterns between large numbers of ChIP-Seq profiles. We used metagene to investigate the differential occupancy of regulatory factors at noncoding regulatory regions (promoters and enhancers) in relation to transcriptional activity in GM12878 B-lymphocytes. The relationships between occupancy patterns and transcriptional activity suggest two different mechanisms of action for transcriptional control: i) a “gradient effect” where the regulatory factor occupancy levels follow transcription and ii) a “threshold effect” where the regulatory factor occupancy levels max out prior to reaching maximal transcription. metagene, Imetagene and similaRpeak are implemented in R under the Artistic license 2.0 and are available on Bioconductor. PMID:27538250

  20. Prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox1 at the crossroads of diverse pathways during adult neural fate specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios eStergiopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, adult neurogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS has emerged as a fundamental process underlying physiology and disease. Recent evidence indicates that the homeobox transcription factor Prox1 is a critical intrinsic regulator of neurogenesis in the embryonic CNS and adult dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus, acting in multiple ways and instructed by extrinsic cues and intrinsic factors. In the embryonic CNS, Prox1 is mechanistically involved in the regulation of proliferation versus differentiation decisions of NSCs, promoting cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation, while inhibits astrogliogenesis. During the complex differentiation events in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, Prox1 is required for maintenance of intermediate progenitors (IPs, differentiation and maturation of glutamatergic interneurons, as well as specification of DG cell identity over CA3 pyramidal fate. The mechanism by which Prox1 exerts multiple functions involves distinct signaling pathways currently not fully highlighted. In this mini-review, we thoroughly discuss the Prox1-dependent phenotypes and molecular pathways in adult neurogenesis in relation to different upstream signaling cues and cell fate determinants. In addition, we discuss the possibility that Prox1 may act as a cross-talk point between diverse signaling cascades to achieve specific outcomes during adult neurogenesis.