WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors smoking alcohol

  1. [Smoking and alcohol consumption among university students: prevalence and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramis, Thiago Rozales; Mielke, Grégore Iven; Habeyche, Esther Campos; Oliz, Manoela Maciel; Azevedo, Mario Renato; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2012-06-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake among university students from the Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil (UFPel), as well as to investigate factors associated with both habits. The sample included 485 students who were admitted to the university in 2008. Students were sampled randomly across all schools of the UFPel campus, and answered a pre-tested questionnaire, which was administered in the classroom by a member of the research team. Of the individuals interviewed, 53.9% were females and 42.3% were under 20 years. Regarding alcohol intake, 75% used alcohol once a month or less frequently, and the prevalence of risk for abusive alcohol intake was 6.2%. Regarding smoking, 10.2% reported smoking regularly or on weekends. More than 90% of those who smoked or used alcohol started before entering the university. Smoking was directly related to age and inversely related to self-rated health. In terms of alcohol intake, those who lived with friends were more likely to use it. Our data suggest the need for implementing strategies to promote healthy lifestyles among university students. However, the fact that more than 90% of individuals started to smoke or drink before entering the university suggests that interventions should target adolescents as a whole, and not only those who are university students, because onset of smoking and alcohol intake seems to occur at earlier ages.

  2. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking: Impact of two major lifestyle factors on male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Dushyant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors, like alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, have been reported to affect male fertility. Aims: To find out the specific impact of alcohol and smoking on semen quality of male partners of couples seeking treatment for primary infertility. Materials and Methods: From the semen samples analyzed in our andrology laboratory, results of 100 alcoholics and 100 cigarette smoker males were studied following WHO guidelines and compared with 100 strict nonalcoholic and nonsmoker males for presence of asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by F- test using Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Only 12% alcoholics and six per cent smokers showed normozoospermia compared to 37 % nonalcoholic nonsmoker males. Teratozoospermia, followed by oligozoospermia dominated alcoholics. Overall impact of asthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia, but not of oligozoospermia, was observed in smokers. Light smokers predominantly showed asthenozoospermia. Heavy alcoholics and smokers showed asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia as well as oligozoospermia. Conclusions: Asthenozoospermia, the most common semen variable in our study, can be an early indicator of reduction in quality of semen. Alcohol abuse apparently targets sperm morphology and sperm production. Smoke-induced toxins primarily hamper sperm motility and seminal fluid quality. Progressive deterioration in semen quality is related to increasing quantity of alcohol intake and cigarettes smoked.

  3. Maternal smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy as risk factors for sudden infant death.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell-Naughton, M

    2012-04-01

    A population based case control study was conducted to examine alcohol consumption and maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of SIDS in an Irish population. Each SIDS case (n = 287) was compared with control infants (n = 832) matched for date and place of birth for infants born from 1994 to 2001. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate differences between Cases and Controls establishing Odds Ratio\\'s (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Mothers who smoked were 3 times more likely to have a SIDS Case, and a dose response effect was apparent, with mothers smoking 1-10 cigarettes\\/day OR 2.93 (CI 1.50-5.71), and those smoking > 10 cigarettes\\/day OR 4.36 (CI 2.50-7.61). More Case mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy than Control mothers and, within drinkers, the amount of alcohol consumed was also greater (p < 0.05). A dose response with frequency of drinking was apparent. The adjusted odds ratio for those consuming alcohol in all three trimesters was 3.59 (CI:1.40-9.20). Both of these risk factors are modifiable and need to be incorporated into antenatal education from a SIDS point of view.

  4. [Factors related to smoking and consumption of alcohol and kava in children attending the upper grades of primary schools in Vanuatu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaseko, Emi; Matsuda, Nobuko; Kotera, Sayaka

    2014-01-01

    To identify factors related to smoking and consumption of alcohol and kava in children attending the upper grades of primary schools in Vanuatu. We conducted a self-administered survey of 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students attending primary schools in both urban and rural areas of Vanuatu. The main survey items included questions on the personal attribute (sex, age, grade); experience of smoking and consumption of alcohol and kava; food consumption (local food/store-bought food); perceptions of local foods and store-bought foods; attitudes toward smoking and consumption of alcohol and kava; knowledge related to non-communicable diseases; attitudes toward health practices; guardians' health-related parenting attitudes; and family members' use of tobacco, alcohol, and kava.The responses for the main outcome variables (smoking and consumption of alcohol and kava) were dichotomized as 'ever' versus 'never'. Factors related to smoking and consumption of alcohol and kava were examined using logistic regression analysis. The significance level was set at Pstudents participated in our study that had total and valid response rates of 100% for both. Of the participants, 8%, 12.4%, and 5.8% had previously smoked, consumed alcohol, or consumed kava, respectively. Students' experience of smoking and consumption of alcohol and kava were mutually associated. Student sex and family members' smoking status were significantly associated with the participants' smoking status. Student grades, attitudes toward drinking, and perceptions of local and store-bought food were significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Lastly, attitudes toward kava and alcohol consumption and perceptions of local food were significantly associated with kava consumption. Our results indicate that the food consumption, attitudes toward smoking and consumption of alcohol and kava, and family members' smoking status were associated with the participants' smoking and consumption of alcohol and kava. In

  5. Investigation of Aggravating Psychosocial Factors on Health and Predictability of Smoking and Alcohol Use in Post Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpagianni, Effrosyni; Travlos, Antonios; Kalokairinou, Athina; Sachlas, Athanasios; Zyga, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore those factors which affect the health of students in postadolescent age, focusing on smoking and alcohol use, especially in regard to ways of predicting adoption of this behavior and its frequency to detect future users of tobacco and alcohol use but also high-risk groups, i.e. those people who are led to abuses. On the basis of the research part is the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the axes of which are to be investigated. Specifically, the factors evaluated, except for population parameters, behavioral attitudes, i.e. attitudes towards the behavior of tobacco use and alcohol regulations subjective perceptions and perceptions of control, perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Intention is explored to continue or start using tobacco and alcohol in the future and evaluate the behavior. The sample consisted of 138 students of postadolescent age, 18-25 years of both sexes, all of the University of Peloponnese and the Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata, Department of Sparta, Greece. The results of a series of statistical analysis, via SPSS 21.0 statistical program revealed the predictive power of perceived behavioral control and subjective norms to the intention of interpreting 64% of the variance of the latter, of the attitudes toward alcohol in relation to intention that interpret 69% of the variance, of the normative beliefs toward smoking with 69% range of interpretation to the dependent variable, of the perceived behavioral control of smoking with 72% and of the attitudes toward smoking with 77% of interpretation. The results demonstrate the significance and application in universities and technological educational institutes appropriate primary preventive interventions for students nonusers of tobacco and alcohol and appropriate programs of secondary and tertiary prevention in heavy users of tobacco and alcohol use and high-risk individual. PMID:26973900

  6. Investigation of Aggravating Psychosocial Factors on Health and Predictability of Smoking and Alcohol Use in Post Adolescent Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpagianni, Effrosyni; Travlos, Antonios; Kalokairinou, Athina; Sachlas, Athanasios; Zyga, Sofia

    2013-04-18

    Purpose of this study is to explore those factors which affect the health of students in postadolescent age, focusing on smoking and alcohol use, especially in regard to ways of predicting adoption of this behavior and its frequency to detect future users of tobacco and alcohol use but also high-risk groups, i.e. those people who are led to abuses. On the basis of the research part is the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the axes of which are to be investigated. Specifically, the factors evaluated, except for population parameters, behavioral attitudes, i.e. attitudes towards the behavior of tobacco use and alcohol regulations subjective perceptions and perceptions of control, perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Intention is explored to continue or start using tobacco and alcohol in the future and evaluate the behavior. The sample consisted of 138 students of postadolescent age, 18-25 years of both sexes, all of the University of Peloponnese and the Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata, Department of Sparta, Greece. The results of a series of statistical analysis, via SPSS 21.0 statistical program revealed the predictive power of perceived behavioral control and subjective norms to the intention of interpreting 64% of the variance of the latter, of the attitudes toward alcohol in relation to intention that interpret 69% of the variance, of the normative beliefs toward smoking with 69% range of interpretation to the dependent variable, of the perceived behavioral control of smoking with 72% and of the attitudes toward smoking with 77% of interpretation. The results demonstrate the significance and application in universities and technological educational institutes appropriate primary preventive interventions for students nonusers of tobacco and alcohol and appropriate programs of secondary and tertiary prevention in heavy users of tobacco and alcohol use and high-risk individual.

  7. Personality, smoking, and alcohol as synergistic risk factors for cancer of the mouth and pharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossarth-Maticek, R; Eysenck, H J

    1990-12-01

    34 male patients suffering from cancer of the mouth or pharynx were studied with reference to their personality type, smoking and drinking habits, and compared with a healthy sample of 1706 men. The three risk factors showed a strong tendency to be related to cancer only in combination, adding new evidence to the theory that risk factors in cancer act in a synergistic fashion.

  8. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hua Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate (1 relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2 interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP, and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO, and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  9. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-12-16

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  10. Potential health gains and health losses in eleven EU countries attainable through feasible prevalences of the life-style related risk factors alcohol, BMI, and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhachimi, Stefan K.; Nusselder, Wilma J.; Smit, Henriette A.; Baili, Paolo; Bennett, Kathleen; Fernández, Esteve; Kulik, Margarete C.; Lobstein, Tim; Pomerleau, Joceline; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; MacKenbach, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influencing the life-style risk-factors alcohol, body mass index (BMI), and smoking is an European Union (EU) wide objective of public health policy. The population-level health effects of these risk-factors depend on population specific characteristics and are difficult to quantify

  11. Potential health gains and health losses in eleven EU countries attainable through feasible prevalences of the life-style related risk factors alcohol, BMI, and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhachimi, Stefan K.; Nusselder, Wilma J.; Smit, Henriette A.; Baili, Paolo; Bennett, Kathleen; Fernández, Esteve; Kulik, Margarete C.; Lobstein, Tim; Pomerleau, Joceline; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; MacKenbach, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influencing the life-style risk-factors alcohol, body mass index (BMI), and smoking is an European Union (EU) wide objective of public health policy. The population-level health effects of these risk-factors depend on population specific characteristics and are difficult to quantify w

  12. Smoking and alcohol drinking during pregnancy as the risk factors for poor child neurodevelopment – A review of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jurewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal active and passive smoking and low or moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy, taking into account the level of exposure and developmental or behavioral outcomes, are recognized as a significant issue from both a clinical and a public health perspective. The article aims at evaluating the impact of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke constituents and low or moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy on children neurodevelopment by reviewing the most recently published literature. Relevant studies were identified by searching the Pubmed, Medline and Ebsco literature databases. This review is restricted to 29 human studies published in English in peer reviewed journals since 2006. The studies published recently continued to show some relationship between tobacco smoke exposure, from active and passive maternal smoking during pregnancy, and children’s psychomotor development independent of other variables, but this relationship is not straightforward. The association is mostly consistent for measures of academic achievements and behavioral problems which require further attention. The results of the studies on low or moderate exposure to alcohol are not fully conclusive, but some of them suggest that consumption of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect children’s intelligence quotient (IQ, mental health, memory and verbal or visual performance. As the reviewed studies indicate, maternal lifestyle during pregnancy like alcohol drinking or smoking may affect children neurodevelopment. All effort should be taken to eliminate such exposure to ensure appropriate children’s development.

  13. Stuttering, alcohol consumption and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, Milly; McAllister, Jan; Skinner, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has been published regarding the association between stuttering and substance use. An earlier study provided no evidence for such an association, but the authors called for further research to be conducted using a community sample. The present study used data from a community sample to investigate whether an association between stuttering and alcohol consumption or regular smoking exists in late adolescence and adulthood. Regression analyses were carried out on data from a birth cohort study, the National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohort included 18,558 participants who have since been followed up until age 55. In the analyses, the main predictor variable was parent-reported stuttering at age 16. Parental socio-economic group, cohort member's sex and childhood behavioural problems were also included. The outcome variables related to alcohol consumption and smoking habits at ages 16, 23, 33, 41, 46, 50 and 55. No significant association was found between stuttering and alcohol consumption or stuttering and smoking at any of the ages. It was speculated that the absence of significant associations might be due to avoidance of social situations on the part of many of the participants who stutter, or adoption of alternative coping strategies. Because of the association between anxiety and substance use, individuals who stutter and are anxious might be found to drink or smoke excessively, but as a group, people who stutter are not more likely than those who do not to have high levels of consumption of alcohol or nicotine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Salivary lysozyme in smoking alcohol dependent persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Zalewska, Anna; Waszkiewicz, Magdalena; Szajda, Slawomir Dariusz; Repka, Bernadeta; Szulc, Agata; Kepka, Alina; Minarowska, Alina; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the concentration and output of salivary lysozyme. Thirty seven men participated in the study, including 17 male smoking alcohol-dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (AS), and 20 control non-smoking male social drinkers (CNS) with no history of alcohol abuse or smoking. The level of lysozyme was assessed by the radial immunodiffusion method. Significantly lower lysozyme output in the AS group compared to the CNS group was found. Moreover, gingival index was significantly higher in AS than in the CNS group. It appeared that the reduced salivary lysozyme output was more likely the result of ethanol action than smoking. In conclusion, persons addicted to alcohol and nicotine have a poorer periodontal status than non-smoking social drinkers, which may partially be due to the diminished protective effects of lysozyme present in the saliva.

  15. Alcohol, coffee, fish, smoking and disease progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Haentjens, P.; Nagels, G.; De Keyser, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Certain lifestyle factors might influence disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objectives: To investigate the consumption of alcoholic beverages, caffeinated drinks, fish and cigarette smoking in relation to disability progression in relapsing onset and progressive onset MS. Meth

  16. Alcohol, coffee, fish, smoking and disease progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Haentjens, P.; Nagels, G.; De Keyser, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Certain lifestyle factors might influence disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objectives: To investigate the consumption of alcoholic beverages, caffeinated drinks, fish and cigarette smoking in relation to disability progression in relapsing onset and progressive onset MS. Meth

  17. Associations between hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged men and women: Independence of habitual alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Daimon, Takashi

    Hypo-HDL cholesterolemia is a potent cardiovascular risk factor, and HDL cholesterol level is influenced by lifestyles including alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk factors and to determine whether or not these relationships depend on the above-mentioned lifestyles. The subjects were 3456 men and 2510 women (35-60 years of age) showing low HDL cholesterol levels (HDL cholesterol levels. Each cardiometabolic risk factor was compared between the groups with and without hypo-HDL cholesterolemia. Data for hypo-HDL cholesterolemic subjects not having habits of alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise (men, n=333; women, n=1410) and their age-matched control subjects were also analysed. Both in men and in women of overall subjects and subjects without histories of alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise, odds ratios of subjects with hypo-HDL cholesterolemia vs. subjects with normo-HDL cholesterolemia for high body mass index, high waist-to-height ratio, high triglycerides, high lipid accumulation product and multiple risk factors (three or more out of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes) were significantly higher than the reference level of 1.00. These associations in overall subjects were found when the above habits were adjusted. Hypo-HDL cholesterolemic men and women have adverse cardiovascular profiles, such as obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and multiple risk factors, independently of age, alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations of Cigarette Smoking and Polymorphisms in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase with Neurocognition in Alcohol Dependent Individuals during Early Abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy eDurazzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking and polymorphisms in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT are associated with neurocognition in normal controls and those with various neuropsychiatric conditions. The influence of these polymorphisms on neurocognition in alcohol dependence is unclear. The goal of this report was to investigate the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met with neurocognition in a treatment-seeking alcohol dependent cohort and determine if neurocognitive differences between non-smokers and smokers previously observed in this cohort persist when controlled for these functional SNPs. Genotyping was conducted on 70 primarily male treatment-seeking alcohol dependent participants (ALC who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery after 33 ± 9 days of monitored abstinence. Smoking ALC performed significantly worse than non-smoking ALC on the domains of auditory-verbal and visuospatial learning and memory, cognitive efficiency, general intelligence, processing speed and global neurocognition. In smoking ALC, greater number of years of smoking over lifetime was related to poorer performance on multiple domains. COMT Met homozygotes were superior to Val homozygotes on measures of executive skills and showed trends for higher general intelligence and visuospatial skills, while COMT Val/Met heterozygotes showed significantly better general intelligence than Val homozygotes. COMT Val homozygotes performed better than heterozygotes on auditory-verbal memory. BDNF genotype was not related to any neurocognitive domain. The findings are consistent with studies in normal controls and neuropsychiatric cohorts that observed COMT Met carriers showed better performance on measures of executive skills and general intelligence. Overall, the findings support to the expanding clinical movement to make smoking cessation programs available at the inception of

  19. [Family and risk factors related to alcohol consumption and smoking among children and adolescents (Guayaquil-Ecuador)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Ruiz, Martha; Andrade, Denise de

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation had as objective identifying in a family the possible factors of risk related to the use of alcohol and tobacco in the children and adolescents. It is important to emphasize that study of this nature within a social and culture perspective expresses the attempt to include/understand the factors of risk for the use of tobacco and to drink alcoholic the environmental influences in the familiar surroundings views to prevent futures cases with dependency. For the study used a sample of one hundred families, to that applied to an instrument pre to them established with the people in charge of the respective families. As result were obtained 51% of the schooling level are low, 54% has inferior wage to the basic one, 61% to drink alcoholic. To emphasize that unquestionable the reduction of the casuistry of alcoholism and/or tabaquismo to influence significantly in the quality of the individuals life.

  20. Association of smoking, alcohol drinking and dietary factors with esophageal cancer in high- and low-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Wu; Zuo-Feng Zhang; Kok J Frans; Pieter van't Veer; Jin-Kou Zhao; Xiao-Shu Hu; Pei-Hua Wang; Yu Qin; Yin-Chang Lu; Jie Yang; Ai-Min Liu; De-Lin Wu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the main environmental and lifestyle factors that account for the regional differences in esophageal cancer (EC) risk in low- and high-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China.METHODS: Since 2003, a population-based casecontrol study has been conducted simultaneously in lowrisk (Ganyu County) and high-risk (Dafeng County) areas of Jiangsu Province, China. Using identical protocols and pre-tested standardized questionnaire, following written informed consent, eligible subjects were inquired about their detail information on potential determinants of EC, including demographic information, socio-economic status, living conditions, disease history, family cancer history, smoking, alcohol drinking, dietary habits, frequency, amount of food intake, etc. Conditional logistic regression with maximum likelihood estimation was used to obtain Odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (95% CI), after adjustment for potential confounders.RESULTS: In the preliminary analysis of the ongoing study, we recruited 291 pairs of cases and controls in Dafeng and 240 pairs of cases and controls in Ganyu,respectively. In both low-risk and high-risk areas, EC was inversely associated with socio-economic status, such as level of education, past economic status and body mass index. However, this disease was more frequent among those who had a family history of cancer or encountered misfortune in the past 10 years. EC was also more frequent among smokers, alcohol drinkers and fast eaters.Furthermore, there was a geographic variation of the associations between smoking, alcohol drinking and EC risk despite the similar prevalence of these risk factors in both low-risk and high-risk areas. The dose-response relationship of smoking and smoking related variables,such as age of the first smoking, duration and amount were apparent only in high-risk areas. On the contrary, a dose-response relationship on the effect of alcohol drinking on EC was observed only in low-risk areas

  1. El consumo inmoderado de alcohol como factor predictor de la persistencia del consumo de tabaco en jóvenes Immoderate alcohol consumption as predictor of tobacco smoking persistence among youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa María Sánchez-Zamorano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar los factores predictores de la persistencia del tabaquismo en jóvenes estudiantes de Morelos, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó la información de un estudio de cohorte (1998-2001 de estudiantes del sistema público de educación del Estado de Morelos, México. La muestra se integró con 3 699 participantes. El análisis se realizó mediante modelos de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: De los 349 jóvenes que en la medición basal fumaban de modo activo, 192 persistieron en la segunda medición. El consumo inmoderado de alcohol en las mujeres resultó un factor predictor junto con la frecuencia de consumo previo de cigarrillos. En los hombres sólo la frecuencia anterior de consumo de cigarrillos predijo la persistencia en el tabaquismo. CONCLUSIONES: En ambos sexos, el número de cigarros fumados con anterioridad predice la persistencia del tabaquismo. En las mujeres, el consumo inmoderado de alcohol también es un factor predictor. Cualquier medida preventiva del tabaquismo debe considerar de manera integral la prevención del consumo de alcohol.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive factors of smoking persistence in young students in Morelos, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information from a cohort study (1998-2001 of students in the public education system in the state of Morelos, Mexico was analyzed. The number of participants was 3 699. The analysis was carried out using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of the 349 students who were active smokers according to the basal measurement, 192 persisted smoking in the second phase. Immoderate alcohol consumption by women, combined with the frequency of previous cigarrette consumption, was a predicting factor. In men, only the frequency of previous cigarette consumption predicted smoking persistence. CONCLUSIONS: For both genders, the number of cigarettes smoked previously was predictive of the persistence in tobacco consumption. In women, the immoderate use of alcohol

  2. [Alcohol intake and tobacco smoking among students of medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Mroczek, Bozena; Bielska, Dorota; Wojtal, Mariola; Seń, Mariola; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    To determine the level of alcohol intake (including risky drinking) and tobacco smoking among students of higher medical schools, as well as the level of students' knowledge about epidemiology and consequences of alcohol abuse. The study was conducted in 2010-2012 and involved 1054 students of medical school. The majority of the participants were female (82.3%). Average age of respondents was 25.13 years (SD = 6.64, median = 24). The questionnaire was to determine the students' knowledge of alcohol abuse, short version of AUDIT and questions about tobacco smoking. The average 100% alcohol intake in Poland was correctly identified by 32.0% (318) of students. The alcohol level in blood which indicates the state after alcohol intake was correctly determined by 57.2% (571) of respondents. Tobacco was the choice of 13.8% (138) of students as the main health risk factor and cause of premature deaths in Europe, alcohol was chosen by 17.8% (177). Cirrhosis was recognized correctly by 52% of students (521) as the most frequent disease caused by alcohol in European men. Regarding the question about the biochemical indicators helpful in diagnostics of alcohol abuse only 27.6% (275) indicated correctly: MCV and GGT. In short version of AUDIT 32.2% (238) of women gained 4 points and above, 56.2% (91) of men gained 5 points and above. Among women: 3.5% (28) have 14 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Among men: 6.5% (11) have 28 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Non-smokers represent 20.6% (205) of respondents. A majority (39.4%, 82) indicate they smoke not more than 5 cigarettes per day. The students first began smoking in secondary (21.7%, 45) and high school (45.9%, 95). Smokers statistically significantly more often (palcohol. More than four times higher percentage of smokers (10.0% vs 2.3% non-smokers) drink in a day when they drink 10 or more standardized portions of an alcoholic drink (palcoholic drink

  3. Salivary alcohol dehydrogenase in non-smoking and smoking alcohol-dependent persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Jelski, Wojciech; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-09-01

    Increasing attention to the importance of saliva testing is not surprising because smoking and alcohol drinking act synergistically on oral tissues, and their metabolite levels, e.g., acetaldehyde, are much higher in saliva than in blood. The activity of salivary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) comes from oral microbiota, mucosa, and salivary glands. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of ADH in the oral health pathology of smoking (AS) and non-smoking (ANS) alcohol-dependent males. The results indicated that the AS group had a more significant and longer duration (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence) decrease in ADH activity and output than the ANS group (until the 15th day of alcohol abstinence) compared to controls (social drinkers; C). The decreased salivary flow (SF) in alcoholics was observed longer in the ANS group (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence), whereas in the AS group SF normalized at the 15th day, probably due to the irritating effect of tobacco smoke on the oral mucosa. Because saliva was centrifuged to remove cells and debris (including microbial cells), the detected salivary ADH activity was derived from salivary glands and/or oral mucosa. A more profound and longer decrease in ADH activity/output in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics was likely due to the damaged salivary glands and/or oral mucosa, caused by the synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and smoking. The lower values of salivary ADH in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics might also be partly due to the reversed/inhibited ADH reaction by high levels of accumulated acetaldehyde.

  4. Differences in the Prevalence of Obesity, Smoking and Alcohol in the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie S Al Kazzi

    Full Text Available The lack of adequate and standardized recording of leading risk factors for morbidity and mortality in medical records have downstream effects on research based on administrative databases. The measurement of healthcare is increasingly based on risk-adjusted outcomes derived from coded comorbidities in these databases. However inaccurate or haphazard assessment of risk factors for morbidity and mortality in medical record codes can have tremendous implications for quality improvement and healthcare reform.We aimed to compare the prevalence of obesity, overweight, tobacco use and alcohol abuse of a large administrative database with a direct data collection survey.We used the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM codes for four leading risk factors in the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS to compare them with a direct survey in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS in 2011. After confirming normality of the risk factors, we calculated the national and state estimates and Pearson's correlation coefficient for obesity, overweight, tobacco use and alcohol abuse between NIS and BRFSS.Compared with direct participant questioning in BRFSS, NIS reported substantially lower prevalence of obesity (p<0.01, overweight (p<0.01, and alcohol abuse (p<0.01, but not tobacco use (p = 0.18. The correlation between NIS and BRFSS was 0.27 for obesity (p = 0.06, 0.09 for overweight (p = 0.55, 0.62 for tobacco use (p<0.01 and 0.40 for alcohol abuse (p<0.01.The prevalence of obesity, overweight, tobacco smoking and alcohol abuse based on codes is not consistent with prevalence based on direct questioning. The accuracy of these important measures of health and morbidity in databases is critical for healthcare reform policies.

  5. Alcohol intake, smoking, and colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeong Mi; Cho, Chang Ho; Kim, Sung Hi; Lee, Jung Eun

    2014-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in Korea. Because colorectal adenoma is a precursor lesion of colorectal cancer, primary prevention of colorectal adenomas may be important for reducing morbidity and mortality from the disease. The aim of this study is to examine the association of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking in relation with colorectal adenoma in a cross-sectional study of Korean adults. A total of 366 participants who underwent colonoscopy were included (113 cases and 255 controls) in this study. Information on alcohol intake and cigarette smoking was collected from structured questionnaires. The odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the multivariate logistic regression models. Alcohol intake was associated with a higher prevalence of colorectal adenoma in men; compared to non-drinkers, ORs (95% CIs) were 11.49 (2.55-51.89) for 10-20 g/day of alcohol intake and 14.15 (3.31-60.59) for â 20 g/day of alcohol intake (P for trend = 0.003). There was a weaker association of alcohol intake for women than men; however, there was a suggestive increase in the prevalence of colorectal cancer in women. Cigarette smoking was not associated with colorectal adenoma, but we cannot rule out the possibility that this was due to low statistical power. Our study provides evidence to suggest that alcohol intake may contribute to colorectal adenoma in the Korean population. Our study results demonstrate that a larger epidemiologic study is needed.

  6. Psychosocial factors related with smoking behaviour in Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoria, Paulo D; Kremers, Stef P J; Mudde, Aart N; Pais-Clemente, Manuel; de Vries, Hein

    2006-12-01

    Few studies describe the factors associated with smoking behaviour in Portuguese adolescents. Hence, smoking prevention activities are not based on research findings. This study analyses the differences between smokers and nonsmokers and factors associated with smoking behaviour in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. A questionnaire was administrated to seventh grade students of 25 schools from five municipalities near Lisbon (n=3064). The majority of them were never smokers (71.3%), 21.9% smoked less than monthly, 2.1% monthly and 4.7% weekly or more frequently. Smokers were older, had lower school achievement, had more money available to spend, preferred less to be together with nonsmoking people and were more likely to be allowed to smoke at home, to use alcohol and to perform various risky behaviours. Nonsmokers were less convinced of the advantages and more convinced of the disadvantages of smoking, encountered more social norms against smoking, perceived less smoking in others, felt less pressure to smoke from peers, were more confident to refuse cigarettes and had a lower intention to smoke next year. Intention to smoke, self-efficacy expectations to refuse smoking, social influence and alcohol consumption were the most relevant variables associated with smoking behaviour. Consequently, Portuguese smoking prevention programmes should include activities aimed to help adolescents to deal with pressure to smoke from peers and to improve self-efficacy expectations to refuse cigarettes. Our findings also confirm the link between smoking and alcohol use suggesting that the prevention of these two behaviours should be complementary.

  7. Potential health gains and health losses in eleven EU countries attainable through feasible prevalences of the life-style related risk factors alcohol, BMI, and smoking : a quantitative health impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhachimi, Stefan K; Nusselder, Wilma J; Smit, Henriette A; Baili, Paolo; Bennett, Kathleen; Fernández, Esteve; Kulik, Margarete C; Lobstein, Tim; Pomerleau, Joceline; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Influencing the life-style risk-factors alcohol, body mass index (BMI), and smoking is an European Union (EU) wide objective of public health policy. The population-level health effects of these risk-factors depend on population specific characteristics and are difficult to quantify

  8. Potential health gains and health losses in eleven EU countries attainable through feasible prevalences of the life-style related risk factors alcohol, BMI, and smoking : a quantitative health impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhachimi, Stefan K; Nusselder, Wilma J; Smit, Henriette A; Baili, Paolo; Bennett, Kathleen; Fernández, Esteve; Kulik, Margarete C; Lobstein, Tim; Pomerleau, Joceline; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Influencing the life-style risk-factors alcohol, body mass index (BMI), and smoking is an European Union (EU) wide objective of public health policy. The population-level health effects of these risk-factors depend on population specific characteristics and are difficult to quantify with

  9. Are alcohol intake and smoking associated with mycosis fungoides?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suárez-Varela, M.M.M.; Olsen, J.; Kærlev, L.

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of mycosis fungoides (MF) is low, and the aetiology of the disease is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether wine consumption protects against the disease and whether smoking constitutes a risk factor. This paper is part of the European Rare Cancers Study that tries...... cases of MF and 2899 controls. Wine intake had no protective effect; on the contrary the consumption of more than 24 g of alcohol per day was associated with a high risk of MF (odds ratio (OR)=3.02, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.34-6.79), after adjusting for centre, country, age, sex and education....... There was a dose-dependent increase in the risk of MF with increased smoking habits, albeit the observed trend was not statistically significant. A combined exposure to high tobacco and alcohol use yielded a significantly increased risk factor for MF (P=0.0073). Alcohol intake was associated with MF....

  10. Role of obesity , alcohol and smoking on bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Milena; Salamanna, Francesca; Veronesi, Francesca; Torricelli, Paola; Nicolini, Andrea; Benedicenti, Stefano; Carpi, Angelo; Giavaresi, Gianluca

    2012-06-01

    The burden of osteoporosis is increasing in all societies. In comparison with other organs or apparatuses fewer studies have focused on incorrect lifestyles and bone. This article reviews clinical and experimental studies on the effects of obesity, alcohol abuse and smoking on bone. Overweight and obesity protect bone, thus reducing the fracture risk and the development of osteoporosis in older adults. However, extreme obesity (body mass index more than 40 kilogram/meter squared) seems to be a risk factor for osteoporosis. Moderate alcohol consumption may have a protective effect, whereas excessive consumption is an important risk factor. Cytokines are the main mediators of the detrimental effects of obesity and alcohol. Smoking contributes to bone loss and fracture probably by interfering with estrogens, calcium and vitamin D. Health information campaigns against these harmful lifestyles should be strengthened by using available scientific information to increase awareness about their consequences on the bone.

  11. Combined effects of smoking and alcohol on metabolic syndrome : the LifeLines cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, Sandra N; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Vonk, Judith M; Boezen, Hendrika; Dullaart, Robin P F; Muller Kobold, Anna; Feskens, Edith J M; van Beek, André P; van der Klauw, Melanie M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. METHODS: 64,046 participants aged 18-80 years from the LifeLines

  12. Comined effects of smoking and alcohol on metabolic syndrome: the lifelines cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, S.N.; Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J.V.; Vonk, J.M.; Boezen, H.M.; Dullaart, R.P.F.; Muller Kobold, A.C.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Beek, van A.P.; Klauw, van der M.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction - The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. Methods - 64,046 participants aged 18–80 years from the LifeLin

  13. Alcohol Intake, Smoking, and Colorectal Adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yeong Mi; Cho, Chang Ho; Kim, Sung Hi; Lee, Jung Eun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in Korea. Because colorectal adenoma is a precursor lesion of colorectal cancer, primary prevention of colorectal adenomas may be important for reducing morbidity and mortality from the disease. The aim of this study is to examine the association of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking in relation with colorectal adenoma in a cross-sectional study of Korean adults. Methods: A total of 366 participants who underwent colonoscopy...

  14. Effects of cigarette smoking and alcohol use on neurocognition and BDNF levels in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang Yang; Tan, Yun-Long; Chen, Da-Chun; Tan, Shu-Ping; Yang, Fu-De; Zunta-Soares, Giovana B; Soares, Jair C

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have examined the potential interactive effect of both smoking and drinking on cognition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in cognition. This is the first study to examine the neurocognitive consequences of cigarette smoking combined with chronic alcohol consumption and their relationship to serum BDNF levels in a Chinese Han population. We recruited 191 healthy male subjects, including 47 isolated smokers, 31 isolated chronic alcohol users, 58 combined smokers and chronic alcohol users, and 55 non-smokers and non-alcohol users. We then compared the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS) scores and serum BDNF levels in these four groups. When compared to the non-smoking + non-alcohol-using group, the smoking group performed worse on immediate memory, attention, language, and RBANS total score. There were no significant differences in the RBANS scores between the alcohol-using group and non-smoking + non-alcohol-using group, or between the smoking group and smoking + alcohol-using group. We did not find an association between BDNF and smoking or drinking status or between BDNF and cognitive performance. In the smoking group, there was a significant correlation between BDNF and carbon monoxide concentration, and between BDNF and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) total score. Our results suggest that smoking is associated with cognitive decline, but not with BDNF levels in a normal population. However, smoking severity is positively associated with BDNF levels. Concomitant alcohol use does not worsen the cognitive decline caused by smoking.

  15. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-12-08

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010-2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min-max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0-180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake.

  16. Smoking and alcohol use in gastric bypass patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Michelle R; Hayes, Sharon M; Wood, G Craig; Napolitano, Melissa A; Argyropoulos, George; Gerhard, Glenn S; Foster, Gary D; Still, Christopher D

    2013-12-01

    Bariatric surgery may increase the risk of substance use. The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess smoking and alcohol use before and after bariatric surgery, identify characteristics associated with alcohol use and smoking, and examine substance use and weight loss. Participants (N = 155, mean = 50.1 ± 11.3 y and 45.7 ± 7.0 kg/m(2)) were Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients that completed surveys on substance use preoperatively and postoperatively. Alcohol use decreased significantly from the preoperative (72.3%) to the postoperative (63.2%) period. As preoperative alcohol quantity rose, the odds of consuming any alcohol postoperatively increased six-fold. Higher BMI increased the odds of high alcohol consumption. Older age decreased the odds of alcohol use and smoking. Smoking status did not differ pre- (19.4%) to post- (14.8%) surgery. Alcohol use and smoking were not associated with weight loss. After weight-loss surgery, alcohol use declined but smoking rates did not significantly change. Younger patients were more likely to use alcohol and smoke postoperatively. Patients with a higher BMI or a history of substance use may be more likely to use alcohol postoperatively. © 2013.

  17. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijers, Chantal; Burger, Huibert; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxiety and depressive symptoms can explain these associations. Two antenatal measurements from the population-based Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression cohort study were used. Pregnant women in their first trimester were recruited via midwifery practices and hospitals. We analyzed a sample of women who continued (n=101) or quit smoking (n=254), and a sample of women who continued (n=110) or quit alcohol consumption (n=1230). Measures included questions about smoking, alcohol consumption, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (personality), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We found associations between continued alcohol consumption and higher levels of openness to experience, and lower levels of conscientiousness (psmoking emerged. This study contributes to the limited literature on personality differences between women who continue and quit smoking and alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. General population studies have not confirmed the association between openness to experience and alcohol consumption which implies that pregnancy is indeed a unique period. Increased insight in how personality influences continued smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy can help health professionals to improve lifestyle interventions targeted at pregnant women.

  18. Pilot study of smoking, alcohol and drug abuse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, A; Perry, C; Killen, J; Slinkard, L A; Maccoby, N

    1980-07-01

    A longitudinal pilot study gathered data on the onset and prevention of smoking, alcohol, and drug abuse among 526 students from two junior-high-schools in California. Over two school years, students who were trained to resist social pressures toward tobacco, alcohol, and drug use began smoking at less than one-half the rate of those who did not receive special training. Frequent alcohol and marijuana use was also less prevalent among the students who received such training.

  19. Polygenic risk scores for smoking: Predictors for alcohol and cannabis use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; Hottenga, J.J.; Geus, E.J.C. de; Willemsen, G.; Neale, M.C.; Furberg, H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A strong correlation exists between smoking and the use of alcohol and cannabis. This paper uses polygenic risk scores to explore the possibility of overlapping genetic factors. Those scores reflect a combined effect of selected risk alleles for smoking. Methods Summary-level P-v

  20. Polygenic risk scores for smoking: Predictors for alcohol and cannabis use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; Hottenga, J.J.; Geus, E.J.C. de; Willemsen, G.; Neale, M.C.; Furberg, H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A strong correlation exists between smoking and the use of alcohol and cannabis. This paper uses polygenic risk scores to explore the possibility of overlapping genetic factors. Those scores reflect a combined effect of selected risk alleles for smoking. Methods Summary-level

  1. Alcohol reduction in the first trimester is unrelated to smoking, patient or pregnancy characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A. Schmidt

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Women reported reducing their alcohol consumption during pregnancy, including those screening positive for pre-pregnancy problem drinking. First trimester alcohol reduction cannot be accounted for by smoking, patient or pregnancy characteristics; public health initiatives, psychological factors and hormonal mechanisms may be implicated.

  2. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...

  3. Alcohol and smoking affect risk of uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyoshi Nagata

    Full Text Available Colonic diverticula are located predominantly on the right side in Asia and on the left side in Europe and the United States. Factors associated with uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis and its distribution pattern have been unknown. Our aims are to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study in adults who underwent colonoscopy. Alcohol, alcohol related flushing, smoking, medications, and comorbidities were assessed by interview on the colonoscopy day. Alcohol consumption was categorized as nondrinker, light (1-180 g/week, moderate (181-360 g/week, and heavy (≥361 g/week. Smoking index was defined as the number of cigarettes per day multiplied by the number of smoking years and categorized as nonsmoker, <400, 400-799, and ≥800. A total of 2,164 consecutive patients were enrolled. Overall, 542 patients (25.1% had uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis located on the right side (50%, bilaterally (29%, and on the left side (21%. Univariate analysis revealed age, male, smoking index, alcohol consumption, aspirin use, anticoagulants use, corticosteroid use, hypertension, and atherosclerotic disease as factors significantly associated with diverticulosis. Alcohol related flushing was not associated with the disease. Multivariate analysis showed increasing age (P<0.01, increasing alcohol consumption (P<0.01 and smoking (P<0.01, and atherosclerotic disease (P<0.01 as significantly associated factors. Alcohol and smoking were associated with right-sided and bilateral diverticula. In conclusion, one in four Japanese adults have colonic diverticulosis (50% right-sided. Age, alcohol consumption, and smoking were found to be significant risk factors for uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis, particularly right-sided and bilateral.

  4. Alcohol and smoking affect risk of uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Niikura, Ryota; Shimbo, Takuro; Kishida, Yoshihiro; Sekine, Katsunori; Tanaka, Shohei; Aoki, Tomonori; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akiyama, Junichi; Yanase, Mikio; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Mizokami, Masashi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Colonic diverticula are located predominantly on the right side in Asia and on the left side in Europe and the United States. Factors associated with uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis and its distribution pattern have been unknown. Our aims are to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study in adults who underwent colonoscopy. Alcohol, alcohol related flushing, smoking, medications, and comorbidities were assessed by interview on the colonoscopy day. Alcohol consumption was categorized as nondrinker, light (1-180 g/week), moderate (181-360 g/week), and heavy (≥361 g/week). Smoking index was defined as the number of cigarettes per day multiplied by the number of smoking years and categorized as nonsmoker, diverticulosis located on the right side (50%), bilaterally (29%), and on the left side (21%). Univariate analysis revealed age, male, smoking index, alcohol consumption, aspirin use, anticoagulants use, corticosteroid use, hypertension, and atherosclerotic disease as factors significantly associated with diverticulosis. Alcohol related flushing was not associated with the disease. Multivariate analysis showed increasing age (Pdiverticulosis (50% right-sided). Age, alcohol consumption, and smoking were found to be significant risk factors for uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis, particularly right-sided and bilateral.

  5. Influence of Socioeconomic Factors and Family Social Support on Smoking and Alcohol Use among Health School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Bahar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance dependence is a global problem threatening individuals and communities alike by negatively influencing public health and social cohesion.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of socioeconomic factors and family social support on substance use and/or dependence among health school students.Results: A significant difference was found between student substance users and nonusers in terms of age, grade level, educational level and vocational status of the student’s mother and father, and substance use among family members (p<0.05. On the other hand, it was determined that there was no influence of departments of the students, receiving any training on substance use, perceived family social support, and educational level of the student’s father on the substance use (p0.05.Conclusion: The findings of our study suggest that family social support is an important determinant of students’ substance use and therefore families need to be aware of the consequences of such behaviors. Trainings on overcoming the stress and information about use and/or abuse of substances should be given to the first-grade students in Samsun Health School to prevent the onset of substance use, and the frequency of such training sessions should be increased especially at the fourth grade.

  6. Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

  7. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    function and select serum elements in female subjects using ... subjects using combined oral contraceptive, consuming alcohol and exposed to cigarette smoke may be .... -20°C until the time required for analysis. ..... Ardent Media, New York.

  8. Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Eun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver function tests (LFTs can be affected by many factors and the proposed effects of coffee on LFT require a comprehensive evaluation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether drinking coffee, smoking, or drinking alcohol have independent effects on LFTs in Korean health-check examinees. Methods We used the responses of 500 health-check examinees, who had participated in a self-administered questionnaire survey about coffee, alcohol drinking, and smoking habits. Results Coffee consumption was closely related to male gender, high body mass index (BMI, alcohol drinking, and smoking. On univariable and multivariable analyses, drinking coffee lowered serum levels of total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferases (AST. On multivariable analyses, smoking raised serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT level and decreased serum protein and albumin levels, while alcohol drinking raised GGT level after adjustment for age, gender, regular medication, BMI, coffee and alcohol drinking amounts, and smoking. Conclusions Coffee consumption, smoking, and alcohol drinking affect the individual components of LFT in different ways, and the above 3 habits each have an impact on LFTs. Therefore, their effects on LFTs should be carefully interpreted, and further study on the mechanism of the effects is warranted.

  9. Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Sun; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Hwang, Sung Ho; Kim, Hyun Young; Ahn, So Yeon; Lee, Jaebong; Lee, Sang Hyub; Park, Young Soo; Hwang, Jin Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Wook; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2012-10-18

    Liver function tests (LFTs) can be affected by many factors and the proposed effects of coffee on LFT require a comprehensive evaluation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether drinking coffee, smoking, or drinking alcohol have independent effects on LFTs in Korean health-check examinees. We used the responses of 500 health-check examinees, who had participated in a self-administered questionnaire survey about coffee, alcohol drinking, and smoking habits. Coffee consumption was closely related to male gender, high body mass index (BMI), alcohol drinking, and smoking. On univariable and multivariable analyses, drinking coffee lowered serum levels of total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferases (AST). On multivariable analyses, smoking raised serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) level and decreased serum protein and albumin levels, while alcohol drinking raised GGT level after adjustment for age, gender, regular medication, BMI, coffee and alcohol drinking amounts, and smoking. Coffee consumption, smoking, and alcohol drinking affect the individual components of LFT in different ways, and the above 3 habits each have an impact on LFTs. Therefore, their effects on LFTs should be carefully interpreted, and further study on the mechanism of the effects is warranted.

  10. [Plasma lipid concentration in smoking and nonsmoking male adults treated from alcohol addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słodczyk, Ewa; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Kozar-Konieczna, Aleksandra; Goniewicz, Jerzy; Ptak, Małgorzata; Olszowy, Zofia; Kośmider, Leon; Goniewicz, Maciej Łukasz; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking affect plasma lipid levels and are both independent risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Alcohol and nicotine addictions are more common among man than women in Poland. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in plasma lipid levels after cessation of heavy drinking in smoking and nonsmoking Polish male adults. Subjects were recruited from individuals who participated in an inpatient addiction program following alcohol detoxification. We recruited 119 male adults: 48 non-smokers in age between 31 and 60 years (mean 48.7 +/- 8.8) and 71 smokers in age between 30 and 60 years (mean 46.1 +/- 7.8). Each subjects provided three blood samples: at baseline, after 3 weeks, and after 6 weeks of treatment. Plasma samples were analyzed for lipids by manual precipitation and automatic enzymatic methods. Changes in plasma lipid concentrations were analyzed using two-way analysis of variances with repeated measures with smoking status as between subjects factor and time post alcohol cessation as within-subject factors. All analyses were adjusted for age, and BMI. We found that plasma levels of HDL decreased in smoking and nonsmoking subjects by 30% and 24%, respectively (p smoking subjects, plasma levels of triglycerides and LDL increased significantly after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking cessation by 17% and 16%, respectively (p = 0.001). We also found that total cholesterol levels remained high in smoking subjects, but decreased significantly by 7% (p = 0.022) in nonsmoking subjects after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking. We concluded that cigarette smoking increased LDL and inhibited the decline in plasma cholesterol among subjects addicted to alcohol following cessation of heavy drinking. Alcohol addiction therapy should be complemented with smoking cessation to prevent increase in cardiovascular risk.

  11. Pulmonary cytokine composition differs in the setting of alcohol use disorders and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Ellen L; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Davis, Christopher S

    2013-06-15

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs), including alcohol abuse and dependence, and cigarette smoking are widely acknowledged and common risk factors for pneumococcal pneumonia. Reasons for these associations are likely complex but may involve an imbalance in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines within the lung. Delineating the specific effects of alcohol, smoking, and their combination on pulmonary cytokines may help unravel mechanisms that predispose these individuals to pneumococcal pneumonia. We hypothesized that the combination of AUD and cigarette smoking would be associated with increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proinflammatory cytokines and diminished anti-inflammatory cytokines, compared with either AUDs or cigarette smoking alone. Acellular BAL fluid was obtained from 20 subjects with AUDs, who were identified using a validated questionnaire, and 19 control subjects, matched on the basis of age, sex, and smoking history. Half were current cigarette smokers; baseline pulmonary function tests and chest radiographs were normal. A positive relationship between regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) with increasing severity of alcohol dependence was observed, independent of cigarette smoking (P = 0.0001). Cigarette smoking duration was associated with higher IL-1β (P = 0.0009) but lower VEGF (P = 0.0007); cigarette smoking intensity was characterized by higher IL-1β and lower VEGF and diminished IL-12 (P = 0.0004). No synergistic effects of AUDs and cigarette smoking were observed. Collectively, our work suggests that AUDs and cigarette smoking each contribute to a proinflammatory pulmonary milieu in human subjects through independent effects on BAL RANTES and IL-1β. Furthermore, cigarette smoking additionally influences BAL IL-12 and VEGF that may be relevant to the pulmonary immune response.

  12. Tabagismo e consumo de álcool em estudantes universitários: prevalência e fatores associados Smoking and alcohol consumption among university students: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Rozales Ramis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve o objetivo de verificar a prevalência de tabagismo e consumo de álcool entre estudantes da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel, além de investigar os fatores associados a esses comportamentos. A amostra foi composta por 485 alunos que ingressaram na UFPel em 2008. Os alunos foram selecionados de maneira aleatória entre cursos de todas as áreas da UFPel e responderam a um questionário pré-testado na sala de aula, sob supervisão da equipe de pesquisa. Dos indivíduos entrevistados, 53,9% eram do sexo feminino e 42,3% tinham menos de 20 anos. Em relação ao consumo de álcool, 75% da amostra o utilizam pelo menos uma vez por mês; a prevalência de risco para o alcoolismo foi de 6,2%. Em relação ao tabagismo, 10,2% dos estudantes relataram fumar regularmente ou nos fins-de-semana. Além disso, mais de 90% dos fumantes e dos que consomem bebidas alcoólicas iniciaram o hábito antes de ingressar na universidade. O tabagismo apresentou uma relação direta com a idade e inversa com a autopercepção de saúde. Em relação ao álcool, estudantes que moram com amigos relataram um maior consumo. Os dados sugerem a necessidade de intervenções no meio acadêmico. Entretanto, cabe destacar que as ações para a população adolescente como um todo devam ser priorizadas, pois mais de 90% dos alunos adquiriram os hábitos antes de ingressarem na universidade, demonstrando que o início do consumo está ocorrendo em idades mais precoces.The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake among university students from the Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil (UFPel, as well as to investigate factors associated with both habits. The sample included 485 students who were admitted to the university in 2008. Students were sampled randomly across all schools of the UFPel campus, and answered a pre-tested questionnaire, which was administered in the classroom by a member of the research team. Of the

  13. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  14. Factors affecting the motivation of smokers to quit smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis K.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available smoking. Success of smoking cessation depends mainly on the balance between motivation and the degree of nicotine dependence. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting the motivation of smokers to stop smoking. Method: Data were collected from 139 smokers, aged 18-69 divided in two groups. Questionnaires were completed about the demographic data, smoking history, anthropometric characteristics, degree of nicotine dependence, motivation degree and alcohol consumption. Results: Body Mass Index was positively correlated with the dependence degree and heavy smoking, while those who were overweight in adolescence showed a lower degree of motivation for smoking cessation. Individuals with moderate or heavy alcohol consumption, those who smoked in their working environment and were heavier smokers needed greater motivation. The low degree of dependence was associated with a lower degree of motivation, while those who showed medium dependence were moderately motivated. Conclusions: Health care professionals should take into account all the above components with the aim of motivating smokers to stop smoking.

  15. Distinct effects of alcohol consumption and smoking on genetic alterations in head and neck carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Hama, Takanori; Suda, Toshihito; Suzuki, Yutaka; Ikegami, Masahiro; Sakanashi, Chikako; Akutsu, Taisuke; Amagaya, Suguru; Horiuchi, Kazuhumi; Imai, Yu; Mezawa, Hidetoshi; Noya, Miki; Nakashima, Akio; Mafune, Aki; Kato, Takakuni; Kojima, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco and alcohol consumption are risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Recently, whole-exome sequencing clarified that smoking increased TP53 and other mutations in HNSCC; however, the effects of alcohol consumption on these genetic alterations remain unknown. We explored the association between alcohol consumption and somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs) across the whole genome in human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative HNSCCs, and compared with the effects of smoking on genetic alterations. SCNA and TP53 mutations in tumor samples were examined by high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization microarray 180K and by direct sequencing, respectively, and statistically analyzed for associations with alcohol consumption and smoking during the 20 years preceding diagnosis of HNSCC. Probes with a corrected p-value (=q-value) less than 0.05 and fold change greater than 1.2 or less than -1.2 were considered statistically significant. A total of 248 patients with HNSCC were enrolled. In the HPV-negative patients (n=221), heavy alcohol consumption was significantly associated with SCNAs of oncogenes/oncosuppressors that were previously reported to occur frequently in HNSCCs: CDKN2A (q=0.005), FHIT (q=0.005), 11q13 region including CCND1, FADD and CTTN (q=0.005), ERBB2 (HER2) (q=0.009), 3q25-qter including CCNL1, TP63, DCUN1D1 and PIK3CA (q=0.014), and CSMD1 (q=0.019). But, TP53 mutations were not affected. In contrast, smoking was associated with increased risk of TP53 mutations, but did not induce any significant SCNAs of oncogenes/oncosuppressors. These results suggest that both alcohol consumption and smoking had distinct effects on genetic alterations in HNSCCs. Heavy alcohol consumption may trigger previously known and unknown SCNAs, but may not induce TP53 mutation. In contrast, smoking may induce TP53 mutation, but may not trigger any SCNAs.

  16. Potential health gains and health losses in eleven EU countries attainable through feasible prevalences of the life-style related risk factors alcohol, BMI, and smoking: a quantitative health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhachimi, Stefan K; Nusselder, Wilma J; Smit, Henriette A; Baili, Paolo; Bennett, Kathleen; Fernández, Esteve; Kulik, Margarete C; Lobstein, Tim; Pomerleau, Joceline; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-08-05

    Influencing the life-style risk-factors alcohol, body mass index (BMI), and smoking is an European Union (EU) wide objective of public health policy. The population-level health effects of these risk-factors depend on population specific characteristics and are difficult to quantify without dynamic population health models. For eleven countries-approx. 80 % of the EU-27 population-we used evidence from the publicly available DYNAMO-HIA data-set. For each country the age- and sex-specific risk-factor prevalence and the incidence, prevalence, and excess mortality of nine chronic diseases are utilized; including the corresponding relative risks linking risk-factor exposure causally to disease incidence and all-cause mortality. Applying the DYNAMO-HIA tool, we dynamically project the country-wise potential health gains and losses using feasible, i.e. observed elsewhere, risk-factor prevalence rates as benchmarks. The effects of the "worst practice", "best practice", and the currently observed risk-factor prevalence on population health are quantified and expected changes in life expectancy, morbidity-free life years, disease cases, and cumulative mortality are reported. Applying the best practice smoking prevalence yields the largest gains in life expectancy with 0.4 years for males and 0.3 year for females (approx. 332,950 and 274,200 deaths postponed, respectively) while the worst practice smoking prevalence also leads to the largest losses with 0.7 years for males and 0.9 year for females (approx. 609,400 and 710,550 lives lost, respectively). Comparing morbidity-free life years, the best practice smoking prevalence shows the highest gains for males with 0.4 years (342,800 less disease cases), whereas for females the best practice BMI prevalence yields the largest gains with 0.7 years (1,075,200 less disease cases). Smoking is still the risk-factor with the largest potential health gains. BMI, however, has comparatively large effects on morbidity. Future

  17. After-School Supervision, Psychosocial Impact, and Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Liu, Ipei; Sussman, Steve; Palmer, Paula; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cen, Steven; Chou, Chih-Ping; Johnson, Anderson

    2006-01-01

    We examined effects of self-care after school hours and psychosocial factors on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among adolescents in China. Survey data were obtained from 4734 7th and 11th grade students from seven cities across China. Students were queried about the frequency and quantity of unsupervised self-care after school in an average…

  18. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and endometrial cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerbroks, A.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and endometrial cancer. Methods: In 1986, the Netherlands Cohort Study was initiated. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other cancer risk factors was completed by 62,573 women. Follow-up for c

  19. Alcohol consumption as a predictor of reactivity to smoking and stress cues presented in the natural environment of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, Rachel L; Saladin, Michael E; McClure, Erin A; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Carpenter, Matthew J; Tiffany, Stephen T; Baker, Nathaniel L; Gray, Kevin M

    2017-02-01

    The high prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use underscores the importance of understanding the influence of alcohol consumption on risk factors for smoking and relapse. Alcohol has been shown to impact reactivity to smoking and stress-related cues, both of which are common antecedents to smoking and smoking relapse. The objective of the current study is to examine associations between alcohol use, cigarette craving, and stress reactivity following exposure to smoking and stress cues delivered in participants' daily lives. Using cue-reactivity ecological momentary assessment (CREMA), adult smokers (n = 138) reported cigarette craving, stress, and past hour alcohol use on a mobile device four times per day for 2 weeks, resulting in a range of 4493-5983 data points per analysis. Questions were followed by exposure to pictorial neutral, stressful, or smoking cues delivered via the mobile device. Craving and affect were re-assessed following cue exposure. Results showed that recent (past hour) alcohol use was significantly associated with increases in the following: (a) tonic (non-cue-elicited) cigarette craving, (b) stress cue-elicited cigarette craving, and (c) stress cue-elicited stress reactivity, in the context of high-baseline stress. There was no significant association between alcohol use and smoking cue-elicited craving. Alcohol use may increase risk for smoking and relapse to smoking by increasing cigarette craving and, in certain contexts, stress following stress cue exposure. Though alcohol is known for its anxiolytic properties, under some conditions, it may increase reactivity to stress cues.

  20. Establishment of the MethyLight Assay for Assessing Aging, Cigarette Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Kosuke; Li, Jiawei; Nakanishi, Michio; Asada, Takashi; Ikesue, Masahiro; Goto, Yoichi; Fukushima, Yasue; Iwai, Naoharu

    2015-01-01

    The environmental factors such as aging, smoking, and alcohol consumption have been reported to influence DNA methylation (DNAm). However, the versatility of DNAm measurement by DNAm array systems is low in clinical use. Thus, we developed the MethyLight assay as a simple method to measure DNAm. In the present study, we isolated peripheral blood DNA from 33 healthy volunteers and selected cg25809905, cg02228185, and cg17861230 as aging, cg23576855 as smoking, and cg02583484 as alcohol consumption biomarkers. The predicted age by methylation rates of cg25809905 and cg17861230 significantly correlated with chronological age. In immortalized B-cells, DNAm rates of two sites showed a younger status than the chronological age of donor. On the other hand, the predicted age of the patients with myocardial infarction (MI) was not accelerated. The methylation rate of cg23576855 was able to discriminate the groups based on the smoking status. The DNAm rate of cg02583484 was reduced in subjects with habitual alcohol consumption compared to that of subjects without habitual alcohol consumption. In conclusion, our MethyLight assay system reconfirms that aging, smoking, and alcohol consumption influenced DNAm in peripheral blood in the Japanese. This MethyLight system will facilitate DNAm measurement in epidemiological and clinical studies.

  1. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...... sensitization and nickel sensitization. A random sample of adults (n=3460) from the general population of Copenhagen was invited to participate in a general health examination including patch-testing. Alcohol consumption was not associated with nickel sensitization, whereas a significant trend (p...

  2. Coffee and smoking as risk factors of twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Christensen, Kaare

    2007-01-01

    Twinning rates have changed substantially over time for reasons that are only partly known. In this study we studied smoking, coffee and alcohol intake, and their possible interaction with obesity as potential determinants of twinning rates using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort between...... their prepregnancy weight and height, coffee and alcohol intake, smoking habits, and potential confounding factors at early stages of pregnancy. We identified smoking (> 10 cigarettes/day) as a possible determinant of twinning, particularly for dizygotic twinning rates (same sex) and furthermore corroborated...... that obesity and the mother's age are strong correlates of twinning. Others have found coffee intake to increase twinning rates but that is not seen in these data....

  3. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity in man: influence of gender, age, alcohol consumption and smoking in a caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, M. H.; Bode, C.

    2002-01-01

    is negatively associated with consumption of larger quantities of alcohol. The question of whether ADH activity is higher in males or females can only be answered with respect to age. The gastric ADH activity in young men is distinctly higher compared to young women, but the opposite holds true in middle......AIMS: The stomach is involved in first-pass metabolism of alcohol in humans. As conflicting data were published regarding the influence of age and gender on the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in human gastric mucosa, the present study aimed at the investigation of these and other...... potentially confounding factors (alcohol consumption, smoking, drug intake) on its activity in a Caucasian population. METHODS: ADH activity was assessed in endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens from 111 Caucasian subjects aged 20-80 years, of whom 51 were females. RESULTS: Highest ADH activity was measured...

  4. The effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the activity of oral peroxidase The effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the activity of oral peroxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleon Waszkiewicz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase is the most important antioxidant enzyme in saliva. Through peroxidation of thiocyanate in
    the presence of H2O2, peroxidase catalyses the formation of bacteriocidic compounds such as hypothiocyanate.
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the activity
    of oral peroxidase (OPO. A total of 37 volunteers participated in the study. This cohort consisted of 17 male
    alcohol-dependent smoking patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (AS group, alcohol + smoking (mean
    age: 42 years; range: 26–55 (100–700 g/day of alcohol; 10–20 cigarettes/day and 20 control male social drinkers
    (CNS group, control non-smokers with no history of alcohol abuse or smoking (mean age: 42 years; range:
    30–53. Salivary peroxidase activity was measured by the colorimetric method. The differences between groups
    were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U test. There was significantly higher activity of OPO (p = 0.00001
    and significantly lower salivary flow (SF (p = 0.007 in alcohol-dependent smokers after chronic alcohol intoxication
    compared to the control group. OPO activity significantly correlated with the number of days of alcohol
    intoxication, but not with smoking. Gingival index (GI was significantly higher in smoking alcohol-dependent
    persons than in the control group, and correlated with OPO activity. The sensitivity of the OPO test was 70% in
    smoking alcoholics, while specificity was 95%. The increased activity of OPO suggests chronic oxidative stress is
    more likely due to ethanol action than to smoking. Smoking alcohol-dependent persons have a worse periodontal
    status than controls. OPO activity as a marker of chronic alcohol abuse may help in the diagnosis of alcoholism.Peroxidase is the most important antioxidant enzyme in saliva. Through peroxidation of thiocyanate in
    the presence of H2O2, peroxidase

  5. Combined effects of smoking and alcohol on metabolic syndrome: the LifeLines cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra N Slagter

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. METHODS: 64,046 participants aged 18-80 years from the LifeLines Cohort study were categorized into three body mass index (BMI classes (BMI1 drink/day and tobacco showed higher triglycerides levels. Up to 2 drinks/day was associated with a smaller waist circumference in overweight and obese individuals. Consumption of >2 drinks/day increased blood pressure, with the strongest associations found for heavy smokers. The overall metabolic profile of wine drinkers was better than that of non-drinkers or drinkers of beer or spirits/mixed drinks. CONCLUSION: Light alcohol consumption may moderate the negative associations of smoking with MetS. Our results suggest that the lifestyle advice that emphasizes smoking cessation and the restriction of alcohol consumption to a maximum of 1 drink/day, is a good approach to reduce the prevalence of MetS.

  6. [Study on health support strategies by analyzing the diet, alcohol intake, and smoking behavior of university students: examination of non-communicable disease risk factors according to their sex, age and living arrangement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamaki, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the diet, drinking, and smoking behaviors of university students and to analyze the health behaviors that could be a risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in order to contribute to the promotion of NCD prevention in youth. The survey was carried out using a questionnaire with closed questions including items about health behaviors. The subjects surveyed were students of 10 universities on the main island of Japan (1,196 valid responders). The score for the nutritional balance was significantly low in the group living alone for both students in their teens and 20s. For the frequency of not eating breakfast, results suggest that living alone and increase in age are related to the lack of breakfast for both males and females. Teenage males living alone tended to lack in consideration for the intake of animal fat than those not living alone. The females showed a higher tendency to eat sweets and snacks during the day than the males. For the males who living alone, results suggest that they tended to have a higher or equal alcohol intake to females in their 20s and males in their 20s not living alone even when they are underage. Males in their 20s tended to have a higher amount and frequency of smoking than other groups regardless of their living arrangement. Accumulation of health behavior that could be a risk for NCDs was found in some of the groups, such as males living alone.

  7. Influence of metabolic indicators, smoking, alcohol and socioeconomic position on mortality after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Kroman, Niels; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factors differently distributed among social groups like obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, smoking, and alcohol intake predict survival after breast cancer diagnosis and therefore might mediate part of the observed social inequality in survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted...... as outcome. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 9.6 years [interquartile range (IQR), 2.2-17.0 years]. The hazard ratio (HR) for death from all causes increased with lower education (p for trend, 0.01). Adjustment for disease-related prognostic factors, comorbidity and metabolic indicators measured as BMI, waist...... circumference and diabetes, and smoking and alcohol affected but did not explain the social gradient. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that these factors explain some but not all the social inequality in survival after breast cancer and that improvement of lifestyle to some extent would improve survival among...

  8. In the heat of the moment: Alcohol consumption and smoking lapse and relapse among adolescents who have quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zundert, R.M.P. van; Kuntsche, E.N.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study tested the co-occurrence of alcohol use and the first lapse and relapse into smoking among daily smoking adolescents who quit smoking. Methods: In this ecological momentary assessment study, participants completed web-based questionnaires three times a day during one we

  9. Effective Factors on Unassisted Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Karalezli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the contribution which effective factors on who self-quitting smoking. Methods: The study had been included in over 18 years old people who not received any pharmacological treatment or psychological support. The research was performed at the 95% ±3.09 confidence interval. Age, gender, educational status, occupation, monthly income, smoking situation and effective factors on self-quitting smoking. Results: The participants had been 50.9% (509 male and 49.5 (498 female. Median age was 35 (18-87 years old; female’s median age 35 (18-83 and male’s median age 36 (18-87. From İstanbul 351 (35%, Ankara 301 (30%, Konya 207 (20%, Antalya 148 (15% were people interviewed. This study had been the most effective factor in unassisted smoking cessation one’s own disease. The second factor had been getting fear of sick and third family pressure.The most people had been quit smoking due to diseases of respiratory system. The most fearful disease was cancer. Financial status was forth effective factor on quitting smoking. Conclusion: As a result effective factors on unassisted smoking cessation had been getting fear of sick as well as own disease. Therefore, in the process of quitting smoking, and especially young people in the project will be designed to prevent smoking was thought should be given to these issues. Also important in this regard is increasing the cigarette sales price. The compliance with laws issued to prevent smoking in closed areas, in particular young people can influence their thoughts about the hazards of smoking.

  10. The combined effect of smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol on cause-specific mortality: a 30 year cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watt Graham CM

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking and consuming alcohol are both related to increased mortality risk. Their combined effects on cause-specific mortality were investigated in a prospective cohort study. Methods Participants were 5771 men aged 35-64, recruited during 1970-73 from various workplaces in Scotland. Data were obtained from a questionnaire and a screening examination. Causes of death were all cause, coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke, alcohol-related, respiratory and smoking-related cancer. Participants were divided into nine groups according to their smoking status (never, ex or current and reported weekly drinking (none, 1-14 units and 15 or more. Cox proportional hazards models were used to obtain relative rates of mortality, adjusted for age and other risk factors. Results In 30 years of follow-up, 3083 men (53.4% died. Compared with never smokers who did not drink, men who both smoked and drank 15+ units/week had the highest all-cause mortality (relative rate = 2.71 (95% confidence interval 2.31-3.19. Relative rates for CHD mortality were high for current smokers, with a possible protective effect of some alcohol consumption in never smokers. Stroke mortality increased with both smoking and alcohol consumption. Smoking affected respiratory mortality with little effect of alcohol. Adjusting for a wide range of confounders attenuated the relative rates but the effects of alcohol and smoking still remained. Premature mortality was particularly high in smokers who drank 15 or more units, with a quarter of the men not surviving to age 65. 30% of men with manual occupations both smoked and drank 15+ units/week compared with only 13% with non-manual ones. Conclusions Smoking and drinking 15+ units/week was the riskiest behaviour for all causes of death.

  11. Distinct effects of alcohol consumption and smoking on genetic alterations in head and neck carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuyoshi Urashima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco and alcohol consumption are risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Recently, whole-exome sequencing clarified that smoking increased TP53 and other mutations in HNSCC; however, the effects of alcohol consumption on these genetic alterations remain unknown. We explored the association between alcohol consumption and somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs across the whole genome in human papillomavirus (HPV-negative HNSCCs, and compared with the effects of smoking on genetic alterations. METHODS: SCNA and TP53 mutations in tumor samples were examined by high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization microarray 180K and by direct sequencing, respectively, and statistically analyzed for associations with alcohol consumption and smoking during the 20 years preceding diagnosis of HNSCC. Probes with a corrected p-value (=q-value less than 0.05 and fold change greater than 1.2 or less than -1.2 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 248 patients with HNSCC were enrolled. In the HPV-negative patients (n=221, heavy alcohol consumption was significantly associated with SCNAs of oncogenes/oncosuppressors that were previously reported to occur frequently in HNSCCs: CDKN2A (q=0.005, FHIT (q=0.005, 11q13 region including CCND1, FADD and CTTN (q=0.005, ERBB2 (HER2 (q=0.009, 3q25-qter including CCNL1, TP63, DCUN1D1 and PIK3CA (q=0.014, and CSMD1 (q=0.019. But, TP53 mutations were not affected. In contrast, smoking was associated with increased risk of TP53 mutations, but did not induce any significant SCNAs of oncogenes/oncosuppressors. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that both alcohol consumption and smoking had distinct effects on genetic alterations in HNSCCs. Heavy alcohol consumption may trigger previously known and unknown SCNAs, but may not induce TP53 mutation. In contrast, smoking may induce TP53 mutation, but may not trigger any SCNAs.

  12. The Role of Drinking Alcohol, Coffee, Tea Habits, Fear of Gaining Weight and Treatment Methods in Smoking Cessation Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İzzet Fidancı1

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the role of drinking alcohol, coffee and tea habits, fear of gaining weight and treatment methods in smoking cessation success. Methods: In our study, we applied a questionnaire and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to 128 participants consulting Family Medicine Smoking Cessation Outpatient Clinic of Ankara Training and Research Hospital. Among participants, 67 of them were people quitted smoking while the other 61 did not. With questionnaire, we investigated factors possibly affecting smoking cessation success like drinking alcohol, coffee and tea habits and also marital status and occupations of participants. By adding Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to questionnaire we defined the dependence status of participants. Results: Study comprised of 128 participants, 50 of them being female and 78 being male. Mean age of participants was 34.01 (±12.24 in patients quitted smoking and 32.82 (±13.45 in patients still smoking. Tea and alcohol drinking habits were found to be higher in smoking group and difference was statistically significant (p<0,05. When examining smoking cessation success according to occupational groups, civil servants and unemployed people were more successful than other occupational groups, but there was no statistically significant difference. People having coffee drinking habits quitted smoking in a significantly higher rate (p<0,05. Among given treatments, although statistically insignificant, the most effective one was varenicline. Conclusion: According to our results, smoking cessation success is lower among people having tea and alcohol drinking habits. In smokers, we should investigate the relationship with additional substance usage and aim to decrease these additional substance usage habits for increasing smoking cessation success.

  13. Consumption of salted meat and its interactions with alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sihao; Wang, Xiaorong; Huang, Chengyu; Liu, Xudong; Zhao, Jin; Yu, Ignatius T S; Christiani, David C

    2015-08-01

    Etiology of esophageal cancer has not yet been clearly documented, especially in high-risk regions. To evaluate the association between salted meat intake and esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to explore its joint effects with alcohol drinking and smoking, a population-based case-control study was conducted in a high ESCC risk area in China, including 942 incident ESCC cases and 942 age- and sex-matching controls. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on dietary factors, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. Conditional logistic regressions were applied to estimate the association between salted meat intake and ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and smoking, with adjustment for other confounders, including total energy intake. Salted meat intake was associated with an increased risk of ESCC, showing an exposure-response relationship (p for trend alcohol drinking or smoking had a greater risk than salted meat alone, which was more than additive. The strongest association was seen in the combination of all the three factors, particularly at the highest level of salted meat intake (odds ratio = 29.27, 95% confidence interval: 13.21-64.89). Salted meat intake is strongly associated with ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and/or smoking highlights the significance of reducing salted meat intake among smokers and drinkers with respect to ESCC prevention.

  14. Smoking cessation and associated factors during pregnancy Cese del consumo de tabaco durante el embarazo y factores asociados

    OpenAIRE

    Matías Torrent; Jordi Sunyer; Paul Cullinan; Xavier Basagaña; Jessica Harris; Oscar García; Josep Maria Antó

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine smoking habits before and during pregnancy, as well as factors associated with smoking cessation, in three European settings. Methods: Women seeking antenatal care in Ashford (UK), Minorca and Barcelona (Spain) were recruited to the Asthma Multicenter Infant Cohort Study (AMICS). Questionnaires inquiring into the smoking habits of each woman and her partner, demographic data, occupation, educational level, number of previous children, breast feeding, alcohol intake, and ...

  15. The effects of chronic smoking on the pathology of alcohol-related brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkindale, A N; Sheedy, D; Kril, J J; Sutherland, G T

    2016-06-01

    Both pathological and neuroimaging studies demonstrate that chronic alcohol abuse causes brain atrophy with widespread white matter loss limited gray matter loss. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that tobacco smoking also causes brain atrophy in both alcoholics and neurologically normal individuals; however, this has not been confirmed pathologically. In this study, the effects of smoking and the potential additive effects of concomitant alcohol and tobacco consumption were investigated in autopsied human brains. A total of 44 cases and controls were divided into four groups: 16 non-smoking controls, nine smoking controls, eight non-smoking alcoholics, and 11 smoking alcoholics. The volumes of 26 gray and white matter regions were measured using an established point-counting technique. The results showed trends for widespread white matter loss in alcoholics (p smoking alone had no effect on brain atrophy and the combination of smoking and alcohol showed no additional effect. Neuronal density was analyzed as a more sensitive assay of gray matter integrity. Similar to the volumetric analysis, there was a reduction in neurons (29%) in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics, albeit this was only a trend when adjusted for potential confounders (p smoking or combinatorial effects on neuronal density in any of the three regions examined. These results do not support the hypothesis that smoking exacerbates alcohol-related brain damage. The trends here support previous studies that alcohol-related brain damage is characterized by focal neuronal loss and generalized white matter atrophy. These disparate effects suggest that two different pathogenic mechanisms may be operating in the alcoholic brain. Future studies using ultrastructural or molecular techniques will be required to determine if smoking has more subtle effects on the brain and how chronic alcohol consumption leads to widespread white matter loss.

  16. Association between Alcohol, Smoking and HLA-DQA1*0201 Genotype in Psoriasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Yong ZHENG; Sheng-Cai WEI; Tie-Liu SHI; Yi-Xue LI

    2004-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease triggered by genetic, environment or other risk factors such as infection, drugs, stress, moisture, alcohol, and smoking. A major psoriasis susceptibility locus at 6p21.3has been identified. Further studies found that HLA-DQAl*0201 allele was associated with psoriasis. However,there were few data exploring an association between the environmental factors and susceptibility genes. In this study, the samples of 189 patients with psoriasis and 333 healthy controls were collected with their consent and were carried on analysis through polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primer (PCRSSP) method. The proportion of male psoriasis patients engaging in the smoking and alcohol was much higher than that of the control group (P<0.005). The HLA-DQA 1 *0201 allele was present at significantly higher frequency in the patients with psoriasis (OR=4.25, P<1.0× 10-6). Association was found between smoking, alcohol and HLA-DQA1 *0201 in male patients with psoriasis (OR>6.91, P<1.0× 10-4).

  17. Exploring factors influencing smoking behaviour in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir

    2012-01-01

    The objective of present study is to investigate the determinants of smoking behaviour among adults in Malaysia. Findings of the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-3) by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, were used. The sample consisted of 34,539 observations. A logistic regression model was thus applied to estimate the probability to participate in smoking. Age, income, gender, marital status, ethnicity, employment status, residential area, education, lifestyle and health status were statistically significant in affecting the likelihood of smoking. Specifically, youngsters, low income earners, males, unmarried individuals, Malays, employed individuals, rural residents and primary educated individuals were more likely to smoke. In conclusion, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors have significant impacts on smoking participation in Malaysia. Based on these empirical findings, several policy implications are suggested.

  18. Severity of psoriasis among adult males is associated with smoking, not with alcohol use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol use can affect the presentation and course of psoriasis. There is a paucity of data on this subject from India. Aims: To find out whether increased severity of psoriasis in adult Indian males is associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol use. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study in the Department of Dermatology of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. Subjects and Methods: Male patients above 18 years of age attending a psoriasis clinic between March 2007 and May 2009 were studied. Severity of psoriasis (measured using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index - PASI among smokers and non-smokers was compared. We also studied the correlation between severity of psoriasis and nicotine dependence (measured using Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and alcohol use disorders (measured using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test- AUDIT. Statistical Analysis: Z-test, Odd′s ratio, Chi-square test, Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results: Of a total of 338 patients, 148 were smokers and 173 used to consume alcohol. Mean PASI score of smokers was more than that of non-smokers (Z-test, z = −2.617, P = 0.009. Those with severe psoriasis were more likely to be smokers (χ2 = 5.47, P = 0.02, OR = 1.8, Confidence Interval 1.09-2.962. There was a significant correlation between PASI scores and Fagerström score (Spearman′s correlation coefficient = 0.164, P 0.05. Conclusions: Increased severity of psoriasis among adult males is associated with tobacco smoking, but not with alcohol use.

  19. Adolescent internet use and its relationship to cigarette smoking and alcohol use: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Yi, Chin-Chun; Ksobiech, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the longitudinal impact of situational Internet use on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use among male and female adolescents. A Northern Taiwanese cohort sample of adolescents with no prior use of cigarettes (n=1445) or alcohol (n=1468) was surveyed at age 16 and again 4 years later. Information regarding where, why, and length of time spent using the Internet was gathered from the 16-year-old participants. Outcome information regarding cigarette/alcohol use was gathered via a follow-up questionnaire at age 20. Multivariate regressions were used to incorporate peer, individual and family characteristics as measured at age 16 and create models of future cigarette and alcohol use at age 20. The analyses demonstrated that adolescent Internet use, particularly where such use took place, has a significant impact on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use, adjusted for conventional factors, and its relationship differs significantly by gender. Female adolescents with Internet café use appear to be especially likely to develop these two risky behaviors. The why of Internet use is also a predictor of future cigarette smoking. Finally, time spent using the Internet is significantly related to alcohol use; greater use of the Internet is associated with higher levels of drinking. The results revealed that different risky behaviors are differentially influenced by separate components of adolescent Internet use. These findings suggest that programs aimed at promoting adolescent health could potentially benefit Taiwanese adolescents by including components related to situational Internet use and taking gender into consideration.

  20. The effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the activity of oral peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska, Anna; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Szulc, Agata; Kępka, Alina; Minarowska, Alina; Wojewódzka-Żelezniakowicz, Marzena; Konarzewska, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Supronowicz, Zbigniew Bronisław; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2012-10-08

    Peroxidase is the most important antioxidant enzyme in saliva. Through peroxidation of thiocyanate in the presence of H₂O₂, peroxidase catalyses the formation of bacteriocidic compounds such as hypothiocyanate.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the activity of oral peroxidase (OPO). A total of 37 volunteers participated in the study. This cohort consisted of 17 male alcohol-dependent smoking patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (AS group, alcohol + smoking) (mean age: 42 years; range: 26-55) (100-700 g/day of alcohol; 10-20 cigarettes/day) and 20 control male social drinkers(CNS group, control non-smokers) with no history of alcohol abuse or smoking (mean age: 42 years; range:30-53). Salivary peroxidase activity was measured by the colorimetric method. The differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test. There was significantly higher activity of OPO (p = 0.00001)and significantly lower salivary flow (SF) (p = 0.007) in alcohol-dependent smokers after chronic alcohol intoxication compared to the control group. OPO activity significantly correlated with the number of days of alcohol intoxication, but not with smoking. Gingival index (GI) was significantly higher in smoking alcohol-dependent persons than in the control group, and correlated with OPO activity. The sensitivity of the OPO test was 70% in smoking alcoholics, while specificity was 95%. The increased activity of OPO suggests chronic oxidative stress is more likely due to ethanol action than to smoking. Smoking alcohol-dependent persons have a worse periodontal status than controls. OPO activity as a marker of chronic alcohol abuse may help in the diagnosis of alcoholism.

  1. Smoking and alcohol intervention before surgery: evidence for best practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Nielsen, P R; Lauritzen, J B;

    2009-01-01

    Smoking and hazardous drinking are common and important risk factors for an increased rate of complications after surgery. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms include organic dysfunctions that can recover with abstinence. Abstinence starting 3-8 weeks before surgery will significantly re...

  2. The genetic correlation between cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking among Chinese adult male twins: an ordinal bivariate genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Zhan, Siyan; Lv, Jun; Pang, Zengchang; Wang, Shaojie; Chen, Rongfu; Hu, Yonghua; Li, Liming

    2012-08-01

    Though multiple policies have been implemented, the cigarette control in China is still facing a great challenge. At the same time, alcohol drinking has increasingly become a public health problem. Considering cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking often co-occur, a few studies tested the covariance of these phenotypes. However, the genetic and environmental correlation between them among Chinese population has not been determined. The main aim of this study is to fill this gap. From the Chinese National Twin Registry, we obtained the data on cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behaviors. The ordinal bivariate genetic analysis was performed to fit the categorical variables. After identifying the best decomposition among the Cholesky, common, and independent pathway model, we established the most parsimonious submodel. The correlation between current tobacco and alcohol use could be explained by Cholesky model. The shared environmental variances for both phenotypes were dropped to construct the most parsimonious submodel. Furthermore, the most parsimonious submodel showed a moderate correlation (0.32, 95%CI=0.17-0.46) between the genetic components and a negligible non-shared environmental correlation. As the first bivariate genetic analysis on current tobacco smoking and current alcohol drinking in China, this study suggested a common genetic vulnerability to tobacco and alcohol use in male twins. Further studies should be carried out to track the pertinent genes that are related to the comorbidity of smoking and drinking in Chinese population. Another urgent need is to recognize the behavior-specific environmental risk factors.

  3. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  4. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, C.; Burger, H.; Verbeek, T.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Ormel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxie

  5. The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of self-reported hand eczema: a cross-sectional population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2010-01-01

    . It has been debated whether life-style factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with hand eczema. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate whether self-reported hand eczema was associated with smoking and alcohol consumption in the general population. METHODS...... heavy smokers (OR = 1.38; CI = 0.99-1.92) compared with never-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking was positively associated with hand eczema among adults from the general population in Denmark. Apparently, current light smokers (... smokers (> 15 g daily) but this needs to be reconfirmed. Alcohol consumption was not associated with hand eczema....

  6. Factors associated with alcohol intake and alcohol abuse among women in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Eloah Machado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze factors associated with alcohol consumption among adult women living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2011. Data for Belo Horizonte were obtained from the VIGITEL system (Telephone-Based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases. Alcohol use was defined as self-reported intake of at least one dose in the previous 30 days; alcohol abuse was defined as four or more doses on at least one occasion during the same period. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol use was more prevalent among women 25 to 34 years of age. Alcohol abuse was associated with age, schooling, health status, and smoking. The results suggest the need for policies to prevent alcohol abuse among women, especially targeting those who are younger, single, smokers, and with more education.

  7. Fatores associados ao uso de álcool e cigarro na gestação Factors associated to alcohol and smoking use in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Freire

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever o consumo de álcool e cigarro em gestantes adultas e identificar a associação desse consumo ao resultado obstétrico. MÉTODOS: trata-se de um estudo analítico do tipo transversal, no qual foram incluídas 433 puérperas adultas e seus conceptos atendidos em maternidade pública do Rio de Janeiro, no período de 1999 a 2006. As informações sobre as puérperas e os recém-nascidos foram coletadas no momento do parto e no puerpério, por meio de entrevista e consultas aos prontuários. Considerou-se "uso de álcool na gestação" e "uso de cigarro na gestação" quando esses foram detectados pelo profissional de Saúde na consulta de pré-natal em qualquer idade gestacional e registrados no prontuário. RESULTADOS: verificou-se que 5,5 e 7,4% das puérperas relataram uso de cigarro e álcool durante a gestação, respectivamente. As características maternas associadas ao fumo na gestação foram: situação marital (p=0,005; idade materna (p=0,01 e assistência nutricional pré-natal (p=0,003. O fumo durante a gestação foi fortemente associado ao uso do álcool, sendo que 31,3% das gestantes fizeram uso concomitante de cigarro e álcool (p0,05. CONCLUSÕES: os achados sugerem que o uso de cigarro e álcool na gestação deve ser investigado na assistência pré-natal dentre todas as mulheres, especialmente entre as que vivem sem o companheiro, com mais de 35 anos, com história de aborto, e que não planejaram a gestação. A assistência nutricional mostrou efeito protetor contra o tabagismo na gestação, de forma que as gestantes devem ser esclarecidas quanto aos efeitos deletérios de tais substâncias contribuindo dessa forma para melhores resultados obstétricos.PURPOSE: to describe alcohol and tobacco use in adult pregnant women and determine its association with the obstetric outcome. METHODS: analytical transversal study, in which 433 adult pregnant women and their newborns have been included, attended at a

  8. Tobacco smoking interferes with GABAA receptor neuroadaptations during prolonged alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; McKay, Reese; Esterlis, Irina; Kloczynski, Tracy; Perkins, Evgenia; Bois, Frederic; Pittman, Brian; Lancaster, Jack; Glahn, David C; O'Malley, Stephanie; Carson, Richard E; Krystal, John H

    2014-12-16

    Understanding the effects of tobacco smoking on neuroadaptations in GABAA receptor levels over alcohol withdrawal will provide critical insights for the treatment of comorbid alcohol and nicotine dependence. We conducted parallel studies in human subjects and nonhuman primates to investigate the differential effects of tobacco smoking and nicotine on changes in GABAA receptor availability during acute and prolonged alcohol withdrawal. We report that alcohol withdrawal with or without concurrent tobacco smoking/nicotine consumption resulted in significant and robust elevations in GABAA receptor levels over the first week of withdrawal. Over prolonged withdrawal, GABAA receptors returned to control levels in alcohol-dependent nonsmokers, but alcohol-dependent smokers had significant and sustained elevations in GABAA receptors that were associated with craving for alcohol and cigarettes. In nonhuman primates, GABAA receptor levels normalized by 1 mo of abstinence in both groups--that is, those that consumed alcohol alone or the combination of alcohol and nicotine. These data suggest that constituents in tobacco smoke other than nicotine block the recovery of GABAA receptor systems during sustained alcohol abstinence, contributing to alcohol relapse and the perpetuation of smoking.

  9. Risk of vocal chord dysplasia in relation to smoking, alcohol intake and occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasl, M C; Neuwirth-Riedl, K; Vutuc, C; Horak, F; Vorbeck, F; Banyai, M

    1990-03-01

    The significance of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and occupation as risk factors for the development of vocal chord dysplasia was evaluated in a case-control study. Twenty-seven male patients with dysplasia of the vocal chords were chosen from the I. ENT-University Clinic in Vienna (1985-1988) and compared with 54 controls. The main results are: The relative risk (RR) of a smoker compared to that of a non-smoker for vocal chord dysplasia is 7.27 (6.81-7.73); the RR adjusted for occupation is 3.58 (2.31-4.84). The most important risk factor, however, is occupational exposure. The relative risk of a blue collar worker compared to that of a white collar worker is 11.04 (10.61-11.46), which is reduced only to 10.02 (10.61-11.46) after stratification according to smoking habits.

  10. How Genetic and Other Biological Factors Interact with Smoking Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierut, Laura; Cesarini, David

    2015-09-01

    Despite clear links between genes and smoking, effective public policy requires far richer measurement of the feedback between biological, behavioral, and environmental factors. The Kavli HUMAN Project (KHP) plans to exploit the plummeting costs of data gathering and to make creative use of new technologies to construct a longitudinal panel data set that would compare favorably to existing longitudinal surveys, both in terms of the richness of the behavioral measures and the cost-effectiveness of the data collection. By developing a more comprehensive approach to characterizing behavior than traditional methods, KHP will allow researchers to paint a much richer picture of an individual's life-cycle trajectory of smoking, alcohol, and drug use, and interactions with other choices and environmental factors. The longitudinal nature of KHP will be particularly valuable in light of the increasing evidence for how smoking behavior affects physiology and health. The KHP could have a transformative impact on the understanding of the biology of addictive behaviors such as smoking, and of a rich range of prevention and amelioration policies.

  11. Lifestyle in Curacao - Smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, MEC; Halabi, YT; Gerstenbluth, [No Value; Alberts, JF; ONiel, J

    The Curacao Health Study was carried out among a randomized sample (n = 2248, response rate = 85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population in order to assess aspects of lifestyle that may pose health risks. Factors examined were tobacco and alcohol use, eating habits and exercise behaviour.

  12. Lifestyle in Curacao - Smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, MEC; Halabi, YT; Gerstenbluth, [No Value; Alberts, JF; ONiel, J

    1997-01-01

    The Curacao Health Study was carried out among a randomized sample (n = 2248, response rate = 85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population in order to assess aspects of lifestyle that may pose health risks. Factors examined were tobacco and alcohol use, eating habits and exercise behaviour. Ou

  13. Smoking in korean-chinese middle school students: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonbok E; Yun, Soon-Nyung; Cui, Wenying; Kim, Hyang

    2013-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is rising among Chinese adolescents, and adolescent smoking is a crucial public health issue. Despite the number of studies that have explored the prevalence and various aspects of adolescent smoking in China, we know of no data currently available on smoking behavior among Korean-Chinese adolescents. This article studies the prevalence of smoking and factors affecting smoking behavior among Korean-Chinese adolescents. Data were collected from six Korean-Chinese middle schools in the Yanbian region of Jilin, China. The differences in data from three groups (never-smokers, ever-smokers, and current smokers) were analyzed using χ2 tests and analysis of variance. Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors affecting smoking behavior. Among the 2,116 participants, 7.3% of the boys and 3.7% of the girls were ever-smokers, and 7.2% of the boys and 0.8% of the girls were current smokers. Differences among groups in terms of gender, number of friends currently smoking, parental smoking behavior, academic performance, alcohol consumption, and intention not to smoke were all significant (p students, currently smoking students perceived a significantly less antismoking environment (p = .000). The smoking rate was 2.24 times higher in boys than girls and was 11.57 times higher in students who had three smoking friends compared with those who had no smoking friends. The findings may help develop more effective intervention approaches to prevent adolescent smoking. Preventive programs should involve smoking parents by increasing the value they place on their children's nonsmoking behavior and equipping them to help deter adolescent smoking.

  14. Changing the Culture of Alcohol Abuse on Campus: Lessons Learned from Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is the single greatest public health hazard on American college and university campuses, but the culture of abusive alcohol consumption continues to be highly resistant to change. The author argues that secondhand smoke campaigns can be used as models to change the culture of alcohol abuse on campus. He proposes the implementation of…

  15. Changing the Culture of Alcohol Abuse on Campus: Lessons Learned from Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is the single greatest public health hazard on American college and university campuses, but the culture of abusive alcohol consumption continues to be highly resistant to change. The author argues that secondhand smoke campaigns can be used as models to change the culture of alcohol abuse on campus. He proposes the implementation of…

  16. Influence of smoking and alcohol consumption on admissions and duration of hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Rasmussen, Søren; Grønbaek, Morten;

    2010-01-01

    consumption, smoking and patterns of hospitalization, defined as admission and duration of hospitalization. METHODS: The study was based on 12 698 men and women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. We related smoking and alcohol to hospital admission from any cause, smoking......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have linked smoking and alcohol consumption to a considerable disease burden and large healthcare expenditures. However, findings from studies based on individual level data are sparse and inconclusive. Our objective was to assess the association between alcohol.......80-8.26) in women were observed among smokers of >20 g/day compared to never-smokers. For any admission (excl. smoking-related causes), corresponding ORs were 1.32 (95% CI 1.15-1.51) and 1.80 (95% CI 1.58-2.06), respectively. In men, a U-shaped association between alcohol consumption and risk of admission was found...

  17. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani Wan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation which is imperative in designing intervention programs. Methods Data were collected from 11,697 adults by trained recording clerks on sociodemographic characteristics, practice of other risk habit and details of smoking such as type, duration and frequency. Smoking commencement and cessation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios. Results Males had a much higher prevalence of the habit (61.7% as compared to females (5.8%. Cessation was found to be most common among the Chinese and those regularly consuming alcoholic beverages. Kaplan-Meier plot shows that although males are more likely to start smoking, females are found to be less likely to stop. History of betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption significantly increase the likelihood of commencement (p Conclusions Gender, ethnicity, history of quid chewing and alcohol consumption have been found to be important factors in smoking commencement; while ethnicity, betel quid chewing and type of tobacco smoked influences cessation.

  18. Smoking and alcoholism target genes associated with plasticity and glutamate transmission in the human ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatscher-Bader, T; Zuvela, N; Landis, N; Wilce, P A

    2008-01-01

    Drugs of abuse including nicotine and alcohol elicit their effect by stimulating the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system. There is a high incidence of nicotine dependence in alcoholics. To date only limited data is available on the molecular mechanism underlying the action of alcohol and nicotine in the human brain. This study utilized gene expression screening to identify genes sensitive to chronic alcohol abuse within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the human brain. Alcohol-responsive genes encoded proteins primarily involved in structural plasticity and neurotransmitter transport and release. In particular, genes involved with brain-derived neurotrophic factor signalling and glutamatergic transmission were found to be affected. The possibility that glutamate transport was a target of chronic alcohol and/or tobacco abuse was further investigated in an extended case set by measurement of mRNA and protein expression. Expression levels of vesicular glutamate transporters SLC17A6 and SLC17A7 were robustly induced by smoking, an effect that was reduced by alcohol co-exposure. Glutamatergic transmission is vital for the control of the VTA and may also be critical to the weighting of novelty and importance of a stimulus, an essential output of this brain region. We conclude that enduring plasticity within the VTA may be a major molecular mechanism for the maintenance of smoking addiction and that alcohol, nicotine and co-abuse have distinct impacts on glutamatergic transmission with important implications for the control of this core mesolimbic structure.

  19. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    or more caffeine per day were 4.84 (2.87-8.16) and 2.21 (1.53-3.18), respectively. Women who smoked 10-19 cigarettes and 20 or more cigarettes per day did not have significantly increased ORs for having spontaneous abortions, after adjusting for other risk factors. CONCLUSION: Consumption of 5 or more...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  20. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  1. Occupational noise, smoking, and a high body mass index are risk factors for age-related hearing impairment and moderate alcohol consumption is protective: A European population-based multicenter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransen, E.; Topsakal, V.; Hendrickx, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    exposure was associated with a significant loss of hearing at high sound frequencies (> 1 kHz). Smoking significantly increased high-frequency hearing loss, and the effect was dose-dependent. The effect of smoking remained significant when accounting for cardiovascular disease events. Taller people had......-tone average [PTA]) were collected and the participants filled out a questionnaire on environmental risk factors and medical history. People with a history of disease that could affect hearing were excluded. PTAs were adjusted for age and sex and tested for association with exposure to risk factors. Noise...

  2. Factors Associated with Successful Smoking Cessation in Korean Adult Males: Findings from a National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmee Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation rates have remained stagnant globally. This study was conducted to explore the factors associated with successful smoking cessation among South Korean adult males using nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2007 to 2012. A comparison was made between successful quitters and those who failed to quit after attempts to stop smoking.A total of 7,839 males, aged 19-65 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. The outcome measures were the success and failure rates in smoking cessation, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health behaviors, perceived health status, quality of life, and mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the various factors associated with smoking cessation success.The cessation success and failure rates were 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Smoking cessation was related to older age, marriage, higher income, smoking larger amounts of cigarettes, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, cancer history, better mental health, and higher levels of quality of life, after controlling for multiple variables. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and using nicotine replacement therapy were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation.A smoke-free environment, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, and better stress management are important for smoking cessation. Unlike previous studies, not using nicotine replacement therapy and higher levels of daily cigarette consumption were associated with successful smoking cessation, suggesting that motivation appears to be important to smoking cessation in Korean adult male population.

  3. Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

  4. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  5. The Influence of Alcohol Consumption, Cigarette Smoking, and Physical Activity on Leukocyte Telomere Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifovic, Lidija; Peacock, Sarah D; Massey, Thomas E; King, Will D

    2016-02-01

    Telomeres protect from DNA degradation and maintain chromosomal stability. Short telomeres have been associated with an increased risk of cancer at several sites. However, there is limited knowledge about the lifestyle determinants of telomere length. We aimed to determine the effect of three factors, known to be important in cancer etiology, on relative leukocyte telomere length (rLTL): alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 477 healthy volunteers ages 20 to 50 years who completed a questionnaire and provided a fasting blood sample. Multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to measure rLTL. Regression coefficients were calculated using multiple linear regression while controlling for important covariates. There was no association between alcohol consumption and rLTL. Daily smokers and those in the middle and lower tertile of pack-years smoking had shorter rLTL than never daily smokers (P = 0.02). Data were suggestive of a linear trend with total physical activity (P = 0.06). Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of vigorous physical activity was associated with longer rLTL. A significant linear trend of increasing rLTL with increasing vigorous physical activity was observed (P = 0.02). Cigarette smoking and vigorous physical activity have an impact on telomere length. Smoking was related to shorter telomere length while vigorous physical activity was related to longer telomeres. The findings from this study suggest that lifestyle may play an important role in telomere dynamics and also suggest that engaging in healthy behaviors may mitigate the effect of harmful behaviors on telomere length. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. The importance of alcohol abuse and smoking in the evolution of glaucoma disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiotoroiu, S M; Pop de Popa, D; Ştefăniu, G I; Secureanu, F A; Purcărea, V L

    2013-06-15

    Diagnosing glaucoma by clinical and paraclinical selection, monitoring the patients who present glaucoma, smoke and consume high quantities of alcohol. We wish to demonstrate the influence of smoking and alcohol consumption on the progression of glaucoma. The paper represents a clinical prospective observational and interventional study within a period of 11 months (September 2011- August 2012), which includes 214 patients diagnosed with glaucoma, by clinical and paraclinical examination, and, who were administrated prostaglandin analogues. The group was divided into 4 homogeneous subgroups according to age, without ocular and systemic associated pathology: Group A- patients diagnosed with glaucoma who do not smoke or drink alcohol (witness group). Group B- patients diagnosed with glaucoma who smoke but do not drink alcohol. Group C- patients diagnosed with glaucoma who drink alcohol but do not smoke. Group D- patients diagnosed with glaucoma who smoke and drink alcohol. The patients in the 4 groups were supervised by monthly periodical examinations in the first 3 months, then at 3 months by clinical examination (anterior pole examination, eye background) and paraclinical examination (gonioscopy, aplanotonometry Goldman, pachymetry, retinography, computerized perimetry, optical coherence tomography - OCT). Tensional variations in all the 4 groups under treatment were between (+2;-2mmHg). Retinography failed to point out significant changes from the enrolment to the moment of the paper presentation. The visual field has registered important changes in groups B and D and has not registered significant changes in groups A and C. OCT changes were registered particularly in group D. The progression of the glaucoma disease is more influenced by smoking than by alcohol consumption. The association between smoking and alcohol consumption certainly represents an agent of major risk in the progression of glaucoma.

  7. The Relationship of Smoking Status to Alcohol Use, Problems, and Health Behaviors in College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Amie L.; Smith, Shelby K.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in drinking, consequences, and perceptions were examined between alcohol-using college students by smoking status (current, past, and lifetime nonsmoker). Entering freshmen (N = 558: 45% male, 72% Caucasian, age M = 18) completed a questionnaire assessing smoking, drinking and current health perceptions. Results indicated current…

  8. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese older adults: do living arrangements matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaan; Wu, Liyun

    2015-02-23

    This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998-2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker), the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others), and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults' health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women.

  9. Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Consumption among Chinese Older Adults: Do Living Arrangements Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaan Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998–2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker, the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others, and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults’ health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women.

  10. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Karabi Nandy; Felicia Hodge

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457). Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the env...

  11. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabi Nandy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457. Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the environment (smoking at home and at work. Statistical tests included Chi Square and Fisher’s Exact test, as well as multiple logistic regression analysis among never, former, and current smokers. Results: Findings confirm high smoking prevalence among male and female participants (44% and 37% respectively. American Indians begin smoking in early adolescence (age 14.7. Also, 65% of current smokers are less than 50% Indian blood and 76% of current smokers have no intention to quit smoking. Current and former smokers are statistically more likely to report having suicidal ideation than those who never smoked. Current smokers also report being neglected and physically abused in childhood and adolescence, are statistically more likely to smoke ½ pack or less (39% vs. 10% who smoke 1+ pack, smoke during pregnancy, and have others who smoke in the house compared with former and never smokers. Conclusion: Understanding the factors associated with smoking will help to bring about policy changes and more effective programs to address the problem of high smoking rates among American Indians.

  12. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Wan Maria Nabillah; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Yang, Yi Hsin; Talib, Norain Abu; Ikeda, Noriaki; Axell, Tony; Gupta, Prakash C; Handa, Yujiro; Abdullah, Norlida; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2012-03-19

    Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation which is imperative in designing intervention programs. Data were collected from 11,697 adults by trained recording clerks on sociodemographic characteristics, practice of other risk habit and details of smoking such as type, duration and frequency. Smoking commencement and cessation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios. Males had a much higher prevalence of the habit (61.7%) as compared to females (5.8%). Cessation was found to be most common among the Chinese and those regularly consuming alcoholic beverages. Kaplan-Meier plot shows that although males are more likely to start smoking, females are found to be less likely to stop. History of betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption significantly increase the likelihood of commencement (p consumption have been found to be important factors in smoking commencement; while ethnicity, betel quid chewing and type of tobacco smoked influences cessation.

  13. [Television and Internet as sources of women knowledge of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks impact on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Kobyłecka, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Accessibility of the Internet allows obtaining information on different areas of life, including the impact of smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks on health. Environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and active smoking are a serious risk for women's health, especially for women in reproductive age and children at any time in their lives. Alcohol is a risk factor for the development of general diseases, and consumed by pregnant women has a toxic effect on the body of women and a child in the prenatal period. Due to the increased consumption of energy drinks containing among others nervous system stimulants and carbohydrates, their consumption should be a conscious choice of the consumers. Knowledge of the health risks resulting from the lifestyle can be a decisive factor for the implementation of health behaviour. The aim of the study was to determine the sources from which men and women acquire information concerning the effects of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks on health. The respondents interest in the above mentioned subjects was also evaluated. The survey study was carried out in a group of 160 persons (114 women and 46 men), aged 19-60 years, randomly selected from the patients presenting to the Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics of the Medical University of Lublin. An author's questionnaire was prepared for this research. The data were analyzed statistically with the use of Pearson's X2 test. Statistically significant test values were those with penergy drinks for 61.40 % of women and 47.83% men. Differences between sex of the respondents and indicated source of information were not statistically significant. Obtaining information from television programmes on the impact of smoking on health reported 70.18% of women and 63.04% of men, about alcohol consumption - 66.67% women and 58.70% men respectively. There was no statistically significant correlation between sex of the respondents and obtaining

  14. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    or more caffeine per day were 4.84 (2.87-8.16) and 2.21 (1.53-3.18), respectively. Women who smoked 10-19 cigarettes and 20 or more cigarettes per day did not have significantly increased ORs for having spontaneous abortions, after adjusting for other risk factors. CONCLUSION: Consumption of 5 or more......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  15. [Smoking habits of the elementary school teacher students in education faculty and related factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talay, Fahrettin; Kurt, Bahar; Tuğ, Tuncer

    2008-01-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the smoking habits of the elementary school teacher students and to examine the factors affecting smoking. The prepared questionnaires were applied to 3rd and 4th year students by selecting randomly. The ratio of the students smoking regularly and occasionally was 45.8%. The smoking frequency was higher in male and fourth year students [63 (53.8%) of males, 85 (41.3%) of females (pstudents in 4th year and 46 (35.9%) students in 3rd year (pstress (43.1%) and the most common reason to keep on smoking was difficulty of quitting (56.7%). When compared to nonsmokers, the smoking frequency of mothers, brothers, all family members and close friends of smoker students were higher (pstudents who were smoking and the ones who were nonsmokers (14.9 +/- 7.6 in smokers, 9.8 +/- 6.3 in nonsmokers; pstudents was very high. The smoking habits of close friends, regular alcohol intake, and presence of depressive symptoms were increasing the risk of smoking. It will be beneficial for public health to plan and apply appropriate education program for students who will be the first teachers of the primary school students, not to start smoking.

  16. Reinforcement of smoking and drinking: tobacco marketing strategies linked with alcohol in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Ling, Pamela M

    2011-10-01

    We investigated tobacco companies' knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Tobacco companies' numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use.

  17. Associations of smoking and alcohol consumption with disease activity and functional status in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bing; Rho, Young Hee; Cui, Jing; Iannaccone, Christine K; Frits, Michelle L; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Shadick, Nancy A

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the associations of smoking and alcohol consumption with disease activity and functional status in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We conducted a prospective study consisting of 662 patients with RA who were followed up to 7 years from the Brigham and Women's Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study. Smoking and alcohol consumption were assessed through yearly questionnaires. The disease activity and functional status were measured annually by the Disease Activity Score examined in 28 commonly affected joints using C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP3) and the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ). Linear mixed models were developed to assess the longitudinal effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on DAS28-CRP3 and MHAQ after adjustment for potential confounders. The HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (HLA-SE) by smoking and alcohol interactions were also evaluated in the analysis. The median followup time of the cohort was 4 years. Current smoking was not associated with DAS28-CRP3 in our study, but was associated with a higher MHAQ than nonsmokers with seropositive RA (p = 0.05). Alcohol consumption showed an approximate J-shaped relationship with MHAQ, with the minima occurring at 5.1-10.0 g/day. Compared to no alcohol use, alcohol consumption of 5.1-10.0 g/day was associated with a significant decrease of MHAQ (p = 0.02). When stratified by HLA-SE, the effect of alcohol consumption appeared to be stronger in HLA-SE-positive RA than HLA-SE-negative RA. We found that current smoking was associated with a worse functional status, while moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a better functional status in RA. Replications of these findings in other prospective studies are needed.

  18. Smoke, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use in an Italian population of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Marco; De Luca, Carmen; Mappa, Ilenia; Quattrocchi, Tomasella; Angelo, Licameli; Cesari, Elena

    2011-11-01

    High-risk behaviours are associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure to drugs, infection or radiation is a cause of concern for pregnant women, who contact Teratology Information Services (TIS) to have a counseling but with an accurate medical history is possible to detect additional behavioural risk factors that can significantly interfere with pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study is to describe risk behaviours in a population of Italian women calling our TIS and to identify related maternal factors. Between December 2008 and January 2010 we collected data from 503 pregnant women calling our TIS (Telefono Rosso, Rome). We investigated about smoke, alcohol and abuse substances addiction and we also collected demographic data. Of the 503 women consenting to participate 34% were found to have an additional risk marker during the current pregnancy. Within this group were 22.7% (n=119) who reported smoking, the 17.7% (n=89) admitted to drink and 2 women (0.4%) used illicit drugs. In 13.7% of cases (n=69) reason for calling represented an exposure to teratogenic agents. Unmarried status and previous induced abortion represent a risk factor for all high-risk behaviours. Lower education (p<0.001) and use of neurological drugs (p<0.001) are related with cigarette consumption. A lower parity was a risk factor for alcohol assumption (p=0.04). Women with high-risk behaviours tend to be exposed to more than a risk factor. Teratogen Information Services are an important system to identify women with pregnancy risk markers. These services should have the ability to provide risk reduction information to women who smoke cigarettes or with alcohol or drug use. In addition to the phone based information these women may benefit from referral back to their physician for assessment and management of substance use/abuse during pregnancy. Substance abuse risks are often underestimated by pregnant women. Single mothers or women with an history of

  19. Smoking and alcohol consumption in relation to risk of triple-negative breast cancer in a cohort of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi; Phipps, Amanda I; Li, Christopher I; Messina, Catherine R; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Kuller, Lewis; Simon, Michael S; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about the risk factors for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which has a worse prognosis compared to hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. We examined the association of smoking and alcohol intake with TNBC and estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. Among 148,030 women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative, 300 TNBC cases and 2,479 ER+ cases were identified over a median of 8.0 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Cigarette smoking was not associated with TNBC, whereas drinkers had reduced risk compared to never drinkers. In contrast, both exposures showed slight positive associations with ER+ breast cancer: for women with ≥ 40 pack-years of smoking, the HR was 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.44; for women consuming ≥ 7 servings of alcohol per week, the HR was 1.26, 95% CI 1.06-1.50. Intakes of wine and hard liquor were also significantly positively associated with ER+ breast cancer. These findings from a large cohort of postmenopausal women suggest that smoking and alcohol consumption are not associated with increased risk of TNBC, but may be modestly associated with increased risk of ER+ breast cancer.

  20. Prevalence and socioeconomic factors associated with smoking in people living with HIV by sex, in Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna d’Arc Lyra Batista

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the world. The prevalence of smoking is higher in people infected with HIV than in the general population. Although it is biologically plausible that smoking increases the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV/AIDS, few studies in developing countries have analyzed the determinants and consequences of smoking in HIV infected people. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of smoking and identify the socioeconomic factors associated with smoking and smoking cessation in patients with HIV by sex. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with baseline data, obtained from an ongoing prospective cohort study of patients with HIV attending two referral centers in Recife, Northeast Region of Brazil, between July 2007 and October 2009. Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 28.9%. For both sexes, smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol drinking and marijuana use. Among women, smoking was associated with living alone, not being married and illiteracy; and among men, being 40 years or older, low income and using crack. Compared with ex-smokers, current smokers were younger and more likely to be unmarried, heavy drinkers and marijuana users. Conclusions: It is important to incorporate smoking cessation interventions for the treatment of heavy alcohol drinkers and marijuana users with HIV/AIDS, which may increase life expectancy and quality of life, as smoking is related to risk of death, relapse of tuberculosis, and non communicable diseases.

  1. Nicotine interactions with low-dose alcohol: pharmacological influences on smoking and drinking motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jason A; Blank, Melissa D; Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; MacQueen, David A; Brandon, Thomas H; Drobes, David J

    2013-11-01

    An extensive literature documents a close association between cigarette and alcohol use. The joint pharmacological effects of alcohol and nicotine on smoking and drinking motivation may help explain this relationship. This experiment was designed to test the separate and combined pharmacological effects of nicotine and a low dose of alcohol (equivalent to 1-2 standard drinks) on substance use motivation using a double-blind and fully crossed within-subjects design. Participants (N = 87) with a wide range of smoking and drinking patterns completed 4 counterbalanced experimental sessions during which they consumed an alcohol (male: 0.3g/kg; female: 0.27g/kg) or placebo beverage and smoked a nicotine (.6 mg) or placebo cigarette. Outcome measures assessed the impact of drug administration (alcohol or nicotine) on craving to smoke, craving to drink, affect, and liking of the beverage and cigarette. Results indicated that combined administration produced higher cravings to smoke for the entire sample, as well as higher cravings to drink among women and lighter drinkers. Heavier users of either alcohol or cigarettes also exhibited enhanced sensitivity to the effects of either drug in isolation. Separate, but not interactive, effects of alcohol and nicotine on mood were observed as well as both same-drug and cross-drug effects on beverage and cigarette liking. Together, these findings support the notion that the interactive pharmacological effects of nicotine and low doses of alcohol play an important role in motivating contemporaneous use and suggest roles for cross-reinforcement and cross-tolerance in the development and maintenance of alcohol and nicotine use and dependence.

  2. Associations of body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption with prostate cancer mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowke, Jay H; McLerran, Dale F; Gupta, Prakash C; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Inoue, Manami; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Koh, Woon-Puay; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tanaka, Hideo; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Chen, Chien-Jen; Sugawara, Yumi; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahsan, Habibul; Pan, Wen-Harn; Pednekar, Mangesh; Gu, Dongfeng; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sawada, Norie; Wang, Renwei; Kakizaki, Masako; Tomata, Yasutake; Ohishi, Waka; Butler, Lesley M; Oze, Isao; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, San-Lin; Park, Sue K; Parvez, Faruque; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jung Eun; Grant, Eric; Rolland, Betsy; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Zheng, Wei; Boffetta, Paolo; Sinha, Rashmi; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D

    2015-09-01

    Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963-2006 across 6 countries in southern and eastern Asia that are part of the Asia Cohort Consortium. Body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake were determined by questionnaire at baseline, and cause of death was ascertained through death certificates. Analysis included 522,736 men aged 54 years, on average, at baseline. During 4.8 million person-years of follow-up, there were 634 prostate cancer deaths (367 prostate cancer deaths across the 11 cohorts with alcohol data). In Cox proportional hazards analyses of all cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium, prostate cancer mortality was not significantly associated with obesity (body mass index >25: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 1.36), ever smoking (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.21), or heavy alcohol intake (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.35). Differences in prostate cancer screening and detection probably contribute to differences in the association of obesity, smoking, or alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk and mortality between Asian and Western populations and thus require further investigation.

  3. Association of Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Betel Quid Chewing with Epigenetic Aberrations in Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Hong Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous environmental factors such as diet, alcohol use, stress, and environmental chemicals are known to elicit epigenetic changes, leading to increased rates of cancers and other diseases. The incidence of head and neck cancer, one of the most common cancers in Taiwanese males, is increasing: oral cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma are ranked fourth and tenth respectively, among the top ten cancers in this group, and a major cause of cancer-related deaths in Taiwanese males. Previous studies have identified smoking, alcohol use, and betel quid chewing as the three major causes of head and neck cancers; these three social habits are commonly observed in Taiwanese males, resulting in an increasing morbidity rate of head and neck cancers in this population. In this literature review, we discuss the association between specific components of betel quid, alcohol, and tobacco, and the occurrence of head and neck cancers, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, and urethral cancer. We focus on regulatory mechanisms at the epigenetic level and their oncogenic effects. The review further discusses the application of FDA-approved epigenetic drugs as therapeutic strategies against cancer.

  4. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsa M.E

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol is one of the major risk factors for individuals’ and society’s health. Alcohol consumption is present since ancient years in Europe, constituting tradition, with Europeans preferring different kinds of alcohol depending on the geographic location of their country. The economic crisis that European citizens are undergoing nowadays, has an impact on their health and more specifically there has been a significant increase in alcohol consumption. Material and Methods: The purpose of this study is to explore the factors which effect the alcohol consumption and consequences of this consumption in Europe. Literature review of relevant articles, published from 2005 to 2013, to these databases: WHO, Google scholar, PubMed. Finally, 42 studies were used to our review. Results: The alcohol consumption is connected with the economic situation of the country, the availability of alcohol, the restrictions and taxes of each country. Alcohol consumption is also related with the gender and age of each individual. In Central-eastern Europe, in contrast to the south Europe, the greatest percentage of mortality caused by the alcohol consumption is found. 35,95% is the mortality rate which is found in Europe. Regarding Greece in recent years, alcohol consumption has declined, while the rates of intoxication have shown as light increase. Conclusions: The lack of legislation, the non-existence of a minimum sale price and the increased availability, can lead to increased incidence of mortality caused by the alcohol consumption. Further research regarding the correlation of economic crisis and alcohol consumption is necessary.

  5. The association of perioperative dexamethasone, smoking and alcohol abuse with wound complications after laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Rikke M; Wetterslev, Jørn; Jorgensen, Lars N;

    2014-01-01

    perioperative administration of dexamethasone, pre-operative smoking or alcohol abuse is, however, uncertain. METHODS: This study was a post hoc analysis of data from the PROXI randomized trial in 1386 patients who underwent emergency or elective laparotomy. We assessed the associations of use of dexamethasone......, smoking status and alcohol abuse with the primary outcome, being a composite of SSI, anastomotic leak, wound dehiscence, burst abdomen and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in 21% of patients receiving dexamethasone versus 28% of patients not receiving dexamethasone...... abdomen (3.8% vs 2.4%, P = 0.04). In alcohol abusers, the primary outcome occurred in 48%, compared with 25% in patients who did not abuse alcohol (P = 0.0006). Burst abdomen occurred more commonly in alcohol abusers (15% vs 2.3%, P 

  6. The effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the output of salivary immunoglobulin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska, Anna; Szajda, Slawomir Dariusz; Waszkiewicz, Magdalena; Szulc, Agata; Kepka, Alina; Konarzewska, Beata; Minarowska, Alina; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Wilamowska, Dorota; Waszkiel, Danuta; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the output of salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) was studied in 37 volunteers: 17 male smoking patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (AS) and 20 control non-smoking male social drinkers (CNS). The DMFT index (decayed, missing, or filled teeth), gingival index and papilla bleeding index (PBI) were assessed. Concentration of IgA in saliva was determined by ELISA. Salivary flow (SF) and IgA output were significantly decreased in AS compared to CNS. There were no significant correlations between the amount of alcohol/cigarettes as well as the duration of alcohol intoxication/smoking, and SF or IgA output, nor between IgA level and SF. Gingival index was significantly higher in AS than in CNS, and was inversely correlated with IgA salivary level. The worsened periodontal state in smoking alcohol-dependent persons may result from diminished IgA protection of the oral tissues due to its decreased output.

  7. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhar RB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Riya B Luhar,1,2 Kayle S Sawyer,1,2 Zoe Gravitz,1,2 Susan Mosher Ruiz,1,2 Marlene Oscar-Berman1–3 1US Department of Veterans Affairs, Boston Healthcare System, 2Boston University School of Medicine, 3Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Background: Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods: Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers, and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers. The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results: Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current

  8. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized...... or more caffeine per day were 4.84 (2.87-8.16) and 2.21 (1.53-3.18), respectively. Women who smoked 10-19 cigarettes and 20 or more cigarettes per day did not have significantly increased ORs for having spontaneous abortions, after adjusting for other risk factors. CONCLUSION: Consumption of 5 or more...

  9. Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Use among Adolescents and Young Adults with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Burgess Dowdell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common, serious chronic diseases in pediatric and young adult populations. Health-risk behaviors, including cigarette smoking and alcohol use, may exacerbate chronic diseases and complicate their management. The aim of this study was to longitudinally analyze rates of cigarette smoking and alcohol use in adolescents and young adults who have asthma and those who do not have asthma. A secondary analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was undertaken. Individuals with asthma were found to exhibit increasing rates of cigarette smoking and alcohol use as they aged. When an adolescent with a chronic health issue begins health-risk-taking behaviors, behavior change interventions must be planned. Pediatric nurses, practitioners, and clinicians are uniquely positioned to assess for health-risk behaviors in youth with asthma and to intervene with plans of care that are tailored for the needs of this vulnerable population.

  10. Environmental stressors, low well-being, smoking, and alcohol use among South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, David W; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S

    2011-05-01

    This is the first study to examine the pathways from environmental stressors to substance use among a sample of South African adolescents (N = 2195). The study objective was to assess how environmental stressors might affect cigarette smoking and alcohol use among South African adolescents, and to focus on one mechanism, low well-being, which might mediate this association. Participants consisted of 2195 Black, mixed ancestry ("Colored"), Indian, and White youth, aged 12-17 years old (mean age = 14.6; SD = 1.8), recruited via a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure in Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected via individual in-person structured interviews, administered by trained interviewers in the participant's preferred language. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships of environmental stressors (violent victimisation, legal and illegal drug availability) and low well-being (depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, health problems) with respect to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. The results supported our hypotheses: Environmental stressors were related to low well-being which, in turn, was linked to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. There were also direct pathways from environmental stressors to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Smoking and alcohol use were significantly correlated. The findings suggest that environmental stressors may be associated with diminished psychological and physical well-being, as well as smoking and alcohol use, among South African adolescents. Longitudinal research is warranted to further understand the interrelationship of environmental stressors, low well-being, and adolescent substance use, so that these issues may be addressed by South African programmes and policies.

  11. Esophageal cancer risk by type of alcohol drinking and smoking: a case-control study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porta Miquel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on esophageal cancer (EC has never been explored in Spain where black tobacco and wine consumptions are quite prevalent. We estimated the independent effect of different alcoholic beverages and type of tobacco smoking on the risk of EC and its main histological cell type (squamous cell carcinoma in a hospital-based case-control study in a Mediterranean area of Spain. Methods We only included incident cases with histologically confirmed EC (n = 202. Controls were frequency-matched to cases by age, sex and province (n = 455. Information on risk factors was elicited by trained interviewers using structured questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking were strong and independent risk factors for esophageal cancer. Alcohol was a potent risk factor with a clear dose-response relationship, particularly for esophageal squamous-cell cancer. Compared to never-drinkers, the risk for heaviest drinkers (≥ 75 g/day of pure ethanol was 7.65 (95%CI, 3.16–18.49; and compared with never-smokers, the risk for heaviest smokers (≥ 30 cigarettes/day was 5.07 (95%CI, 2.06–12.47. A low consumption of only wine and/or beer (1–24 g/d did not increase the risk whereas a strong positive trend was observed for all types of alcoholic beverages that included any combination of hard liquors with beer and/or wine (p-trend Conclusion Our study shows that the risk of EC, and particularly the squamous cell type, is strongly associated with alcohol drinking. The consumption of any combination of hard liquors seems to be harmful whereas a low consumption of only wine may not. This may relates to the presence of certain antioxidant compounds found in wine but practically lacking in liquors. Tobacco smoking is also a clear risk factor, black more than blond.

  12. Impact of prediagnosis smoking, alcohol, obesity, and insulin resistance on survival in male cancer patients: National Health Insurance Corporation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Min; Lim, Min Kyung; Shin, Soon Ae; Yun, Young Ho

    2006-11-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated that smoking, alcohol, obesity, and insulin resistance are risk factors for cancer, the role of those factors on cancer survival has been less studied. The study participants were 14,578 men with a first cancer derived from a cohort of 901,979 male government employees and teachers who participated in a national health examination program in 1996. We obtained mortality data for those years from the Korean Statistical Office. We used a standard Poisson regression model to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for survival in relation to smoking, alcohol, obesity, and insulin resistance before diagnosis. Poor survival of all cancer combined (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.33), cancer of the lung (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.82), and cancer of the liver (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.53) were significantly associated with smoking. Compared with the nondrinker, heavy drinkers had worse outcomes for head and neck (HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.79) and liver (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.41) cancer, with dose-dependent relationships. Patients with a fasting serum glucose level above 126 mg/dL had a higher mortality rate for stomach (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.25 to 1.84) and lung (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.87) cancer. Higher body mass index was significantly associated with longer survival in head and neck (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.74) and esophagus (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.68) cancer. Prediagnosis risk factors for cancer development (smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, and insulin resistance) had a statistically significant effect on survival among male cancer patients.

  13. Plasma alcohol, smoking, hormone concentrations and self-reported aggression. A study in a social-drinking situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, L E; Robertson, L S; Tuchfeld, B

    1975-05-01

    Plasma alcohol concentrations and the number of cigarettes smoked by men during social-drinking situations were significantly related to change in testosterone levels. Age, height, plasma alcohol and smoking were related to self-reports of prior assault and verbal aggression. Agression was not related to testosterone concentration.

  14. Risk of second primary cancer associated with pre-diagnostic smoking, alcohol, and obesity in women with keratinocyte carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Min; Li, Tricia; Wu, Shaowei; Li, Wen-Qing; Qureshi, Abrar A; Stampfer, Meir; Cho, Eunyoung

    2017-04-01

    Keratinocyte carcinoma (KC), which includes basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous-cell cancer (SCC), has been associated with an increased risk of second primary cancers (SPCs), although the reason for this increase is unknown. We assessed the effects of smoking, alcohol, and obesity prior to the diagnosis of KC on the development of SPCs, as these are well-established risk factors for multiple cancers and may also contribute to the increased risk of SPCs among those with KC. A total of 15,628 women with self-reported KC were identified in the Nurses' Health Study. Incident SPCs were assessed throughout the follow-up until June 2012. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of SPC associated with pre-diagnostic smoking, alcohol and body mass index (BMI). We also compared these risk estimates to those for first cancers in all cohort participants. During 193,695 person-years of follow-up, we recorded 2839 SPC cases. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a significantly elevated risk for SPC overall and specifically for lung, colorectal, and bladder cancers. We also found a positive association between higher BMI and risk for SPC overall as well as for endometrial and bladder SPCs. Women with KC who consumed alcohol ≥30g/day had a marginally higher risk of SPC compared to non-drinkers. The associations between incident SPC risk among KC cases and smoking, alcohol, and obesity appeared similar to the associations between these risk factors and the incident first primary cancers in the whole cohort. Only in the heavy smoking (≥25 cigarettes/day) category was the HR for SPC after KC (2.34; 95% CI 1.98-2.76) slightly higher than that for the first cancer in the overall cohort (HR 1.86; 95% CI 1.75-1.98, Pheterogeneity=0.01). In conclusion, pre-diagnostic smoking, alcohol and obesity prior to KC diagnosis were associated with risk of SPCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of and factors associated with smoking among Japanese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Tetsuo; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Ohida, Takashi; Yokoyama, Eise; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Takemura, Shinji; Hayashi, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with smoking among Japanese medical students, to help promote effective antismoking measures in this population. From the 80 university medical schools in Japan, 20 were randomly selected and invited to participate in our survey. The survey focused on medical students and employed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Information on each university's antismoking measures was obtained using a separate questionnaire administered to teaching staff. The survey was conducted from December 2006 through March 2007. Factors associated with smoking were identified by using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 1619 valid surveys were returned. The overall prevalence of smoking was 13.7% (18.1% among men and 5.1% among women). Factors associated with smoking among medical students were male sex, enrollment at a private medical university, smoking by siblings, alcohol consumption, coffee consumption, insomnia, and less than 6 hours of sleep per night. Antismoking education must be further promoted to Japanese medical students, with consideration given to the factors associated with smoking behavior found in the present study.

  16. Partner’s and own education : does who you live with matter for self-assessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monden, Christiaan W.S.; Lenthe, Frank van; Graaf, Nan Dirk De; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2003-01-01

    This study analyses the importance of partner status and partner’s education, adjusted for own education, on selfassessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. The relationship between socio-economic factors and health-related outcomes is traditionally studied from an individual perspec

  17. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking pattern among brothel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    based female sex workers in two local government areas in Lagos state, Nigeria ... cardiovascular disease, acute alcohol poisoning and ... behavior and the prevention of sexually transmitted infections with the ..... and middle-income countries.

  18. Resisting Smoking when a Best Friend Smokes: Do Intrapersonal and Contextual Factors Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Go, Myung-Hyun; Pollard, Michael S.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Kennedy, David P.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines individual differences in the tendency to initiate (N = 4,612) and escalate (N = 2,837) smoking when adolescents gain a best friend who smokes. Potential moderating factors include self-esteem, depression, problem behavior, school and family bonds, and household access to cigarettes. In addition to acquiring a…

  19. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Non-Smoking Adolescents' Intentions to Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian N.; Bean, Melanie K.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Speizer, Ilene S.; Fries, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. Most adult smokers began smoking during adolescence, making youth tobacco prevention an especially important public health goal. Guided by an extension of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examined the role of psychosocial factors in accounting for adolescents'…

  20. Tobacco smoking policies in Australian alcohol and other drug treatment services, agreement between staff awareness and the written policy document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Eliza; Bonevski, Billie; Tzelepis, Flora; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Dunlop, Adrian; McCrabb, Sam; Palazzi, Kerrin

    2017-01-17

    Comprehensive smoke-free policy in the alcohol and other drug (AOD) setting provides an opportunity to reduce tobacco related harms among clients and staff. This study aimed to examine within AOD services: staff awareness of their service's smoking policy compared to the written policy document and staff and service factors associated with accurate awareness of a total ban and perceived enforcement of a total ban. An audit of written tobacco smoking policy documents and an online cross-sectional survey of staff from 31 Australian AOD services. In addition, a contact at each service was interviewed to gather service-related data. Overall, 506 staff participated in the survey (response rate: 57%). Nearly half (46%) perceived their service had a total ban with 54% indicating that this policy was always enforced. Over one-third (37%) reported a partial ban with 48% indicating that this policy was always enforced. The audit of written policies revealed that 19 (61%) services had total bans, 11 (36%) had partial bans and 1 (3%) did not have a written smoking policy. Agreement between staff policy awareness and their service's written policy was moderate (Kappa 0.48) for a total ban and fair (Kappa 0.38) for a partial ban. Age (1 year increase) of staff was associated with higher odds of correctly identifying a total ban at their service. Tobacco smoking within Australian AOD services is mostly regulated by a written policy document. Staff policy awareness was modest and perceived policy enforcement was poor.

  1. A genome-wide tree- and forest-based association analysis of comorbidity of alcoholism and smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Yuanqing; Zhong, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Heping

    2005-01-01

    Genetic mechanisms underlying alcoholism are complex. Understanding the etiology of alcohol dependence and its comorbid conditions such as smoking is important because of the significant health concerns. In this report, we describe a method based on classification trees and deterministic forests for association studies to perform a genome-wide joint association analysis of alcoholism and smoking. This approach is used to analyze the single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Collaborative S...

  2. Integrating alcohol response feedback in a brief intervention for young adult heavy drinkers who smoke: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridberg, Daniel J; Cao, Dingcai; King, Andrea C

    2015-10-01

    More effective approaches are needed to enhance drinking and other health behavior (e.g., smoking) outcomes of alcohol brief intervention (BI). Young adult heavy drinkers often engage in other health risk behaviors and show sensitivity to alcohol's stimulating and rewarding effects, which predicts future alcohol-related problems. However, standard alcohol BIs do not address these issues. The current pilot study tested the utility of including feedback on alcohol response phenotype to improve BI outcomes among young adult heavy drinkers who smoke (HDS). Thirty-three young adult (M±SD age=23.8±2.1 years) HDS (8.7±4.3 binge episodes/month; 23.6±6.3 smoking days/month) were randomly assigned to standard alcohol BI (BI-S; n=11), standard alcohol BI with personalized alcohol response feedback (BI-ARF; n=10), or a health behavior attention control BI (AC; n=11). Alcohol responses (stimulation, sedation, reward, and smoking urge) for the BI-ARF were recorded during a separate alcohol challenge session (.8g/kg). Outcomes were past-month drinking and smoking behavior assessed at 1- and 6-months post-intervention. At 6-month follow-up, the BI-ARF produced significant reductions in binge drinking, alcohol-smoking co-use, drinking quantity and frequency, and smoking frequency, but not maximum drinks per occasion, relative to baseline. Overall, the BI-ARF produced larger reductions in drinking/smoking behaviors at follow-up than did the BI-S or AC. Including personalized feedback on alcohol response phenotype may improve BI outcomes for young adult HDS. Additional research is warranted to enhance and refine this approach in a broader sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Smoking, food, and alcohol cues on subsequent behavior: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2015-03-01

    Although craving is a frequent phenomenon in addictive behaviors, and laboratory paradigms have robustly established that presentation of cues can elicit self-reported craving responses, extant work has not established whether cue exposure influences subsequent behavior. We systematically review extant literature assessing the effects of cue exposure to smoking, food, and alcohol cues on behavioral outcomes framed by three questions: (1) Is there value in distinguishing between the effects of cue exposure on behavior from the responses to cues (e.g., self-reported craving) predicting behavior?; (2) What are the effect of cues on behavior beyond lapse, such as broadly considering both target-syntonic (e.g., do cigarette cues predict smoking-related behaviors) and target-dystonic behaviors (e.g., do cigarette cues predict other outcomes besides smoking)?; (3) What are the lessons to be learned from examining cue exposure studies across smoking, food and alcohol domains? Evidence generally indicates an effect of cue exposure on both target-syntonic and target-dystonic behavior, and that self-report cue-reactivity predicts immediate target-syntonic outcomes. Effects of smoking, food and alcohol cues on behavior are compared to elucidate generalizations about the effects of cue exposure as well as methodological differences that may serve the study of craving in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Suggested Activities on Sociological Health Problems: Drugs, Alcoholism, Smoking for Student Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalonis, Bernice

    This is a list of recommendations for a neophyte teacher for discussions with students on drugs, alcoholism, and smoking. Included are suggested readings, suggested questions for the school's drug education coordinator, recommended readings, and New York sources of information. (Related document is SP 006 468.) (JA)

  5. Mental Health Correlates of Post Disaster Increases in Alcohol and Cigarette Smoking: A Vietnamese Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Juliana D.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Richardson, Lisa; Kilpatrick, Dean; Tran, Trinh L.; Trung, Lam T.; Tam, Nguyen T.; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran D.; Acierno, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Previous research in US populations has found associations between disaster-related variables, psychological variables, and post-disaster increases in smoking and alcohol use. To date, no research has examined this association in an international population of disaster exposed individuals. Data used in this study were drawn from a larger study…

  6. Peer impact on smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use and sports activities in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, A; van Dijk, JP

    2001-01-01

    The impact of peer behavior on smoking, alcohol consumption drug use and sports pursuits by pals was followed on a sample of 2616 Slovak adolescents (including 1370 boys, mean age 15 years) within the project Health Inequalities in Adolescents. The data were collected in the form of questionnaires.

  7. Influence of smoking, alcohol consumption, drug usage, and lack of physical activity on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gecková, A.; Pudelsky, M.; Tuinstra, J.; van Dijk, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of project "lnequality in health In adolescents", the influence of smoking, alcohol consumption, drug usage, lack of physical activity. and their cumulative influence on health was Investigated in the sample of Slovak adolescents (n = 2616, including 1370 boys, average age 15 years)

  8. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  9. Mental Health Correlates of Post Disaster Increases in Alcohol and Cigarette Smoking: A Vietnamese Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Juliana D.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Richardson, Lisa; Kilpatrick, Dean; Tran, Trinh L.; Trung, Lam T.; Tam, Nguyen T.; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran D.; Acierno, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Previous research in US populations has found associations between disaster-related variables, psychological variables, and post-disaster increases in smoking and alcohol use. To date, no research has examined this association in an international population of disaster exposed individuals. Data used in this study were drawn from a larger study…

  10. Meat, smoking, alcohol, and colorectal tumors : the role of genetic susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in the Western world and is thought to arise mainly from colorectal adenomas. Red meat and alcohol intake and (long-term) cigarette smoking probably increase colorectal tumor risk. Although risk increase was found to be weak, certain subgroups might

  11. A review of human carcinogens - Part E: tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, coal smoke, and salted fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secretan, B.; Straif, K.; Baan, R.; Grosse, Y.; El Ghissassi, F.; Bouvard, V.; Benbrahim-Tallaa, L.; Guha, N.; Freeman, C.; Galichet, L.; Cogliano, V. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

    2009-11-15

    In October, 2009, 30 scientists from 10 countries met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to reassess the carcinogenicity of tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, coal smoke, and salt-preserved fish, and to identify additional tumor sites and mechanisms of carcinogenesis. These assessments will be published as Part E of Volume 100 of the IARC Monographs.

  12. Meat, smoking, alcohol, and colorectal tumors: the role of genetic susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in the Western world and is thought to arise mainly from colorectal adenomas. Red meat and alcohol intake and (long-term) cigarette smoking probably increase colorectal tumor risk. Although risk increase was found to be weak, certain

  13. Prediagnostic smoking history, alcohol consumption, and colorectal cancer survival: the Seattle Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Baron, John; Newcomb, Polly A

    2011-11-01

    Smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, it is unclear whether these exposures are associated with survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis. Men and women diagnosed with incident colorectal cancer between 1998 and 2007 in 13 counties in western Washington State were identified by using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry. Information on smoking history and alcohol consumption was collected by telephone interview. Follow-up for mortality was completed through linkage to the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations among smoking, alcohol consumption, and mortality after colorectal cancer diagnosis. Stratified analyses were conducted by sex, age at diagnosis (cancer (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.72-1.61) or those diagnosed before age 50 years (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.67-1.48). Alcohol consumption was not associated with disease-specific or all-cause mortality, regardless of patient or tumor characteristics. In addition to an association with disease risk, smoking is associated with increased mortality after colorectal cancer diagnosis. This association is especially pronounced for colorectal cancer with high microsatellite instability. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  14. The Effects of Maternal Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy on Acoustic Cry Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, J. Kevin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Measured the neurobehavioral integrity of Irish infants and maternal alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Subjects were 127 primiparous mothers. Results demonstrated significant cry effects on infants of heavily drinking mothers, supporting the conclusion that newborn infants show functional disturbances in the nervous system resulting from…

  15. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  16. Stressful Events and Continued Smoking and Continued Alcohol Consumption during Mid-Pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, C.; Ormel, J.; Meijer, J. L.; Verbeek, T.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Burger, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: to examine whether the severity of different categories of stressful events is associated with continued smoking and alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy. Also, we explored the explanation of these associations by anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Finally, we studied whether

  17. Stressful events and continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, Chantal; Ormel, Johan; Meijer, Judith L; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Burger, Huibert

    2014-01-01

    Aim: to examine whether the severity of different categories of stressful events is associated with continued smoking and alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy. Also, we explored the explanation of these associations by anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Finally, we studied whether

  18. Smoking and Its Related Factors Among Iranian High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Sajedinejad, Sima; Nazemi, Saeed; Fereidoon Mohasseli, Khadije; Valizade, Behzad; Vahedi, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Amiri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: In different studies, the prevalence of tobacco consumption has been growing in high schools boys. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its related factors among Iranian high school students in 2011. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 450 male students from 15 high schools of Shahroud (northeast of Iran) were selected for evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding tobacco consumption. Results: Overall, 51% (95% CI: 46.5 - 55.7) of the students had positive history of smoking for at least one time and 7.1% (95% CI: 5 - 10) of them were current smokers. The most prevalent source of information about smoking was TV and radio programs (48%) and friends were the second source (22%). Based on the students’ opinions, entertainment and smoker friends were the most important reasons for smoking tendency. There was significant statistical association between students smoking and positive family history of smoking (P value < 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking experince was very high among high school students. The most prevalent source of information about smoking was Iranian broadcasting companies. Positive family history of smoking and smoker friends were the important motivating factors toward smoking. PMID:26834798

  19. Factors influencing alcohol and illicit drug use amongst first year medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popescu, Codruta Alina; Bob, Mihai Horatiu; Junjan, Veronica; Armean, Sebastian Mihai; Buzoianu, Anca Dana

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were a) to investigate patterns of alcohol, smoking and illicit drug use and b) evaluate the relationship between substance abuse and personality factors in a cohort of 267 first year medical students. 12.3 % (men) and 11.8% (female) medical students reported to be drinking

  20. In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through...... national registers as possibly having strabismus. Relative risk estimates were adjusted for year of birth, social class, maternal smoking, maternal age at birth, and maternal coffee and tea consumption. The authors identified 1,321 cases of strabismus in a cohort of 96,842 Danish children born between 1996.......92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffee and tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely, light...

  1. In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry;

    2010-01-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through.......92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffee and tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely, light...... national registers as possibly having strabismus. Relative risk estimates were adjusted for year of birth, social class, maternal smoking, maternal age at birth, and maternal coffee and tea consumption. The authors identified 1,321 cases of strabismus in a cohort of 96,842 Danish children born between 1996...

  2. Salivary hexosaminidase in smoking alcoholics with bad periodontal and dental states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Zalewska, Anna; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szulc, Agata; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2013-04-01

    A sensitive alcohol marker, β-hexosaminidase (HEX), in the saliva of alcoholics, is investigated for the first time. The activity, specific-activity and output of total HEX and its isoenzymes HEX A and HEX B were measured in the saliva of healthy controls (C), alcohol-dependent non-smokers (ANS), and alcohol-dependent smokers (AS). We observed a significantly increased activity/specific-activity and output of HEX A in the ANS and AS groups, due to the inflammatory state of the oral-cavity/salivary-glands. Significantly increased activity of HEX A contributed to an increase in the salivary activity of the total HEX in the ANS group. A significant decrease in the activity/specific-activity of HEX B in AS seemed to be due to HEX B inactivation by cigarette smoke. We noticed a tendency for deteriorated dental state (lower decayed-missing-filled-teeth index - DMFT), worse periodontal state (higher gingival index - GI and papilla-bleeding index - PBI) in AS, and worse periodontal state (higher GI) in ANS, as compared to the controls. We found no differences in the salivary protein concentrations between all groups and decreased salivary flow in both alcoholic groups as compared to the controls. In alcoholics, the area under the curve (AUC) for HEX A activity/specific-activity was significantly greater than for HEX and HEX B. The salivary HEX A activity/specific-activity had good/excellent sensitivity and specificity in smoking and non-smoking alcoholics, whereas salivary HEX and HEX B had poor/fair sensitivity and specificity. Salivary HEX A may be helpful in the diagnosis of chronic alcohol intoxication, even in smokers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Potentially modifiable psychosocial factors associated with alcohol use during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callas, Peter W; Flynn, Brian S; Worden, John K

    2004-11-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors associated with alcohol use among early adolescents. A survey was administered to all Grade 7 and 8 students in 16 Vermont school districts. The questionnaire covered demographics, alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, and measures of psychosocial mediators of alcohol use drawn from social cognitive theory. These included positive and negative expectancies about alcohol effects, perceived peer and parent alcohol norms, perceived prevalence of adolescent alcohol use, and confidence in ability to refuse alcohol. Of the 2919 respondents, 29% reported having at least one drink of beer in the preceding 30 days. In logistic regression, factors independently related to risk of drinking beer in the past 30 days were smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-3.0), marijuana use (OR 3.9, 95% CI 3.0-5.2), negative expectancies (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.6), parent norms (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7), and estimated percentage of high school students who drink (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5). Gender, positive alcohol expectancies, and lack of confidence in ability to refuse alcohol all significantly interacted with peer norm, with these items more strongly associated with alcohol use when peer norm is toward "shouldn't drink." Modifiable perceptions of alcohol use were strongly associated with actual use in this adolescent sample, providing a basis for intervention program design.

  4. Smoking and alcohol consumption in relation to risk of thyroid cancer in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi Y; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Rohan, Thomas E

    2012-08-01

    Few cohort studies have examined smoking and alcohol consumption in relation to risk of thyroid cancer, and their findings are conflicting. We therefore assessed the association of smoking and alcohol intake with risk of thyroid cancer in a cohort of 159,340 women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative. Over 12.7 years of follow-up 331 cases of thyroid cancer, of which 276 were papillary thyroid cancer, were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared to never smokers, ever smokers did not have altered risk. Current smokers had reduced risk for all thyroid cancer (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.29-1.00) and for papillary thyroid cancer (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.78); however, the number of current smokers among cases was small. No associations or trends were seen for amount smoked, age of starting smoking, or age at quitting. Smokers of ≥40 pack-years had a significantly reduced risk of papillary thyroid cancer (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21-0.89). In contrast, women who had smoked for < 20 years had increased risk of thyroid cancer (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.05-1.74) and papillary cancer (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.09-1.89). Alcohol intake was not associated with risk. Our findings suggest that current smoking and having higher pack-years of exposure are associated with a modestly reduced risk of thyroid cancer, whereas alcohol consumption does not appear to affect risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alcohol and smoking behavior in chronic pain patients: the role of opioids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Grønbaek, Morten; Peuckmann, Vera;

    2008-01-01

    The primary aim of this epidemiological study was to investigate associations between chronic non-cancer pain with or without opioid treatment and the alcohol and smoking behavior. The secondary aims were to investigate self-reported quality of life, sleeping problems, oral health and the use...... of different health care providers. The Danish health survey of 2005 was based on a region-stratified random sample of 10.916 individuals. Data were collected via personal interviews and self-administrated questionnaires. Respondents suffering from chronic pain were identified through the question 'Do you have...... chronic/long-lasting pain lasting 6 months or more?' The question concerning alcohol intake assessed the frequency of alcohol intake and binge drinking. Smoking behavior assessed the daily number of cigarettes. Individuals reporting chronic pain were stratified into two groups (opioid users and non...

  6. Medical and sociodemographic factors predict persistent smoking after coronary events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverre, Elise; Otterstad, Jan Erik; Gjertsen, Erik; Gullestad, Lars; Husebye, Einar; Dammen, Toril; Moum, Torbjørn; Munkhaugen, John

    2017-09-06

    Understanding the determinants of persistent smoking after a coronary event constitutes the basis of modelling interventions of smoking cessation in secondary prevention programs. We aim to identify the potentially modifiable medical, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, comprising the study factors, associated with unfavourable risk factor control after CHD events. A cross-sectional explorative study used logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between study factors and smoking status in 1083 patients hospitalized with myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization. Hospital record data, a self-report questionnaire, clinical examination and blood samples were applied. At the index hospitalization, 390 patients were smoking and at follow-up after 2-36 months 167 (43%) of these had quit, while 230 reported persistent smoking. In adjusted analyses, unemployed or disability benefits (Odds ratio (OR) 4.1), low education (OR 3.5), longer smoking duration (OR 2.3) and not having ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as index event (OR 2.3) were significantly associated with persistent smoking. Psychosocial factors at follow-up were not associated with persistent smoking. Smokers reported high motivation for cessation, with 68% wanting help to quit. Only 42% had been offered nicotine replacement therapy or other cessation aids. Smokers rated use of tobacco as the most important cause of their coronary disease (6.8 on a 1-10 Likert scale). Low socioeconomic status, prior duration of smoking, and not having STEMI as index event were associated with persisting smoking. Persistent smokers in this study seem to have an acceptable risk perception and were motivated to cease smoking, but needed assistance through cessation programs including prescription of pharmacological aids. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02309255 , registered retrospectively.

  7. [Exposure to alcohol among adolescent students and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Porto, Denise Lopes; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Morais Neto, Otaliba Libânio de

    2014-02-01

    To describe the prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescent school students and identify its individual and contextual associated factors. The present research used data from the 2009 National School Health Survey (PeNSE), which included a sample of 59,699 9th grade students in Brazilian capitals and the Federal District. The association between regular alcohol consumption and independent explanatory variables was measured by means of the Pearson's Chi-square test, with a 0.05 significance level. The explanatory variables were divided into four groups based on affinity (sociodemographic; school and family context; risk factors; and protection factors). A multivariate analysis was carried out for each group, always adjusting for age and sex. Variables with p alcohol consumption in the preceding 30 days was independently associated with pupils aged 15 years (OR = 1.46) and over, female (OR = 1.72), white, children of mothers with higher education, studying in private school, students who had tried smoking (OR = 1.72) and drug use (OR = 1.81), with regular tobacco consumption (OR = 2.16) and those who have had sexual intercourse (OR = 2.37). The factors related to family were skipping school without parental knowledge (OR = 1.49), parents not knowing what children do in their free time (OR = 1.34), having fewer meals with their parents (OR = 1.22), reporting that parents do not care (OR = 3.05), or care little (OR = 3.39) if they go home drunk, and having suffered domestic violence (OR = 1.36). The results reinforce the importance of viewing alcohol consumption among adolescents as a complex, multifactorial and socially determined phenomenon.

  8. Factors related to smoking habits of male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-09-15

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  9. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naing Nyi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1 the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2 mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3 there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  10. Factors associated with undergraduate alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfrey, P. S.

    1974-01-01

    To examine cigarette, alcohol, and drug use among undergraduates in Cork a precoded questionnaire was mailed to one in seven (458) students, chosen systematically. The response rate was 97%. Twenty per cent of males and 36% of females do not drink, whereas 52% of males and 17% of females are social drinkers or occasional drunks. Student patterns of drinking behaviour were significantly associated with sociocultural factors, such as leisure money available, belief in a God, and frequency of attendance at religious services. Current cigarette use, experience of marijuana, and attitude to future marijuana use, to the opposite sex drinking, and to the misdemeanour considered most serious also had significant associations with alcohol-related behaviour. It appears that peer group pressures, as illustrated by the proportion of close friends drinking and sibling drinking, have a greater influence on student drinking behaviour than family-related factors such as parental drinking and parental knowledge of drinking. The effect of ambivalent attitudes towards alcohol use, demonstrated by the age at introduction and the place of introduction to alcohol, may suggest that a more relaxed attitude to alcohol should be adopted. PMID:4455344

  11. GPX1 Pro(198)Leu polymorphism, erythrocyte GPX activity, interaction with alcohol consumption and smoking, and risk of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Dalgaard; Krath, Britta N.; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    GPX1 encoding the enzyme glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and hOGG1 encoding the 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1) may counteract oxidative stress and resulting DNA damage associated with lifestyle-related exposures. We examined whether the polymorphisms GPX1 Pro198Leu and OGG1 Ser326Cys or low...... and information on lifestyle factors was obtained from questionnaires filled in at enrolment in 1993–1997. GPX1 Pro198Leu, hOGG1 Ser326Cys and erythrocyte GPX enzyme activity were not associated with risk of colorectal cancer. We observed a higher risk associated with alcohol consumption and smoking among...

  12. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Bogdanovica

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. METHODS: Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and

  13. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key tobacco control policies have been

  14. Socio Demographic Factors Related to Smoking among Rural Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of premature death, disease, and disability. Adolescence is the period of physical, psychological and social maturation from childhood to adulthood and adolescent smoking is a continuous process which is related to many disease factors. Objective: To find out the factors related to smoking among rural adolescents. Materials and method: One hundred and fifty one male adolescent aged 13 to 19 years from rural areas were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire during January to June 2013, at Dhamrai Upazilla Health Complex, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The socio demographic details, smoking and depression history were recorded. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D Scale was used to measure the presence of depression. Smoking behavior was measured by a number of questions. Results: Mean(±SD age of the study subjects was 16.8(±1.9 years. Most of the respondents started smoking around the average age of 14.3 years. The study shows that 64% respondents were smokers. Among smokers 80% were influenced by their friends about smoking. Seventy eight percent of the smokers were suffering from depression while 22% of nonsmokers were depressed (p<0.001. Majority (72% of the issues of the smoker parents were smoker (p<0.5. Domestic violence (p<0.001 and stressful events in life (p<0.05 also played significant roles for smoking. Conclusion: Depression, parent smoking and peer smoking, domestic violence, and stressful life events are important factors to start smoking in rural adolescents.

  15. Smoking, alcohol, and substance use and rates of quitting during pregnancy: is it hard to quit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazici AB

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmet Bulent Yazici,1 Hilal Uslu Yuvaci,2 Esra Yazici,3 Ebru Halimoglu Caliskan,4 Arif Serhan Cevrioglu,2 Atila Erol3 1Department of Psychiatry, Training and Research Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 3Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Training and Research Hospital, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey Background: Alcohol and substance use is a major health challenge in Turkey, as it is worldwide. Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the number of females using substances and although usage tends to reduce during pregnancy, it is of critical importance to determine its exact level as substance use negatively impacts on the health of both the mother and infant.  Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of smoking, alcohol, and substance use, and quitting rates during pregnancy.  Method: This study was conducted on pregnant females in Sakarya, Turkey. A total of 1,082 consecutively presenting females who agreed to participate in the study were evaluated. The study team prepared a sociodemographic data form and adapted the “Introduction” section, derived from the Addiction Profile Index, to cover substance use during pregnancy. Results: The substances most frequently used by pregnant females in their previous pregnancies and current pregnancies were cigarettes/tobacco products (11% and 11.8%, respectively, alcohol (0.6% and 0.4%, respectively, and rarely, synthetic cannabinoids (0.3% and 0.2%, respectively. Daily tobacco smokers continued to smoke during pregnancy, with a rate of 42.5%. Based on research into predictors of smoking (cigarettes in pregnancy, a correlation was found between lifetime smoking and smoking during a previous pregnancy. A similar link was found with respect to alcohol. Conclusion: Cigarettes are the most frequently used substance in pregnancy, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and synthetic

  16. STOP smoking and alcohol drinking before OPeration for bladder cancer (the STOP-OP study), perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Thind, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of a smoking-, alcohol- or combined-cessation intervention starting shortly before surgery and lasting 6 weeks on overall complications after radical cystectomy. Secondary objectives are to examine the effect on types and grades of complications, smoking cessation...... and alcohol cessation, length of hospital stay, health-related quality of life and return to work or habitual level of activity up to 12 months postoperatively. METHODS/DESIGN: The study is a multi-institutional randomised clinical trial involving 110 patients with a risky alcohol intake and daily smoking who...... meetings and at follow-up. DISCUSSION: Herein, we report the design of the STOP-OP study, objectives and accrual up-date. This study will provide new knowledge about how to prevent smoking and alcohol-related postoperative complications at the time of bladder cancer surgery. Till now 77 patients have been...

  17. Gender differences in the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yue; Hong, Lingyao; Guo, Lan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-12-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among adolescents, with a particular focus on gender differences. A total of 19,578 middle and high school students in Chongqing Province were surveyed. Self-reported cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and family- and school-related factors were assessed. A total of 8.8% adolescents reported smoking cigarettes. Tobacco use by boys (16.5%) was significantly higher than by girls (1.9%). Approximately 23.5% of adolescents reported alcohol consumption. Consumption in boys (31.5%) was significantly higher than in girls (16.2%). Depressive symptoms were prevalent in 9.1% of the sample. Girls reported significantly more symptoms (10.4%) than boys (7.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the association between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms was stronger among girls (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.8-2.5) than boys (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4-2.1). A significant association (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4) between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms was revealed in girls only. The significant gender differences found above may provide a basis for the early identification of individuals at high risk for depression.

  18. A discrete latent factor model for smoking, cancer and mortality.

    OpenAIRE

    Howdon, D.; Jones, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationships between social circumstances, individual behaviours, and ill-health later in life, with a particular focus on the development of cancer. A discrete latent factor model incorporating individuals' smoking and health outcomes (lifespan and time-to-cancer) is jointly estimated, using the 1984/5 British Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS) dataset and its July 2009 follow-up, allowing for unobservable factors to affect decisions regarding smoking behaviours ...

  19. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Oliano, Vinicius J; Aranda, Carolina S; Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu

    Despite anti-smoking prevention programs, many adolescents start smoking at school age. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with smoking in adolescents living in Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil. A prospective study was conducted in adolescents (12-19 years), enrolled in municipal schools, who answered a self-administered questionnaire on smoking. 798 adolescents were enrolled in the study, with equal distribution between genders. The tobacco experimentation frequency (ever tried a cigarette, even one or two puffs) was 29.3%; 14.5% started smoking before 12 years of age and 13.0% reported smoking at least one cigarette/day last month. Having a smoking friend (OR: 5.67, 95% CI: 2.06-7.09), having cigarettes offered by friends (OR: 4.21, 95% CI: 2.46-5.76) and having easy access to cigarettes (OR: 3.82, 95% CI: 1.22-5.41) was identified as factors associated with smoking. Having parental guidance on smoking (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.45-0.77), having no contact with cigarettes at home in the last week (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.11-0.79) and knowing about the dangers of electronic cigarettes (OR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.21-0.92) were identified as protection factors. The prevalence of smoking among adolescents in Uruguaiana is high. The implementation of measures to reduce/stop tobacco use and its new forms of consumption, such as electronic cigarettes and hookah, are urgent and imperative in schools. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity are thought to increase the risk of cryptorchidism in newborn males, but the evidence is inconsistent.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the association between maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism. Articles were retrieved by searching PubMed and ScienceDirect, and the meta-analysis was conducted using Stata/SE 12.0 software. Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the influence of confounding variables.We selected 32 articles, including 12 case-control, five nested case-control, and 15 cohort studies. The meta-analysis showed that maternal smoking (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11-1.23 or diabetes (OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.46 during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism. Overall, the association between maternal alcohol drinking (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.07, pre-pregnancy body mass index (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.95-1.09 and risk of cryptorchidism were not statistically significant. Additional analysis showed reduced risk (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.96 of cryptorchidism with moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy. No dose-response relationship was observed for increments in body mass index in the risk of cryptorchidism. Sensitivity analysis revealed an unstable result for the association between maternal diabetes, alcohol drinking and cryptorchidism. Moderate heterogeneity was detected in studies of the effect of maternal alcohol drinking and diabetes. No publication bias was detected.Maternal gestational smoking, but not maternal pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity, was associated with increased cryptorchidism risk in the offspring. Moderate alcohol drinking may reduce the risk of cryptorchidism while gestational diabetes may be a risk factor, but further studies are needed to verify this.

  1. The contribution of parental smoking history and socio-demographic factors to the smoking behavior of Israeli women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal-Engelchin, Dorit; Friedmann, Enav; Cwikel, Julie G

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the interplay between sociodemographic factors and parental smoking history in shaping the smoking behavior of Israeli women (N = 302). The study was conducted in the Negev region, which is characterized by a high proportion of immigrants and high percentage of low socioeconomic and educational groups. The specific objectives of this study were to examine: (1) The prevalence and characteristics of women smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers; and (2) the contribution of education and parent smoking history to women's current smoking. Low levels of education, being Israeli born or veteran immigrants of European-American origin significantly increased the risk of smoking, whereas an orthodox lifestyle and new immigrant status significantly reduced the likelihood of smoking. Occasional smokers reported significantly higher primary care utilization than never smokers. A significant relationship between smoking and pain, gynecological symptoms and depression was found. Results indicate that childhood exposure to maternal smoking was a significant risk factor for smoking, whereas paternal past smoking negatively affects smoking in women. Also, results show that parental educational level affects women's smoking behavior indirectly by influencing their own educational attainment, which in turn is negatively associated with the likelihood of smoking. Mothers with higher education were more likely to smoke, an effect that was reversed for their daughters. Our results demonstrate how demographic, parental and lifestyle factors affect women's smoking in a multi-ethnic society and highlight the need to examine both generational and intergenerational effects.

  2. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and risk of subtypes of oesophageal and gastric cancer: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking may be differentially associated with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA). However, because this was based on retrospective

  3. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and risk of subtypes of oesophageal and gastric cancer: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking may be differentially associated with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA). However, because this was based on retrospective

  4. No evidence for genome-wide interactions on plasma fibrinogen by smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index: results from meta-analyses of 80,607 subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Baumert

    Full Text Available Plasma fibrinogen is an acute phase protein playing an important role in the blood coagulation cascade having strong associations with smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified a variety of gene regions associated with elevated plasma fibrinogen concentrations. However, little is yet known about how associations between environmental factors and fibrinogen might be modified by genetic variation. Therefore, we conducted large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide interaction studies to identify possible interactions of genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentration. The present study included 80,607 subjects of European ancestry from 22 studies. Genome-wide interaction analyses were performed separately in each study for about 2.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs across the 22 autosomal chromosomes. For each SNP and risk factor, we performed a linear regression under an additive genetic model including an interaction term between SNP and risk factor. Interaction estimates were meta-analysed using a fixed-effects model. No genome-wide significant interaction with smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI was observed in the meta-analyses. The most suggestive interaction was found for smoking and rs10519203, located in the LOC123688 region on chromosome 15, with a p value of 6.2 × 10(-8. This large genome-wide interaction study including 80,607 participants found no strong evidence of interaction between genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentrations. Further studies are needed to yield deeper insight in the interplay between environmental factors and gene variants on the regulation of fibrinogen concentrations.

  5. Relationship of Smokefree Laws and Alcohol Use with Light and Intermittent Smoking and Quit Attempts among US Adults and Alcohol Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jiang

    Full Text Available Light and intermittent smoking (LITS has become increasingly common. Alcohol drinkers are more likely to smoke. We examined the association of smokefree law and bar law coverage and alcohol use with current smoking, LITS, and smoking quit attempts among US adults and alcohol drinkers.Cross-sectional analyses among a population-based sample of US adults (n = 27,731 using restricted data from 2009 National Health Interview Survey and 2009 American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation United States Tobacco Control Database. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the relationship of smokefree law coverage and drinking frequency (1 with current smoking among all adults; (2 with 4 LITS patterns among current smokers; and (3 with smoking quit attempts among 6 smoking subgroups. Same multivariate analyses were conducted but substituted smokefree bar law coverage for smokefree law coverage to investigate the association between smokefree bar laws and the outcomes. Finally we ran the above analyses among alcohol drinkers (n = 16,961 to examine the relationship of smokefree law (and bar law coverage and binge drinking with the outcomes. All models controlled for demographics and average cigarette price per pack. The interactions of smokefree law (and bar law coverage and drinking status was examined.Stronger smokefree law (and bar law coverage was associated with lower odds of current smoking among all adults and among drinkers, and had the same effect across all drinking and binge drinking subgroups. Increased drinking frequency and binge drinking were related to higher odds of current smoking. Smokefree law (and bar law coverage and drinking status were not associated with any LITS measures or smoking quit attempts.Stronger smokefree laws and bar laws are associated with lower smoking rates across all drinking subgroups, which provides further support for these policies. More strict tobacco control measures might help reduce cigarette consumption and

  6. Validation of the French version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST)

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Riaz Ahmad; chatton,Anne; Nallet, Audrey; Broers, Barbara; Thorens, Gabriel; Achab, Sophia; Poznyak, Vladimir; Fleischmann, Alexandra; Khazaal, Yasser; Zullino, Daniele Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was developed to detect substance use disorders. Aims: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in various clinical groups with different levels of substance use. Methods: 150 subjects were recruited from clients attending primary health care, psychiatric and addiction treatment facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (...

  7. Shisha smoking and associated factors among medical students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of shisha smoking and associated factors among medical students in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Management and Science University from December 2011 until March 2012. The questionnaire consisted of five sections including socio-demographic, social environment, knowledge about shisha, psychosocial factors, and personal shisha smoking behavior. Obtained data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 13). T-test was used to determine the relationships between shisha smoking and socio-demographic characteristic. A total number of 300 medical students participated in this study. Mean age was 22.5±2.5 years. The majority were female, Malay, single, from urban areas (67%, 54%, 97%, 73%; respectively). The prevalence of shisha smoking among medical students was found to be 20%. The study revealed that many students believed that shisha does not contains nicotine, carbon monoxide, does not lead to lung cancer, dental problems and does not lead to cardiovascular diseases (25%, 20.7%, 22.3%, 29%, 26.7%; respectively). Age and sex were found to be significantly associated with smoking shisha status among medical students (p=0.029, p<0.001; respectively). Furthermore, having parents, siblings and friends smokers of shisha were found to be significantly associated with shisha smoking status (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001; respectively). Furthermore, family problems, problems with friends, financial problems and university life were found to significantly associated with shisha smoking status among medical students (p<0.001, p=0.002, p<0.001, p=0.002; respectively). There is a high prevalence of shisha smoking and a poor knowledge about its impact on health among medical students. More attention is needed to focus on medical education in this regard. The policies that are currently employed in order to reduce the cigarettes smoking should be applied to shisha smoking and shisha

  8. [Assessment of surveys of adolescents about smoking and the use of alcohol and cannabis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Suelves, Josep M; Saltó, Esteve; Cabezas, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring health-related behaviors in adolescence requires instruments capable of providing valid data The objective of this paper is to review and assess existing information sources on smoking and alcohol and cannabis use by age and sex among adolescents in Spain. A search was carried out for studies with repeated observations over time, and their methods and characteristics reviewed. For each study, the number of surveys, their frequency and their sample size are assessed, as well as the instrument used, the available indicators, and the availability, accessibility and comparability of the information. Five sources of information providing data over extended periods of time with accessible data are identified: the National survey on drug use in secondary-school children (Encuesta estatal sobre uso de drogas en estudiantes de secundaria; ESTUDES); the Health behavior in school-aged children study (ECERSHBSC); the Monitoring system for risk factors associated with non-transmissible diseases in young people (Sistema de Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo Asociados a Enfermedades No Transmisibles dirigido a poblacion juvenil; SIVFRENT-J); the Study of risk factors in secondary school children (Estudio de factores de riesgo en estudiantes de secundaria; FRESC); and the Monitoring study of health behaviors in adolescents (Estudio de monitorizacion de las conductas de salud de los adolescents; EMCSAT). Two of the surveys cover the whole of Spain, one is regional, and two are city-specific. All use solid methods and representative sampling techniques. In some, changes have occurred that make comparison of the evolution of some indicators difficult. Report accessibility is variable; comparability is limited for some surveys. Some provide almost no stratified data. There are valuable sources of data, but all have shortcomings. Changing the measurement instrument in a survey for comparison with others raises dilemmas as to the internal comparability of series.

  9. Technology-based support via telephone or web: a systematic review of the effects on smoking, alcohol use and gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Eriksson, Anna-Karin; Allebeck, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A systematic review of the literature on telephone or internet-based support for smoking, alcohol use or gambling was performed. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: The design being a randomized control trail (RCT), focused on effects of telephone or web based interventions, focused on pure telephone or internet-based self-help, provided information on alcohol or tobacco consumption, or gambling behavior, as an outcome, had a follow-up period of at least 3months, and included adults. Seventy-four relevant studies were found; 36 addressed the effect of internet interventions on alcohol consumption, 21 on smoking and 1 on gambling, 12 the effect of helplines on smoking, 2 on alcohol consumption, and 2 on gambling. Telephone helplines can have an effect on tobacco smoking, but there is no evidence of the effects for alcohol use or gambling. There are some positive findings regarding internet-based support for heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students. However, evidence on the effects of internet-based support for smoking, alcohol use or gambling are to a large extent inconsistent.

  10. Psychosocial factors associated with reverse smoking: A qualitative research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harini, G.; Krishnam Raju, K. V.; Raju, D. V. S. Kiran; Chakravarthy, K. Kalyan; Kavya, S. Nagasri

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Reverse smoking is a peculiar form of smoking in which the smoker puts the lit end of the cigarette into the mouth and then inhales the smoke. There may be many predisposing factors that influence an individual to cultivate this habit, of which psychosocial habits could be the predominating factor. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the psychosocial factors that influence an individual to undertake this peculiar habit of reverse smoking. Materials and Methods: A total of 128 habitual reverse smokers were included in the study, out of which 121 were females and 7 were males. A pretested open-ended questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was collected by direct interview method. Snowball sampling technique was employed in collecting the information regarding regular reverse smokers. Interviews were continued until new information did not provide further insights into the categories. The people who could not understand verbal commands and questions and who did not give an informed consent were excluded from the study. Statistical analysis was done using MS Office Excel using Chi-square test of Goodness of fit. Results: In contrast to the conventional smokers, various new reasons were identified for starting reverse smoking, of which the most important was that they had learned this habit from their mothers. This was followed by other reasons such as peer pressure, friendship, and cold climatic conditions. Conclusion: This study provided an insight into the various factors that could influence an individual to take up this peculiar habit of reverse smoking. PMID:28032044

  11. Close friend and group influence on adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urberg, K A; Değirmencioğlu, S M; Pilgrim, C

    1997-09-01

    The relative influence of adolescents closest friends and their friendship group on their cigarette smoking and alcohol use was investigated in a short-term, longitudinal study of 1,028 students in the 6th, 8th, and 10th grades in 2 school systems. The amount of influence over the school year was modest in magnitude and came from the closest friend for initiation of cigarette and alcohol use. Only the friendship group use predicted transition into current cigarette use, whereas only the close friend use predicted transition into current alcohol use. Both group and close friends independently contributed to the prediction of adolescents' drinking to intoxication. No difference in the amount of influence, was found between stable and unstable close friendships or friendship groups; neither grade nor gender of the adolescents related to the amount of influence.

  12. Socio-emotional factors in alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyashini Lahiri Tikka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol-dependent patients are traditionally believed to have insecure attachment styles, higher anger expression, and lower self-esteem. There is a need to study them together. Aim: To understand the relationships amongst various of the socio-emotional factors. Materials and Methods: Forty male patients with Alcohol dependence syndrome and 40 matched healthy controls (General Health Questionnaire-12 score <3 were compared on attachment styles (on Relationship Scale Questionnaire, anger domains (on State Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and self-esteem (on Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Statistics and Analysis: Comparison using independent samples t test and chi square test; correlation using Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Results: Patients had significantly higher anger expression, ′anger in′ and ′anger out,′ and lower self-esteem than healthy controls. Severity of alcohol dependence had significant correlation with ′anger out,′ and self-esteem had significant negative correlation with anger expression. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the socio-emotional factors studied are developmentally linked to each other.

  13. A review of lifestyle, smoking and other modifiable risk factors for osteoporotic fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Brask-Lindemann, Dorthe; Rubin, Katrine Hass

    2014-01-01

    could include reduction of excessive alcohol intake, smoking cessation, adequate nutrition, patient education, daily physical activity and a careful review of medications that could increase the risk of falls and fractures. There remains, however, an unmet need for high-quality intervention studies......Although many strong risk factors for osteoporosis-such as family history, fracture history and age-are not modifiable, a number of important risk factors are potential targets for intervention. Thus, simple, non-pharmacological intervention in patients at increased risk of osteoporotic fractures...

  14. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with a population based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by diagnostic category in 566 adolescent psychiatric patients, comparing this sample with 8173 adolescents from the general population in Norway who completed the Young-HUNT 3 survey. Frequencies of current alcohol use were high in both samples but were lower among psychiatric patients. Compared with adolescents in the general population, adolescents in the clinical sample had a higher prevalence of current smoking and over four times higher odds of having tried illicit drugs. In the clinical sample, those with mood disorders reported the highest frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use, whereas those with autism spectrum disorders reported the lowest frequencies. Our results show an increased prevalence of risky health behaviors among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with the general population. The awareness of disorder-specific patterns of smoking and substance use may guide preventive measures.

  15. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy by Danish women and their spouses--a potential source of fetal morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D H; Krasilnikoff, P A; Leventhal, J M; Berget, A; Weil, B

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption behavior during pregnancy was examined in a select group of Danish women and their spouses. Five-hundred consecutive women who had uncomplicated pregnancies and delivered full-term babies were interviewed 3+ days postpartum. Information was collected about smoking and drinking behavior of all household members during pregnancy. We found (1) a high percentage of Danish women (70%) and their spouses (80%) consume alcohol during pregnancy, and (2) a significant correlation between maternal and paternal smoking (r = .25, P .0001) and maternal and paternal drinking (r = .35, P .0001). These data suggest that even though the potential dangers of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy have been well publicized, there is still a high percentage of women who participate in such behaviors. There may also exist an important role for the father in affecting these two behaviors and therefore indirectly affecting fetal development.

  16. The role of family factors and school achievement in the progression of adolescents to regular smoking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pennanen, M; Vartiainen, E; Haukkala, A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether parental smoking and single parenting were related to adolescents' school achievement and anti-smoking parental practices as well as how these factors predicted later smoking...

  17. Smoking and Alcohol Consumption as Risk Factors of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Chengdu: A Matched Case-Control Study%吸烟、饮酒与肺结核危险因素的配对病例-对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董碧蓉; 葛宁; 周焱

    2001-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the relationshipbetween personal behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption) and contracting pul monary tuberculosis. Methods 346 persons (173 cases and 173 con trols) were selec ted from 12 communities of Chengdu area, all the cases were active TB patients (by WHO criteria) from March 1996 to March 1997. Controls were matched for age, sex and living district. Subjects were interviewed face to face by trained inter viewers using questionnaires. Results The results of univariate analysis showed that active smoking (OR=2.12, P=0.006), passive smoking (OR= 1.55, P=0. 04), type of cigarettes (OR=1.31, P=0.005) and alcohol consumption (OR=1.81 , P=0.008) were significantly associated with TB. Yet, multivariate logistic regression anal ysis did not find smoking or alcohol consumption being in independent associatio n with TB, but it showed that persons who were smokers with the addition of alco hol consumption had a higher risk to contract TB (OR=7.729, 95%C.I.=1.5215-39 .2634). Significant association was noted in the dose-response analysis ( OR=1. 73, 95%C.I.=1.300-2.3028). Conclusion These data indicate t ha t smoking alone or sole alcohol consumption bears no relationship with TB, but smoking plus alco hol abuse is probably a risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis in Chengdu, and i n this connection, a proposal of prospective study to further demonstrate this r isk factor is warranted.%目的 探讨吸烟、饮酒对成都地区成人肺结核发病危险的影响,进一步确定成人肺结核发病的危险因素。方法 采用社区病例-对照研究的方法,随意选择社区健康对照174人,按年龄、性别、居住社区与同年收集到的174例成人新发肺结核进行配对,采用问卷面对面调查个人嗜好(吸烟、饮酒),并在设计中严格控制偏倚,利用Logistic多元回归分析法,排除多种混杂因素(如结核接触史,社会经济地位,BCG接种史,环

  18. Gene network analysis shows immune-signaling and ERK1/2 as novel genetic markers for multiple addiction phenotypes: alcohol, smoking and opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C; Yuan, Christine; Wang, Jian; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Shete, Sanjay

    2015-06-05

    Addictions to alcohol and tobacco, known risk factors for cancer, are complex heritable disorders. Addictive behaviors have a bidirectional relationship with pain. We hypothesize that the associations between alcohol, smoking, and opioid addiction observed in cancer patients have a genetic basis. Therefore, using bioinformatics tools, we explored the underlying genetic basis and identified new candidate genes and common biological pathways for smoking, alcohol, and opioid addiction. Literature search showed 56 genes associated with alcohol, smoking and opioid addiction. Using Core Analysis function in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, we found that ERK1/2 was strongly interconnected across all three addiction networks. Genes involved in immune signaling pathways were shown across all three networks. Connect function from IPA My Pathway toolbox showed that DRD2 is the gene common to both the list of genetic variations associated with all three addiction phenotypes and the components of the brain neuronal signaling network involved in substance addiction. The top canonical pathways associated with the 56 genes were: 1) calcium signaling, 2) GPCR signaling, 3) cAMP-mediated signaling, 4) GABA receptor signaling, and 5) G-alpha i signaling. Cancer patients are often prescribed opioids for cancer pain thus increasing their risk for opioid abuse and addiction. Our findings provide candidate genes and biological pathways underlying addiction phenotypes, which may be future targets for treatment of addiction. Further study of the variations of the candidate genes could allow physicians to make more informed decisions when treating cancer pain with opioid analgesics.

  19. Genetically Determined Chronic Pancreatitis but not Alcoholic Pancreatitis Is a Strong Risk Factor for Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midha, Shallu; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Kabra, Madhulika; Chattopadhyay, Tushar Kanti; Joshi, Yogendra Kumar; Garg, Pramod Kumar

    2016-11-01

    To study if chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Through a cohort and a case-control study design, CP and other important risk factors including smoking, diabetes, alcohol, obesity, and genetic mutations were studied for their association with pancreatic cancer. In the cohort study, 402 patients with CP were included. During 3967.74 person-years of exposure, 5 of the 402 patients (4 idiopathic CP, 1 hereditary CP) developed pancreatic cancer after 16.60 ± 3.51 years of CP. The standardized incidence ratio was 121. In the case-control study, 249 pancreatic cancer patients and 1000 healthy controls were included. Of the 249 patients with pancreatic cancer, 24 had underlying idiopathic CP, and none had alcoholic pancreatitis. SPINK1 gene mutation was present in 16 of 26 patients with idiopathic CP who had pancreatic cancer. Multivariable analysis showed CP (odds ratio [OR], 97.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.69-751.36), diabetes (>4 years duration) (OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.79-5.18), smoking (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.38-2.69) as significant risk factors for pancreatic cancer. The population attributable risk was 9.41, 9.06, and 9.50 for diabetes, CP, and smoking, respectively. Genetically determined CP but not alcoholic CP is a strong risk factor for pancreatic cancer.

  20. Smoking, alcoholism and genetic polymorphisms alter CYP2B6 levels in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksys, Sharon; Lerman, Caryn; Shields, Peter G; Mash, Deborah C; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2003-07-01

    CYP2B6 metabolizes drugs such as nicotine and bupropion, and many toxins and carcinogens. Nicotine induces CYP2B1 in rat brain and in humans polymorphic variation in CYP2B6 affects smoking cessation rates. The aim of this study was to compare CYP2B6 expression in brains of human smokers and non-smokers and alcoholics and non-alcoholics (n=26). CYP2B6 expression was brain region-specific, and was observed in both neurons and astrocytes. CYP2B6 levels were higher in brains of smokers and alcoholics, particularly in cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, cells known to be damaged in alcoholics. Significantly more (penzyme levels, stability and activity. Preliminary genotyping of this small sample (n=24) suggested that individuals with the CC genotype had higher brain CYP2B6 than those with the CT or TT genotype. Higher brain CYP2B6 activity in smokers and alcoholics may cause altered sensitivity to centrally acting drugs, increased susceptibility to neurotoxins and carcinogenic xenobiotics and contribute to central tolerance to nicotine.

  1. GPX1 Pro(198)Leu polymorphism, erythrocyte GPX activity, interaction with alcohol consumption and smoking, and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rikke Dalgaard; Krath, Britta Naimi; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Loft, Steffen; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Vogel, Ulla; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2009-05-12

    GPX1 encoding the enzyme glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and hOGG1 encoding the 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1) may counteract oxidative stress and resulting DNA damage associated with lifestyle-related exposures. We examined whether the polymorphisms GPX1 Pro(198)Leu and OGG1 Ser(326)Cys or low erythrocyte GPX enzyme activity in pre-diagnostic blood samples are associated with colorectal cancer risk, and assessed possible interactions between the polymorphisms or enzyme activity and various lifestyle factors in relation to colorectal cancer risk. Additionally, we studied whether the GPX1 Pro(198)Leu polymorphism and several lifestyle factors predict GPX activity in erythrocytes. The present study was nested within the prospective "Diet, Cancer and Health" study of 57,053 Danes including 375 colorectal cancer cases and a comparison group of 779 individuals matched on gender. Biomaterial was sampled and information on lifestyle factors was obtained from questionnaires filled in at enrolment in 1993-1997. GPX1 Pro(198)Leu, hOGG1 Ser(326)Cys and erythrocyte GPX enzyme activity were not associated with risk of colorectal cancer. We observed a higher risk associated with alcohol consumption and smoking among homozygous GPX1(198)Leu carriers, with incidence rate ratios for colorectal cancer of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.17-1.81, P=0.02) per 10g alcohol intake per day and 2.56 (95% CI: 0.99-6.61, P=0.02) among ever smokers compared with never smokers at enrolment. Erythrocyte GPX activity was influenced by the GPX1 Pro(198)Leu genotype, gender, smoking intensity, and intake of fruits and vegetables. Our results indicate that lifestyle-related oxidative stress may be a risk factor for colorectal cancer among subjects with a lowered defence.

  2. ROLE OF SMOKING AND ALCOHOLISM IN CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Indira,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Though previously stroke was considered an old man disease, it is increasing among the young and middle aged people are not likely to die of stroke as they are of heart attack, but they are likely to be disabled for rest of their lives. As the cases of stroke admitted to medical wards, formed nearly 1/10th to 1/8th of total bed strength at any time, and their prolonged stay at hospital attracted our attention. To study the etiological factors for the present study we have thoroughly evaluated 50 pts, with acute cerebrovascular disease and focused more attention in the revaluation of physiological variants of clinical importance by examining the blood for complete blood picture, which may help a long way in near future to predict the risk group in developing an acute cerebrovascular stroke and to avoid risk factors and to take measures to rectify the variations so as to minimize the mortality due to stroke.

  3. Passive Smoke Exposure as a Risk Factor for Oral Clefts-A Large International Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummet, Colleen M; Moreno, Lina M; Wilcox, Allen J; Romitti, Paul A; DeRoo, Lisa A; Munger, Ronald G; Lie, Rolv T; Wehby, George L

    2016-05-01

    Maternal cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for oral clefts. Evidence is less clear for passive (secondhand) smoke exposure. We combined individual-level data from 4 population-based studies (the Norway Facial Clefts Study, 1996-2001; the Utah Child and Family Health Study, 1995-2004; the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, 1999-2009; and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (United States), 1999-2007) to obtain 4,508 cleft cases and 9,626 controls. We categorized first-trimester passive and active smoke exposure. Multivariable logistic models adjusted for possible confounders (maternal alcohol consumption, use of folic acid supplements, age, body size, education, and employment, plus study fixed effects). Children whose mothers actively smoked had an increased risk of oral clefts (odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 1.46). Children of passively exposed nonsmoking mothers also had an increased risk (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27). Cleft risk was further elevated among babies of smoking mothers who were exposed to passive smoke (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.70). Using a large pooled data set, we found a modest association between first-trimester passive smoking and oral clefts that was consistent across populations, diverse study designs, and cleft subtypes. While this association may reflect subtle confounding or bias, we cannot rule out the possibility that passive smoke exposure during pregnancy is teratogenic.

  4. Independent and joint effects of moderate alcohol consumption and smoking on the risks of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in elderly Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peiyi; Xu, Yanyan; Tang, Yuhan; Du, Min; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jian; Xiao, Lin; He, Meian; Wei, Sheng; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Wu, Tangchun; Miao, Xiaoping; Yao, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Whether cigarette smoking and moderate drinking are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)has not been fully described. This study investigated the separate and joint effects of smoking and moderate drinking on Chinese men with NAFLD. Across-sectional assay from DFTJ Cohort study was performed with a size of 9432 elderly Chinese men excluding excessive alcohol consumption (smoking for the prevalence of NAFLD were analyzed using multiple logistic regression with multiple adjustments. The prevalence of NAFLD in current smokers (pack-year≥40) and drinkers (80~210g/week or drinking duration≥35years) was significantly higher than that in non-smokers and non-drinkers, respectively. The combination of current smoking (pack-year≥40) and drinking (80~210g/week) was associated with the highest risk of NAFLD (OR 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-2.68;Peffect was found in participants with pack-year≥40 and drinking duration≥35 years (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.26-2.34;Psmoking and moderate drinking in NAFLD. In elderly Chinese men, cigarette smoking and moderate alcohol consumption exerts an evident joint effect and interaction on the prevalence of NAFLD, although both are significantly and independently associated with NAFLD prevalence. Such findings highlight particular significance of avoidance of cigarette and alcohol on NAFLD prevention.

  5. Alcohol Intake, Myocardial Infarction, Biochemical Risk Factors, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Grønbæk, Morten; nordestgaard, børge

    2009-01-01

    dehydrogenases. Methods and Results- We used information on 9584 men and women from the Danish general population in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. During follow-up, from 1991 to 2007, 663 incident cases of myocardial infarction occurred. We observed that increasing alcohol intake was associated......  Background- The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate alcohol drinkers compared with abstainers. We tested associations between alcohol intake and risk of myocardial infarction and risk factors and whether these associations are modified by variations in alcohol...... of myocardial infarction or with any of the cardiovascular biochemical risk factors, and there was no indication that associations between alcohol intake and myocardial infarction and between alcohol intake and risk factors were modified by genotypes. Conclusions- Increasing alcohol intake is associated...

  6. Alcohol intake, myocardial infarction, biochemical risk factors, and alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Grønbaek, Morten; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2009-01-01

    dehydrogenases. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used information on 9584 men and women from the Danish general population in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. During follow-up, from 1991 to 2007, 663 incident cases of myocardial infarction occurred. We observed that increasing alcohol intake was associated......BACKGROUND: The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate alcohol drinkers compared with abstainers. We tested associations between alcohol intake and risk of myocardial infarction and risk factors and whether these associations are modified by variations in alcohol...... of myocardial infarction or with any of the cardiovascular biochemical risk factors, and there was no indication that associations between alcohol intake and myocardial infarction and between alcohol intake and risk factors were modified by genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake is associated...

  7. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda;

    2010-01-01

    of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. RESULTS: Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated....... Five-yearly 10% price increases may prevent 521 new lung cancer cases in 2050 (21% less cases). An intervention that immediately reduces population alcohol consumption to the recommended level (below 12g/d) may lower breast cancer by 7%, preventing 445 out of the 6060 expected new cases in 2050. Five......-yearly 10% price increases in alcoholic beverages achieved a reduction of half as expected by the ideal scenario, i.e. 4% (262) preventable cases in 2050. CONCLUSIONS: The future burden of lung and breast cancer could be markedly reduced by intervening in their risk factors. Prevent illustrates the benefit...

  8. Smoking cessation and associated factors during pregnancy Cese del consumo de tabaco durante el embarazo y factores asociados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Torrent

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine smoking habits before and during pregnancy, as well as factors associated with smoking cessation, in three European settings. Methods: Women seeking antenatal care in Ashford (UK, Minorca and Barcelona (Spain were recruited to the Asthma Multicenter Infant Cohort Study (AMICS. Questionnaires inquiring into the smoking habits of each woman and her partner, demographic data, occupation, educational level, number of previous children, breast feeding, alcohol intake, and history of asthma and of other allergic diseases were completed during pregnancy and in the first year after delivery. Results: A total of 1 572 pregnant women were included in the three cohorts. Smoking prior to pregnancy was more common in Barcelona (46.2% than in Minorca (39.8% or Ashford (31.6%. Cessation rates during pregnancy also differed: 18% of women in Ashford, 20.4% in Minorca and 31.9% in Barcelona were still smoking during the first trimester. In a multivariate regression model, the factors showing a significant (negative association with smoking cessation during pregnancy were having older children, having a partner who smoked and starting smoking at a young age. Conclusions: Baseline smoking habits and changes in smoking habits during pregnancy significantly differed between the three communities studied. Women pregnant with their first child, those who had started smoking at a later age and those whose partners were non-smokers were more likely to stop smoking when pregnant.Objetivo: Describir el hábito tabáquico antes y durante el embarazo y los factores asociados con su cese con relación al embarazo en distintos entornos europeos. Métodos: Se ha incluido en el estudio a las mujeres captadas durante el embarazo para participar en el estudio AMICS (Asthma Multicentre Infant Cohort Study en Ashford (Reino Unido, Barcelona y Menorca (España. Se administró un cuestionario durante el embarazo y otro durante el primer año posparto, que inclu

  9. Co-factors for smoking and evolutionary psychobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerleau, C S

    1997-04-01

    Smoking is becoming increasingly concentrated in people with co-factors such as depression, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, and bulimia/bingeing. These behavioral or cognitive patterns may be adaptive or neutral in the conditions under which we evolved but maladaptive in environments requiring alertness for extended periods, where a fully mobilized fight-or-flight response is inappropriate, and where food availability makes lack of an "appestat" a liability. Such conditions are amenable to management by nicotine because of its ability to produce small but reliable adjustments in relevant cognitive and behavioral functions. Moreover, symptomatology may be unmasked or exacerbated by nicotine abstinence, persisting beyond the usual time-course for nicotine withdrawal, which may explain the particular attraction of smoking and the difficulty these individuals experience in quitting without necessarily requiring that they be more nicotine-dependent. The implications are: (1) a better understanding of the evolutionary psychobiology of smoking may promote development of tailored interventions for smokers with co-factors; (2) nicotine may have therapeutic applications for non-smokers with co-factors; (3) because smoking has a fairly high heritability index, and because of evidence of assortative mating, special prevention efforts targeting children of smokers with co-factors, as well as early identification of the co-factor itself, may be needed.

  10. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-03-01

    Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were rare in NT1 compared to controls but not to other

  11. Regional variation in incidence for smoking and alcohol related cancers in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henau, Kris; Van Eycken, Elizabeth; Silversmit, Geert; Pukkala, Eero

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of life habits may vary substantially within a country. Incidence maps of strongly related diseases can illustrate the distribution of these life style habits. In this study we explored the spatial variation in Belgium for different cancers related to alcohol and/or tobacco. From the Belgian Cancer Registry, municipality specific World Standardised incidence rates for the years 2004-2011 are used to create detailed smoothed cancer maps by subsite or histology for cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver and lung. Cancer incidence is compared both visually (from incidence maps) and with Poisson regression analysis using mortality from chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a proxy for alcohol and tobacco prevalence, respectively. The incidence rates for oral cavity, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer were comparable with the alcohol gradient. However, glottic cancer revealed a pattern that was more comparable with lung cancer. These two tumour types resembled more closely to the smoking pattern. Oesophageal cancer showed two patterns: squamous cell carcinoma was highly comparable with the background alcohol consumption, while adenocarcinoma was unrelated to one of our two proxies. Our approach and results are an encouraging example how data from a young cancer registry can be used in studies describing the regional cancer burden. The results can be useful for primary prevention to increase awareness for the public, authorities and health care professionals in specific subpopulations.

  12. Development and Vulnerability Factors in Adolescent Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the characteristics of adolescent alcohol use, normative and subgroup variations in drinking behavior, and important factors associated with an increased risk for developing alcohol problems in later adolescence and young adulthood. A parental/family history of alcoholism, temperament traits, conduct problems, cognitive functioning, alcohol expectancies, and peer and other social relations are identified as influencing an adolescent’s susceptibility for initiating a variety of alcohol use behaviors. The Deviance Prone Model, proposed by Sher (1991), is presented as an important tool for testing possible relationships among the various risk factors and their sequencing that leads to early adolescent alcohol and drug initiation and use. It is also possible to extend the model to allow for an examination of the complex interplay of risk factors that leads to the development of alcohol use problems in late adolescence and young adults. PMID:20682217

  13. Alcohol abuse and cigarette smoking are associated with global DNA hypermethylation: results from the German Investigation on Neurobiology in Alcoholism (GINA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmler, Alexander; Heese, Peter; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Muschler, Marc; Heberlein, Annemarie; Bigler, Laurent; Prost, Jean-Christophe; Frieling, Helge; Kornhuber, Johannes; Banger, Markus; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas; Linnebank, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that smoking and alcoholism may be associated with altered DNA methylation and that alcohol consumption might induce changes in DNA methylation by altering homocysteine metabolism. In this monocenter study, we included 363 consecutive patients referred for hospitalization for alcohol detoxification treatment. Blood samples were obtained on treatment days 1, 3, and 7 for measurement of global DNA methylation in leukocytes by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Genomic DNA was used for genotyping the following seven genetic variants of homocysteine metabolism: cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) c.844_855ins68, dihydrofolate-reductase (DHFR) c.594 + 59del19bp, methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) c.677C > T and c.1298A > C, methyltetrahydrofolate-transferase (MTR) c.2756A > G, reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) c.80G > A, and transcobalamin 2 c.776C > G. Multivariate linear regression showed a positive correlation of global DNA methylation with alcohol consumption and smoking on day 1 of hospitalization. DNA methylation was not correlated with homocysteine or vitamin plasma levels, nor with the tested genetic variants of homocysteine metabolism. This suggests a direct effect of alcohol consumption and smoking on DNA methylation, which is not mediated by effects of alcohol on homocysteine metabolism.

  14. Alcohol abuse and smoking alter inflammatory mediator production by pulmonary and systemic immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Jeanette; McNally, Alicia; Guo, Ruixin; Vandivier, R William; Simonian, Philip L; Burnham, Ellen L

    2016-03-15

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and tobacco smoking are associated with an increased predisposition for community-acquired pneumonia and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanisms are incompletely established but may include alterations in response to pathogens by immune cells, including alveolar macrophages (AMs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We sought to determine the relationship of AUDs and smoking to expression of IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα by AMs and PBMCs from human subjects after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA). AMs and PBMCs from healthy subjects with AUDs and controls, matched on smoking, were cultured with LPS (1 μg/ml) or LTA (5 μg/ml) in the presence and absence of the antioxidant precursor N-acetylcysteine (10 mM). Cytokines were measured in cell culture supernatants. Expression of IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα in AMs and PBMCs was significantly increased in response to stimulation with LPS and LTA. AUDs were associated with augmented production of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly IFNγ and IL-1β, by AMs and PBMCs in response to LPS. Smoking diminished the impact of AUDs on AM cytokine expression. Expression of basal AM and PBMC Toll-like receptors-2 and -4 was not clearly related to differences in cytokine expression; however, addition of N-acetylcysteine with LPS or LTA led to diminished AM and PBMC cytokine secretion, especially among current smokers. Our findings suggest that AM and PBMC immune cell responses to LPS and LTA are influenced by AUDs and smoking through mechanisms that may include alterations in cellular oxidative stress.

  15. Familial and social factors of involving teenagers into alcohol use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many authors discuss factors which influence involving adolescence into alcohol use. This study was aimed to assess contribution of factors related to alcohol use in the family, getting into situations of alcohol use as well as preventive work in teenage establishments.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey of 373 adolescents attending teenage clubs was conducted in Kazan, Russia, with questions related to alcohol use in the family and among peers, age and circumstances of first alcohol use. The outcome measure was whether respondents were current alcohol users. Associations were explored through logistic regression models.RESULTS: Alcohol use by teenagers did not differ by gender. Odds of using alcohol increased with age (OR=1.46 95%CI 1.19-1.80 per year. Risk of alcohol use was lower if no family members used alcohol (OR=0.3 95%CI 0.2-0.5 compared to those teenagers who have any family members who used alcohol. After adding to the model variables related to the first alcohol use, most significant was association with the response that no one has ever proposed to drink alcohol (OR=0.014 95%CI 0.005-0.041 compared to any situations of alcohol use, while the association with familial factors was attenuated. This shows that impact of familial factors could be mediated through the occasions of alcohol use. Teenagers whose parents do not use alcohol less likely get into situations where they are proposed to drink in a peer group (12% vs. 24% or at a party (18% vs. 25%.Adolescents who expressed negative attitude to alcohol-related work in youth clubs more likely were alcohol users themselves (OR=21.1 95%CI 2.6-170.3, which is better applicable for diagnostics than for program evaluation.CONCLUSION: Absence of alcohol in the family predetermines alcohol use by adolescents. Teenagers whose parents do not use alcohol less likely get into situations where they are suggested to drink alcohol.

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERNET ADDICTION AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IS INFLUENCED BY THE SMOKING STATUS IN MALE ONLINE VIDEO GAMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Müller

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mounting evidence suggests a putative link between overuse of digital media and easily accessible drugs such as alcohol and nicotine. Method: We assessed Internet addiction tendencies in a sample of N=1,362 male players of online first-person-shooter-video games. We used Young’s 20-item Internet addiction test (IAT. We also asked participants about their smoking status and alcohol consumption. Results: No significant differences were observed on the IAT between smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers. However, in line with the majority of the literature, the results yielded support for a link between Internet addiction and alcohol consumption. Of importance, this correlation was influenced by the current smoking status. This relationship was especially pronounced for the group of ex-smokers. Conclusions: It is possible that after quitting smoking, drinking habits and online activities may be used to compensate for nicotine abstinence.

  17. Effect of Alcohol and Tobacco Smoke on Long-Term Memory and Cell Proliferation in the Hippocampus of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rosane; Schneider, Ricardo; Quinteros, Dayane; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Bandiera, Solange; Thiesen, Flavia Valadão; Coitinho, Adriana Simon; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz; Wieczorek, Marina Godinho

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol is frequently used in combination with tobacco and few studies explore interactions between these two drugs of abuse. Here, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol administration and concomitant exposure to tobacco smoke on long-term memory and on cell proliferation in the hippocampus of rats. Forty male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups and treated with alcohol (2g/kg by gavage) and/or exposed to tobacco smoke (from six cigarettes, by inhalation) twice a day (at 9:00 AM and 2:00 PM) for 30 days. Long-term memory was evaluated in the inhibitory avoidance test and hippocampal cell proliferation was analyzed for bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that alcohol, tobacco smoke, or their combination improved the long-term memory evaluated by the memory index in rats. Moreover, alcohol and tobacco coadministration decreased bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells by 60% when compared to the control group, while alcohol treatment decreased labeled cells by 40%. The tobacco group showed a nonsignificant 26% decrease in labeled cells compared to the control group. Chronic alcohol and tobacco coadministration improves the long-term memory in rats in the inhibitory avoidance test. However, coadministration decreases the cell proliferation in the hippocampus of rats, suggesting a deleterious effect by the combined use of these drugs of abuse. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Smoking, consumption of alcohol and sedentary life style in population grouping and their relationships with lipemic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Martins Ignez

    1995-01-01

    or = 150 mg/dl was inversely associated with obesity and the interaction smoking/ age and directly with age (R=31%. The standardized B coeffients, indicated that the variables obesity and the interactions smoking/age possessed a weight three times greater than age alone in accounting for the variation in the serum levels of HDL cholesterol. When accompanied by triglycerides <150 mg/dl there was no association between and the independent variables and the set of them presented R equal to 22%. The sum of top, in the population stutied in this project, the component habits of life-style (smoking, alcohol consumption and sedentary activity which constitute risk factors which determine morbidity from atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are be found distributed through all the typical social groupings of this particular form of social organization. On the other hand, the seven independent variables used in the multiple regression models for the explanation of the lipemic conditions considered presented multiple determination coefficients which varied, approximately, between 20% and 30%. Thus it is important that in the genetic epidemiology the study of the morbidities in question be emphasized.

  19. Food Insecurity, Diet Quality, and Body Weight: Inter-Relationships and the Effect of Smoking and Alcohol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Patricia A.; Claire A. Zizza; Zhu, Min; Kinnucan, Henry W.; Tayie, Francis A.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 1999-2002 rounds of the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the inter-relationships between food insecurity, diet quality and body mass index (BMI) were examined. The impact of smoking and alcohol consumption behaviors were also examined. The relationship between BMI and food insecurity was found to be sensitive to the specification of control variables, such as age, income, and race and ethnicity. Smoking was directly associated with lowe...

  20. sponsorship-related factors with current cigarette smoking among in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... smoking among in-school adolescents in Zambia. Richard Zulu1 ... potential harm of secondhand smoke are associated with adolescents' smoking. Logistic .... your family discussed the harmful effects of smoking with you?

  1. Risk reduction before surgery. The role of the primary care provider in preoperative smoking and alcohol cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne; Faurschou, Pernille; Ralov, Helge;

    2010-01-01

    Daily smokers and hazardous drinkers are high-risk patients, developing 2-4 times more complications after surgery. Preoperative smoking and alcohol cessation for four to eight weeks prior to surgery halves this complication rate. The patients' preoperative contact with the surgical departments...... might be too brief for the hospital to initiate these programmes. Therefore, it was relevant to evaluate a new clinical practice which combined the general practitioner's (GP) referral to surgery with a referral to a smoking and alcohol intervention in the surgical pathway....

  2. [Nutrition mode evaluation among University of Agriculture students in Szczecin in 2006. Part III. Coffee, tea, alcohol, smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Teresa; Szczuko, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this inquiry study carried out in the midst of Szczecin University of Agriculture students, was to define the alcohol, coffee, tea and drugs consumption and also smoking. About 53-73% of the students declared to drink alcohol. Women preferred bear and men--wine. Smoking was practiced by 40% of men and 27% of women. Students from Szczecin preferred to drink coffee than tea. About 11% of the group of students has had episodic contact with drugs. Mostly with marihuana.

  3. Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, and the Risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Population-based Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, S.W. de; Huisman, M.H.; Sutedja, N.A.; Kooi, A.J. van der; Visser, M. de; Schelhaas, H.J.; Fischer, K.; Veldink, J.H.; Berg, L.H. van den

    2012-01-01

    Smoking has been posited as a possible risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but large population-based studies of patients with incident disease are still needed. The authors performed a population-based case-control study in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2009, including 494 patie

  4. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  5. Smoking and alcohol drinking increased the risk of esophageal cancer among Chinese men but not women in a high-risk population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Zhao, J.K.; Zhang, Z.F.; Han, R.Q.; Yang, J.; Zhou, J.Y.; Wang, X.S.; Zhang, X.F.; Liu, A.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2011-01-01

    Although the association for esophageal cancer with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking has been well established, the risk appears to be less strong in China. To provide more evidence on the effect of smoking and alcohol consumption with esophageal cancer in China, particularly among Chinese women

  6. Predictive Factors of Hospitalization and Dialysis Requirement in Alcohol Poisoning; a Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tagizadieh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol abuse is one of the health problems that all societies have involved with. Although in Iran the percent of alcohol consuming due to social and cultural preventions is lesser that other countries, its outcome and predictive factors are not accessible. Thus, this study was designed with the aim of determining the consequences of alcohol consuming and finding its effective factors in Tabriz. Method: This cross-sectional study has been done through September 2013 to July 2014 in Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. All individuals with alcohol poisoning referred to the emergency department were included in the study. Demographic and clinical factors of patients, laboratory tests, dialysis and hospitalization in hospital wards were evaluated. Finally, independent effective factors for dialysis and hospitalization were assessed by using multivariate logistic regression. Results: At the end, 81(91.4% male patients with the mean age of 27.9±10.4 years were entered to the study. Ten (12.3% patients needed dialysis and 34 (42.0% were hospitalized. Increasing the serum creatinine level (OR-1.6; 95% Cl: 1.004-2.4; p-0.048 and time interval between consumption until referring to the emergency (OR-1.1; 95% Cl: 1.03-1.15; p-0.004 were the independent predictive factors of dialysis. Also, predictive agents of hospitalization included smoking (OR-3.4; 95% Cl: 1.6-5.5; p-0.01 and need to do dialysis (OR-7.9; 95% Cl: 5.4-10.5; p<0.001. Conclusion: In the present project 12.3% of patients needed dialysis. Increasing the serum creatinine and time interval between alcohol consuming until referring to the emergency were the most important predictive factors. In addition, the probability of hospitalization for smoking and dialyzed poisoned persons in hospital wards was more than other patients.

  7. Prevalence of Smoking and Related Risk Factors among Physical Education and Sports School Students at Istanbul University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tümer Ulus

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate smoking prevalence and factors associated with smoking among students at the Physical Education and Sports School of Istanbul University. A cross-sectional study was performed on total of 373 students who have been continuing their education at the school from February to March 2011. A total of 166 responders were male (44.5% and 207 responders were female (55.5% out of 373 participants. Of the 373 students, 94 (25.2% were current smokers and the average age for beginning smoking was 18.03 ± 2.6 (min: 12–max: 30. In this study, we found that the smoking prevalence associated with some variables such as age place of residence, mother’s education, father’s education, cigarette or tobacco use in the living place, knowledge status of students about their teacher’s smoking habits and alcohol consumption (p ≤ 0.05. These findings suggest that the students, who will train the sportspeople of the future, and should be considered a role model of healthy behavior in society. Consequently, we believe that sports school students should take an active role in providing health education programs to increase their awareness about the detrimental effects of smoking and to extensively quit smoking in public.

  8. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...... disease seems to be influenced by age, gender, drinking pattern and type of alcohol....

  9. Risk factors for treatment failure in smokers: relationship to alcohol use and to lifetime history of an alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Robert F; McKee, Sherry A; Toll, Benjamin A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cooney, Judith L; Makuch, Robert W; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2008-12-01

    Little is known about the impact of alcohol involvement on smoking cessation relapse or possible mechanisms for these associations. We addressed these issues using data from a randomized clinical trial of two types of framed messages (gain vs. loss) in conjunction with open label sustained-release (SR) bupropion (Toll et al., 2007) (N = 249). Participants were categorized according to whether or not they were diagnosed with a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; i.e., current or past alcohol abuse or past alcohol dependence) and according to three levels of alcohol use: abstinence, moderate, or hazardous use. Alcohol use categories were established for drinking at baseline, during the 6-week treatment period and through 12 weeks post-quit. There were few significant differences by baseline alcohol use level or AUD history for a series of predictors of smoking cessation failure (e.g., depressive symptoms). During treatment and follow-up, the probability of any smoking on heavy drinking days was significantly higher than the probability of smoking on moderate drinking or abstinent days. AUD history did not predict smoking cessation relapse in any analysis, nor were any alcohol usexAUD history interactions significant. Moderate alcohol users and, to a lesser extent, abstainers from alcohol at baseline were less likely than hazardous drinkers to have relapsed at 12 weeks post-quit. Based on these findings, it appears that risk of any smoking and of relapse was associated primarily with heavy drinking days and a hazardous pattern of use respectively, rather than with moderate drinking.

  10. What is the association of smoking and alcohol use with the increase in social inequality in mortality in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Mette Bjerrum; Diderichsen, Finn; Grønbæk, Morten

    2015-01-01

    in the mortality rate (per 100 000 persons) between the lowest and the highest educated quartile grew from 465 to 611 among men and from 250 to 386 among women. Smoking and alcohol use have caused 75% of the increase among men and 97% of the increase among women. Among men the increase was mainly caused by alcohol...... are targeted to the lower educated part of the Danish population....

  11. The Role of Family Factors and School Achievement in the Progression of Adolescents to Regular Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennanen, M.; Vartiainen, E.; Haukkala, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether parental smoking and single parenting were related to adolescents' school achievement and anti-smoking parental practices as well as how these factors predicted later smoking. The sample comprised 1163 Finnish students in Grades 7 through 9. Results show that at the beginning of the seventh grade, parental smoking and…

  12. Smoking as a permissive factor of periodontal disease in psoriasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márk Antal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have identified smoking as a pathogenetic factor in chronic periodontitis. At the same time, chronic periodontal disease has also been found to occur more often in persons suffering from psoriasis than in controls with no psoriasis. It is known that smoking aggravates both periodontal disease and psoriasis, but so far it has not been investigated how smoking influences the occurrence and severity of periodontal disease in psoriasis. METHODS: A hospital-based study was conducted to investigate this question. The study population consisted of 82 psoriasis patients and 89 controls. All patients received a full-mouth periodontal examination, and a published classification based on bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level and probing depth was utilized for staging. Both patients and controls were divided into smoker and non-smoker groups, and the resulting groups were compared in terms of periodontal status. Beyond the descriptive statistics, odds ratios were computed. RESULTS: Psoriasis in itself increased the likelihood of severe periodontal disease to 4.373 (OR, as compared to non-smoker controls, p<0.05, while smoking increased it to 24.278 (OR, as compared to non-smoker controls, p<0.001 in the studied population. In other words, the risk of severe periodontal disease in psoriasis turned out to be six times higher in smokers than in non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study corroborate those of other studies regarding the link between psoriasis and periodontal disease, but they also seem to reveal a powerful detrimental effect of smoking on the periodontal health of psoriasis patients, whereby the authors propose that smoking may have a permissive effect on the development of severe periodontal disease in psoriasis.

  13. Intention to start smoking and its related factors in never smoked adolescents in Tabriz, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Mohammadpoorasl

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Majority of non-smokers have firm decision to not start smoking in the future. Having general risk-taking behavior, smoker in the family, and positive attitude towards smoking are associated with intention to smoking in adolescents.

  14. DNA repair single-nucleotide polymorphisms in colorectal cancer and their role as modifiers of the effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol in the Singapore Chinese Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mariana C; Conti, David V; Siegmund, Kimberly D; Corral, Román; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yu, Mimi C

    2007-11-01

    Recently, we reported that among Singapore Chinese, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking were independent risk factors for colorectal cancer. Both tobacco smoking and alcohol use are plausible colorectal cancer risk factors, partly due to their ability to induce mutations in the colorectal lumen. In the present study, we investigated the role in colorectal cancer of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in five DNA repair genes: XRCC1 (Arg(194)Trp and Arg(399)Gln), PARP (Val(762)Ala, Lys(940)Arg), XPD (Asp(312)Asn, Lys(751)Gln), OGG1 (Ser(326)Cys), and MGMT (Leu(84)Phe). We conducted this study within the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based cohort of 63,257 middle-aged and older Singapore Chinese men and women enrolled between 1993 and 1998. Our study included 1,176 controls and 310 cases (180 colon and 130 rectum cancer). We observed a positive association between the PARP codon 940 Lys/Arg and Arg/Arg genotypes and colorectal cancer risk [odds ratio (OR), 1.8; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.1-3.1], and an inverse association between the MGMT codon 84 Leu/Phe or Phe/Phe genotypes and colon cancer risk (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9), but not rectal cancer (test of heterogeneity by tumor site, P=0.027). We observed evidence that XRCC1 may modify the effects of smoking (interaction P=0.012). The effect of smoking among carriers of the Arg(194)-Gln(399) haplotype was OR=0.7 (95% CI, 0.4-1.1), whereas, among carriers of the Trp(194)-Arg(399) haplotype, it was OR=1.6 (95% CI, 1.1-2.5). We also observed a nonstatistically significant modification of XRCC1 on the effects of alcohol (P=0.245). Whereas alcohol had no effect among carriers of the codon 194 Arg/Arg (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.6-1.7) or Arg/Trp genotypes (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.6-1.9), there was a positive association among carriers of the Trp/Trp genotype (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.0-8.1). Our results support a role for reactive oxygen species as relevant genotoxins that may account for the effects of both smoking

  15. Psychosocial factors associated with patterns of smoking surrounding pregnancy in fragile families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robin L; Padilla, Yolanda C; Hamilton, Erin R

    2012-01-01

    Although research has documented factors associated with maternal smoking, we need a more in-depth understanding of the risk factors associated with changes in smoking behaviors during the postpartum period. We investigate smoking patterns during pregnancy and 1 year postpartum as a function of relevant psychosocial factors. We use data on 3,522 postpartum mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to analyze the predictors of smoking among mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy but smoked at 1 year postpartum, mothers who smoked both during pregnancy and postpartum, and mothers who did not smoke during either period. Our covariates are grouped into four categories of risk factors for smoking: socioeconomic status, health care, life course and health, and partner and social support. Postpartum mothers in our sample were more likely to smoke throughout or after their pregnancies if they had only a high school education or less, had a household income three or more times below the poverty line, had public or no health insurance, breastfed for less than 5 months, were not married to the infant's father, if the infant's father currently smoked, and if they attended religious services less than once a week. Mental health problems were consistently associated with an increased risk of constant and postpartum smoking relative to non-smoking. Psychosocial factors play a role in postpartum smoking, but they have a stronger effect in predicting smoking that persists throughout pregnancy and the first year postpartum.

  16. Psychosocial factors associated with smoking and drinking among Japanese early adolescent boys and girls: Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simons-Morton Bruce G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking and drinking alcohol among early adolescents are serious public health concerns, but few studies have been conducted in Japan to assess their prevalence and etiology. A regional survey was conducted in eight schools in two Japanese school districts to identify psychosocial factors associated with smoking and drinking behaviors for boys and girls. Methods Junior high school students from seventh to ninth grades (N = 2,923 completed a self-reported questionnaire between December 2002 and March 2003. Relationships between psychosocial variables (i.e., self-assertive efficacy to resist peer pressure, parental involvement, school adjustment, and deviant peer influence and smoking and drinking were investigated using logistic regression analyses and path analyses. Results Smoking in the last six months was significantly more prevalent in boys (7.9% than girls (5.1%. The prevalence of drinking in the last six months was similar in boys (23.7% and girls (21.8%. Self-efficacy to resist peer pressure was negatively associated with both smoking and drinking among both boys and girls and provided both direct and indirect effects through deviant peer influence. Parental involvement showed indirect effects through school adjustment and/or deviant peer influence to both smoking among both boys and girls and drinking among girls, although parental involvement showed direct effects on smoking only for boys. School adjustment was negatively associated with smoking among both boys and girls and drinking among girls. Conclusion These findings suggest that self-assertive efficacy to resist peer pressure, parental involvement, school adjustment and deviant peer influence are potentially important factors that could be addressed by programs to prevent smoking and/or drinking among early adolescent boys and girls in Japan.

  17. Coffee, Alcohol, Smoking, Physical Activity and QT Interval Duration: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Dalal, Darshan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2011-01-01

    Background Abnormalities in the electrocardiographic QT interval duration have been associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, there is substantial uncertainty about the effect of modifiable factors such as coffee intake, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity on QT interval duration. Methods We studied 7795 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III, 1988–1994). Baseline QT interval was measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. Coffee and tea intake, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activities over the past month, and lifetime smoking habits were determined using validated questionnaires during the home interview. Results In the fully adjusted model, the average differences in QT interval comparing participants drinking ≥6 cups/day to those who did not drink any were −1.2 ms (95% CI −4.4 to 2.0) for coffee, and −2.0 ms (−11.2 to 7.3) for tea, respectively. The average differences in QT interval duration comparing current to never smokers was 1.2 ms (−0.6 to 2.9) while the average difference in QT interval duration comparing participants drinking ≥7 drinks/week to non-drinkers was 1.8 ms (−0.5 to 4.0). The age, race/ethnicity, and RR-interval adjusted differences in average QT interval duration comparing men with binge drinking episodes to non-drinkers or drinkers without binge drinking were 2.8 ms (0.4 to 5.3) and 4.0 ms (1.6 to 6.4), respectively. The corresponding differences in women were 1.1 (−2.9 to 5.2) and 1.7 ms (−2.3 to 5.7). Finally, the average differences in QT interval comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of total physical activity was −0.8 ms (−3.0 to 1.4). Conclusion Binge drinking was associated with longer QT interval in men but not in women. QT interval duration was not associated with other modifiable factors including coffee and tea intake, smoking, and physical activity. PMID

  18. Coffee, alcohol, smoking, physical activity and QT interval duration: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyi Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in the electrocardiographic QT interval duration have been associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, there is substantial uncertainty about the effect of modifiable factors such as coffee intake, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity on QT interval duration. METHODS: We studied 7795 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994. Baseline QT interval was measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. Coffee and tea intake, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activities over the past month, and lifetime smoking habits were determined using validated questionnaires during the home interview. RESULTS: In the fully adjusted model, the average differences in QT interval comparing participants drinking ≥6 cups/day to those who did not drink any were -1.2 ms (95% CI -4.4 to 2.0 for coffee, and -2.0 ms (-11.2 to 7.3 for tea, respectively. The average differences in QT interval duration comparing current to never smokers was 1.2 ms (-0.6 to 2.9 while the average difference in QT interval duration comparing participants drinking ≥7 drinks/week to non-drinkers was 1.8 ms (-0.5 to 4.0. The age, race/ethnicity, and RR-interval adjusted differences in average QT interval duration comparing men with binge drinking episodes to non-drinkers or drinkers without binge drinking were 2.8 ms (0.4 to 5.3 and 4.0 ms (1.6 to 6.4, respectively. The corresponding differences in women were 1.1 (-2.9 to 5.2 and 1.7 ms (-2.3 to 5.7. Finally, the average differences in QT interval comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of total physical activity was -0.8 ms (-3.0 to 1.4. CONCLUSION: Binge drinking was associated with longer QT interval in men but not in women. QT interval duration was not associated with other modifiable factors including coffee and tea intake, smoking, and physical activity.

  19. Associations between late and moderately preterm birth and smoking, alcohol, drug use and diet: a population-based case–cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucy K; Draper, Elizabeth S; Evans, T Alun; Field, David J; Johnson, Samantha J; Manktelow, Bradley N; Seaton, Sarah E; Marlow, Neil; Petrou, Stavros; Boyle, Elaine M

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study explores the associations between lifestyle factors and late and moderate preterm birth (LMPT: 32+0–36+6 weeks' gestation), a relatively under-researched group. Study design A population-based case–cohort study was undertaken involving 922 LMPT and 965 term (37+ weeks' gestation) singleton live and stillbirths born between 1 September 2009 and 31 December 2010 to women residing in Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire, UK. Poisson multivariable regression models were fitted to estimate relative risks (RR) of LMPT birth associated with maternal smoking, alcohol and recreational drug use, and diet. Results Women who smoked during pregnancy were at 38% increased risk of LMPT birth compared with non-smokers (RR 1.38, 95% CI (1.04 to 1.84)). Low consumption of fruit and vegetables was associated with a 31% increased risk compared with those who reported eating higher consumption levels (RR 1.31 (1.03 to 1.66)). Women who did not have any aspects of a Mediterranean diet were nearly twice as likely to deliver LMPT compared with those whose diet included more Mediterranean characteristics (RR 1.81 (1.04 to 3.14)). Women who smoked and consumed low levels of fruit and vegetables (5% of women) were at particularly high risk (RR=1.81 (1.29 to 2.55)). There was no significant effect of alcohol or recreational drug use on LMPT birth. Conclusions Smoking and poor diet during pregnancy, factors that strongly impact on very preterm birth, are also important at later gestations and experienced together are associated with an elevated rate of risk. Our findings suggest early cessation of smoking during pregnancy may be an effective strategy to reduce LMPT births. PMID:25972442

  20. Occupational noise, smoking, and a high body mass index are risk factors for age-related hearing impairment and moderate alcohol consumption is protective: a European population-based multicenter study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, E.; Topsakal, V.; Hendrickx, J.J.; Laer, L. van; Huyghe, J.R.; Eyken, E. van; Lemkens, N.; Hannula, S.; Maki-Torkko, E.; Jensen, M.; Demeester, K.; Tropitzsch, A.; Bonaconsa, A.; Mazzoli, M.; Espeso, A.; Verbruggen, K.; Huyghe, J.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Kunst, S.; Manninen, M.; Diaz-Lacava, A.; Steffens, M.; Wienker, T.F.; Pyykko, I.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Kremer, H.; Dhooge, I.; Stephens, D.; Orzan, E.; Pfister, M.; Bille, M.; Parving, A.; Sorri, M.; Heyning, P. van de; Camp, G. van

    2008-01-01

    A multicenter study was set up to elucidate the environmental and medical risk factors contributing to age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). Nine subsamples, collected by nine audiological centers across Europe, added up to a total of 4,083 subjects between 53 and 67 years. Audiometric data (pure-t

  1. Smoking and Its Related Factors Among Iranian High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Sajedinejad, Sima; Nazemi, Saeed; Fereidoon Mohasseli, Khadije; Valizade, Behzad; Vahedi, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Amiri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: In different studies, the prevalence of tobacco consumption has been growing in high schools boys. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its related factors among Iranian high school students in 2011. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 450 male students from 15 high schools of Shahroud (northeast of Iran) were selected for evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding tobacco consumption...

  2. Risk Factors for Treatment Failure in Smokers: Relationship to Alcohol Use and to Lifetime History of an Alcohol Use Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Leeman, Robert F.; McKee, Sherry A.; Toll, Benjamin A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cooney, Judith L.; Makuch, Robert W.; O’Malley, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of alcohol involvement on smoking cessation relapse or possible mechanisms for these associations. We addressed these issues using data from a randomized clinical trial of 2 types of framed messages (gain vs. loss) in conjunction with open label sustained-release (SR) bupropion (Toll et al., 2007) (N = 249). Participants were categorized according to whether or not they were diagnosed with a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; i.e., current or past alcohol abu...

  3. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and the risk of subtypes of head-neck cancer: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maasland, D.H.E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Kremer, S.H.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schouten, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prospective data on alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and risk of head-neck cancer (HNC) subtypes, i.e. oral cavity cancer (OCC), oro-/hypopharyngeal cancer (OHPC), and laryngeal cancer (LC), are limited. We investigated these associations within the second largest prospective study

  4. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and the risk of subtypes of head-neck cancer: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maasland, D.H.E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Kremer, S.H.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schouten, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prospective data on alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and risk of head-neck cancer (HNC) subtypes, i.e. oral cavity cancer (OCC), oro-/hypopharyngeal cancer (OHPC), and laryngeal cancer (LC), are limited. We investigated these associations within the second largest prospective study

  5. Behavioral Effects of Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Smoking, Alcohol, and Caffeine in 5-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowler, Jeffrey K.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    This study examined the behavioral effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to smoking, alcohol, and caffeinated beverages on 5-month-old infants. The sample consisted of 179 Caucasian infants and their mothers. All mothers were 19 years of age or older and had at least a tenth-grade education. Mental and motor portions of the Bayley Scales of…

  6. Risk reduction before surgery. The role of the primary care provider in preoperative smoking and alcohol cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne; Faurschou, Pernille; Ralov, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Daily smokers and hazardous drinkers are high-risk patients, developing 2-4 times more complications after surgery. Preoperative smoking and alcohol cessation for four to eight weeks prior to surgery halves this complication rate. The patients' preoperative contact with the surgical departments m...

  7. Unhealthy behaviors during pregnancy : who continues to smoke and consume alcohol, and is treatment of anxiety and depressive symptoms effective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigated continued smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and treatment of anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy using cognitive behavioral therapy. Data from a large prospective population-based cohort study and a randomized controlled trial were used. Regardin

  8. Alcohol, smoking and illicit drug use in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon van Weelden

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate alcohol, smoking and/or illicit drug use, and history of bullying in adolescent childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus and healthy controls. Methods 174 adolescents with pediatric rheumatic diseases were selected. All of the 34 childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 35 healthy controls participated in this study. A cross-sectional study included demographic/anthropometric data and puberty markers assessments; structured questionnaire and CRAFFT screening interview. Results McNemar tests indicated an excellent test–retest reliability of the structured questionnaire (p = 1.0. The median current age was similar between childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and controls [15 (12–18 vs. 15 (12–18 years, p = 0.563]. The median of menarche age was significantly higher in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients compared to controls [12 (10–15 vs. 11.5 (9–15 years, p = 0.041], particularly in those that lupus had occurred before first menstruation [13 (12–15 vs. 11.5(9–15 years, p = 0.007]. The other puberty marker and sexual function parameters were similar in both groups (p > 0.05. Alcohol use was similar in both childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and controls (38% vs. 46%, p = 0.628. A trend of lower frequency of CRAFFT score ≥2 (high risk for substance abuse/dependence was evidenced in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients compared to controls (0% vs. 15%, p = 0.053. Bullying was reported similarly for the two groups (43% vs. 44%, p = 0.950. Further analysis in lupus patients regarding alcohol/smoking/illicit drug use showed no differences in demographic data, puberty markers, history of bullying, sexual function, contraceptive use, disease activity/damage scores, clinical/laboratorial features and treatments (p > 0.05. Conclusion This study showed high frequencies of early alcohol use in lupus adolescents and

  9. La familia y los factores de riesgo relacionados con el consumo de alcohol y tabaco en los niños y adolescentes (Guayaquil-Ecuador) A família e os fatores de risco associados ao consumo de álcool e tabaco em crianças e adolescentes (Guayaquil-Equador) Family and risk factors related to alcohol consumption and smoking among children and adolescents (Guayaquil-Equador)

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    La presente investigación tienen como objetivo el de identificar en un ambiente familiar los posibles factores de riesgo relacionados con el uso de alcohol y tabaco en los niños y adolescentes. Es importante destacar que estudio de esta naturaleza dentro de una perspectiva socio-cultural expresa la tentativa de comprender los factores de riesgo para el uso de bebidas alcohólicas y tabaco y enfrentar las influencias ambientales en el entorno familiar con vistas a prevenir futuros casos de depe...

  10. Association of smoking, alcohol and NSAIDs use with expression of cag A and cag T genes of Helicobacter pylori in salivary samples of asymptomatic subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinaki Ghosh; Subhash Laxmanrao Bodhankar

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the association of smoking, alcohol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use with presence and virulence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in a representative sample of a random adult population of asymptomatic subjects. Methods:Non virulent 16S rRNA and virulent cag A and T genes from salivary samples of 854 asymptomatic subjects were determined using polymerase chain reaction. The presence and absence of virulent and non virulent infection was statistically compared with consumption of smoking, alcohol and NSAIDs. Results:The prevalence of infection in male and female subjects was found to be 69.25%and 66.90%, respectively. The prevalence of infection in the population of asymptomatic subjects with respect to consumption of alcohol was as follows:current (31.22%), former (52.20%) and never (43.58%). The prevalence of infection in the population of asymptomatic subjects with respect to smoking of cigarettes was as follows:current (88.80%), former (57.14%) and never (33.33%). The prevalence of infection in the subject population consuming NSAIDs and not consuming NSAIDs frequently was found to be 82.75%and 21.16%, respectively. Virulence in male and female subjects was found to be 60.00%and 50.00%, respectively. The presence of virulent infection in the population of asymptomatic subjects with respect to consumption of alcohol was as follows:current (28.57%), former (40.15%) and never (50.00%). The prevalence of virulent infection in the population of asymptomatic subjects with respect to smoking of cigarettes was as follows:current (79.32%), former (75.00%) and never (50.00%). The prevalence of virulent infection in the subject population consuming NSAIDs and not consuming NSAIDs frequently was found to be 88.23%and 66.66%, respectively. Conclusions:It can be concluded that smoking and NSAIDs consumption are aggravating factors for virulence of H. pylori and alcohol can inhibit H. pylori infection in asymptomatic

  11. Relationships between alcohol consumption, smoking status and food habits in Greek adolescents: Vascular implications for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Hassapidou, Maria N; Katsiki, Niki; Fachantidis, Panagiotis; Fachantidou, Anna I; Daskalou, Efstratia; Deligiannis, Asterios P

    2016-10-24

    We assessed the prevalence of alcohol consumption and smoking in Greek adolescents and evaluated their association with food habits. Adolescents (495 boys and 508 girls) aged 15 ± 1 years old and 15 ± 2 years old respectively, completed questionnaires regarding smoking, alcohol and food habits. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption were reported by 9.2% and 48.1% of them, respectively. Of those that drank alcohol, 13.9% were also smokers. Older adolescents were more likely to consume foods high in fat and sugar, low in vitamins and minerals as well as foods, considered by them to be less healthy and prepared in a less healthy way. Moreover, smoker adolescents were less likely to choose foods considered to be healthy and prepared in a healthy way, whereas they were more likely to choose foods high in fat content. Both smoking and alcohol consumption may affect cardiovascular risk and the vasculature. Poor lifestyle (and risk of vascular events) can start at an early age.

  12. Alcohol Drinking, Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sooyoung; Shin, Aesun; Park, Sue K; Shin, Hai-Rim; Chang, Soung-Hoon; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer risk among Korean adults. Data from the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort between 1993 and 2005 were analyzed. The study population comprised 18,707 subjects aged older than 20 years old. The subjects were followed until December 31, 2011 (median follow-up of 11.2 years). The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption for colorectal cancer risk. In men, longer duration and higher average amount of alcohol consumption were associated with elevated risk of colorectal cancer (HR 1.93 [1.17-3.18] for ≥ 30 years of consumption compared to non-drinkers; HR 2.24 [1.31-3.84] for ≥ 30 g/d). Former smokers showed a non-significantly elevated risk of colorectal cancer in men. There was no apparent association between alcohol consumption or cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer risk among women. Alcohol consumption was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk among Korean men, and both a longer duration and a higher amount of consumption were associated with elevated risk.

  13. Translating Behavioral Interventions Onto mHealth Platforms: Developing Text Message Interventions for Smoking and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Beth C; Rosen, Rochelle K; Barnett, Nancy P; Thind, Herpreet; Walaska, Kristen; Foster, Robert; Deutsch, Christopher; Traficante, Regina

    2015-02-24

    The development of mHealth applications is often driven by the investigators and developers with relatively little input from the targeted population. User input is commonly limited to "like/dislike" post- intervention consumer satisfaction ratings or device or application specific user analytics such as usability. However, to produce successful mHealth applications with lasting effects on health behaviors it is crucial to obtain user input from the start of each project and throughout development. The aim of this tutorial is to illustrate how qualitative methods in an iterative process of development have been used in two separate behavior change interventions (targeting smoking and alcohol) delivered through mobile technologies (ie, text messaging). A series of focus groups were conducted to assist in translating a face-to-face smoking cessation intervention onto a text message (short message service, SMS) delivered format. Both focus groups and an advisory panel were used to shape the delivery and content of a text message delivered intervention for alcohol risk reduction. An in vivo method of constructing message content was used to develop text message content that was consistent with the notion of texting as "fingered speech". Formative research conducted with the target population using a participatory framework led to important changes in our approach to intervention structure, content development, and delivery. Using qualitative methods and an iterative approach that blends consumer-driven and investigator-driven aims can produce paradigm-shifting, novel intervention applications that maximize the likelihood of use by the target audience and their potential impact on health behaviors.

  14. Early menopause, association with tobacco smoking, coffee consumption and other lifestyle factors: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundby Johanne

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early onset of menopause is a risk factor for several health problems. The objective was primarily to investigate the association between early menopause and current, past active and passive smoking. A second aim was to investigate the association between coffee and alcohol consumption and early menopause. Methods The present population-based cross-sectional study included a sub-sample of 2123 postmenopausal women born in 1940–41 who participated in the Oslo Health Study. Early menopause was defined as menopause occurring at an age of less than 45 years. We applied logistic regression analyses (crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR to examine the association between early menopause and selected lifestyle factors. Results Current smoking was significantly associated with early menopause (adj. OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.11–2.28. Stopping smoking more than 10 years before menopause considerably reduced the risk of early menopause (adj. OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.05–0.33. Total exposure to smoking (the product of number of cigarettes per day and time as a smoker was positively related to early menopause and, at the highest doses, nearly doubled the odds (adj. OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.12–3.30. These data suggest a possible dose-response relationship between total exposure to smoking and early menopause, but no dose-response relationship was detected for the other variables examined. We found no significant association of coffee or alcohol consumption with early menopause. Of the lifestyle factors tested, high educational level (adj. OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34–0.72 and high social participation (adj. OR, 0.60, 95% CI, 0.39–0.98 were negatively associated with early menopause. Conclusion This cross-sectional study shows an association between current smoking and early menopause. The data also suggest that the earlier a woman stops smoking the more protected she is from early menopause. Early menopause was not significantly associated with passive

  15. The Prevalence, Incidence, and Progression of Hand Osteoarthritis in Relation to Body Mass Index, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Ida K; Magnusson, Karin; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Englund, Martin

    2017-09-01

    To estimate the extent that overweight/obesity, smoking, and alcohol are associated with prevalence and longitudinal changes of radiographic hand osteoarthritis (OA). Participants from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (n = 1232) were included, of whom 994 had 4-year followup data. In analyses on incident hand OA, only persons without hand OA at baseline were included (n = 406). Our exposure variables were overweight/obesity [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference], smoking (current/former, smoking pack-yrs), and alcohol consumption (drinks/week). Using linear and logistic regression analyses, we analyzed possible associations between baseline exposure variables and radiographic hand OA severity, erosive hand OA, incidence of hand OA, and radiographic changes. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and education. Neither overweight nor obesity were associated with hand OA. Current smoking was associated with less hand OA in cross-sectional analyses, whereas longitudinal analyses suggested higher odds of incident hand OA in current smokers (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.02-4.77). Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with higher Kellgren-Lawrence sum score at baseline (1-3 drinks: 1.55, 95% CI 0.43-2.67) and increasing sum score during 4-year followup (4-7 drinks: 0.33, 95% CI 0.01-0.64). Moderate alcohol consumption (1-7 drinks/week) was associated with 2-fold higher odds of erosive hand OA, which was statistically significant. Additional adjustment for BMI gave similar strengths of associations. Overweight/obesity were not associated with hand OA. Contrasting results were observed for smoking and hand OA, suggesting lack of association. Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with hand OA severity, radiographic changes, and erosive hand OA, warranting further investigation.

  16. Does the population living in Roma settlements differ in physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption from the majority population in Slovakia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinská, Ingrid; Gecková, Andrea Madarasová; Jarcuska, Peter; Pella, Daniel; Mareková, Mária; Stefková, Gabriela; Veselská, Zuzana Dankulincová

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have revealed a high prevalence of risk factors associated with unhealthy lifestyle among individuals with lower socioeconomic status. In Slovakia, one of the most socially and health-disadvantaged groups is the Roma minority. The aim of this study is to explore differences in physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population in Slovakia. Data from the cross-sectional epidemiological HepaMeta study conducted in Slovakia in 2011 were used. The sample consisted of 452 Roma (mean age = 34.7; 35.2% men) and 403 non-Roma (mean age = 33.5; 45.9% men) respondents. The differences in health-related behaviour between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population were analysed using logistic models separately for males and females. These data show a clear difference between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population with regard to leisure-time physical activity (only in women) and smoking, although not alcohol consumption. The prevalence of leisure-time physical activities such as walking or some other type of sport was significantly lower among Roma women than among non-Roma women. Men and women living in Roma settlements are more likely to smoke on a daily basis and they are heavier smokers in comparison with the majority population. HepaMeta study did not find differences in alcohol consumption between the Roma and non-Roma men. However, Roma women reported less frequent recent drinking and binge-drinking of 6 or more doses of alcohol on a single occasion. The higher prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle activities among Roma seem to contribute to these inequalities in cardiovascular diseases morbidity and mortality in comparison with the majority population.

  17. Significant differe nces in demographic, clinical, and pathological features in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption among 1,633 head and neck cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ajub Moyses

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As a lifestyle-related disease, social and cultural disparities may influence the features of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in different geographic regions. We describe demographic, clinical, and pathological aspects of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck according to the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of patients in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of 1,633 patients enrolled in five São Paulo hospitals that participated in the Brazilian Head and Neck Genome Project - Gencapo. RESULTS: The patients who smoked and drank were younger, and those who smoked were leaner than the other patients, regardless of alcohol consumption. The non-smokers/non-drinkers were typically elderly white females who had more differentiated oral cavity cancers and fewer first-degree relatives who smoked. The patients who drank presented significantly more frequent nodal metastasis, and those who smoked presented less-differentiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck demonstrated demographic, clinical, and pathological features that were markedly different according to their smoking and drinking habits. A subset of elderly females who had oral cavity cancer and had never smoked or consumed alcohol was notable. Alcohol consumption seemed to be related to nodal metastasis, whereas smoking correlated with the degree of differentiation.

  18. Association of Smoking, Alcohol, and Obesity with Cardiovascular Death and Ischemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Younghoon; Norby, Faye L; Jensen, Paul N; Agarwal, Sunil K; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Lip, Gregory Y H; Longstreth, W T; Alonso, Alvaro; Heckbert, Susan R; Chen, Lin Y

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular (CV) death. Whether modifiable lifestyle risk factors are associated with these CV outcomes in AF is unknown. Among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) participants with incident AF, we estimated the risk of composite endpoint of ischemic stroke or CV death associated with candidate modifiable risk factor (smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, or high body mass index [BMI]), and computed the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) of incorporating each factor into the CHA2DS2-VASc. Among 1222 ARIC (mean age: 63.4) and 756 CHS (mean age: 79.1) participants with incident AF, during mean follow-up of 6.9 years and 5.7 years, there were 332 and 335 composite events respectively. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a higher incidence of the composite endpoint in ARIC [HR: 1.65 (1.21-2.26)] but not in CHS [HR: 1.05 (0.69-1.61)]. In ARIC, the addition of current smoking did not improve risk prediction over and above the CHA2DS2-VASc. No significant associations were observed with alcohol consumption or BMI with CVD outcomes in AF patients from either cohort. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke or CV death in ARIC, which comprised mostly middle-aged to young-old (65-74 years), but not in CHS, which comprised mostly middle-old or oldest-old (≥75 years) adults with AF. However, addition of smoking to the CHA2DS2-VASc score did not improve risk prediction of these outcomes.

  19. Association of Smoking, Alcohol, and Obesity with Cardiovascular Death and Ischemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghoon Kwon

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular (CV death. Whether modifiable lifestyle risk factors are associated with these CV outcomes in AF is unknown. Among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS participants with incident AF, we estimated the risk of composite endpoint of ischemic stroke or CV death associated with candidate modifiable risk factor (smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, or high body mass index [BMI], and computed the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI, and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI of incorporating each factor into the CHA2DS2-VASc. Among 1222 ARIC (mean age: 63.4 and 756 CHS (mean age: 79.1 participants with incident AF, during mean follow-up of 6.9 years and 5.7 years, there were 332 and 335 composite events respectively. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a higher incidence of the composite endpoint in ARIC [HR: 1.65 (1.21-2.26] but not in CHS [HR: 1.05 (0.69-1.61]. In ARIC, the addition of current smoking did not improve risk prediction over and above the CHA2DS2-VASc. No significant associations were observed with alcohol consumption or BMI with CVD outcomes in AF patients from either cohort. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke or CV death in ARIC, which comprised mostly middle-aged to young-old (65-74 years, but not in CHS, which comprised mostly middle-old or oldest-old (≥75 years adults with AF. However, addition of smoking to the CHA2DS2-VASc score did not improve risk prediction of these outcomes.

  20. Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: data from NHANES 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-03-01

    Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption was investigated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2005-2010 were used for this investigation. Urinary levels of total arsenic (UAS) and dimethylarsonic acid (UDMA) were evaluated for children aged 6-12 years and adolescents and adults aged ≥ 12 years. Urinary levels of arsenobetaine (UAB) were evaluated for adolescents and adults only. Regression models were fitted for log transformed values of UAB, UAS, and UDMA. For the models for children, however, gender, race/ethnicity, SES, and fish/shell fish consumption during the last 30 days were the only independent variables that were included in the models. Nonsmokers were found to have higher levels of UAS and UDMA than smokers. Elevated levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA were associated with higher amounts of daily alcohol consumption. The associations were in the opposite direction for daily caffeine consumption. Females were found to have statistically significantly lower adjusted levels of UDMA than males for those aged ≥ 12 years. Irrespective of age, those with unclassified race/ethnicity had the highest levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA and non-Hispanic whites had the lowest levels. Adolescents had the higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA than adults. Higher SES was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA among adolescents and adults. Irrespective of age, fish consumption was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...

  2. Obesity and smoking are factors associated with poor prognosis in patients with bacteraemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuento Risto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteraemia is still a major cause of case fatality in all age groups. Our aim was to identify the major underlying conditions constituting risk factors for case fatality in bacteraemia patients. Methods The study involved 149 patients (79 male and 70 female with bacteraemia caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus (41 patients, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Str. pneumoniae (42 patients, β-hemolytic streptococcae (β-hml str. (23 patients and Eschericia coli (E. coli (43 patients. Underlying diseases, alcohol and tobacco consumption and body mass index (BMI were registered. Laboratory findings and clinical data were registered on admission and 6 consecutive days and on day 10–14. Case fatality was studied within 30 days after positive blood culture. Associations between underlying conditions and case fatality were studied in univariate analysis and in a multivariate model. Results Nineteen patients (12.8% died of bacteraemia. We found obesity (p = 0.002, RR 9.8; 95% CI 2.3 to 41.3, smoking (p Conclusion Our results indicate that obesity and smoking are prominent risk factors for case fatality in bacteraemic patients. Identification of risk factors underlying fatal outcome in bacteraemia may allow targeting of preventive efforts to individuals likely to derive greatest potential benefit.

  3. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, smoking and alcohol consumption in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Luisa N; Diez Roux, Ana V; Jacobs, David R; Shea, Steven; Jackson, Sharon A; Shrager, Sandi; Blumenthal, Roger S

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with smoking and alcohol consumption in adults participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Data on 6680 black, Chinese, Hispanic and white adults aged 45 to 84 years of age recruited from Illinois, New York, Maryland, North Carolina, Minnesota and California during 2000 and 2002 were used for this analysis. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with smoking status and alcohol consumption for each racial/ethnic group separately. Blacks were more likely to experience racial/ethnic discrimination (43%) than Hispanics (19%), Chinese participants (10%) or whites (4%, Pracial/ethnic discrimination had 34% and 51% greater odds of reporting smoking and drinking, respectively, than blacks who did not report racial/ethnic discrimination. Hispanics reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 62% greater odds of heavy drinking. Whites reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 88% greater odds of reporting being current smokers than whites who did not report racial/ethnic discrimination. Our findings suggest that the experience of discrimination is associated with greater prevalence of unhealthy behaviors. Specifically, the use of smoking and alcohol may be patterned by experience of discrimination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Trends in dietary patterns, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer in Polish population in 1960-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Mirosław; Sekuła, Włodzimierz; Rychlik, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between long-term trends in food consumption, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Data on CRC incidence rates were derived from the National Cancer Registry, on food consumption from the national food balance sheets; data on alcohol and tobacco smoking reflected official statistics of the Central Statistical Office. It was shown that CRC incidence rates were increasing between 1960 and 1995, which could have been affected by adverse dietary patterns (growing consumption of edible fats, especially animal fats, sugar, red meat, and declining fibre and folate intake), high alcohol consumption, and frequent tobacco smoking noted until the end of the 1980s. Since 1990, the dietary pattern changed favourably (decrease in consumption of red meat, animal fats, and sugar, higher vitamin D intake, increase in vegetables and fruit quantities consumed, and decline in tobacco smoking). These changes could contribute to the stabilisation of CRC incidence among women seen after 1996 and a reduction in the rate of increase among men.

  5. Trends in Dietary Patterns, Alcohol Intake, Tobacco Smoking, and Colorectal Cancer in Polish Population in 1960–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Mirosław; Sekuła, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between long-term trends in food consumption, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Data on CRC incidence rates were derived from the National Cancer Registry, on food consumption from the national food balance sheets; data on alcohol and tobacco smoking reflected official statistics of the Central Statistical Office. It was shown that CRC incidence rates were increasing between 1960 and 1995, which could have been affected by adverse dietary patterns (growing consumption of edible fats, especially animal fats, sugar, red meat, and declining fibre and folate intake), high alcohol consumption, and frequent tobacco smoking noted until the end of the 1980s. Since 1990, the dietary pattern changed favourably (decrease in consumption of red meat, animal fats, and sugar, higher vitamin D intake, increase in vegetables and fruit quantities consumed, and decline in tobacco smoking). These changes could contribute to the stabilisation of CRC incidence among women seen after 1996 and a reduction in the rate of increase among men. PMID:24369529

  6. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention.

  7. Physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption in association with incidence of type 2 diabetes among middle-aged and elderly Chinese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a prevalent chronic disease worldwide. The prevalence of T2DM is increasing rapidly in China. Understanding the contribution of modifiable lifestyle factors on T2DM risk is imperative to prevent the development of T2DM in China. METHODS: We examined associations between lifestyle factors including physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption with incidence of T2DM among middle-aged and elderly men in urban Shanghai. Information on socio-demographics, lifestyle habits, dietary habits, and disease history was collected via in-person interviews. Anthropometric measurements were taken. A total of 51 464 Chinese men aged 40-74 years free of T2DM, coronary heart disease (CHD, and stroke at baseline were included in the current study. Incident T2DM was identified through follow-up surveys conducted every 2-3 years. Cox proportional hazard analyses were conducted to evaluate associations between lifestyle risk factors and incidence of T2DM. RESULTS: We documented 1304 new cases of T2DM during 276 929 person-years of follow-up (average: 5.4 years. Physical activity was inversely associated with T2DM risk. Daily living, commuting, and total physical activity METs had inverse negative dose-response relationships with T2DM (P-trend = 0.0033, 0.0022, and <0.0001, respectively. Regular participation in exercise or sports reduced T2DM risk (HR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.76-0.98. Moderate alcohol intake (1-3 drinks/day was inversely related to T2DM risk (HR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.67-0.94. Cigarette smoking, on the other hand, was associated with increased T2DM risk; HRs were 1.25 (95%CI: 1.00-1.56 for smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day and 1.28 (95%CI: 1.04-1.57 for smoking more than 40 pack-years. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity and moderate alcohol intake are inversely associated with T2DM risk, whereas smoking was positively associated with T2DM risk among middle-age and elderly Chinese men. Preventive measures should

  8. Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Tamara L; Luczak, Susan E; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person's alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity).

  9. Smoking, alcohol, diabetes, obesity, socioeconomic status, and the risk of colorectal cancer in a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Terry; Fritschi, Lin; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Ringwald, Kathrin; Heyworth, Jane S

    2014-12-01

    Although previous research has identified factors that may determine willingness to participate in research, relatively few studies have attempted to quantify the impact non-participation may have on exposure-disease associations. The aims of this study were to (a) investigate the associations between smoking, alcohol, diabetes, obesity, and socioeconomic status and the risk of colorectal cancer in a case-control study (59.7 and 47.2 % response fractions among cases and controls, respectively); and (b) perform sensitivity analyses to examine the possible influence of non-participation. Logistic regression was used to estimate the exposure-disease associations. We then investigated the associations between various demographic and health factors and the likelihood that an individual would participate in the case-control study and then performed two sensitivity analyses (sampling weights and multiple imputation) to examine whether non-participation bias may have influenced the exposure-disease associations. The exposures alcohol, smoking, and diabetes were associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. We found some differences between cases and controls when examining the factors associated with the participation in the study, and in the sensitivity analyses, the exposure-disease associations were slightly attenuated when compared with those from the original analysis. Non-participation may have biased the risk estimates away from the null, but generally not enough to change the conclusions of the study.

  10. The role of tobacco promoting and restraining factors in smoking intentions among Ghanaian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doku David

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Western countries, the relationship between smoking intentions and smoking behaviour is well established. However, youth smoking intentions and associated factors in developing countries are largely unexplored and the former may occur for a variety of reasons. We investigated youth smoking intentions in Ghana with regard to several tobacco promoting and restraining factors, including environmental, familial, attitudinal and knowledge measures. Methods A school-based survey of a representative sample of 12-20-year-olds was conducted in 2008 in Ghana (N = 1338, response rate 89.7%. Results In a bivariate model, both among ever and never smokers, allowing smoking on school compound, exposure to tobacco advertisement and parental smoking were associated with future intention to smoke. Compared to those who agreed that smoking is harmful to health, smoking is difficult to quit and that tobacco should not be sold to minors, those who disagreed or were not sure were more likely to have an intention to smoke. In the multivariate analyses, these associations persisted, except that the attitude measures concerning the difficulty of quitting smoking once started and tobacco sales ban were no longer significantly associated with smoking intentions. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of school smoking policy, parental smoking behaviour and knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use in determining Ghanaian youths’ future smoking intentions. Because current high percentages of smoking intentions may turn into high smoking rates in the future, the introduction of effective tobacco control measures at all levels of society to prevent youth smoking in Ghana may be essential.

  11. [Personality factors as predictors of alcohol consumption by university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natividade, Jean Carlos; Aguirre, Alba Recalde; Bizarro, Lisiane; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to verify differences in personality factors between abstainers and drinkers and between individuals with higher versus lower levels of alcohol consumption in the previous three months, and to test the predictive power of factors for any lifetime alcohol consumption and for at least monthly alcohol consumption. A total of 169 university students participated, of whom 66.7% were women, with a mean age of 21.2 years. Lifetime alcohol consumption was 90.1%; 42.3% had consumed at least twice in the previous three months; and 57.7% consumed alcohol at least monthly. Participants with less frequent consumption in the previous three months showed higher mean scores for personality factors involving socialization and achievement, while those that consumed more frequently scored higher on extroversion. A predictive model showed that increments in extroversion contributed to increased odds of drinking alcohol, while increments in achievement decreased the odds of drinking. Personality characteristics were able to distinguish between different groups of drinkers and predict the frequency of alcohol consumption.

  12. Smoking, alcohol, and dietary choices: evidence from the Portuguese National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy lifestyle choices tend to cluster, but controversy remains regarding relationships between smoking and dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare dietary intake and alcohol consumption, according to smoking status, in the Portuguese population. Methods The study sample included all participants in the third Portuguese National Health Survey who were older than 19 years (20,302 women and 17,923 men. Participants were selected from households in the five regions of Portugal (NUTS II classification, using a multi-stage random probability design. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews in each household and obtained information on social and demographic characteristics, lifestyle and health, smoking, and intakes of selected food and beverages. Age-adjusted and education-adjusted binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were fitted separately for males and females, to estimate the magnitude of the association between smoking and the consumption of various food and beverage groups. Results When heavy smokers were compared with non-smokers, the odds ratio (OR favouring soup consumption was 0.60 (95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.54–0.68 in males and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.33–0.65 in females. Similar ORs were observed for vegetables (males: OR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.49–0.64; females: OR = 0.47, 95%CI: 0.32–0.69 and fruit (males: OR = 0.36, 95%CI: 0.31–0.41; females: OR = 0.29, 95%CI: 0.19–0.44. Overall, these food items were consumed at significantly lower levels as cigarette consumption increased. Heavy male smokers, compared to non-smokers, presented lower odds favouring milk consumption (OR = 0.89; 95%CI: 0.67–0.89. When heavy smokers were compared with non-smokers, the ORs favouring wine drinking, among heavy drinkers, were 1.47 (95%CI: 1.27–1.70 in men and 3.97 (95%CI: 2.07–7.61 in women. Similar ORs were observed for beer (males: OR = 3.30; 95%CI: 2.87–3.78; females: OR = 23

  13. Effect of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 genotype on N-acetylaspartate levels and neurocognition in non-smoking, active alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (GRM3 gene on brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA concentrations and executive function (EF skills in non-smoking, active alcoholics, and evaluated associations between these variables. Methods SNPs (rs6465084, rs1468412, and rs2299225 in GRM3 were genotyped in 49 male, non-smoking, alcohol-dependent patients and 45 healthy control subjects using ligase detection reactions. NAA/creatine (Cr ratios in left prefrontal gray matter (GM and white matter (WM, left parietal GM, left parietal WM, and cerebellar vermis regions were measured by Proton 1 H Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. EF was measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Results Compared to controls, alcoholics had lower NAA/Cr ratios in prefrontal GM and WM regions and performed more poorly on all EF tests (P P P P P P  Conclusions Our results provide evidence that glutamate system dysfunction may play a role in the prefrontal functional abnormalities seen in alcohol dependence. It is possible that certain GRM3 SNP genotypes (the A/A genotype of rs6465084 and the T allele of rs1468412 may further lower NAA/Cr levels and EF skills in addition to the effect of alcohol.

  14. Former Smoking Is a Risk Factor for Chronic Kidney Disease After Lung Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellemons, M. E.; Agarwal, P. K.; van der Bij, W.; Verschuuren, E. A. M.; Postmus, D.; Erasmus, M. E.; Navis, G. J.; Bakker, S. J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common complication after lung transplantation (LTx). Smoking is a risk factor for many diseases, including CKD. Smoking cessation for >6 months is required for LTx enlistment. However, the impact of smoking history on CKD development after LTx remains unclear. We i

  15. Parental, Behavioral, and Psychological Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Mao, Rong; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Qun

    2010-01-01

    We designed this study to assess parental, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese adolescents. The data were collected from 995 middle school students in Nanjing, China. Both smoking experimentation and current smoking (smoking in the past 30 days) were assessed among the study sample. Psychosocial measures…

  16. La familia y los factores de riesgo relacionados con el consumo de alcohol y tabaco en los niños y adolescentes (Guayaquil-Ecuador A família e os fatores de risco associados ao consumo de álcool e tabaco em crianças e adolescentes (Guayaquil-Equador Family and risk factors related to alcohol consumption and smoking among children and adolescents (Guayaquil-Equador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ramírez Ruiz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tienen como objetivo el de identificar en un ambiente familiar los posibles factores de riesgo relacionados con el uso de alcohol y tabaco en los niños y adolescentes. Es importante destacar que estudio de esta naturaleza dentro de una perspectiva socio-cultural expresa la tentativa de comprender los factores de riesgo para el uso de bebidas alcohólicas y tabaco y enfrentar las influencias ambientales en el entorno familiar con vistas a prevenir futuros casos de dependencia. El estudio se utilizo una muestra de cien familia, a las que se les aplico un instrumento preestablecido con los responsables de las respectivas familias. Como resultado se obtuvo que 51% del nivel de escolaridad es bajo, el 54% tiene salario inferior al básico, el 61% ingieren bebidas alcohólicas. Vale destacar que incuestionablemente la reducción de la casuística de alcoholismo y/o tabaquismo repercute significativamente en le calidad de vida de los individuos.A presente investigação teve como objetivo identificar no ambiente familiar os possíveis fatores de risco associados ao alcoolismo e tabagismo em crianças e adolescentes. É importante enfatizar que estudo desta natureza dentro de uma perspectiva sócio-cultural expressa a tentativa de entender os fatores do risco para o uso do tabaco e de bebidas alcoólicas, bem como as influências ambientais de maneira a impedir futuras dependências. Utilizou-se uma amostra de cem famílias e aplicou-se um instrumento preestabelecido. Como resultado obteve que 51% dos pais possuem nível educacional baixo, 54% tem o salário inferior ao básico, 61% fazem uso de bebidas alcoólicas. Vale enfatizar que inquestionavelmente a redução do casuística do alcoolismo e/ou tabagismo influenciam significativamente na qualidade da vida dos indivíduos.The present investigation had as objective identifying in a family the possible factors of risk related to the use of alcohol and tobacco in the

  17. Prospective associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, maternal satisfaction, and parental and childhood body mass index at 6.5 years with later problematic eating attitudes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wade, K H; Skugarevsky, O; Kramer, M S; Patel, R; Bogdanovich, N; Vilchuck, K; Sergeichick, N; Richmond, R; Palmer, T; Davey Smith, G; Gillman, M; Oken, E; Martin, R M

    2014-01-01

    .... The objective of this study is to prospectively investigate associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, measures of maternal satisfaction, self-reported parental body mass index (BMI...

  18. The role of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in the differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma for the males in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Heavy and long-term smoking and drinking habit might pronouncedly increase the risk of triggering OSCC. Tobacco and alcohol consumption seems to play a role in the differentiation characteristics of the tumor.

  19. Big five personality factors and cigarette smoking: a 10-year study among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Taha, Farah; Bono, Amanda; Goodwin, Renee D

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between the big five personality traits and any lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence among adults in the United States (US) over a ten-year period. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the US (MIDUS) I and II (N = 2101). Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between continuously measured personality factors and any lifetime cigarette use, smoking progression, and smoking persistence at baseline (1995-1996) and at follow-up (2004-2006). The results revealed that higher levels of openness to experience and neuroticism were each significantly associated with increased risk of any lifetime cigarette use. Neuroticism also was associated with increased risk of progression from ever smoking to daily smoking and persistent daily smoking over a ten-year period. In contrast, conscientiousness was associated with decreased risk of lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence. Most, but not all, associations between smoking and personality persisted after adjusting for demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use problems. The findings suggest that openness to experience and neuroticism may be involved in any lifetime cigarette use and smoking progression, and that conscientiousness appears to protect against smoking progression and persistence. These data add to a growing literature suggesting that certain personality factors--most consistently neuroticism--are important to assess and perhaps target during intervention programs for smoking behavior.

  20. Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Tyas, S.; Pederson, L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To extend the analysis of psychosocial risk factors for smoking presented in the United States surgeon general's 1994 report on smoking and health, and to propose a theoretical frame of reference for understanding the development of smoking.
DATA SOURCES—General Science Index, Medline, PsycLIT, Sociofile, Sociological Abstracts, and Smoking and Health. Holdings of the Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario Library as well as the authors' personal files.
STUDY SELECTION—Reviewed li...

  1. Waterpipe smoking in students: prevalence, risk factors, symptoms of addiction, and smoke intake. Evidence from one British university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daniel; Aveyard, Paul

    2008-05-22

    Anecdotal reports suggest waterpipe smoking is becoming common in students in western countries. The aim was to examine prevalence, risk factors, symptoms of addiction, and smoke intake. This was a cross-sectional survey of students with subsidiary survey of regular waterpipe user and survey of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) before and after waterpipe smoking in customers of a waterpipe café. 937 students of Birmingham University completed the initial survey with a follow up of 21 regular waterpipe smokers. 63 customers of a waterpipe café near the University completed the study of CO intake. 355 (37.9%, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 34.8 to 41.1%) students had tried waterpipes, the prevalence of trying rising with duration at University. 75 (8.0%, 95%CI 6.4 to 10.0%) were regular smokers, similar to the prevalence of cigarette smoking (9.4%). Although cigarette smoking was the major risk factor for being a regular waterpipe smoker, odds ratio (95%CI) 2.77 (1.52 to 5.06), 65% of waterpipe smokers did not smoke cigarettes. Seven of 21 (33.3%) regular waterpipe smokers experienced cravings. Nearly all regular waterpipe users thought it less harmful than smoking cigarettes. The mean (standard deviation) rise in CO was 37.4 (25.8)ppm, nearly twice as high as a typical cigarette smoker seeking cessation treatment. Waterpipe smoking is a common part of student culture in one British university, as in the Middle East and in the United States. It poses a potential threat to public health, with evidence of dependence and high smoke intake.

  2. Telomere shortening in the esophagus of Japanese alcoholics: relationships with chromoendoscopic findings, ALDH2 and ADH1B genotypes and smoking history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Aida

    Full Text Available Chromoendoscopy with Lugol iodine staining provides important information on the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. In particular, distinct iodine-unstained lesions (DIULs larger than 10 mm show a high prevalence in high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. It has also been reported that inactive ALDH2*1/*2 and less-active ADH1B*1/*1, and smoking, are risk factors for esophageal SCC. We previously examined telomere shortening in the esophageal epithelium of alcoholics, and suggested a high prevalence of chromosomal instability in such individuals. In the present study, we attempted to analyze telomere lengths in 52 DIULs with reference to both their size and multiplicity, ALDH2 and ADH1B genotypes, and smoking history. Patients with DIULs <10 mm (n = 42 had significantly longer telomeres than those with DIULs ≥10 mm (n = 10, p = 0.008. No significant differences in telomere length were recognized between the ALDH2 and ADH1B genotypes (ALDH2 active/inactive = 35/17, ADH1B active/inactive = 32/20; p = 0.563, 0.784, respectively or among four groups of patients divided according to smoking history (never-, ex-, light, and heavy smokers = 3, 6, 21, and 22 patients, respectively; p = 0.956. Patients without multiple DIULs (n = 17 had significantly longer telomeres than patients with multiple DIULs (n = 35, p = 0.040. It is suggested that alcoholism reduces telomere length in the esophagus, irrespective of genotype or smoking habit. Telomere shortening may not generate cancer directly, but may create conditions under which SCC can develop more easily, depending on subsequent exposure to carcinogens.

  3. Factors associated with younger adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Martino, Steven C; Collins, Rebecca L; Shadel, William G; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a 2-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past 2 weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths' risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% White, 27% Black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for underreporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Social-cognitive and school factors in lifetime smoking among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Siersma, Volkert

    2008-01-01

    -sectional data on 2,913 Danish adolescents in grade 7 attending 118 randomly selected public schools. Social-cognitive factors were examined with five measures: self-efficacy to resist pressure to smoke, social influence (norms), social influence (behavior), social influence (pressure), and attitude. We used......BACKGROUND: Smoking is a serious health threat and identifying risk factors for smoking is thus of great importance. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of social-cognitive factors and school factors on lifetime smoking status among adolescents. METHODS: The study was based on cross...... multilevel analyses to estimate the associations between social-cognitive factors and lifetime smoking status as well as the group-level effects of school, school class, and gender group in the school class. RESULTS: Each social-cognitive factor was significantly associated with lifetime smoking status, even...

  5. [Influences of genetic and environmental factors on smoking related behaviors among male twin adults in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Z Q; Yu, C Q; Wang, B Q; Cao, W H; Gao, W J; Lyu, J; Wang, S F; Pang, Z C; Cong, L M; Dong, Z; Wu, F; Wang, H; Wu, X P; Wang, D Z; Wang, X J; Wang, B Y; Li, L M

    2016-05-01

    To analyze the influences of genetic and environmental factors on smoking behavior, smoking cessation and onset age of smoking less than 20 years in male twin adults. A face-to-face questionnaire was conducted to collect data from 6 458 pair male twins aged ≥25 years registered in 9 provinces(municipality)in China. The heritability of three smoking related behaviors were calculated by using structural equation models. The ACE models were the best models of the three dimensions of smoking, i.e. smoking behavior, smoking cessation and onset age of smoking less than 20 years for male twins, and the corresponding heritability of these behaviors were 0.26(0.19-0.34), 0.27(0.19-0.37)and 0.05(0.00-0.14), respectively. When adjusted for area and age, the heritability of these three behaviors were 0.26(0.19-0.34), 0.31(0.00-0.74)and 0.05(0.00-0.14), respectively. All the three smoking related behaviors were affected by genetic factors, but environment factors had more effect on them. For smoking cessation, the heritability was highest, but the influence of environmental factors was lowest. Meanwhile, for onset age of smoking, the influence of environmental factors was highest.

  6. P3 event-related potential reactivity to smoking cues: Relations with craving, tobacco dependence, and alcohol sensitivity in young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Thomas M; Fleming, Kimberly A; Trela, Constantine J; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2017-02-01

    The current study tested whether the amplitude of the P3 event-related potential (ERP) elicited by smoking cues is (a) associated with the degree of self-reported craving reactivity, and (b) moderated by degree of tobacco dependence. Because alcohol and cigarettes are frequently used together, and given recent evidence indicating that individual differences in alcohol sensitivity influence reactivity to alcohol cues, we also investigated whether alcohol sensitivity moderated neural responses to smoking cues. ERPs were recorded from young adult smokers (N = 90) while they participated in an evaluative categorization oddball task involving 3 types of targets: neutral images, smoking-related images, and images of drinking straws. Participants showing larger P3 amplitudes to smoking cues and to straw cues (relative to neutral targets) reported greater increases in craving after cue exposure. Neither smoking status (daily vs. occasional use) nor psychometric measures of tobacco dependence consistently or specifically moderated P3 reactivity to smoking cues. Lower alcohol sensitivity was associated with larger P3 to smoking cues but not comparison straw cues (relative to neutral targets). This effect was further moderated by tobacco dependence, with the combination of lower sensitivity and higher dependence associated with especially pronounced P3 reactivity to smoking cues. The findings suggest the smoking-cue elicited P3 ERP component indexes an approach-oriented incentive motivational state accompanied by a subjective sense of cigarette craving. Self-reported low sensitivity to the pharmacologic effects of alcohol may represent a marker of drug cue reactivity and therefore deserves attention as a potential moderator in smoking cue exposure studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Smoking During Adolescence as a Risk Factor for Attention Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treur, Jorien L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; Geels, Lot M; van Beek, Jenny H D A; Huppertz, Charlotte; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2015-11-01

    Cigarette smoking and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid. One explanation is that individuals with ADHD use cigarettes as "self-medication" to alleviate their attention problems. However, animal studies reported that exposure to nicotine during adolescence influences the developing brain and negatively affects attention. This is the first human study exploring the effects of smoking during adolescence on attention problems. Longitudinal data on smoking and attention problems were available for 1987 adult and 648 adolescent monozygotic twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register. Twin pairs were classified as concordant/discordant for smoking and compared on attention problems. Within adult discordant pairs, the difference in attention problems between the smoking and never-smoking twins was first assessed cross-sectionally. In longitudinal analyses, the increase in attention problems from adolescence, when neither twin smoked, to adulthood was compared within discordant pairs. In subgroups with longitudinal data from childhood and adolescence, changes in smoking concordance and subsequent changes in attention problems were explored. Adult twins who ever smoked reported significantly more attention problems than their never-smoking co-twin. Longitudinal analyses showed a larger increase in attention problems from adolescence to adulthood in smoking twins than their never-smoking co-twin (p adolescence, smoking twins had more attention problems than their never-smoking co-twin, whereas scores were similar before smoking was initiated or after both twins started smoking (not significant in all groups). Results from this genetically informative study suggest smoking during adolescence leads to higher attention problem scores, lasting into adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alcohol use disorder with and without stimulant use: brain morphometry and its associations with cigarette smoking, cognition, and inhibitory control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Pennington

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC as well as light drinking controls (CON, the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU, and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control.All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control.PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON.Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further elucidation of these distinctive

  9. Alcohol Drinking, Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sooyoung; Shin, Aesun; Park, Sue K.; Shin, Hai-Rim; Chang, Soung-Hoon; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer risk among Korean adults. Methods: Data from the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort between 1993 and 2005 were analyzed. The study population comprised 18,707 subjects aged older than 20 years old. The subjects were followed until December 31, 2011 (median follow-up of 11.2 years). The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95...

  10. Secondary Prevention of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Areas Where Smoking, Alcohol, and Betel Quid Chewing are Prevalent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shuan Chung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is ranked as the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and has a substantial effect on public health. In contrast to adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett's esophagus in Western countries, the major disease phenotype in the Asia-Pacific region is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma which is attributed to the prevalence of smoking, alcohol, and betel quid chewing. Despite a multidisciplinary approach to treating esophageal cancer, the outcome remains poor. Moreover, field cancerization reveals that esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is closely linked with the development of head and neck cancers that further sub-optimize the treatment of patients. Therefore, preventive strategies are of paramount importance to improve the prognosis of this dismal disease. Since obstacles exist for primary prevention via risk factor elimination, the current rationale for esophageal cancer prevention is to identify high-risk groups at earlier stages of the disease, and encourage them to get a confirmatory diagnosis, prompt treatment, and intensive surveillance for secondary prevention. Novel biomarkers for identifying specific at-risk populations are under extensive investigation. Advances in image-enhanced endoscopy do not just substantially improve our ability to identify small precancerous or cancerous foci, but can also accurately predict their invasiveness. Research input from the basic sciences should be translated into preventive measures in order to decrease the disease burden of esophageal cancer.

  11. Factors Predicting the Provision of Smoking Cessation Services Among Occupational Health Nurses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatdokmaiprai, Kannikar; Kalampakorn, Surintorn; McCullagh, Marjorie; Lagampan, Sunee; Keeratiwiriyaporn, Sansanee

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors predicting occupational health nurses' provision of smoking cessation services. Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 254 occupational health nurses in Thailand. Analysis by structural equation modeling revealed that self-efficacy directly and positively influenced smoking cessation services, and mediated the relationship between workplace factors, nurse factors, and smoking cessation services. The final model had good fit to the data, accounting for 20.4% and 38.0% of the variance in self-efficacy and smoking cessation services, respectively. The findings show that self-efficacy is a mediator that influences provision of smoking cessation services by occupational health nurses. Interventions to enhance nurses' self-efficacy in providing smoking cessation services are expected to promote provision of smoking cessation services to workers.

  12. The salivary β-HEX A% index as an excellent marker of periodontitis in smoking alcohol-dependent persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Zalewska, Anna; Konarzewska, Beata; Szulc, Agata; Wojtulewska-Supron, Aleksandra; Kępka, Alina; Knaś, Małgorzata; Ładny, Jerzy Robert; Milewski, Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Severe periodontitis leading to tooth loss is found in 5-15% of most populations worldwide. The applicability of salivary β -hexosaminidase (β-HEX A%, percentage of β-HEX A isoenzyme to total β-HEX) and β-HEX B% (β-HEX B/β-HEX) indexes was investigated as a possible marker of periodontitis. Thirty three alcohol-dependent smokers (AS) and 32 healthy controls (C) were enrolled in the study. The activity of β-HEX was measured spectrophotometrically. β-HEX A% was significantly higher and β-HEX B% was lower in AS than in C group. We found a significant correlation between β-HEX A% and gingival index (GI) and an inverse correlation between β-HEX A% and salivary flow (SF), in all groups. Salivary β-HEX A% index in smoking alcoholics at 0.23 had excellent sensitivity (96%) and specificity (91%); the AUC for β-HEX A% was high (0.937). There were no correlations between amount/duration-time of alcohol drinking/smoking and β-HEX A% or β-HEX B%. We found significant correlations between the time period of denture wearing and GI, papilla bleeding index (PBI), and decayed missing filled teeth index (DMFT) and between GI and the amount of smoked cigarettes per day. Bad periodontal state was most likely due to the nicotine dependence. Salivary β-HEX A% is a promising excellent marker for the diagnosis of periodontitis.

  13. Factores predictores del inicio y consolidación del consumo de tabaco en adolescentes Analysis of factors related to smoking initiation and continued smoking in young adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Caballero-Hidalgo

    2005-12-01

    , principalmente, los efectos del grupo de amigos, el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas y el poco interés por los estudios como factores asociados al consumo de tabaco.Objective: To analyse the determining of the acquisition and later consolidation of the tobacco consumption in young adolescents. Material and method: Longitudinal study of three years of duration (2000-2002. Subjects were students of secondary education between 13 and 14 years old at the beginning of the study. The research was performed in Gran Canaria Island with a final sample of 745 subjects. Models of conditional binary election were considered for longitudinal data where the dependent variable reflects decisions of the adolescents through time, with regard to the probability of beginning to smoke, «beginning model», and the probability of being occasional or habitual smoker, «experimentation model». Results: In the last year, 57% of the young teenagers surveyed use tobacco, a 25% more than in the first year, some of them, 9% on a daily basis. In the «beginning model» the determining of the tobacco consumption are interest in studies (odds ratio [OR] = 0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.08-0.87 and OR = 0.14; 95% CI, 0.03-0.58 for the students having enough and much interest in studies, respectively, to have a smoker as the best friend (OR = 7.44; 95% CI, 2.59-21.4, the alcohol consumption (OR = 11.82; 95% CI, 4.96-28.2 and OR=15.42; 95% CI, 4.68-50.7 for youngs who drink alcohol occasionally or frequently and having more pocket money (euros per week (OR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07-1.19. For the «experimentation model», to have a smoker as the best friend (OR = 7.01; 95% CI, 2.96-16.5, the alcohol consumption (OR = 5.71; 95% CI, 1.98-16.4 and OR = 5.22; 95% CI, the 1.56-17.5 for youngs who drink alcohol occasionally or frequently and the number of years since the student started smoking (OR = 1.44; 95% IC, 1.11-1.86. Conclusions: Our study emphasizes, peer group effect, drinking alcoholic beverages and lack

  14. Factors Associated with Growth in Daily Smoking among Indigenous Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Les B.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; McQuillan, Julia; Crawford, Devan M.

    2012-01-01

    North American Indigenous adolescents smoke earlier, smoke more, and are more likely to become regular smokers as adults than youth from any other ethnic group, yet we know very little about their early smoking trajectories. We use multilevel growth modeling across five waves of data from Indigenous adolescents (aged 10-13 years at Wave 1) to…

  15. Smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and family history and the risks of acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgels Anton PM

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies investigated the association between smoking, alcohol consumption, or physical activity and the risk of unstable angina pectoris (UAP, while the strength of these associations may differ compared to other coronary diseases such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Therefore, we investigated whether the associations of these lifestyle factors with UAP differed from those with AMI. Additionally, we investigated whether these effects differed between subjects with and without a family history of myocardial infarction (MI. Methods The CAREMA study consists of 21,148 persons, aged 20-59 years at baseline and randomly sampled from the Maastricht region in 1987-1997. At baseline, all participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. After follow-up of maximally 16.9 years, 420 AMI and 274 UAP incident cases were registered. Incidence rate ratios (RRs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results For both diseases, smoking increased the risk while alcohol consumption was associated with a protective effect. Associations with both risk factors were stronger for AMI than UAP, although this difference was only statistically significant for smoking. In men, an inverse association was found with physical activity during leisure time which seemed to be stronger for the risk of UAP than of AMI. On the contrary, physical activity during leisure time was associated with an increased risk of both AMI and UAP in women which seemed to be weaker for UAP than for AMI. Except for occupational physical activity in women, no significant interactions on a multiplicative scale were found between the lifestyle factors and family history of MI. Nevertheless, the highest risks were found in subjects with both a positive family history and the most unfavorable level of the lifestyle factors. Conclusions The strength of the associations with the lifestyle factors did not differ between AMI and UAP, except for smoking

  16. Effect of smoking and alcohol drinking on the acute erosive oral lichen planus%烟酒刺激与口腔扁平苔藓糜烂症状急性发作的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周淳; 张珺晔; 周曾同; 徐珉华

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the impact of smoking and alcohol drinking on acute erosive OLP.Method:OLP patients have been divided into 3 groups:smoking group,alcohol drinking group,smoking and alcohol drinking.The impact of exposure factors such as smoking and drinking on acute erosive OLP was investigated by the prospective epidemiological approach:the effect of exposure factors on the attack and frequency of acute erosive OLP was illustrated,i.c.,dose-response function and group differences between smoking and alcohol drinking.Result:①Compared to non-smoking patients with OLP,smoker with OLP of erosive occurrences attractions were higher than non-smoking ones (P <0.01).②Compared to nondrinking patients with OLP,the alcohol drinker with OLP of erosive occurrences attractions were higher than no alcohol ones (P <0.05).③Compared to no alcohol and tobacco patients with OLP,the OLP patients with alcohol and tobacco attack frequency was significantly higher(P <0.01).④The amount of smoking,alcohol drinking stimulation and the erosion symptoms of acute exacerbation in OLP patients were significantly related (P <0.01).Conclusion:There is a significant relationship between the stimulation of smoking or alcohol drinking and the incidence of OLP erosive attack or seizure frequency.%目的:探讨烟酒刺激与口腔扁平苔藓(0LP)糜烂症状急性发作之间的关系.方法:根据是否吸烟、饮酒,分为吸烟暴露组(只吸烟不饮酒,共138人)、饮酒暴露组(只饮酒不吸烟,共110人)、烟加酒暴露组(既吸烟又饮酒,共77人)和非暴露组(不吸烟不饮酒).各暴露组与非暴露组1:1配对.分别对各组暴露情况与糜烂发作情况进行相关性研究.结果:①吸烟暴露组糜烂发作的发生率与发作频率较非暴露组显著升高(P <0.01).②饮酒暴露组糜烂发作的发生率与发作频率增高,较非暴露组有统计学差异(P<0.05).③烟加酒暴露组糜烂发作的发生

  17. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol and substance use among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark compared with the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders G.; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk of alcohol and substance abuse in adulthood. An unequivocal reason for this association has not yet been identified but it has been shown that pharmacological treatment...... is likely to reduce this risk. Aims: To test whether adolescents with ADHD in pharmacological treatment have a higher prevalence of smoking and use of alcohol and drugs than a matched control group from the general population. The study will also analyse associations between smoking, alcohol and drug use......, drugs and alcohol and the self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results: 21% of ADHD probands vs. 16% controls were daily smokers (P = 0.326). Among alcohol users, 52% of ADHD probands vs. 70% controls confirmed monthly alcohol intake (P = 0.014); 4% of cases...

  18. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and interaction with smoking and alcohol consumption in lung cancer risk: a case-control study in a Japanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayama Koichi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor of lung cancer development while the current epidemiological evidence is suggestive of an increased lung cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption. Dietary folate, which is present in a wide range of fresh fruits and vegetables, may be a micronutrient that has a beneficial impact on lung carcinogenesis. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR plays a crucial role in regulating folate metabolism, which affects both DNA synthesis/repair and methylation. We examined if smoking or alcohol consumption modify associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. Methods We evaluated the role of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133 and A1298C (rs1801131 polymorphisms in a case-control study comprised of 462 lung cancer cases and 379 controls in a Japanese population. Logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results The TT genotype of the C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.42 - 3.62, P Conclusions The C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with lung cancer risk. Although the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer risk, a significant interaction with drinking was observed. Future studies incorporating data on folate intake may undoubtedly lead to a more thorough understanding of the role of the MTHFR polymorphisms in lung cancer development.

  19. Associations of psychological capital, demographic and occupational factors with cigarette smoking among Chinese underground coal miners

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li; Xu, Xin; Wu, Hui; Yang, Yilong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Background As a specific male occupational group, underground coal miners have been commonly found to have a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. It is of urgent need to explore some factors that could be intervened to reduce smoking from personal or internal perspective. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of psychological capital (PsyCap), demographic and occupational factors with smoking among Chinese underground coal miners. Methods A cross-sectional survey w...

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Adolescents Smoking: Difference Between Korean and Korean-Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SoonBok E. Park, RN, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: These results highlight the differences of smoking prevalence and risk factors between Korean-Chinese students and Korean students. The findings may help health educators and researchers to better understand adolescent smoking and risk factors cross culturally and aid in the development of more effective education programs, which could lead to preventing tobacco use among these populations.

  1. Genome-Wide Interaction Analyses between Genetic Variants and Alcohol Consumption and Smoking for Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Hutter, Carolyn M; Newcomb, Polly A; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Bien, Stephanie A; Campbell, Peter T; Baron, John A; Berndt, Sonja I; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Casey, Graham; Chan, Andrew T; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Du, Mengmeng; Duggan, David; Figueiredo, Jane C; Gallinger, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward L; Haile, Robert W; Harrison, Tabitha A; Hayes, Richard B; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L; Hudson, Thomas J; Jeon, Jihyoun; Jenkins, Mark A; Kocarnik, Jonathan; Küry, Sébastien; Le Marchand, Loic; Lin, Yi; Lindor, Noralane M; Nishihara, Reiko; Ogino, Shuji; Potter, John D; Rudolph, Anja; Schoen, Robert E; Schrotz-King, Petra; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Thornquist, Mark; Toth, Reka; Wallace, Robert; White, Emily; Jiao, Shuo; Lemire, Mathieu; Hsu, Li; Peters, Ulrike

    2016-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, variants in these loci explain only a small proportion of familial aggregation, and there are likely additional variants that are associated with CRC susceptibility. Genome-wide studies of gene-environment interactions may identify variants that are not detected in GWAS of marginal gene effects. To study this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis for interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Interactions were tested using logistic regression. We identified interaction between CRC risk and alcohol consumption and variants in the 9q22.32/HIATL1 (Pinteraction = 1.76×10-8; permuted p-value 3.51x10-8) region. Compared to non-/occasional drinking light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs9409565 CT genotype (OR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74-0.91]; P = 2.1×10-4) and TT genotypes (OR,0.62 [95% CI, 0.51-0.75]; P = 1.3×10-6) but not associated among those with the CC genotype (p = 0.059). No genome-wide statistically significant interactions were observed for smoking. If replicated our suggestive finding of a genome-wide significant interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption might contribute to understanding colorectal cancer etiology and identifying subpopulations with differential susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on CRC risk.

  2. Genome-Wide Interaction Analyses between Genetic Variants and Alcohol Consumption and Smoking for Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified many genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC. However, variants in these loci explain only a small proportion of familial aggregation, and there are likely additional variants that are associated with CRC susceptibility. Genome-wide studies of gene-environment interactions may identify variants that are not detected in GWAS of marginal gene effects. To study this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis for interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO. Interactions were tested using logistic regression. We identified interaction between CRC risk and alcohol consumption and variants in the 9q22.32/HIATL1 (Pinteraction = 1.76×10-8; permuted p-value 3.51x10-8 region. Compared to non-/occasional drinking light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs9409565 CT genotype (OR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74-0.91]; P = 2.1×10-4 and TT genotypes (OR,0.62 [95% CI, 0.51-0.75]; P = 1.3×10-6 but not associated among those with the CC genotype (p = 0.059. No genome-wide statistically significant interactions were observed for smoking. If replicated our suggestive finding of a genome-wide significant interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption might contribute to understanding colorectal cancer etiology and identifying subpopulations with differential susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on CRC risk.

  3. Trends in leisure time physical activity, smoking, body mass index and alcohol consumption in Danish adults with and without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Snorgaard, Ole

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: In recent decades there has been an increased focus on non-pharmacological treatment of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in leisure time physical activity (PA), smoking, body mass index (BMI), and alcohol consumption reported in 2000, 2005 and 2010 by Danish subjects...... with diabetes. METHODS: Data comprised level of leisure time PA (inactive; moderate active; medium active; high active); smoking; BMI; and alcohol consumption, provided by The Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys. Participants older than 45 years with or without diabetes were included from cross...... was reduced from 27.2% to 16.4%, p=0.015, in women with diabetes. In men with diabetes, BMI increased from 27.2 ± 4.0 to 28.6 ± 5.1 kgm(-2), p=0.003, and men who exceeded the maximum recommendation for alcohol consumption increased from 9.4% to 19.0%, p=0.007. The leisure time PA level was reduced...

  4. Relations Among Caffeine Consumption, Smoking, Smoking Urge, and Subjective Smoking Reinforcement in Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Hayley R; Piasecki, Thomas M; McCarthy, Danielle E; Baker, Timothy B

    2014-09-01

    Caffeine consumption and cigarette smoking tend to occur within the same individuals and at the same time. One potential explanation for this co-use is that caffeine consumption increases subjective smoking reinforcement. Electronic diaries were used to collect momentary reports of smoking, caffeine consumption, temptation/urge to smoke, and subjective smoking reinforcement in 74 prequit smokers. Momentary reports of caffeine consumption and smoking were associated, replicating previous findings. These results remained significant when contextual factors (time of day, weekday/weekend, presence of others, presence of others smoking, location, and past hour alcohol consumption) were covaried. Caffeine consumption was also associated with positive cigarette appraisals and reports of strong temptation/urge to smoke and urge reduction from the prior cigarette. Under the conditions of caffeine consumption versus at other times, smokers were significantly more likely to report their last cigarette as producing a rush/buzz, being pleasant, relaxing, and tasting good. The effects for temptation/urge to smoke and rush/buzz varied as a function of latency since smoking. Caffeine consumption increased reports of urge to smoke and rush/buzz only when smoking occurred more than 15 minutes prior to the diary entry. Findings suggest that caffeine consumption influences some aspects of smoking motivation or affects memorial processing of smoking reinforcement.

  5. The Study of Factors Influencing Smoking among Male University Students in Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Mohebbi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the rapid growth of smoking prevalence and due to the necessity of knowing the problem, in order to sensitize the community and the health officials, the present study aimed to determine factors influencing smoking among male university students in kermanshah based on BASNEF Model. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 569 students studying in Kermanshah in 1387 were selected through snowball sampling procedure. The data was collected through a valid and reliable researcher- made questionnaire consisting of 70 questions in 5 sections of demographic, awareness, attitude, enabling and norms. Using SPSS, the data was analyzed through chi-square and one-way ANOVA. Results: In this study, the mean scores for awareness and attitude about smoking among students were respectively 89±7/1 and 72/7±6/2. There was no significant relationship between numbers of cigarettes smoked and the university kind or educational levels of students. The most frequent enabling factor for smoking was easy access to cigarette and the most influencing social norm in smoking was student’s close friends. Calmness (38/3% was the most frequent belief about smoking among the target population, and lack of suitable pastimes and curiosity were the most important reasons to try smoking for the first time. Conclusion: In this study, having smoking friends as the most obvious factor for inclination toward smoking demonstrates the role of peer group pressure among young people. The second outstanding factor among abstract social norms was smoking parents. University instructors and TV film stars were other factors which influenced students’ intention to smoke.

  6. Risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANG Xueqin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and to provide a basis for the prevention of NAFLD. MethodsA total of 190 patients with NAFLD who visited the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from January 2011 to January 2013 were included in the study. The investigated factors included sex, age, height, weight, dietary habit, smoking and alcohol consumption, educational level, occupation, intensity and duration of physical exercise, bedtime, previous history, and family history. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using SPSS 18.0 to determine the risk factors for NAFLD. ResultsThe univariate analysis showed that sex, age, dietary habit, occupation, body mass index (BMI, and educational level were associated with NAFLD (P<0.05. The logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors for NAFLD were sex (OR=5.692, P=0.029, age (OR=0.423, P=0.041, occupation (OR=0.698, P=0.008, BMI (OR=3.939, P=0.003, educational level (OR=5.463, P=0.030, and dietary habit (OR=9.235, P=0.039. ConclusionNAFLD may be related to many factors, and corresponding preventive measures may reduce the development of NAFLD.

  7. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-01-26

    (1) BACKGROUND: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2) METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3) RESULTS: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050). Of the respondents (n = 969), 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173), attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471), believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755), perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child's health (OR = 1.547), believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816), and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950). Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523). (4) CONCLUSIONS: A home smoking ban is

  8. A study on smoking and associated psychosocial factors among adolescent students in Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Nilay Bagchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use among school children and adolescents is an increasing problem world-wide, particularly in the developing countries. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out in six co-educational high schools in Kolkata, West Bengal among 526 students of 15-19 years to determine the prevalence of smoking and to find out any difference among the smokers and non-smokers regarding factors related to family relations, peer group and personal characteristics. The overall rate of smoking was found to be 29.6%, mean age of initiation of smoking was earlier in males. Among smokers 75% students started smoking by 15 years. Smoking of father and peer group, family conflict and pornography addiction were found to have significant association with smoking of students. Early school health based interventions addressing these factors might help in effectively tackling this problem.

  9. Emotional Intelligence, Hardiness, and Smoking: Protective Factors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the biggest threat to public health, and it remains a serious cause of death in the world. It even causes acute and chronic diseases in passive smokers. Remarkably, the age of the onset of cigarette smoking is decreasing. Therefore, it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the attitudes among adolescents toward cigarette…

  10. Emotional Intelligence, Hardiness, and Smoking: Protective Factors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the biggest threat to public health, and it remains a serious cause of death in the world. It even causes acute and chronic diseases in passive smokers. Remarkably, the age of the onset of cigarette smoking is decreasing. Therefore, it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the attitudes among adolescents toward cigarette…

  11. Prevalence and associated factors of smoking among secondary school students in Harare Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusakaniko Simbarashe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing epidemic of tobacco use among adolescents in the developing world. However, there is no up to date information on smoking among adolescents. Although in the developing world concerted efforts are being made to control tobacco use, Zimbabwe does not have any documented tobacco control programmes. We estimated the prevalence of smoking among school going secondary school students in Harare, Zimbabwe. Methods A 3-stage stratified random sampling was employed to select six participating schools and students. A descriptive analysis was conducted to describe the demographic characteristics of the participants. The prevalence of smoking was estimated and the comparison of prevalence was performed according to its associated factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for smoking. Results 650 students with a mean age 16 years and 47% of them female participated. Prevalence of ever-smoked was 28.8% (95% CI 25.3 to 32.3. Prevalence of ever-smoked among males (37.8% was significantly (p Conclusions The study provides recent estimates of prevalence of smoking, and indicates that there is still a high prevalence of smoking among urban secondary school students. Exposure to friends who smoke, risky behaviour like substance abuse, premarital sex and physical fights are significantly associated with smoking. Interventions to stop or reduce the habit should be implemented now and future studies should monitor and evaluate the impact of the interventions.

  12. [Factors associated with smoking continuation or cessation in men upon learning of their partner's pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouketsu, Tomomi; Gokan, Yoko; Ishihara, Takako; Tamaoki, Mariko; Gotoh, Tadao; Kobayashi, Suzuka

    2013-04-01

    Factors associated with smoking continuation or cessation were analyzed among parents of 4-month-old infants, in order to prepare the basic materials for a smoking cessation support program for pregnant women and their partners. The study focused on the changes in partners' smoking activities upon learning of their partner's pregnancy. An anonymous self-completed questionnaire was given to parents of 1,198 infants during a 4-month medical checkup in City A of Hyogo prefecture (776 couples) and City B of Gifu prefecture (422 couples). The questionnaire items collected information on age, education, smoking history, current smoking status, and awareness about smoking. The additional items for fathers were occupation, workplace smoking environment, and attitude toward smoking; and the additional items for women were number of children, family composition, and partners' attitudes and behaviors regarding smoking upon learning of their pregnancy. The number of valid answers (for pairs) was 558 (71.9%) in City A and 395 (93.6%) in City B. The data on men who had been smokers before learning of their partner's pregnancy were analyzed. For each area, a comparative item-by-item analysis was performed on data from men who ceased smoking upon learning of the pregnancy (smoking cessation group) and those who continued smoking (smoking continuation group). For logistic regression analysis, the objective variables were the 2 groups, and the explanatory variables were the items showing statistical differences between the groups and the items related to the survey areas. Of the men whose data were included in the analysis, 210 (37.6%) in City A and 204 (51.6%) in City B had been smokers before learning of their partner's pregnancy. Among these, 16 (7.6%) in City A and 26 (12.7%) in City B ceased smoking after learning of the pregnancy. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio for continuing smoking was 2.77 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-6.57] for

  13. The long-term effect of a population-based life-style intervention on smoking and alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Toft, Ulla Marie Nørgaard; Aadahl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    -year follow-up were investigated using random-effects modelling. FINDINGS: At 10-year follow up, people in the intervention group reported a higher smoking abstinence rate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-3.33, P = 0.043] and a greater reduction in binge drinking (net change......AIMS: To examine whether improvements in smoking and alcohol consumption throughout the 5-year course of a population-based multi-factorial life-style intervention were sustained 5 years after its discontinuation. DESIGN: Population-based randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Suburbs of Copenhagen......, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 9415 people aged 30-60 years were randomized to an intervention group (n = 6091) and an assessment-only control group (n = 3324). INTERVENTION: All participants in the intervention group received screening, risk assessment and individual life-style counselling...

  14. Prevalence and factors influencing smoking amongst Malay primary school children in Tumpat, Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbanee, T H; Norhayati, M N; Norsa'adah, B; Naing, N N

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, knowledge and factors that influence smoking in Malay primary school children in Tumpat, Kelantan. A cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2004 among primary school children in Tumpat District. Two hundred-twelve children in standard one to six were randomly selected from three rural schools. An interview that included information on history of ever smoking, knowledge related to smoking and health, and potential factors that could influence smoking was done. Twenty-five children had previously smoked, with a prevalence of 11.8% (95%CI=8.0, 17.0) and 8 were current smokers (3.8%, 95%CI=1.2, 6.4). More than half (64.6%) of the children had a good knowledge of smoking. However, only 105 (49.5%) of them knew that passive smokers have a higher risk of developing diseases. Of those who had ever smoked, 12 (36.6%) were influenced by peers and 17 (51.5%) had a self-desire to smoke. The earliest age to start smoking was at 6 years. Factors found to be significantly associated with smoking on multivariate analysis were increasing age (OR=2.8, 95%CI=1.6, 5.1), being boys (OR=5.8, 95%CI=2.0, 16.8), being at second school level (standard 4, 5, 6)(OR=7.8, 95%CI=1.3, 45.3) and having other family members (excluding father) who smoked (OR=2.8, 95%CI=1.2, 6.5). However, having a father who smoked and a good knowledge were not reported as influencing factors.

  15. Social-cognitive and school factors in initiation of smoking among adolescents: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Siersma, Volkert

    2009-01-01

    -efficacy, social influence (norms), social influence (behavior), social influence (pressure), and attitude. We used multilevel analyses to estimate the associations between social-cognitive factors at baseline and smoking initiation as well as the random effects of school, school class, and gender group......AIMS: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between social-cognitive factors, school factors, and smoking initiation among adolescents who had never smoked. METHODS: The study was based on longitudinal data on Danish adolescents attending randomly selected public schools....... Adolescents enrolled in grade 7 (mean age, 13 years) who had never smoked (n = 912) were followed up for 6 months after baseline. Those who had still never smoked were followed up again 18 months after baseline, in grade 8 (n = 442). Social-cognitive factors were examined with five measures: self...

  16. The Salivary β-HEX A% Index as an Excellent Marker of Periodontitis in Smoking Alcohol-Dependent Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleon Waszkiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Severe periodontitis leading to tooth loss is found in 5–15% of most populations worldwide. Aim. The applicability of salivary β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX A%, percentage of β-HEX A isoenzyme to total β-HEX and β-HEX B% (β-HEX B/β-HEX indexes was investigated as a possible marker of periodontitis. Methods. Thirty three alcohol-dependent smokers (AS and 32 healthy controls (C were enrolled in the study. The activity of β-HEX was measured spectrophotometrically. Results. β-HEX A% was significantly higher and β-HEX B% was lower in AS than in C group. We found a significant correlation between β-HEX A% and gingival index (GI and an inverse correlation between β-HEX A% and salivary flow (SF, in all groups. Salivary β-HEX A% index in smoking alcoholics at 0.23 had excellent sensitivity (96% and specificity (91%; the AUC for β-HEX A% was high (0.937. There were no correlations between amount/duration-time of alcohol drinking/smoking and β-HEX A% or β-HEX B%. We found significant correlations between the time period of denture wearing and GI, papilla bleeding index (PBI, and decayed missing filled teeth index (DMFT and between GI and the amount of smoked cigarettes per day. Conclusion. Bad periodontal state was most likely due to the nicotine dependence. Salivary β-HEX A% is a promising excellent marker for the diagnosis of periodontitis.

  17. Association of genetic polymorphisms in PTEN and additional interaction with alcohol consumption and smoking on colorectal cancer in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mingyang; Wu, Gang; Sun, Peichun; Nie, Jiewei; Zhang, Jiancheng; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) gene rs3830675, and additional interaction with drinking and smoking on colorectal cancer (CRC), based on a hospital based Chinese case-control study. A total of 850 subjects (413 males and 437 females) were studied, including 422 colorectal cancer cases and 428 controls. Rs3830675 was selected for genotyping in the case-control study. Logistic regression model was used to examine the association between rs3830675 and colorectal cancer, and additional interaction with alcohol consumption and smoking. The frequencies for rs3830675 (-) alleles was higher in cases than that in controls, (-) allele of rs3830675 was 24.4% in controls and 29.4% in CRC subjects (p=0.005). Logistic analysis showed that the carriers of (-) allele of rs3830675 revealed increased CRC risk than those with (+/+) genotype, adjusted OR (95% CI) was 1.35(1.12-1.98). We found a significant interaction between alcohol consumption and rs3830675, drinkers with (-/-) or (-/+) of rs3830675 genotype have highest colorectal cancer risk, compared to never drinking subjects with (+/+) genotype, OR (95% CI) was 2.57 (1.66-3.33), after covariates adjustment. In addition, we also found that smokers with (-/-) or (-/+) of rs3830675 genotype have highest colorectal cancer risk, compared to never smokers with (+/+) genotype, OR (95% CI) was 3.01 (1.58-6.05). The (-) allele of rs3830675 was positively with colorectal cancer risk. There was a significant role of interaction of rs3830675 with alcohol consumption and smoking on colorectal cancer.

  18. Associations of alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity and obesity with survival following colorectal cancer diagnosis by stage, anatomic site and tumor molecular subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Harindra; English, Dallas R; Haydon, Andrew; Hodge, Allison M; Lynch, Brigid M; Rosty, Christophe; Williamson, Elizabeth J; Clendenning, Mark; Southey, Melissa C; Jenkins, Mark A; Room, Robin; Hopper, John L; Milne, Roger L; Buchanan, Daniel D; Giles, Graham G; MacInnis, Robert J

    2017-09-16

    The influence of lifestyle factors on survival following a diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is not well established. We examined associations between lifestyle factors measured before diagnosis and CRC survival. The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study collected data on alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and physical activity, and body measurements at baseline (1990-94) and wave 2 (2003-07). We included participants diagnosed to 31 August 2015 with incident stage I-III CRC within 10-years post exposure assessment. Information on tumor characteristics and vital status was obtained. Tumor DNA was tested for microsatellite instability (MSI) and somatic mutations in oncogenes BRAF (V600E) and KRAS. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for associations between lifestyle factors and overall and CRC-specific mortality using Cox regression. Of 724 eligible CRC cases, 339 died (170 from CRC) during follow-up (average 9.0 years). Exercise (non-occupational/leisure-time) was associated with higher CRC-specific survival for stage II (HR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.10-0.60) but not stage I/III disease (p for interaction = .01), and possibly for colon and KRAS wild-type tumors. Waist circumference was inversely associated with CRC-specific survival (HR = 1.25 per 10 cm increment, 95% CI: 1.08-1.44), independent of stage, anatomic site and tumor molecular status. Cigarette smoking was associated with lower overall survival, with suggestive evidence of worse survival for BRAF mutated CRC, but not with CRC-specific survival. Alcohol intake was not associated with survival. Survival did not differ by MSI status. We have identified pre-diagnostic predictors of survival following CRC that may have clinical and public health relevance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 UICC.

  19. The smoking behaviors of indigenous Taiwanese: individual and family/community factors of influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsing-Wen; Chu, Nain-Feng; Chen, Hsing-Hsia; Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Smoking, a self-selected behavior, is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Factors related to smoking in Taiwan's indigenous Malayo-Polynesian population should be elicited and addressed. This study examined the relationship between smoking behavior and individual and family/community factors in indigenous Taiwanese. This study was a secondary analysis of data obtained from household visits in central Taiwan that included a population of 562 indigenous adults aged 20-50 years. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and hierarchical logistic regression to determine individual and family/community relevant factors of smoking behaviors. The smoking rate in the population studied was 57.48% (39.15% men, 18.33% women). The odds ratio for smoking was markedly higher in men than in women. Smokers were 0.45 times more likely to have fixed sexual partners. The OR for smoking was 2.68 times in households with smokers and 7.03 times in people living in mountainous areas. The issue of smoking in indigenous Taiwanese deserves further attention and concern. Further interventions for the harmful effects of tobacco can focus on younger indigenous people living in mountain regions and on smokers' sexual partners. In addition, male adults, female adults, and heads of households should take a greater role in changing the smoking behaviors of smokers and their family members.

  20. CYP2E1 Rsa Ⅰ polymorphism impacts on risk of colorectal cancer association with smoking and alcohol drinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate associations between the Rsa Ⅰpolymorphism of CYP2E1 and risk of colorectal cancer.METHODS: A case-control study was conducted with 315 colorectal cancer cases (105 colon, 210 rectal)and 439 population-based controls in Jiangsu Province of China. Genomic DNA samples were assayed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms in CYP2E1by PCR amplification followed by digestion with Rsa Ⅰ. Information on smoking and alcohol drinking was collected using a questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with an unconditional logistic model.RESULTS: The proportional distribution of the CYP2E1 Rsa Ⅰ c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 genotypes were 61.4%,35.6% and 3.0% in controls, 60.6%, 33.7% and 5.8%in colon cancer cases, and 58.4%, 34.0% and 7.7% in rectal cancer cases, respectively. A significant difference was noted between controls and rectal cancer cases (P = 0.029), the c2/c2 genotype being associated with elevated OR (adjusted age, sex and status of the smoking and alcohol drinking) for rectal cancer (1.64,95% CI, 1.12-2.41, vs c1 allele carriers), but not for colon cancer. In interaction analysis between the CYP2E1Rsa Ⅰ genotype and smoking and drinking habits, we found a significant cooperative action between the c2/c2 genotype and alcohol drinking in the sex-, age-adjusted ORs for both colon (4.74, 95% CI, 1.10-20.40) and rectal (5.75, 95% CI, 1.65-20.05) cancers. Among nonsmokers, the CYP2E1 Rsa Ⅰ c2/c2 genotype was also associated with elevated ORs in the two sites (1.95, 95%CI, 0.99-3.86 and 2.30, 95% CI, 1.32-3.99).CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that the CYP2E1 c2/c2 genotype increases susceptibility to rectal cancer and the gene-environmental interactions between the CYP2E1 polymorphism and smoking or alcohol drinking exist for colorectal neoplasia in general.

  1. Association of physical job demands, smoking and alcohol abuse with subsequent premature mortality: a 9-year follow-up population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgkard, Eve; Wild, Pascal; Massin, Nicole; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Otero Sierra, Carmen; Fontana, Jean-Marc; Benamghar, Lahoucine; Mur, Jean-Marie; Ravaud, Jean-François; Guillemin, Francis; Chau, Nearkasen

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships of physical job demands (PJD), smoking, and alcohol abuse, with premature mortality before age 70 (PM-70) among the working or inactive population. The sample included 4,268 subjects aged 15 or more randomly selected in north-eastern France. They completed a mailed questionnaire (birth date, sex, weight, height, job, PJD, smoking habit, alcohol abuse (Deta questionnaire)) in 1996 and were followed for mortality until 2004 (9 yr). PJD score was defined by the cumulative number of the following high job demands at work: hammer, vibrating platform, pneumatic tools, other vibrating hand tools, screwdriver, handling objects, awkward posture, tasks at heights, machine tools, pace, working on a production line, standing about and walking. The data were analyzed using the Poisson regression model. Those with PM-70 were 126 (3.81 per 1,000 person-years). The leading causes of death were cancers (46.4% in men, 57.1% in women), cardiovascular diseases (20.2% and 11.9%), suicide (9.5% and 7.1%), respiratory diseases (6.0% and 4.8%), and digestive diseases (2.4% and 4.8%). PJD3, smoker, and alcohol abuse had adjusted risk ratios of 1.71 (95% CI 1.02-2.88), 1.76 (1.08-2.88), and 2.07 (1.31-3.26) respectively for all-cause mortality. Manual workers had a risk ratio of 1.84 (1.00-3.37) compared to the higher socio-economic classes. The men had a two-fold higher mortality rate than the women; this difference became non-significant when controlling for job, PJD, smoker and alcohol abuse. For cancer mortality the factors PJD3, smoker, and alcohol abuse had adjusted risk ratios of 2.00 (1.00-3.99), 2.34 (1.19-4.63), and 2.22 (1.17-4.20), respectively. Health promotion efforts should be directed at structural measures of task redesign and they should also concern lifestyle.

  2. Genetic Sensitivity to Peer Behaviors: "5HTTLPR", Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Jonathan; Shanahan, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Smolen, Andrew; Haberstick, Brett; Boardman, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region ("5HTTLPR"), a gene associated with environmental sensitivity, moderates the association between smoking and drinking patterns at adolescents' schools and their corresponding risk for smoking and drinking themselves. Drawing on the school-based design of the National…

  3. Genetic Sensitivity to Peer Behaviors: "5HTTLPR", Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Jonathan; Shanahan, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Smolen, Andrew; Haberstick, Brett; Boardman, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region ("5HTTLPR"), a gene associated with environmental sensitivity, moderates the association between smoking and drinking patterns at adolescents' schools and their corresponding risk for smoking and drinking themselves. Drawing on the school-based design of the National…

  4. Smoking Behavior and Demographic Risk Factors in Argentina: A Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Eugenio; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Guil, Valeria; Gregorich, Steven E.; Mejia, Raul; J.Pérez-Stable, Eliseo

    2007-01-01

    Background Demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with smoking behavior were evaluated in a nationwide household survey in Argentina to describe the status of the tobacco epidemic. Methods Face-to-face interviews with adults, age 20 and older, assessed smoking status, frequency, and age of initiation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare social and demographic characteristics. Results Of the 43,863 participants, 38% of men and 24% of women were current smokers, and 20% of current smokers smoked occasionally. For older men and women, smoking was less prevalent and their probability of quitting higher. Men with more than high school education were less likely to be current smokers. Rates for women did not differ by education. Conclusions The lower smoking rates among men with more education suggest that Argentina has begun to transition to the next stage of the tobacco epidemic. Tobacco control policy must direct efforts to change smoking behavior. PMID:18037987

  5. Obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity as risk factors for CKD: Are men more vulnerable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Hallan; R. de Mutsert; S. Carlsen; F.W. Dekker; K. Aasarod; J. Holmen

    2006-01-01

    Background: The incidence of end-stage renal disease is especially high in men, and some studies indicated that smoking is a risk factor for men only. We investigated associations between obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population and whether

  6. Cigarette Smoking, Friendship Factors, and Social Norm Perceptions among Central and Eastern European High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Ihasz, Ferenc; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata; Hantiu, Iacob

    2006-01-01

    Studies investigating smoking behavior among adolescents living in post-communistic Central-European countries are sparse. This study focused on the relationship between cigarette smoking, certain friendship factors, and social norm perceptions among 1,886 Central-Eastern European adolescents from high schools in Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic,…

  7. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  8. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  9. Cigarette Smoking as a Risk Factor for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Bengt; Cnattingius, Sven

    1990-01-01

    Examines risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome based on Swedish births between 1983 and 1985. Results indicate that maternal smoking doubles the risk of infant death, and infants of smokers also died sooner. The more the mother smoked the more likely her infant was to die. (JS)

  10. Mathematical Model for Addiction: Application to Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Data for Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, David P.; Elketroussi, Mehdi

    1989-01-01

    Describes habituation and addiction, both psychological and physiological, using simple equations of mathematical model of ideodynamics, optimized to smoking data from Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) program. With only four constant parameters, it was possible to calculate accurate time trends for recidivism to smoking among…

  11. Smoking during adolescence as a risk factor for attention problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.L.; Willemsen, G.; Bartels, M.; Geels, L.M.; Beek, J.H.D.H. van; Huppertz, C.; Beijsterveldt, C.E.M. van; Boomsma, D.I.; Vink, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid. One explanation is that individuals with ADHD use cigarettes as "self-medication" to alleviate their attention problems. However, animal studies reported that exposure to nicotine during

  12. Developmental trajectories of cigarette smoking from adolescence to the early thirties: personality and behavioral risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, David W; Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Whiteman, Martin; Cohen, Patricia; Finch, Stephen J

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify distinct trajectories of cigarette smoking from ages 14 to 32, and to examine adolescent personality factors that distinguish trajectories of smoking behavior. Participants (N = 975) were randomly selected and followed prospectively since 1975. Follow-up data on cigarette use and personality and behavioral attributes were collected at five points in time, using structured interviews given in private by trained interviewers. Of these subjects, 746 comprised the cohort used in this study. Growth mixture modeling identified five smoking trajectory groups: nonsmokers, occasional smokers, late starters, quitters, and heavy/continuous smokers. Adolescent personality and behavioral risk factors such as lower ego integration, more externalizing behavior, and lower educational aspirations distinguished the trajectory groups. No gender differences were noted. The findings supported the hypotheses indicating multiple distinct trajectory groups of smoking behavior. Smoking behavior appeared in early adolescence and most often continued into adulthood. Emotional difficulties (i.e., lower ego integration), externalizing behavior, and lower educational aspirations in early adolescence were associated both with smoking at an early age and with continuing to smoke into the thirties. To be more effective, smoking prevention programs should target personality and behavioral variations before smoking becomes habitual, particularly focused on characteristics reflecting behavioral problems as manifested in emotional difficulties, externalizing behavior, and low educational aspirations in early adolescence. The implications for research, prevention, and treatment are discussed.

  13. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity in man: influence of gender, age, alcohol consumption and smoking in a caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, M. H.; Bode, C.

    2002-01-01

    -80 years. In men aged 20-40 years, consumption of larger quantities of alcohol (>0.8 g/kg body weight/day) was associated with reduced ADH activity. H(2)-Receptor antagonist treatment also decreased gastric ADH activity. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that ADH activity in human gastric mucosa...

  14. Cigarette smoking: an important renal risk factor – far beyond carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orth SR

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, it has become apparent that smoking has a negative impact on renal function, being one of the most important remediable renal risk factors. It has been clearly shown that the risk for high-normal urinary albumin excretion and microalbuminuria is increased in smoking compared to non-smoking subjects of the general population. Data from the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT indicate that at least in males, smoking increases the risk to reach end-stage renal failure. Smoking is particularly "nephrotoxic" in older subjects, subjects with essential hypertension and patients with preexisting renal disease. Of interest, the magnitude of the adverse renal effect of smoking seems to be independent of the underlying renal disease. Death-censored renal graft survival is decreased in smokers, indicating that smoking also damages the renal transplant. Cessation of smoking has been show to reduce the rate of progression of renal failure both in patients with renal disease or a renal transplant. The mechanisms of smoking-induced renal damage are only partly understood and comprise acute hemodynamic (e.g., increase in blood pressure and presumably intraglomerular pressure and chronic effects (e.g., endothelial cell dysfunction. Renal failure per se leads to an increased cardiovascular risk. The latter is further aggravated by smoking. Particularly survival of smokers with diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis is abysmal. In the present review article the current state of knowledge about the renal risks of smoking is reviewed. It is the aim of the article to point out that smoking not only increases the risk of renal cell carcinoma or uroepithelial cell carcinoma, but also the risk of a faster decline of renal function. The latter is a relatively new negative aspect which has not been widely recognized.

  15. Validation of the French version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Riaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use disorders seem to be an under considered health problem amongst the elderly. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST, was developed by the World Health Organization to detect substance use disorders. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in a sample of elderly people attending geriatric outpatient facilities (primary care or psychiatric facilities. Methods One hundred persons older than 65 years were recruited from clients attending a geriatric policlinic day care centre and from geriatric psychiatric facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (ASI, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire-Smoking (RTQ and MiniMental State(MMS. Results Concurrent validity was established with significant correlations between ASSIST scores, scores from ASI, AUDIT, RTQ, and significantly higher ASSIST scores for patients with a MINI-Plus diagnosis of abuse or dependence. The ASSIST questionnaire was found to have high internal consistency for the total substance involvement along with specific substance involvement as assessed by Cronbach’s α, ranging from 0.66, to 0.89 . Conclusions The findings demonstrate that ASSIST is a valid screening test for identifying substance use disorders in elderly.

  16. Factors Related to Cigarette Smoking Initiation and Use among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert Sheryl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the impact of personality factors (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, cognitive factors (sense of coherence and self-efficacy, coping resources (family and friend social support and demographic factors (gender and ethnicity on cigarette smoking behaviors (initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among college students. A total of 161 U.S. college students, aged 18–26, who enrolled in an introductory psychology course completed self-report questionnaires. The majority of the students had tried smoking (55%; among those who had tried, 42% were current smokers. The majority (77% who had smoked a whole cigarette did so at age 16 years or younger. Students who reported lower levels of conscientiousness and self-efficacy had a greater likelihood to had tried cigarette smoking. Also, students who had lower levels of self-efficacy reported smoking more frequently and greater quantities of cigarettes than students with higher levels of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was the most significant predictor of smoking behaviors. Health promotion programs focused on self-efficacy may be an effective tool for reducing the initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among college students.

  17. Factores en el consumo de alcohol en adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cicua

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente informe de investigación de corte cuantitativo con diseño transeccional correlacional buscó describir los factores asociados al consumo de alcohol en adolescentes de la ciudad de Bogotá. Para esta investigación se utilizó una Ficha de Datos Generales para conocer las características generales del consumo de las personas encuestadas y el Inventario Situacional de Consumo de Alcohol (ISCA para medir las categorías de situaciones personales y situaciones con otros. Estos instrumentos fueron aplicados a 406 adolescentes, entre 12 y 17 años, de ambos sexos, pertenecientes a los estratos 4 y 5 de Bogotá, en cinco localidades. Se encontró que las situaciones personales se establecían como factores de mayor riesgo para los adolescentes, que aquéllas que implicaban una interacción con otros.

  18. Prevalence and of smoking and associated factors among Malaysian University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Al-Naggar, Thekra Hamoud; Chen, Robert; Al-Jashamy, Karim

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to determine the prevalence and associated factors for smoking among university students in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 199 students in the period from December of academic year 2009 until April of academic year 2010 in Management and Science University (MSU), Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. The questionnaire was distributed randomly to all faculties of MSU by choosing one of every 3 lecture rooms, as well as the library and cafeterias of the campus randomly by choosing one from every 3 tables. Questions concerned socio-demographic variables, knowledge, attitudes and practice toward smoking. Participant's consent was obtained and ethical approval was provided by the ethics committee of the University. Data entry and analysis were performed using descriptive statistics, chi square test, Student t- test and logistic multiple regression with the SPSS version 13.0, statistical significance being concluded at p students were smokers (29%). The most important reason of smoking was stress (20%) followed by 'influenced by friends' (16 %). Prevalence of smoking was significantly higher among male and those in advanced semesters (p = >0.001, p = 0.047). Smokers had low level of knowledge (p semester of study (p = 0.025) and attitude toward smoking (p students were smokers. Males and students in advanced semesters were more likely to smoke. The results provide baseline data to develop an anti-smoking program to limit smoking in the university by implementing policies against smoking.

  19. Beyond Invulnerability: The Importance of Benefits in Adolescents' Decisions To Drink Alcohol and Smoke Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Julie H.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Millstein, Susan G.

    This study examines the influence of perceived risks as well as the understudied role of benefits on alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents and adults. Ninth grade students and young adults were asked about the perceived risks and benefits of alcohol and marijuana use. Analyses showed a consistent pattern: perceived benefits were more…

  20. Dose Dependent Reduction of Hazardous Alcohol Use in a Placebo-Controlled Trial of Naltrexone for Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; McKee, Sherry A.; Leeman, Robert F.; Cooney, Ned L.; Meandzija, Boris; Wu, Ran; Makuch, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    The opiate antagonist naltrexone has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence and as a component of treatment to reduce heavy drinking. At present, there are no published dose-ranging clinical trials of the oral preparation for treatment of problem drinking. The present study evaluated the effects of naltrexone on alcohol use among the subset of hazardous drinkers (N = 102) who participated in a placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of oral naltrexone (25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg doses) combined with open-label transdermal nicotine patch for enhancing smoking cessation. On the primary outcome—no hazardous drinking (drinking that exceeded weekly or daily limits) during treatment—25 mg and 50 mg naltrexone were superior to placebo (each p < 0.05). These findings remained after controlling for baseline predictors or smoking abstinence during treatment. Time to remission of hazardous drinking was examined as a secondary outcome with definitions of hazardous drinking based on weekly limits, daily limits and the combination of weekly and daily limits and the results were consistent with the primary findings. In conclusion, the findings suggest that naltrexone can reduce the risk of hazardous drinking in smokers who are not seeking or receiving alcohol treatment, providing strong evidence for the pharmacological effects of naltrexone on drinking. This effect appears to favor lower doses that may be better tolerated and less expensive than the higher 100 mg dose. Given its efficacy and favorable side effect profile, the 25 mg dose should be considered for future studies of combination therapy. PMID:18796184

  1. Dose-dependent reduction of hazardous alcohol use in a placebo-controlled trial of naltrexone for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Stephanie S; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; McKee, Sherry A; Leeman, Robert F; Cooney, Ned L; Meandzija, Boris; Wu, Ran; Makuch, Robert W

    2009-06-01

    The opiate antagonist naltrexone (Ntx) has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence and as a component of treatment to reduce heavy drinking. At present, there are no published dose-ranging clinical trials of the oral preparation for treatment of problem drinking. The present study evaluated the effects of Ntx on alcohol use among the subset of hazardous drinkers (n=102) who participated in a placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of oral Ntx (25-mg, 50-mg and 100-mg doses) combined with open-label transdermal nicotine patch for enhancing smoking cessation. On the primary outcome--no hazardous drinking (drinking that exceeded weekly or daily limits) during treatment--25 mg and 50 mg Ntx were superior to placebo (each p<0.05). These findings remained after controlling for baseline predictors or smoking abstinence during treatment. Time to remission of hazardous drinking was examined as a secondary outcome with definitions of hazardous drinking based on weekly limits, daily limits and the combination of weekly and daily limits and the results were consistent with the primary findings. In conclusion, the findings suggest that Ntx can reduce the risk of hazardous drinking in smokers who are not seeking or receiving alcohol treatment, providing strong evidence for the pharmacological effects of Ntx on drinking. This effect appears to favour lower doses that may be better tolerated and less expensive than the higher 100-mg dose. Given its efficacy and favourable side-effect profile, the 25-mg dose should be considered for future studies of combination therapy.

  2. Association between tobacco smoking and response to tumour necrosis factor α inhibitor treatment in psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Pil; Glintborg, Bente; Hetland, Merete Lund

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between tobacco smoking and disease activity, treatment adherence and treatment responses among patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) initiating the first tumour necrosis factor α inhibitor therapy (TNFi) in routine care. METHODS: Observational cohort...

  3. Smoke exposure as a risk factor for asthma in childhood: a review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Giuliana; Antona, Roberta; Malizia, Velia; Montalbano, Laura; Corsello, Giovanni; La Grutta, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic multifactorial disease that affects >300 million people worldwide. Outdoor and indoor pollution exposure has been associated with respiratory health effects in adults and children. Smoking still represents a huge public health problem and millions of children suffer the detrimental effects of passive smoke exposure. This study was designed to review the current evidences on exposure to passive smoke as a risk factor for asthma onset in childhood. A review of the most recent studies on this topic was undertaken to provide evidence about the magnitude of the effect of passive smoking on the risk of incidence of asthma in children. The effects of passive smoking are different depending on individual and environmental factors. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most important indoor air pollutants and can interact with other air pollutants in eliciting respiratory outcomes during childhood. The increased risk of respiratory outcomes in children exposed to prenatal and early postnatal passive smoke might be caused by an adverse effect on both the immune system and the structural and functional development of the lung; this may explain the subsequent increased risk of incident asthma. The magnitude of the exposure is quite difficult to precisely quantify because it is significantly influenced by the child's daily activities. Because exposure to ETS is a likely cause for asthma onset in childhood, there is a strong need to prevent infants and children from breathing air contaminated with tobacco smoke.

  4. SMOKING PREVALENCE AND RELATED FACTORS IN HEALTH NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS COLLEGE (GMMA-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Han ACIKEL

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was determine smoking prevalence and the factors which effect smoking behavior, among Health Noncommissioned Officers College, that in Gulhane Military Medical Academy. This cross-sectional study was performed at February 2004. Population of study has been defined as, the students continue education in Health Noncommissioned Officers College on 2003-04 period. In our study we found that, 50.3% of students have used cigarette in any period of their life, and the prevalence of students who declare smoking one or more cigarette every day is 44.9%. Affect of friends (58.3%, and pleasure (47.2% is 1st and 2nd reasons start smoking. Price is the most effective factor of cigarette availability. In our study, economic reasons are reported as 2nd reason of give up smoking (56.3% after health counter effect (71.3%. The prevalence of smoking among Health Noncommissioned Officers College students is quite high than other studies, which performed in high schools and colleges in our country. Intention of give up smoking is hopeful, but results aren?t satisfying. This situation shows the importance and need of effective give up smoking programs for adolescents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(8.000: 178-185

  5. Influence of Socioeconomic Factors, Gender and Indigenous Status on Smoking in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Ting Tsai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The indigenous Austronesian minority of Taiwan is heavily affected by health disparities which may include suffering from a greater burden of the tobacco epidemic. While a lack of representative data has historically precluded an investigation of the differences in smoking between Taiwanese ethnicities, these data have recently become available through an annual population-based telephone survey conducted by the Health Promotion Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare (previously known as the Bureau of Health Promotion (BHP, Department of Health. We used the BHP monitoring data to observe the prevalence of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure among indigenous and non-indigenous Taiwanese surrounding a tobacco welfare tax increase in 2006, investigate ethnic differences in smoking prevalence and environmental tobacco smoke exposure each year between 2005 and 2008, and perform multiple logistic regression to estimate measures of association between potential risk factors and smoking status. Despite significant ethnic and gender differences in smoking prevalence, smoking status was not found to be significantly associated with ethnicity after controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  6. Thirdhand cigarette smoke: factors affecting exposure and remediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhra Bahl

    Full Text Available Thirdhand smoke (THS refers to components of secondhand smoke that stick to indoor surfaces and persist in the environment. Little is known about exposure levels and possible remediation measures to reduce potential exposure in contaminated areas. This study deals with the effect of aging on THS components and evaluates possible exposure levels and remediation measures. We investigated the concentration of nicotine, five nicotine related alkaloids, and three tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs in smoke exposed fabrics. Two different extraction methods were used. Cotton terry cloth and polyester fleece were exposed to smoke in controlled laboratory conditions and aged before extraction. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for chemical analysis. Fabrics aged for 19 months after smoke exposure retained significant amounts of THS chemicals. During aqueous extraction, cotton cloth released about 41 times as much nicotine and about 78 times the amount of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs as polyester after one hour of aqueous extraction. Concentrations of nicotine and TSNAs in extracts of terry cloth exposed to smoke were used to estimate infant/toddler oral exposure and adult dermal exposure to THS. Nicotine exposure from THS residue can be 6.8 times higher in toddlers and 24 times higher in adults and TSNA exposure can be 16 times higher in toddlers and 56 times higher in adults than what would be inhaled by a passive smoker. In addition to providing exposure estimates, our data could be useful in developing remediation strategies and in framing public health policies for indoor environments with THS.

  7. Cigarette smoking, obesity, physical activity, and alcohol use as predictors of chemoprevention adherence in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Breast Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Stephanie R; Cronin, Walter M; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Costantino, Joseph P; Christian, Nicholas J; Klein, William M P; Ganz, Patricia A

    2011-09-01

    The double-blind, prospective, National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) showed a 50% reduction in the risk of breast cancer for tamoxifen versus placebo, yet many women at risk of breast cancer do not adhere to the 5-year course. This first report of the rich BCPT drug adherence data examines predictors of adherence. Between June, 1992 and September, 1997 13,338 women at high risk of breast cancer were randomly assigned to 20 mg/d tamoxifen versus placebo; we analyzed the 11,064 enrolled more than 3 years before trial unblinding. Primary endpoint was full drug adherence (100% of assigned pills per staff report, excluding protocol-required discontinuation) at 1 and 36 months; secondary was adequate adherence (76%-100%). Protocol-specified multivariable logistic regression tested lifestyle factors, controlling for demographic and medical predictors. About 13% were current smokers; 60% were overweight/obese; 46% had moderate/heavy physical activity; 21%, 66%, 13% drank 0, 0-1, 1+ drinks per day, respectively; 91% were adequately adherent at 1 month; and 79% were at 3 years. Alcohol use was associated with reduced full adherence at 1 month (P = 0.016; OR = 0.79 1+ vs. 0), as was college education (P adherence. Current smoking (P = 0.003; OR = 0.75), age (P = 0.024, OR = 1.1), college education (P = 0.037; OR = 1.4), tamoxifen assignment (P = 0.031; OR = 0.84), and breast cancer risk (P low) predicted adequate adherence at 36 months. There were no significant associations with obesity or physical activity. Alcohol use and smoking might indicate a need for greater adherence support. ©2011 AACR.

  8. [The influence of smoking and occupational factors on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in oil industry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullaev, A Iu

    2012-01-01

    The influence of smoking and occupational factors on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in employees of a sea oil and gas company is considered. The primary role of smoking in pathogenesis of COPD is confirmed Direct and indirect influence of smoking is enhanced by occupational and climatic factors leading to the development of persistent disturbances of ventilation.

  9. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ghani Wan; Razak Ishak; Yang Yi; Talib Norain; Ikeda Noriaki; Axell Tony; Gupta Prakash C; Handa Yujiro; Abdullah Norlida; Zain Rosnah

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initi...

  10. Recent smoking is a risk factor for anal abscess and fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Bikash; Khabassi, Soheil; Cosman, Bard C

    2011-06-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for inflammatory, fistulizing cutaneous diseases. It seems reasonable that smoking might be a risk factor for anal abscess/fistula. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that recent smoking is a risk factor for development of anal abscess/fistula. This is a case-control study. This study was conducted at a Department of Veterans Affairs general surgical clinic. Included in the study were 931 patients visiting the general surgical clinic over a 6-month period. A tobacco use questionnaire was administered. Patients with anal abscess/fistula history were compared with controls, who had all other general surgical conditions. To investigate the temporal relation between smoking and the clinical onset of anal abscess/fistula, we compared the group consisting of current smokers and former smokers who had recently quit, against the group consisting of nonsmokers and former smokers who had quit a longer time ago (ie, not recently). We excluded patients with IBD and HIV. Cases and controls were comparable in age (57 and 59 y) and sex (93% and 97% male). After exclusions, there were 74 anal abscess/fistula cases and 816 controls. Among the anal abscess/fistula cases, 36 patients had smoked within 1 year before the onset of anal abscess/fistula symptoms, and 38 had not smoked within the prior year; among controls, 249 had smoked within 1 year before seeking surgical treatment, and 567 had not (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.34-3.48, 2-tail P = .0025). Using a 5-year cutoff for recent smoking, the association was less pronounced but still significant (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.03-2.86, P = .0375), and the association was insignificant at 10 years (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.78-2.21, P = .313). Limitations of the study included self-selection bias, recall bias, convenience sample, and noninvestigation of the dose-response relationship. Recent smoking is a risk factor for anal abscess/fistula development. As in other smoking-related diseases, the influence of smoking as a risk

  11. Factors associated with parents’ perceptions of parental smoking in the presence of children and its consequences on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ting; Hsiao, Fei-Hsiu; Miao, Nae-Fang; Chen, Ping-Ling

    2013-01-07

    Parental smoking is the major source of children's secondhand smoke exposure and is influenced by parents' perception of children's exposure. However, the factors associated with these perceptions remain unclear. The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with parents' perceptions about parental smoking in the presence of children and its consequences. We conducted a cross-sectional study on parents' perceptions of parental smoking and measured their evaluations of its consequences using a self-report questionnaire. Other variables include socio-demographic characteristics and smoking-related experience. Results show that parents' gender, education level, occupational type, smoking status, and agreement on a home smoking ban independently predict parents' evaluation of the consequences of parental smoking in the presence of children. Parents' gender, education level, annual family income, smoking status, agreement on a home smoking ban, and evaluation of the consequences of parental smoking independently predicted parents' perceptions. Findings indicated that a specific group expressed greater acceptance of parental smoking and was less aware of its risks. Motivating parents to create a smoke-free home and increasing awareness of the adverse consequences of parental smoking is beneficial in reinforcing attitudes opposed to parental smoking.

  12. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  13. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  14. Smoking during adolescence as a risk factor for attention problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.L.; Willemsen, G.; Bartels, M.; Geels, L.M.; Beek, J.H.D.H. van; Huppertz, C.; Beijsterveldt, C.E.M. van; Boomsma, D.I.; Vink, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid. One explanation is that individuals with ADHD use cigarettes as "self-medication" to alleviate their attention problems. However, animal studies reported that exposure to nicotine during adolescenc

  15. Smoking might be a risk factor for contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Nielsen, Niels Henrik; Menné, Torkil;

    2003-01-01

    the association between smoking and contact allergy. METHODS: The study population comprised a cross-sectional, general population-based sample of 15- to 69-year-old persons living in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 1056 persons (73.6% of the invited) were given a patch test (TRUE test). Contact allergy...

  16. [Socio-demographic factors and tobacco smoking among the Rzeszow's collage students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Chmiel-Połeć, Zdzisława; Marć, Małgorzata; Januszewicz, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the most known single factor of the highest impact on the number of cancerous deceases. Chemical compound contained in the tobacco smoke have an affect on strong mutagen and carcinogenic actions. Among 400 chemical compound 40 of them have a proven carcinogenic action for human. From the medical point of view the most important are: nicotine- responsible as well as for the pharmacologic tobacco smoking addiction, carbon monoxide, carcinogenic and irritant substances. Regular monitoring of the tobacco smoking among academic students might be used in the actions considering the health risk management. The aim of the study was identifying the relation among selected socio-demographic factors like: age, sex, major, permanent residence, parent's education, material status, medical profile and tobacco smoking among academic students. The research was carried out among 521: science, humanities and medical stationary students. The research was conducted with a usage of the chi-squared evenness test. The research shows that sex and place of residence are the two factors having the most impact on tobacco smoking among academic students. Academic students originated from town or cities as well as men are more often to make a decision on smoking tobacco.

  17. Identifying principal risk factors for the initiation of adolescent smoking behaviors: the significance of psychological reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Claude H; Burgoon, Michael; Grandpre, Joseph R; Alvaro, Eusebio M

    2006-01-01

    An in-school youth survey for a major state anti-tobacco media campaign was conducted with 1,831 students (Grades 6-12) from 70 randomly selected classrooms throughout the state. Tobacco users accounted for nearly 25% of the sample. Pretest questionnaires assessed demographic variables, tobacco use, and various other risk factors. Several predictors of adolescents' susceptibility to tobacco use, including prior experimentation with tobacco, school performance, parental smoking status, parents' level of education, parental communication, parental relationship satisfaction, best friend's smoking status, prevalence of smokers in social environment, self-perceived potential to smoke related to peer pressure, and psychological reactance, were examined using discriminant analysis and logistic regression to identify the factors most useful in classifying adolescents as either high-risk or low-risk for smoking uptake. Results corroborate findings in the prevention literature indicating that age, prior experimentation, and having friends who smoke are among the principal predictors of smoking risk. New evidence is presented indicating that psychological reactance also should be considered as an important predictor of adolescent smoking initiation. The utility of producing antismoking messages informed by an awareness of the key risk factors-particularly psychological reactance-is discussed both in terms of the targeting and design of anti-tobacco campaigns.

  18. Association between smoking behaviour and genetic variants of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyuk, Eszter; Nemeth, Nora; Ronai, Zsolt; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Szekely, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes development and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons, thus it has an important role in dopamine-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Since the role of dopamine system in smoking is well established, we hypothesized that GDNF gene variants may affect smoking behaviour. Self-reported data on smoking behaviour (never smoked, quit, occasional, or regular smokers) and level of nicotine addiction (Hooked on Nicotine Checklist and Fagerstrom Nicotine Addiction Scale), anxiety, as well as buccal samples were obtained from 930 Hungarian young adults (18-35 years). Genetic analysis involved eight GDNF single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) (rs1981844, rs3812047, rs3096140, rs2973041, rs2910702, rs1549250, rs2973050 and rs11111). Allele-wise association analyses of the eight GDNF SNPs provided a significant association between smoking behaviour and rs3096140 (P=0.0039). The minor allele (C) was more frequent in those groups who smoked in some form (quit, occasional or regular smokers) as compared to those who never smoked (P = 0.0046). This result remained significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. In the ever smoking group, no significant differences were found in the level of nicotine addiction by the alleles of these polymorphisms. Also, no significant interaction of rs3096140 and smoking categories were observed on anxiety mean scores. Although previous data demonstrated an association between GDNF rs2910704 and severity of methamphetamine use to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the role of GDNF genetic variations in smoking behaviour. Our results suggest that GDNF rs3096140 might be involved in the genetic background of smoking, independent of anxiety characteristics.

  19. Work factors and smoking cessation in nurses' aides: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Willy

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of smoking in nursing personnel remains high. The aim of this study was to identify work factors that predict smoking cessation among nurses' aides. Methods Of 2720 randomly selected, Norwegian nurses' aides, who were smoking at least one cigarette per day when they completed a questionnaire in 1999, 2275 (83.6 % completed a second questionnaire 15 months later. A wide spectrum of work factors were assessed at baseline. Respondents who reported smoking 0 cigarettes per day at follow-up were considered having stopped smoking. The odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals of stopping smoking were derived from logistic regression models. Results Compared with working 1–9 hours per week, working 19–36 hours per week (odds ratio (OR = 0.35; 95 % confidence interval (CI = 0.13 – 0.91, and working more than 36 hours per week (i.e. more than full-time job (OR = 0.27; CI = 0.09 – 0.78 were associated with reduced odds of smoking cessation, after adjustments for daily consumption of cigarettes at baseline, age, gender, marital status, and having preschool children. Adjusting also for chronic health problems gave similar results. Conclusion There seems to be a negative association between hours of work per week and the odds of smoking cessation in nurses' aides. It is important that health institutions offer workplace-based services with documented effects on nicotine dependence, such as smoking cessation courses, so that healthcare workers who want to stop smoking, especially those with long working hours, do not have to travel to the programme or to dedicate their leisure time to it.

  20. Hookah Smoking and Associated Factors in Rural Region of Hormozgan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ghanbarnejad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking hookah is a traditional method of tobacco smoking which is common in Middle East and Arabic countries. The Hormozgan province is in the second rank of hookah use after Bushehr in Iran. This research is seeking to study the factors affecting hookah smoking in a sample of rural community of the Hormozgan province. Materials and Methods: From the total population of the Hormozgan province villages, 310 residents were selected through multistage sampling. The data were analyzed in a logistic regression model.Results: The prevalence of hookah smoking was 36.5%; 28.4% in men and 45.16% in women. Marital Status and Job are associated with Hookah smoking (p<0.05, age (OR=1.04, gender (OR=4.43, cigarette smoking (OR=5.16, having a hookah smoker in the family (OR=1.9, and education (OR=0.34 were effective in hookah smoking.Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of hookah smoking, appropriate educational programs should be designed in order to qualitatively study the reasons of region’s people tendency toward the hookah.

  1. Lack of association of the serotonin transporter gene promoter region polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, including rs25531 with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Bagger, Yu; Tanko, Laszlo B

    2009-01-01

    and previous consumption of cigarettes and alcohol were obtained using a questionnaire. Genotypes were classified according to allele size, that is, S and L with 14 and 16 repeat units, respectively, and on a functional basis by amalgamation of the L(G) and S alleles. Data were subjected to regression analyses....... These analyses revealed P values for associations between 5-HTTLPR genotype and alcohol and cigarette consumption in the range from 0.15 to 0.92. On adjustment for age and educational level, significance for the associations of 5-HTTLPR with the smoking and alcohol consumption measures was not reached. We...

  2. [Patterns of drinking alcohol tobacco smoking among 6th year students of the faculty of medicine in Białstok].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielska, Dorota; Kurpas, Donata; Ołtarzewska, Alicja; Piotrowska-Depta, Maria; Gomółka, Ewa; Wojtal, Mariola; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and tobacco are legal, easily available addictive substances. There are no universal criteria of safe alcohol consumption but some scientific studies have allowed for determination of consumption levels helpful in evaluation of the pattern of drinking and evoking readiness to limit the amount of consumed alcohol. The aim of the work was to evaluate and compare the knowledge of 6th year students of the Faculty of Medicine of the Medical University of Biatystok in the academic years 2011/12 and 2012/13 concerning the effects of alcohol abuse, as well as to determine their drinking patterns and tobacco smoking structure. The study material was collected by means of anonymous voluntary surveys carried out before classes concerning the issues of addictions within the framework of family medicine subject block. 356 students took part in the study: 226 (63.5%) women and 130 (36.5%) men (plevel of knowledge on the harmfulness of alcohol abuse; 63.43% had an average level of knowledge and 31.71% - a low one. 51,32% women and 62,3% men drank alcohol in a hazardous way. A relation was found between a low level of knowledge and the amount of alcohol consumed on a typical drinking day (rS=-0.15, p=0.03) as well as between a low level of knowledge and hazardous drinking (rS=-0.13, p=0.03). Among the respondents, 18,58% women and 14,63% men smoked cigarettes regularly. Those who are 6th year students in the academic year 2012/13 usually had started smoking within the first three years of study at the Medical University and drank greater amounts of alcohol on a typical drinking day than students surveyed in the 2011/12 year. A correlation was found between tobacco smoking and a greater frequency of getting drunk occasionally (rS=-0.18, p=0.002) among students of both years. Insufficient knowledge on the effects of alcohol abuse and smoking coexist with a higher risk of drinking alcohol.

  3. Measured Effect of Sexual Activities, Alcohol Consumption, Smoking and Aggression on Health Risk of Students in Rural Communities in Ikenne, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeokoli, Rita; Ofole, Ndidi M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the joint and relative contribution of sexual activities, alcohol consumption, smoking and aggression to the prediction of health risk of students in rural communities in Ogun State. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted. Multi-stage sampling Technique was used to draw 300 respondents from an…

  4. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  5. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  6. No evidence for genome-wide interactions on plasma fibrinogen by smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index : Results from meta-analyses of 80,607 subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Baumert (Jens); J. Huang (Jian); B. McKnight (Barbara); M. Sabater-Lleal (Maria); M. Steri (Maristella); A.Y. Chu (Audrey); S. Trompet (Stella); Lopez, L.M. (Lorna M.); Fornage, M. (Myriam); A. Teumer (Alexander); W. Tang (Weihong); A.R. Rudnicka (Alicja); A. Mälarstig (Anders); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M. Kavousi (Maryam); J. Lahti (Jari); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); C. Hayward (Caroline); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); P.-E. Morange (P.); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Basu (Saonli); A. Rumley (Ann); D.J. Stott (David. J.); B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); A.J. de Craen (Anton); S. Sanna (Serena); G. Masala (Giovanna); R. Biffar (Reiner); G. Homuth (Georg); A. Silveira (Angela); B. Sennblad (Bengt); A. Goel (Anuj); H. Watkins (Hugh); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); Rückerl, R. (Regina); K.D. Taylor (Kent); Chen, M.-H. (Ming-Huei); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); A. Palotie (Aarno); G. Davies (Gail); D.S. Siscovick (David); I. Kolcic (Ivana); S.H. Wild (Sarah); Song, J. (Jaejoon); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); I. Ford (Ian); N. Sattar (Naveed); D. Schlessinger (David); A. Grotevendt (Anne); M. Franzosi; Illig, T. (Thomas); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); T. Lumley (Thomas); G.H. Tofler (Geoffrey); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); K. Räikkönen (Katri); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); G.D.O. Lowe (Gordon); R.G.J. Westendorp (Rudi); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); F. Cucca (Francesco); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); U. Seedorf (Udo); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); J.C. Bis (Joshua); K. Mukamal (Kenneth); Van Dongen, J. (Jenny); E. Widen (Elisabeth); O.H. Franco (Oscar); J.M. Starr (John); K.Y. Liu; L. Ferrucci (Luigi); O. Polasek (Ozren); J.F. Wilson (James F); T. Oudot-Mellakh (Tiphaine); H. Campbell (Harry); P. Navarro (Pau); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); Eriksson, J. (Johan); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); A. Dehghan (Abbas); R. Clarke (Robert); A. Hamsten (Anders); Boerwinkle, E. (Eric); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); S. Naitza (Silvia); P.M. Ridker (Paul); H. Völzke (Henry); Deary, I.J. (Ian J.); A. Reiner (Alexander); D.-A. Tregouet (David-Alexandre); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); D.P. Strachan (David); A. Peters (Annette); Smith, N.L. (Nicholas L.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractPlasma fibrinogen is an acute phase protein playing an important role in the blood coagulation cascade having strong associations with smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a variety of gene regions associated with

  7. Associations of alcoholic beverage preference with cardiometabolic and lifestyle factors: the NQplus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Brouwer, E.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Geelen, M.M.E.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The preference for a specific alcoholic beverage may be related to an individual's overall lifestyle and health. The objective was to investigate associations between alcoholic beverage preference and several cardiometabolic and lifestyle factors, including adiposity, cholesterol, glycate

  8. Cigarette smoking and the influencing factors among adolescents in a secondary school in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhna, L P; Khalid, Z; Selamat, S; Ho, S E; Mat, S

    2013-01-01

    Smoking has always been a huge problem in Malaysia and its surrounding nations. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and to identify the influencing factors associated with smoking habits among adolescents. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 226 respondents, using a questionnaire which had 4 sections: socio-demographic data, personal information, family information and social information. Data was analyzed using SPSS® version 16. For categorical variables, comparisons were made using Chi-square and for numerical variables a t-test was performed. The current smoker prevalence rate was 20.8% which showed a significant association between smoking and individual factors: level of knowledge on the effects of smoking (p < 0.05), significant association was seen between smoking and marital status of parents, smoking status of male siblings and various other aspects of the individuals themselves. Concerted efforts involving various parties should be taken to curb or prevent this problem or the number of teenage smokers in the country will increase. This in the long run will invite problems to the well being of the adolescents themselves, their families, community and the nation as a whole.

  9. Facilitating Smoking Cessation and Preventing Relapse in Primary Care: Minimizing Weight Gain by Reducing Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    quit smoking cigarettes so that they can avoid a nicotine overdose . o Inform them that they will one 21mg patch daily for 2 weeks, then decrease to... cocaine , or stimulants Who should definitely NOT take Zyban? You should NOT take Zyban if you: • Have a seizure disorder (for example, epilepsy

  10. Youth alcohol drinking behavior: Associated risk and protective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Guillén

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption prevalence in Bolivia is one of the highest in the region and the most degrading practices faced by the society. To apply the changes, social policy makers require objective, accurate, and complete information about the factors that could be considered both guards and risky. Hence, links between socio-demographics, family, personal/behavioral and social variables and youth alcohol use were analyzed in order to know their particular contributions to the explanation of drinking behavior. The study was carried out with a sample of 1,023 young students (13---23 years old, of both sexes (515 male and 508 female recruited from local high schools and university initial undergraduate courses. The results showed strong ties between such variables and adolescent alcohol drinking behavior. The predictive model (linear regression model fitted relatively well including variables such as age, parental monitoring, father---adolescent relationship, peer pressure, antisocial behavior and risk perception. Nevertheless, only social and parental variables proved a good fit with the empirical data when a theoretical model was proposed through a structured equation modeling. Although this model seems to be in good shape, it should be adjusted to a more comprehensive approach to a risk/protection conceptual framework.

  11. Relationship Between Smoking and Alcohol Intake and Blood Pressure in Urban Residents in Hulunbeier%呼伦贝尔城镇居民吸烟、饮酒与血压水平的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹏程; 林晓明

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To study the relationship between smoking and alcohol intake and blood pressure in urban residents in Hulun- beier. [Method] A total of 1 053 urban residents aged 18 and older in Hulunbeier were selected by cluster sampling. The data of basic sta- tus, smoking and alcohol intake were investigated by questionnaire survey, and the blood pressure was measured. Analysis of the relation- ship between smoking and alcohol intake and blood pressure was performed. [Result] The SBP and DBP of smokers were significantly higher than that of non-smokers, and the SBP increased with the smoking index. The SBP and DBP of drinkers were significantly higher than that of non-drinkers, and the SBP of male drinkers increased with the amount of alcohol intake from 0g/d group to 60g/d group. [Conclusion] Smoking and alcohol intake were the risk factors of blood pressure increasing.%目的:探讨呼伦贝尔城镇居民吸烟、饮酒与血压水平的关系。方法:采用整群抽样的方法抽取呼伦贝尔18岁及以上城镇居民1053人,问卷调查其基本信息和吸烟、饮酒状况,测量血压,对吸烟、饮酒与血压水平的关系进行统计学分析。结果:吸烟者收缩压(SBP)和舒张压(DBP)均高于不吸烟者,差异有统计学意义(P〈0.05),随着吸烟指数的增长,吸烟者SBP呈上升趋势。饮酒者SBP和DBP均高于不饮酒者,差异有统计学意义(P〈0.05),酒精摄入量在0-60g/d范围内,男性饮酒者SBP随酒精摄入量的增加而升高。结论:吸烟、饮酒是血压水平升高的影响因素。

  12. Epidemiological and sociodemographic factors associated with complicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Secades, R; Blanco-Soto, M; Díaz-Peromingo, J A; Sanvisens-Bergé, A; Martín-González, M C; Barbosa, A; Rosón-Hernández, B; Tejero-Delgado, M A; Puerta-Louro, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R

    2017-10-01

    To analyse the influence of epidemiological and sociodemographic factors in complicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). A multicentre, observational prospective study was conducted on consecutively added patients with AWS hospitalised in internal medicine departments. We recorded sociodemographic, epidemiological, clinical and progression data. Complicated AWS was defined as that which progressed with seizures or delirium tremens. We studied 228 episodes of AWS in 219 patients. The mean age was 54.5 years (SD, 11.5), and 90.8% were men. AWS was the cause for hospitalisation in 39.9% of the patients. Some 27.1% of the cases presented seizures, and 32.4% presented delirium tremens. The daily quantity of alcohol ingested was 17.8 standard drink units (SD, 21.4), with 16.6 years of dependence (SD, 11.3). The pattern of alcohol abuse was regular in 82.8% of the patients. Some 38.4% of the patients were married or had a partner, and 45.6% had children. Some 72.7% of the patients were unemployed or retired. Some 68.5% had only completed primary studies. Some 4.8% consumed cannabis, 5.2% consumed cocaine and 3% consumed opioids. The independent variables related to complicated AWS were consumption of a drug other than alcohol (OR, 5.3; 95% CI 1.5-18.7), low education level (OR, 3.4; 95% CI 1.6-7.3) and hospitalisation for AWS (OR, 2.9; 95% CI 1.5-5.6). The model's receiver operating characteristic area was 0.718 (95% CI 0.643-0.793). Concomitant drug abuse and a low educational level could help identify patients at risk of complicated AWS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  13. Shared Genetic Factors Influence Amygdala Volumes and Risk for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dager, Alecia D; McKay, D Reese; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Knowles, Emma; Sprooten, Emma; Göring, Harald HH; Dyer, Thomas D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence (alcohol use disorders, AUDs) are associated with brain shrinkage. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, and thalamus subserve reward functioning and may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related damage. These structures may also show pre-existing deficits impacting the development and maintenance of AUD. It remains unclear whether there are common genetic features underlying both subcortical volumes and AUD. In this study, structural brain images were acquired from 872 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. Subcortical volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer, and quantitative genetic analyses were performed in SOLAR. We hypothesized the following: (1) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with lifetime AUD relative to unrelated controls; (2) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with current relative to past AUD; (3) in non-AUD individuals, reduced subcortical volumes in those with a family history of AUD compared to those without; and (4) evidence for common genetic underpinnings (pleiotropy) between AUD risk and subcortical volumes. Results showed that individuals with lifetime AUD showed larger ventricular and smaller amygdala volumes compared to non-AUD individuals. For the amygdala, there were no differences in volume between current vs past AUD, and non-AUD individuals with a family history of AUD demonstrated reductions compared to those with no such family history. Finally, amygdala volume was genetically correlated with the risk for AUD. Together, these results suggest that reduced amygdala volume reflects a pre-existing difference rather than alcohol-induced neurotoxic damage. Our genetic correlation analysis provides evidence for a common genetic factor underlying both reduced amygdala volumes and AUD risk. PMID:25079289

  14. Shared genetic factors influence amygdala volumes and risk for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dager, Alecia D; McKay, D Reese; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Knowles, Emma; Sprooten, Emma; Göring, Harald H H; Dyer, Thomas D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence (alcohol use disorders, AUDs) are associated with brain shrinkage. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, and thalamus subserve reward functioning and may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related damage. These structures may also show pre-existing deficits impacting the development and maintenance of AUD. It remains unclear whether there are common genetic features underlying both subcortical volumes and AUD. In this study, structural brain images were acquired from 872 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. Subcortical volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer, and quantitative genetic analyses were performed in SOLAR. We hypothesized the following: (1) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with lifetime AUD relative to unrelated controls; (2) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with current relative to past AUD; (3) in non-AUD individuals, reduced subcortical volumes in those with a family history of AUD compared to those without; and (4) evidence for common genetic underpinnings (pleiotropy) between AUD risk and subcortical volumes. Results showed that individuals with lifetime AUD showed larger ventricular and smaller amygdala volumes compared to non-AUD individuals. For the amygdala, there were no differences in volume between current vs past AUD, and non-AUD individuals with a family history of AUD demonstrated reductions compared to those with no such family history. Finally, amygdala volume was genetically correlated with the risk for AUD. Together, these results suggest that reduced amygdala volume reflects a pre-existing difference rather than alcohol-induced neurotoxic damage. Our genetic correlation analysis provides evidence for a common genetic factor underlying both reduced amygdala volumes and AUD risk.

  15. Lack of association of the serotonin transporter gene promoter region polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, including rs25531 with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Bagger, Yu; Tanko, Laszlo B; Christiansen, Claus; Werge, Thomas

    2009-06-05

    We addressed the question whether 5-HTTLPR, a variable number of tandem repeats located in the 5' end of the serotonin transporter gene, is associated with smoking or alcohol consumption. Samples of DNA from 1,365 elderly women with a mean age of 69.2 years were genotyped for this polymorphism using a procedure, which allowed the simultaneous determination of variation in the number of repeat units and single nucleotide changes, including the A > G variation at rs25531 for discrimination between the L(A) and L(G) alleles. Qualitative and quantitative information on the women's current and previous consumption of cigarettes and alcohol were obtained using a questionnaire. Genotypes were classified according to allele size, that is, S and L with 14 and 16 repeat units, respectively, and on a functional basis by amalgamation of the L(G) and S alleles. Data were subjected to regression analyses. These analyses revealed P values for associations between 5-HTTLPR genotype and alcohol and cigarette consumption in the range from 0.15 to 0.92. On adjustment for age and educational level, significance for the associations of 5-HTTLPR with the smoking and alcohol consumption measures was not reached. We conclude that 5-HTTLPR is not an important determinant of smoking behavior and alcohol consumption in elderly women.

  16. Breastfeeding initiation in a rural sample: predictive factors and the role of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Beth A; Wright, Heather N

    2011-02-01

    The study objective was to identify demographic, medical, and health behavior factors that predict breastfeeding initiation in a rural population with low breastfeeding rates. Participants were 2323 women who experienced consecutive deliveries at 2 hospitals, with data obtained through detailed chart review. Only half the women initiated breastfeeding, which was significantly associated with higher levels of education, private insurance, nonsmoking and non-drug-using status, and primiparity, after controlling for confounders. Follow-up analyses revealed that smoking status was the strongest predictor of failure to breastfeed, with nonsmokers nearly twice as likely to breastfeed as smokers and with those who had smoked a pack per day or more the least likely to breastfeed. Findings reveal many factors placing women at risk for not breastfeeding and suggest that intervention efforts should encourage a combination of smoking cessation and breastfeeding while emphasizing that breastfeeding is not contraindicated even if the mother continues to smoke.

  17. Association between smoking behaviour and genetic variants of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ESZTER KOTYUK; NORA NEMETH; ZSOLT RONAI; ZSOLT DEMETROVICS; MARIA SASVARI-SZEKELY; ANNA SZEKELY

    2016-12-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes development and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons, thus it has an important role in dopamine-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Since the role of dopamine system in smoking iswell established, we hypothesized that GDNF gene variants may affect smoking behaviour. Self-reported data on smoking behaviour (never smoked, quit, occasional, or regular smokers) and level of nicotine addiction (Hooked on Nicotine Checklist and Fagerstrom Nicotine Addiction Scale), anxiety, as well as buccal samples were obtained from 930 Hungarian young adults (18–35 years). Genetic analysis involved eight GDNF single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) (rs1981844, rs3812047, rs3096140, rs2973041, rs2910702, rs1549250, rs2973050 and rs11111). Allele-wise association analyses of the eight GDNF SNPs provided a significant association between smoking behaviour and rs3096140 (P = 0.0039). The minor allele (C) was more frequent in those groups who smoked in some form (quit, occasional or regular smokers) as compared to those who neversmoked (P = 0.0046). This result remained significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. In the ever smoking group, no significant differences were found in the level of nicotine addiction by the alleles of these polymorphisms. Also, nosignificant interaction of rs3096140 and smoking categories were observed on anxiety mean scores. Although previous data demonstrated an association between GDNF rs2910704 and severity of methamphetamine use to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the role of GDNF genetic variations in smoking behaviour. Our results suggest that GDNF rs3096140 might be involved in the genetic background of smoking, independent of anxiety characteristics.

  18. Orofacial clefts, parental cigarette smoking, and transforming growth factor-alpha gene variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, G.M.; Wasserman, C.R.; O`Malley, C.D. [California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Results of studies determine whether women who smoke during early pregnancy are at increased risk of delivering infants with orofacial clefts have been mixed, and recently a gene-environment interaction between maternal smoking, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFa), and clefting has been reported. Using a large population-based case-control study, we investigated whether parental periconceptional cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk for having offspring with orofacial clefts. We also investigated the influence of genetic variation of the TGFa locus on the relation between smoking and clefting. Parental smoking information was obtained from telephone interviews with mothers of 731 (84.7% of eligible) orofacial cleft case infants and with mothers of 734 (78.2%) nonmalformed control infants. DNA was obtained from newborn screening blood spots and genotyped for the allelic variants of TGFa. We found that risks associated with maternal smoking were most elevated for isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate, (odds ratio 2.1 [95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6]) and for isolated cleft palate (odds ratio 2.2 [1.1-4.5]) when mothers smoked {ge} 20 cigarrettes/d. These risks for white infants ranged from 3-fold to 11-fold across phenotypic groups. Paternal smoking was not associated with clefting among the offspring of nonsmoking mothers, and passive smoke exposures were associated with at most slightly increased risks. This study offers evidence that the risk for orofacial clefting in infants may be influenced by maternal smoke exposures alone as well as in combination (gene-environment interaction) with the presence of the uncommon TGFa allele. 56 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Do alcoholics anonymous groups really work? Factors of adherence in a Brazilian sample of hospitalized alcohol dependents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Mauro Barbosa; Barros, Helena Maria Tannhauser; Stein, Airton Tetelbom; Figueira, Ivan; Palermo, Luiz Henrique; Athayde, Luciana Dias; de Souza Gonçalves, Marcelo; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to determine factors affecting adherence to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) groups. This cohort involved 300 alcoholics committed to three hospitals in Porto Alegre, Brazil. They were interviewed again in their homes after six months. The SCID-I and a questionnaire focusing on patient relationship with AA groups were used. The responses obtained through the questionnaire were independently evaluated by two researchers. AA adherence was below 20%. The main factors reported by patients as reasons for non-adherence to AA were relapse, lack of identification with the method, lack of need, and lack of credibility. The factors reported by patients as reasons for adherence were identification with the method and a way to avoid relapse. Although AA is considered an effective intervention for alcoholism, its adherence rate was excessively low. The identification of these nonadherence factors could help health professionals in referring certain alcoholic patients to therapeutic interventions other than AA.

  20. Prediction of Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, and Psychoactive Drugs Abuse Based on Emotional Dysregulation and Child Abuse Experience in People with Borderline Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GannadiFarnood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.

  1. Time trends in leisure time physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index in Danish adults with and without COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Molsted, Stig

    2016-01-01

    , alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI) from 2000 to 2010 in Danish individuals with and without COPD. METHODS: Analyses were based on data provided by The Danish Health and Morbidity's three cross-sectional surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010. Data compromised level of leisure time PA, smoking......, alcohol consumption, BMI and sociodemographic characteristics. Participants aged 25 years or older with and without COPD were included in the analyses. RESULTS: In multiple logistic regression analyses, odds ratio (OR) of being physically active in the leisure time in 2010 compared to 2000 was 1.70 (95.......001, and 0.74 kg · m(-2) (0.63-0.86), p relationship were more likely to be physically active, non-smoking and not exceeding the recommended alcohol limits. CONCLUSION: From...

  2. 慢性胰腺炎胰腺钙化与烟酒关系初探%Impact of alcohol and smoking on pancreatic calcification in chronic pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 廖专; 董元航; 李兆申; 张文俊; 王丽华; 邹多武; 金震东

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between alcohol and smoking and the development of pancreatic calcification in chronic pancreatitis (CP) in China. Methods The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of pancreatic calcification at admission and the data were analyzed; furthermore, the discharged patients without pancreatic calcification were divided into two groups as newly diagnosed pancreatic calcification group and persistent non-pancreatic calcification group. Logistic regression and Cox proportional-hazards model was used for multivariate analysis of the risk factors for pancreatic calcification. Results From January1997 to July 2007, 449 patients with CP were enrolled and followed up successfully. 248 patients presented with pancreatic calcification at admission; among the 201 patients presented without pancreatic calcification, 13 patients developed pancreatic calcification after discharge. Patients with pancreatic calcification had a young age at onset, long CP history, higher incidence of diabetes mellitus and diarrhea. Age at onset ≤ 40, alcohol intake over 20 g/day, and diabetes mellitus and diarrhea were risk factors for pancreatic calcification. The only risk factor of development of pancreatic calcification after discharge was excessive alcohol intake (OR: 3.2). Conclusions Alcohol intake increased the risk of pancreatic calcifications, suggesting the patients abstain from alcohol intake. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of smoking.%目的 探讨国内慢性胰腺炎(CP)患者烟酒摄入量与发生胰腺钙化间的关系.方法 按入院时有无胰腺钙化分为两组进行比较分析,再将无胰腺钙化者出院后有无新发胰腺钙化分为新发组和持续无钙化组.Logistic回归或Cox比例风险模型进行逐步回归分析胰腺钙化的风险因素.结果 1997年1月到2007年7月共收治并成功随访449例CP患者,248例有胰腺钙化;201例无胰腺钙化,其中13例出

  3. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Clinical, epidemiological and biochemical studies strongly support the concept that the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance is a common factor connecting obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia with fatty liver and the progression of hepatic disease to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Since identification of cardiovascular risk factors is the first step in their prevention, the aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of some risk factors in patients with fatty liver. Material and Methods. The study included 130 patients who met metabolic syndrome criteria; their demographic and anthropometric characteristics were analyzed and some clinical characteristics were determined, such as smoking habit, arterial pressure and alcohol intake. Routine biochemical analyses were carried out by a standard laboratory procedure. Hepatic steatosis was detected by the abdominal ultrasound. Modified criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III were used to describe the metabolic syndrome. Results. The study group consisted of 72 subjects (55.38%, who had been found by ultrasound to have fatty liver, whereas the control group included 58 respondents (44.62% without pathological ultrasound findings. Differences in the number of fatty liver were highly statistically significant between the groups. The values of body mass index (33.56±6.05 vs 30.56±4.23 kg/m2; p = 0.001, glucose (6.23±0.95 vs 5.76±0.88 mmol/l; p<0.01 and cholesterol (6.66±1.30 vs 6.23±0.95; p <0.05 were significantly higher in the patients with fatty liver than in those without fatty liver. Conclusion. Our results indicate that the patients from the study group had a high percentage of cardiovascular risk factors.

  4. Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Tobacco Smoking among Intermediate and Secondary School Students in Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the prevalence of and characteristics associated with tobacco smoking; (ii) identify the factors associated with tobacco smoking; and (iii) evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia.…

  5. Smoking behaviour and associated factors of illicit cigarette consumption in a border province of southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchoo, Chittawet; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Illicit cigarette consumption has increased worldwide. It is important to understand this problem thoroughly. To investigate behaviours and factors associated with illicit cigarette consumption in southern Thailand. A survey and qualitative study were conducted in a border province in southern Thailand next to Malaysia. A modified snowballing technique was used to recruit 300 illicit and 150 non-illicit cigarette smokers. A questionnaire was used to interview subjects. Illicit cigarette packs were obtained in order to identify their characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used for data analysis. Smoking of illicit cigarettes has become accepted in the communities. They were available in supermarkets and vendor shops. Friends and other illicit smokers known by illicit cigarette smokers were an important source of information for access to illicit cigarette products. The main factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes, compared with smoking non-illicit cigarettes, were younger age, higher education and higher average monthly expenditure on cigarettes (most illicit smokers smoked illicit cigarettes (average price per packet = 33 THB (US$1.1), while most non-illicit smokers smoked hand-rolled cigarettes (average price per packet = 7 THB (US$0.2)) and knowledge of other illicit cigarette smokers. The low price of illicit cigarettes was the main reason for their use. Selling strategies included sale of singles, sale in shops and direct sale through social networking. Illicit cigarette consumption has become more acceptable especially among young adult smokers. Age and extent of social networks are important factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes.

  6. Asr1, an alcohol-responsive factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is dispensable for alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shingo; Ikeda, Kayo; Kita, Takeomi; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2006-09-01

    Yeast Asr1 is the first reported protein whose intracellular distribution changes specifically in response to alcohol (Betz et al. (2004) J Biol Chem 279:28174-28181). It was reported that Asr1 is required for tolerance to alcohol and plays an important role in the alcohol stress response. Therefore, Asr1 is of interest to brewers and winegrowers attempting to improve the techniques of alcoholic fermentation. We verified the importance of Asr1 in the alcohol stress response during alcoholic fermentation. Although we reconfirmed the alcohol-responsive changes in the intracellular localization of Asr1, we could not detect the effects of Asr1-deficiency on Japanese sake brewing or winemaking. In addition, we could not reconfirm the hypersensitivity of Asr1-deficient mutants to alcohol and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Instead, we conclude that Asr1 is not required and nor important for tolerance to alcohol stress.

  7. Predicting DUI recidivism: blood alcohol concentration and driver record factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marowitz, L A

    1998-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at arrest, driving history and other demographic factors, and the 1-year post-arrest probability of recidivism for drunk driving (DUI) convictees. Complex and simple prediction models were developed. All models found a statistically significant cubic relationship between BAC and recidivism, reflecting a relatively high rate of recidivism at a BAC of 0.00%, decreasing to a minimum at ca 0.09% BAC, then increasing to another relatively high rate at a BAC of ca 0.29%, followed by a decline in recidivism to BAC levels of 0.35% and beyond. High rates of recidivism at high BACs suggest alcohol dependency, while high rates at low BACs suggest the involvement of other impairing substances. The rate of DUI recidivism for offenders who refused alcohol testing was the same as for aggregated BAC-tested offenders who had prior DUIs at the time of the arrest. The probability of DUI recidivism predicted by a simple model using BAC, prior 2-year traffic convictions, and offender level (first or repeat offender) could be used along with other factors by presentence investigators, judges or in administrative settings to determine appropriate sanctions, treatment or other remedial measures. The findings support the notion that first offenders with high BAC levels and prior 2-year traffic convictions are at as high a risk of recidivating as many repeat offenders, and might therefore benefit from similar sanctions and/or remedial treatment. The findings also support viewing DUI arrestees with very low BACs as probable drug users with relatively high probabilities of recidivating.

  8. Do Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Cigarette Smoking Extend to Smokeless Tobacco Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas J; Redner, Ryan; Bunn, Janice Y; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-05-01

    Individuals with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are at increased risk for cigarette smoking. Less research has been conducted characterizing the relationship between SES and risk of using of other tobacco products. The present study examined SES as a risk factor for smokeless tobacco (ST) use in a US nationally representative sample, utilizing data from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Odds were generated for current cigarette smoking and ST use among adults (≥18 years) based on SES markers (educational attainment, income, blue-collar employment, and unemployment) after controlling for the influence of demographics and other substance dependence. Odds of current cigarette smoking increased as a graded, inverse function of educational attainment as well as lower income and being unemployed. Odds of current ST use also increased as a function of lower educational attainment, although not in the linear manner seen with cigarette smoking. Odds of ST use but not cigarette smoking also increased with blue-collar employment. In contrast to patterns seen with cigarette smoking, ST use did not change in relation to income or unemployment. Markers of SES are significantly associated with odds of cigarette smoking and ST use, but which indicators are predictive and the shape of their relationship to use differs across the two tobacco products. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. [Risk factors of smoking in 11-to-16-year-old adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, P; Patois, E; Guenin-Tostain, F; Kauffmann, F

    1988-01-01

    The risk factors for smoking have been studied by a self administered questionnaire in 710 boys and 1,233 girls aged 11 to 16 amongst young French school children in the department of Yvelines. The percentage of smokers in this age group was estimated at 15.4%. Comparison of smokers (7.1 cigarettes per day on average) and non-smokers shows an association between smoking in boys and or/girls and the age of the subject, smoking habits of parents, brothers, sisters, members of the family or best friends, socioeconomic status of the parents, one parent families, attitudes and attention of the parents, religious observance, type and area of the school and authorization of smoking in the school yards. Assessed independently the only relationships to tobacco smoking actually were age, smoking habits of best friends, parents, brothers and sisters, and in girls only (for whom the sample size was larger) type and area of the school and one parent families. These results suggest that interventions that are aimed at decreasing smoking amongst the young, should take into account not just individuals, but the young as a group and the familial environment.

  10. Telomere Shortening Unrelated to Smoking, Body Weight, Physical Activity, and Alcohol Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    -year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary...

  11. Validation of survey information on smoking and alcohol consumption against import statistics, Greenland 1993-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Becker, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaires are widely used to obtain information on health-related behaviour, and they are more often than not the only method that can be used to assess the distribution of behaviour in subgroups of the population. No validation studies of reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol have been...

  12. The Perceptions and Habits of Alcohol Consumption and Smoking Among Canadian Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Sidd; Ismail, Zahinoor; Jarvis, Scott; Payne, Eric; Keetbaas, Shayne; Payne, Rob; Rothenburg, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors aim to quantify the extent, and to assess student perception, of alcohol and tobacco use among medical students at the University of Calgary, and the relationship of these attitudes to problem drinking (according to the CAGE questionnaire). Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year medical…

  13. The Perceptions and Habits of Alcohol Consumption and Smoking Among Canadian Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Sidd; Ismail, Zahinoor; Jarvis, Scott; Payne, Eric; Keetbaas, Shayne; Payne, Rob; Rothenburg, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors aim to quantify the extent, and to assess student perception, of alcohol and tobacco use among medical students at the University of Calgary, and the relationship of these attitudes to problem drinking (according to the CAGE questionnaire). Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year medical…

  14. A prospective study of the association between smoking and later alcohol drinking in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken K; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Anne T

    2003-01-01

    consumption at first examination predicted an increased risk of becoming a heavy and excessive drinker in a dose-dependent manner. Men who smoked more than 25 g of tobacco per day had adjusted odds ratios of 2.12 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-3.11) and 3.95 (95% CI: 1.93-8.95) for becoming heavy......: A total of 14,130 non- to moderate drinkers at baseline, who attended re-examination. MEASUREMENTS: Among the non- to moderate drinkers we addressed the relation between smoking habits at first examination and the risk of becoming a heavy and excessive drinker at follow-up. FINDINGS: Level of tobacco...... and excessive drinkers, compared to participants who had never smoked. Equivalent estimates among women were 1.76 (95% CI: 1.02-3.04) and 2.21 (95% CI: 1.00-4.58), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that tobacco use is associated quantitatively with later risk of heavier drinking....

  15. Early initiation of smoking and alcohol drinking as a predictor of lower forearm bone mineral density in late adolescence: a cohort study in girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lucas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a critical stage for bone accrual. It is also decisive for the establishment of behaviors such as smoking and alcohol drinking. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short- and long-term associations between smoking and drinking initiation and bone mineral density in adolescent girls. METHODS: We used prospective data from 731 girls identified in public and private schools in Porto, Portugal. Evaluations were conducted when participants were 13 and 17 years old. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at the forearm by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and weight, height and fat-free mass were measured. Pubertal development status was estimated using menarche age. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on smoking and alcohol drinking, physical exercise and calcium and vitamin D intakes. BMD in early and late adolescence was analyzed as a continuous or dichotomous (Z-score cutoff: -1.0 variable. Associations were calculated using linear or logistic regression. RESULTS: Over one quarter of these girls had tried smoking by 13, while 59% had drunk alcoholic beverages and 20% had experienced both behaviors by that age. Lower mean BMD at 17 years of age was observed in girls who had ever smoked by 13, as well as in those who reported drinking at that age. There were no significant cross-sectional associations between experience and frequency of smoking or drinking and BMD at 13 years of age. However, we observed significant associations between BMD z-score<-1 in late adolescence and having ever smoked by 13, after adjustment for menarche age and sports practice, (OR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.21, 3.05 and with ever smoking and drinking in the same period (OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.36, 4.00. CONCLUSION: Our study adds prospective evidence to the role of early initiation of smoking and alcohol drinking as relevant markers of lower bone mineral density in late adolescence.

  16. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  17. Factors affecting dropout in the smoking cessation outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadir, Ayse; Iliaz, Sinem; Yurt, Sibel; Ortakoylu, Mediha Gonenc; Bakan, Nur Dilek; Yazar, Esra

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of discontinuation in the smoking cessation outpatient clinic (SCC) and to examine the features of noncompliance. We retrospectively included 1324 smokers into the study. Patients were divided into two groups, as those who discontinued (dropped out) follow-up (group 1) and those who stayed in follow-up (group 2). Of the total 1324 smokers, 540 (40.8%) patients were in group 1. The mean age, smoking pack-years, and Fagerstrom scores of group 1 were lower than group 2 (p = 0.001, p = 0.008, and p = 0.007, respectively). In addition, the choice of treatment was also different between groups (p 0.05). Almost 40% of our patients did not come to their follow-up SCC visit. Younger age, lower Fagerstrom score, low amount of daily cigarette consumption, and being treated only with behavioral therapy or NRT were detected as the characteristics of the dropout group. Awareness of the characteristics of smokers who drop out of SCC programs may provide for the implementation of personalized treatment at the first appointment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Smoking as a risk factor of multiple sclerosis: results of cohort study in volyn region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Дмитрівна Шульга

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is the modified risk factor of the multiple sclerosis (MS development. In spite of the low smoking percentage in the population of Volyn region the rates of MS prevalence and morbidity is there the one of the highest in the country.Aim of research: to assess an influence of smoking in Volyn dwellers on the type of clinical course, progression quickness and the incapability degree in patients with MS.Materials and methods: According to the smoking status all patients were divided into three groups: smokers, ex-smokers, non-smokers. There were assessed age, sexual differences, the age of the debut of disease, neurological deficiency degree, the disease progression quickness between groups. Statistical analysis was carried out with the help of Microsoft Excel, SPSS program for Windows using the standard descriptive statistics, correlative and regressive analysis. For analysis of events achievement there were used the plural assessments of Kaplan-Meier. The comparison of survival functions in two groups was carried out using Cox and Wilkinson F-criterion.Results: There were examined 338 patients with multiple sclerosis from all districts of Volyn region among them – 220 (65,1 % women. The men-women ratio was 1,87:1. The mean age of patients was 47±12,18 years old, the age of the MS first symptoms appearance– 30±9,19 years old. The age of patients at the time of diagnosis– 33±9,4 years old. The mean grade on EDSS scale – 4±2,04. There was established that patients in the group of smokers were younger, the first symptoms appeared earlier compared with those who never smoked or stopped smoking (p<0,05. The disability level on EDSS scale was lower in the group of patients who never smoked (p=0,015. There was not revealed the statistically significant difference for the next rates: the type of clinical course, type of debut of disease and progression quickness of disease.Conclusion: The MS appears earlier in smoking patients. The

  19. Oral hygiene and smoking habit as risk factors of periodontal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricela Seijo Machado

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peridontal diseases are among the most common diseases affecting human beings, and these are more frequent after the age of 35. Smoking habit is one of the risk factors usually linked with the development of these diseases. Objective: To characterize the relation between periodontal condition and buccal hygiene in patients with smoking habit. Method: Descriptive, cross-sectional, epidemiological study including 95 smokers from Palmira municipality; January-November, 2007. Peridontal treatment index was used in the community, as well as the simplified buccal hygiene index. Results: There was high prevalence of periodontal disease (85, 2%; buccal hygiene was directly related with smoking habit. Conclusions: The study shows an important relation between the periodontal disease in smokers, buccal hygiene and smoking habit intensity.

  20. Relationships between alcoholic beverages and cardiovascular risk factor levels in middle-aged men, the PRIME Study. Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, P; Montaye, M; Haas, B; Bingham, A; Evans, A; Juhan-Vague, I; Ferrières, J; Luc, G; Amouyel, P; Arveiler, D; Yarnell, J; Ruidavets, J B; Scarabin, P Y; Ducimetière, P

    2001-08-01

    The relationships between alcoholic beverages and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in 6730 men living in France or Northern Ireland. In France, all alcoholic beverages were significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), high density lipoprotein (HDL) parameters, PAI-1 and Factor VII, whereas only wine was negatively related with fibrinogen levels. After adjusting for center, age, BMI, educational level, smoking and marital status, wine had a lesser effect on blood pressure, triglyceride, apo B and LpE:B levels than beer. Wine was associated with lower fibrinogen levels and beer with higher PAI-1 activity levels independent of the amount of alcohol consumed. In Northern Ireland, wine was negatively correlated with BMI, triglycerides, LpE:B and fibrinogen, whereas beer was positively correlated with SBP and DBP, triglycerides, HDL, apoprotein A-I and fibrinogen. Multivariate analysis showed wine to be positively associated with HDL parameters, and negatively with fibrinogen levels. Wine was also associated with higher LpA-I levels and lower fibrinogen levels independent of the amount of alcohol consumed. We conclude that alcohol consumption is related to lipid, lipoprotein and haemostatic variables, but the magnitude of the relationships depends on the type of alcoholic beverage. Also, some effects might be related to non-alcoholic components.

  1. Tobacco Smoke Exposure as Risk Factor in Early Neonatal Death in Mataram, Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musrifa .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate tobacco smoke exposure as risk factor of early neonatal death in Mataram, NTB.Method: The study design was case control with a total sample of 87 consisting of 29 cases and 58 controls (1:2.Dependent variable was early neonatal death, independent variable was tobacco smoke exposure. Frequency ofantenatal visit, family income, delivery complications, anemia and low birth weight were confounding variables. Datawere collected through interview and registered cohort data from nine health centres during the period of 1 January-31December 2013. Data were analyzed by using bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression to calculate crude OR andadjusted OR.Result: Results of bivariate analysis indicated that tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy, extent of exposure ?3cigarettes/days during pregnancy, and amount of exposure ?6 cigarettes/days last 24 hours were 2.75 (95%CI: 0.72-10.50; 2.34 (95%CI: 0.77-7.08; and 2.18 (95%CI: 0.65-7.29 respectively, increasing neonatal death but was notstatistically significant. Multivariate analysis indicated that tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy was 1.32 (95%CI:0.03-69.90. OR of other variables: low birth weight, family income under Rp. 1,100,000,- and delivery complicationswere 204.39 (95%CI: 20.37-2050.07; 7.86 (95%CI: 1.45-42.83 and 7.55 (95%CI: 1.01-56.38 respectively.Conclusion: Tobacco smoke exposure was not statistically significant risk factor, specifically the smoking habits of thehusband. Study discovered that low birth weight, family income under Rp. 1,100,000,- and delivery complication duringbirth were statistically significant factors. Further study is needed to confirm these findings.Key words: tobacco smoke exposure, early neonatal death, risk factors, Nusa Tenggara Barat

  2. The Belief that Alcohol Use is Inconsistent with Personal Autonomy: A Promotive Factor for Younger Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Kimberly L.; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40 schools were analyzed using a structural equation model. Autonomy was negatively correlated with intention to use alcohol and subsequent alcohol use ...

  3. The effect of computer usage in internet café on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among chinese adolescents and youth: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liyun; Delva, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006). Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments.

  4. The Effect of Computer Usage in Internet Café on Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Use among Chinese Adolescents and Youth: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Delva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006. Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments.

  5. Heavy alcohol drinking downregulates ALDH2 gene expression but heavy smoking up-regulates SOD2 gene expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Jin; Lee, Hyung Min; Kim, Jin Hwan; Park, Ii Seok; Rho, Young Soo

    2017-08-25

    This study aims to determine the relationship between expression levels of ALDH2 and SOD2 genes and clinical parameters such as alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, primary site of HNSCC, and human papilloma virus (HPV) state. Gene expression data were obtained from gene expression omnibus (GEO accession number: GSE65858). Clinical data (N = 270) including survival result, gender, age, TNM stage, primary site of HNSCC, HPV status, alcohol drinking, and tobacco smoking habit were analyzed according to gene expression pattern. ALDH2 gene was expressed in low levels in patients with heavy alcohol consumption. It was expressed in high (p = 0.01) levels in patients with no or light alcohol consumption. ALDH2 gene was also expressed in low levels in patients with oral cavity cancers or hypopharynx cancers. However, ALDH2 gene was expressed in high (p = 0.03) levels in patients with oropharyngeal cancers or laryngeal cancers. HPV-positive patients were found to have high (p = 0.02) expression levels of ALDH2. SOD2 gene was expressed in high (p = 0.005) levels in patients who had greater mean pack-year of tobacco smoking. Based on log rank test, the group of patients with high expression of ALDH2 showed better (p = 0.002) clinical results than those with low expression of ALDH2. Difference of survival results between ALDH2 high-expressed group and ALDH2 low-expressed group was validated in another cohort (GSE39368, N = 138). Heavy alcohol drinking downregulates ALDH2 gene expression level. Heavy smoking up-regulates SOD2 gene expression level in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The group of patients with low expression levels of ALDH2 showed significantly poorer survival results compared to those with high expression levels of ALDH2.

  6. Smoking frequency among current college student smokers: distinguishing characteristics and factors related to readiness to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Ling, Pamela M; Hayes, Rashelle B; Berg, Erin; Nollen, Nikki; Nehl, Eric; Choi, Won S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2012-02-01

    Given the increased prevalence of non-daily smoking and changes in smoking patterns, particularly among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking level, specifically motives for smoking, and readiness to quit smoking among 2682 college undergraduates who completed an online survey. Overall, 64.7% (n = 1736) were non-smokers, 11.6% (n = 312) smoked 1-5 days, 10.5% (n = 281) smoked 6-29 days and 13.2% (n = 353) were daily smokers. Ordinal regression analyses modeling smoking level indicated that correlates of higher smoking level included having more friends who smoke (β = 0.63, 95% CI 0.57-0.69) and more frequent other tobacco use (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.05), drinking (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.07) and binge drinking (β = 0.09, 95% CI 0.06-0.13). Bivariate analyses indicated that daily smokers (versus the subgroups of non-daily smokers) were less likely to smoke for social reasons but more likely to smoke for self-confidence, boredom, and affect regulation. Controlling for sociodemographics, correlates of readiness to quit among current smokers included fewer friends who smoke (P = 0.002), less frequent binge drinking (P = 0.03), being a social smoker (P < 0.001), smoking less for self-confidence (P = 0.04), smoking more for boredom (P = 0.03) and less frequent smoking (P = 0.001). Specific motives for smoking and potential barriers to cessation particularly may be relevant to different groups of college student smokers.

  7. Prevalence and associated factors of cigarette smoking among medical students at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz F Al-Kaabba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking among medical students at the medical college at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, and assess the association between smoking and socio-demographical factors, smoking contacts, reasons for smoking and attempts to quit. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional survey in which anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was used to survey the cigarette smoking habits of the first- and second-year medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City in June 2009. Results: Overall 39.8 % of the investigated students (153 had smoked before, and 17.6% were current smokers. The mean age of initiating smoking was 15.8 (΁3.3. There were significantly more males than females. The most important reasons for smoking were leisure, imitation of other people and a means of relieving psychological pressure. Reasons for not smoking were mostly health and religion-based. Smokers tended to have friends who smoked. Conclusion: Cigarettes smoking is highly prevalent among medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City. Contact with smokers particularly friends are the major risk factors for the initiation of the habit. Health and religious considerations are important motives for not smoking, quitting or attempting to quit. These findings can be of help in designing future intervention strategies.

  8. The lack of association between catechol-O-methyl-transferase Val108/158Met polymorphism and smoking in schizophrenia and alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolac, Matea; Šagud, Marina; Nedić, Gordana; Nenadić Šviglin, Korona; Mihaljević Peleš, Alma; Uzun, Suzana; Vuskan Čusa, Bjanka; Kozumplik, Oliver; Živković, Maja; Mustapić, Maja; Jakovljević, Miro; PAVLOVIĆ, Mladen; Muck-Šeler, Dorotea; Borovečki, Fran; Pivac, Nela

    2013-01-01

    The study elucidated the association between the COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism and smoking in patients with schizophrenia, patients with alcohol dependence and healthy control subjects. The stepwise logistic regression (odds ratio (OR)=1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.10–2.23, P=0.014) and the χ2 test (P=0.008) revealed that the COMT Val/Val genotype was significantly associated with smoking in healthy male subjects. Although the hypothesis of the study was that COMT Val108/158Met genot...

  9. Total Exposure and Exposure Rate Effects for Alcohol and Smoking and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lubin, Jay H.; Purdue, Mark; Kelsey, Karl; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Winn, Debbie; Wei, Qingyi; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Sturgis, Erich M.; Smith, Elaine; Shangina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Rudnai, Peter; Neto, Jose Eluf; Muscat, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption increase risk for head and neck cancers, there have been few attempts to model risks quantitatively and to formally evaluate cancer site-specific risks. The authors pooled data from 15 case-control studies and modeled the excess odds ratio (EOR) to assess risk by total exposure (pack-years and drink-years) and its modification by exposure rate (cigarettes/day and drinks/day). The smoking analysis included 1,761 laryngeal, 2,453 pharyngeal, an...

  10. Smoking behaviour of lung and colorectal cancer patients during and after diagnosis. Which factors hinder smoking cessation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki-Eirini Chatzea

    2017-05-01

    The study findings highlight the urgent need of addressing more effectively tobacco treatment in cancer patients who are smokers. Physician’s role should be enhanced towards smoking cessation while integration with anti-smoking centers is considered crucial.

  11. Causal Factors in Alcohol Rehabilitation Success or Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    scales based upon combinations of questionnaire items that reflected severity of alcoholism, severity of sociopathy , family history of alcoholism and...severity of alco- holism, severity of sociopathy , and age at which serious alcohol problems were first experienced all discriminated success-failure at all

  12. Gender and determinants of smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E; Godtfredsen, N

    1999-01-01

    of tobacco smoked, inhalation, and alcohol consumption. Furthermore, in women, smoking cessation was positively associated with level of education and body mass index (BMI). Smoking cessation was not affected by cohabitation status, leisure activity, or bronchitis symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation...

  13. Effects of smoking and alcohol use on neurocognitive functioning in heavy drinking, HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnig, Mollie A; Kahler, Christopher W; Lee, Hana; Pantalone, David W; Mayer, Kenneth H; Cohen, Ronald A; Monti, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    High rates of cognitive impairment persist in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, despite improved health outcomes and reduced mortality through widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Heavy alcohol use and cigarette smoking are potential contributors to neurocognitive impairment in people living with HIV (PLWH), yet few studies have examined their influence concurrently. Here we investigated the effects of self-reported alcohol use and smoking on learning, memory, processing speed, verbal fluency, and executive function in 124 HIV-positive men who have sex with men [age (mean ± SD) = 42.8 ± 10.4 years], engaged with medical care. All participants were heavy drinkers. Duration of HIV infection averaged 9.9 ± 7.6 years, and 92.7% were on a stable ART regimen. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery and assessment of past 30-day substance use. Average number of drinks per drinking day (DPDD) was 5.6 ± 3.5, and 33.1% of participants were daily smokers. Rates of neurocognitive impairment were the highest in learning (50.8%), executive function (41.9%), and memory (38.0%). Multiple regression models tested DPDD and smoking status as predictors of neurocognitive performance, controlling for age and premorbid intelligence. Smoking was significantly, negatively related to verbal learning (p = .046) and processing speed (p = .001). DPDD was a significant predictor of learning (p = .047) in a model that accounted for the interaction of DPDD and smoking status. As expected, premorbid intelligence significantly predicted all neurocognitive scores (ps < .01), and older age was associated with slower processing speed (ps < .01). In conclusion, smoking appears to be associated with neurocognitive functioning deficits in PLWH beyond the effects of heavy drinking, aging, and premorbid intelligence. Smoking cessation interventions have the potential to be an important target for improving functional outcomes

  14. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and its Non-Smoking Risk Factors in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Gagandeep Kaur; Vellakkal, Remya; Gupta, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    The rising prevalence of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is generally attributed to smoking, since the role of other risk factors among non-smokers are not well established especially in low and middle income countries like India. This is also reflected by the limited literature available on non-smoking related COPD risk factors like indoor and outdoor air pollution. The present review is an attempt to assess the influence of non-smoking risk factors on COPD and its measures in Indian subcontinent. The most noteworthy factors among non-smokers appear to be the use of biomass fuel for cooking and heating purposes. We observed that the studies undertaken to evaluate the role of such risk factors are inconclusive due to weak methodologies and small sample sizes, may be due to limited financial resources. The present review suggests the need of a nationally representative study to estimate the effect of each of the potential modifiable risk factor (other than smoking) for framing impactful public health policies to prevent and manage COPD at community and population level in India.

  15. Investigating the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Benjamin A; Katulak, Nicole A; McKee, Sherry A

    2006-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the proposed two-factor structure of the 10-item Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief) and to provide evidence for the psychometric properties of this questionnaire using the seven-point scoring set from the original QSU study [Tiffany, S.T., Drobes, D.J. (1991). The development and initial validation of a questionnaire on smoking urges. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 1467-1476.]. The study sample (N=576) was comprised of smokers presenting for treatment. Although an initial exploratory factor analysis appeared to replicate the original factor analytic findings of Cox et al. [Cox, L.S., Tiffany, S.T., Christen, A.G. (2001). Evaluation of the brief questionnaire of smoking urges (QSU-Brief) in laboratory and clinical settings. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 3, 7-16.], when subjected to confirmatory factor analyses, a five-item, two-factor model using the most robust items from the original QSU-Brief factor analysis was the best explanation of the data in the present study. Good internal consistency reliability estimates were also obtained with this model. These results suggest that this shortened form of the QSU-Brief can be used with the original seven-point scoring set as a reliable assessment of the dual nature of smoking urges in a treatment-seeking population.

  16. Parent, sibling and peer influences on smoking initiation, regular smoking and nicotine dependence. Results from a genetically informative design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Xian, Hong; Pan, Hui; Pergadia, Michele L; Madden, Pamela A F; Grant, Julia D; Sartor, Carolyn E; Haber, Jon Randolph; Jacob, Theodore; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2012-03-01

    We sought to determine whether parenting, sibling and peer influences are associated with offspring ever smoking, regular smoking and nicotine dependence (ND) after controlling for familial factors. We used a twin-family design and data from structured diagnostic surveys of 1919 biological offspring (ages 12-32 years), 1107 twin fathers, and 1023 mothers. Offspring were classified into one of four familial risk groups based on twin fathers' and their co-twins' history of DSM-III-R nicotine dependence. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to model familial risk, paternal and maternal parenting behavior and substance use, sibling substance use, and friend and school peer smoking, alcohol and drug use. Ever smoking was associated with increasing offspring age, white race, high maternal pressure to succeed in school, sibling drug use, and friend smoking, alcohol and drug use. Offspring regular smoking was associated with these same factors with additional contribution from maternal ND. Offspring ND was associated with increasing offspring age, male gender, biological parents divorce, high genetic risk from father and mother ND, maternal problem drinking, maternal rule inconsistency and sibling drug use, and friend smoking, alcohol and drug use. Friend smoking had the largest magnitude of association with offspring smoking. This effect remains after accounting for familial liability and numerous parent and sibling level effects. Smoking interventions may have greatest impact by targeting smoking prevention among peer groups in adolescent and young adult populations.

  17. Sport and scholastic factors in relation to smoking and smoking initiation in older adolescents: a prospective cohort study in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Sisic, Nedim; Terzic, Admir; Jasarevic, Indira; Ostojic, Ljerka; Pojskic, Haris; Zenic, Natasa

    2017-01-01

    Objective Sport and scholastic factors are known to be associated with cigarette smoking in adolescence, but little is known about the causality of this association. The aim of this study was to prospectively explore the relationships of different sport and scholastic factors with smoking prevalence initiation in older adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods In this 2-year prospective cohort study, there were 872 adolescent participants (16 years at baseline; 46% females). The study consisted of baseline tests at the beginning of the third year (September 2013) and follow-up at the end of the fourth year of high school (late May to early June 2015). The independent variables were scholastic and sport-related factors. The dependent variables were (1) smoking at baseline, (2) smoking at follow-up and (3) smoking initiation over the course of the study. Logistic regressions controlling for age, gender and socioeconomic status were applied to define the relationships between independent and dependent variables. Results School absence at the baseline study was a significant predictor of smoking initiation during the course of the study (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8). Those who reported quitting sports at baseline showed an increased risk of smoking at the end of the study (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) and of smoking initiation (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.0). Adolescents who reported lower competitive achievements in sport were at a higher risk of (1) smoking at baseline (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1), (2) smoking at follow-up (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1) and (3) smoking initiation (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6). Conclusions In developing accurate antismoking public health policies for older adolescents, the most vulnerable groups should be targeted. The results showed that most participants initiated smoking before 16 years of age. Therefore, further investigations should evaluate the predictors of smoking in younger ages. PMID:28336745

  18. Time trends in leisure time physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index in Danish adults with and without COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Molsted, Stig

    2016-01-01

    , alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI) from 2000 to 2010 in Danish individuals with and without COPD. Methods: Analyses were based on data provided by The Danish Health and Morbidity's three cross-sectional surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010. Data compromised level of leisure time PA, smoking......, alcohol consumption, BMI and sociodemographic characteristics. Participants aged 25 years or older with and without COPD were included in the analyses. Results: In multiple logistic regression analyses, odds ratio (OR) of being physically active in the leisure time in 2010 compared to 2000 was 1.70 (95...

  19. Pathophysiological Effects of Smoking as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Castellanos González

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is considered the most important modifiable risk factor due to its local and systemic effects on the periodontium. We conducted an updated literature review in order to describe the pathophysiological effects of smoking as a risk factor for periodontal disease based on the molecular events involved in its etiopathogenesis. Smoking contributes to the transition to periodontitis since it influences the formation of bacterial plaque, and the inflammatory response as a result of the harmful effects of tobacco components, especially their vasoconstrictive action and osteoclastic activity. It is associated with a variety of deleterious changes in the oral cavity, affects all its components, alters its microenvironment, and in turn, predisposes it to various conditions.

  20. A haplotype of polymorphisms in ASE-1, RAI and ERCC1 and the effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on risk of colorectal cancer: a Danish prospective case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke D; Sørensen, Mette; Tjønneland, Anne

    2008-01-01

    cancer, and investigated gene-environment associations between the polymorphisms and the haplotype and smoking status at enrolment, smoking duration, average smoking intensity and alcohol consumption, respectively, in relation to risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: Associations between the three...... of colorectal cancer were found. No statistically significant interactions between the genotypes and the lifestyle exposures smoking or alcohol consumption were observed. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the ASE-1 G-21A, RAI IVS1 A4364G and ERCC1 Asn118Asn polymorphisms and the previously identified...... haplotype are not associated with risk of colorectal cancer. We found no evidence of gene-environment interaction between the three polymorphisms and the haplotype and smoking intensity and alcohol consumption, respectively, in relation to the risk of colorectal cancer. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-null...

  1. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption associated with sociodemographic factors among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme da Silva Gasparotto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the association between sociodemographic variables and behaviors and the use of tobacco and alcohol among students of the Federal University of Paraná. Risk behavior of 1.599 students was obtained from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance. The association analysis estimated which college students are more vulnerable to the use of tobacco and alcohol. The subjects who smoked more often were older, unmarried, senior students, residing without family and with low socioeconomic status (p < 0.05.Considering alcohol consumption, the subjects were older, male, single, night period students (p < 0.05. Excessive alcohol consumption was also more likely among older human sciences students, of the night shift and with low socioeconomic status (p < 0.05.

  2. Smoking and Pregnancy — A Review on the First Major Environmental Risk Factor of the Unborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Mund

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cigarettes throughout pregnancy is one of the single most important avoidable causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes and it represents the first major environmental risk of the unborn. If compared with other risk factors in the perinatal period, exposure to tobacco smoke is considered to be amongst the most harmful and it is associated with high rates of long and short term morbidity and mortality for mother and child. A variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes are linked with cigarette consumption before and during pregnancy. Maternal prenatal cigarette smoke disturbs the equilibrium among the oxidant and antioxidant system, has negative impact on the genetic and cellular level of both mother and fetus and causes a large quantity of diseases in the unborn child. These smoking-induced damages for the unborn offspring manifest themselves at various times in life and for most only a very limited range of causal treatment exists. Education, support and assistance are of high importance to decrease maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, as there are few other avoidable factors which influence a child’s health that profoundly throughout its life. It is imperative that smoking control should be seen as a public health priority.

  3. Marijuana smoking among secondary school students in Zaria, Nigeria: factors responsible and effects on academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehu, A U; Idris, S H

    2008-12-01

    The use of Marijuana is on the increase worldwide especially among adolescents and youths. Marijuana smoking has gained a foothold in our environment because of peer group influence, accessibility and availability. Its medico-social effects could ruin the life and future of our youths. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and the factors that influence secondary school students in Zaria LGA to smoke and the effects on academic performance. A cross-sectional descriptive study was employed to generate data among secondary school students. A multi-stage sampling technique was used. Data was collected with the use of a structured, pre tested self-administered questionnaire. F2 test was used to test for significance of association between categorical variables. Of the 350 respondents, 262 (74.9%) were males, while 88 (25.1%) were females. The study shows that 33 of the students smoke marijuana giving a prevalence of 9.4%. There were more smokers in the age group 15-19 years (54.6%). Other factors that influence marijuana smoking include family background, peer pressure and attendance of social functions. There was better academic performance (51.1%) among non smokers as compared to smokers (27.2%), and this was found to be statistically significant (chi2 = 11.73, df = 5, P family background, peer pressure and attendance of social function influence marijuana smoking. A comprehensive school health education program should be instituted to curtail this menace.

  4. Toxic volatile organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke: Emission factors for modeling exposures of California populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air contaminants in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including, 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosamines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors ({mu}g/cigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were Generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  5. Psychological and Familial Factors of Depression in Relation to Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Omidi, Razieh; Alinia, Tahereh; Heidari, Kamal; Farshad, Marziyeh; Davari, Hossein; Abtin, Zahra; Shahriari, Ezat; Taslimi, Mahshid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several common factors have been identified for smoking and depression. The The present study explores the relation of psychological and familial factors with depression, by student smoking behavior. Materials and Methods: A total of 5500 middle- and high-school students were selected in Isfahan province in 2010. A self-administered questionnaire collected data on background characteristics, smoking status, depression, and risk factors. Univariate analysis multiple logistic regressions were conducted to compare between depressed and nondepressed people by adolescent smoking status. Odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Results: Fathers lower education attainment was accompanied adolescents higher depression prevalence. Parental smoking and sibling smoking increased the depression likelihood by 1.41 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.68) and 1.43 folds (95% CI: 1.04–1.94) for never-smokers. Positive attitude toward smoking increased the probability of depression by 1.18 among never-smokers. Never-smokers lacking refusal skill had 1.23 (1.03–1.47) higher chance of depression. A higher level of self-efficacy related to lower chance of depression. Taking risky behavior, increased the depression likelihood by 1.56 (95% CI: 1.29–1.89) in never-smokers, by 1.85 (95% CI: 1.37–2.44) in experimental smokers, and by 1.14 times (95% CI: 1.01–1.72) in current smokers. Family conflict increased depression chance by 2.25 times (95% CI: 1.89–2.66) in never-smokers, by 1.95 (95% CI: 1.46–2.61) in experimental smokers, and by 2.06 times (95% CI: 1.38–3.08) in current smokers. Conclusions: Targeting self-efficacy level, risky behavior, and family conflict can drop the comorbidity of smoking and depression simultaneously. This may help public health practitioners and policymakers to develop common strategies in reducing adolescents smoking and depression comorbidity. PMID:28217648

  6. Smoking and Risk of Breast Cancer in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Population of Mainly Women Who Do Not Drink Alcohol: The MEC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Inger T; Park, Song-Yi; Kolonel, Laurence N; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Wilkens, Lynne R; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-12-01

    We prospectively examined the association between smoking and the risk of breast cancer in a racially/ethnically diverse population comprising mainly women who did not drink alcohol. From 1993 to 2010, we followed 83,300 women who were enrolled in the Multiethnic Cohort Study at 45-75 years of age. We identified cancer cases via linkage to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program cancer registries that covered the states of Hawaii and California through December 2010. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals while adjusting for confounders that were decided a priori. During a mean follow-up of 15 years, 4,484 women developed invasive breast cancer. Compared with parous never smokers, women who had smoked for more than 20 pack-years and initiated smoking more than 5 years before their first childbirth had an overall risk of breast cancer that was 35% higher (hazard ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.63). Among women who did not drink alcohol, the risk was 40% higher (hazard ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.81). This higher risk did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups (P(interaction) = 0.82). We found that various measures of smoking exposure were associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, especially smoking initiated many years before first childbirth, and that risk did not differ by alcohol consumption (yes vs. no) or racial/ethnic group.

  7. Suicidal thoughts in persons treated for alcohol dependence: The role of selected demographic and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowski, Marcin; Czarnecki, Damian; Chodkiewicz, Jan; Gąsior, Krzysztof; Juczyński, Artur; Biedrzycka, Agata; Gruszczyńska, Ewa; Nowakowska-Domagała, Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    Greater knowledge is needed of potential predictive factors for suicide in cases of alcohol addiction. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify the socio-demographic variables and clinical factors associated with alcohol dependence which may have an influence on the occurrence of suicidal thoughts in alcohol-dependent patients. A group of 510 patients (396 male and 114 female) diagnosed with alcohol dependence syndrome were interviewed during the third week of therapy according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS) and the Short Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire (SADD). Socio-demographic data was also collected. The results of a binary logistic regression with suicidal thoughts as a dependent variable show that 63 out of the 510 participants (12% of the sample) reported the presence of suicidal thoughts. Alcohol dependence and alcohol craving appear to increase the likelihood of suicidal thoughts, and participants presenting psychiatric disorders were twice as likely to demonstrate suicidal ideation as those who did not. Alcohol dependence, alcohol craving and psychiatric comorbidity may be regarded as risk factors for suicidal ideation in the studied sample, with the only protective factor being living in a relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Validation of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test in a low- and middle-income country cross-sectional emergency centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, Claire; Wyatt, Gail; Williams, John K; Stein, Dan J; Sorsdahl, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    Given the high prevalence and detrimental consequences of alcohol or other drug (AOD) use in low- and middle-income countries, a screening tool for early detection in health care, including emergency care, is critical. We set out to validate the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) for the South African context. We interviewed emergency centre patients (n = 200) in Cape Town for this cross-sectional study conducted from January to March 2013 utilising a questionnaire battery, including the ASSIST and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and screening properties of the ASSIST (receiver operating characteristic analysis) were examined utilising the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview AOD use modules as the gold standard. Cronbach's alpha for alcohol and illicit drugs ranged from 0.81 to 0.95 indicating good internal consistency. ASSIST cut-off scores show a good sensitivity and specificity for discrimination particularly when distinguishing between substance use and abuse, rather than dependence. For alcohol, the area under the curve was 0.94 for distinguishing between use and abuse, and this dropped to 0.68 for distinguishing between abuse and dependence, while the statistic remained high for both use/abuse and abuse/dependence for illicit drugs: 0.95 and 0.96. AOD abuse was associated with cut-off scores below the World Health Organization recommended levels, in keeping with various international studies suggesting that individuals with lower scores be offered interventions. The ASSIST was found to be useful for South African health care and holds promise for cost-effective task-shifting approaches in lower resourced settings. [van der Westhuizen C, Wyatt G, Williams JK, Stein DJ, Sorsdahl K. Validation of  the  Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test in a low- and middle-income country cross-sectional emergency centre study. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016

  9. Socio-economic and Psychosocial Determinants of Smoking and Passive Smoking in Older Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong Mei; HU Zhi; ORTON Sophie; WANG Jia Ji; ZHENG Jian Zhong; QIN Xia; CHEN Ruo Ling

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the associations of socio-economic and psychosocial factors with active and passive smoking in older adults. Methods Using a standard interview method, we examined random samples of 6071 people aged≥60 years in 5 provinces of China during 2007-2009. Results World age-standardised prevalence for current and former smoking in men was 45.6% and 20.5%, and in women 11.1%and 4.5%. Current smoking reduced with older age but increased with men, low socioeconomic status (SES), alcohol drinking, being never-married, pessimistic and depressive syndromes. Former smoking was associated with men, secondary school education, a middle-high income, being a businessman, being widowed, less frequencies of visiting children/relatives and friends, and worrying about children. Among 3774 never-smokers, the prevalence of passive smoking was 31.5%, and the risk increased with women, low SES, alcohol drinking, being married, having a religious believe, and daily visiting children/relatives. There were sex differences in the associations, and an interaction effect of education and income on smoking and passive smoking. Conclusion Older Chinese had a higher level of smoking and passive smoking than those in high income countries, reflecting China’s failures in controlling smoking. The associations with low SES and different psychosocial aspects and sex differences suggest preventative strategies for active and passive smoking.

  10. Smoking, alcohol, occupation, and hair dye use in cancer of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, A; Kolonel, L N; Yoshizawa, C N

    1989-12-01

    This case-control study was based on 137 Caucasian and 124 Japanese cases of urinary tract cancer identified in Hawaii between 1977 and 1986. Each case was matched on sex, age, and race to two population-based controls. Heavy cigarette smokers (41 or more pack-years for men; 21 or more pack-years for women) had a significantly elevated risk compared with nonsmokers (odds ratio (OR) = 6.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-11.1 for the men; OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.3 for the women). When the men and women were combined, employment in high-risk industries (includes machinery, automotive, and textiles, among others) was significantly associated with cancer risk (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3). Alcohol intake and hair dye use showed weaker positive associations with risk that were not statistically significant.

  11. Parental factors and adolescents' smoking behavior: an extension of the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakeh, Z.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Vries, H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study is to investigate whether general parenting factors (i.e., quality parent-child relationship, psychological control, strict control, parental knowledge) and parental smoking add to The theory of planned behaviour [Organ Behav. Hum. Dec. 50 (1991) 179] in pred

  12. Factors Influencing Agreement between Self-Reports and Biological Measures of Smoking among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcini, M. Margaret; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews 28 studies comparing adolescent self-report of smoking with biological indicators. Identifies four factors limiting agreement: biases in self-report due to limitations of biological measures; limitations of self-report measures; social desirability; and analytic and statistical issues. Concludes that, with optimal measurement, self-report…

  13. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  14. Smoking among dental students at King Saud University: Consumption patterns and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah S. AlSwuailem

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Approximately one in every four male dental students at KSU is a smoker. Having friends who are smokers was the most important risk factor associated with smoking. There is a general belief among dental students that public tobacco use is not well addressed in the dental college curriculum.

  15. The Unique Roles of Intrapersonal and Social Factors in Adolescent Smoking Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoe, Ivy N.; Semon Dubas, Judith; Somerville, Leah H.; Lugtig, Peter; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the initiation and peak of many harmful risk-taking behaviors such as smoking, which is among the most addictive and deadliest behaviors. Generic metatheories like the theory of triadic influence (TTI) suggest that interrelated risk factors across multiple domains (i.e., intrapersonal and…

  16. Parental factors and adolescents' smoking behavior: an extension of the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakeh, Z.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Vries, H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study is to investigate whether general parenting factors (i.e., quality parent-child relationship, psychological control, strict control, parental knowledge) and parental smoking add to The theory of planned behaviour [Organ Behav. Hum. Dec. 50 (1991) 179] in

  17. 20 CFR 404.1535 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a... medical evidence of your drug addiction or alcoholism. (1) The key factor we will examine in...

  18. NQO1 609C>T polymorphism interaction with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking increases colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xian-E; Jiang, Ying-Ying; Shi, Xi-Shun; Hu, Zhi-Jian

    2013-05-25

    NAD (P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) catalyzes the activation of some environmental procarcinogens present in tobacco smoke or the diet. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the potential association between NQO1 609C>T polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. The study population comprised 672 histologically confirmed colorectal cancer patients and 672 frequency-matched control subjects without cancer or systemic illness. We used PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism-based methods for genotyping analyses and unconditional logistic regression model for statistical evaluations. The risk of colorectal cancer increased with the level of smoking and decreased with the consumption of tea, fresh fruits, and vegetables. In addition, we found that the NQO1 609 CT and TT genotypes were associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CT: adjusted OR=2.02, 95% CI=1.55-2.57; TT: adjusted OR=2.51, 95% CI=1.82-3.47), compared with the CC genotype. Moreover, NQO1 609C>T appeared to have a multiplicative joint effect with both tobacco smoking and alcoholic drinking (P for multiplicative interactions were 0.0001 and 0.013, respectively) on colorectal cancer risk. Our findings suggest that the NQO1 609C>T polymorphism plays an important role in the development of colorectal cancer in the Chinese population, which is strengthened by alcohol drinking or tobacco smoking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and associated factors among secondary school teachers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Jawad, Ammar A; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2012-01-01

    The smoking prevalence in Malaysia is high, especially among men and adolescents. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors towards cigarette smoking among school teachers in Malaysia. This study was a school-based cross-sectional study conducted among 495 secondary school teachers. The questionnaire used in this study consisted of 29 questions categorized into two sections: socio-demographic characteristics and smoking behaviour. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program 13.0. ANOVA; t-tests were used in univariate analysis; multiple linear regression was applied for multivariate analysis. The majority of the participants were female (81.6%), in the age group ranged between 30-39 years (44%), Malay (90.1%), married (89.7%), degree holders (85.1%), with monthly income ranged between 3000-3999 Ringgit Malaysia (33.5%), from urban areas (94.7%), their specialty is social studies (33.9%) and with no family history of cancer (83.6%). The prevalence of smoking among school teachers in Malaysia was found to be 7.8%. Regarding reasons to start smoking among school teachers: the major reason was found to be relaxation (33.3%), followed by stress-relief (28.2%). Univariate analysis showed that sex, educational status, monthly income and residency were significantly associated with smoking among school teachers (pMalaysia was found to be relatively low. Sex, marital status, educational status, monthly income and residency were significantly associated with smoking among school teachers.

  20. Why do young women smoke? III. Attention and impulsivity as neurocognitive predisposing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakir, Avi; Rigbi, Amihai; Kanyas, Kyra; Pollak, Yehudah; Kahana, Gazit; Karni, Osnat; Eitan, Renana; Kertzman, Semion; Lerer, Bernard

    2007-04-01

    Since nicotine has been shown to facilitate sustained attention and control of impulsivity, impairment in these domains may influence individuals who initiate smoking for various reasons to continue to smoke cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether young women who smoke regularly but are not abstinent at the time of testing, differ in their cognitive functioning from non-smokers and whether they resemble women who smoked in the past but quit. Female undergraduate students aged 20-30 years were recruited by advertisement from institutes of higher education in the Jerusalem area. The study sample consisted of 91 current smokers (CS), 40 past smokers (PS) and 151 non-smokers (NS). 46 occasional smokers (OS) were also tested. Confounding by withdrawal state was neutralized by including only CS and OS who smoked their last cigarette less than 90 min before testing. Subjects performed a computerized neurocognitive battery, which tests the domains of attention, memory, impulsivity, planning, information processing and motor performance. Analyses were controlled for age. The results showed that CS made significantly more errors than NS on the Continuous Performance Task (CPT), Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) and Tower of London (TOL) test. PS were significantly worse than NS on the MFFT and TOL test. PS did not differ significantly from CS on any test. No association was found between duration of smoking and performance. These findings suggest that a neurocognitive profile characterized by impairments in sustained attention and control of impulsivity may be one of the factors that predispose young women who initiate cigarette smoking to maintain the habit.

  1. Recurrent pulmonary mucormycosis after lobectomy in a non-smoking patient without predisposing risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary mucormycosis is a very rare clinical condition in patients without underlying risk factors. A limited number of cases have been reported in predominantly elderly patients; history of smoking appears to be a common feature. A case of non-smoking male who developed pulmonary mucormycosis with the longest reported follow-up is presented. In addition, this is also the first reported case with disease recurrence after lobectomy (two years in an immunocompetent host. Treatment with an additional lobectomy and amphotericin B was successful in this patient.

  2. Is Smoking a Risk Factor for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaedt Thorlund, Mie; Borg Madsen, Mette; Green, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate if smoking was a risk factor for proliferative retinopathy (PDR) in a 25-year follow-up study. Methods: 201 persons from a population-based cohort of Danish type 1 diabetic patients were examined at baseline and again 25 years later. At both examinations the patients...... were asked about their smoking habits. The level of retinopathy was evaluated by ophthalmoscopy at baseline and by nine 45-degree colour field fundus photos at the follow-up. Results: In multivariate analyses there was a trend that current smokers at baseline were more likely to develop PDR...

  3. Investigating the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief)

    OpenAIRE

    Toll, Benjamin A.; Katulak, Nicole A.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the proposed two-factor structure of the 10-item Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief) and to provide evidence for the psychometric properties of this questionnaire using the seven-point scoring set from the original QSU study [Tiffany, S.T., Drobes, D.J. (1991). The development and initial validation of a questionnaire on smoking urges. British Journal of Addiction 86, 1467–1476.]. The study sample (N =576) was comprised of smokers presenting...

  4. Meta-analysis on the risk factors of smoking among undergraduates in China%中国大学生吸烟危险因素的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷春萍; 熊鸿燕

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨我国在校大学生吸烟的主要危险因素.方法 利用Meta分析方法综合定量分析国内14篇关于在校大学生吸烟的危险因素的研究文献.结果 本次研究共调查了15 521人次,合并OR值(95%CI)有统计学意义的前七位主要危险因素分别为:性别8.632 (6.875~10.839)、吸烟正向态度3.749 (2.645~5.313)、是否饮酒3.007 (2.055~4.401)、父母吸烟2.752 (2.152~3.520)、周围人及朋友吸烟2.384(1.610~3.528)、经济状况2.197(1.223~3.94.4)、情绪与心理2.026(1.169~3.513).结论 我国在校大学生吸烟的主要危险因素是性别、吸烟正向态度、是否饮酒、周围人及朋友吸烟等,因此在今后的我国大学生禁烟干预活动中应围绕这些主要影响因素开展禁烟工作.%Objective To explore the main risk factors of smoking among undergraduates in China so as to provide evidence for effective tobacco-control policy to prevent smoking and modify the smoking behaviors among undergraduates. Methods The risk factors of smoking among the undergraduates in 14 literatures were quantitatively analyzed by meta-analysis. Results It was showed that the risk factors related to gender, the positive attitude towards smoking, alcohol drinking, parental smoking, peer smoking, financial status,emotion and psychology of smoking with the pooled OR values(95%CI)8.632(6.875-10.839),3.749(2.645-5.313),3.007(2.055-4.401),2.752(2.152-3J20), 2.384(1.610-3.528), 2.197( 1.223-3.944)and 2.026(1.169-3.513), respectively. Conclusion Smoking among the undergraduates in China is closely correlated to gender, the positive attitude towards smoking, alcohol drinking, peer smoking etc. So effective interventions should be implemented.

  5. Peer influences: the impact of online and offline friendship networks on adolescent smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace C; Unger, Jennifer B; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Pentz, Mary Ann; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Valente, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    Online social networking sites (SNSs) have become a popular mode of communication among adolescents. However, little is known about the effects of social online activity on health behaviors. The authors examined the use of SNSs among friends and the degree to which SNS activities relate to face-to-face peer influences and adolescent risk behaviors. Longitudinal egocentric friendship network data along with adolescent social media use and risk behaviors were collected from 1,563 10th-grade students across five Southern California high schools. Measures of online and offline peer influences were computed and assessed using fixed-effects models. The frequency of adolescent SNS use and the number of their closest friends on the same SNSs were not significantly associated with risk behaviors. However, exposure to friends' online pictures of partying or drinking was significantly associated with both smoking (β = .11, p Facebook had demographically distinct user characteristics and differential effects on risk behaviors. Exposure to risky online content had a direct impact on adolescents' risk behaviors and significantly interacted with risk behaviors of their friends. These results provide evidence that friends' online behaviors should be considered a viable source of peer influence and that increased efforts should focus on educating adolescents on the negative effects of risky online displays. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Is the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin a risk factor for alcoholic liver disease?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duygu Dee Harrison-Findik

    2009-01-01

    Despite heavy consumption over a long period of time,only a small number of alcoholics develop alcoholic liver disease. This alludes to the possibility that other factors,besides alcohol, may be involved in the progression of the disease. Over the years, many such factors have indeed been identified, including iron. Despite being crucial for various important biological processes, iron can also be harmful due to its ability to catalyze Fenton chemistry. Alcohol and iron have been shown to interact synergistically to cause liver injury. Iron-mediated cell signaling has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of experimental alcoholic liver disease. Hepcidin is an iron-regulatory hormone synthesized by the liver,which plays a pivotal role in iron homeostasis. Both acute and chronic alcohol exposure suppress hepcidin expression in the liver. The sera of patients with alcoholic liver disease, particularly those exhibiting higher serum iron indices, have also been reported to display reduced prohepcidin levels. Alcohol-mediated oxidative stress is involved in the inhibition of hepcidin promoter activity and transcription in the liver. This in turn leads to an increase in intestinal iron transport and liver iron storage. Hepcidin is expressed primarily in hepatocytes.It is noteworthy that both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells are involved in the progression of alcoholic liver disease. However, the activation of Kupffer cells and TNF-α signaling has been reported not to be involved in the down-regulation of hepcidin expression by alcohol in the liver. Alcohol acts within the parenchymal cells of the liver to suppress the synthesis of hepcidin. Due to its crucial role in the regulation of body iron stores, hepcidin may act as a secondary risk factor in the progression of alcoholic liver disease. The clarification of the mechanisms by which alcohol disrupts iron homeostasis will allow for further understanding of the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease.

  7. Factors associated with alcohol reduction in harmful and hazardous drinkers following alcohol brief intervention in Scotland: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Jean M; Ballinger, Claire; Howe, Tracey E

    2017-03-08

    Alcohol Brief Intervention (ABI) uses a motivational counselling approach to support individuals to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. There is growing evidence on ABI's use within various health care settings, although how they work and which components enhance success is largely unknown. This paper reports on the qualitative part of a mixed methods study. It explores enablers and barriers associated with alcohol reduction following an ABI. It focuses on alcohol's place within participants' lives and their personal perspectives on reducing consumption. There are a number of randomised controlled trials in this field though few ABI studies have addressed the experiences of hazardous/harmful drinkers. This study examines factors associated with alcohol reduction in harmful/hazardous drinkers following ABI. This qualitative study was underpinned by a realist evaluation approach and involved semi-structured interviews with ten harmful or hazardous alcohol drinkers. Participants (n = 10) were from the intervention arm of a randomised controlled trial (n = 124). All had received ABI, a 20 min motivational counselling interview, six months previously, and had reduced their alcohol consumption. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Participants described their views on alcohol, its' place in their lives, their personal perspectives on reducing their consumption and future aspirations. The findings provide an insight into participants' views on alcohol, ABI, and the barriers and enablers to change. Participants described a cost benefit analysis, with some conscious consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of reducing intake or abstaining from alcohol. Findings suggest that, whilst hospital admission can act as a catalyst, encouraging individuals to reflect on their alcohol consumption through ABI may consolidate this, turning this reflective moment into action. Sustainability may be enhanced by the presence of a

  8. The relationships of sociodemographic factors, medical, psychiatric, and substance-misuse co-morbidities to neurocognition in short-term abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Rothlind, Johannes C; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2008-09-01

    Co-morbidities that commonly accompany those afflicted with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may promote variability in the pattern and magnitude of neurocognitive abnormalities demonstrated. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of several common co-morbid medical conditions (primarily hypertension and hepatitis C), psychiatric (primarily unipolar mood and anxiety disorders), and substance use (primarily psychostimulant and cannabis) disorders, and chronic cigarette smoking on the neurocognitive functioning in short-term abstinent, treatment-seeking individuals with AUD. Seventy-five alcohol-dependent participants (ALC; 51+/-9 years of age; three females) completed comprehensive neurocognitive testing after approximately 1 month of abstinence. Multivariate multiple linear regression evaluated the relationships among neurocognitive variables and medical conditions, psychiatric, and substance-use disorders, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Sixty-four percent of ALC had at least one medical, psychiatric, or substance-abuse co-morbidity (excluding smoking). Smoking status (smoker or nonsmoker) and age were significant independent predictors of cognitive efficiency, general intelligence, postural stability, processing speed, and visuospatial memory after age-normed adjustment and control for estimated pre-morbid verbal intelligence, education, alcohol consumption, and medical, psychiatric, and substance-misuse co-morbidities. Results indicated that chronic smoking accounted for a significant portion of the variance in the neurocognitive performance of this middle-aged AUD cohort. The age-related findings for ALC suggest that alcohol dependence, per se, was associated with diminished neurocognitive functioning with increasing age. The study of participants who demonstrate common co-morbidities observed in AUD is necessary to fully understand how AUD, as a clinical syndrome, affects neurocognition, brain neurobiology, and their changes with

  9. Motivational factors and negative affectivity as predictors of alcohol craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombo, Samuel; Luísa Figueira, M; Walter, Henriette; Lesch, Otto

    2016-09-30

    Craving is thought to play an important role in alcohol use disorders. The recent inclusion of "craving" as a formal diagnostic symptom calls for further investigation of this subjective phenomenon with multiple dimensions. Considering that alcohol-dependent patients compensate negative physical/emotional states with alcohol, the aim of this study is to investigate alcohol craving and its correlation with drinking measures and affective personality dimensions. A sample of 135 alcohol-dependent patients (104 males and 31 females) was collected from a clinical setting. Subjects self-rated their cravings (Penn Alcohol Craving Scale) and the stage of change. Several personality scales were also administered. Craving was related to drinking status, abstinence time, age, and taking steps. After controlling for these conditions, psychological characteristics related to low self-concept, neuroticism, cyclothymic affective temperament, depression, and hostility were found to be predictors of craving in sober alcohol-dependent patients. Our results support craving as a component of the phenomenology of alcohol dependence and highlight the presence of unpleasant feelings as predictors of craving in sober alcohol-dependent patients without co-occurring psychiatric conditions. The predisposition to experience negative emotions may induce a stronger craving response and increase the likelihood of a first drink and a subsequent loss of control.

  10. Alcoholism and liver disease in Mexico: genetic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Sonia; Zepeda-Carrillo, Eloy Alfonso; Moreno-Luna, Laura Eugenia; Panduro, Arturo

    2013-11-28

    Alcoholism and cirrhosis, which are two of the most serious health problems worldwide, have a broad spectrum of clinical outcomes. Both diseases are influenced by genetic susceptibility and cultural traits that differ globally but are specific for each population. In contrast to other regions around the world, Mexicans present the highest drinking score and a high mortality rate for alcoholic liver disease with an intermediate category level of per capita alcohol consumption. Mexico has a unique history of alcohol consumption that is linked to profound anthropological and social aspects. The Mexican population has an admixture genome inherited from different races, Caucasian, Amerindian and African, with a heterogeneous distribution within the country. Thus, genes related to alcohol addiction, such as dopamine receptor D2 in the brain, or liver alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase class I polypeptide B, cytochrome P450 2E1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase class 2, may vary from one individual to another. Furthermore, they may be inherited as risk or non-risk haplogroups that confer susceptibility or resistance either to alcohol addiction or abusive alcohol consumption and possibly liver disease. Thus, in this era of genomics, personalized medicine will benefit patients if it is directed according to individual or population-based data. Additional association studies will be required to establish novel strategies for the prevention, care and treatment of liver disease in Mexico and worldwide.

  11. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  12. Provision of smoke-free homes and vehicles for kindergarten children: associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Beverley; Johnson, Joy

    2011-12-01

    Many children continue to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) each day. To describe the factors associated with providing a smoke-free home (PSFH) and vehicle (PSFV) for kindergarten children, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Manitoba, Canada, with 551 mothers and primary caregivers responding. A social-ecologic model of health behavior guided the study. In the bivariate analysis, being better educated, living with a partner, and having a higher income were associated with PSFH. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, the variables most predictive for PSFH were living with a partner and the mother's self-efficacy, and for PSFV, the most predictive variables were the mother's self-efficacy and ETS knowledge. Smoking behaviors are complex and must be considered broadly within all levels of influence if nurses are to assist parents in protecting their children.

  13. Factors affecting elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from traditional smoked common carp meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, J.; Vidaković, S.; Škaljac, S.; Kartalović, B.; Ljubojević, D.; Ćirković, M.; Teodorović, V.

    2017-09-01

    Smoking techniques have been progressively improved and different procedures have been developed in different regions for treating fish. In these times, the technology is mainly used for enrichment of fish with specific taste and odour, to extend the shelf-life of these perishable products and appearance required widely on the market. A lot of chemical contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed during the combustion of fuel in the smoking process. PAHs are a group of compounds that have been the subject of great concern in the recent years due to their toxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic potentials to humans. These fact can have a significant impact on the acceptance of these products by consumers. In this review article, the objective is to describe factors affecting elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from traditional smoked common carp meat.

  14. Cigarette smoking and hypertension. Factors independently associated with blood hyperviscosity and arterial rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, J; Simon, A C; Cambien, F A; Beretti, C

    1987-01-01

    The effects of cigarette smoking and hypertension on hemorheological variables (blood viscosity over a wide range of shear rates, plasma viscosity, microhematocrit, and plasma protein concentration) and on arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity) were investigated in 33 normotensive men and 81 mild to moderately hypertensive men. Of these, 22 normotensive and 24 hypertensive subjects were cigarette smokers. Cigarette smoking and hypertension were independently associated with higher blood viscosity at all studied shear rates (from 0.2 to 241 sec-1) as well as with higher plasma viscosity, hematocrit, and pulse wave velocity. At constant hematocrit levels, hypertension remained associated with a higher blood viscosity, while the association with cigarette smoking disappeared. Normotensive smokers had the same increase of blood and plasma viscosity and pulse wave velocity as hypertensive nonsmokers. No interactive effects of hypertension or cigarette smoking on blood or arterial variables were observed, suggesting that the effect of these two factors on blood and vascular rheology are cumulative. Smoking and hypertension may change the flow properties of the blood and the behavior of the arterial wall and this may explain the arterial damage observed in cigarette smokers and hypertensive patients.

  15. Passive Smoking in China: Contributing Factors and Areas for Future Interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to passive smoking in China.Methods Discussion consisting of 80 focus groups and 35 interviews were held in three rural intervention counties of Jiangxi,Henan,and Sichuan Provinces. Participants came from hospitals,schools,rural areas,and urban areas.Results Tobacco use and exposure to passive smoking were widely prevalent in the investigated schools,hospitals,county towns,and rural areas. Knowledge of the risks for passive smoking on health is lacking,especially in rural areas. Barriers to the control of tobacco use in public places include reluctance of administrators to implement tobacco control policies,lack of consistent policies,difficulties with regulations and enforcement,and reluctance of non-smokers to exercise their right to clean air.Conclusion To curb the current tobacco epidemic in China,tobacco control efforts must focus on reducing exposure to passive smoking. A strategy should be formulated to reduce the factors that contribute to tobacco use and exposure to passive smoking.

  16. [Prevalence and related risk factors on smoking among pupils in Shandong province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xia; Sun, Tong; Zhou, Pei-jing; Chen, Ren-you; Kang, Dian-min

    2013-11-01

    To study the prevalence of smoking and its influential factors among pupils in Shandong. A multi-stage stratified-cluster random sampling method was used in the survey. 6050 students from 3 different cities of Shandong province were selected as the study population. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed and the survey was conducted by trained investigators. The rate of attempting smoking among pupils under study in Shandong province was 6.0% while the current smoking rate was 1.2%. The average age of children who initiated smoking cigarette was 7.8±2.1 with 80.5% of them due to curiosity. 34.7% of them got the cigarettes from their families. In terms of the motivation of buying cigarettes, 74.3% of them claimed that the access to purchase was easy. Data from multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that the smoking behavior of pupils was influenced by their familial or surrounding environments. Tobacco control programs on pupils should be strengthened with more powerful control measures including health education.

  17. Smoking and environmental iodine as risk factors for thyroiditis among parous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Cnattingius, Sven; Granath, Fredrik; Ekbom-Schnell, Annika; Ekbom, Anders

    2007-01-01

    To elucidate whether exposure to some environmental factors, i.e. cigarette smoking and iodine deficiency influence the risk of thyroiditis. We identified a cohort of 874, 507 parous women with self-reported information on smoking during pregnancy registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry from September 1983 through December 1997. Hospital diagnoses of thyroiditis (n = 286) and hypothyroidism (n = 690) following entry into the cohort were identified by record-linkage with the national Inpatient Registry. The hazard ratio (HR) of smokers compared to non-smokers and the corresponding 95% confidence limits (CL) were estimated by Cox regression. Smoking was inversely associated with risk of overt thyroiditis (adjusted HR = 0.72; CL = 0.54-0.95), even when diagnoses of primary hypothyroidism were included. However, a diagnosis of thyroiditis within 6 months from a childbirth was positively associated with smoking (adjusted HR = 1.88; CL = 0.94-3.76). Being born in areas of endemic goiter was not associated to hospital admission for thyroiditis. Thyroiditis patients who were smokers had more often than non-smokers a co-morbidity with other autoimmune disorders. Smoking may increase the risk of thyroiditis occurring in the post-partum period and influence the clinical expression of other thyroiditis, especially when occurring as part of a polymorphic autoimmune disease.

  18. Social-Context Factors, Refusal Self-Efficacy, and Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers in China

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use is considered as a health risk behavior that may produce negative health outcomes. Examining predictors of alcohol use in a social or individual context can advance understanding of why people indulge in alcohol use. Our research on female sex workers (FSWs) examined associations among several social-context factors (alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence), refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use. Seven hundred FSW...

  19. Measured and modeled humidification factors of fresh smoke particles from biomass burning: role of inorganic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hand

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During the 2006 FLAME study (Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment, laboratory burns of biomass fuels were performed to investigate the physico-chemical, optical, and hygroscopic properties of fresh biomass smoke. As part of the experiment, two nephelometers simultaneously measured dry and humidified light scattering coefficients (bsp(dry and bsp(RH, respectively in order to explore the role of relative humidity (RH on the optical properties of biomass smoke aerosols. Results from burns of several biomass fuels from the west and southeast United States showed large variability in the humidification factor (f(RH=bsp(RH/bsp(dry. Values of f(RH at RH=80–85% ranged from 0.99 to 1.81 depending on fuel type. We incorporated measured chemical composition and size distribution data to model the smoke hygroscopic growth to investigate the role of inorganic compounds on water uptake for these aerosols. By assuming only inorganic constituents were hygroscopic, we were able to model the water uptake within experimental uncertainty, suggesting that inorganic species were responsible for most of the hygroscopic growth. In addition, humidification factors at 80–85% RH increased for smoke with increasing inorganic salt to carbon ratios. Particle morphology as observed from scanning electron microscopy revealed that samples of hygroscopic particles contained soot chains either internally or externally mixed with inorganic potassium salts, while samples of weak to non-hygroscopic particles were dominated by soot and organic constituents. This study provides further understanding of the compounds responsible for water uptake by young biomass smoke, and is important for accurately assessing the role of smoke in climate change studies and visibility regulatory efforts.

  20. Measured and modeled humidification factors of fresh smoke particles from biomass burning: role of inorganic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hand

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available During the 2006 FLAME study (Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment, laboratory burns of biomass fuels were performed to investigate the physico-chemical, optical, and hygroscopic properties of fresh biomass smoke. As part of the experiment, two nephelometers simultaneously measured dry and humidified light scattering coefficients (bsp(dry and bsp(RH, respectively in order to explore the role of relative humidity (RH on the optical properties of biomass smoke aerosols. Results from burns of several biomass fuels showed large variability in the humidification factor (f(RH=bsp(RH/bsp(dry. Values of f(RH at RH=85–90% ranged from 1.02 to 2.15 depending on fuel type. We incorporated measured chemical composition and size distribution data to model the smoke hygroscopic growth to investigate the role of inorganic and organic compounds on water uptake for these aerosols. By assuming only inorganic constituents were hygroscopic, we were able to model the water uptake within experimental uncertainty, suggesting that inorganic species were responsible for most of the hygroscopic growth. In addition, humidification factors at 85–90% RH increased for smoke with increasing inorganic salt to carbon ratios. Particle morphology as observed from scanning electron microscopy revealed that samples of hygroscopic particles contained soot chains either internally or externally mixed with inorganic potassium salts, while samples of weak to non-hygroscopic particles were dominated by soot and organic constituents. This study provides further understanding of the compounds responsible for water uptake by young biomass smoke, and is important for accurately assessing the role of smoke in climate change studies and visibility regulatory efforts.

  1. The interplay of friendship networks and social networking sites: longitudinal analysis of selection and influence effects on adolescent smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace C; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    We examined the coevolution of adolescent friendships and peer influences with respect to their risk behaviors and social networking site use. Investigators of the Social Network Study collected longitudinal data during fall 2010 and spring 2011 from 10th-grade students in 5 Southern California high schools (n = 1434). We used meta-analyses of stochastic actor-based models to estimate changes in friendship ties and risk behaviors and the effects of Facebook and MySpace use. Significant shifts in adolescent smoking and drinking occurred despite little change in overall prevalence rates. Students with higher levels of alcohol use were more likely to send and receive friendship nominations and become friends with other drinkers. They were also more likely to increase alcohol use if their friends drank more. Adolescents selected friends with similar Facebook and MySpace use habits. Exposure to friends' risky online pictures increased smoking behaviors but had no significant effects on alcohol use. Our findings support a greater focus on friendship selection mechanisms in school-based alcohol use interventions. Social media platforms may help identify at-risk adolescent groups and foster positive norms about risk behaviors.

  2. Factors associated with second-hand smoke exposure in non-smoking pregnant women in Spain: self-reported exposure and urinary cotinine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Castilla, Ane Miren; Guxens, Mònica; López, María José; Lertxundi, Aitana; Espada, Mercedes; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran; Santa-Marina, Loreto

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the main sources of and sociodemographic factors associated with second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure, assessed both by questionnaire and by urinary cotinine (UC) levels, in non-smoking pregnant women. We conducted a cross-sectional study in pregnant women from 4 different regions in Spain. A total of 1783 non-smoking pregnant women completed a questionnaire about their previous smoking habit and SHS exposure in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy and provided a urine sample for measuring UC levels. We used logistic regression models to assess the relationship between several sociodemographic variables and some potential sources of SHS exposure. In addition, we analysed the association of several sociodemographic variables and the SHS exposure according to UC levels, using Tobit regression analysis. More than half of women (55.5%) were exposed to SHS in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The following variables were associated with SHS exposure: having smoked previously, low educational level, and being primiparous. Data collection after the first law banning smoking in public places was associated with lower risk of SHS exposure in restaurants and at work. UC levels were higher among women exposed to more than one source. Having a partner who smoked at home was the source of SHS with the greatest impact on UC levels, followed by having a partner who smoked but not at home, other people smoking in the household, being exposed during leisure time, at work and at restaurants. The most important source of SHS exposure was exposure at home. Prevention of SHS exposure should be addressed not only with pregnant women but also with their families.

  3. Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking and Associated Risk Factors amongst Middle-School Students in Ongkharak District, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerksuppaphol, Lakkana; Rerksuppaphol, Sanguansak

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a common tobacco use which is the leading preventable cause of death in Thailand. Prevalence and risk factors of cigarette smoking are varied amongst communities. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of cigarette smoking amongst middle-school students studying in the Ongkharak district, central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with students of the public schools in Ongkharak district, central Thailand, in 2013. Of 677 middle-school students (grade 7-9) who currently enrolled in the classes, 130 were randomly selected. Data on smoking as well as demographic characteristics were collected using an anonymous self- administered questionnaire which was modified from the 2013 Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and translated into Thai. The prevalence of children who smoked or had smoked before was 24.6% (38.9% amongst males and 6.9% amongst females, p-value coffee or tea consumption (OR = 2.95, 95% CI 1.08-8.05) and sharing a household with a smoker (OR = 2.96, 95% CI 1.09-8.06). Those who have smoked reported higher prevalence of asthma compared to those who have never smoked (25.0% vs. 9.2%, p-value = 0.033). About a quarter ofmiddle-school students in Ongkharak district smoked cigarettes. Anti-smoking and prevention policies should be encouraged to tackle this rising major public health problem.

  4. Adolescent Alcohol Use: Protective and Predictive Parent, Peer, and Self-Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handren, Lindsay M; Donaldson, Candice D; Crano, William D

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent alcohol use has been linked with a multitude of problems and a trajectory predictive of problematic use in adulthood. Thus, targeting factors that enhance early prevention efforts is vital. The current study highlights variables that mitigate or predict alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking. Using Monitoring the Future (MTF) data, multiple path analytic models revealed links between parental involvement and alcohol abstinence and initiation. Parental involvement predicted enhanced self-esteem and less self-derogation and was negatively associated with peer alcohol norms for each MTF grade sampled, with stronger associations for 8th and 10th graders than 12th graders. For younger groups, self-esteem predicted increased perceptions of alcohol risk and reduced drinking. Self-derogation was associated with peers' pro-alcohol norms, which was linked to lower risk perceptions, lower personal disapproval of use, and increased drinking. Peer influence had a stronger association with consumption for 8th and 10th graders, whereas 12th graders' drinking was related to personal factors of alcohol risk perception and disapproval. In all grades, general alcohol use had a strong connection to heavy episodic drinking within the past 2 weeks. Across-grade variations in association of parent, peer, and personal factors suggest the desirability of tailored interventions focused on specific factors for each grade level, with the overall goal of attenuating adolescent alcohol use.

  5. Risk factors for out-of-home custody child care among families with alcohol and substance abuse problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkola, Taisto; Kahila, Hanna; Gissler, Mika; Halmesmäki, Erja

    2007-11-01

    To study the risk of children to mothers with alcohol and/or substance abuse related problems for early childhood out-of-home care in Finland. A population-based cross-sectional retrospective analysis of 526 pregnant women attending special outpatient clinics during 1992-2001 and their 626 offspring, with out-of-home care data until 2003 provided by the National Child Welfare Register. Fifty percent (95% confidence interval 46-54%) were at some point and 38% (34-42%) by the age of two years, in out-of-home care. Out-of-home care was associated with maternal care for substance abuse after delivery, nonemployment, housing, daily smoking during pregnancy, increasing number of previous births, mother in custody in her childhood, maternal education, previous child in custody, drug in urine during pregnancy, unplanned pregnancy, partner with significant abuse, regular health-care contact for abuse, daily alcohol consumption before and/or during pregnancy, newborn not discharged with mother, neonatal abstinence symptoms (NAS), intensified perinatal surveillance or NICU, and delayed discharge from hospital. There is a substantial risk of children born to mothers with significant alcohol and/or substance abuse related problems for out-of-home care during early childhood. Factors identified during the pre- and perinatal period are associated with this risk.

  6. Risk factors for alcoholic liver disease in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Lan Lu; Jin-Yan Luo; Ming Tao; Yan Gen; Ping Zhao; Hong-Li Zhao; Xiao-Dong Zhang; Nei Dong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To examine the association of daily alcohol intake,types of alcoholic beverage consumed, drinking patterns and obesity with alcoholic liver disease in China.METHODS: By random cluster sampling and a 3-year follow-up study, 1 270 alcohol drinkers were recruited from different occupations in the urban and suburban areas of Xi'an City. They were examined by specialists and inquired for information on: Medical history and family medical history, alcohol intake, types of alcoholic beverage consumed, drinking patterns by detailed dietary questionnaires. Routine blood tests and ultrasonography were done.RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that: (1) The risk threshold for developing alcoholic liver disease was ingestion of more than 20 g alcohol per day, keeping on drinking for over 5 years in men. The highest OR was at the daily alcohol consumption ≥160 g, the occurrence rate of ALD amounted to 18.7% (P<0.01). No ALD occurred when ingestion of alcohol was less than 20 g per day. (2) 87.9% of all drank only at mealtimes. The cumulative risk of developing ALD was significantly higher in those individuals who regularly drank alcohol without food than in those who drank only at mealtimes, especially for those who regularly drank hard liquors only and multiple drinks (P<0.05). (3) The alcohol consumption in those with BMI ≥25 was lower than in those with BMI <25, but the risk increased to 11.5%, significantly higher than that of general population, 6.5% (P<0.01). (4)Abstinence and weight reduction could benefit the liver function recovery.CONCLUSION: In the Chinese population the ethanol risk threshold for developing ALD is 20 g per day, and this risk increases with increased daily intake. Drinking 20 g of ethanol per day and for less than 5 years are safe from ALD. Drinking alcohol outside mealtimes and drinking hard liquors only and multiple different alcohol beverages both increase the risk of developing ALD. Obesity also increases the risk. Abstinence

  7. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users. PMID:25591103

  8. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Alvarez-Aguirre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents.METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used.RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year.CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users.

  9. Smoking, consumption of alcohol and sedentary life style in population grouping and their relationships with lipemic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignez Salas Martins

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The study, part of the project "Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, lipemic disorders, hypertension, obesity and diabetis mellitus in a population of the metropolitan area of the southeastern region of Brazil", had the following objectives: a the characterization and distribution among typical human socio-economic groupings, of the prevalence of some particular habits which constitute aspects of life-style-the use of tobacco, the use of alcohol and sedentary activity; b the establishment of the interrelation between the above-mentioned habits and some lipemic disorders. The prevalence of the habits cited behaved in the following manner: the use of tobacco predominated among men, distributed uniformly throughout the social strata; among the women the average percentage of smokers was 18,9%, a significant difference occurring among the highest socio-economic class, where the average was of 40.2%. The sedentary style of life presented high prevalence, among both men and women with exception of the women of the highest socio-economic level and of the skilled working class. The use of alcohol, as one would expect, is a habit basically practised by the men, without any statistically significant differences between classes. For the purpose of establishing associations between these risk fictors and lipemic conditions four situations were chosen, of the following characteristics: 1- total cholesterol > or = 220 mg/dl and triglycerides > or = 150 mg/dl; 2- HDL cholesterol or = 150 mg/dl; 3- HDL cholesterol or = 150 mg/dl, and the following independent variables: age, use of tobacco and the interactions between obesity and smoking, age and sedentary lifestyle, sex and obesity (R2=22%; the standardized B coefficient showed that the variables with the greatest weight in the forecasting of the variation in the levels of cholesterol were smoking and the interaction between obesity and smoking. The hypercholesterolemia accompanied by triglycerides levels

  10. Smoking among adolescents in Northern Greece: a large cross-sectional study about risk and preventive factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyratos Dionisios G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to investigate epidemiological data about cigarette smoking in relation with risk and preventive factors among Greek adolescents. Methods We randomly selected 10% of the whole number of schools in Northern Greece (133 schools, 18,904 participants were included. Two anonymous questionnaires (smoker's and non-smoker's were both distributed to all students so they selected and filled in only one. A parental signed informed consent was obtained using an informative leaflet about adolescent smoking. Results The main findings of the study were: a 14.2% of the adolescents (mean age+/−SD: 15.3+/−1.7 years reported regular smoking (24.1% in the age group 16–18 years, b 84.2% of the current smokers reported daily use, c students who live in urban and semirural areas smoke more frequently than those in rural areas, d students in technically oriented schools smoke twice as frequent compared to those in general education, e risk factors for smoking: male gender, low educational level of parents, friends who smoke (OR: 10.01, 95%CI: 8.53-11.74, p Conclusions Even though prevalence of cigarette smoking is not too high among Greek adolescents, frequency of everyday cigarette use is alarming. We identified many social and lifestyle risk and preventive factors that should be incorporated in a national smoking prevention program among Greek adolescents.

  11. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α reduces alveolar septal cell apoptosis in passive smoking rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cheng; CAI Shan; CHEN Ping; CHEN Jian-bo; WU Jie; WU Shang-jie; ZHOU Rui

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent studies have revealed that lung cell apoptosis plays an important role in pathogenesis of cigarette-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNF-α)is one of the most important cytokines which are involved in COPD.This study aimed at investigating the jnfluence of its inhibitor,recombinant human necrosis factor-alpha receptor Ⅱ:IgG Fc fusion protein(rhTNFR:Fc)on alveolar septal cell apoptosis in passive smoking rats.Methods Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into a normal control group,a passive smoking group,an rhTNFR:Fc intervention group and a sham intervention group.The passive smoking rats were treated by exposure to cigarette smoking daily for 80 days.Afcer smoking for one month the rhTNFR:Fc Intervention group was treated with rhTNFR:Fc by subcutaneous injection,the sham intervention group injected subcutaneousIv with a neutral preparation(normal saline 0.1 ml,manicol 0.8 ml,cane sugar 0.2 mg,Tris 0.024 mg as a control.Lung function was determined and the levels of TNF-α in serum and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid(BALF)were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbnent assay (ELISA).Lung tissue sections stained by hematoxylin and eosin(HE)were observed for study of morphological alternations.Mean linear intercept(MLI)and mean alveolar numbers(MAN)were measured and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick en