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Sample records for factors sae international

  1. 75 FR 65657 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-International SAE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ...--International SAE Consortium Ltd. Notice is hereby given that, on September 21, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a...''), International SAE Consortium Ltd. (``ISAEC'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the...

  2. International forum and SAE-China annual conference to be held in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    2007 International Forum on China’s Auto Industry Development and 2007 SAE-China Annual Conference & Exhibition are going to open from Sept 7-10 in Tianjin. The events are jointly organized by CATARC,

  3. SDS interferes with SaeS signaling of Staphylococcus aureus independently of SaePQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuti E Makgotlho

    Full Text Available The Staphylococcus aureus regulatory saePQRS system controls the expression of numerous virulence factors, including extracellular adherence protein (Eap, which amongst others facilitates invasion of host cells. The saePQRS operon codes for 4 proteins: the histidine kinase SaeS, the response regulator SaeR, the lipoprotein SaeP and the transmembrane protein SaeQ. S. aureus strain Newman has a single amino acid substitution in the transmembrane domain of SaeS (L18P which results in constitutive kinase activity. SDS was shown to be one of the signals interfering with SaeS activity leading to inhibition of the sae target gene eap in strains with SaeS(L but causing activation in strains containing SaeS(P. Here, we analyzed the possible involvement of the SaeP protein and saePQ region in SDS-mediated sae/eap expression. We found that SaePQ is not needed for SDS-mediated SaeS signaling. Furthermore, we could show that SaeS activity is closely linked to the expression of Eap and the capacity to invade host cells in a number of clinical isolates. This suggests that SaeS activity might be directly modulated by structurally non-complex environmental signals, as SDS, which possibly altering its kinase/phosphatase activity.

  4. SDS Interferes with SaeS Signaling of Staphylococcus aureus Independently of SaePQ

    OpenAIRE

    Makgotlho, Phuti E.; Gabriella Marincola; Daniel Schäfer; Qian Liu; Taeok Bae; Tobias Geiger; Elizabeth Wasserman; Christiane Wolz; Wilma Ziebuhr; Bhanu Sinha

    2016-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus regulatory saePQRS system controls the expression of numerous virulence factors, including extracellular adherence protein (Eap), which amongst others facilitates invasion of host cells. The saePQRS operon codes for 4 proteins: the histidine kinase SaeS, the response regulator SaeR, the lipoprotein SaeP and the transmembrane protein SaeQ. S. aureus strain Newman has a single amino acid substitution in the transmembrane domain of SaeS (L18P) which results in constitut...

  5. Staphylococcus aureus Nuclease Is an SaeRS-Dependent Virulence Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael E.; Nygaard, Tyler K.; Ackermann, Laynez; Watkins, Robert L.; Zurek, Oliwia W.; Pallister, Kyler B.; Griffith, Shannon; Kiedrowski, Megan R.; Flack, Caralyn E.; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.

    2013-01-01

    Several prominent bacterial pathogens secrete nuclease (Nuc) enzymes that have an important role in combating the host immune response. Early studies of Staphylococcus aureus Nuc attributed its regulation to the agr quorum-sensing system. However, recent microarray data have indicated that nuc is under the control of the SaeRS two-component system, which is a major regulator of S. aureus virulence determinants. Here we report that the nuc gene is directly controlled by the SaeRS two-component system through reporter fusion, immunoblotting, Nuc activity measurements, promoter mapping, and binding studies, and additionally, we were unable identify a notable regulatory link to the agr system. The observed SaeRS-dependent regulation was conserved across a wide spectrum of representative S. aureus isolates. Moreover, with community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA MRSA) in a mouse model of peritonitis, we observed in vivo expression of Nuc activity in an SaeRS-dependent manner and determined that Nuc is a virulence factor that is important for in vivo survival, confirming the enzyme's role as a contributor to invasive disease. Finally, natural polymorphisms were identified in the SaeRS proteins, one of which was linked to Nuc regulation in a CA MRSA USA300 endocarditis isolate. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that Nuc is an important S. aureus virulence factor and part of the SaeRS regulon. PMID:23381999

  6. Staphylococcus aureus nuclease is an SaeRS-dependent virulence factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael E; Nygaard, Tyler K; Ackermann, Laynez; Watkins, Robert L; Zurek, Oliwia W; Pallister, Kyler B; Griffith, Shannon; Kiedrowski, Megan R; Flack, Caralyn E; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Horswill, Alexander R; Voyich, Jovanka M

    2013-04-01

    Several prominent bacterial pathogens secrete nuclease (Nuc) enzymes that have an important role in combating the host immune response. Early studies of Staphylococcus aureus Nuc attributed its regulation to the agr quorum-sensing system. However, recent microarray data have indicated that nuc is under the control of the SaeRS two-component system, which is a major regulator of S. aureus virulence determinants. Here we report that the nuc gene is directly controlled by the SaeRS two-component system through reporter fusion, immunoblotting, Nuc activity measurements, promoter mapping, and binding studies, and additionally, we were unable identify a notable regulatory link to the agr system. The observed SaeRS-dependent regulation was conserved across a wide spectrum of representative S. aureus isolates. Moreover, with community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA MRSA) in a mouse model of peritonitis, we observed in vivo expression of Nuc activity in an SaeRS-dependent manner and determined that Nuc is a virulence factor that is important for in vivo survival, confirming the enzyme's role as a contributor to invasive disease. Finally, natural polymorphisms were identified in the SaeRS proteins, one of which was linked to Nuc regulation in a CA MRSA USA300 endocarditis isolate. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that Nuc is an important S. aureus virulence factor and part of the SaeRS regulon.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus SaeR/S-regulated factors reduce human neutrophil reactive oxygen species production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Fermin E; Addison, Conrad B; de Jong, Nienke W M; Azzolino, Joseph; Pallister, Kyler B; van Strijp, Jos A G; Voyich, Jovanka M

    2016-11-01

    Neutrophils are the first line of defense after a pathogen has breached the epithelial barriers, and unimpaired neutrophil functions are essential to clear infections. Staphylococcus aureus is a prevalent human pathogen that is able to withstand neutrophil killing, yet the mechanisms used by S. aureus to inhibit neutrophil clearance remain incompletely defined. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a vital neutrophil antimicrobial mechanism. Herein, we test the hypothesis that S. aureus uses the SaeR/S two-component gene regulatory system to produce virulence factors that reduce neutrophil ROS production. With the use of ROS probes, the temporal and overall production of neutrophil ROS was assessed during exposure to the clinically relevant S. aureus USA300 (strain LAC) and its isogenic mutant LACΔsaeR/S Our results demonstrated that SaeR/S-regulated factors do not inhibit neutrophil superoxide (O2(-)) production. However, subsequent neutrophil ROS production was significantly reduced during exposure to LAC compared with LACΔsaeR/S In addition, neutrophil H2O2 production was reduced significantly by SaeR/S-regulated factors by a mechanism independent of catalase. Consequently, the reduction in neutrophil H2O2 resulted in decreased production of the highly antimicrobial agent hypochlorous acid/hypochlorite anion (HOCl/(-)OCl). These findings suggest a new evasion strategy used by S. aureus to diminish a vital neutrophil antimicrobial mechanism. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  8. Key Human Factors of Vehicle Interior Occupant Packaging in SAE Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yi; HU Ping; JIN Chun-ning; WU Xiao-jun

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen SAE standards related to accommodation and occupant packaging for vehicle interior are studied.The influencing factors,key reference accommodation points and major design dimensions and their relationships of occupant packaging and ergonomics during the vehicle interior layout design and development are analyzed.Prototypes are presented to verify the results and how to achieve the packaging is shown.Automobile designers can achieve significant practical guidance for human safety,efficiency accommodation and occupant packaging of all passengers during the vehicle design process.

  9. Regulatory organization of the staphylococcal sae locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Rajan P; Novick, Richard P

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the complex internal regulatory circuitry of the staphylococcal sae locus and the impact of modifying this circuitry on the expression of external genes in the sae regulon. The sae locus contains four genes, the saeR and S two-component signalling module (TCS), and saeP and Q, two upstream genes of hitherto unknown function. It is expressed from two promoters, P(A)sae, which transcribes only the TCS, and P(C)sae, which transcribes the entire locus. A bursa aurealis (bursa) transposon insertion in saeP in a derivative of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325 has a profound effect on sae function. It modifies the activity of the TCS, changing the expression of many genes in the sae regulon, even though transcription of the TCS (from P(A)sae) is not interrupted. Moreover, these effects are not due to disruption of saeP since an in-frame deletion in saeP has essentially no phenotype. The phenotype of S. aureus strain Newman is remarkably similar to that of the saeP : : bursa and this similarity is explained by an amino acid substitution in the Newman saeS gene that is predicted to modify profoundly the signalling function of the protein. This concurrence suggests that the saeP : : bursa insertion affects the signalling function of saeS, a suggestion that is supported by the ability of an saeQR clone, but not an saeR clone, to complement the effects of the saeP : : bursa insertion.

  10. Sae regulator factor impairs the response to photodynamic inactivation mediated by Toluidine blue in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gándara, Lautaro; Mamone, Leandro; Dotto, Cristian; Buzzola, Fernanda; Casas, Adriana

    2016-12-01

    Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) involves the combined use of light and a photosensitizer, which, in the presence of oxygen, originates cytotoxic species capable of inactivating bacteria. Since the emergence of multi-resistant bacterial strains is becoming an increasing public health concern, PDI becomes an attractive choice. The aim of this work was to study the differential susceptibility to Toluidine blue (TB) mediated PDI (TB-PDI) of S. aureus mutants (RN6390 and Newman backgrounds) for different key regulators of virulence factors related to some extent to oxidative stress. Complete bacteria eradication of planktonic cultures of RN6390 S. aureus photosensitized with 13μM TB was obtained upon illumination with a low light dose of 4.2J/cm(2) from a non-coherent light source. Similarly, complete cell death was achieved applying 1.3μM TB and 19J/cm(2) light dose, showing that higher light doses can lead to equal cell death employing low photosensitizer concentrations. Interestingly, RN6390 in planktonic culture responded significantly better to TB-PDI than the Newman strain. We showed that deficiencies in rsbU, mgrA (transcription factors related to stress response) or agr (quorum sensing system involved in copper resistance to oxidative stress) did not modify the response of planktonic S. aureus to PDI. On the other hand, the two component system sae impaired the response to TB-PDI through a mechanism not related to the Eap adhesin. More severe conditions were needed to inactivate S. aureus biofilms (0.5mM TB, 157J/cm(2) laser light). In mutant sae biofilms, strain dependant differential susceptibilities are not noticed.

  11. Differential Target Gene Activation by the Staphylococcus aureus Two-Component System saeRS ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Mainiero, Markus; Goerke, Christiane; Geiger, Tobias; Gonser, Christoph; Herbert, Silvia; Wolz, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    The saePQRS system of Staphylococcus aureus controls the expression of major virulence factors and encodes a histidine kinase (SaeS), a response regulator (SaeR), a membrane protein (SaeQ), and a lipoprotein (SaeP). The widely used strain Newman is characterized by a single amino acid change in the sensory domain of SaeS (Pro18 in strain Newman [SaeSP], compared with Leu18 in other strains [SaeSL]). SaeSP determines activation of the class I sae target genes (coa, fnbA, eap, sib, efb, fib, sa...

  12. Molecular architecture of the regulatory Locus sae of Staphylococcus aureus and its impact on expression of virulence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhuber, Andrea; Goerke, Christiane; Bayer, Manfred G; Döring, Gerd; Wolz, Christiane

    2003-11-01

    We characterized the sae operon, a global regulator for virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. A Tn917 sae mutant was obtained by screening a Tn917 library of the agr mutant ISP479Mu for clones with altered hemolytic activity. Sequence analysis of the sae operon revealed two additional open reading frames (ORFs) (ORF3 and ORF4) upstream of the two-component regulatory genes saeR and saeS. Four overlapping sae-specific transcripts (T1 to T4) were detected by Northern blot analysis, and the transcriptional initiation points were mapped by primer extension analysis. The T1, T2, and T3 mRNAs are probably terminated at the same stem-loop sequence downstream of saeS. The T1 message (3.1 kb) initiates upstream of ORF4, T2 (2.4 kb) initiates upstream of ORF3, and T3 (2.0 kb) initiates in front of saeR. T4 (0.7 kb) represents a monocistronic mRNA encompassing ORF4 only. sae-specific transcripts were detectable in all of the 40 different clinical S. aureus isolates investigated. Transcript levels were at maximum during the post-exponential growth phase. The sae mutant showed a significantly reduced rate of invasion of human endothelial cells, consistent with diminished transcription and expression of fnbA. The expression of type 5 capsular polysaccharide is activated in the sae mutant of strain Newman, as shown by immunofluorescence and promoter-reporter fusion experiments. In summary, the sae operon constitutes a four-component regulator system which acts on virulence gene expression in S. aureus.

  13. Theme: SAE Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Elizabeth, Ed.; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Supervised Experience" (Morgan et al.); "SAE [Supervised Agricultural Experience]: Putting Agricultural Education into Context" (Camp); "Agricultural Internships" (Sherman); "Remember Those Records" (Chase, Thom); "Developing SAE Programs for All Agriscience Students" (Prelesnik); "A Marriage Made in...?" (Biondo); and "Involving…

  14. In the Staphylococcus aureus two-component system sae, the response regulator SaeR binds to a direct repeat sequence and DNA binding requires phosphorylation by the sensor kinase SaeS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Li, Chunling; Jeong, Dowon; Sohn, Changmo; He, Chuan; Bae, Taeok

    2010-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus uses the SaeRS two-component system to control the expression of many virulence factors such as alpha-hemolysin and coagulase; however, the molecular mechanism of this signaling has not yet been elucidated. Here, using the P1 promoter of the sae operon as a model target DNA, we demonstrated that the unphosphorylated response regulator SaeR does not bind to the P1 promoter DNA, while its C-terminal DNA binding domain alone does. The DNA binding activity of full-length SaeR could be restored by sensor kinase SaeS-induced phosphorylation. Phosphorylated SaeR is more resistant to digestion by trypsin, suggesting conformational changes. DNase I footprinting assays revealed that the SaeR protection region in the P1 promoter contains a direct repeat sequence (GTTAAN(6)GTTAA [where N is any nucleotide]). This sequence is critical to the binding of phosphorylated SaeR. Mutational changes in the repeat sequence greatly reduced both the in vitro binding of SaeR and the in vivo function of the P1 promoter. From these results, we concluded that SaeR recognizes the direct repeat sequence as a binding site and that binding requires phosphorylation by SaeS.

  15. Influence of Sae-regulated and Agr-regulated factors on the escape of Staphylococcus aureus from human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzenmayer, Lisa; Geiger, Tobias; Daiber, Ellen; Schulte, Berit; Autenrieth, Stella E; Fraunholz, Martin; Wolz, Christiane

    2016-08-01

    Although Staphylococcus aureus is not a classical intracellular pathogen, it can survive within phagocytes and many other cell types. However, the pathogen is also able to escape from cells by mechanisms that are only partially understood. We analysed a series of isogenic S. aureus mutants of the USA300 derivative JE2 for their capacity to destroy human macrophages from within. Intracellular S. aureus JE2 caused severe cell damage in human macrophages and could efficiently escape from within the cells. To obtain this full escape phenotype including an intermittent residency in the cytoplasm, the combined action of the regulatory systems Sae and Agr is required. Mutants in Sae or mutants deficient in the Sae target genes lukAB and pvl remained in high numbers within the macrophages causing reduced cell damage. Mutants in the regulatory system Agr or in the Agr target gene psmα were largely similar to wild-type bacteria concerning cell damage and escape efficiency. However, these strains were rarely detectable in the cytoplasm, emphasizing the role of phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) for phagosomal escape. Thus, Sae-regulated toxins largely determine damage and escape from within macrophages, whereas PSMs are mainly responsible for the escape from the phagosome into the cytoplasm. Damage of macrophages induced by intracellular bacteria was linked neither to activation of apoptosis-related caspase 3, 7 or 8 nor to NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation.

  16. Repression of hla by rot is dependent on sae in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Cheung, Ambrose

    2008-03-01

    The regulatory locus sae is a two-component system in Staphylococcus aureus that regulates many important virulence factors, including alpha-toxin (encoded by hla) at the transcriptional level. The SarA homologs Rot and SarT were previously shown to be repressors of hla in selected S. aureus backgrounds. To delineate the interaction of rot and sae and the contribution of sarT to hla expression, an assortment of rot and sae isogenic single mutants, a rot sae double mutant, and a rot sae sarT markerless triple mutant were constructed from wild-type strain COL. Using Northern blot analysis and transcriptional reporter gene green fluorescent protein, fusion, and phenotypic assays, we found that the repression of hla by rot is dependent on sae. A rot sae sarT triple mutant was not able to rescue the hla defect of the rot sae double mutant. Among the three sae promoters, the distal sae P3 promoter is the strongest in vitro. Interestingly, the sae P3 promoter activities correlate with hla expression in rot, rot sae, and rot sae sarT mutants of COL. Transcriptional study has also shown that rot repressed sae, especially at the sae P3 promoter. Collectively, our data implicated the importance of sae in the rot-mediated repression of hla in S. aureus.

  17. JOINTING PROCESS OF THE SAE 1020 WITH MAG WELD'S REGION HAVE BEEN INVESTIGATED AND FACTOR OF MISMATCH DETERMINED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet MERİÇ

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the jointing process of the SAE 1020 low carbon steel, generally used in the industry, has been done by the MAG weld method. The aim of this study is to examine the mismatch between base and weld metal. After the jointing process, mechanical and metalographical properties of the weld region, HAZ, and the weld metal of the samples considered here were searched, and CTOD (Crack Tip Opening Displacement was identified.

  18. The SaeRS Two-Component System of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Yeo, Won-Sik; Bae, Taeok

    2016-01-01

    In the Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, the SaeRS two-component system (TCS) plays a major role in controlling the production of over 20 virulence factors including hemolysins, leukocidins, superantigens, surface proteins, and proteases. The SaeRS TCS is composed of the sensor histidine kinase SaeS, response regulator SaeR, and two auxiliary proteins SaeP and SaeQ. Since its discovery in 1994, the sae locus has been studied extensively, and its contributions to staphylococcal virulence and pathogenesis have been well documented and understood; however, the molecular mechanism by which the SaeRS TCS receives and processes cognate signals is not. In this article, therefore, we review the literature focusing on the signaling mechanism and its interaction with other global regulators. PMID:27706107

  19. In the Staphylococcus aureus Two-Component System sae, the Response Regulator SaeR Binds to a Direct Repeat Sequence and DNA Binding Requires Phosphorylation by the Sensor Kinase SaeS

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Fei; Li, Chunling; Jeong, Dowon; Sohn, Changmo; He, Chuan; Bae, Taeok

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus uses the SaeRS two-component system to control the expression of many virulence factors such as alpha-hemolysin and coagulase; however, the molecular mechanism of this signaling has not yet been elucidated. Here, using the P1 promoter of the sae operon as a model target DNA, we demonstrated that the unphosphorylated response regulator SaeR does not bind to the P1 promoter DNA, while its C-terminal DNA binding domain alone does. The DNA binding activity of full-length Sae...

  20. Sumoylation of SAE2 C terminus regulates SAE nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Khue; Lee, Terry D; Li, Baozong; Chen, Yuan

    2012-12-14

    SUMOylation occurs predominantly in the nucleus, but non-nuclear proteins can also be SUMOylated. It is unclear how intracellular trafficking of the SUMOylation enzymes is regulated to catalyze SUMOylation in different cellular compartments. Here we report that the SAE2 subunit of human SUMO activation enzyme (SAE) underwent rapid nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and its nuclear accumulation depended on SUMO modification at the C terminus. The SUMOylation sites included three Lys residues on the bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and two Lys residues outside of but adjacent to the NLS, and their SUMOylation was catalyzed by Ubc9. Because SAE2 forms a tight heterodimer with SAE1 and it controls the trafficking of the heterodimer, this study has identified the mechanism used to localize SAE to the nucleus. Similar mechanisms are likely to exist for other proteins that depend on SUMOylation for nuclear localization.

  1. Repression of hla by rot Is Dependent on sae in Staphylococcus aureus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dongmei; Cheung, Ambrose

    2008-01-01

    The regulatory locus sae is a two-component system in Staphylococcus aureus that regulates many important virulence factors, including alpha-toxin (encoded by hla) at the transcriptional level. The SarA homologs Rot and SarT were previously shown to be repressors of hla in selected S. aureus backgrounds. To delineate the interaction of rot and sae and the contribution of sarT to hla expression, an assortment of rot and sae isogenic single mutants, a rot sae double mutant, and a rot sae sarT m...

  2. The virulence regulator Sae of Staphylococcus aureus: promoter activities and response to phagocytosis-related signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Tobias; Goerke, Christiane; Mainiero, Markus; Kraus, Dirk; Wolz, Christiane

    2008-05-01

    The two-component system SaeRS of Staphylococcus aureus is closely involved in the regulation of major virulence factors. However, little is known about the signals leading to saeRS activation. A total of four overlapping transcripts (T1 to T4) from three different transcription starting points are expressed in the sae operon. We used a beta-galactosidase reporter assay to characterize the putative promoter regions within the saeRS upstream region. The main transcript T2 is probably generated by endoribonucleolytic processing of the T1 transcript. Only two distinct promoter elements (P1 and P3) could be detected within the saeRS upstream region. The P3 promoter, upstream of saeRS, generates the T3 transcript, includes a cis-acting enhancer element and is repressed by saeRS. The most distal P1 promoter is strongly autoregulated, activated by agr, and repressed by sigma factor B. In strain Newman a mutation within the histidine kinase SaeS leads to a constitutively activated sae system. Evaluation of different external signals revealed that the P1 promoter in strain ISP479R and strain UAMS-1 is inhibited by low pH and high NaCl concentrations but activated by hydrogen peroxide. The most prominent induction of P1 was observed at subinhibitory concentrations of alpha-defensins in various S. aureus strains, with the exception of strain ISP479R and strain COL. P1 was not activated by the antimicrobial peptides LL37 and daptomycin. In summary, the results indicate that the sensor molecule SaeS is activated by alteration within the membrane allowing the pathogen to react to phagocytosis related effector molecules.

  3. Organizational requirements of the SaeR binding sites for a functional P1 promoter of the sae operon in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hoonsik; Jeong, Do-Won; Li, Chunling; Bae, Taeok

    2012-06-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus, the SaeRS two-component system controls the expression of multiple virulence factors. Of the two promoters in the sae operon, P1 is autoinduced and has two binding sites for the response regulator SaeR. In this study, we examined the organizational requirements of the SaeR binding sites in P1 for transcription activation. Mutational studies showed that both binding sites are essential for binding to phosphorylated SaeR (P-SaeR) and transcription activation. When the 21-bp distance between the centers of the two SaeR binding sites was altered to 26 bp, 31 bp, 36 bp, or 41 bp, only the 31-bp mutant retained approximately 40% of the original promoter activity. When the -1-bp spacing (i.e.,1-bp overlap) between the primary SaeR binding site and the -35 promoter region was altered, all mutant P1 promoters failed to initiate transcription; however, when the first nucleotide of the -35 region was changed from A to T, the mutants with 0-bp or 22-bp spacing showed detectable promoter activity. Although P-SaeR was essential for the binding of RNA polymerase to P1, it was not essential for the binding of the enzyme to the alpha-hemolysin promoter. When the nonoptimal spacing between promoter elements in P1 or the coagulase promoter was altered to the optimal spacing of 17 bp, both promoters failed to initiate transcription. These results suggest that SaeR binding sites are under rather strict organizational restrictions and provide clues for understanding the molecular mechanism of sae-mediated transcription activation.

  4. Factor Analysis of Intern Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Sid T.; Hannah, Shellie Louise; Bell, Columbus David

    2012-01-01

    Four factors in teaching intern effectiveness, as measured by a Praxis III-similar instrument, were found among observational data of teaching interns during the 2010 spring semester. Those factors were lesson planning, teacher/student reflection, fairness & safe environment, and professionalism/efficacy. This factor analysis was as much of a…

  5. SAE-China Congress 2014

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    These Proceedings gather outstanding papers submitted to the 2014 SAE-China Congress, the majority of which are from China, the most dynamic car market in the world. The book covers a wide range of automotive topics, presenting the latest technical achievements in the industry. Many of the approaches it presents can help technicians to solve the practical problems that most affect their daily work.

  6. SAE-China Congress 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings gather outstanding papers submitted to the 2015 SAE-China Congress, the majority of which are from China, the biggest car maker as well as most dynamic car market in the world. The book covers a wide range of automotive topics, presenting the latest technical achievements in the industry. Many of the approaches presented can help technicians to solve the practical problems that most affect their daily work.

  7. 2016 SAE-China Congress

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This proceedings volume gathers outstanding papers submitted to the 2016 SAE-China Congress, the majority of which are from China, the biggest car maker as well as most dynamic car market in the world. The book includes insights into the current challenges that the whole industry is currently facing, and it offers possible solutions to problems such as emission controls, environmental pollution, the energy shortage, traffic congestion and sustainable development. It also presents the latest technical achievements in the automotive industry. Many of the approaches it presents can help technicians to solve the practical problems that most affect their daily work.

  8. Sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca; Scott, L Keith; Minagar, Alireza; Conrad, Steven

    2004-05-01

    Sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a poorly understood condition that is associated with severe sepsis and appears to have a negative influence on survival. The incidence of encephalopathy secondary to sepsis is unknown. Amino acid derangements, blood-brain barrier disruption, abnormal neurotransmitters, and direct CNS effect are possible causes of septic encephalopathy. Research has not defined the pathogenesis of SAE.

  9. Factors associated with intern fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Lindsay D; Vidyarthi, Arpana R; Baron, Robert B; Katz, Patricia P

    2008-12-01

    Prior data suggest that fatigue adversely affects patient safety and resident well-being. ACGME duty hour limitations were intended, in part, to reduce resident fatigue, but the factors that affect intern fatigue are unknown. To identify factors associated with intern fatigue following implementation of duty hour limitations. Cross-sectional confidential survey of validated questions related to fatigue, sleep, and stress, as well as author-developed teamwork questions. Interns in cognitive specialties at the University of California, San Francisco. Univariate statistics characterized the distribution of responses. Pearson correlations elucidated bivariate relationships between fatigue and other variables. Multivariate linear regression models identified factors independently associated with fatigue, sleep, and stress. Of 111 eligible interns, 66 responded (59%). In a regression analysis including gender, hours worked in the previous week, sleep quality, perceived stress, and teamwork, only poorer quality of sleep and greater perceived stress were significantly associated with fatigue (p 80 h was not significantly associated with perceived stress, quality of sleep, or fatigue. Simply decreasing the number of duty hours may be insufficient to reduce intern fatigue. Residency programs may need to incorporate programmatic changes to reduce stress, improve sleep quality, and foster teamwork in order to decrease intern fatigue and its deleterious consequences.

  10. 解读SAE J306

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    水琳

    2006-01-01

    SAE J306《驱动桥和手动变速器润滑剂粘度分类》是美国汽车工程师协会(SAE)对车辆齿轮润滑剂进行粘度划分的标准。我国目前现行的相关标准GB/T 17477—1998是等效采用SAE J306—91制定的。SAE于2005年6月对车辆齿轮油的粘度划分再次进行了修订,在原有粘度等级基础卜增加了SAE 110和SAE 190这2个粘度级别。现对SAE J306规格的变化及应用进行分析。

  11. SAE-China Congress,Recollect Yesterday & Resume Tomorrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maggie; Li Yinghong

    2008-01-01

    @@ For commemorating the 30th anniversary of Chinese reform and openi ng up,further promoting technology progress and pushing technical exchange among the automotive angineers."2008 Society of Automotive Engineers of China (SAE-China)Congress"was solemnly hold in Tianjin on November 6-10,2008,with over 30 governmental Officials and 70 industry scholars,and over 300 vice presidents and presidents and about 600 enterprises representatives from international enterprises gathering together.

  12. The auxiliary protein complex SaePQ activates the phosphatase activity of sensor kinase SaeS in the SaeRS two-component system of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Do-Won; Cho, Hoonsik; Jones, Marcus B.; Shatzkes, Kenneth; Sun, Fei; Ji, Quanjiang; Liu, Qian; Scott N Peterson; He, Chuan; Bae, Taeok

    2012-01-01

    In bacterial two-component regulatory systems (TCSs), dephosphorylation of phosphorylated response regulators is essential for resetting the activated systems to the pre-activation state. However, in the SaeRS TCS, a major virulence TCS of Staphylococcus aureus, the mechanism for dephosphorylation of the response regulator SaeR has not been identified. Here we report that two auxiliary proteins from the sae operon, SaeP and SaeQ, form a protein complex with the sensor kinase SaeS and activate...

  13. Staphylococcus aureus ClpC divergently regulates capsule via sae and codY in strain newman but activates capsule via codY in strain UAMS-1 and in strain Newman with repaired saeS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Thanh T; Sau, Keya; Roux, Christelle; Sau, Subrata; Dunman, Paul M; Lee, Chia Y

    2011-02-01

    ClpC is an ATPase chaperone found in most Gram-positive low-GC bacteria. It has been recently reported that ClpC affected virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. Here we report that ClpC regulates transcription of the cap operon and accumulation of capsule, a major virulence factor for S. aureus. As virulence genes are regulated by a complex regulatory network in S. aureus, we have used capsule as a model to understand this regulation. By microarray analyses of strain Newman, we found that ClpC strongly activates transcription of the sae operon, whose products are known to negatively regulate capsule synthesis in this strain. Further studies indicated that ClpC repressed capsule production by activating the sae operon in strain Newman. Interestingly, the clpC gene cloned into a multiple-copy plasmid vector exhibited an activation phenotype, suggesting that ClpC overexpression has a net positive effect. In the absence of sae function, by either deletion or correction of a native mutation within saeS, we found that ClpC had a positive effect on capsule production. Indeed, in the UAMS-1 strain, which does not have the saeS mutation, ClpC functioned as an activator of capsule production. Our microarray analyses of strain Newman also revealed that CodY, a repressor of capsule production, was repressed by ClpC. Using genetic approaches, we showed that CodY functioned downstream of ClpC, leading to capsule activation both in Newman and in UAMS-1. Thus, ClpC functions in two opposite pathways in capsule regulation in strain Newman but functions as a positive activator in strain UAMS-1.

  14. 弗戈工业媒体与SAE International签署战略合作协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    2015年12月4日,SAE International-国际自动机工程师学会”中国地区技术合作恳谈会暨战略合作伙伴签约仪式”在上海外滩罗斯福公馆举行.SAE International与弗戈工业媒体等五家单位签署了战略合作协议。

  15. Theme: Is Problem-Solving Teaching and SAE Needed in Agricultural Education in the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlow, George, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Nine articles in this theme issue address problem-solving teaching and supervised agricultural experience. Topics covered include systems approaches to SAE, SAE for Y2K, SAE for science, applied SAE, types of SAE, and examples of activities. (JOW)

  16. An Introduction to International Factoring & Project Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Glinavos, Ioannis

    2002-01-01

    This work consists of two essays on law and finance in international trade. It addresses the means of raising funds for investment through receivables financing and project finance. The first essay discusses the role of receivables financing and in particular factoring in international trade. It examines the nature of factoring transactions and presents the efforts at regulation on an international level aimed at overcoming the difficulties in enforcement. The second essay discusses project f...

  17. An Introduction to International Factoring & Project Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Glinavos, Ioannis

    2002-01-01

    This work consists of two essays on law and finance in international trade. It addresses the means of raising funds for investment through receivables financing and project finance. The first essay discusses the role of receivables financing and in particular factoring in international trade. It examines the nature of factoring transactions and presents the efforts at regulation on an international level aimed at overcoming the difficulties in enforcement. The second essay discusses project f...

  18. Design and Optimisation of Sae Mini Baja Chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anjani Devi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to design and develop the roll cage for All - Terrain Vehicle accordance with the rulebook of BAJA 2014 given by SAE. The frame of the SAE Baja vehicle needs to be lightweight and structurally sound to be competitive but still protect the driver. The vehicle needs to traverse all types of off-road conditions including large rocks, downed logs, mud holes, steep inclines, jumps and off camber turns. During the competition events there is significant risk of rollovers, falling from steep ledges, collisions with stationary objects, or impacts from other vehicles. Material for the roll cage is selected based on strength and availability. A software model is prepared in Pro-engineer. Later the design is tested against all modes of failure by conducting various simulations and stress analysis with the aid of ANSYS 13. Based on the result obtained from these tests the design is modified accordingly. A target of 2 is set for Yield Factor of Safety.

  19. Socio-Cultural Factors and International Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madara Apsalone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Socio-cultural factors – shared values, norms and attitudes are significant, but less acknowledged sources of international competitiveness. Previous studies have found socio-cultural factors positively affecting various aspects of international competitiveness – entrepreneurship, innovation, productivity and international cooperation. These factors are more sustainable and less affected by external environment changes in comparison with the traditional factors. Socio-cultural factors provide an opportunity to develop competitiveness strategies based on unique advantages. This research aims to explore the impact of socio-cultural factors on international competiveness in small, open economies. Analysing relationship between 400 socio-cultural indicators and competitiveness indicators such as productivity, economic development, business and government efficiency, innovation capacity and infrastructure in 37 countries, six socio-cultural factors have emerged: Collectivism and Hierarchy; Future, Cooperation and Performance Orientation, Self-expression, Monochronism and Rationality, Economic Orientation and Social structure. The first factor – Collectivism and Hierarchy – tends to reduce the international competitiveness; the other five affect it positively.

  20. 后3G时代的SAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈力

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 引言 移动通信发展到后3G时代,除了HSPA、HSPA+推动技术不断进步,更有LTE(长期演进)和SAE(系统架构演进)向4G平稳过渡.3GPP R8提出了LTE和SAE的概念,它们分别明确了无线网络演进以及分组核心网络演进的发展方向.

  1. Demographic changes and international factor mobility

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the extent and policy implications of linkages between demographic changes and international factor mobility. Evidence is found of significant demographic effects on both migration and the current account, but for different reasons neither increased migration nor international transfers of savings is expected to offer much assistance in digesting the variety of demographic transitions expected over the next fifty years. The paper also examines more briefly the effects of de...

  2. Internal factors influencing the knowledge continuity ensuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.

  3. Factor VIIa binding and internalization in hepatocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortoe, G; Sorensen, B B; Petersen, L C

    2005-01-01

    The liver is believed to be the primary clearance organ for coagulation proteases, including factor VIIa (FVIIa). However, at present, clearance mechanisms for FVIIa in liver are unknown. To obtain information on the FVIIa clearance mechanism, we investigated the binding and internalization...

  4. SaeRS Is Responsive to Cellular Respiratory Status and Regulates Fermentative Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashruwala, Ameya A; Gries, Casey M; Scherr, Tyler D; Kielian, Tammy; Boyd, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-01

    Biofilms are multicellular communities of microorganisms living as a quorum rather than as individual cells. The bacterial human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus uses oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor during respiration. Infected human tissues are hypoxic or anoxic. We recently reported that impaired respiration elicits a programmed cell lysis (PCL) phenomenon in S. aureus leading to the release of cellular polymers that are utilized to form biofilms. PCL is dependent upon the AtlA murein hydrolase and is regulated, in part, by the SrrAB two-component regulatory system (TCRS). In the current study, we report that the SaeRS TCRS also governs fermentative biofilm formation by positively influencing AtlA activity. The SaeRS-modulated factor fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) also contributed to the fermentative biofilm formation phenotype. SaeRS-dependent biofilm formation occurred in response to changes in cellular respiratory status. Genetic evidence presented suggests that a high cellular titer of phosphorylated SaeR is required for biofilm formation. Epistasis analyses found that SaeRS and SrrAB influence biofilm formation independently of one another. Analyses using a mouse model of orthopedic implant-associated biofilm formation found that both SaeRS and SrrAB govern host colonization. Of these two TCRSs, SrrAB was the dominant system driving biofilm formation in vivo We propose a model wherein impaired cellular respiration stimulates SaeRS via an as yet undefined signal molecule(s), resulting in increasing expression of AtlA and FnBPA and biofilm formation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Electric Vehicle Communications Standards Testing and Validation - Phase II: SAE J2931/1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Richard M.; Gowri, Krishnan

    2013-01-15

    Vehicle to grid communication standards enable interoperability among vehicles, charging stations and utility providers and provide the capability to implement charge management. Several standards initiatives by the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE), International Standards Organization and International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), and ZigBee/HomePlug Alliance are developing requirements for communication messages and protocols. Recent work by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with SAE and automobile manufacturers has identified vehicle to grid communication performance requirements and developed a test plan as part of SAE J2931/1 committee work. This laboratory test plan was approved by the SAE J2931/1 committee and included test configurations, test methods, and performance requirements to verify reliability, robustness, repeatability, maximum communication distance, and authentication features of power line carrier (PLC) communication modules at the internet protocol layer level. The goal of the testing effort was to select a communication technology that would enable automobile manufacturers to begin the development and implementation process. The EPRI/Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) testing teams divided the testing so that results for each test could be presented by two teams, performing the tests independently. The PNNL team performed narrowband PLC testing including the Texas Instruments (TI) Concerto, Ariane Controls AC-CPM1, and the MAXIM Tahoe 2 evaluation boards. The scope of testing was limited to measuring the vendor systems communication performance between Electric Vehicle Support Equipment (EVSE) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). The testing scope did not address PEV’s CAN bus to PLC or PLC to EVSE (Wi-Fi, cellular, PLC Mains, etc.) communication integration. In particular, no evaluation was performed to delineate the effort needed to translate the IPv6

  6. Electric Vehicle Communication Standards Testing and Validation Phase I: SAE J2847/1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Richard M.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Gowri, Krishnan

    2011-09-21

    Executive Summary Vehicle to grid communication standards are critical to the charge management and interoperability among vehicles, charging stations and utility providers. Several standards initiatives by the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE), International Standards Organization and International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), and ZigBee / HomePlug Alliance are developing requirements for communication messages and protocols. While the standard development is in progress for more than two years, no definitive guidelines are available for the automobile manufacturers, charging station manufacturers and utility backhaul network systems. At present, there is a wide range of proprietary communication options developed and supported in the industry. Recent work by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with SAE and automobile manufacturers has identified performance requirements and test plan based on possible communication pathways using power line communication over the control pilot and mains. Though the communication pathways and power line communication technology options are identified, much work needs to be done in developing application software and testing of communication modules before these can be deployed in production vehicles. This report presents a test plan and results from initial testing of two power line communication modules developed to meet the requirements of SAE J2847/1 standard.

  7. Calprotectin Increases the Activity of the SaeRS Two Component System and Murine Mortality during Staphylococcus aureus Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoonsik Cho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Calprotectin, the most abundant cytoplasmic protein in neutrophils, suppresses the growth of Staphylococcus aureus by sequestering the nutrient metal ions Zn and Mn. Here we show that calprotectin can also enhance the activity of the SaeRS two component system (TCS, a signaling system essential for production of over 20 virulence factors in S. aureus. The activity of the SaeRS TCS is repressed by certain divalent ions found in blood or neutrophil granules; however, the Zn bound-form of calprotectin relieves this repression. During staphylococcal encounter with murine neutrophils or staphylococcal infection of the murine peritoneal cavity, calprotectin increases the activity of the SaeRS TCS as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α, resulting in higher murine mortality. These results suggest that, under certain conditions, calprotectin can be exploited by S. aureus to increase bacterial virulence and host mortality.

  8. Calprotectin Increases the Activity of the SaeRS Two Component System and Murine Mortality during Staphylococcus aureus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hoonsik; Jeong, Do-Won; Liu, Qian; Yeo, Won-Sik; Vogl, Thomas; Skaar, Eric P; Chazin, Walter J; Bae, Taeok

    2015-07-01

    Calprotectin, the most abundant cytoplasmic protein in neutrophils, suppresses the growth of Staphylococcus aureus by sequestering the nutrient metal ions Zn and Mn. Here we show that calprotectin can also enhance the activity of the SaeRS two component system (TCS), a signaling system essential for production of over 20 virulence factors in S. aureus. The activity of the SaeRS TCS is repressed by certain divalent ions found in blood or neutrophil granules; however, the Zn bound-form of calprotectin relieves this repression. During staphylococcal encounter with murine neutrophils or staphylococcal infection of the murine peritoneal cavity, calprotectin increases the activity of the SaeRS TCS as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α, resulting in higher murine mortality. These results suggest that, under certain conditions, calprotectin can be exploited by S. aureus to increase bacterial virulence and host mortality.

  9. Design and Optimisation of Sae Mini Baja Chassis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to design and develop the roll cage for All - Terrain Vehicle accordance with the rulebook of BAJA 2014 given by SAE. The frame of the SAE Baja vehicle needs to be lightweight and structurally sound to be competitive but still protect the driver. The vehicle needs to traverse all types of off-road conditions including large rocks, downed logs, mud holes, steep inclines, jumps and off camber turns. During the competition events there is significant risk of roll...

  10. Fur is required for the activation of virulence gene expression through the induction of the sae regulatory system in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Miranda; Sengupta, Mrittika; Purves, Joanne; Tarrant, Emma; Williams, Peter H; Cockayne, Alan; Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; Stephenson, Robert; Ledala, Nagender; Wilkinson, Brian J; Jayaswal, Radheshyam K; Morrissey, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that both Sae and Fur are required for the induction of eap and emp expression in low iron. In this study, we show that expression of sae is also iron-regulated, as sae expression is activated by Fur in low iron. We also demonstrate that both Fur and Sae are required for full induction of the oxidative stress response and expression of non-covalently bound surface proteins in low-iron growth conditions. In addition, Sae is required for the induced expression of the important virulence factors isdA and isdB in low iron. Our studies also indicate that Fur is required for the induced expression of the global regulators Agr and Rot in low iron and a number of extracellular virulence factors such as the haemolysins which are also Sae- and Agr-regulated. Hence, we show that Fur is central to a complex regulatory network that is required for the induced expression of a number of important S. aureus virulence determinants in low iron.

  11. Internal Demagnetizing Factor in Ferrous Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenő Takács

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling the saturation major loop of a ferrous metal produces the intrinsic magnetization parameters; fitting the measured commutation curve, however, can yield different results. The relation of the intrinsic loci of the vertices of the minor loops (ND=0 to the experimental curve (ND≠0 is investigated. The two-way transformation between the two curves is formulated in closed mathematical form with the help of the internal demagnetization factor, ND. The method is applied to four ferrous metals, with widely different intrinsic properties (soft nonoriented Fe-Si steel, normalized low carbon steel, and Finemet in nanocrystalline and amorphous state supporting the predictions of the proposal. The developed relationship is model independent and it is shown that the ND factor depends linearly on coercivity based on experimental evidence.

  12. sae is essential for expression of the staphylococcal adhesins Eap and Emp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harraghy, Niamh; Kormanec, Jan; Wolz, Christiane; Homerova, Dagmar; Goerke, Christiane; Ohlsen, Knut; Qazi, Saara; Hill, Philip; Herrmann, Mathias

    2005-06-01

    Eap and Emp are two Staphylococcus aureus adhesins initially described as extracellular matrix binding proteins. Eap has since emerged as being important in adherence to and invasion of eukaryotic cells, as well as being described as an immunomodulator and virulence factor in chronic infections. This paper describes the mapping of the transcription start point of the eap and emp promoters. Moreover, using reporter-gene assays and real-time PCR in defined regulatory mutants, environmental conditions and global regulators affecting expression of eap and emp were investigated. Marked differences were found in expression of eap and emp between strain Newman and the 8325 derivatives SH1000 and 8325-4. Moreover, both genes were repressed in the presence of glucose. Analysis of expression of both genes in various regulatory mutants revealed that sarA and agr were involved in their regulation, but the data suggested that there were additional regulators of both genes. In a sae mutant, expression of both genes was severely repressed. sae expression was also reduced in the presence of glucose, suggesting that repression of eap and emp in glucose-containing medium may, in part, be a consequence of a decrease in expression of sae.

  13. RUSSIAN PRACTICE OF USE OF INTERNATIONAL FACTORING TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya E. Pokamestov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on some aspects of use of international factoring transactions and its use in the Russian practice. The main indicators of international factoring industry among developed countries are reviewed. The main reasons of the small spread of the international factoring in Russia are identified.

  14. SAE2.py : a python script to automate parameter studies using SCREAMER with application to magnetic switching on Z.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orndorff-Plunkett, Franklin

    2011-05-01

    The SCREAMER simulation code is widely used at Sandia National Laboratories for designing and simulating pulsed power accelerator experiments on super power accelerators. A preliminary parameter study of Z with a magnetic switching retrofit illustrates the utility of the automating script for optimizing pulsed power designs. SCREAMER is a circuit based code commonly used in pulsed-power design and requires numerous iterations to find optimal configurations. System optimization using simulations like SCREAMER is by nature inefficient and incomplete when done manually. This is especially the case when the system has many interactive elements whose emergent effects may be unforeseeable and complicated. For increased completeness, efficiency and robustness, investigators should probe a suitably confined parameter space using deterministic, genetic, cultural, ant-colony algorithms or other computational intelligence methods. I have developed SAE2 - a user-friendly, deterministic script that automates the search for optima of pulsed-power designs with SCREAMER. This manual demonstrates how to make input decks for SAE2 and optimize any pulsed-power design that can be modeled using SCREAMER. Application of SAE2 to magnetic switching on model of a potential Z refurbishment illustrates the power of SAE2. With respect to the manual optimization, the automated optimization resulted in 5% greater peak current (10% greater energy) and a 25% increase in safety factor for the most highly stressed element.

  15. The sae locus of Staphylococcus aureus encodes a two-component regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, A T; Calzolari, A; Cataldi, A A; Bogni, C; Nagel, R

    1999-08-01

    Sae is a regulatory locus that activates the production of several exoproteins in Staphylococcus aureus. A 3.4-kb fragment of a S. aureus genomic library, screened with a probe adjacent to the transposon insertion of a sae::Tn551 mutant, was cloned into a bifunctional vector. This fragment was shown to carry the sae locus by restoration of exoprotein production in sae mutants. The sae locus was mapped to the SmaI-D fragment of the staphylococcal chromosome by pulse-field electrophoresis. Sequence analysis of the cloned fragment revealed the presence of two genes, designated saeR and saeS, encoding a response regulator and a histidine protein kinase, respectively, with high homology to other bacterial two-component regulatory systems.

  16. Evaluation of Crashworthiness for SAE Materials under Ductile to Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Bhanage

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of crashworthy coaches came into existence after a crash. This demands, avoid vehicle deformation of other/central parts. For this, the behaviour of plastic deformation of the material is necessary to be known. So, these results are required to study the crashworthy behaviour of the structure. In this research, Comparative study has been taken on the automotive materials of SAE 1026, SAE 4140, SAE 5120 and SAE8620. This paper presents the results of fracture toughness, impact energy and stress required for crack propagation from Charpy v-notch impact test and tensile test. The mechanical behaviour of SAE 1026, SAE 4140, SAE 5120 and SAE 8620 are important to describe response during actual loading condition properties used in the crash analysis of the component. The Charpy impact test was conducted at temperature ranging from room temperature 24°C, 0°C, -20°C, - 40°C, -60°C. Specimens oriented in T-L direction are tested. The materials SAE 1026, SAE 4140, SAE 5120 and SAE8620 shown that the ductile to brittle transition temperature, based on 19.5 J, 10.5 J, 113 J, 59.5 J, absorbed energy is about 1.2°C, -3°C, -38°C, -10°C respectively.

  17. Factors Influencing the Development of Practical Skills of Interns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing the Development of Practical Skills of Interns Working in ... It starts with a good theoretical preparation and some practical experience at university. ... The relationship between intern and senior doctor was important when it ...

  18. School Related Factors as Predictors of Internal Efficiency of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Key Words: School related factors, Internal Efficiency, Public University student,. South-West ... cycle as it will show the promotion rate, repetition rate and drop-out rate. Many ..... School-based variables and internal efficiency of colleges of.

  19. Identifying Quality Indicators of SAE and FFA: A Delphi Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Charles Cordell, III; Kitchel, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine quality indicators for SAE and FFA according to 36 experts across the United States. This is a part of a larger study looking at all components of the traditional three-circle model. The study utilized the Delphi technique to garner expert opinion about quality indicators in Agricultural Education. For…

  20. Importance of the global regulators Agr and SaeRS in the pathogenesis of CA-MRSA USA300 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P Montgomery

    Full Text Available CA-MRSA infection, driven by the emergence of the USA300 genetic background, has become epidemic in the United States. USA300 isolates are hypervirulent, compared with other CA- and HA-MRSA strains, in experimental models of necrotizing pneumonia and skin infection. Interestingly, USA300 isolates also have increased expression of core genomic global regulatory and virulence factor genes, including agr and saeRS. To test the hypothesis that agr and saeRS promote the observed hypervirulent phenotype of USA300, isogenic deletion mutants of each were constructed in USA300. The effects of gene deletion on expression and protein abundance of selected downstream virulence genes were assessed by semiquantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. The effects of gene deletion were also assessed in mouse models of necrotizing pneumonia and skin infection. Deletion of saeRS, and, to a lesser extent, agr, resulted in attenuated expression of the genes encoding α-hemolysin (hla and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukSF-PV. Despite the differences in hla transcription, the toxin was undetectable in culture supernatants of either of the deletion mutants. Deletion of agr, but not saeRS, markedly increased the expression of the gene encoding protein A (spa, which correlated with increased protein abundance. Each deletion mutant demonstrated significant attenuation of virulence, compared with wild-type USA300, in mouse models of necrotizing pneumonia and skin infection. We conclude that agr and saeRS each independently contribute to the remarkable virulence of USA300, likely by means of their effects on expression of secreted toxins.

  1. SAE J1939协议在客车上的应用现状及展望%Prospect of SAE J1939 Protocol in Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高燕; 高松; 赵明

    2006-01-01

    简单介绍了控制器局域网络CAN(Controller Area Network)和SAE J1939协议的产生发展状况,并对SAE J1939的结构特点进行了分析.通过与其他协议,如SAEJ1708、SAE J1587进行比较,分析了SAE J1939协议在客车上应用的可行性.介绍了SAE J1939应用的国内外现状和在客车网络应用中目前存在的问题,并提出了建议.最后对J1939的意义做了阐述并展望了SAE J1939在客车CAN总线上的应用的发展前景.

  2. Sae2, Exo1 and Sgs1 collaborate in DNA double-strand break processing

    OpenAIRE

    Mimitou, Eleni P.; Symington, Lorraine S.

    2008-01-01

    DNA ends exposed after introduction of double-strand breaks (DSBs) undergo 5′-3′ nucleolytic degradation to generate single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), the substrate for binding by the Rad51 protein to initiate homologous recombination. This process is poorly understood in eukaryotes, but several factors have been implicated, including the Mre11 complex (Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/NBS1), Sae2/CtIP/Ctp1 and Exo1. Here we demonstrate that yeast Exo1 nuclease and Sgs1 helicase function in alternate pathways for...

  3. Factors associated with pharmacy student interest in international study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff; Ryan, Melody

    2013-01-01

      To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers...

  4. Study on Automobile Network Protocol SAE J1850%SAE J1850汽车网络协议应用特点初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岩

    2014-01-01

    SAE J1850 is an important class B automobile network protocol,and has been widely used in the American cars. The article introduces the protocol SAE J1850 and its characteristics and also points out its deficiency by comparing it with the protocol CAN,.%SAE J1850是重要的汽车B类网络协议,在美国汽车上有着广泛应用。文章介绍了SAE J1850协议及其特点,并与CAN协议相比较,指出其不足之处。

  5. Studies on the expression of regulatory locus sae in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Ana T; Mansilla, Cecilia; Chan, Ana; Raspanti, Claudia; Nagel, Rosa

    2003-04-01

    Global regulatory locus sae consists of a two-component signal transduction system coded by saeR and saeS genes that upregulates the transcription of several exoproteins. Northern analysis carried out in this study reveals the synthesis at late and post-exponential phases of a cotranscript of saeR and saeS structural genes of about 2.4 kb. This transcript is diminished in the isogenic agr:: tetM mutant. Likewise, transcriptional fusion experiments show that sae expression is downregulated in the agr null mutant. Complementation analyses with plasmids carrying fragments of about 1.2 or 0.2 kbp upstream of saeR-saeS genes, which restore fully or only partially, respectively, the wild-type phenotype to the sae mutant, are in agreement with two initiation start points of transcription revealed by primer extension experiments. This work, as well as previous studies, reveals a complex hierarchical regulatory network involving several loci that control the expression of virulence determinants in S. aureus.

  6. Haemin represses the haemolytic activity of Staphylococcus aureus in an Sae-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Julia; Joost, Insa; Skaar, Eric P; Herrmann, Mathias; Bischoff, Markus

    2012-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and a common cause of nosocomial infections. This facultative pathogen produces a large arsenal of virulence factors, including the haemolysins, which allow the bacterium to lyse erythrocytes and thereby release large amounts of the haem-containing haemoglobin. The released haem is thought to be the main iron source of this organism during the course of infection, and is considered to be crucial for bacterial proliferation in vivo. High concentrations of haem and its degradation products, on the other hand, are known to be toxic for S. aureus, making it essential for the pathogen to tightly control haem release from red blood cells. Here we show that S. aureus responds to haemin by downregulating the expression of haemolysins. Subinhibitory concentrations of haemin were found to significantly reduce transcription of the haemolysin genes hlb (encoding β-haemolysin) and hlgA (encoding the S-class component of γ-haemolysin), while hla (encoding α-haemolysin) and RNAIII (encoding δ-haemolysin) transcription did not appear to be affected. The presence of haemin also reduced the haemolytic potential of the supernatants of S. aureus LS1 cultures. Inactivation of the sae locus in LS1 abolished the haemin effect on the transcription of haemolysin genes, indicating that the two-component regulatory system is required for this regulatory effect. Iron limitation, on the other hand, was found to induce the expression of haemolysins, and this effect was again abolished in the sae mutant, indicating that S. aureus modulates its haemolysin production in response to iron and haem availability in an Sae-dependent manner.

  7. Ability performance of older workers - Internal and external influencing factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittmann-Kohli, F.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    Internal and external factors affecting ability and performance of older employees are being analyzed in a short literature review. Internal factors like physical capacity, sensory capacity, cognitive abilities and general health are reduced with ageing; their effect on performance, however, depends

  8. Research on Optimization of Formula SAE Truss-Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The frame, as one of the basic components of a car, plays an important role of connecting components and withstanding various loads. The truss-frame is the commonest form of Formula SAE car in that it has many advantages, such as low cost, simple manufacture, high rigidity and high strength. The development of frame is reviewed. First, the key performance indicators and the mechanical state of the frame under different conditions are discussed. Second, a variety of optimization methods used in the design of frame are described. Finally, the test method of frame are introduced, with the experimental data and the finite element analysis of results being compared. Through analyzing and summarizing the development of the design, optimization and testing technology of the Formula SAE truss-frame, forecasting the future trends, the great theoretical reference is provided for the design and research of the follow-up frame.

  9. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  10. Factors Influencing Farmer Output in the International Fund for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    Department of Rural Sociology and Extension. Michael Okpara ... This study analysed factors influencing International Fund for Agricultural. Development ..... farmers (50.9%) acquired secondary education as against Cross River IFAD farmers.

  11. Teachers' Perceptions of SAE Programs and Benefits for Students with Special Needs in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwager, Tony A.; White, James D.

    An Oklahoma study sought to identify specific benefits that accrue to students with special needs in secondary Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) programs and to determine teachers' perceptions of SAE programs for students with special needs. Data were gathered in the fall of 1993 through a mailed survey of all 362 agricultural education…

  12. SAE Scope and Student Achievement in Agribusiness and Natural Resources Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, Larry R.; Cheek, Jimmy G.

    1990-01-01

    Study determined relationship between scope of supervised agricultural experience (SAE) as measured by total income and Productive Man Work Units (PMWU) and level of achievement of students enrolled in vocational agriculture classes in Florida. Responses from 98 Applied Principles and 249 Fundamentals students found low SAE participation and…

  13. Phenotypic characterization and virulence of a sae- agr- mutant of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, A T; Rampone, H; Calzolari, A; Nagel, R

    1996-02-01

    A sae::Tn551 agr::tetM double mutant was constructed and characterized. The production of several exoproteins (e.g., beta-hemolysin, DNase, and proteases) by this mutant was determined and found to be lower than the already diminished production of either isogenic single mutant sae- or agr-. The double mutant also showed, like the agr- mutant, null production of alpha- and delta-hemolysins and diminished levels of lipase. The reduced levels of many exoproteins in the double mutant as compared with their already diminished levels in either single mutant suggest that there is an additive or synergistic interaction between the two mutations involved, sae- and agr-. However, inactivation of both loci, sae and agr, had a different effect on the two exoproteins that are up regulated in the agr- mutant; thus, coagulase dropped to levels close to the null levels of the sae- parental strain, while extracellular protein A displayed the high levels characteristic of the agr- single mutant. The virulence of the sae- agr- double mutant, determined by intraperitoneal injection in mice, was found to be significantly diminished as compared with that of the sae+ agr+ parental strain or the sae- agr+ single mutant.

  14. Application of SAE J1939 Protocol in OBD on Heavy-duty Vehicles%SAE J1939协议在重型车OBD中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟祥麟; 李孟良; 王务林

    2009-01-01

    重型车OBD的法规要求和相关研究在国内刚刚起步,本文根据国际上重型车OBD诊断通信协议的发展现状和国内相关标准的制定情况,对SAE J1939和SAE J1939-73的技术内容作了简要概述.

  15. Success factors and limitations of efficient internal communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Tworzydło

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the key issues of internal communication within an organization. It highlights the benefits of implementation of transparent communication principles for a company. It identifies objectives and presents selected communication tools. In the article, also guidelines for carrying out research in the context of development of an internal communication strategy can be found. Selected research areas of the process of planning and implementation of strategic assumptions have been presented. Factors limiting effective implementation of an internal communication strategy have been discussed.

  16. Developing Programs of Supervised Agricultural Experience. Developing an SAE Program Using the Missouri Agricultural Record Book for Secondary Students. Analyzing the SAE Program Using the Missouri Farm Business Record Book. Instructor's Guide. Volume 21, Number 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admire, Myron

    This curriculum guide to the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program contains four units of insturctor's materials as follows: Unit 1: Developing an SAE Program; Unit 2: Using the Missouri Agricultural Record Book for Secondary Students; Unit 3: Analyzing the SAE Program; and Unit 4: Using the Missouri Farm Business Record Book. The…

  17. SAE: an R package for early stopping rules in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascoul-Mollevi, C; Laplanche, A; Le Deley, M C; Kramar, A

    2011-11-01

    In the case of an unexpected high frequency of serious adverse events (SAE), statistical methods are needed to help in the decision making process as to continuation of accrual to the trial. This paper describes an R package, named SAE that implements a method recently developed by defining stopping rules after each observed SAE. The package function control for excessive toxicity either during the trial at the observation of each SAE (function SAE) or during the planning phase of a clinical trial (function DESIGN). This description and the package documentation are complementary to help the users to apply the method. The main difficulty in the implementation of the method is the choice of a priori parameters. Data from an ongoing clinical trial are presented as an example to improve the understanding and the use of the package.

  18. Two-component signal transduction system SaeRS positively regulates Staphylococcus epidermidis glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qiang; Qi, Yijun; Ma, Yuanfang; Qu, Di

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is a causative pathogen of nosocomial infection, expresses its virulent traits such as biofilm and autolysis regulated by two-component signal transduction system SaeRS. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of differences in expression between the S. epidermidis 1457 wild-type and saeRS mutant to identify candidates regulated by saeRS using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/lonization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Of 55 identified proteins that significantly differed in expression between the two strains, 15 were upregulated and 40 were downregulated. The downregulated proteins included enzymes related to glycolysis and TCA cycle, suggesting that glucose is not properly utilized in S. epidermidis when saeRS was deleted. The study will be helpful for treatment of S. epidermidis infection from the viewpoint of metabolic modulation dependent on two-component signal transduction system SaeRS.

  19. Succesful Lean Manufacturing Implementation: Internal Key Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia, Iuga; Claudiu, Kifor

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing sectors and companies all over the world are successfully implementing lean principles within their processes. Nowadays, lean has become an indispensable part of global players. Companies worldwide need to be aware of multiple factors which weigh heavily on the success or failure of lean implementation. This paper focuses on giving a brief and structured overview over the fundamental organizational factors which play a substantial role for the lean manufacturing (LM) implementation process. The study below focuses on internal factors which are indispensable for a successful LM implementation within organizations. It is imperative that these internal factors are known, recognized and taken into consideration during the whole LM implementation process. Ignoring their influence on the process's implementation may lead to endangering the expected results or to making the process more difficult which could result in much higher human resource consumption.

  20. Factors That Contribute to the Adjustment of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesidor, Jean Kesnold; Sly, Kaye F.

    2016-01-01

    Leaving home to attend college is an important milestone for college students. However, the transition from home to college can be challenging, especially for students studying abroad. In this article, the authors explore factors that contribute to the academic, cultural, social, and psychological adjustments of international students. Adjustment…

  1. Factors associated with pharmacy student interest in international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff; Ryan, Melody

    2013-04-12

    OBJECTIVES. To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers of engaging in international opportunities during pharmacy school. METHODS. A self-administered electronic survey instrument was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. RESULTS. There were 192 total respondents, for a response rate of 50.9%. Seventy-two percent reported interest in international study. Previous international study experience (p=0.001), previous international travel experience (p=0.002), year in pharmacy school (p=0.03), level of academic involvement (pinternational study interest. Positive influences to international study included desire to travel and availability of scholarships. Perceived barriers included an inability to pay expenses and lack of foreign language knowledge. CONCLUSIONS. The needs and interests of pharmacy students should be considered in the development and expansion of internationalization programs in order to effectively optimize global partnerships and available international experiences. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should engage students early in the curriculum when interest in study-abroad opportunities is highest and seek to alleviate concerns about expenses as a primary influence on study-abroad decisions through provision of financial assistance.

  2. Risk factors for sepsis-associated encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Li; Ang Li; Yibing Weng; Shuwen Zhang; Meili Duan

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a diffuse and acute cerebral dysfunction caused by sepsis. Many sepsis patients exhibit acute deterioration in mental status during the early stage of disease, and central nervous system dysfunction has been shown to increase patient mortality. The present study selected 284 sepsis patients who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, from January to December 2009. The patients were assigned to SAE and non-SAE patient groups according to SAE occurrence. SAE incidence was 37.68%, and mortality was significantly greater in SAE patients compared with non-SAE patients (41.12% vs. 17.51%, P < 0.01). Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated lower arterial partial pressure of oxygen and greater alanine aminotransferase and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores in the SAE group compared with the non-SAE group. Arterial partial pressure of oxygen, alanine aminotransferase, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were determined to be potential risk factors for SAE.

  3. International Collaboration Patterns and Effecting Factors of Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xu; Liu, Yun

    2016-01-01

    With the globalization of the world economy, international innovation collaboration has taken place all over the world. This study selects three emerging technologies (3D printing, big data and carbon nanotubes and graphene technology) among 20 countries as the research objects, using three patent-based indicators and network relationship analysis to reflect international collaboration patterns. Then we integrate empirical analyses to show effecting factors of international collaboration degrees by using panel data. The results indicate that while 3D printing technology is associated with a “balanced collaboration” mode, big data technology is more accurately described by a radial pattern, centered on the United States, and carbon nanotubes and graphene technology exhibits “small-world” characteristics in this respect. It also shows that the factors GDP per capita (GPC), R&D expenditure (RDE) and the export of global trade value (ETV) negatively affect the level of international collaboration. It could be useful for China and other developing countries to make international scientific and technological collaboration strategies and policies in the future. PMID:27911926

  4. Measurement and correlates of internalized homophobia: a factor analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M W; Rosser, B R

    1996-01-01

    We developed a scale to measure internalized homophobia in men who have sex with men, which is comprised of items derived from theoretical and clinical reports of internalized homophobia. Two hundred two men who have sex with men and who attend "Man to Man" sexual health seminars in a midwestern U.S. city completed the scale at baseline. Orthogonal factor analysis revealed four dimensions of internalized homophobia: public identification as gay, perception of stigma associated with being homosexual, social comfort with gay men, and the moral and religious acceptability of being gay. Factor scoring of these dimensions indicated that they were associated significantly with relationship satisfaction, duration of longest relationship, extent of attraction to men and women, proportion of social time with gay people, membership of gay/bisexual groups, HIV serostatus, and disclosure of sexual orientation. Internalized homophobia is measurable and consists of four dimensions that are associated significantly with low disclosure, shorter length of and satisfaction with relationships, lower degree of sexual attraction to men and higher degree of attraction to women, and lower social time with gay people.

  5. Summary Report on the SAE 2016 Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wagner, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Campbell, Russ [SRA International, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The SAE 2016 Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles Symposium was a 2-day technical meeting focused on the role of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) and other novel energy converter technologies for extending the range of electric vehicles (EVs). The first-of-its-kind symposium was notable for focusing solely on the range extender (REx) technologies and not the EVs. The technical program featured presentations from international leaders from industry, government, national laboratories, and academia. The opening keynote presentations covered a broad range of topics including consumer behavior, policy implications, regulatory considerations, and REx architectures as enablers for advanced technologies. The technical sessions focused on an array of REx technologies including conventional ICEs, as well as less conventional or emerging technologies such as microturbines, fuel cells, low-temperature combustion engines, and aluminum-air batteries. The symposium included two panel sessions. The trend toward increasing vehicle electrification and the changing role of ICEs and other auxiliary power unit technologies for use as REx’s is leading to new research and design development needs. The symposium captured the interest of the industry and research communities in exploring the opportunities and challenges associated with REx’s for EVs. This report includes key takeaways, summarized below, and draft notes for each presentation and panel discussion.

  6. The Impact of Internal Factors on Bank Profitability in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora Haliti Rudhani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Commercial banks play an important role in the economic development and financial stability; therefore this study investigated the influence of internal factors in the profitability of commercial banks in Kosovo. Based on the literature review, a crucial internal factor on the profitability of banks in Kosovo was deemed: the repayment of assets (ROA as a measure of profitability influenced by other independent variables, such as: bank size, capital adequacy, loan and liquidity risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the empirical relation between internal factors determining bank profitability and profitability as a dependent variable. The empirical analysis is based on the data of commercial banks in Kosovo published in the period 2010-2014. The data were analysed with SPSS 21 version, and the hypotheses were tested by means of correlation and linear regression. The findings of the study proved that commercial banks in Kosovo could enlarge their profitability by increasing the level of bank loaning and other investments, except for managing risk and liquidity properly.

  7. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Expenditures (SAE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable expenditures (SAEs) are excess health care expenditures...

  8. Expression of gamma-hemolysin regulated by sae in Staphylococcus aureus strain Smith 5R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazuko; Kato, Fuminori; Kamio, Yoshiyuki; Kaneko, Jun

    2006-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus strain Smith 5R produces a two-component pore-forming toxin and forms a rough-surfaced colony with hemolytic haloes on human red blood cell plates (R[+]). Serial subcultures of the strain in broth caused the appearance of gamma-hemolysin negative variants with a smooth colony shape (S[-]), and the S[-] valiant became predominant in culture. The R[+] strain, in which agrA is naturally disrupted by an insertion of IS1181, produced high levels of gamma-hemolysin. In the S[-] variant, expression of both hlg and lukS-F mRNAs was strongly reduced. Nucleotide sequencing of the sae locus revealed that all isolated S[-] variants had spontaneous mutations in the sae locus. Recovery of gamma-hemolysin productivity in S[-] by transformation of the wild-type sae allele strongly suggested that the expression of gamma-hemolysin is positively regulated by sae in an agr-independent manner.

  9. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Expenditures (SAE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable expenditures (SAEs) are excess health care expenditures...

  10. Kogeja vormistamine eesti keeles : nihkeid SAE perifeerias / Mati Erelt, Helle Metslang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erelt, Mati, 1941-

    2008-01-01

    Artiklis vaadeldakse kogeja vormistamist ning alternatiivsete mallide kasutust ajakirjanduskeeles ajavahemikul 1995-2005 eesmärgiga välja selgitada toimunud muutused ning nende põhjused. SAE - Euroopa keskmine standard

  11. Kogeja vormistamine eesti keeles : nihkeid SAE perifeerias / Mati Erelt, Helle Metslang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erelt, Mati, 1941-

    2008-01-01

    Vaadeldakse kogeja vormistamist ning alternatiivsete mallide kasutust ajakirjanduskeeles ajavahemikul 1995-2005. Püütakse välja selgitada toimunud muutused ja nende põhjused. SAE - Euroopa keskmine standard

  12. The sae locus of Staphylococcus aureus controls exoprotein synthesis at the transcriptional level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, A T; Cheung, A L; Nagel, R

    1997-07-01

    Agr and sar are known regulatory loci of Staphylococcus aureus that control the production of several extracellular and cell-wall-associated proteins. A pleiotropic insertional mutation in S. aureus, designated sae, that leads to the production of drastically diminished levels of alpha- and beta-hemolysins and coagulase and slightly reduced levels of protein A has been described. The study of the expression of the genes coding for these exoproteins in the sae::Tn551 mutant (carried out in this work by Northern blot analyses) revealed that the genes for alpha- and beta-hemolysins (hla and hlb) and coagulase (coa) are not transcribed and that the gene for protein A (spa) is transcribed at a somewhat reduced level. These results indicate that the sae locus regulates these exoprotein genes at the transcriptional level. Northern blot analyses also show that the sae mutation does not affect the expression of agr or sar regulatory loci. An sae::Tn551 agr::tetM double mutant has been phenotypically characterized as producing reduced or null levels of alpha-, beta-, and delta-hemolysins, coagulase, and high levels of protein A. Northern blot analyses carried out in this work with the double mutant revealed that hla, hlb, hld, and coa genes are not transcribed, while spa is transcribed at high levels. The fact that coa is not expressed in the sae agr mutant, as in the sae parental strain, while spa is expressed at the high levels characteristic of the agr parental strain, suggests that sae and agr interact in a complex way in the control of the expression of the genes of several exoproteins.

  13. Role of the SaeRS two-component regulatory system in Staphylococcus epidermidis autolysis and biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Patrice

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE has emerged as one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections. The SaeRS two-component signal transduction system (TCS influences virulence and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. The deletion of saeR in S. epidermidis results in impaired anaerobic growth and decreased nitrate utilization. However, the regulatory function of SaeRS on biofilm formation and autolysis in S. epidermidis remains unclear. Results The saeRS genes of SE1457 were deleted by homologous recombination. The saeRS deletion mutant, SE1457ΔsaeRS, exhibited increased biofilm formation that was disturbed more severely (a 4-fold reduction by DNase I treatment compared to SE1457 and the complementation strain SE1457saec. Compared to SE1457 and SE1457saec, SE1457ΔsaeRS showed increased Triton X-100-induced autolysis (approximately 3-fold and decreased cell viability in planktonic/biofilm states; further, SE1457ΔsaeRS also released more extracellular DNA (eDNA in the biofilms. Correlated with the increased autolysis phenotype, the transcription of autolysis-related genes, such as atlE and aae, was increased in SE1457ΔsaeRS. Whereas the expression of accumulation-associated protein was up-regulated by 1.8-fold in 1457ΔsaeRS, the expression of an N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase enzyme (encoded by icaA critical for polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA synthesis was not affected by the deletion of saeRS. Conclusions Deletion of saeRS in S. epidermidis resulted in an increase in biofilm-forming ability, which was associated with increased eDNA release and up-regulated Aap expression. The increased eDNA release from SE1457ΔsaeRS was associated with increased bacterial autolysis and decreased bacterial cell viability in the planktonic/biofilm states.

  14. Case depth in SAE 1020 steel using barkhausen noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Drehmer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widely used thermochemical process for surface hardening of steels is case hardening. Using several different heat treatments, martensitic surface layers were formed on SAE 1020 steel into which carbon had been diffused. Case depths were measured by traditional destructive techniques. Barkhausen noise measurements were made and both the RMS Barkhausen pulse envelope and the fast Fourier transform (FFT were obtained from numerical calculation. The FFT amplitudes, functions of frequency, were associated with distance from the sample surface using the skin depth equation δ = 1/ (πfσµ½ , where f is the frequency of the electromagnetic wave, s is the electrical conductivity, and µ is the magnetic permeability. We define a normalized power index (NPI which can be used to estimate case depths. The NPI is discussed in relation to the sample microstructure and it is shown that the case depth is most easily determined when the magnetic properties of the surface layer and core are substantially different.

  15. Benchmark tests for a Formula SAE Student car prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariasiu, Florin

    2011-12-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of a vehicle are important elements in its design and construction. A low drag coefficient brings significant fuel savings and increased engine power efficiency. In designing and developing vehicles trough computer simulation process to determine the vehicles aerodynamic characteristics are using dedicated CFD (Computer Fluid Dynamics) software packages. However, the results obtained by this faster and cheaper method, are validated by experiments in wind tunnels tests, which are expensive and were complex testing equipment are used in relatively high costs. Therefore, the emergence and development of new low-cost testing methods to validate CFD simulation results would bring great economic benefits for auto vehicles prototyping process. This paper presents the initial development process of a Formula SAE Student race-car prototype using CFD simulation and also present a measurement system based on low-cost sensors through which CFD simulation results were experimentally validated. CFD software package used for simulation was Solid Works with the FloXpress add-on and experimental measurement system was built using four piezoresistive force sensors FlexiForce type.

  16. Marketing Management: Monitoring the International Environment Factors Using Global Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpán Kala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of the global marketing environment in line with the factors determining its external conditions. The aim is to specify the marketing-environment indicators in the international context and interpret the use of geographical maps illustratively documenting the differences of particular parameters in various parts of the global market. The research-results help update the theoretical framework of global environment factors. These data are also important for practice. Many enterprises consider the question of optimising their sources and directing their goals towards the opportunities available thanks to global markets. The global environment mapping is thereby an important basis for the marketing activities whose implementation across national boundaries is going to be mainly influenced by peculiarities of the environment involving foreign markets and their changes.

  17. Microstructural characterization of an AISI-SAE 4140 steel without nitridation and nitrided; Caracterizacion microestructural de un acero AISI-SAE 4140 sin nitrurar y nitrurado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina F, A.; Naquid G, C. [Gerencia de Ciencia de Materiales, Depto. de Sintesis y Caracterizacion de Materiales, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    It was micro structurally characterized an AISI-SAE 4140 steel before and after of nitridation through the nitridation process by plasma post-unloading microwaves through Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by means of secondary electrons and retrodispersed, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersion spectra (EDS) and mapping of elements. (Author)

  18. When Study-Abroad Experience Fails to Deliver: The Internal Resources Threshold Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderman, Gretchen; Kroll, Judith F.

    2009-01-01

    Some second language (L2) learners return from study-abroad experiences (SAEs) with seemingly no change in their L2 ability. In this study we investigate whether a certain level of internal cognitive resources is necessary in order for individuals to take full advantage of the SAE. Specifically, we examine the role of working memory resources in…

  19. Demand Side Management in Pellet Production: Internal and External Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigants, Haralds; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    This paper demonstrates a demand side management case study: how to save energy and how research and data analysis help to create an energy management system in a pellet production facility; and shows ways to implement the EU energy efficiency directive in production facilities. The study carried out in this research serves as a far-reaching step that can be taken to improve energy efficiency during the operation mode of technological equipment. The benchmarking methodology is used for analysis of results. Internal and external factors and indicators, which affect energy management potential in pellet production are analysed. Analysis of external factors is based on the state legal framework regulating the development of the energy sector. Methodology on the analysis of energy demand includes the internal energy management of an enterprise. The experimental results discussed in this paper show that particular steps, which are oriented to specific use of technological equipment, could play significant role in energy efficiency improvement in industry which is illustrated by the pre-milling process in the pellet production system using power.

  20. Analysis of Korean Students' International Mobility by 2-D Model: Driving Force Factor and Directional Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elisa L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the dynamics of Korean students' international mobility to study abroad by using the 2-D Model. The first D, "the driving force factor," explains how and what components of the dissatisfaction with domestic higher education perceived by Korean students drives students' outward mobility to seek…

  1. Fear of childbirth in pregnant women: External and internal factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashshapova, E. V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fear of childbirth (FOC is an important psychological problem that is studied worldwide because it affects the well-being of pregnant women. However, in Russia, this problem does not receive adequate attention among researchers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conditionality of fear of childbirth (FOC in pregnant women by external and internal factors, which we assumed were the reasons for this fear. As external factors, we considered socio-demographic indicators (e.g., age, marital status, level of education, housing, and the attitude of relatives towards pregnancy as well as indicators of gynecological history (e.g., the term of pregnancy, the outcome of previous pregnancies, and pregnancy complications. As internal (psychological factors of the fear of childbirth, we considered personal anxiety as well as general inclination towards and negative consequences of different fears (20 types of fears and phobias were examined. The study was conducted with a Russian sample of 76 women at different stages of pregnancy and with different socio-demographic indicators and gynecological histories. The analysis of the results showed the absence of significant differences between women who were pregnant with FOC and those without this fear in terms of the external factors considered in this study. According to the study’s data, a general inclination of women to fear is associated with fear of childbirth. However, the findings for the women with FOC did not indicate significant positive correlations between the level of this fear and exposure to any of the 20 types of fear and phobias measured in the study. Furthermore, the results did not detect relationships between the FOC level and women’s personal anxiety. The results allow us to conclude that FOC is a separate phenomenon that is not dependent on other phobias and fears. Fear of childbirth has a subjective and highly individual genesis. It is not a direct consequence of

  2. Two-Component Signal Transduction System SaeRS Positively Regulates Staphylococcus epidermidis Glucose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is a causative pathogen of nosocomial infection, expresses its virulent traits such as biofilm and autolysis regulated by two-component signal transduction system SaeRS. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of differences in expression between the S. epidermidis 1457 wild-type and saeRS mutant to identify candidates regulated by saeRS using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/lonization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. Of 55 identified proteins that significantly differed in expression between the two strains, 15 were upregulated and 40 were downregulated. The downregulated proteins included enzymes related to glycolysis and TCA cycle, suggesting that glucose is not properly utilized in S. epidermidis when saeRS was deleted. The study will be helpful for treatment of S. epidermidis infection from the viewpoint of metabolic modulation dependent on two-component signal transduction system SaeRS.

  3. The Study of Internal Factors Affecting Ethnic and National

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolali Lahsaeizadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe present paper aims at studying the internal factors affecting ethnic and national identityamong Arab people of Ahwaz using quantitative method and survey technique. The sample of thisstudy was 384 male and female Arabs aging 18 to 65 years old. In order to have a more precisestudy, a pretest questionnaire was given to 52 Arab people of Ahwaz. The final questionnaire wasgiven to the sample during autumn and winter of 2006. The theoretical framework of this study isbased on modernization, relative deprivation and internal exploitation theories. In this study, theeffect of age, sex, marital status, employment, family income, the rate of family ownership, relativedeprivation feeling in economic dimension, urban residence, neighborhood (Arab dominant ormixed,the rate of ethnic trust, abiding by ethnic norms, education, using media, satisfaction withpolitical system, participation in political issues and relative deprivation feeling in politicaldimension were measured by ethnic identity variable. Finally, the relationship between ethnicidentity variable and national identity variable was tested among samples. The result of bivariateanalysis (T test, variance analysis and simple regression revealed that above mentioned variable -except 3 variables including sex, marital status and urban residence record - were significant. Ethnicidentity and national identity are significant negative relationship. The results of multivariateregression analysis revealed that 11 out of 16 independent variables affected ethnic identity whichfinaly explained 67 percent of ethnic identity variance.

  4. Analysis for Suspension Hardpoint of Formula SAE Car Based on Correlation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xintian Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the correlation of the hardpoints, double wishbone suspension of Formula SAE Car can be improved and optimized. For Formula SAE car, performance and kinetic characteristic of the suspension follow very closely to handling stability, comfort ability, handling of steering and service life of tire, etc. Double wishbone suspension is chosen as front suspension of Formula SAE car in the paper. Based on the multi-body dynamics and suspension kinematics theory, simulation model of front suspension is built and analyzed. With correlation theory, the correlation for the hardpoints of the suspension is studied and discussed. Through all the testing, not only a lot of four wheel alignment parameter variations can be obtained, but also the rational designing for hardpoints which can provide an useful reference for vehicle designing.

  5. SAE J1939协议的研究及其协议栈的实现%SAE J1939 Protocol and Implementation of Its Protocol Stack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 李珍珍; 王思山; 黄爱蓉

    2011-01-01

    阐述了一种基于CAN总线的车辆网络通信协议SAE J1939,设计和实现了基于μC/OS-Ⅱ嵌入式操作系统的协议栈,能够发送和接收J1939报文.该协议栈支持分布在车辆各个不同位置的ECU之间的具有实时闭环控制功能的高速通信网络.最后,在采用标准SAE J1939协议的汽车仪表上验证了所设计的协议栈,很好地实现了车辆ECU之间的高速通信.

  6. Clinical characteristics of anti-SAE antibodies in Chinese patients with dermatomyositis in comparison with different patient cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yongpeng; Lu, Xin; Shu, Xiaoming; Peng, Qinglin; Wang, Guochun

    2017-03-15

    This study aimed to analyze the clinical features of anti-SAE antibodies in Chinese myositis patients in comparison with different cohorts. The anti-SAE antibodies were tested in myositis patients and in control subjects. Long-term follow-up was conducted on the antibody-positive patients. Anti-SAE antibodies were exclusively present in 12 out of 394 (3.0%) adult dermatomyositis (DM) patients. Of the anti-SAE-positive DM patients, 75% had distinctive diffuse dark-red or pigment-like skin rashes, and 67% of these patients experienced mild muscle weakness. Muscular biopsies showed mild pathological manifestations. Compared with the antibody-negative group, the average age of dermatomyositis onset in the antibody-positive group was higher, and dysphagia occurred more frequently noted (p = 0.012). Only 9 patients received follow-up, 7 experienced improvement after treatment. The anti-SAE antibody levels correlated with improved disease condition. The anti-SAE antibody was found exclusively in adult DM patients, occurring infrequently in Chinese patients. In addition to a diffuse dark-red or pigment-like skin rash and mild muscular weakness, common symptoms included propensity for developing dysphagia. Serum levels of the anti-SAE antibody correlated with myositis disease activity, and anti-SAE-positive patients were responsive to treatment.

  7. Principal component and factor analytic models in international sire evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobsen Jette

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interbull is a non-profit organization that provides internationally comparable breeding values for globalized dairy cattle breeding programmes. Due to different trait definitions and models for genetic evaluation between countries, each biological trait is treated as a different trait in each of the participating countries. This yields a genetic covariance matrix of dimension equal to the number of countries which typically involves high genetic correlations between countries. This gives rise to several problems such as over-parameterized models and increased sampling variances, if genetic (covariance matrices are considered to be unstructured. Methods Principal component (PC and factor analytic (FA models allow highly parsimonious representations of the (covariance matrix compared to the standard multi-trait model and have, therefore, attracted considerable interest for their potential to ease the burden of the estimation process for multiple-trait across country evaluation (MACE. This study evaluated the utility of PC and FA models to estimate variance components and to predict breeding values for MACE for protein yield. This was tested using a dataset comprising Holstein bull evaluations obtained in 2007 from 25 countries. Results In total, 19 principal components or nine factors were needed to explain the genetic variation in the test dataset. Estimates of the genetic parameters under the optimal fit were almost identical for the two approaches. Furthermore, the results were in a good agreement with those obtained from the full rank model and with those provided by Interbull. The estimation time was shortest for models fitting the optimal number of parameters and prolonged when under- or over-parameterized models were applied. Correlations between estimated breeding values (EBV from the PC19 and PC25 were unity. With few exceptions, correlations between EBV obtained using FA and PC approaches under the optimal fit were

  8. Perceived Self-Efficacy of Preservice Agriculture Teachers toward Specific SAE Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Eric D.; Thoron, Andrew C.; Estepp, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Since its inception, school-based agricultural education in the United States has utilized the home project method, later known as a supervised agricultural experience program (SAE), as a way to provide students with contextual, hands-on learning experiences outside of class that complement classroom learning. While most teachers realize the…

  9. Analysis of the Continuing Decline in Use of Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Roger

    1997-01-01

    When responses from 135 of 222 New York secondary agriculture teachers were compared with a 1983 study, a 10% decrease in supervised agricultural experience (SAE) was found. Barriers were low level of summer employment, limited release time, less funding for transportation, and scheduling problems. A comprehensive overhaul of the concept and…

  10. Regional cerebral blood flow and blood volume in patients with subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gückel, Friedemann J; Brix, Gunnar; Hennerici, Michael; Lucht, Robert; Ueltzhöffer, Christine; Neff, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was a detailed analysis of the regional cerebral blood flow and blood volume in patients with subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE) by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A group of 26 patients with SAE and a group of 16 age-matched healthy volunteers were examined. Using a well-established dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI method, the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and blood volume (rCBV) were quantified for each subject in 12 different regions in the brain parenchyma. As compared to healthy volunteers, patients with SAE showed significantly reduced rCBF and rCBV values in white matter regions and in the occipital cortex. Regions containing predominantly grey matter show almost normal rCBF and rCBV values. In conclusion, quantitative analysis of rCBF and rCBV values demonstrates clearly that SAE is a disease that is associated with a reduced microcirculation predominantly in white matter.

  11. Supervisor Involvement and Professional Development Needs Associated with SAE Programming and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, Rebecca G.; Pate, Michael L.; Sorensen, Tyson J.

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive survey research study sought to gather evidence of school-based agriculture teachers' perceptions of community supervisor involvement with supervision and planning of students' Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) work activities and safety training professional development needs. Responding teachers indicated they agreed to…

  12. Equipment for testing automotive lead/acid batteries under SAE J240a conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J. A.; Rand, D. A. J.

    Battery cycling equipment has been designed and constructed to test lead/acid batteries according to the American Society of Automotive Engineers' (SAE) J240a Standard. This life test simulates automotive service where the battery operates in a voltage-regulated charging system. The CSIRO design uses a master/slave concept to reduce both construction time and cost.

  13. A Survey of the Influencing Factors for International Academic Mobility of Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chun; Zhu, Chang; Meng, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to understand the factors influencing international academic mobility within the Chinese higher education context. The inventory of University Students' Perceptions of Influencing Factors for International Academic Mobility was developed and tested to enquire about Chinese university students' perceptions of factors influencing…

  14. Investigating the effective factors on management internal controls applying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadkhani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Information technology plays an important role on increasing internal control in many organizations. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the impact of information technology, hiring high quality skilled management team, using high quality standards and increasing employees' awareness on managing internal control. The survey uses a questionnaire based on Likert scale and distributes among the people who work in either administration or financial sectors of governmental agencies in province of Zanjan, Iran. The results of the study indicate that the implementation of information technology positively influences management team to control their system, more effectively, using more skilled and specialized managers positively influences management internal control, an organization with suitable standard positively influences management internal control and increasing employees' awareness positively influences management internal control.

  15. Application of SAE J1939 Protocol in Vehicle Electrical Communication System%SAE J1939协议在汽车电器通信系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高云华

    2005-01-01

    对建立在CAN总线基础上的汽车行业通信协议标准--SAE J1939的结构特点进行了分析.从软件的角度,对基于SAE J1939的通信设计作了较为详尽的论述,并对SAE J1939在汽车随车诊断方面的应用作了一定的介绍.

  16. International colloquium challenge climate for the France: the factor 4; Colloque international defi climat pour la France: le facteur 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The objective factor 4 is the division by four of the greenhouse gases emission. This colloquium aims to define possible actions to reach this objective. The first part concerns presentations of personalities of the domain and offers an international panorama of the energetic and environmental policies, against the climatic change and how to reconcile economic growth with climatic change. The second part wonders on the mobilization of the actors secton a national and international framework. (A.L.B.)

  17. Do Global Risk Factors Matter for International Cost of Capital Computations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractInternational financial markets are becoming integrated. Hence, global risk factor are increasingly important for portfolio selection and asset pricing. The recent empirical finance literature has confirmed that both the global market portfolio and exchange rate risk factors constitute

  18. Factors Influencing International PhD Students to Study Physics in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Serene H.-J.; Nieminen, Timo A.; Townson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Since physics research is an activity of an active international community, international visits are a common way for physicists to share scientific knowledge and skills. International mobility of physicists is also important for PhD physics study and research training. We investigated personal and social factors that influenced the decision for…

  19. Analysis of the Internal and External Factors Involved in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲艳春

    2009-01-01

    Materialist dialectics holds that internal causes are the basis of change and the external causes are the condition of change, and that external causes become operative through internal causes. This law can be applied into SLA. The internal causes and external causes influence SLA gready. This paper mainly discusses the factors involved in SLA process.

  20. Cultural Factors in the Flow of International News: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakurai Takuya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a review of the literature of international news flow, and surveys how the previous studies have attempted to capture “cultural factors” influencing the flow. The factors are grouped into four types of variables: language, former colonial tie, ethnicity, and geographical proximity. This paper argues that cultural factors cannot be significant without economic interests in the era of post-Cold War, that the structure of international news is imbalanced because a few powerful countries dominate the international news market, and that international news reduces cultural varieties to the singular international realities disseminated by the media of such countries.

  1. Factor Structure Analysis of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Scale on International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok-Mun; Wang, Chuang; Kim, Do-Hong; Bodenhorn, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the factor structure of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) scale on international students. Via confirmatory factor analysis, the authors tested the fit of the models reported by Schutte et al. and five other studies to data from 640 international students in the United States. Results show that…

  2. Application of SAE J1939 Protocol in the Body Control System%SAE J1939协议在车身控制系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌

    2010-01-01

    本文介绍了SAE J1939协议的构成及其中物理层、报文结构、应用层、诊断层.给出了基于CAN总线在车身控制系统地拓扑及SAE J1939协议在车身控制系统中的应用.

  3. The Message/Frame Format of Vehicle Communication According to the SAE Standard J1939%SAE J1939标准下的汽车CAN通讯报文/帧格式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永木; 刘望生; 李洪泽

    2003-01-01

    以CAN 2.0为标准的CAN协议技术已很成熟,在很多领域均得到了广泛的应用.而更高级的SAE J1939标准,在国内几乎还没有应用.介绍了SAE J1939标准下的汽车CAN通讯报文/帧格式.

  4. International Factors in the Formation of Refugee Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolberg, Aristide R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Drawing on theoretical framework that addresses the transnational character of refugee problems, analyzes the causes of refugee movements. Holds that despite the common perception that refugees flee danger that emanates from an agent within the country of origin, the danger often results from international conflicts. (GC)

  5. Factors Influencing the Spiritual Competency of Predoctoral Psychology Interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasz, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among spiritual competencies, personal spiritual beliefs, and clinical supervision in spirituality with professional psychology predoctoral interns. It was hypothesized personal spiritual beliefs and supervision in spirituality would be predictors of spiritual competencies in clinical practice. Social…

  6. Role of Staphylococcus aureus global regulators sae and sigmaB in virulence gene expression during device-related infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerke, Christiane; Fluckiger, Ursula; Steinhuber, Andrea; Bisanzio, Vittoria; Ulrich, Martina; Bischoff, Markus; Patti, Joseph M; Wolz, Christiane

    2005-06-01

    The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to adapt to different environments is due to a regulatory network comprising several loci. Here we present a detailed study of the interaction between the two global regulators sae and sigmaB of S. aureus and their influence on virulence gene expression in vitro, as well as during device-related infection. The expression of sae, asp23, hla, clfA, coa, and fnbA was determined in strain Newman and its isogenic saeS/R and sigB mutants by Northern analysis and LightCycler reverse transcription-PCR. There was no indication of direct cross talk between the two regulators. sae had a dominant effect on target gene expression during device-related infection. SigmaB seemed to be less active throughout the infection than under induced conditions in vitro.

  7. Two-component signal transduction system SaeRS is involved in competence and penicillin susceptibility in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qiang; Ma, Yuanfang; Qu, Di

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is a causative pathogen of nosocomial infection, expresses its virulent traits such as biofilm and autolysis regulated by two-component signal transduction system SaeRS. In this study, the S. epidermidis SaeRS was identified to negatively regulate the expression of genes involved in competence (comF, murF), cytolysis (lrgA), and autolysis (lytS) by DNA microarray or real-time RT-PCR analysis. In addition, saeRS mutant showed increased competence and higher susceptibility to antibiotics such as penicillin and oxacillin than the wild-type strain. The study will be helpful for understanding the characterization of the SaeRS in S. epidermidis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Conference Video for Booth at SAE World Congress Experience Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkey, Ann Marie

    2017-01-01

    Contents: Publicly released videos on technology transfer items available for licensing from NASA. Includes; Powder Handling Device for Analytical Instruments (Ames); 2. Fiber Optic Shape Sensing (FOSS) (Armstrong); 3. Robo-Glove (Johnson); 4. Modular Robotic Vehicle (Johnson); 5. Battery Management System (Johnson); 6. Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) (Johnson); 7. Contaminant Resistant Coatings for Extreme Environments (Langley); 8. Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) (Goddard); 9. Ultrasonic Stir Welding (Marshall). Also includes scenes from the International Space Station.

  9. International Trade with Firm Heterogeneity in Factor Shares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Emami Namini (Julian)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a trade model with capital and labor as factors of production. The main contribution of this paper is that it considers a new type of firm heterogeneity, which is empirically relevant: firms in this paper differ with respect to their factor shares in production. There

  10. Traffic safety trends,international comparisons,and major factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LeonardEvans

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To examine trends in traffic fatality rates in different countries and to use results to increase understanding of the major factors contributing to traffic safety.Methods:The number of traffic fataities per registered vehicle is examined versus calendar year for a number of countries.Factors hich influence traffic safety are organized into a hierarchical structure.Results:For all countries examined,the number of fatalities per registered vehicle trends downwards in time,but not by equal amounts for all countries.Human factors (driver performance and behavior)are identified as contributing larger effects than engineering factors (roadway and automotive).Conclusion:While all the factors considered are important,it is human behavior that exercises the dominant influence on traffic safety.

  11. Behavior of AISI SAE 1020 Steel Implanted by Titanium and Exposed to Bacteria Sulphate Deoxidizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño, Ely Dannier V.; Garnica, Hernán; Dugar-Zhabon, Veleriy; Castillo, Genis

    2014-05-01

    A hybrid technology to treat solid surfaces with the pulse high voltage and electric arc discharges of low pressure with a three-dimensional ion implantation technique (3DII) is applied. This technology is used to protect AISI SAE 1020 steel against a microbiological corrosion. The titanium ion implanted steel samples (coupons) are subjected to a medium of bacteria sulphate deoxidizer (BSD) which are very typical of the hydrocarbon industry and are potentially harmful for structures when are in contact with petroleum and some of its derivatives. The used technology aims to find an effective hybrid procedure to minimize the harmful effects of bacteria on AISI SAE 1020 steel. The hybrid technology efficiency of superficial titanium implantation is estimated through the measurements of the point corrosion characteristics obtained after testing both the treated and non-treated coupons. The three-dimensional surface structures of the samples are reconstructed with help of a confocal microscope.

  12. Characterization of Factors affecting IASCC of PWR Core Internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Woo; Hwang, Seong Sik; Kim, Won Sam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    A lot works have been performed on IASCC in BWR. Recent efforts have been devoted to investigate IASCC in PWR, but the mechanism in PWR is not fully understood yet as compared with that in BWR due to a lack of data from laboratories and fields. Therefore it is strongly needed to review and analyse recent researches of IASCC in both BWR and PWR for establishing a proactive management technology for IASCC of core internals in Korean PWRs. This work is aimed to review mainly recent technical reports on IASCC of stainless steels for core internals in PWR. For comparison, the works on IASCC in BWR were also reviewed and briefly introduced in this report.

  13. SAE J1939 multi packet transmission protocol and application analysis%SAE J1939多包传输协议及应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢娟娟; 李晋; 郑创明

    2016-01-01

    描述一种 SAE J193921协议应用于商用车车载 CAN 网络系统设计过程的多包数据传输协议的传输原理、传输过程,结合工程实践,分析了多包传输协议在商用车整车 CAN 网络系统开发过程中的应用,该协议对处理诊断报文等数据具有重要的意义。%In this paper,transport protocol and transport process for multiple packet data was introduced detailedly.This transport protocol was defined in SAE J1 939 21 protocol and used in CAN network design of commercial vehicles.Then, the application of multiple packet transport was analyzed based on the components of CAN network.The protocol is of great significance to the diagnosis of message data processing.

  14. Cell and molecular biology of SAE, a cell line from the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Angela; Forest, David; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Dowell, Lori; Bayne, Christopher; Barnes, David

    2007-02-01

    Cartilaginous fish, primarily sharks, rays and skates (elasmobranchs), appeared 450 million years ago. They are the most primitive vertebrates, exhibiting jaws and teeth, adaptive immunity, a pressurized circulatory system, thymus, spleen, and a liver comparable to that of humans. The most used elasmobranch in biomedical research is the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias. Comparative genomic analysis of the dogfish shark, the little skate (Leucoraja erincea), and other elasmobranchs have yielded insights into conserved functional domains of genes associated with human liver function, multidrug resistance, cystic fibrosis, and other biomedically relevant processes. While genomic information from these animals is informative in an evolutionary framework, experimental verification of functions of genomic sequences depends heavily on cell culture approaches. We have derived the first multipassage, continuously proliferating cell line of a cartilaginous fish. The line was initiated from embryos of the spiny dogfish shark. The cells were maintained in a medium modified for fish species and supplemented with cell type-specific hormones, other proteins and sera, and plated on a collagen substrate. SAE cells have been cultured continuously for three years. These cells can be transfected by plasmids and have been cryopreserved. Expressed Sequence Tags generated from a normalized SAE cDNA library included a number of markers for cartilage and muscle, as well as proteins influencing tissue differentiation and development, suggesting that SAE cells may be of mesenchymal stem cell origin. Examination of SAE EST sequences also revealed a cartilaginous fish-specific repetitive sequence that may be evidence of an ancient mobile genetic element that most likely was introduced into the cartilaginous fish lineage after divergence from the lineage leading to teleosts.

  15. A Novel Image Cryptosystem Based on S-AES and Chaotic Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Lan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel scheme based on simplified advanced encryption standard (S-AES for image encryption. Modified Arnold Map applied as diffusion technique for an image, and the key and dynamic S-box of encryption is generated by PWLCM. The goal is to balance rapidity and security of encryption. Experimental implementation has been done. This light encryption scheme shows resistance against chosen-plaintext attack and is suitable for sensor networks and IoT.

  16. Process development of making bearings and bushings from continuous-cast SAE 660 bronze alloy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chill, J. L.

    A process for making bearings and bushings offers considerable potential. The ability to minimize machining and scrap loss, especially for middle and large diameter bearings, should help to lower manufacturing costs appreciably. In addition, the substantial improvement of mechanical properties resulting from rolling offers the increased performance over as-cast SAE 660 bronze bearings in terms of better load carrying ability and wear resistance.

  17. AN INVESTIGATION OF RETAINED AUSTENITE CONTENTS IN CARBURIZED SAE 8620 STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, retained austenite contents in carburized  SAE 8620 (21NiCrMo2) steel were investigated. Carburizing programs were carried out in gas atmosphere at 940°C. X-ray diffraction was used to determine retained austenite contents in the case-hardened microstructures of the carburized specimens. Test results indicated that maximum retained austenite contents at the microstructures of the carburized specimens that carburized 45 minute, 3 h and 5 h carburizing times at ...

  18. Small area estimation (SAE) model: Case study of poverty in West Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhartini, Titin; Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati

    2016-02-01

    This paper showed the comparative of direct estimation and indirect/Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Model selection included resolve multicollinearity problem in auxiliary variable, such as choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and implemented principal component (PC). Concern parameters in this paper were the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The approach for estimating these parameters could be performed based on direct estimation and SAE. The problem of direct estimation, three area even zero and could not be conducted by directly estimation, because small sample size. The proportion of agricultural venture poor households showed 19.22% and agricultural poor households showed 46.79%. The best model from agricultural venture poor households by choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and the best model from agricultural poor households by implemented PC. The best estimator showed SAE better then direct estimation both of the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The solution overcame small sample size and obtained estimation for small area was implemented small area estimation method for evidence higher accuracy and better precision improved direct estimator.

  19. An International Survey of Maintenance Human Factors Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    equp- ment deficences, nadequate tranng, coordnaton dfficultes, and fatgue are examples of factors bel eed to precptate these eents...manuscrpt; Johnson & Watson, 2001). Wells (2001) reported that hF ssues are bel eed to be a factor n 50% of mantenance-related accdents. Ma...National Aviation Authority (O-NAA) 72 17.8 Transport Canada (TC) 36 8.9 Civil Aviation Safety Authority ( CASA )(Australia) 19 4.7 Airline Maint 35.0

  20. Long-run equilibrium relationships in the international stock market factor systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Suk Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the international linkages among local, country-specific stock market factors in order to better understand the dependence structure of increasingly integrated world financial markets. The seeming discordance between Fama and French (1998 and Griffin (2002 regarding the multi-factor model in the international stock markets motivates us to study the international relationship among local factors. With the individual stock data from the six major developed countries in the international stock market, we compose daily returns to the Fama-French three factors (i.e. market, size, and value and the momentum factor over the period from January 2000 to June 2010. We investigate the international linkages among local stock market factors, focusing on their equilibrium relationship in the integrated world financial market. The cointegration analysis indicates that local factor indices, constructed from the cumulative factor returns, are cointegrated for each of the four factor classes. Thus, we conclude that local factors are globally bound to each other through a long-run equilibrium relationship and that although stock market factors may be local, rather than global, individual stock returns are driven by common global stochastic trends.

  1. Sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries - international perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    Diseases probably have their roots in a complex chain of environmental and behavioural events which are shaped by broader socioeconomic determinants. Most studies of sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries have been carried out in industrialized countries, but such reports from low- and mi...

  2. International preferences for pork appearance: II. Factors influencing consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngapo, T.M.; Martin, J.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2007-01-01

    The preference for pork varying in its fat cover, lean colour, marbling and drip differs among countries, but the influence of socio-demographic factors is unknown. In this study of 11,717 consumers from 22 countries, more than 80% of consumers liked pork, thought that pork quality was at least

  3. [Study on the resilience internal factors in a sample of Puerto Rican centenarians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Medina, José J; Rodríguez-Gómez, José R; Altieri-Ramirez, Gladys

    2012-01-01

    Old age is a stage that is usually characterized by lost at the physiological, psychological and social level that generates much distress to individuals. However, the centenaries have been identified as an example of successful aging, within other factors, because they have adequate managed skills that help them to deal with healthy normal losses. Resilience could be one of the factors that may help the Centennials to age successfully. It is necessary more studies with Puerto Rico Centennials since we lack such investigations. This study has an expo facto design; in addition we evaluate psychometrically the Symptoms Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R). The scale of Internal Resilience Factors (EFIR), a semi structured interview and the SCL-90-R were used to identify factors associated with successful aging in the centennials. In addition we explore if there exist gender differences in internal factors of resilience within the sample. 23 Centennials, 15 men and 8 women, of different parts of Puerto Rico (average age = 101. 5 years). Internal resilience factors associated with the aging process were identifying, those were: emotional stability, optimism, behavioral factor and behavioral and emotional skills component. These factors are consistent with the revised literature on positive emotions and adaptive ageing. On the other hand, no statistically significant difference was identified (p <. 05) for the internal factors of resilience on the basis of gender, a finding agreed with the revised literature. The multiple tests administered showed adequate internal consistency (EFIR: (=. 726); SCL-90-R: (=. 941). The Symptoms Check list 90-R (SCL-90-R) was valid with a Cronbach's alpha of. 941. We identified internal resilience factors that could be linked with successfully aging: those factors are encouraging the elderly population. In addition used tests showed adequate internal consistency. Limitations in relation to the size of the sample and the distribution of gender were

  4. Corruption - a Relevant Factor in the International Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George DIMOFTE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is divided into small low-level corruption and high-level corruption. Small level little corruption is defined as the area of corruption which does not prejudice the interests of the majority of individuals. This category can be covered by a health care professional, the corruption of a clerk, etc through their decisions is an individual or group of individuals at the expense of others, but this kind of injustice is limited in time and space. Corruption, means high-level corruption of a dignitary, clerk, etc. This kind of corruption and the main effect over the entire State characteristic and the individuals who compose it. The consequences of this kind of corruption can translate into direct and indirect costs that will be supported in the end by all taxpayers. The objectives of corruption are double: profit and power. The international economic crisis has its origin in the manifestations of high level corruption in the governments of different countries. All the state now have to fight against corruption in order to settle new rules to avoid the effects af the crisis and to prevent a deepening of this crisis with devastating effects upon tha population. Here we try to emphasize the importance that we all should give corruption and measures had to be taken by everyone.

  5. Factors That Influence Stay Intention of Thai International Students Following Completion of Degrees in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Kingminghae, Worapinya

    2017-01-01

    Based on data recently collected in China, this study examined factors influencing Thai international students' stay/leave intentions after completion of degrees in Chinese universities. Paying attention to the concrete situations and lived experiences of international students in a more integrated Asia-Pacific region, we found that…

  6. The Factors That Influence Dietary Habits among International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakaam, Amir A.; Castellanos, Diana C.; Bodzio, Jessica; Harrison, Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the dietary intake changes and factors related to dietary acculturation in international students attending an urban university in the United States. The researchers administered seven focus groups of college-age international students (n = 32) between June and August 2012. The participants were enrolled in Northeastern and…

  7. Stochastic Discount Factor Approach to International Risk-Sharing:A Robustness Check of the Bilateral Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadzi-Vaskov, M.; Kool, C.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a robustness check of the stochastic discount factor approach to international (bilateral) risk-sharing given in Brandt, Cochrane, and Santa-Clara (2006). We demonstrate two main inherent limitations of the bilateral SDF approach to international risk-sharing. First, the discount

  8. Internal Structure of Mini-CEX Scores for Internal Medicine Residents: Factor Analysis and Generalizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Pankratz, V. Shane

    2010-01-01

    The mini-CEX is widely used to rate directly observed resident-patient encounters. Although several studies have explored the reliability of mini-CEX scores, the dimensionality of mini-CEX scores is incompletely understood. Objective: Explore the dimensionality of mini-CEX scores through factor analysis and generalizability analysis. Design:…

  9. Internal Structure of Mini-CEX Scores for Internal Medicine Residents: Factor Analysis and Generalizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Pankratz, V. Shane

    2010-01-01

    The mini-CEX is widely used to rate directly observed resident-patient encounters. Although several studies have explored the reliability of mini-CEX scores, the dimensionality of mini-CEX scores is incompletely understood. Objective: Explore the dimensionality of mini-CEX scores through factor analysis and generalizability analysis. Design:…

  10. Factors associated with performance in an internal medicine clerkship

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Tresa; Lezama, Maybelline; Chandler, Martha; Forrester, Lisa; Metting, Austin; Mirkes, Curtis; Van Cleave, Holly; Win, Sonny; Myers, John D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the relationship between demographic and educational variables and student performance on an internal medicine (IM) clerkship in order to target areas for educational intervention and potential early remediation. This study examined data associated with third-year medical student performance (N = 505) during the IM clerkship at Baylor Scott & White, Temple/Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine from 2005 to 2011. Multiple regression analysis (N = 341) showed that a model containing the following variables was significantly associated with scores on the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) subject exam, accounting for 46.5% of the variance: Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE), Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT), US Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) Step 1, second-year grade point average (GPA), and clinical evaluation. A model containing USMLE Step 1, clinical evaluation, and NBME was significantly associated with OSCE score, accounting for 30% of the variance. Additionally, a model containing age, MCAT score, undergraduate GPA, NBME subject exam score, and OSCE was significantly associated with clinical evaluation score, accounting for 22% of score variance. Age accounted for the most unique variance in clinical evaluation score. Gender and IM interest group were not significantly associated with any outcome variable. In conclusion, in contrast to previous studies in the field, we did not find a significant association between undergraduate GPA and NBME score. Our findings supply further evidence that the OSCE, typically believed to be a clinical performance exam, actually assesses a broader set of domains. Interest group membership did not confer any academic benefit to medical students in IM clerkships in our study. PMID:28127127

  11. Factors associated with performance in an internal medicine clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Colleen; McNeal, Tresa; Lezama, Maybelline; Chandler, Martha; Forrester, Lisa; Metting, Austin; Mirkes, Curtis; Van Cleave, Holly; Win, Sonny; Myers, John D

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the relationship between demographic and educational variables and student performance on an internal medicine (IM) clerkship in order to target areas for educational intervention and potential early remediation. This study examined data associated with third-year medical student performance (N = 505) during the IM clerkship at Baylor Scott & White, Temple/Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine from 2005 to 2011. Multiple regression analysis (N = 341) showed that a model containing the following variables was significantly associated with scores on the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) subject exam, accounting for 46.5% of the variance: Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE), Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT), US Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) Step 1, second-year grade point average (GPA), and clinical evaluation. A model containing USMLE Step 1, clinical evaluation, and NBME was significantly associated with OSCE score, accounting for 30% of the variance. Additionally, a model containing age, MCAT score, undergraduate GPA, NBME subject exam score, and OSCE was significantly associated with clinical evaluation score, accounting for 22% of score variance. Age accounted for the most unique variance in clinical evaluation score. Gender and IM interest group were not significantly associated with any outcome variable. In conclusion, in contrast to previous studies in the field, we did not find a significant association between undergraduate GPA and NBME score. Our findings supply further evidence that the OSCE, typically believed to be a clinical performance exam, actually assesses a broader set of domains. Interest group membership did not confer any academic benefit to medical students in IM clerkships in our study.

  12. Cultural Factors in the Flow of International News: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai Takuya

    2017-01-01

    This paper offers a review of the literature of international news flow, and surveys how the previous studies have attempted to capture “cultural factors” influencing the flow. The factors are grouped into four types of variables: language, former colonial tie, ethnicity, and geographical proximity. This paper argues that cultural factors cannot be significant without economic interests in the era of post-Cold War, that the structure of international news is imbalanced because a few powerful ...

  13. CALCULATING THE MOLECULAR INTERNAL ROTATING STERIC FACTOR OF POLYMERS BY THE RADIATION CROSSLINKING METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wanxi; SUN Jiazhen

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, calculating the molecular internal rotating steric factor of polymers by the radiation crosslinking method is studied and a relationship between the molecular internal rotating steric factor (σ) and crosslinking parameter β is established[1] by taking account of the effect of polymer chain flexibility on β value. σ value of polymer obtained by this method is in agreement with that given with other method.

  14. Impact of Internal Factors on Information Technology Adoption: An Empirical Investigation of Chinese Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chunming; ZHAO Jing; XIA Liang; ZHU Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Organizations differ significantly in their inclination to deploy information technology (IT). The factors that determine the organizational inclination to deploy IT need to be classified to help firms formulate an appropriate e-strategy. This paper discusses a framework that explains the influence of internal factors on IT adoption. The framework is based on quantitative data on IT adoption from 95 firms in China. The results highlight that the internal factors of leadership, organizational learning, and IT resources positively impact IT adoption. The study also shows that these factors are correlated.

  15. THE TRAINING OF INTERNATIONAL MANAGERS – SUCCESS FACTOR IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion BOTESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The amplification of extern economic activities made by firms demands new rules for those people that take part in transcultural actions. They have to deal with new challenges regarding the interpretation of actions or attitudes made by individuals or firms that have their activity in a cultural activity different from what they were accustomed to until that moment. International managers come in contact with people that not only have different objectives, but they also have different ways of achieving their objectives. The development of management activities is a laborious process that starts with the recurring and selecting of personnel and ends with the training and returning to their home country of the managers. The importance and the phases of the process of training managers that can action with competence in an intercultural context have represented the elements which I want to bring forward in this paper.

  16. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the mechanism underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sae2-mediated abrogation of DNA replication stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDRAJEET GHODKE; K MUNIYAPPA

    2016-12-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) protein complex plays pivotal roles in double-strandbreak (DSB) repair, replication stress and telomere length maintenance. Another protein linked to DSB repair is Sae2,which regulates MRX persistence at DSBs. However, very little is known about its role in DNA replication stress andrepair. Here, we reveal a crucial role for Sae2 in DNA replication stress. We show that different mutant alleles of SAE2cause hypersensitivity to genotoxic agents, and when combined with Δmre11 or nuclease-defective mre11 mutantalleles, the double mutants are considerably more sensitive suggesting that the sae2 mutations synergize with mre11mutations. Biochemical studies demonstrate that Sae2 exists as a dimer in solution, associates preferentially withsingle-stranded and branched DNA structures, exhibits structure-specific endonuclease activity and cleaves thesesubstrates from the 5′ end. Furthermore, we show that the nuclease activity is indeed intrinsic to Sae2. Interestingly,sae2G270D protein possesses DNA-binding activity, but lacks detectable nuclease activity. Altogether, our data suggesta direct role for Sae2 nuclease activity in processing of the DNA structures that arise during replication and DNAdamage and provide insights into the mechanism underlying Mre11-Sae2-mediated abrogation of replication stress-relateddefects in S. cerevisiae.

  17. MAIN FACTORS DRIVING SOCIAL PUBLIC SERVICES IN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela, GHENTA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Literature and the latest reports point out that not only in Europe, but all over the world there is a growing demand for social services. As social needs have diversified, the number of potential users of social services has increased and this has generated increased complexity of social services. This paper highlights some of the results of a study conducted by the author in the doctoral studies program. One of the aims of this study was to identify the main factors that cause the current configuration of social services at global level. The research analysed the demographic changes and the impact of the crisis in social services for Europe, the United States of America (USA and Japan based on statistical data provided by the national statistics institutes for the regions considered. The results highlight the necessity of continuous development and reconfiguration of social services in order to meet the social and economic demands and to ensure a better organisation of these type of services.

  18. The impact of Oil Prices on the International Economic Arena: The Economic Factors and International Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history the new technologies and discoveries revolutionized the way we live. The discovery, the oil, has been critical for society, becoming the world’s most profitable and essential industry transforming itself from domestic to international business. The aim of this paper, above all is to analyze the role of oil and its price volatility in world economy. The ongoing changes and transformations in world oil industry tend to have a great effect not only on the oilimporting countries but also on oil-exporting nations. The demand or supply-triggered oil price volatility differ in its effects to world economic activity. Although it may have different effect for the oil importing nations in comparison to oil exporting nations, still inflationary pressure may be a common feature. A number of points relevant to the study are put forward highlighting pros and cons of issues discussed. The paper also elaborates the environmental concerns, deriving from the increase of oil consumption and the necessity (globally to increase efforts in finding a decent,(environmentally friendly replacement for oil.

  19. saeRS and sarA act synergistically to repress protease production and promote biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara N Mrak

    Full Text Available Mutation of the staphylococcal accessory regulator (sarA limits biofilm formation in diverse strains of Staphylococcus aureus, but there are exceptions. One of these is the commonly studied strain Newman. This strain has two defects of potential relevance, the first being mutations that preclude anchoring of the fibronectin-binding proteins FnbA and FnbB to the cell wall, and the second being a point mutation in saeS that results in constitutive activation of the saePQRS regulatory system. We repaired these defects to determine whether either plays a role in biofilm formation and, if so, whether this could account for the reduced impact of sarA in Newman. Restoration of surface-anchored FnbA enhanced biofilm formation, but mutation of sarA in this fnbA-positive strain increased rather than decreased biofilm formation. Mutation of sarA in an saeS-repaired derivative of Newman (P18L or a Newman saeRS mutant (ΔsaeRS resulted in a biofilm-deficient phenotype like that observed in clinical isolates, even in the absence of surface-anchored FnbA. These phenotypes were correlated with increased production of extracellular proteases and decreased accumulation of FnbA and/or Spa in the P18L and ΔsaeRS sarA mutants by comparison to the Newman sarA mutant. The reduced accumulation of Spa was reversed by mutation of the gene encoding aureolysin, while the reduced accumulation of FnbA was reversed by mutation of the sspABC operon. These results demonstrate that saeRS and sarA act synergistically to repress the production of extracellular proteases that would otherwise limit accumulation of critical proteins that contribute to biofilm formation, with constitutive activation of saeRS limiting protease production, even in a sarA mutant, to a degree that can be correlated with increased enhanced capacity to form a biofilm. Although it remains unclear whether these effects are mediated directly or indirectly, studies done with an sspA::lux reporter suggest they

  20. Factors Influencing Successful Prescribing by Intern Doctors: A Qualitative Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina R. Hansen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the majority of prescribing in hospital is undertaken by intern doctors, the aims of this systematic review were to compile the evidence of the qualitative literature on the views and experiences of intern doctors and to examine the role of the pharmacist in assisting in prescribing by interns. A systematic review of the qualitative literature was done according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA Statement. The findings were synthesized using thematic analysis. Seven publications were included. Factors influencing prescribing behaviour were related to the environment; collaboration in medical teams; hierarchical structures; and patient and individual factors. This review confirmed that interns’ prescribing behaviour is influenced by multiple factors, and further highlighted the need for an educational intervention that supports the intern completing the prescribing task in a complex environment, and not just addresses the presumed knowledge gap(s.

  1. COMPUTATIONAL FLOW MODELLING OF FORMULA-SAE SIDEPODS FOR OPTIMUM RADIATOR HEAT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. DE SILVA

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Formula SAE vehicles, over the program’s history have showcased a myriad of aerodynamic packages, each claiming specific quantitative and qualitative features. This paper attempts to critique differing aerodynamic sidepod designs and their effect upon radiator heat management. Various features from inlet size, sidepod shape and size, presence of an undertray, suspension cover, gills and chimneys are analysed for their effects. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analyses are performed in the FLUENT environment, with the aid of GAMBIT meshing software and SolidWorks modelling.

  2. SAE International技术合作恳谈会在沪举行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    2013年11月5日,SAE International技术合作恳谈会暨战略合作伙伴签约仪式将在上海浦东新国际博览中心举行。学会全球执行主席David Schutt先生专程从美国赶来为会议致辞,中国区总经理Gary Schkade先生在会上作了关于SAE在中国以及重点城市上海的发展战略分析报告。

  3. 1020 AISI-SAE steel Austenitic Nitrocarburising with alcohol and triethanolamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Castro P

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows AISI-SAE 1020 steel's nitrocarbide layer's microstructure and micro-hardness profile following 4 hours at 700ºC using methanol, isopropanol and triethanolamine. The steel was then hardened by quenching it in water and then tempered at 350ºC for 1 hour. Its surface had been partially oxidised by heating it at 400ºC for 1 hour. An example is given of other researchers analysing microstructure and propierties in steel having 0,5% C, using endothermic gas and different amounts of ammoniac.

  4. What Matters Most: Factors Influencing the University Application Choice Decisions of Korean International Students and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parslow, Breanna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors influencing Korean parents' and students' university application choice decisions in three international schools in the Republic of Korea (South). Institutional and individual factors that influenced Korean students' university application choice decisions and their parents' university application…

  5. Factors supporting an adequate sizing of internal audit departments in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Doina DASCĂLU

    2016-06-01

    By identifying the factors considered critical for the sizing of the internal audit departments, which have no equivalent (counterpart in the factors provided for in the current normative framework in Romania, the article contributes to the clarification of issues related to sizing models and procedures in the field.

  6. An Investigation of Relationships between Internal and External Factors Affecting Technology Integration in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jung Won; Shannon, David; Wolf, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Various factors affecting technology integration have been identified, but little research has examined the relationships between factors, especially internal and external ones, and whether they directly or indirectly influenced each other. To fill this research gap, this study examined the significance and relationships of five factors…

  7. An Investigation of Relationships between Internal and External Factors Affecting Technology Integration in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jung Won; Shannon, David; Wolf, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Various factors affecting technology integration have been identified, but little research has examined the relationships between factors, especially internal and external ones, and whether they directly or indirectly influenced each other. To fill this research gap, this study examined the significance and relationships of five factors…

  8. Knowledge, Internal, and Environmental Factors on Environmental Care Behaviour among Aboriginal Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Norshariani Abd

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the contribution of predictor factors (i.e. knowledge about the environment as well as internal and environmental factors) on environmental care behaviour among aboriginal students. The knowledge about the environment that was investigated in this research includes environmental knowledge and environmental action knowledge.…

  9. The Internal Structure of Positive and Negative Affect: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PANAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…

  10. The Internal Structure of Positive and Negative Affect: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PANAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…

  11. [National and international impact factor of Revista Española de Cardiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre Benavent, Rafael; Valderrama Zurián, Juan C; Castellano Gómez, Miguel; Miguel-Dasit, Alberto; Simó Meléndez, Raquel; Navarro Molina, Carolina

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the bibliometric indicators for Revista Española de Cardiologíathat were obtained from the "Potential impact factor of Spanish medical journals in 2001" study financed by the Spanish Ministerio de Educacion, Cultura y Deporte. Citations to Revista Española de Cardiología, its national and international impact factor, and its immediacy index were calculated with methods similar to those used by the Institute for Scientific Information. National indicators were based only on citations from 87 Spanish journals considered source journals, whereas international indicators were calculated on the basis of citations from both national journals and foreign source journals in the Science Citation Index. Revista Española de Cardiologíaobtained a national impact factor of 0.719 and an international impact factor of 0.837, placing it at the head of the ranking of Spanish medical journals.

  12. Internalization mechanisms of the epidermal growth factor receptor after activation with different ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Henriksen

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR regulates normal growth and differentiation, but dysregulation of the receptor or one of the EGFR ligands is involved in the pathogenesis of many cancers. There are eight ligands for EGFR, however most of the research into trafficking of the receptor after ligand activation focuses on the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α. For a long time it was believed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis was the major pathway for internalization of the receptor, but recent work suggests that different pathways exist. Here we show that clathrin ablation completely inhibits internalization of EGF- and TGF-α-stimulated receptor, however the inhibition of receptor internalization in cells treated with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF or betacellulin (BTC was only partial. In contrast, clathrin knockdown fully inhibits EGFR degradation after all ligands tested. Furthermore, inhibition of dynamin function blocked EGFR internalization after stimulation with all ligands. Knocking out a number of clathrin-independent dynamin-dependent pathways of internalization had no effect on the ligand-induced endocytosis of the EGFR. We suggest that EGF and TGF-α lead to EGFR endocytosis mainly via the clathrin-mediated pathway. Furthermore, we suggest that HB-EGF and BTC also lead to EGFR endocytosis via a clathrin-mediated pathway, but can additionally use an unidentified internalization pathway or better recruit the small amount of clathrin remaining after clathrin knockdown.

  13. Study of the Difference between Odor Test Standard GMW3205:2000 & SAE J1351%GMW3205:2000与SAE J1351气味测试标准差异解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亮; 朱珊

    2011-01-01

    本文详细解读了GMW 3205:2000汽车内饰材料中气味散发测试方法以及SAE J1351绝缘材料气味散发测试方法之间的差异.介绍了汽车内饰件材料气味测试原理.以及气味试验的定义与实际使用中的意义等方面对GMW 3205:2000和SAE J1351气味测试标准进行差异分析.

  14. Factors influencing korean international students' preferences for mental health professionals: a conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Chan, Fong; Ditchman, Nicole; Feigon, Maia

    2014-01-01

    Asian students comprise over half of all international students in the United States, yet little is known about their help-seeking behaviors and preferences for mental health professionals. The purpose of this study was to use conjoint analysis to examine characteristics of mental health professionals influencing Korean international students' preferences when choosing a mental health professional. Korean international students from three universities in the United States were recruited on a volunteer basis to participate in this study (N = 114). Results indicated that mental health professional characteristics, including ethnicity, age, professional identity, and training institution, were significant factors in students' preference formation; however, gender of the mental health professional was not found to be a significant factor in the present study. Ethnic similarity was the most powerful predictor of preference formation. Implications for promoting help-seeking and mental health service utilization among Asian international students are discussed.

  15. Supervising international students in clinical placements: perceptions of experiences and factors influencing competency development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Stacie; Lincoln, Michelle; McAllister, Sue

    2016-07-16

    Health professional education programs attract students from around the world and clinical supervisors frequently report that international students find learning in clinical placement contexts particularly challenging. In existing literature clinical supervisors, who support international students on placement have identified concerns about their communication and interactions within clinical environments. However, clinical supervisors' perspectives about their experiences with international students on placement and the strategies they utilise to facilitate international student learning have not been described. As a result we have little insight into the nature of these concerns and what clinical supervisors do to support international students' competency development. Five focus group interviews were conducted with twenty Speech-Language Pathology clinical supervisors, recruited from 2 Australian universities. Interview data were analysed thematically. Themes identified were interpreted using cognitive load and sociocultural learning theories to enhance understanding of the findings. Four themes were identified: 'Complex teaching and learning relationships', 'Conceptions of students as learners'; Student communication skills for professional practice', and 'Positive mutual learning relationships'. Findings indicated that clinical supervisors felt positive about supporting international students in clinical placements and experienced mutual learning benefits. However, they also identified factors inherent to international students and the placement environment that added to workload, and made facilitating student learning complex. Clinical supervisors described strategies they used to support international students' cultural adjustment and learning, but communication skills were reported to be difficult to facilitate within the constraints of placements. Future research should address the urgent need to develop and test strategies for improving international

  16. Corrosion resistance enhancement of SAE 1020 steel after Chromium implantation by nitrogen ion recoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Francisco Gomes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available SAE 1020 construction steel is widely used as mortar reinforcement and small machine parts, but aside good surface properties as high ductility, hardness and wear resistance, its surface is prone to severe corrosion. As it is known, Chromium in amount over 12%-13% in the Fe alloys renders them resistance to several corrosive attacks. SAE 1020 samples were recovered with Chromium film and then bombarded either by nitrogen Ion Beam (IB or Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII to recoil implant Cr atoms in the Fe matrix. Samples treated by 100 keV N+ IB showed irregular, thin Cr profile, remaining a part of the film on the surface, to about 10 nm. Samples treated by 40 kV N PIII presented Cr layer of about 18% at., ranging to around 90 nm. Cr of the film was implanted in the Fe matrix in an almost flat profile. Results of corrosion test showed good performance of the PIII treated sample. The IB treated sample showed some enhancement over the non-treated reference and the only Cr film deposited sample showed no modification on the corrosion behavior as compared to the non-treated reference sample.

  17. Tratamiento isotérmico de los aceros aleados al silicio Tipo SAE 92XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Páez, J. L.

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available SAE 9260 type steels have silicon and carbon contents similar to those of the ductile iron matrix, and present a bainitic transformation with the same characteristics as ADI (Austempered Ductile Iron. The hypothesis is that excellent mechanical properties can be obtained by means of austempering (in times so short as to be accessible from the industrial point of view, the same as in ADI and even better because it is a rolling material instead of a cast material. It will be compared with the mechanical properties obtained by quenching and tempering at different temperatures.

    La composición química de los aceros SAE 92XX es similar a la de la matriz metálica de una fundición esferoidal, por lo que se pensó en someter a un acero de ese tipo a tratamientos de austempering similares a los que se aplican para lograr una ADI (Austempered Ductile Iron, y verificar si se alcanzaban valores aceptables de plasticidad con elevados valores de resistencia a la tracción para el mismo acero, tal y como sucede con aquellas fundiciones, y comparar dichos resultados con los obtenidos en el mismo acero con tratamientos convencionales de temple y revenido. Se alcanzaron valores que demostraron que, por austempering, se logran excelentes valores de plasticidad, muy superiores a los alcanzados por temple y revenido para durezas del mismo orden.

  18. Enhancement of surface properties of SAE 1020 by chromium plasma immersion recoil implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, M.; Mello, C. B.; Beloto, A. F.; Rossi, J. O.; Reuther, H.

    2007-04-01

    SAE 1020 steel is commonly used as concrete reinforcement and small machine parts, but despite its good mechanical properties, as ductility, hardness and wear resistance, it is susceptible to severe corrosion. It is well known that chromium content above 12% in Fe alloys increases their corrosion resistance. In order to obtain this improvement, we studied the introduction of chromium atoms into the matrix of SAE 1020 steel by recoil implantation process using a plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) system. Potentiodynamic scans showed that the presence of Cr film leads to a gain in the corrosion potential, from -650 mV to -400 mV. After PIII treatment, the corrosion potential increased further to -340 mV, but the corrosion current density presented no significant change. Vickers microhardness tests showed surface hardness increase of up to about 27% for the treated samples. Auger electron spectroscopy showed that, for a 30 nm film, Cr was introduced for about 20 nm into the steel matrix. Tribology tests, of pin-on-disk type, showed that friction coefficient of treated samples was reduced by about 50% and a change in wear mechanism, from adhesive to abrasive mode, occurred.

  19. Factors Influencing Sample Size for Internal Audit Evidence Collection in the Public Sector in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamau Charles Guandaru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The internal audit department has a role of providing objective assurance and consulting services designed to add value and improve an organization’s operations. In performing this role the internal auditors are required to provide an auditor’s opinion which is supported by sufficient and reliable audit evidence. Since auditors are not in a position to examine 100% of the records and transactions, they are required to sample a few and make conclusions on the basis of the sample selected. The literature suggests several factors which affects the sample size for audit purposes of the internal auditors in the public sector in Kenya. This research collected data from 32 public sector internal auditors. The research carried out simple regression and correlation analysis on the data collected so as to test hypotheses and make conclusions on the factors affecting the sample size for audit purposes of the internal auditors in the public sector in Kenya. The study found out that that materiality of audit issue, type of information available, source of information, degree of risk of misstatement and auditor skills and independence are some of the factors influencing the sample size determination for the purposes of internal audit evidence collection in public sector in Kenya.

  20. Factors Associated With External and Internal Lymphedema in Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Jie, E-mail: jie.deng@vanderbilt.edu [School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Ridner, Sheila H. [School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Dietrich, Mary S. [School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Wells, Nancy; Wallston, Kenneth A. [School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Sinard, Robert J.; Cmelak, Anthony J.; Murphy, Barbara A. [Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with the presence of secondary external and internal lymphedema in patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: The sample included 81 patients {>=}3 months after HNC treatment. Physical and endoscopic examinations were conducted to determine if participants had external, internal, and/or combined head-and-neck lymphedema. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with the presence of lymphedema. Results: The following factors were statistically significantly associated with presence of lymphedema: (1) location of tumor associated with presence of external (P=.009) and combined lymphedema (P=.032); (2) time since end of HNC treatment associated with presence of external (P=.004) and combined lymphedema (P=.005); (3) total dosage of radiation therapy (P=.010) and days of radiation (P=.017) associated with the presence of combined lymphedema; (4) radiation status of surgical bed was associated with the presence of internal lymphedema, including surgery with postoperative radiation (P=.030) and (salvage) surgery in the irradiated field (P=.008); and (5) number of treatment modalities associated with external (P=.002), internal (P=.039), and combined lymphedema (P=.004). No demographic, health behavior-related, or comorbidity factors were associated with the presence of lymphedema in the sample. Conclusions: Select tumor and treatment parameters are associated with increased occurrence of lymphedema in patients with HNC. Larger and longitudinal studies are needed to identify adjusted effects and causative risk factors contributing to the development of lymphedema in patients with HNC.

  1. Factors impacting on psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Robinson, Eddie; Penman, Joy; Hills, Danny

    2017-06-17

    There are increasing numbers of international students undertaking health professional courses, particularly in Western countries. These courses not only expose students to the usual stresses and strains of academic learning, but also require students to undertake clinical placements and practice-based learning. While much is known about general issues facing international students, less is known about factors that impact on those studying in the health professions. To explore what is known about factors that influence the psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions. A scoping review. A range of databases were searched, including CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, Proquest and ERIC, as well as grey literature, reference lists and Google Scholar. The review included qualitative or quantitative primary peer reviewed research studies that focused on international undergraduate or postgraduate students in the health professions. The core concept underpinning the review was psychological issues, with the outcome being psychological and/or social wellbeing. Thematic analysis across studies was used to identify key themes emerging. A total of 13 studies were included in the review, from the disciplines of nursing, medicine and speech-language pathology. Four key factor groups emerged from the review: negotiating structures and systems, communication and learning, quality of life and self-care, and facing discrimination and social isolation. International health professional students face similar issues to other international students. The nature of their courses, however, also requires negotiating different health care systems, and managing a range of clinical practice issues including with communication, and isolation and discrimination from clinical staff and patients. Further research is needed to specifically explore factors impacting on student well-being and how international students can be appropriately prepared and supported for their

  2. 基于重柴SCR控制系统的SAE J1939协议的应用%Applied SAE J1939 Agreement to Heavy Diesel SCR Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞妍; 资新运; 庞海龙; 邓成林; 卜建国

    2014-01-01

    以自主开发的SCR控制系统为研究对象,对SAE J1939协议进行了深入研究.在分析发动机ECU、NOx传感器性能的基础上,建立了与SCR控制系统的CAN通信,获得了发动机转速、负荷、NOx体积分数等参数,为SCR控制奠定了基础.建立了SCR控制系统(DCU)与智能尿素箱(IUT)之间基于SAE J1939协议的CAN通信,实现了DCU对IUT的精确控制.研究了SCR系统的故障状态和故障模式,设计了基于SAE J1939协议的SCR系统故障诊断功能,并实现了与故障诊断仪的通信.台架试验结果表明,基于SAE J1939协议的SCR控制系统及其故障诊断功能性能良好.

  3. Internal consistency and factor structure of 12-item general health questionnaire in visually impaired students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Bakhla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As there are no instruments to measure psychological wellness or distress in visually impaired students, we studied internal consistency and factor structure of GHQ-12 in visually impaired children. Materials and Methods: Internal consistency analysis (Cronbach′s alpha and item total correlation and exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis were carried out to identify factor structure of 12-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12. Results: All items of GHQ-12 were significantly associated with each other and the Cronbach′s alpha coefficient for the scale was 0.7. On analysis of principal component, three-factor solution was found that accounted for 47.92% of the total variance. The factors included, ′general well-being′, ′depression′ and ′cognitive′, with Cronbach′s alpha coefficients being 0.70, 0.59, and 0.34, respectively. Conclusion: Our study findings suggest GHQ-12 is a reliable with adequate internal consistency scale and multidimensional factor structure in visually impaired students.

  4. Development of a Conceptual Model in International Sport Tourism: Exploring Pre-and Post- Consumption Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Woo-Sik Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to develop a model of consumer behavior in international sport tourism that examines both pre-and post-consumption factors in international sport tourism. A secondary purpose is to address international visitation by introducing national culture as an important component of the model. The proposed model suggests that certain cultural characteristics influence an international sport tourist and these cultural characteristics impact both motivation and travel constraints. Motivation also has a direct relationship to travel constraints. Both motivation and travel constraints influence the tourist’s image of both the destination and the sporting event. Finally, trip quality leads to satisfaction, which mediates the relationship with intent to return. Discussion follows with application to understanding the purchase decision making process drawn from the literature in sport tourism, consumer behavior, cross cultural studies and information processing theory.

  5. Youth Withdrawal Moderates the Relationhips Between Neighborhood Factors and Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Jill A; Drabick, Deborah A G; Reynolds, Maureen D

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents higher in temperamental withdrawal are at risk for anxiety and depressive symptoms; however, not all youth higher in withdrawal exhibit internalizing symptoms, suggesting that contextual factors may influence these relationships. We examined whether youth withdrawal moderates the relationships between neighborhood processes (crime, social cohesion) and internalizing symptoms and whether findings were consistent with the diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility hypotheses. Participants were 775 adolescents (M = 15.50 ± 0.56 years, 72 % male, 76 % White). Adolescents higher in withdrawal manifested higher internalizing symptoms in the context of lower neighborhood crime and lower neighborhood social cohesion than youth lower in withdrawal, supporting diathesis-stress. These findings elucidate neighborhood processes associated with internalizing symptoms, which can inform models of risk and resilience for these symptoms among children who differ in temperamental withdrawal.

  6. Individual differences in very young children’s English acquisition in China : Internal and external factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, He; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; Tendeiro, Jorge; de Bot, Kees

    This study assesses the impact of internal and external factors on very young EFL learners in an instructional setting. 71 child English learners in China (onset age: 2;0 - 5;6) were involved: their receptive vocabulary, productive vocabulary and receptive grammar were taken as outcome variables,

  7. Adverse drug reactions in internal medicine units and associated risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Muñoz-Torrero, Juan Francisco; Barquilla, Paloma; Velasco, Raul; Fernández Capitan, Maria Del Carmen; Pacheco, Nazaret; Vicente, Lucia; Chicón, Jose Luis; Trejo, Sara; Zamorano, Jose; Lorenzo Hernandez, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study was designed to assess the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the internal medicine wards of two teaching Hospitals, identify the most common ADRs, the principal medications involved, and determine the risk factors implicated in the occurrence of such ADRs. Methods All admissions over 10 weeks were followed prospectively using an intensive drug surveillance method...

  8. Integrating Two Cultures Successfully: Factors Influencing Acculturation Attitude of International Postgraduate Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaei, Azadeh; Abd Razak, Nordin; Nejati, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Based on Berry's seminal work on the acculturation process, this study examines the pattern of acculturation attitude among international postgraduate students in Malaysia, an emerging education hub in Asia. It also investigates the influence of several demographic factors (gender, geographical region, marital status, and education level) and…

  9. The influence of national level factors on international kaizen transfer: an exploratory study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research study was to examine the international transfer of kaizen or continuous improvement. The central research question was formulated as: what national level factors influence the transfer of kaizen, and how? Design/methodology/approach: In the study, a survey

  10. Integrating Two Cultures Successfully: Factors Influencing Acculturation Attitude of International Postgraduate Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaei, Azadeh; Abd Razak, Nordin; Nejati, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Based on Berry's seminal work on the acculturation process, this study examines the pattern of acculturation attitude among international postgraduate students in Malaysia, an emerging education hub in Asia. It also investigates the influence of several demographic factors (gender, geographical region, marital status, and education level) and…

  11. Health-promoting lifestyles and cardio-metabolic risk factors among international students in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, Jeewon; Kang, Se-Won

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the health-promoting lifestyles and cardio-metabolic risks among international students in Korea. This descriptive, cross-sectional study design enrolled a convenience sample of 118 international students at a university in Korea. Collected data included items from the Health-promoting Lifestyle Profile (II) scale and cardiovascular risk factors. The participants had a moderately health-promoting lifestyle (2.5 of 4). Men engaged in more physical activity than did women (p = .002). The most prevalent risk factor was elevated blood lipid profiles (26.3%), followed by overweight/obesity (25.4%), elevated blood pressure (17.8%), and elevated fasting glucose levels (5.1%). More than half of the participants (54.2%) had one or more cardiac risk factors, and these participants also scored lower in health-promoting lifestyle factors than other students (p = .034). Regular health check-ups are needed to identify the cardio-metabolic risks of international students. A university-based programme aimed at promoting healthy lifestyles could help prevent cardio-metabolic risks among international students.

  12. Individual differences in very young children’s English acquisition in China : Internal and external factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, He; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; Tendeiro, Jorge; de Bot, Kees

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of internal and external factors on very young EFL learners in an instructional setting. 71 child English learners in China (onset age: 2;0 - 5;6) were involved: their receptive vocabulary, productive vocabulary and receptive grammar were taken as outcome variables, an

  13. Gene-Environment Interplay in Internalizing Disorders: Consistent Findings across Six Environmental Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; Dirago, Ana C.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Background: Behavior genetic methods can help to elucidate gene-environment (G-E) interplay in the development of internalizing (INT) disorders (i.e., major depression and anxiety disorders). To date, however, no study has conducted a comprehensive analysis examining multiple environmental risk factors with the purpose of delineating general…

  14. Acculturation and Linguistic Factors on International Students' Self-Esteem and Language Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Iris Y.; Bui, Ngoc H.

    2014-01-01

    Acculturation and linguistic factors were examined as predictors of self-esteem and language confidence among 91 international college students. The majority of participants were Asian (64.8%), female (59.3%), and graduate students (76.9%). Assimilative (adopting host cultural values) and integrative (blending both host and home cultural values)…

  15. The influence of national level factors on international kaizen transfer: an exploratory study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, Harm-Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research study was to examine the international transfer of kaizen or continuous improvement. The central research question was formulated as: what national level factors influence the transfer of kaizen, and how? Design/methodology/approach: In the study, a survey int

  16. The influence of national level factors on international kaizen transfer: an exploratory study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, Harm-Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this research study was to examine the international transfer of kaizen or continuous improvement. The central research question was formulated as: what national level factors influence the transfer of kaizen, and how? Design/methodology/approach - In the study, a survey in

  17. Individual differences in very young children’s English acquisition in China : Internal and external factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, He; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; Tendeiro, Jorge; de Bot, Kees

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of internal and external factors on very young EFL learners in an instructional setting. 71 child English learners in China (onset age: 2;0 - 5;6) were involved: their receptive vocabulary, productive vocabulary and receptive grammar were taken as outcome variables, an

  18. A Qualitative Assessment of Internal Factors for Tattooing among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Luke M.; Firmin, Michael W.; Angelini, Tammy; Foster, Janna

    2012-01-01

    This empirical study utilized, qualitative methodology, appraising internal factors used by students regarding tattoo decision-making. Twenty-four students, in two qualitative research waves of data collection, provided in-depth interviews about their personal constructs regarding choosing to tattoo. Results showed evidence of intrinsic…

  19. The Effects of Demographic, Internal and External University Environment Factors on Faculty Job Satisfaction in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Minh-Quang

    2016-01-01

    University faculty members with higher job satisfaction are more productive, creative and positive attitude towards their job. Even less is known about university faculty job satisfaction in developing countries like Vietnam. This study examines the effects of demographic, internal and external university environment factors on faculty job…

  20. Acculturative stress and influential factors among international students in China: a structural dynamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Chen, Xinguang; Li, Shiyue; Liu, Yang; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Yan, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Stress represents a prominent aspect of modern life and is associated with numerous negative health consequences. International students are a key force in shaping globalization. However, these students often experience acculturative stress, influencing their health and well-being. The growing number of international students in China emerges as a new global health challenge and presents an opportunity to advance our understanding of acculturative stress. This study aims to investigate the acculturative stress of international students in China, and verify the mechanism and influential factors of acculturative stress. We analyzed survey data from 567 international students attending universities in Wuhan, China. We used a network-based analytical approach to assess the structure of the Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students and used regression analysis to assess the relationships between acculturative stress and theoretically related factors. We found that higher levels of acculturative stress were reported by students from Asia and Africa than from other regions (Europe/America/Oceania). Lower acculturative stress was reported by unmarried students than others and by students well prepared than not well prepared. We verified seven acculturative stress subconstructs: rejection, identity threat, opportunity deprivation, self-confidence, value conflict, cultural competence, and homesickness; and discovered a three-dimensional network structure of these subconstructs. Our results suggest that acculturative stress was more common among international students in China than in developed countries. Acculturative stress was also more common among international students who did not well prepared, married, and belonged to an organized religion. African and Asian students' stress was higher than that for students from other regions. Acculturative stress prevention programs should seek to improve preparedness of the international students for studying abroad and

  1. Acculturative stress and influential factors among international students in China: a structural dynamic perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu

    Full Text Available Stress represents a prominent aspect of modern life and is associated with numerous negative health consequences. International students are a key force in shaping globalization. However, these students often experience acculturative stress, influencing their health and well-being. The growing number of international students in China emerges as a new global health challenge and presents an opportunity to advance our understanding of acculturative stress. This study aims to investigate the acculturative stress of international students in China, and verify the mechanism and influential factors of acculturative stress. We analyzed survey data from 567 international students attending universities in Wuhan, China. We used a network-based analytical approach to assess the structure of the Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students and used regression analysis to assess the relationships between acculturative stress and theoretically related factors. We found that higher levels of acculturative stress were reported by students from Asia and Africa than from other regions (Europe/America/Oceania. Lower acculturative stress was reported by unmarried students than others and by students well prepared than not well prepared. We verified seven acculturative stress subconstructs: rejection, identity threat, opportunity deprivation, self-confidence, value conflict, cultural competence, and homesickness; and discovered a three-dimensional network structure of these subconstructs. Our results suggest that acculturative stress was more common among international students in China than in developed countries. Acculturative stress was also more common among international students who did not well prepared, married, and belonged to an organized religion. African and Asian students' stress was higher than that for students from other regions. Acculturative stress prevention programs should seek to improve preparedness of the international students for

  2. Common and unique factors associated with DSM-IV-TR internalizing disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K; Smith, Rita L; Chorpita, Bruce F; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2008-11-01

    With the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-IV Fourth Edition-Text Revision. Author, Washington, DC. 2000) ahead, decisions will be made about the future of taxonomic conceptualizations. This study examined the factor structure of items from three internalizing disorders (Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Depression) on the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV-Child Version (Silverman, W. K., & Albano, A. M. Anxiety disorders interview schedule for children for DSM-IV, child and parent versions. Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, 1996). Two-, three-, and four-factor models emerged in an exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis provided additional empirical support for the four-factor model over the two- or three-factor models. Implications for the structure of the DSM-V taxonomy in children and adolescents are discussed.

  3. Pragmatic SAE procedure in the Schrodinger equation for the inverse-square-like potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Nadareishvili, Teimuraz

    2012-01-01

    The Self-Adjoint Extension in the Schrodinger equation for potentials behaved as an attractive inverse square at the origin is critically reviewed. Original results are also presented. It is shown that the additional non-regular solutions must be retained for definite interval of parameters, which requires a necessity of performing a Self-Adjoint Extension (SAE) procedure of radial Hamiltonian.The Pragmatic approach is used and some of its consequences are considered for wide class of transitive potentials. Our consideration is based on the established earlier by us a boundary condition for the radial wave function and the corresponding consequences are derived. Various relevant applications are presented as well. They are: inverse square potential in the Schrodinger equation is solved when the additional non-regular solution is retained. Valence electron model and the Klein-Gordon equation with the Coulomb potential is considered and the hydrino -like levels are discussed.

  4. Influence of water cavitation peening with aeration on fatigue behaviour of SAE1045 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B.; Ju, D. Y.; Jia, W. P.

    2007-10-01

    Water cavitation peening (WCP) with aeration is a recent potential method in the surface enhancement techniques. In this method, a ventilation nozzle is adopted to improve the process capability of WCP by increasing the impact pressure, which is induced by the bubble collapse on the surface of components in the similar way as conventional shot peening. In this paper, fatigue tests were conducted on the both-edge-notched flat tensile specimens to assess the influences of WCP on fatigue behaviour of SAE1045 steel. The notched specimens were treated by WCP, and the compressive residual stress distributions in the superficial layer were measured by X-ray diffraction method. The tension-tension ( R = Smin/ Smax = 0.1, f = 10 Hz) fatigue tests and the fracture surfaces observation by scan electron microscopy (SEM) were conducted. The experimental results show that WCP can improve the fatigue life by inducing the residual compressive stress in the superficial layer of mechanical components.

  5. 3DII implantation effect on corrosion properties of the AISI/SAE 1020 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulce M., H.J.; Rueda V., Alejandro [Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, A.A. 1055, Cucuta (Colombia); Dougar-Jabon, Valeri [Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2005-08-01

    The three dimensional ion implantation technology (3DII) is one of the methods of improving the tribological characteristics and resistance to hydrogen embrittlement processes in metals. In this report, some results concerning the resistance effect of nitrogen ion implantation to oxidation of the sample, made of AISI/SAE 1020 steel, are given. The nitrogen ions were implanted in the discharge chamber of the JUPITER reactor. Both the treated and untreated samples were tested through potential-static measurements, which permitted to determine the corrosion current, the slopes that characterise the braking level of anode and cathode reactions. The polarization resistance near the corrosion potential is calculated. The results of the study encourage to consider the nitrogen ion implantation in high voltage and low pressure discharges as one of the methods of anticorrosive protection which do not change the geometric configuration of the treated steel pieces. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Rolling Contact Fatigue Properties of SAE 8620 Steel after Case Carburizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-guang CAO; Le XU; Gou-qiang ZHANG; Jie SHI; Mao-qiu WANG

    2016-01-01

    Rolling contact fatigue (RCF)properties of SAE 8620 steel after case carburizing have been investigated under two contact stresses of 4·0 and 5·5 GPa.Results show that the RCF life ranges from 2·5×106 to 3×107 cycles un-der the contact stress of 5·5 GPa,while it can be more than 1×108 cycles under the contact stress of 4·0 GPa.The rated fatigue life L10 (lives with the 10% failure)is also drastically shortened from 9·8×106 to 5·4×105 cycles when the contact stress is increased from 4·0 to 5·5 GPa.Theoretical calculations and fractographs show that the maximum shear stress and the contact area increase with increasing the contact stress,making RCF tend to occur earlier.

  7. THE ROLE OF INTERPERSONAL AND FIRM FACTORS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Managers have long known intuitively that relationships are important to business. In certain cultures, such as in the East, the emphasis on relationships may typically be more explicit, but a good salesperson knows that building trust and commitment with buyers are essential for long-term success. The role of interpersonal and firm factors on international business relationships are tested with data from 125 pairs of exporter-importer relationships. Drawing from relational exchange theory, personal (such as effective communication, cultural sensitivity and likability of partner and firm (such as reputation and competencies of partner factors are modeled as determinants of commitment and trust in such relationships. The findings support the overall model, highlighting the importance of interpersonal and firm factors to international business relationships. This research highlights the importance of personal and organisational factors that are linked to building trust and commitment. In particular, building, protecting and communicating a positive reputation, and ensuring strong marketing competencies, are important for building contractual and competence trust. The study highlights the importance of interpersonal factors and thus the need to have appropriate personnel involved in the developing and maintaining international business relationships.

  8. Internal and external factors in professional burnout of substance abuse counsellors in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In this study, burnout and its internal and external factors were investigated among substance abuse counsellors (no. = 68 who worked in centres for Prevention and Substance Abuse Treatment (no. = 18 in Croatia. METHODS: Maslach Burnout Inventory was used which measured three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment; and questionnaire of internal and external burnout factors. RESULTS: The higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the higher level of personal accomplishment were determined. Factors such as work conditions, emotions about us and work, work organization and certain personality traits showed significant relationship with three burnout dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, findings implicated a certain specificity of professional burnout in substance abuse counsellors, and the need for specific design of mental health care for them.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus SaeR/S-regulated factors reduce human neutrophil reactive oxygen species production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra, Fermin E.; Addison, Conrad B.; de Jong, Nienke W M; Azzolino, Joseph; Pallister, Kyler B.; van Strijp, Jos A G; Voyich, Jovanka M.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are the first line of defense after a pathogen has breached the epithelial barriers, and unimpaired neutrophil functions are essential to clear infections. Staphylococcus aureus is a prevalent human pathogen that is able to withstand neutrophil killing, yet the mechanisms used by S. aure

  10. Factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among international university students in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B; Maria, Madelene Sta; Estanislao, Susana; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Over the years, the number of international university students has been increasing in the Philippines. Depression tends to be common among this demographic sector, because of the varying challenges and expectations associated with studying abroad. Depression can be prevented if its symptoms, particularly those at higher levels, are identified and addressed early and effectively. This survey examined the social and demographic factors that are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-six international university students were interviewed using the University Students Depression Inventory. Of the 13 factors analyzed, 3 were found with statistically significant associations with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: level of satisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. In identifying international students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to their financial condition and primary group relationships can be considered. There is a need to carry out more studies to confirm this initial evidence. The findings can help guide further discourse, research and program to benefit international students with higher levels of depressive symptoms.

  11. Studying abroad: Exploring factors influencing nursing students' decisions to apply for clinical placements in international settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent-Wilkinson, Arlene; Dietrich Leurer, Marie; Luimes, Janet; Ferguson, Linda; Murray, Lee

    2015-08-01

    For over 15 years the College of Nursing at the University of Saskatchewan has facilitated study abroad clinical placements in a number of countries to enhance student learning. Nursing students often find their study abroad experience to be a defining moment in their educational program, and in their personal and professional growth. The main objective of this research was to explore factors influencing nursing students' decisions to study abroad. A descriptive longitudinal design study was conducted using an online survey. The Study Abroad Survey was distributed to all undergraduate and graduate nursing students, in all years of all programs, at all sites of the College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan in Saskatchewan, Canada. A total of 1058 nursing students registered in the 2013-2014 academic year were surveyed. The data were collected using an online survey administered by Campus Labs™ (2014). Students indicated that their interest in study abroad international experiences was high (84%), with many perceived benefits, but barriers to participation were also high for these students. Financial barriers topped the list (71%), followed by family responsibilities (30%) and job obligations (23%). The research highlights the factors behind student decision making related to international placements, and provides the basis for improvements to the College of Nursing's International Study Abroad Program (ISAP). Previous travel and international service learning, resulting in increased perceived value of a study abroad experience may prove to be the more significant factor influencing decision making, rather than financial barrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. KEY FACTORS OF TRANSFORMATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET AT THE PRESENT STAGE OF GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Starostina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main conditions of transformation of the world market in modern conditions of globalization are determined. The main transformation’s factors of the international services market at the present stage of the world’s economy development are singled out. The impacts of the global market for the growth of productivity are investigated. The features for increase of export potential of developing countries in international trade in services are explored. The main characteristic features of the subject structure of the modern world market are showed.

  13. Institutional factor in international economic activity of region and its socio-economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Leonidovna Andreeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the impact of the institutional factor on the development of regional international economic relations. The scope of the study is regional international economic activity (IEA, the subject-matter is the role of the institutional factor in its development. The study purpose is to develop a scientific approach for the assessment of the institutional factor impact on the development of region’s international economic relations. The hypothesis is that the targeted efforts of all participants of IEA of the region (business, authorities, local community to strengthen of theese components of the institutional factor, which have a strong influence on the regional socio-economic development. A methodological approach for the assessment of this influenceis developed. It includes determining three elements of IEA institutionalization—agreements, organizations, events. A three-dimensional model is proposed for the coordination of these elements with 3 groups of countries—developed, developing and CIS, including the Eurasian Economic Union, and also with basic indexes characterizing the qualitative and quantitative contribution of region’s IEA into its socio-economic development. This model is tested on the example of the Sverdlovsk region of Russia for 2003–2015. That has allowed to define various kinds of the effects from strenthening the IEA institutional component, which are expressed in the increase of the export of the region, improvement of its investment attractiveness, the diversification of regional economy as well as the the generation of additional jobs and tax flows increase.

  14. Keywords personalfactors,InternalFactors,Externalfactors,stimulus marketing(Mixed Marketing,berand, quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homeyra Jamshidi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, foreign product absorb consumer and more succeed than inner product. They select foreign product and study at this field is very essential. The aim of this study is to examine and ranking the importance reason tendency of inner consumer for selecting and replacing foreign product. (Industry of making chocolate /Milad brand.This study is application according to aim and description – survey to method. The participants of this research are consumers that use the brand Milad chocolate in Charmal va Bakhtiari and supermarkets in Shahrekord. They are 711 males and females. The instrument is some questionnaire. It has high reliability and validity and by using Alfa Kornebakh is %825. In this study use software’s SPPSS and Aimouse for analyzing and modeling. The ranking is very powerful because it has high accuracy and modeling is near to life style of people. The result show that there is meaningful relationship between tendency of inner consumer and personal factors , stimulus marketing (excepting price that have a negative relation, internal Factors, external factors and all of the variable of selecting and replacing foreign product such as chocolate. According to ranking: income, internal Factors , external factors . personal factors , stimulus marketing, and lifestyle have first to seventh rank respectively.

  15. Factors Influencing the Degree Progress of International PhD Students from Africa: An Exploratory Study

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    Almoustapha Oumarou Soumana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades some countries of the Middle East have offered facilities to attract international students to pursue their higher education within their higher education institutions. The purpose of this study is to understand the difficulties faced by these students while conducting their studies abroad, and in doing so, to broaden the awareness of the challenges they face to complete their research. The participants of this qualitative study are international PhD students studying at a Middle Eastern public university. The university has reported increasing enrollment of international students, particularly from Africa in the last few years. Data were collected using a set of semi-structured interviews that drew out information on critical incidents that characterized the kind of difficulties students had faced in their studies. The data collected was further analyzed using a qualitative software package, NVivo (QSR International, 11. Six main themes came out from the content analysis of the interviews, which are the role of the adviser, student features, funding issues, family engagement, research and psychological obstacles which provide a holistic picture of student perspectives on the factors that influence degree progress. While these students might have faced difficulties mentioned in existing literature, this study argues that the participants have indicated experiencing psychological obstacles that were not described in earlier studies, such as the state of mind they were in as a result of being worried for family members due to war or violence in their home countries, and drop in currency exchange rates and difficulties in acquiring money due to international sanctions imposed against their countries. This study provides important thoughts on the factors that impact the degree progress of international PhD students from Africa, while at the same time revealing a serious gap in the advisers’ role which can contribute to the

  16. Deciding factors in the internal restructuring of privatised companies; Factores determinantes en la reestructuracion interna de las empresas privatizadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachiller, P.

    2012-07-01

    The efficiency of privatised companies has been modified by the market liberalisation and the regulation of governments. However, to analyse the performance of these companies is necessary to consider their internal organisational changes. Therefore, in this study we analyse factors that leads to the restructuring of privatised companies. Specifically, we describe the influence of capital markets, corporate governance system and changes of boards on the efficiency of privatised companies. In order to contribute to privatisation process in Spain o test whether the performance improves with the influence of capital markets, we carry out an empirical study of financial performance for quoted and non-quoted companies privatised in Spain. (Author)

  17. Risk and protective factors for internalizing and externalizing outcomes among HIV-affected youth in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Michelle; Betancourt, Theresa; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Louis, Ermaze; Mukherjee, Joia; Surkan, Pamela J; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to: (1) estimate the levels of internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors among youth affected by HIV in central Haiti; and (2) examine the risk and protective factors associated with these outcomes to identify potential areas of intervention for HIV-affected youth. Baseline data for 492 youth affected by HIV (ages 10-17) and their 330 caregivers were collected for a pilot study of a psychosocial support intervention. Participants were recruited from a list of HIV-positive patients receiving care at Partners In Health/Zanmi Lasante clinic sites. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Demographic, economic, and social indicators were collected using a structured questionnaire administered by trained social workers. Youth affected by HIV in central Haiti displayed high levels of internalizing and, to a lesser degree, externalizing symptoms. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated risk factors most strongly associated with internalizing symptoms (socioeconomic status, parental depressive symptoms) and externalizing behaviors (household living arrangements, such as living with a stepparent). Social support had a protective effect on externalizing behaviors for both caregiver (β=-0.03, p=0.01) and self-report (β=-0.05, pHaiti and similar resource-limited settings.

  18. Multinational Corporations vs. Domestic Corporations: International Environmental Factors and Determinants of Capital Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kwang Chul Lee; Chuck C Y Kwok

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines whether or not U.S.-based multinational corporations (MNCs) have different capital structures than U.S. domestic corporations (DCs) and if so, what causes the differences. In explaining the difference between the capital structures of MNCs and DCs, previous studies tended to directly discuss the relationships between international environmental factors (e.g., political risk, foreign exchange risk) and the capital structure. A framework of analysis is proposed in this paper...

  19. Investigation of occupational health and safety application using the internal and external factor assessment matrix: SWOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-09-01

    Material and Method: IIn this study, the threats, opportunities, weaknesses and strengths were evaluated by one of the tools named SWOT, in one of the assembly industries company in Iran, in order to controlling the operations in this company considering to safety and health standard (OHSAS18001. A comparison of the company’s performance in implementing the safety and health standards was done between years 1387 and 1388 contain in the Company considered, and weighted scoring weaknesses, strengths, threats and opportunities using the matrix of internal factors (strengths and weaknesses and external factors (treats and opportunities then, the importance of each factor were determined in the company’s implementation and enforcement of those standards. . Result: Focusing on the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats, some strategies to improve the implementation were presented. Any points were weighted based on the most important weaknesses identified as the lack of monitoring contractors, lack of management commitment for implementation of OHSAS18001, no attempt to identify the risks of change, lack of training needs assessment, main strengths identified in the context of adequate budget health and safety, environmental efforts, identify risk for abnormal conditions, the most important threats for immediate delivery customer orders and the opportunity to support the safety and health plans, were determined. . Conclusion: Sum of the weighted scores in year 87 were obtained for the external factors (opportunities and threats, 2.16 and internal factors (strengths and weaknesses 1.66. Both of these scores were less than 2.5 (minimum amount of the acceptable rate so, the company has been poor performance in the implementation of this standard for the year 87 and a weak reaction in the use of opportunities and the minimize threats has. In case of internal factors, it was worse than external one and the situation was more bold of the weaknesses companies to

  20. Basic fibroblast growth factor gene transfection in repair of internal carotid artery aneurysm wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jiao; Ming Jiang; Jinghai Fang; Yinsheng Deng; Zejun Chen; Min Wu

    2012-01-01

    Surgery or interventional therapy has some risks in the treatment of cerebral aneurysm. We established an internal carotid artery aneurysm model by dripping elastase in the crotch of the right internal and external carotid arteries of New Zealand rabbits. Following model induction, lentivirus carrying basic fibroblast growth factor was injected through the ear vein. We found that the longer the action time of the lentivirus, the smaller the aneurysm volume. Moreover, platelet-derived growth factor expression in the aneurysm increased, but smooth muscle 22 alpha and hypertension-related gene 1 mRNA expression decreased. At 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks following model establishment, following 1 week of injection of lentivirus carrying basic fibroblast growth factor, the later the intervention time, the more severe the blood vessel damage, and the bigger the aneurysm volume, the lower the smooth muscle 22 alpha and hypertension-related gene 1 mRNA expression. Simultaneously, platelet-derived growth factor expression decreased. These data suggest that recombinant lentivirus carrying basic fibroblast growth factor can repair damaged cells in the aneurysmal wall and inhibit aneurysm dynamic growth, and that the effect is dependent on therapeutic duration.

  1. Postoperative internal carotid artery restenosis after local anesthesia: presence of risk factors versus intraoperative shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorovic, Narcis; Lovricevic, Ivo; Hajnic, Hrvoje; Ahel, Zaky

    2010-08-01

    Published data suggest that the regional anesthetic technique used for carotid endarterectomy (CEA) increases the systolic arterial blood pressure and heart rate. At the same time local anesthesia reduced the shunt insertion rate. This study aimed to analyze risk factors and ischemic symptomatology in patients with postoperative internal carotid artery restenosis. The current retrospective study was undertaken to assess the results of CEA in 8000 patients who were operated during a five-year period in six regional cardiovascular centers. Carotid color coded flow imaging, medical history, clinical findings and atherosclerotic risk factors were analyzed. Among them, there were 33 patients (0.4%) with postoperative re-occlusion after CEA. The patients with restenosis were re-examined with carotid color coded flow imaging and data were compared with 33 consecutive patients with satisfactory postoperative findings to serve as a control group. In the restenosis group eight risk factors were analyzed (hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, history of stroke, transitory ischemic attack, heart attack and coronary disease), and compared with risk factors in control group. Study results suggested that early postoperative internal carotid artery restenosis was not caused by atherosclerosis risk factors but by intraoperative shunt usage.

  2. Determining Success Criteria and Success Factors for International Construction Projects for Malaysian Contractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammed Alashwal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The success of international construction projects is fraught with various challenges such as competitiveness, lack of resources, versatile global economy, and specific conditions in the host country. Malaysian contractors have been venturing into global construction market since early 1980s. However, their venturing was not successful all the time. The number of international projects awarded to Malaysian contractors has reduced drastically during the past decade. Taking advantage of this experience, this paper aims to identify the success criteria and success factors of international construction projects. The data was collected from 120 respondents using a questionnaire survey and analysed using principal component analysis and regression analysis. The results revealed three principal criteria of project success namely, Management Success, Functional Success, and Organisation Success. The main components of success factors include Team Power and Skills, Resource Availability, External Environment, Organisation Capability, Project Support, and Project Organisation. Further analysis emphasized the importance of strong financing capacity of contractors, project social environment, and competence of the project manager in achieving project success. The results of this paper can serve as a guideline for contractors and project managers to achieve success in this context. Future studies may provide in-depth analysis of success criteria and success factors specific for construction project type and host-country location.

  3. Factors associated with onset of delirium among internal medicine inpatients in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Manglano, Jesús; Palazón-Fraile, Claudia; Diez-Massó, Fabiola; Martínez-Álvarez, Rosa; Del Corral-Beamonte, Esther; Carreño-Borrego, Pilar; Pueyo-Tejedor, Pilar; Gomes-Martín, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Delirium increases mortality and length of stay among hospital inpatients. Little is known about the incidence of delirium among inpatients receiving care in internal medicine nursing units in Spain. The aim of this study was to estimate frequency of delirium onset among internal medicine inpatients and identify factors associated with delirium onset using nursing records and administrative databases. Retrospective cohort study of 744 patients hospitalized in an internal medicine department in October 2010 and January, May, and October 2011. Data concerning occurrence of delirium, age, gender, living in a nursing residence, Barthel Index of activities of daily living, Norton scale for pressure ulcer risk, intravenous fluid therapy, urinary catheterization, presence of pressure ulcers, major diagnostic category at discharge, length of stay, and mean weight in the diagnosis-related group were gathered for each patient. Backward stepwise logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with onset of delirium. Ninety-seven (13%) patients experienced delirium. Factors associated with delirium were age (OR = 1.03, 95% CI [1.01, 1.06]), Barthel Index (OR = 0.99. 95% CI [0.98, 0.99]), and urinary catheterization (OR = 2.00, 95% CI [1.19, 3.68]). Increased age and presence of a urinary catheter were associated with increased onset of delirium, whereas higher levels of independence in activities of daily living were protective.

  4. Application of digital image processing to determine the causes of failures in SAE 1018 carbon steel; Aplicacion del procesamiento digital de imagenes para la determinacion de las causas que provocan fallas en el acero al carbono SAE 1018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolanos-Rodriguez, E [Escuela Superior de Tizayuca, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Tizayuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: bola7112@yahoo.com.mx; Gonzalez-Islas, J.C. [Universidad Tecnologica de Tulancingo, Tulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: juanc.gonzalez@utec-tgo.edu.mx; Felipe-Riveron, E.M. [Centro de Investigacion en Computacion, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: edgardo@cic.ipn.mx

    2013-03-15

    The research is focused on determining the causes of failures in the SAE 1018 carbon steel that is used in pipes carrying drinking water. Digital processing of images captured by photomicrographs by scanning electron microscopy coupled with the technique of X-ray microanalysis. The results demonstrate that the low quality of the raw materials and the manufacturing process of steel are the reasons for the occurrence of cracks observed in the material. [Spanish] La investigacion se centra en determinar las causas que provocan fallas en el acero al carbono SAE 1018 que es utilizado en tuberias que transportan agua potable. Se emplea el procesamiento digital de imagenes de las microfotografias captadas por medio de microscopia electronica de barrido, unido a la tecnica de microanalisis de rayos X. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que la baja calidad de las materias primas y el proceso de manufactura del acero son las razones de la ocurrencia de fisuras observadas en el material.

  5. International Mobility of Undergraduate and Graduate Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: Push and Pull Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chiao-Ling

    2013-01-01

    This study examines factors that contribute to the cross-border movement of international students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. It analyzes characteristics of host countries (pull factors) associated with international students' arrival for education in STEM fields, as well as characteristics of home…

  6. Measuring the internalized stigma of parents of persons with a serious mental illness: the factor structure of the parents' internalized stigma of mental illness scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Levy-Frank, Itamar; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Kravetz, Shlomo; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Roe, David

    2013-03-01

    Research has revealed that approximately one third of persons with a serious mental illness (SMI) experience elevated internalized stigma, which is associated with a large number of negative outcomes. Family members of persons with SMI are also often subject to stigma, but the degree to which these experiences are internalized and lead to self-stigma has rarely been studied. The present study investigated the factor structure of a modification of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale by Ritsher, Otilingam, and Grajales (Psychiatry Res 121:31-49, 2003). A central assumption of this investigation was that the factor structure of the Parents' Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (PISMI) scale would be similar to the factor structure of the ISMI scale. A total of 194 parents of persons with SMI completed the PISMI scale. The results revealed that the PISMI scale has high internal consistency and that it is made up of three distinctive factors: discrimination experience, social withdrawal and alienation, and stereotype endorsement. These factors are similar, but not identical, to the factors that underlie the ISMI scale. This study's findings also indicate that parents' prominent reaction to self-stigma is stereotype endorsement.

  7. Effect of emulsifier on the synthesis and application of SAE surface sizing agent%乳化剂对SAE表面施胶剂合成及应用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔友佳; 景宜; 朱海龙

    2012-01-01

    Emulsifier is an important ingredient in emulsion polymerization, and will give some influence on the performance of the synthesized emulsion. Synthesis and application of SAE surface sizing agent was taken as the sample to examine the influence of emulsifier on the synthesis and application of SAE. Styrene, acrylic ester and acrylic were used as the monomers, acid sodium laurel sulfate (SDS) and alkylphenol ethoxylates (OP- 10) as emulsifier, FeSO4-H2O2 as initiator system, and appropriate amount of starch was added in. Orthogonal design was utilized to compare the effect of four factors on the synthesis and application of SAE surface sizing agent, such as the dosage and proportion of emulsifier, the starch amount and the revolving speed in preemulsification stage. The most suitable additive amount of synthetic sizing agent was also discussed in this paper. The results showed that the amount of emulsifier had the most influence on the property of product. The optimum conditions were as follows: amount of emulsifier 2 % to monomers, revolving speed 600 r/min, amount of starch 20 % to monomers, SDS scale 1 % to total emulsifier. Taking this sizing agent, Cobb value of paper decreased to 39.2 g/m2. When the additive was 5 % to the dry weight of starch, compared to no addition, Cobb value decreased by 58.4 % and the surface strength enhanced by 57.7 %.%乳化剂是乳液聚合体系的重要组成部分,并对聚合物乳液的应用性能具有一定的影响.以苯乙烯丙烯酸酯(SAE)表面施胶剂的合成为例,研究了乳化剂的用量对SAE合成及性能的影响.以苯乙烯、丙烯酸丁酯和丙烯酸为单体,硫酸亚铁-过氧化氢作为引发体系,十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)和壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚(OP - 10)作为乳化剂,并加入适量的淀粉,合成了苯乙烯丙烯酸丁酯(SAE)聚合乳液.利用正交实验的方法,比较了乳化剂用量、淀粉用量、SDS占乳化剂的比例及预乳化转速等因素对苯乙烯丙烯酸酯(SAE

  8. Presenting a Model to Evaluate the Factors Affecting Export Performance in International Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Esmailpour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present a model to evaluate the factors affecting export performance of export-oriented business clusters in Western Tehran. For this purpose, export performance was measured by the effectiveness of export, export sales, and export intensity. 83 companies are studied in this research. The statistical population consists of 209 managers and experts associated with the export of the companies. Due to the limited number of the statistical population, the total population is considered as a statistical sample. The data are collected through a questionnaire consisting of two parts: The questionnaire of factor analysis with regard to the factors identified in earlier studies and the questionnaire of export performance. The questionnaire is given to the sampleafter examining its validity and reliability. For statistical data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistical methods are used.Descriptive statistics are used for classifying, summarizing and interpreting statistical data. Inferential statistics are used to assess the export performance based on one sample t testand identify factors affecting export performance. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using SPSS 19 software is usedto provide a model. Structural equation modeling using LISREL software is used toconfirm the proposed model. Four factors (environmental, technical, strategic export marketing capabilities and international management skills are categorized. Finally, the model of the factors affecting the export performance of export-oriented marketing business clusters in Western Tehranis designed and confirmed.

  9. Human Factors Engineering Requirements for the International Space Station - Successes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Blume, J.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced technology coupled with the desire to explore space has resulted in increasingly longer human space missions. Indeed, any exploration mission outside of Earth's neighborhood, in other words, beyond the moon, will necessarily be several months or even years. The International Space Station (ISS) serves as an important advancement toward executing a successful human space mission that is longer than a standard trip around the world or to the moon. The ISS, which is a permanently occupied microgravity research facility orbiting the earth, will support missions four to six months in duration. In planning for the ISS, the NASA developed an agency-wide set of human factors standards for the first time in a space exploration program. The Man-Systems Integration Standard (MSIS), NASA-STD-3000, a multi-volume set of guidelines for human-centered design in microgravity, was developed with the cooperation of human factors experts from various NASA centers, industry, academia, and other government agencies. The ISS program formed a human factors team analogous to any major engineering subsystem. This team develops and maintains the human factors requirements regarding end-to-end architecture design and performance, hardware and software design requirements, and test and verification requirements. It is also responsible for providing program integration across all of the larger scale elements, smaller scale hardware, and international partners.

  10. [National and international impact factor of Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre Benavent, R; Valderrama Zurián, J C; Castellano Gómez, M; Simó Meléndez, R; Navarro Molina, C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the bibliometric indicators of Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría that were obtained from the study "Potential impact factor of the Spanish medical journals in 2001", financed by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte. The citations made in Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría and its national and international impact factor and immediacy index have been obtained by the use of a methodology similar to the one used by the Institute for Scientific Information. The national indicators only take into account the citations made in 87 Spanish journals considered as sources, while those from the foreign source journals of Science Citation Index have been added to the previously cited ones. Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría has obtained a national impact factor of 0.315 and an international impact factor of 0.395, which places it as a leader in the Spanish psychiatric journals.

  11. The Critical Factors for Korean Freight Forwarders’ Purchasing Negotiation in International Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Yong Shin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The roles of freight forwarders as intermediaries continue to expand and become significant in international logistics. Purchasing negotiation is considered an important business process for freight forwarders and achieving a successful negotiation outcome should help forwarders to manage their business more effectively. This study used the analytical hierarchy process (AHP approach to identify the critical factors for successful purchasing negotiation for freight forwarders in Korea. A three-level AHP structure was constructed to examine the successful purchasing negotiation. The findings indicate that information (specifically quality of information is the most critical factor for a successful negotiation outcome for freight forwarders. This result turned out to be the same as the result found from the literature review. Literature review also indicated information as the most important factor.

  12. THE INTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING LUNG CAPACITY OF PEOPLE LIVING IN AREAS AROUND THE CEMENT INDUSTRY, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Azizi Jayadipraja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some internal factors have both positive and negative effects to people’s health, especially those who live in a polluted area. The area around the cement industry is an example of polluted area in which the lung capacity will be harmed. Aim: This research aimed at finding out internal factors affecting lung capacity of people living in the area around the cement industry. Methods: This research used a cross sectional study plan by measuring lung capacity (FEV1 and FVC of people living in four different locations. The locations were based on wind directions and within 3 km from the cement industry. The study plan was also done by connecting the measurement with other factors, such as age, physical activities, nutrition status and passive smoking or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. Results: Based on the calculation of lung capacity 241 respondents obtained 123 respondents (51% had a normal lung capacity, 105 respondents (43.6% had a restricted lung capacity, 4 respondents (1.7% had an obstructed lung capacity and 9 respondents (3.7% had a combination of a restricted and obstructed lung capacity. The age (p=0.977 and physical activities (p=0.087 of respondents had no effect on the lung capacity. However, nutrition status (p=0.011 and passive smoking or ETS (p=0.003 do. Conclusion: The nutrition status and the presence of a passive smoker were the internal factors affecting people’s lung capacity, especially for those who live around the cement industry. Thus, in order to avoid the impairment of lung capacity, people need to improve their nutrition and to avoid people smoking around them.

  13. The role of motivational factors which make interns choose specialty of dermatovenerologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filonova A.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the main motivational and psychological factors influencing the success of the process of becoming a young medical interns in the specialty «Dermatovenereology». Materials and methods. The study involved 49 interns in the specialty «Dermatovenereology» (22 people studied in 2013-2014, 27 people — in 2014-2015. For the diagnosis it was used a Shortened multi-factor Personality inventory (RESINS, the technique of "career Anchors" diagnostic value orientations in karyes-re (E. Shane, translation and adaptation of V.A. Chiker, V. E. Vinokurov, «Survey of young specialists-sheet» developed by GUZ «SACVD» Results: A greater number of doctors interns of 2013 and 2014 and 2014-2015 chose the specialty «Dermatovenerology» because of the possibility to work in the field of cosmetology. Conclusions. These results provide the possibility of selecting candidates for future employment, identify motivate innovative features, the ability of young professionals.

  14. Evaluación de Velocidades para la Deposición de FeSi y MoS2 por Triboadhesión en Aceros SAE 4140 y AISI 304 Evaluation of the Velocities Required for the Deposition of FeSi and MoS2 on SAE 4140 and AISI 304 Steels by Triboadhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta la evaluación teórico-experimental de las velocidades y cargas requeridas para la deposición por triboadhesión de FeSi y MoS2 en los aceros SAE 4140 y AISI 304. Para ello se determinó el coeficiente de fricción entre la fresa y el material base. El proceso de deposición mediante la técnica de triboadhesión tiene lugar a causa del calor que se genera por fricción entre una fresa de algodón y un material base. Durante el proceso de fricción se provocan altas temperaturas instantáneas en la interfase de la fresa y el material base. En el estudio, se demuestra experimentalmente la deposición de material de aporte, utilizando las velocidades obtenidas de un análisis teórico.In this work a theoretical and experimental evaluation of the velocities required to deposit FeSi and MoS2 on SAE 4140 and AISI 304 steels is presented. To achieve this goal, the friction factor between the cotton mop and the base material was determined. The deposition process by triboadhesion is caused by the heat generated by friction between the cotton mop and the base material. During the friction, the contact between these two elements generates high instant temperatures. In the study, it was experimentally demonstrated the deposition of the material, using the tangential velocity obtained from a theoretical analysis.

  15. Factor structure and internal reliability of an exercise health belief model scale in a Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Oscar Armando Esparza-Del; Montañez-Alvarado, Priscila; Gutiérrez-Vega, Marisela; Carrillo-Saucedo, Irene Concepción; Gurrola-Peña, Gloria Margarita; Ruvalcaba-Romero, Norma Alicia; García-Sánchez, María Dolores; Ochoa-Alcaraz, Sergio Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    Mexico is one of the countries with the highest rates of overweight and obesity around the world, with 68.8% of men and 73% of women reporting both. This is a public health problem since there are several health related consequences of not exercising, like having cardiovascular diseases or some types of cancers. All of these problems can be prevented by promoting exercise, so it is important to evaluate models of health behaviors to achieve this goal. Among several models the Health Belief Model is one of the most studied models to promote health related behaviors. This study validates the first exercise scale based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) in Mexicans with the objective of studying and analyzing this model in Mexico. Items for the scale called the Exercise Health Belief Model Scale (EHBMS) were developed by a health research team, then the items were applied to a sample of 746 participants, male and female, from five cities in Mexico. The factor structure of the items was analyzed with an exploratory factor analysis and the internal reliability with Cronbach's alpha. The exploratory factor analysis reported the expected factor structure based in the HBM. The KMO index (0.92) and the Barlett's sphericity test (p factor loadings, ranging from 0.31 to 0.92, and the internal consistencies of the factors were also acceptable, with alpha values ranging from 0.67 to 0.91. The EHBMS is a validated scale that can be used to measure exercise based on the HBM in Mexican populations.

  16. Staphylococcal superantigen-like genes, ssl5 and ssl8, are positively regulated by Sae and negatively by Agr in the Newman strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantrangi, Madhulatha; Singh, Vineet K; Wolz, Christiane; Shukla, Sanjay K

    2010-07-01

    Some of the staphylococcal superantigen-like (SSL) proteins SSL5, SSL7, SSL9, and SSL11 act as immunomodulatory proteins in Staphylococcus aureus. However, little is known about their regulatory mechanisms. We determined the expression levels of ssl5 and ssl8 in seven clinically important S. aureus strains and their regulatory mechanisms in the Newman strain, which had the highest ssl5 and ssl8 expression. Independent comparisons of ssl5 or ssl8 coding and upstream sequences in these strains identified multiple haplotypes that did not correlate with the differential expression of ssl5 and ssl8, suggesting the role of additional regulatory elements. Using knockout mutant strains of known S. aureus global regulators such as Agr, Sae, and SigB in the Newman strain, we showed that both ssl5 and ssl8 were induced by Sae and repressed by Agr, suggesting that Sae and Agr are the positive and the negative regulators, respectively, of these two ssl genes. Moreover, we observed upregulation of sae in the agr mutant and upregulation of agr in the sae mutant compared with the isogenic Newman strain, suggesting that the Agr and Sae may be inhibiting each other. The SigB mutation did not affect ssl5 and ssl8 expression, but they were downregulated in the agr/sigB double mutant, indicating that SigB probably acts synergistically with Agr in their upregulation.

  17. Copper stress induces a global stress response in Staphylococcus aureus and represses sae and agr expression and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jonathan; Sitthisak, Sutthirat; Sengupta, Mrittika; Johnson, Miranda; Jayaswal, R K; Morrissey, Julie A

    2010-01-01

    Copper is an important cofactor for many enzymes; however, high levels of copper are toxic. Therefore, bacteria must ensure there is sufficient copper for use as a cofactor but, more importantly, must limit free intracellular levels to prevent toxicity. In this study, we have used DNA microarray to identify Staphylococcus aureus copper-responsive genes. Transcriptional profiling of S. aureus SH1000 grown in excess copper identified a number of genes which fall into four groups, suggesting that S. aureus has four main mechanisms for adapting to high levels of environmental copper, as follows: (i) induction of direct copper homeostasis mechanisms; (ii) increased oxidative stress resistance; (iii) expression of the misfolded protein response; and (iv) repression of a number of transporters and global regulators such as Agr and Sae. Our experimental data confirm that resistance to oxidative stress and particularly to H2O2 scavenging is an important S. aureus copper resistance mechanism. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Eap and Emp proteins, which are positively regulated by Agr and Sae, are required for biofilm formation under low-iron growth conditions. Our transcriptional analysis has confirmed that sae, agr, and eap are repressed under high-copper conditions and that biofilm formation is indeed repressed under high-copper conditions. Therefore, our results may provide an explanation for how copper films can prevent biofilm formation on catheters.

  18. Post-stratification sampling in small area estimation (SAE) model for unemployment rate estimation by Bayes approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanike, Yusrianti; Sadik, Kusman; Kurnia, Anang

    2016-02-01

    This research implemented unemployment rate in Indonesia that based on Poisson distribution. It would be estimated by modified the post-stratification and Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Post-stratification was one of technique sampling that stratified after collected survey data. It's used when the survey data didn't serve for estimating the interest area. Interest area here was the education of unemployment which separated in seven category. The data was obtained by Labour Employment National survey (Sakernas) that's collected by company survey in Indonesia, BPS, Statistic Indonesia. This company served the national survey that gave too small sample for level district. Model of SAE was one of alternative to solved it. According the problem above, we combined this post-stratification sampling and SAE model. This research gave two main model of post-stratification sampling. Model I defined the category of education was the dummy variable and model II defined the category of education was the area random effect. Two model has problem wasn't complied by Poisson assumption. Using Poisson-Gamma model, model I has over dispersion problem was 1.23 solved to 0.91 chi square/df and model II has under dispersion problem was 0.35 solved to 0.94 chi square/df. Empirical Bayes was applied to estimate the proportion of every category education of unemployment. Using Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC), Model I has smaller mean square error (MSE) than model II.

  19. 齿轮钢SAE8620H高温变形行为及热加工图

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱小星; 王宝雨

    2016-01-01

    通过高温压缩试验研究齿轮钢SAE8620H在950~1100℃、应变速率0.01~10 s-1条件下的高温变形行为.该合金钢的流动应力符合稳态流变特征,流变应力随变形温度升高以及应变速率降低而减小,其本构方程可以采用双曲正弦方程来描述.基于峰值应力、应变速率和温度相关数据推导出SAE8620H高温变形激活能Q=280359.9 J·mol-1.根据变形量40%和60%下应力构建该齿轮钢的热加工图,通过热加工图中耗散值及流变失稳区确定其热变形工艺参数范围.SAE8620H钢在在变形程度较小时宜选取低的应变速率进行成形,而在变形程度大时则要选取低温低应变速率或者高温高应变速率.

  20. 基于 SAE 深度特征学习的数字人脑切片图像分割%Deep SAE Feature Learning Based Segmentation for Digital Human Brain Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵广军; 王旭初; 牛彦敏; 谭立文; 张绍祥

    2016-01-01

    There are few algorithms for segmenting cryosection brain images, and most existing segmentation techniques presented limited precision and low efficiency. To address these problems, this paper proposed a novel deep feature learning-based segmentation algorithm using sparse autoencoder (SAE). At the stage of feature ex-traction, SAE is trained twice to enhance the discriminability of the deep-learned feature representations. At the stage of classification, a softmax classifier is used for segmenting different objects. Experimental results of white matter segmentation on the Chinese Visible Human (CVH) dataset and its 3-D reconstruction show that, the learned deep feature performs much better in discriminability compared with other representative hand-crafted features (such as intensity, histogram of oriented gradient and principal components analysis) and achieves higher recognition accuracy.%针对目前基于数字人脑切片图像的分割算法较少,分割精度和有效性较低等不足,提出一种基于稀疏自编码器(SAE)深度特征学习的分割算法。在特征提取阶段,采用从粗到精两级方式对 SAE 进行训练,以增强模型学习到的深度特征的鉴别能力;在分类阶段,使用 softmax 分类器进行目标分割。对中国可视化人体(CVH)数据集的脑白质分割及三维重建的实验结果表明,相对于其他传统的手工特征(如图像强度特征、方向梯度直方图特征和主成分分析特征), SAE 提取的图像深度特征具有更强的鉴别能力,显著地提高了分割精度。

  1. Design and fabrication of intake manifold for formula SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) race car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Sylvie; Lavallee, Patrice

    1997-01-01

    Every year, a group of students from Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) in Montreal design and build a formula-type race car and compete in the Formula SAE competition. In this paper, we examine the design and fabrication of the ir intake system, A number of constraints challenge the designers. For example, to ensure the security of amateur drivers, motors are restrained to 600 cc and a circular restriction of 20 mm in diameter is placed at the entry of the system. Under these conditions, it is important to optimize the quality of the air/fuel mixture which depends mostly on the air intake system. A theoretical analysis reduced the field of possible runner length. However, the influence of runner configuration, plenum shape and size can only be determined experimentally. Polyacrylic functional prototypes were produced and tested on a dynamometric bench. A stereolithography model representing the inner passageways of the optimal intake manifold was built and used as a positive for a polyurethane mold. A composite lamination process was used to laminate the pre-production prototype over a molded wax plug. The major advantage of this approach over craftsmanship or even machining is the time saved to make the mold and the unlimited complexity of the shape permitted by the rapid prototyping systems.

  2. [National and international impact factor of Anales de Pediatría].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre Benavent, R; Valderrama Zurián, J C; Castellano Gómez, M; Simó Meléndez, R; Navarro Molina, C

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to present bibliometric indicators of the impact of Anales de Pediatría in 2001 and to compare this journal with other Spanish pediatrics journals. A total of 5,388 bibliographic references from 1999, 2000 and 2001 corresponding to citable articles published in 2001 in a sample of 87 selected Spanish medical journals were analyzed. The indicators obtained were the number of citations, the national and international impact factor (IF) and the immediacy index. The national IF of Anales de Pediatría was 0.334 and the international IF was 0.372. The immediacy index was 0.111. This study confirms the leadership of Anales de Pediatría, since this journal is the most frequently cited Spanish pediatrics journal and has the highest IF and immediacy index. The bibliometric indicators obtained are comparable with those observed in other journals included in Journal Citation Reports.

  3. The role of internal and external factors on management students’ subject choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David AL Coldwell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate undergraduates’ perceptions of the comparative worth/utility of studying Business Science disciplines at a prominent South African University in terms of: (i internal factors comprising  aptitudes, values and interests; and (ii external factors comprising job attractiveness (job prospects, earning potential, non-salary benefits and work-life balance, and (iii university and discipline academic reputations. The study utilises a specifically designed instrument to measure internal and external factors impinging on career choice. A purposive non-random sample, consisting of 130 second and third year students in Human Resource Management (HRM and Management, is used. Findings suggest that, while perceptions of aspects of careers, such as job and career prospects generally dominate the choice of major subjects, students studying HRM majors hold community orientated values that distinguish them from their peers. Many students are found to make choices primarily on the basis of their perceptions of ‘external factors’, rather than their interests. The findings are discussed in terms of extant theory and potential practical outcomes.

  4. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Bulimia Nervosa during Pregnancy: An Internal Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hunna J.; Von Holle, Ann; Knoph, Cecilie; Hamer, Robert M.; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Magnus, Per; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this paper was to internally validate previously reported relations (1) between psychosocial factors and bulimia nervosa (BN) outcomes during pregnancy. Method This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Participants were women enrolled during pregnancy (N = 69,030). Internal validity was evaluated by way of bootstrapped parameter estimates using the overall sample and a split sample calibration approach. Results Bootstrap bias estimates were below the problematic threshold, and extend earlier findings(1) by providing support for the validity of the models at the population level of all pregnant women in Norway. Bootstrap risk ratios indicated that prevalence, incidence, and remission of BN during pregnancy were significantly associated with psychosocial factors. The split sample procedure showed that the models developed on the training sample did not predict risks in the validation sample. Discussion This study characterizes associations between psychosocial exposures and BN outcomes among pregnant women in Norway. Women with lifetime and current self-reported psychosocial adversities were at a much higher risk for BN during pregnancy. Psychosocial factors were associated with BN remission during pregnancy, inviting the prospect of enhancing therapeutic interventions. We consider the findings in the context of reproducibility in science. PMID:25346291

  5. Post-Flight Back Pain Following International Space Station Missions: Evaluation of Spaceflight Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Back pain during spaceflight has often been attributed to the lengthening of the spinal column due to the absence of gravity during both short and long-duration missions. Upon landing and re-adaptation to gravity, the spinal column reverts back to its original length thereby causing some individuals to experience pain and muscular spasms, while others experience no ill effects. With International Space Station (ISS) missions, cases of back pain and injury are more common post-flight, but little is known about the potential risk factors.

  6. From SARS to Avian Influenza: The Role of International Factors in China's Approach to Infectious Disease Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldizen, Fiona C

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades global environmental change, globalization, urbanization, and the rise in movement of people have increased the risk for pandemic disease outbreaks. As environmental exposures do not respect state borders, a globalist concept of global health response has developed, which requires transparency and cooperation for coordinated responses to disease outbreaks. Countries that avoid cooperation on health issues for social or political reasons can endanger the global community. The aim of this study was to examine the rapid change in China's infectious disease policy between 2000 and 2013, from actively rejecting the assistance of international health experts during the HIV/AIDS and severe acute respiratory syndrome crises to following best-practice disease response policies and cooperating with international health actors during the 2013 avian influenza outbreak. Using international relations theory, I examined whether international political factors had a major influence on this change. Using the case studies of international reputation, socialization with international organizations, and the securitization of infectious disease, this study examined the influence of international and domestic pressures on Chinese infectious disease policy. Although international relations theory, especially theories popular in global health diplomacy literature, provide valuable insight into the role of international factors and foreign policy interests in China's changing approach to infectious disease control, it cannot provide viable explanations without considering the domestic interests of the Chinese government. Analysis of state responses to infectious disease using international relations theories must consider domestic political factors. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigating the Effective Factors on Entering into International Markets by Presenting the Local Islamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Mohammad Ali Alamolhodaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of small and medium size businesses is regarded as one of the most leading general policies in many of the world’s countries. The reason is that it is often the small and medium size companies which have a vital role in industrial innovation and gain profit for their societies through economic development. This research has investigated and identified the effective factors (organizational factors and business etiquette in Islam on entering into international markets by presenting local Islamic model in the companies of incubator of Science and Technology Park. The statistical population of the research includes the existing companies of Incubator of Mashhad Science and Technology Park. The statistical sample was investigated through simple random sampling from managers of active companies in export in Science and Technology Park. AMOS and SPSS software were applied for data analysis to identify the effects among variables survey research methodology and questionnaire tools were used.

  8. TRENDS OF TAKING INTO ACCOUNT OF INTERNATIONAL FACTORS IN MARKETING ADAPTATIONAL STRATEGIES OF REGIONAL CENTRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna BUDNIKEVYCH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the impact of international factors to formation of marketing adaptation strategies of regional centres development; regards influence of “regional revolution” to strategic trends of cities of Chernivtsi and Suceava; forms a list of factors that can either open additional opportunities for a city or, on the contrary, become potential bearers of threats for implementation of sustainable development strategy; attention is paid to threats and advantages for regional economy of activation processes of activity of global trade networks; examples of cooperation in geo-space direction are given; the role of regional marketing technologies is determined in provision of complex long-term cross-border effect of cooperation of Chernivtsi and Suceava as regional centres of Bukovyna.

  9. An International Consensus Definition of the Wish to Hasten Death and Its Related Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Balaguer

    Full Text Available The desire for hastened death or wish to hasten death (WTHD that is experienced by some patients with advanced illness is a complex phenomenon for which no widely accepted definition exists. This lack of a common conceptualization hinders understanding and cooperation between clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to develop an internationally agreed definition of the WTHD.Following an exhaustive literature review, a modified nominal group process and an international, modified Delphi process were carried out. The nominal group served to produce a preliminary definition that was then subjected to a Delphi process in which 24 experts from 19 institutions from Europe, Canada and the USA participated. Delphi responses and comments were analysed using a pre-established strategy.All 24 experts completed the three rounds of the Delphi process, and all the proposed statements achieved at least 79% agreement. Key concepts in the final definition include the WTHD as a reaction to suffering, the fact that such a wish is not always expressed spontaneously, and the need to distinguish the WTHD from the acceptance of impending death or from a wish to die naturally, although preferably soon. The proposed definition also makes reference to possible factors related to the WTHD.This international consensus definition of the WTHD should make it easier for clinicians and researchers to share their knowledge. This would foster an improved understanding of the phenomenon and help in developing strategies for early therapeutic intervention.

  10. An International Consensus Definition of the Wish to Hasten Death and Its Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Albert; Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Porta-Sales, Josep; Alonso-Babarro, Alberto; Altisent, Rogelio; Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Bellido-Pérez, Mercedes; Breitbart, William; Centeno, Carlos; Cuervo, Miguel Angel; Deliens, Luc; Frerich, Gerrit; Gastmans, Chris; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Limonero, Joaquín T; Maier, Markus A; Materstvedt, Lars Johan; Nabal, María; Rodin, Gary; Rosenfeld, Barry; Schroepfer, Tracy; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Trelis, Jordi; Villavicencio-Chávez, Christian; Voltz, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    The desire for hastened death or wish to hasten death (WTHD) that is experienced by some patients with advanced illness is a complex phenomenon for which no widely accepted definition exists. This lack of a common conceptualization hinders understanding and cooperation between clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to develop an internationally agreed definition of the WTHD. Following an exhaustive literature review, a modified nominal group process and an international, modified Delphi process were carried out. The nominal group served to produce a preliminary definition that was then subjected to a Delphi process in which 24 experts from 19 institutions from Europe, Canada and the USA participated. Delphi responses and comments were analysed using a pre-established strategy. All 24 experts completed the three rounds of the Delphi process, and all the proposed statements achieved at least 79% agreement. Key concepts in the final definition include the WTHD as a reaction to suffering, the fact that such a wish is not always expressed spontaneously, and the need to distinguish the WTHD from the acceptance of impending death or from a wish to die naturally, although preferably soon. The proposed definition also makes reference to possible factors related to the WTHD. This international consensus definition of the WTHD should make it easier for clinicians and researchers to share their knowledge. This would foster an improved understanding of the phenomenon and help in developing strategies for early therapeutic intervention.

  11. Risk factors for preterm birth in an international prospective cohort of nulliparous women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaaf Albert Dekker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth (birth <37 weeks gestation with intact membranes (SPTB-IM and SPTB after prelabour rupture of the membranes (SPTB-PPROM for nulliparous pregnant women. DESIGN: Prospective international multicentre cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 3234 healthy nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy, follow up was complete in 3184 of participants (98.5%. RESULTS: Of the 3184 women, 156 (4.9% had their pregnancy complicated by SPTB; 96 (3.0% and 60 (1.9% in the SPTB-IM and SPTB-PPROM categories, respectively. Independent risk factors for SPTB-IM were shorter cervical length, abnormal uterine Doppler flow, use of marijuana pre-pregnancy, lack of overall feeling of well being, being of Caucasian ethnicity, having a mother with diabetes and/or a history of preeclampsia, and a family history of low birth weight babies. Independent risk factors for SPTB-PPROM were shorter cervical length, short stature, participant's not being the first born in the family, longer time to conceive, not waking up at night, hormonal fertility treatment (excluding clomiphene, mild hypertension, family history of recurrent gestational diabetes, and maternal family history of any miscarriage (risk reduction. Low BMI (<20 nearly doubled the risk for SPTB-PPROM (odds ratio 2.64; 95% CI 1.07-6.51. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC, after internal validation, was 0.69 for SPTB-IM and 0.79 for SPTB-PPROM. CONCLUSION: The ability to predict PTB in healthy nulliparous women using clinical characteristics is modest. The dissimilarity of risk factors for SPTB-IM compared with SPTB-PPROM indicates different pathophysiological pathways underlie these distinct phenotypes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTR.org.au ACTRN12607000551493.

  12. [Analysis of citations and national and international impact factor of Farmacia Hospitalaria (2001-2005)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Benavent, R; González Alcaide, G; Miguel-Dasit, A; González de Dios, J; de Granda Orive, J I; Valderrama Zurián, J C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse the citation patterns and impact and immediacy indicators of the Farmacia Hospitalaria journal during the period 2001-2005. An analysis of citations chosen from 101 Spanish health science journals was carried out in order to determine the citing and cited journals and the national and international impact and immediacy indicators. A similar methodology used by Thomson ISI in Science Citation Index (SCI) and Journal Citation Reports (JRC) was applied. Farmacia Hospitalaria made 1,370 citations to 316 different journals. The percentage of self-citations was 9%. The national impact factor increased from 0.178 points in 2001 to 0.663 points in 2005 while the international impact factor increased from 0.178 to 0.806 for the same period. The analysis of citation patterns demonstrates the multidisciplinary nature of Farmacia Hospitalaria and a significant growth in the impact indicators over recent years. These indicators are higher than those of some other pharmacy journals included in Journal Citation Reports. Self-citation was not excessive and was similar to that of other journals.

  13. Exploring Factors Influencing International Students' Decision to Choose a Higher Education Institution: A Comparison between Chinese and Other Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-MacEachern, Melissa; Yun, Dongkoo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: There is little research into small higher education institutions and international students' choice in selecting these institutions. The purpose of this paper is to understand the factors that influence international student choices in selecting a small institution. In particular, this study compares the differences between Chinese…

  14. International Normalized Ratio (INR), coagulation factor activities and calibrated automated thrombin generation - influence of 24 h storage at ambient temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T D; Jensen, C; Larsen, T B

    2010-01-01

    International Normalized Ratio (INR) measurements are used to monitor oral anticoagulation therapy with coumarins. Single coagulation factor activities and calibrated automated thrombin (CAT) generation are considered as more advanced methods for evaluating overall haemostatic capacity. The aims...

  15. Predicting fractures in an international cohort using risk factor algorithms without BMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrook, Philip N; Flahive, Julie; Hooven, Fred H; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland; Lindsay, Robert; Nguyen, Tuan V; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Greenspan, Susan L; Hosmer, David; Netelenbos, J Coen; Adachi, Jonathan D; Watts, Nelson B; Cooper, Cyrus; Roux, Christian; Rossini, Maurizio; Siris, Ethel S; Silverman, Stuart; Saag, Kenneth G; Compston, Juliet E; LaCroix, Andrea; Gehlbach, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    Clinical risk factors are associated with increased probability of fracture in postmenopausal women. We sought to compare prediction models using self-reported clinical risk factors, excluding BMD, to predict incident fracture among postmenopausal women. The GLOW study enrolled women aged 55 years or older from 723 primary-care practices in 10 countries. The population comprised 19,586 women aged 60 years or older who were not receiving antiosteoporosis medication and were followed annually for 2 years. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on characteristics, fracture risk factors, previous fractures, and health status. The main outcome measure compares the C index for models using the WHO Fracture Risk (FRAX), the Garvan Fracture Risk Calculator (FRC), and a simple model using age and prior fracture. Over 2 years, 880 women reported incident fractures including 69 hip fractures, 468 "major fractures" (as defined by FRAX), and 583 "osteoporotic fractures" (as defined by FRC). Using baseline clinical risk factors, both FRAX and FRC showed a moderate ability to correctly order hip fracture times (C index for hip fracture 0.78 and 0.76, respectively). C indices for "major" and "osteoporotic" fractures showed lower values, at 0.61 and 0.64. Neither algorithm was better than the model based on age + fracture history alone (C index for hip fracture 0.78). In conclusion, estimation of fracture risk in an international primary-care population of postmenopausal women can be made using clinical risk factors alone without BMD. However, more sophisticated models incorporating multiple clinical risk factors including falls were not superior to more parsimonious models in predicting future fracture in this population.

  16. Development of Zn50 Brazing Alloy for Joining Mild Steel to Mild Steel (SAE1018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Nwigbo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has developed new brazing alloys for joining mild steel to mild steel (SAE1018 at a lower temperature. The alloys blends and error analysis were done by experimental design software (Design Expert 8.0.7.1. Design of experiments was done by Scheffe quadratic mixture method. The liquidus temperatures were predicted by calculation of phase diagrams of the alloying metals. The brazing alloys were produced by gravity technique and melted using silicon carbide graphite crucible. The quality of the brazing alloys was analyzed by optical microscopy (OM, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Brazed joints were produced by torch method with a commercial flux. Brazing temperatures (liquidus were tracked by a digital infrared/laser pyrometer. Some mechanical properties studied were tensile strength and hardness. Finally, brazed joints produced from the developed brazing alloys were compared to that produced from muntz brass. Six (6 brazing alloys were successfully developed. Zinc and manganese were the main components, to which were added; 3 to 4 %wt silver and 11 to15 %wt modifying element. The microstructure showed a typical eutectic structure with zinc-rich phase distributed uniformly in the matrix with a combination of different sizes of dendrite, rounded blocks of compounds and hypoeutectic structures. AAS results indicated minimal out-gassing of zinc and FT-IR results indicated very low presence of atmospheric gas. The range of brazing temperature for best results was recorded from 690.90 to 735.10 0C. The joints produced from the developed brazing alloys had acceptable strengths with improved stress-strain behaviour compared to muntz brass.

  17. Local perceptions on factors influencing the introduction of international healthcare accreditation in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Sylvia; Marx, Michael

    2014-12-01

    One contributor to poor health outcomes in developing countries is weak health systems; key to strengthening them are interventions to improve quality of health services. Though the value of healthcare accreditation is increasingly recognized, there are few case studies exploring its adaptation in developing countries. The aim of our study in Pakistan was to identify perceived factors influencing the adaptation of international healthcare accreditation within a developing country context. We used qualitative methods including semi-structured interviews, a structured group discussion, focus groups and non-participant observation of management meetings. Data analysis used a grounded theory approach and a conceptual framework adapted from implementation science. Using our conceptual framework categories of 'inner' and 'outer' setting, we found six perceived inner health system factors that could influence the introduction of healthcare accreditation and two 'outer' setting factors, perceived as external to the health system but able to influence its introduction. Our research identified that there is no 'one size fits all' approach to introducing healthcare accreditation as a means to improve healthcare quality. Those planning to support healthcare accreditation, such as national and provincial ministries and international development partners, need to understand how the three components of healthcare accreditation fit into the local health system and into the broader political and social environment. In our setting this included moving to supportive and transparent external evaluation mechanisms, with a first step of using locally developed and agreed standards. In addition, sustainable implementation of the three components was seen as a major challenge, especially establishment of a well-managed, transparent accreditation agency able to lead processes such as training and support for peer surveyors. Consideration of local change mechanisms and cultural practices is

  18. Prioritization of Delay Factors for NPP Construction Risk in International Project by Using AHP Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossen, Muhammed Mufazzal; Kang, Sunkoo; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    It is crucial for the nuclear power plant project decision makers and management personnel to identify the actual factors of construction delay and their ranking in order to take preventive actions. NPP project is complex in nature and the construction phase is one of the most key phase which is subject to many factors result from many sources. From experience, nuclear projects have faced challenges similar to other complex mega projects with additional nuclear specific issues and life time cost of nuclear reactor is concentrated upfront as capital cost, and therefore delays in construction may become intolerable in terms of both lost revenues and interest on the capital. Budget over-runs and delays on next generation new build nuclear projects in recent years clearly demonstrate that the nuclear industry continues to repeat its failed management and project control processes of the past. Similar to major infra-structure projects, actual completion times can vary substantially from initial estimates but this uncertainty is too crucial to the nuclear industry due to high levels of capital at risk, for every year a project is delayed the levelized cost of electricity increases by approximately 8-10%. causes of delay, to develop a generalized AHP model for delay factors, and to prioritize the risk in different factors in various levels of construction phase in international turnkey NPP project. This paper describes and prioritizes Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) construction schedule delay factor for turnkey international project. This study also determines the different party's importance in percentage behind the construction schedule delay of NPP which constitutes main contractor (28.4%), regulatory authority (27.3%), financial and country factor (23.5%), and utility (20.8%). Decision makers of nuclear industry can understand the significance of different factors on NPP construction phase and they can apply risk informed decision making to avoid unexpected

  19. The Global Sporting Arms Race: an International Comparative Study on Sports Policy Factors Leading to International Sporting Success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscher, Veerle de; Bingham, Jerry; Shibli, Simon; Bottenburg, Maarten van; Knop, Paul de

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few decades the power struggle between nations to win medals in major international competitions has intensified. This has led to national sports organisations and governments throughout the world spending increasing sums of money on elite sport. Several nations have indeed shown that

  20. International Differences in Multiple Sclerosis Health Outcomes and Associated Factors in a Cross-sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace D. Reilly

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a major cause of disability and poor quality of life (QOL. Previous studies have shown differences in MS health outcomes between countries. This study aimed to examine the associations between international regions and health outcomes in people with MS. Self-reported data were taken from the Health Outcomes and Lifestyle In a Sample of people with Multiple Sclerosis online survey collected in 2012. The 2,401 participants from 37 countries were categorized into three regions: Australasia, Europe, and North America. Differences were observed between regions in disability, physical and mental health QOL, fatigue, and depression, but most of these disappeared after adjusting for sociodemographic, disease, and lifestyle factors in multivariable regression models. However, adjusted odds for disability were higher in Europe [odds ratio (OR: 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.28 to 3.67] and North America (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.28 to 2.51 compared to Australasia. There may be other unmeasured factors that vary between regions, including differences in access and quality of healthcare services, determining disability in MS. When assessing differences in MS health outcomes, lifestyle factors and medication use should be taken into consideration.

  1. Analysis of proteins regulated by two-component signal transduction system saeRS in Staphylococcus epidermidis%表皮葡萄球菌双组分信号转导系统saeRS对相关蛋白调控的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄强; 王艳歌; 瞿涤

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用双向电泳技术对表皮葡萄球菌菌体蛋白进行蛋白质组学分析,寻找双组分信号转导系统saeRS的调控网络.方法 对表皮葡萄球菌1457双组分信号转导系统saeRS删除株与野生株菌体蛋白进行双向电泳差异比较;电泳图谱采用Image Master 2D Platinum软件分析;免疫印迹法验证saeRS调控的差异蛋白.结果 在表皮葡萄球菌1457双组分信号转导系统saeRS删除株与野生株蛋白质图谱中共发现23个差异表达的蛋白点(10个下调,13个上调).结论 蛋白质双向电泳技术可以成功应用于分析表皮葡萄球菌双组分信号转导系统saeRS的调控网络;此图谱为进一步研究saeRS在表皮葡萄球菌中的调控机制奠定了基础.%Objective To search for new proteins regulated by two-component signal transduction system saeRS, the proteomics of whole cellular proteins between saeRS deletion mutant and wild-type strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis ( S. epidermidis) using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Methods Immobilized pH gradient (IPG) two-dimensional electrophoresis was adopted and the gels were analyzed with Image Master 2D Platinum software. Western blot was used to analyze the differentially expressed proteins. Results We found 23 differentially expressed protein spots (10 down-regulated and 13 up-regulated) in 2-DE gels of saeRS deletion mutant and wild-type strain of S. epidermidis. Conclusion Two-dimensional electrophoresis of protein can be used to analyze the regulation network of two-component signal transduction system saeRS in S. epidermidis, and this provides basis for further study on saeRS regulation mechanism.

  2. Pressure ulcers in patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine: associated factors and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Manglano, J; Fernández-Jiménez, C; Lambán-Aranda, M P; Landa-Santesteban, M C; Isasi de Isasmendi-Pérez, S; Moreno-García, P; Bejarano-Tello, E; Barranco-Usón, J; Munilla-López, E; Del Corral-Beamonte, E

    2016-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of pressure ulcers in patients hospitalized in internal medicine and the clinical factors and risk of death associated with its presence. Prospective cohort study with patients hospitalized in internal medicine. We recorded the age, sex, presence of pressure ulcers, degree of ulceration, Barthel index, Norton scale, major diagnostic category, length of hospital stay and weight of the diagnosis-related groups. We compared the clinical characteristics of the patients with or without ulcers and analysed the mortality after 3 years based on the presence of ulcers. The study included 699 patients, 100 of whom (14.3%) had pressure ulcers (27 with grade I, 17 with grade II, 21 with grade III, 25 with grade IV and 10 with unknown grade). The Barthel index (OR 0.985; 95% CI 0.972-0.998; p=.022) and Norton scale (OR 0.873; 95% CI 0.780-0.997; p=.018) are independently associated with ulcers. Twenty-three percent of the patients with ulcers died during hospitalization, 68% died within a year, and 83% died within 3 years. The presence of pressure ulcers was independently associated with mortality (HR, 1.531; 95% CI 1.140-2.056; p=.005). Pressure ulcers are common in patients hospitalized in internal medicine, and their presence is associated with higher short, medium and long-term mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  3. The Evaluation of Factors Influencing Flights Delay at Czech International Airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Zámková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article was examination of factors influencing flights delay at three most important international airports in Czech Republic. Data of selected Airlines operating in Czech Republic, whose flights are mainly oriented to international airports in Prague, Brno and Ostrava, were used for needs of this article. Analysis of contingency tables including Pearson chi-squared test was used for data processing. Dependences were presented in graphical form by correspondence analysis. Results from analysis showed that delay caused by technical reasons and maintenance is the most frequent in Prague as well as delay caused by high concentration of airspace, operational management and crew duty norms. Problems caused by departure delay from previous destination are significantly more frequent in Brno and Ostrava by reason of small number of alternative available aircraft. Delays caused by supplier (handling, catering, … are mostly short, in particular by reason of potential penalty. Delays caused by technical problems and necessary maintenance service last mostly longer time and are more frequently on aircraft of type Boeing. Delays of borrowed aircraft of type Airbus are more frequently caused by rental and control of this aircraft by other companies which causes communication and planning difficulties.

  4. [Factors affecting access to health care institutions by the internally displaced population in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2008-04-01

    In Colombia, the on-going armed conflict causes displacement of thousands of persons that suffer its economic, social, and health consequences. Despite government regulatory efforts, displaced people still experience serious problems in securing access to health care. In order to analyze the institutional factors that affect access to health care by the internally displaced population, a qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive study was carried out by means of semi-structured individual interviews with a criterion sample of stakeholders (81). A narrative content analysis was performed, with mixed generation of categories and segmentation of data by themes and informants. Inadequate funding, providers' problems with reimbursement by insurers, and lack of clear definition as to coverage under the Social Security System in Health pose barriers to access to health care by the internally displaced population. Bureaucratic procedures, limited inter- and intra-sector coordination, and scarce available resources for public health service providers also affect access. Effective government action is required to ensure the right to health care for this population.

  5. Patellofemoral pain: proximal, distal, and local factors, 2nd International Research Retreat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Christopher M; Bolgla, Lori A; Callaghan, Michael J; Collins, Natalie; Sheehan, Francis T

    2012-06-01

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is one of the most common lower extremity conditions seen in orthopaedic practice. The mission of the second International Patellofemoral Pain Research Retreat was to bring together scientists and clinicians from around the world who are conducting research aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to the development and, consequently, the treatment of PFP. The format of the 2.5-day retreat included 2 keynote presentations, interspersed with 6 podium and 4 poster sessions. An important element of the retreat was the development of consensus statements that summarized the state of the research in each of the 4 presentation categories. In this supplement, you will find the consensus documents from the meeting, as well as the keynote addresses, schedule, and platform and poster presentation abstracts.

  6. Internal dose conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This publication contains 50-year committed dose equivalent factors, in tabular form. The document is intended to be used as the primary reference by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors for calculating radiation dose equivalents for members of the public, resulting from ingestion or inhalation of radioactive materials. Its application is intended specifically for such materials released to the environment during routine DOE operations, except in those instances where compliance with 40 CFR 61 (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) requires otherwise. However, the calculated values may be equally applicable to unusual releases or to occupational exposures. The use of these committed dose equivalent tables should ensure that doses to members of the public from internal exposures are calculated in a consistent manner at all DOE facilities.

  7. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the M5-50: An Implementation of the International Personality Item Pool Item Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Alan; Cooper, Christopher A.; McCord, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1999) provides researchers with public-domain, free-access personality measurement scales that are proxies of well-established published scales. One of the more commonly used IPIP sets employs 50 items to measure the 5 broad domains of the 5-factor model, with 10 items per factor. The…

  8. 40 CFR Table 28 to Subpart G of... - Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks 28 Table 28 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... specific information is available, these factors can be assumed to represent the most common bolted...

  9. Risk Factors for Borderline Personality Disorder in Treatment Seeking Patients with a Substance Use Disorder : An International Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapp, Manuela; van de Glind, Geurt; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Dom, Geert; Verspreet, Sofie; Carpentier, Pieter Jan; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Skutle, Arvid; Bu, Eli-Torlid; Franck, Johan; Konstenius, Maija; Kaye, Sharlene; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Barta, Csaba; Fatseas, Melina; Auriacombe, Marc; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V.; Levin, Frances R.; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Schoevers, Robert A.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; van den Brink, Wim; Moggi, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) often co-occur, partly because they share risk factors. In this international multicenter study, risk factors for BPD were examined for SUD patients. In total, 1,205 patients were comprehensively examined by standardized interv

  10. Simplifying the audit of risk factor recording and control : A report from an international study in 11 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Min; Cooney, Marie T; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Vaartjes, Ilonca|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304812102; De Bacquer, Dirk; De Sutter, Johan; Reiner, Željko; Prescott, Eva; Faggiano, Pompilio; Vanuzzo, Diego; AlFaleh, Hussam; Menown, Ian; Gait, Dan; Posogova, Nana; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Zhao, Dong; Zuo, Huijuan; Grobbee, Diederick E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071889256; Graham, Ian M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To simplify the assessment of the recording and control of coronary heart disease risk factors in different countries and regions. DESIGN: The SUrvey of Risk Factors (SURF) is an international clinical audit. METHODS: Data on consecutive patients with established coronary heart disease

  11. Repeat endocarditis: analysis of risk factors based on the International Collaboration on Endocarditis - Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, L; Park, L P; Nicholson, B P; Keiger, A J; Strahilevitz, J; Morris, A; Wray, D; Gordon, D; Delahaye, F; Edathodu, J; Miró, J M; Fernández-Hidalgo, N; Nacinovich, F M; Shahid, R; Woods, C W; Joyce, M J; Sexton, D J; Chu, V H

    2014-06-01

    Repeat episodes of infective endocarditis (IE) can occur in patients who survive an initial episode. We analysed risk factors and 1-year mortality of patients with repeat IE. We considered 1874 patients enrolled in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis - Prospective Cohort Study between January 2000 and December 2006 (ICE-PCS) who had definite native or prosthetic valve IE and 1-year follow-up. Multivariable analysis was used to determine risk factors for repeat IE and 1-year mortality. Of 1874 patients, 1783 (95.2%) had single-episode IE and 91 (4.8%) had repeat IE: 74/91 (81%) with new infection and 17/91 (19%) with presumed relapse. On bivariate analysis, repeat IE was associated with haemodialysis (p 0.002), HIV (p 0.009), injection drug use (IDU) (p < 0.001), Staphylococcus aureus IE (p 0.003), healthcare acquisition (p 0.006) and previous IE before ICE enrolment (p 0.001). On adjusted analysis, independent risk factors were haemodialysis (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.3), IDU (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6-5.4), previous IE (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.1) and living in the North American region (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.4). Patients with repeat IE had higher 1-year mortality than those with single-episode IE (p 0.003). Repeat IE is associated with IDU, previous IE and haemodialysis. Clinicians should be aware of these risk factors in order to recognize patients who are at risk of repeat IE.

  12. SAE 1045 steel/WC-Co/Ni-Cu-Ni/SAE 1045 steel joints prepared by dynamic diffusion bonding: Microelectrochemical studies in 0.6 M NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreatta, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.andreatta@uniud.i [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita Degli Studi di Udine, Via del Cotonificio 108, 33100 Udine (Italy); Matesanz, Laura [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Akita, Adriano H. [UNESP, Instituto de Quimica, CP 355, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Paussa, Luca; Fedrizzi, Lorenzo [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita Degli Studi di Udine, Via del Cotonificio 108, 33100 Udine (Italy); Fugivara, Cecilio S. [UNESP, Instituto de Quimica, CP 355, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Gomez de Salazar, Jose M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Benedetti, Assis V. [UNESP, Instituto de Quimica, CP 355, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-30

    Corrosion of SAE 1045 steel/WC-Co/Ni-Cu-Ni/SAE 1045 steel interfaces was investigated in 0.6 M NaCl solution using an electrochemical microcell, which enables local electrochemical characterization at the micrometer scale. Two pieces of steel, one with a WC-Co coating covered with Ni (12 mum) and Cu (5 mum) layers, and the other with a Ni (15 mum) layer, were welded by dynamic diffusion bonding. A WC-Co coating was applied to the steel by the high velocity oxygen-fuel process, and Ni-Cu and Ni layers by electroplating. Polarization curves were recorded using an electrochemical microcell. Different regions of welded samples were investigated, including steel, cermet coating, and steel/cermet and steel/Ni-Cu-Ni/cermet interfaces. Optical and electronic microscopes were employed to study the corroded regions. Potentiodynamic polarization curves obtained using the microcell revealed that the base metal was more susceptible to corrosion than the cermet. In addition, cermet steel/cermet and steel/Ni-Cu-Ni/cermet joints exhibited different breakdown potentials. Steel was strongly corroded in the regions adjacent to the interfaces, while the cermet was less corroded. Iron oxides/hydroxides and chloride salts were the main corrosion products of steel. After removal of the superficial layer of corrosion products, iron oxides were mainly observed. Chloride ions were detected mainly on a copper-enriched layer placed between two Ni-enriched layers.

  13. Design of Integrated Information Display System of Tractors Based on SAE J1939 Protocols%基于SAE J1939协议拖拉机综合信息显示系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正浩; 鲁植雄; 任益敏; 李晓勤

    2012-01-01

    介绍了SAE J1939协议,针对目前我国还大量使用的传统拖拉机仪表显示单元的缺点,利用CAN总线技术以及SAE J1939协议设计了一种新型拖拉机综合信息显示系统.该系统以STC89C52RC单片机为微处理器,SJA 1000为CAN控制器,PCA82C250为CAN收发器,将驾驶员所需的拖拉机发动机转速、车速、水温、挡位、警示信息、作业信息等主要信息通过TFT-LCD液晶屏进行实时显示.在实际的调试过程当中,系统可靠性好,信息显示准确,运行正常.

  14. Factors associated with intern noncompliance with the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's 30-hour duty period requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Christopher G; Antommaria, Armand H Matheny; Bale, James F; Ying, Jian; Greene, Tom; Srivastava, Rajendu

    2012-07-13

    In 2003 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education mandated work hour restrictions. Violations can results in a residency program being cited or placed on probation. Recurrent violations could results in loss of accreditation. We wanted to determine specific intern and workload factors associated with violation of a specific mandate, the 30-hour duty period requirement. Retrospective review of interns' performance against the 30-hour duty period requirement during inpatient ward rotations at a pediatric residency program between June 24, 2008 and June 23, 2009. The analytical plan included both univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Twenty of the 26 (77%) interns had 80 self-reported episodes of continuous work hours greater than 30 hours. In multivariable analysis, noncompliance was inversely associated with the number of prior inpatient rotations (odds ratio: 0.49, 95% confidence interval (0.38, 0.64) per rotation) but directly associated with the total number of patients (odds ratio: 1.30 (1.10, 1.53) per additional patient). The number of admissions on-call, number of admissions after midnight and number of discharges post-call were not significantly associated with noncompliance. The level of noncompliance also varied significantly between interns after accounting for intern experience and workload factors. Subject to limitations in statistical power, we were unable to identify specific intern characteristics, such as demographic variables or examination scores, which account for the variation in noncompliance between interns. Both intern and workload factors were associated with pediatric intern noncompliance with the 30-hour duty period requirement during inpatient ward rotations. Residency programs must develop information systems to understand the individual and experience factors associated with noncompliance and implement appropriate interventions to ensure compliance with the duty hour regulations.

  15. Factors influencing adjustment of high school students in an international exchange program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, T; Shibayama, T

    1994-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate which psychosocial factors measured before departure are predictive of various aspects of intercultural adjustment among Japanese teenagers enrolled in a foreign exchange student program. A cohort of 188 Japanese high school students, who had been selected to spend 1 year in various countries of the world under the aegis of an international exchange student program, was administered the Maudsley Personality Inventory, the Parental Bonding Instrument, the General Health Questionnaire and the People in Your Life Scale before their departure from Japan. Six months after arrival in the host community, they were again asked to complete the General Health Questionnaire and relevant sections of the People in Your Life Scale. The students showed highly significant and substantial deterioration in all three areas of psychosocial adjustment: they reported more psychiatric symptoms, less availability of social relationships, and less satisfaction with them in their host community than at home. Psychiatric symptoms were best predicted by perceived adequacy of intimate attachments and neuroticism measured before departure, availability of social relationships abroad by availability and adequacy of social relationships and adequacy of attachments at home, and satisfaction with social relationships abroad by satisfaction with attachments at home and by paternal care before age 16. This study thus demonstrates that studying abroad entails deterioration in psychosocial adjustment of the adolescents studied and that different factors are influential in different aspects of adjustment. The importance of a prospective and multifaceted study of intercultural adjustment process is emphasized.

  16. Sustainability in a global context: How does local factor affect the outcomes of CSR activities in international business units?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Lauring, Jakob

    In recent years CSR has become increasingly important for the activities and branding of MNCs. While some studies have investigated CSR management and branding in domestic situations, fewer studies exist in the case of international business units (subsidiaries, joint ventures, and franchises...... as CSR branding outcomes). Our findings show that local values were positively associated with external CSR engagement and that employee relations were positively related to both internal and external CSR engagement. None of the local factors were significantly associated with CSR branding outcomes......). In this study, we use a sample consisting of 119 Danish business units that are located in China. We set out to investigate the relationship between local factors (the local business unit’s Chinese values and internal employee relations in the unit) and CSR outcomes (internal and external CSR engagement as well...

  17. MuSAE: A European Project for the Diffusion of Energy and Environmental Planning in Small-Medium Sized Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baldinelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic idea of the EU LIFE+ 2011 project MuSAE (“Municipalities Subsidiarity for Actions on Energy”, code LIFE11 ENV/IT/000016 consists of transferring the skills and experience related to energy planning, acquired by the leading beneficiary, the Municipality of Perugia, to three small- or medium-sized Umbrian Municipalities (Marsciano, Umbertide and Lisciano Niccone. This transfer is aimed, among other objectives, at the drafting of the Municipal Energy and Environmental Plan (MEEP and the opening of an energy information office in each partner Municipality, in cooperation with CIRIAF and Umbria Region. The present paper provides a summary of MuSAE activities, analyzing the procedures and modalities of implementation of the various phases of the MEEPs, on the basis of the experience gained over the years through the collaboration with the Municipality of Perugia and adapted to smaller territories such as those represented by the other partner Municipalities. A summary of the dissemination activities and pilot projects is also presented, testifying the first concrete results of the planning activity developed by each administration within the project.

  18. Caffeine impairs resection during DNA break repair by reducing the levels of nucleases Sae2 and Dna2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabar, Michael; Eapen, Vinay V.; Mason, Jennifer M.; Memisoglu, Gonen; Waterman, David P.; Long, Marcus J.; Bishop, Douglas K.; Haber, James E.

    2015-01-01

    In response to chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs), eukaryotic cells activate the DNA damage checkpoint, which is orchestrated by the PI3 kinase-like protein kinases ATR and ATM (Mec1 and Tel1 in budding yeast). Following DSB formation, Mec1 and Tel1 phosphorylate histone H2A on serine 129 (known as γ-H2AX). We used caffeine to inhibit the checkpoint kinases after DSB induction. We show that prolonged phosphorylation of H2A-S129 does not require continuous Mec1 and Tel1 activity. Unexpectedly, caffeine treatment impaired homologous recombination by inhibiting 5′ to 3′ end resection, independent of Mec1 and Tel1 inhibition. Caffeine treatment led to the rapid loss, by proteasomal degradation, of both Sae2, a nuclease that plays a role in early steps of resection, and Dna2, a nuclease that facilitates one of two extensive resection pathways. Sae2's instability is evident in the absence of DNA damage. A similar loss is seen when protein synthesis is inhibited by cycloheximide. Caffeine treatment had similar effects on irradiated HeLa cells, blocking the formation of RPA and Rad51 foci that depend on 5′ to 3′ resection of broken chromosome ends. Our findings provide insight toward the use of caffeine as a DNA damage-sensitizing agent in cancer cells. PMID:26019182

  19. Development and analysis of the factor structure of parents' internalized stigma of neurodevelopmental disorder in child scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mahapatra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders, frequently face public stigma which is often internalized and leads to psychological burden. However, there is a lack of data on the perceptions of internalized stigma among parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders, especially from lower-middle-income countries like India. Aims: This study aims to develop an adapted version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale for use in parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders and to explore the factor structure of this instrument through exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in an outpatient setting in a tertiary care hospital in India. Materials and Methods: A total of 105 parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition were recruited for the study after screening for psychiatric disorder using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 6.0. A modified 16-item scale was constructed Parents' Internalized Stigma of Neurodevelopmental Disorder in Child (PISNC scale and applied on 105 parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders, after translation to Hindi and back-translation, in keeping with the World Health Organization's translation-back-translation methodology. Statistical Analysis: EFA was carried out using principal component analysis with orthogonal (varimax rotation. Internal consistency of the Hindi version of the scale was estimated in the form of Cronbach's alpha. Spearman–Brown coefficient and Guttman split-half coefficient were calculated to evaluate the split-half reliability. Results: The initial factor analysis yielded three-factor models with an eigenvalue of >1 and the total variance explained by these factors was 62.017%. The internal consistency of the 16-item scale was 0

  20. LTE/SAE网络eNodeB脆弱性分析%Analysis of the Frangibility of LTE/SAE Network eNodeB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏溢; 季新生; 汤红波

    2010-01-01

    长期演进(LTE)和系统架构演进(SAE)代表3GPP标准的发展方向,针对3GPP最新发布的LTE/SAE Release 9标准,对LTE/SAE网络安全架构及安全机制进行了研究,分析了eNodeB相关的安全威胁,并针对这些威胁提出了相应的安全措施,这些安全措施对LTE/SAE系统安全有重要作用.

  1. Long-term results of preventive embolization of renal angiomyolipomas: evaluation of predictive factors of volume decrease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocquelet, A.; Cornelis, F.; Le Bras, Y.; Meyer, M.; Tricaud, E.; Lasserre, A.S.; Grenier, N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pellegrin, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Urology and Vascular Imaging, Bordeaux (France); Ferriere, J.M.; Robert, G. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pellegrin, Urology Service, Bordeaux (France)

    2014-08-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of selective arterial embolization (SAE) of angiomyolipomas based on the percentage volume reduction after embolization and to identify predictive factors of volume decrease. Patients receiving prophylactic SAE of renal angiomyolipomas were included retrospectively over 3 years. The volume change after SAE and haemorrhagic or surgical events were recorded. Initial tumour volume, percentage tumour fat content, mean tumour density, embolic agent used, number of angiomyolipomas and tuberous sclerosis disease were evaluated as predictive factors of volume decrease. A total of 19 patients with 39 angiomyolipomas were included with median follow-up of 28 months (interquartile range 21-37 months). All treatments were technically successful (92 % primary and 8 % secondary). No distal bleeding or any increase in size or surgical nephrectomy after SAE was recorded. Mean volume reduction was 72 % (±24 %). Volumes before SAE (R{sup 2} = 0.276; p = 0.001), percentage fat content (R{sup 2} = 0.612; p < 0.0001) and mean angiomyolipoma density (R{sup 2} = 0.536; p < 0.0001) were identified as predictive factors of volume decrease. In multivariate regression, only percentage fat content influenced volume decreases. SAE is an efficient treatment for angiomyolipoma devascularisation and volume reduction. A significant reduction of volume is modulated by the initial volume and tissue composition of the tumour. (orig.)

  2. International Society of Urological Pathology grading and other prognostic factors for renal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R; Egevad, Lars; Montironi, Rodolfo

    2014-11-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology convened an international consensus conference in 2012 to review aspects relating to the prognostic assessment, classification, and diagnosis of adult renal malignancy. The detailed recommendations of the conference are reported.

  3. Weight Function Method for Stress Intensity Factor of Internal Surface Semi-elliptical Crack in Elliptical Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hatches for inspecting are usually designed with elliptical holes in airplane structures, so computation of the stress intensity factor of three dimensional crack at elliptical holes is pivotal for damage tolerance analysis of these structures. In this paper, weight function is derived for a two dimensional through cracks at elliptical holes by applying a compounding method. Stress intensity factor formulas for an internal surface semi-elliptical crack in elliptical holes are obtained using the three dimensional weight function method. Stress intensity factors for an internal surface semi-elliptical crack in elliptical holes under remote tension are computed. At the same time, research on how radius of curvature for elliptical holes affect stress intensity factors was conducted. Stress intensity factors decrease when radius of curvature increases. Some results and conclusions which are of practical value are given.

  4. Tratamento térmico por indução eletromagnética em tubos de aço SAE 1045 para produção de hastes de sondagem geológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Ferreira

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho descreve o tratamento térmico por indução eletromagnética em tubos sem costura para a produção de hastes para sondagem geológica. São determinados, através de análises metalográficas e ensaios mecânicos, os parâmetros ideais para as etapas de têmpera e revenido, a fim de obter hastes nacionais tratadas com qualidade similar às disponíveis no mercado internacional. A determinação dos parâmetros operacionais do equipamento de indução eletromagnética, para têmpera e revenimento de tubos de aço SAE-1045, utilizados na confecção das hastes, permitiu obter um perfil de dureza sem grandes flutuações de valor, variando suavemente de um valor máximo próximo a 45HRc na extremidade externa da faixa tratada, para um valor mínimo próximo a 35HRc, no final da mesma.This work describes the production of geological drill rods through electromagnetic induction thermal treatment of tubes. The research aims at determining, through metalography, mechanical tests and field tests, the ideal induction hardening and tempering parameters, to produce drill rods with qualities similar to the ones available in the international market. The determination of the induction hardening and tempering parameters of SAE-1045 steel tubes, for the production of geological drill rods, was capable of producing hardness profiles with low fluctuations in values, ranging from a maximum value of 45HRc close to the extremity, to minimum values close to 35HRc at the end of the treated region.

  5. Mobility as "Becoming": A Bourdieuian Analysis of the Factors Shaping International Student Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ly Thi

    2016-01-01

    This paper unpacks the meanings and implications of the mobility of international students in vocational education--an under-researched group in the field of international education. This four-year study found that transnational mobility is regarded as a resourceful vehicle to help international students "become" the kind of person they…

  6. Selective embolization of the internal iliac arteries for the treatment of intractable hemorrhage in children with malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sul Hee Bae

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Acute internal hemorrhage is an occasionally life-threatening complication in pediatric cancer patients. Many therapeutic approaches have been used to control bleeding with various degrees of success. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of selective internal iliac artery embolization for controlling acute intractable bleeding in children with malignancies. Methods : We retrospectively evaluated the cases of 6 children with various malignancies (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and rhabdomyosarcoma, who had undergone selective arterial embolization (SAE of the internal iliac artery at the Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital between January 2004 and December 2009. SAE was performed by an interventional radiologist using Gelfoam&#9415; and/or Tornado&#9415; coils. Results : The patients were 5 boys and 1 girl with median age of 6.9 years (range, 0.7&#8211;14.8 years at the time of SAE. SAE was performed once in 4 patients and twice in 2, and the procedure was unilateral in 2 and bilateral in 4. The causes of hemorrhage were as follows: hemorrhagic cystitis (HC in 3 patients, procedure-related internal iliac artery injuries in 2 patients, and tumor rupture in 1 patient. Initial attempt at conservative management was unsuccessful. Of the 6 patients, 5 (83.3% showed improvement after SAE without complications. Conclusion : SAE may be a safe and effective procedure for controlling acute intractable hemorrhage in pediatric malignancy patients. This procedure may obviate the need for surgery, which carries an attendant risk of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients with critical conditions.

  7. An Investigation of Factors Motivating Student’s Study at The International Hotel Management Institute Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengky Efendy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in this era of globalisation the hospitality industry needs well educated employees. Therefore the hotel school has to provide human resources to fit any position in the hospitality industry. The author chose the International Hotel Management Institute (IMI-Switzerland for research too specifically investigates factors affecting students’ motivations to study. The author’s experience was that many students of hospitality are not very motivated to study hotel management. Students get bored while having lectures, are not motivated to go to the library to research, and yet to be educated is the main reasons that students come to IMI to study hospitality. The author has set several objectives in chapter two to ensure the flow of this research. The literature review will be covered in motivating of students study for hotel school education.Literature review which is critically analysed by the author was chosen by the author according the field of study. The sample chosen for this research was motivation students study from first, second, third and fourth year students in IMI- Switzerland Several motivation of this research was the reference book of this field study, and the length of time for making this dissertation. After the primary data were collected and analysed, it was discovered that most of all students in IMI-Switzerland is to have a better chance of getting a job after finishing the course. 

  8. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Factors that contribute to social media influence within an Internal Medicine Twitter learning community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tejas; Patwardhan, Manish; Coore, Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Medical societies, faculty, and trainees use Twitter to learn from and educate other social media users. These social media communities bring together individuals with various levels of experience. It is not known if experienced individuals are also the most influential members. We hypothesize that participants with the greatest experience would be the most influential members of a Twitter community. We analyzed the 2013 Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine Twitter community. We measured the number of tweets authored by each participant and the number of amplified tweets (re-tweets). We developed a multivariate linear regression model to identify any relationship to social media influence, measured by the PageRank. Faculty (from academic institutions) comprised 19% of the 132 participants in the learning community (p influence amongst all participants (mean 1.99, p influence (β = 0.068, p = 0.6). The only factors that predicted influence (higher PageRank) were the number of tweets authored (p influence. Any participant who was able to author the greatest number of tweets or have more of his/her tweets amplified could wield a greater influence on the participants, regardless of his/her authority.

  10. The Economic Nature of Factoring and its Legal Manifestation in the Bulgarian Legislation and the Convention on International Factoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia P. DIMITROVA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The factoring is a sophisticated financial technique and management service designed to facilitate the use of trade credit. This article illustrates the basic factoring services and namely: financing, credit protection, accounting (ledgering and collection of receivables. It is emphasized, that factoring as a legal phenomenon includes two contracts: a contract for sale of goods or for supply of services between the supplier and its customers (debtors, on the one hand, and a factoring contract between the supplier and the factor, on the other hand.

  11. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on ethnic factors in the acceptability of foreign clinical data; availability--FDA. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a guidance entitled "E5 Ethnic Factors in the Acceptability of Foreign Clinical Data". The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance recommends regulatory and development strategies to permit clinical data collected in one region to be used for the support of drug and biologic registrations in another region while allowing for the influence of ethnic factors.

  12. Diagnostic and Predictive Levels of Calcium-binding Protein A8 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-associated Factor 6 in Sepsis-associated Encephalopathy: A Prospective Observational Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Na Zhang; Xiao-Hong Wang; Long Wu; Li Huang; Chun-Guang Zhao; Qian-Yi Peng; Yu-Hang Ai

    2016-01-01

    Background:Despite its high prevalence,morbidity,and mortality,sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is still poorly understood.The aim of this prospective and observational study was to investigate the clinical significance of calcium-binding protein A8 (S100A8) in serum and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in diagnosing SAE and predicting its prognosis.Methods:Data of septic patients were collected within 24 h after Intensive Care Unit admission from July 2014 to March 2015.Healthy medical personnel served as the control group.SAE was defined as cerebral dysfunction in the presence of sepsis that fulfilled the exclusion criteria.The biochemical indicators,Glasgow Coma Scale,Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score Ⅱ,TRAF6 in PBMC,serum S 100A8,S 100β,and neuron-specific enolase were evaluated in SAE patients afresh.TRAF6 and S 100A8 were also measured in the control group.Results:Of the 57 enrolled patients,29 were diagnosed with SAE.The S 100A8 and TRAF6 concentrations in SAE patients were both significantly higher than that in no-encephalopathy (NE) patients,and higher in NE than that in controls (3.74 ± 3.13 vs.1.08 ± 0.75 vs.0.37 ± 0.14 ng/ml,P < 0.01;3.18 ± 1.55 vs.1.02 ± 0.63 vs.0.47 ± 0.10,P < 0.01).S 100A8 levels of 1.93 ng/ml were diagnostic of SAE with 92.90% specificity and 69.00% sensitivity in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve,and the area under the curve was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI]:0.76-0.95).TRAF6-relative levels of 1.44 were diagnostic of SAE with 85.70% specificity and 86.20% sensitivity,and the area under the curve was 0.94 (95% CI:0.88-0.99).In addition,S 100A8 levels of 2.41 ng/ml predicted 28-day mortality of SAE with 90.00% specificity and 73.70% sensitivity in the ROC curve,and the area under the curve was 0.88.TRAF6 relative levels of 2.94 predicted 28-day mortality of SAE with 80.00% specificity

  13. 基于SAE J1939与TTCAN的汽车网络设计与分析%Design and Analysis of Vehicle Network Based on TTCAN and SAE J1939

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱光欢; 李向阳

    2011-01-01

    针对汽车控制系统中实时通信的高性能需求,文中采用以CAN总线作为网络底层协议,以SAE J1939协议和TTCAN协议作为网络的上层协议的分层网络结构.TTCAN是一种基于时间触发机制的协议,因此这种网络结构不仅可以实现系统各节点之间高速数据共享,同时能够提高网络带宽的利用率,而且在消息的实时性能方面得到很好的改善.在测试当中,取得了良好的效果,充分证明了方案的可行性.%ln the light of vehicle control system needing the high-performance of real-time communication , this paper introduced a hierarchical network structure. It used CAN-bus as the underlying protocoI,SAE J1939 protocol and TTCANas the upper protocol. TTCAN was a time-based trigger mechanism prorocol, so the network system not only realized high-speed data sharing between nodes and increased the utilization rate of the network bandwidth, but also improved the real-time perfonnance. It has good results in test, fully proved the feasibility of Lhe design.

  14. 基于SAE J1939的装载机电液换挡辅助试验系统设计%Design of Assistant Experiment System of Electro-hydraulic Shift in Loader based on SAE J1939

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钊; 吴强; 谢波; 朱玉田

    2011-01-01

    Replying to the requirements of the monitoring and diagnosis for electro - hydraulic control system of the wheel loader hydraulic transmission, CAN bus is used to exchange data between PC and the transmission controller, which accorded to SAE J1939 in the application layer. With the application of the software- LabVIEW, the PC - based program is developed to monitor and diagnose the whole electro - hydraulic shift system. Meanwhile, the program can store and re - display some parameters related to the shift quality. The whole assistant experiment system has a simple hardware structure, the character of high durability and friendly human - interface, and is added to the generality and flexibility.%装载机液力机械变速器电液换挡操控系统需进行工作状态监测及诊断测试,利用变速器控制器的CAN总线接口与PC进行数据交互,CAN总线应用层协议遵循SAE J1939,应用编程软件Lab-VIEW开发出上位机程序,实现了电液换挡控制系统的工作状态监测、诊断测试、换挡品质相关参数存储与回放等功能.整套辅助试验系统硬件设备简单,可靠性高,人机交互良好,具有一定的通用性和灵活性.

  15. An Early Historical Examination of the Educational Intent of Supervised Agricultural Experiences (SAEs) and Project-Based Learning in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kasee L.; Rayfield, John

    2016-01-01

    Project-based learning has been a component of agricultural education since its inception. In light of the current call for additional emphasis of the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) component of agricultural education, there is a need to revisit the roots of project-based learning. This early historical research study was conducted to…

  16. Predicting Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Five Years by Child and Parental Factors in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantymaa, Mirjami; Puura, Kaija; Luoma, Ilona; Latva, Reija; Salmelin, Raili K.; Tamminen, Tuula

    2012-01-01

    This study examined child and parental factors in infancy and toddlerhood predicting subclinical or clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing problems at 5 years of age. Ninety-six children and their families participated. They were assessed when the children were 4-10 weeks old (T1), 2 years (T2) and 5 years old (T3). Child risks…

  17. International risk factors affecting Finnish energy supplies. Suomen energiahuollon kansainvaeliset uhkatekijaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasanen, P.; Koponen, M.; Kaekoenen, J. (Oulu Univ., Oulu (Finland). Dept. of Geography)

    1989-01-01

    An examination is made of the structure and development of Finnish fuel imports, world fuel market trends and prospects, and the impact of global environmental concerns on Finnish energy supplies. Attention is focused on the political and economic developments to be expected in the major fuel producing or consuming countries. The aim is to look for factors that could treaten the functioning of Finnish fuel supplies and to suggest ways to avoid or overcome these threats. The research is based on Finnish and international energy statistics, published forecasts for the development of the fuel trade and fuel resources and the latest literature on energy economics and political science. Finland is heavily dependent on foreign fuels, over two thirds of her fuels supply being imported. By far the most important source of imports is the Soviet Union, although Poland is a major supplier of coal. The increase in domestic demands for fuels in these countries, will make it necessary for Finland to diversify the sources of her fuel imports. The suggestions made here include the following: Saudi-Arabia and Kuwait should be considered as possible new sources of oil. Coal could be imported from South Africa, provided that the apartheid policy is discontinued. Norway could provide some natural gas, although a Nordic pipeline system would be needed for this to be possible. Finland should invest in fuel resource exploration and development and in building the necessary infrastructure in the producing countries in order to improve the possibilities for reaching long-term agreements on fuel imports. Imporovements in the effiency of the end users of energy and an increase in the proportion of renewable sources of energy would not only be steps towards a sustainable fuel economy, but would also reduce the country's dependence on imported fuels.

  18. Factors that contribute to social media influence within an Internal Medicine Twitter learning community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tejas; Patwardhan, Manish; Coore, Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Medical societies, faculty, and trainees use Twitter to learn from and educate other social media users. These social media communities bring together individuals with various levels of experience. It is not known if experienced individuals are also the most influential members. We hypothesize that participants with the greatest experience would be the most influential members of a Twitter community. We analyzed the 2013 Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine Twitter community. We measured the number of tweets authored by each participant and the number of amplified tweets (re-tweets). We developed a multivariate linear regression model to identify any relationship to social media influence, measured by the PageRank. Faculty (from academic institutions) comprised 19% of the 132 participants in the learning community (p < 0.0001). Faculty authored 49% of all 867 tweets (p < 0.0001). Their tweets were the most likely to be amplified (52%, p < 0.01). Faculty had the greatest influence amongst all participants (mean 1.99, p < 0.0001). Being a faculty member had no predictive effect on influence (β = 0.068, p = 0.6). The only factors that predicted influence (higher PageRank) were the number of tweets authored (p < 0.0001) and number of tweets amplified (p < 0.0001) The status of “faculty member” did not confer a greater influence. Any participant who was able to author the greatest number of tweets or have more of his/her tweets amplified could wield a greater influence on the participants, regardless of his/her authority. PMID:25110581

  19. Factors Related to the Acculturation Stress of International Students in a Faith-Based Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Liane Videres

    2012-01-01

    The number of international students attending American educational institutions is increasing annually. Based upon Maslow theory of needs, it was hypothesized that the acculturation process contributes to stress and anxiety among international students; therefore, it is important to understand some of the variables that influence this process for…

  20. Factors Related to the Acculturation Stress of International Students in a Faith-Based Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Liane Videres

    2012-01-01

    The number of international students attending American educational institutions is increasing annually. Based upon Maslow theory of needs, it was hypothesized that the acculturation process contributes to stress and anxiety among international students; therefore, it is important to understand some of the variables that influence this process for…

  1. Factors Influencing International Students' Choice to Study in Turkey and Challenges They Experience in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özoglu, Murat; Gür, Bekir S.; Coskun, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is increasingly becoming a regional hub for international students. The number of international students in Turkish universities has grown by almost 300% in the last decade. The current internationalization efforts of the Turkish government and universities have the potential to make Turkey an even more attractive destination for…

  2. Internalization mechanisms of the epidermal growth factor receptor after activation with different ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse; Grandal, Michael Vibo; Knudsen, Stine Louise Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    fully inhibits EGFR degradation after all ligands tested. Furthermore, inhibition of dynamin function blocked EGFR internalization after stimulation with all ligands. Knocking out a number of clathrin-independent dynamin-dependent pathways of internalization had no effect on the ligand...

  3. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (Mrp3/Abcc3/Moat-D) is expressed in the SAE Squalus acanthias shark embryo-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Parton, Angela; Czechanski, Anne; Durkin, Christopher; Kong, Chi-Chon; Barnes, David

    2007-01-01

    The multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3/Mrp3) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family of membrane transporters and related proteins that act on a variety of xenobiotic and anionic molecules to transfer these substrates in an ATP-dependent manner. In recent years, useful comparative information regarding evolutionarily conserved structure and transport functions of these proteins has accrued through the use of primitive marine animals such as cartilaginous fish. Until recently, one missing tool in comparative studies with cartilaginous fish was cell culture. We have derived from the embryo of Squalus acanthias, the spiny dogfish shark, the S. acanthias embryo (SAE) mesenchymal stem cell line. This is the first continuously proliferating cell line from a cartilaginous fish. We identified expression of Mrp3 in this cell line, cloned the molecule, and examined molecular and cellular physiological aspects of the protein. Shark Mrp3 is characterized by three membrane-spanning domains and two nucleotide-binding domains. Multiple alignments with other species showed that the shark Mrp3 amino acid sequence was well conserved. The shark sequence was overall 64% identical to human MRP3, 72% identical to chicken Mrp3, and 71% identical to frog and stickleback Mrp3. Highest identity between shark and human amino acid sequence (82%) was seen in the carboxyl-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of the proteins. Cell culture experiments showed that mRNA for the protein was induced as much as 25-fold by peptide growth factors, fetal bovine serum, and lipid nutritional components, with the largest effect mediated by a combination of lipids including unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and vitamin E.

  4. Internalizing Symptoms and Safe Sex Intentions among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment: Personal Factors as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, Meredith C.; Rizzo, Christie J.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Dattadeen, Jodi-Ann; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about why some adolescents with internalizing symptoms engage in sexual behaviors that increase their risk for HIV. This study tested a mediation model of internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Self-efficacy for HIV prevention, HIV knowledge, and worry about HIV were hypothesized to mediate associations between internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among sexually active and non-active adolescents receiving mental health treatment (N = 893, M age = 14.9). Significant indirect effects from internalizing symptoms to safe sex intentions varied according sexual experience: for sexually non-active adolescents, HIV worry and knowledge mediated this link, whereas for sexually active adolescents, HIV self-efficacy was the significant mediator. Increasing both HIV knowledge and self-efficacy for HIV prevention are important targets for HIV prevention with adolescents with internalizing symptoms, and careful attention should be paid towards targeting these interventions to sexually experienced and inexperienced youth. PMID:25284921

  5. On-Track Testing as a Validation Method of Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulations of a Formula SAE Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, Robert

    This thesis is about the validation of a computational fluid dynamics simulation of a ground vehicle by means of a low-budget coast-down test. The vehicle is built to the standards of the 2014 Formula SAE rules. It is equipped with large wings in the front and rear of the car; the vertical loads on the tires are measured by specifically calibrated shock potentiometers. The coast-down test was performed on a runway of a local airport and is used to determine vehicle specific coefficients such as drag, downforce, aerodynamic balance, and rolling resistance for different aerodynamic setups. The test results are then compared to the respective simulated results. The drag deviates about 5% from the simulated to the measured results. The downforce numbers show a deviation up to 18% respectively. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis of inlet velocities, ride heights, and pitch angles was performed with the help of the computational simulation.

  6. Effect of Microstructure and Texture on Anisotropy and Mechanical Properties of SAE 970X Steel Under Hot Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Mohammad; Mohtadi-Bonab, M. A.; de Abreu, Hamilton Ferreira Gomes

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the effect of microstructure and crystallographic texture by developed in hot rolling and different post-treatments on anisotropic and mechanical properties of SAE 970X steel. The experimental results showed that the hot-rolled sample followed by quenching and consequent tempering at 700 °C led to a significant improvement in anisotropic and mechanical properties. This happened due to the reduction in the number of grains oriented with {001} planes parallel to normal direction. Also, the formation of new strain-free and recrystallized grains associated with {111}//ND and {110}//ND directions improved the mechanical properties. These grains corresponded to the close-packed planes in BCC structure as well.

  7. A study of corrosion inhibition of steel AISI-SAE 1020 in CO2-brine using surfactant Tween 80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, M. L.; L, E. Vera; Pineda T, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Surfactant inhibitors also called active surface agents are molecules composed of a polar hydrophilic group and a non-polar hydrophobic group, with characteristics of adsorption on metal surfaces, high efficiency of inhibiting, low price, low toxicity and easy production. In this work, the corrosion inhibition was study by CO2 steel AISI-SAE 1020 with the addition of 0.01M Tween 80 surfactant to a brine solution (3% NaCl). Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization testing investigated the phenomenon. The results revealed that the surfactant studied acts as an excellent corrosion inhibitor and inhibition efficiency (E%) increases with increasing fluid velocity. The morphology of the steel surface after exposure to the solution of 3% NaCl with and without surfactant indicates the inhibition phenomenon is due to the adsorption of the surfactant molecules, which insulate the surface of the corrosive medium and reduces the attack surficial.

  8. Preparation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles and their internalization into colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creixell, Mar [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez Campus, P.O. Box 9000, Mayagueez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); Department of Electronics, Faculty of Physics, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Herrera, Adriana P.; Ayala, Vanessa; Latorre-Esteves, Magda [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez Campus, P.O. Box 9000, Mayagueez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); Perez-Torres, Marianela [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Puerto Rico-Medical Sciences Campus, PO Box 365067, San Juan, PR 00936 (Puerto Rico); Torres-Lugo, Madeline [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez Campus, P.O. Box 9000, Mayagueez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); Rinaldi, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.rinaldi@upr.ed [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez Campus, P.O. Box 9000, Mayagueez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico)

    2010-08-15

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was conjugated with carboxymethyldextran (CMDx) coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles using carbodiimide chemistry to obtain magnetic nanoparticles that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Epidermal growth factor modified magnetic nanoparticles were colloidally stable when suspended in biological buffers such as PBS and cell culture media. Both targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles were incubated with CaCo-2 cancer cells, known to overexpress EGFR. Nanoparticle localization within the cell was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy and light microscopy using Prussian blue stain. Results showed that targeted magnetic nanoparticles were rapidly accumulated in both flask-shaped small vesicles and large circular endocytic structures. Internalization patterns suggest that both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent receptors mediated endocytosis mechanisms are responsible for nanoparticle internalization.

  9. Preparation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles and their internalization into colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creixell, Mar; Herrera, Adriana P.; Ayala, Vanessa; Latorre-Esteves, Magda; Pérez-Torres, Marianela; Torres-Lugo, Madeline; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2010-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was conjugated with carboxymethyldextran (CMDx) coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles using carbodiimide chemistry to obtain magnetic nanoparticles that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Epidermal growth factor modified magnetic nanoparticles were colloidally stable when suspended in biological buffers such as PBS and cell culture media. Both targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles were incubated with CaCo-2 cancer cells, known to overexpress EGFR. Nanoparticle localization within the cell was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy and light microscopy using Prussian blue stain. Results showed that targeted magnetic nanoparticles were rapidly accumulated in both flask-shaped small vesicles and large circular endocytic structures. Internalization patterns suggest that both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent receptors mediated endocytosis mechanisms are responsible for nanoparticle internalization.

  10. Macro-logistics Decision Factors and Information Measures for Scanning Global (Supply Chain) Environments in International Location Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem

    in scanning against this international uncertainty is also developed. For this purpose, the study deploys integrated literature reviews and content analyses. Finally, the study employs expert opinions in order to validate these factors and information measures and to present the findings in the form...... operations and activities, and poses environmental complexity in the form of risks and costs that organisations need to contend with. With this background, the purpose of this paper is to report on the most important macro logistics decision factors that describe environmental complexity for global....../cross border logistics operations. The study applies a decision-making oriented approach in order to develop a set of macrologistics factors that pose international uncertainty in cross-border flows of goods, information, payment and ownership. Similarly, a list of information measures that are relevant...

  11. Macro-Logistics Decision Factors and Information Measures for Scanning Global (Supply Chain) Environments in International Location Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem

    2012-01-01

    reviews and content analyses. Finally, the study employs expert opinions in order to validate these factors and information measures and to present the findings in the form of a decision hierarchy. The findings suggest the importance of 17 generic decision factors at the macro-economic (country) level......value chains and supply chain management. This scope is usually accompanied by uncertainty to organisations, especially for the cross-border value chain with geographically dispersed operations and activities, and poses environmental complexity in the form of risks and costs that organisations need......-logistics factors that pose international uncertainty in cross-border flows of goods, information, payment and ownership. Similarly, a list of information measures that are relevant in scanning against this international uncertainty is also developed. For this purpose, the study deploys integrated literature...

  12. Sustainability in a global context: How does local factor affect the outcomes of CSR activities in international business units?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Lauring, Jakob

    In recent years CSR has become increasingly important for the activities and branding of MNCs. While some studies have investigated CSR management and branding in domestic situations, fewer studies exist in the case of international business units (subsidiaries, joint ventures, and franchises...... as CSR branding outcomes). Our findings show that local values were positively associated with external CSR engagement and that employee relations were positively related to both internal and external CSR engagement. None of the local factors were significantly associated with CSR branding outcomes...

  13. Evaluation of image quality and factor for international telepathology through the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Yukako; Azumi, Norio; Elsayed, Alaa M.; Mun, Seong K.

    1997-05-01

    In the telepathology, rendering devices significantly influence the perceived image quality. If the resolution and color depth are reduced beyond a certain point, however, it is not possible to obtain images which can be used in telepathology even in an ideal situation. With this in mind, we evaluated image quality, compression, size and rates of data exchange with several histological cases on several kinds of systems for our International Consortium for Internet Telepathology (ICIT) project. The ICIT network uses widely available nonpropriety hardware and software with the Internet as a means of communication.In this study, we discuss the effective image acquisition methods for telepathology. To evaluate microscopic images, various resolution size were used. The images were also evaluated at different JPEG compression ratio, including zero compression, and different format. To evaluate an entire glass slide image, a scanner in transparency mode and an NTSC camera were used. Every case showed similar results. For he microscopic image, although the high resolution images, such as 2k X 1.5k or higher, contain more diagnostic information than lower resolution images; sufficient data was retained in the latter that it does not appear to negatively effect diagnosis. The circumstance and condition for image acquisition, such as specimen thickness or dast of glass slide, are most influenced on the highest image resolution. Usually, we use 5-10 images/case for a telepathology conference. To see all images of a case at a glance before detailed observation, or to switch to the other images immediately, a lower resolution,such as 1k X 0.7k is useful. For the entire glass slide, the reviewer could select the desired area by scanner; however, selecting it by the NTSC camera, was not easy to do. On the monitor, the scanned image has almost the same information as the microscopic image captured by the NTSC camera with 2x objective lens. To ge ta high enough quality image, the

  14. Motivational factors of professional footballers, as sportsmen and internal customers in Boyaca, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Villamizar, Milena Milena; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Acosta Muñoz, Julio Fernando; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Cuadros Molano, Juan Gabriel; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Montoya, Juan Carlos; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

    2015-01-01

    This research describes the motivational facts in the soccer professional players, as sportment and internal clients of the corporation Boyacá Chicó Soccer Club. Escala de Motivacion Deportiva (EMD), and Cuestionario de Motivación para el Trabajo (CMT) were both applied. Participants were twenty eight soccer players, whose ages were between 17-39. The results found that in EMD, the internal motivation, by stimulation, predominates over the rest subscales, the lack of motivation is not determi...

  15. Health and well-being factors associated with international business travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, Justin D; Joines, Ron; Cunningham-Hill, Mark; Xu, Baowei

    2010-01-01

    International travel by US business travelers is continuing to increase with the globalization of the economy. The objective of this study was to determine if the frequency and duration of international business travel is associated with differences in travelers' health and well-being. This study expands our limited knowledge of the impact of long-haul travel on healthy lifestyle choices and traveler's perceptions of their health and well-being. 12,942 unique health risk appraisal (HRA) records of US employees of a multinational corporation were analyzed according to self-reported (objective and subjective) travel history and lifestyle habits. Comparing 2,962 international travelers and 9,980 non-travelers, international business travel was significantly associated with a lower body mass index, lower blood pressure, excess alcohol consumption, sleep deprivation, and diminished confidence to keep up with the pace of work. This study demonstrated both positive and negative associations on the health risks and well-being of a large sample of US-based international business travelers from an US multinational company. This study identifies targeted areas for pretrip screening and counseling to proactively address potential negative effects of travel and may assist in the design of corporate travel health and employee assistance programs. © 2010 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  16. The Advantages of Using Factoring, as Financing Technique on International Transactions Market

    OpenAIRE

    Oana-Mihaela Orheian

    2012-01-01

    Factoring appears as a contract between one party (called adherent), providing goods or service and a banking company or a financial institution specialized (called factor), which the last one shall finance debts pursuing and preservation against credit risks and adherent gives factor by way of sale, debts arising from the sale of goods or services to third parties. Factoring is a means of financing business, especially export-import transactions, less known in Romani, but it is present in Ro...

  17. Factors Impacting the Psychological Adjustment of Saudi Arabian International Students in the United States: Self-Esteem, Social Support, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundles, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    International populations face difficulties adjusting to a new culture. This is especially true for international students, who have to adjust to a new country and face academic demands concurrently. Research has explored various factors that impact psychological adjustment of international students and show the influence of self-esteem and social…

  18. Comparison of parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents presenting with internalizing and externalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nazanin; Roberts, Nasreen; DeGrace, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to: (a) examine parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents referred to an outpatient service for internalizing and externalizing disorders, and (b) compare the demographic variables and diagnoses for the two diagnostic groups. Parents of all children who were referred to the child and adolescent outpatient service were asked to participate. Following their informed consent, they completed a socio-demographic questionnaire for themselves and a Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) for their child. The CBCL scores and the diagnoses assigned by the psychiatrists were then recorded for each child. Diagnoses were classified as internalizing or externalizing based on the primary DSM-IV diagnosis assigned by the psychiatrists. Data for the two groups were compared for study variables using Pearson correlation, t-tests, one-way ANOVA and logistic regression. Children who had externalizing disorders tended to live with unemployed single parents who had lower education levels and lived in rented or assisted housing. Children with internalizing problems tended to live in owned homes with employed parents. There was no significant association between age or gender for either group. Previous literature has reported an association between low SES and more mental health problems; however, the relationship between different indicators of SES and diagnosis is not clear. Despite small numbers, our study revealed significant differences between the parental socio-demographic factors for externalizing compared with internalizing disorders.

  19. Trajectories of internalizing problems in war-affected Sierra Leonean youth: examining conflict and postconflict factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Brennan, Robert T

    2013-01-01

    Three waves of data from a prospective longitudinal study in Sierra Leone were used to examine internalizing trajectories in 529 war-affected youth (ages 10-17 at baseline; 25% female). Latent class growth analyses identified 4 trajectories: A large majority of youth maintained lower levels of internalizing problems (41.4%) or significantly improved over time (47.6%) despite very limited access to care, but smaller proportions continued to report severe difficulties 6 years postwar (4.5%) or their symptoms worsened (6.4%). Continued internalizing problems were associated with loss of a caregiver, family abuse and neglect, and community stigma. Despite the comparative resilience of most war-affected youth in the face of extreme adversity, there remains a compelling need for interventions that address family- and community-level stressors.

  20. [総説]Suicide in Okinawa from an international perspective : A consideration of socio-cultural factors

    OpenAIRE

    Naka, Koichi; Willcox, D. Craig; Todoriki, Hidemi; Kageyama, Takayuki; Department of Cli花ical Psychology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Department of Anthropology and Institute for Human Development, Life Course and Aging, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Urban Environment and Health Project, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan

    1998-01-01

    In studies of suicide, a common problem is an over-focus on psychopathology of individual suicidal acts. As a result, the social determinants of suicide are often obscured. In order to rectify this situation, in this paper, we took a Durkheimian approach and focused on social factors that may be linked to suicide. We reviewed research on suicide in Okinawa from an international perspective and reconsidered suicide as a socio-cultural phenomenon. We also compared suicide in Okinawa to trends i...

  1. The causal factors of international inequality in co2 emissions per capita: a regression-based inequality decomposition analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio; Teixidó-Figueras, Jordi; Padilla, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the possibilities provided by the regression-based inequality decomposition (Fields, 2003) to explore the contribution of different explanatory factors to international inequality in CO2 emissions per capita. In contrast to previous emissions inequality decompositions, which were based on identity relationships (Duro and Padilla, 2006), this methodology does not impose any a priori specific relationship. Thus, it allows an assessment of the contribution to inequality of differ...

  2. Internal and External Factors Related to Burnout among Iron and Steel Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Anshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haiqiang; Guo, Huifang; Yang, Yilong; Sun, Baozhi

    2015-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy, which can result from long-term work stress. Although the burnout level is high among iron and steel workers, little is known concerning burnout among iron and steel worker. This study aimed to evaluate the burnout and to explore its associated internal and external factors in iron and steel workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in iron and steel workers at the Anshan iron-steel complex in Anshan, northeast China. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 1,600 workers, and finally 1,300 questionnaires were returned. Burnout was measured using the Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). Effort-reward imbalance (ERI), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) were measured anonymously. A hierarchical regression model was applied to explore the internal and external factors associated with burnout. Mean MBI-GS scores were 13.11±8.06 for emotional exhaustion, 6.64±6.44 for cynicism, and 28.96±10.39 for professional efficacy. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that ERI and POS were the most powerful predictors for emotional exhaustion and cynicism, and PsyCap was the most robust predictor for high professional efficacy. Chinese iron and steel workers have a high level of burnout. Burnout might be associated with internal and external factors, including ERI, POS, and PsyCap. Further studies are recommended to develop an integrated model including both internal and external factors, to reduce the level of ERI, and improve POS and workers' PsyCap, thereby alleviating the level of burnout among iron and steel workers.

  3. Internal and External Factors Related to Burnout among Iron and Steel Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Anshan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqiang Guo

    Full Text Available Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy, which can result from long-term work stress. Although the burnout level is high among iron and steel workers, little is known concerning burnout among iron and steel worker. This study aimed to evaluate the burnout and to explore its associated internal and external factors in iron and steel workers.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in iron and steel workers at the Anshan iron-steel complex in Anshan, northeast China. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 1,600 workers, and finally 1,300 questionnaires were returned. Burnout was measured using the Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS. Effort-reward imbalance (ERI, perceived organizational support (POS, and psychological capital (PsyCap were measured anonymously. A hierarchical regression model was applied to explore the internal and external factors associated with burnout.Mean MBI-GS scores were 13.11±8.06 for emotional exhaustion, 6.64±6.44 for cynicism, and 28.96±10.39 for professional efficacy. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that ERI and POS were the most powerful predictors for emotional exhaustion and cynicism, and PsyCap was the most robust predictor for high professional efficacy.Chinese iron and steel workers have a high level of burnout. Burnout might be associated with internal and external factors, including ERI, POS, and PsyCap. Further studies are recommended to develop an integrated model including both internal and external factors, to reduce the level of ERI, and improve POS and workers' PsyCap, thereby alleviating the level of burnout among iron and steel workers.

  4. Influence of risk factors and cultural assets on Latino adolescents' trajectories of self-esteem and internalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul Richard; Rose, Roderick A; Bacallao, Martica

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we examined longitudinal, person-centered trajectories of acculturation, internalizing symptoms, and self-esteem in 349 Latino adolescents. We compared acculturation measures (time in the US, culture-of-origin involvement, US cultural involvement, for both parents and adolescents); acculturation stressors (perceived discrimination, acculturation conflicts); and family dynamics (parent-adolescent conflict, familism). Results indicated that, over time, Latino adolescents' internalizing problems decreased and their self-esteem increased. However, we showed that increased length of time living in the US was significantly related to lower self-esteem among adolescents. Parent-adolescent conflict was a strong risk factor, which not only directly heightened internalizing symptoms and lowered self-esteem, but also mediated the effects of acculturation conflicts and perceived discrimination on these outcomes. Our findings revealed familism as a cultural asset associated with fewer internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Internalizing symptoms were also minimized by the adolescent's involvement in the US culture whereas bicultural adolescents with high culture-of-origin involvement reported higher self-esteem. We discussed the limitations and implications of this study for future research and practice.

  5. Pluripotency transcription factor Sox2 is strongly adsorbed by heparin but requires a protein transduction domain for cell internalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albayrak, Cem [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, 381 North-South Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Yang, William C. [Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Swartz, James R., E-mail: jswartz@stanford.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, 381 North-South Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Both R9Sox2 and Sox2 bind heparin with comparable affinity. ► Both R9Sox2 and Sox2 bind to fibroblasts, but only R9Sox2 is internalized. ► Internalization efficiency of R9Sox2 is 0.3% of the administered protein. ► Heparan sulfate adsorption may be part of a mechanism for managing cell death. -- Abstract: The binding of protein transduction domain (PTD)-conjugated proteins to heparan sulfate is an important step in cellular internalization of macromolecules. Here, we studied the pluripotency transcription factor Sox2, with or without the nonaarginine (R9) PTD. Unexpectedly, we observed that Sox2 is strongly adsorbed by heparin and by the fibroblasts without the R9 PTD. However, only the R9Sox2 fusion protein is internalized by the cells. These results collectively show that binding to heparan sulfate is not sufficient for cellular uptake, thereby supporting a recent hypothesis that other proteins play a role in cell internalization of PTD-conjugated proteins.

  6. Rules and regulations as potential moderator on the relationship between organizational internal and external factors with effective construction risk management in Nigerian construction companies: A proposed framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, A. Q.; Bahaudin, A. Y.; Kamaruddeen, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Certain organizational internal and external factors have been found to influence effective construction risk management within the construction company which has contributed to massive risk occurrence on the projects. Yet, the influence of the organizational factors such as effective communication, team competency with skills, active leadership, political factor, organizational culture, technology factor and economic factor on effective construction risk management among the construction companies operating in Abuja and Lagos state Nigeria have not received considerable attention. More so, a moderating variable is proposed. This paper proposes rules and regulations as the potential moderator on the relationship between organisational internal factors, external factors and effective construction risk management.

  7. External and internal factors influencing self-directed online learning of physiotherapy undergraduate students in Sweden: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl; Nilsson, Maria H; Gummesson, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Online courses have become common in health sciences education. This learning environment can be designed using different approaches to support student learning. To further develop online environment, it is important to understand how students perceive working and learning online. The aim of this study is to identify aspects influencing students' learning processes and their adaptation to self-directed learning online. Thirty-four physiotherapy students with a mean age of 25 years (range, 21 to 34 years) participated. Qualitative content analysis and triangulation was used when investigating the students' self-reflections, written during a five week self-directed, problem-oriented online course. Two categories emerged: 'the influence of the structured framework' and 'communication and interaction with teachers and peers.' The learning processes were influenced by external factors, e.g., a clear structure including a transparent alignment of assignments and assessment. Important challenges to over-come were primarily internal factors, e.g., low self-efficacy, difficulties to plan the work effectively and adapting to a new environment. The analyses reflected important perspectives targeting areas which enable further course development. The influences of external and internal factors on learning strategies and self-efficacy are important aspects to consider when designing online courses. Factors such as pedagogical design, clarity of purpose, goals, and guidelines were important as well as continuous opportunities for communication and collaboration. Further studies are needed to understand and scaffold the motivational factors among students with low self-efficacy.

  8. Measurement Invariance and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Asian International and Euro American Cultural Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollock, David; Lui, P Priscilla

    2016-10-01

    This study examined measurement invariance of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), assessing the five-factor model (FFM) of personality among Euro American (N = 290) and Asian international (N = 301) students (47.8% women, Mage = 19.69 years). The full 60-item NEO-FFI data fit the expected five-factor structure for both groups using exploratory structural equation modeling, and achieved configural invariance. Only 37 items significantly loaded onto the FFM-theorized factors for both groups and demonstrated metric invariance. Threshold invariance was not supported with this reduced item set. Groups differed the most in the item-factor relationships for Extraversion and Agreeableness, as well as in response styles. Asian internationals were more likely to use midpoint responses than Euro Americans. While the FFM can characterize broad nomothetic patterns of personality traits, metric invariance with only the subset of NEO-FFI items identified limits direct group comparisons of correlation coefficients among personality domains and with other constructs, and of mean differences on personality domains. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Factors Affecting Children's Judgement of Culturally Deviant Acts: Findings from an International School in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuki, Aya; Tanaka, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between perceptions of culturally deviant acts and multicultural experiences of elementary-school children attending an international school in Japan. Findings indicated that children judged a Japanese harsher than a foreigner, irrespective of the children's age. It was also found that younger children were…

  10. Using Nonlinear Programming in International Trade Theory: The Factor-Proportions Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, John

    2004-01-01

    Students at all levels benefit from a multi-faceted approach to learning abstract material. The most commonly used technique in teaching the pure theory of international trade is a combination of geometry and algebraic derivations. Numerical simulation can provide a valuable third support to these approaches. The author describes a simple…

  11. Children with Internalizing Problems and Peer Problems : Risk Factors, Treatment Effectiveness, Moderation, and Mediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, internalizing and peer problems in children around the age of twelve were examined. These children were all about to make the transition to secondary school, or had just made that transition. The dissertation reports on four studies. First, we examined the extent to which the B

  12. International Students at Chinese Joint Venture Universities: Factors Influencing Decisions to Enrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsman, Andrys

    2013-01-01

    The People's Republic of China has determined to assume a respected place amongst the world's foremost higher education providers. Its short term strategy is multi-pronged: attracting world-class scholars; attracting international students and encouraging Chinese universities to run branches overseas. As well, a small number of select foreign…

  13. Using Nonlinear Programming in International Trade Theory: The Factor-Proportions Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, John

    2004-01-01

    Students at all levels benefit from a multi-faceted approach to learning abstract material. The most commonly used technique in teaching the pure theory of international trade is a combination of geometry and algebraic derivations. Numerical simulation can provide a valuable third support to these approaches. The author describes a simple…

  14. Factors Affecting Children's Judgement of Culturally Deviant Acts: Findings from an International School in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuki, Aya; Tanaka, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between perceptions of culturally deviant acts and multicultural experiences of elementary-school children attending an international school in Japan. Findings indicated that children judged a Japanese harsher than a foreigner, irrespective of the children's age. It was also found that younger children were…

  15. Children with Internalizing Problems and Peer Problems : Risk Factors, Treatment Effectiveness, Moderation, and Mediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, internalizing and peer problems in children around the age of twelve were examined. These children were all about to make the transition to secondary school, or had just made that transition. The dissertation reports on four studies. First, we examined the extent to which the B

  16. Launching Latin America: International and Domestic Factors in National Space Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Culture Workshop, Florida International University, 2010), 3–4. 221 Pablo De León, Historia De La Actividad Espacial En La Argentina [History of...14. SUBJECT TERMS space policy, Latin America, space program, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico , Peru, Uruguay...56 B. VENEZUELA .................................................................................................63 C. MEXICO

  17. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  18. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  19. Human insulin-like growth factor II leader 2 mediates internal initiation of translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne K; Christiansen, Jan; Hansen, Thomas v O

    2002-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a fetal growth factor, which belongs to the family of insulin-like peptides. During fetal life, the IGF-II gene generates three mRNAs with different 5' untranslated regions (UTRs), but identical coding regions and 3' UTRs. We have shown previously that IG...

  20. An investigation of most important internal and external organizational factors effect on new product performance in food industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid raza Rezvani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New products are critical and undeniable factors for companies that operate in a competitive and changing environment. Many researchers have sought to identify factors that affect the success of new product. This research seeks to identify and categorize the most important factors which influenced on the performance of new products in food industries. After reading several researches, these factors were classified into two categories: internal and external factors. The most important internal factors that, addressed in this research include: entrepreneurial orientation, organizational learning and new product development process, and the most important external factors are: the predictability of customers demands, technological turbulence, market turbulence and intensity of competition. Statistical society of this study is 66 food companies of Mazandaran province, with at least 2 years work experience, that released at least one new product within last year. In this study, hypothesis were tested by structural equation tests, correlation, and hierarchical and multiple regressions, and data analysis software SPSS16 and Visual PLS was used. The findings of this research indicate that entrepreneurial orientation, new product development process and predictability of customer demand has a direct and meaningful impact, and technological turbulence, market turbulence and competitive intensity have a significant moderating effect on the performance of new products in food industries. But it didn’t demonstrate a significant impact of organizational learning on new product performance. The study of indirect effect of organizational learning on new product performance shows that, organizational learning may increase the performance of new products when, a new product development process acts as a mediating variable. Determining suitability of the model by GOF indices shows that the modified model of new product model of new product development process

  1. Thermal degradation of a synthetic lube oil API SL/CF SAE 5W 40; Degradacao termica do oleo lubrificante sintetico API SL/CF SAE 5W 40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Eddy H. de O.; Carvalho, Laura H. de; Silva, Everson de L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work deals with the thermal degradation to 210 deg C of lubricating oil synthetic API SL/CF SAE 5W 40 as received and on the presence of metallic particles, from engine parts (head and crankshaft). Samples were collected at various intervals of time. The metallic particles were spent in mesh sieve no. 200 (0.074 mm) and used both in the trials of characterization (EDX and SEM) as the thermal degradation of the oil. Changes in rheology, viscosity, density, color and FTIR were monitored over time of heat exposure. The results indicate that thermal exposure caused by thermal oxidation of synthetic oil and that the presence of metallic particles (10 ppm) accelerated this process, so it is suggested that during the exchange of oil are taken care to remove them from to prevent the premature deterioration of the new oil. The behaviour Newtonian was maintained throughout the period degradation and viscosity of the oil has not changed significantly even after long periods (1148 hours) of thermal exposure. Despite the density of oil also has not changed significantly with time of exposure, changes in color indicate that chemical changes occurred, which was detected by FTIR. (author)

  2. Effects of Cyclic Loading on Mechanical Behavior of 24S-T4 and 75S-T6 Aluminum Alloys and SAE 4130 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, C W; Grossman, N

    1952-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of cyclic loading on the mechanical behavior of 24S-T4 and 75S-T6 aluminum alloys and SAE 4130 steel. Specimens of the three materials were subjected to various numbers of prior fatigue cycles both below and above the fatigue limits. Special slow-bend tests were employed to show the effects of prior cycles of fatigue stressing on the transition temperature to brittle fracture for SAE 4130 steel and on the energy-absorption capacity of the aluminum alloys. Micrographic studies were made to observe and measure crack formation and propagation and additional special tests were conducted to supplement the results of the slow-bend tests. These included Charpy impact tests, mirohardness surveys, tension tests, and fretting-corrosion studies.

  3. Stabilizing internal stress as the thermodynamic factor of martensite aging effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosogor, Anna [Department of Radiophysics, Taras Shevchenko University, 03022 Kyiv (Ukraine); L' vov, Victor A., E-mail: victorlvov@univ.kiev.ua [Department of Radiophysics, Taras Shevchenko University, 03022 Kyiv (Ukraine); Institute of Magnetism, Vernadsky Str. 36-b, 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine); Soederberg, Outi; Hannula, Simo-Pekka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, PO Box 16200, Espoo FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > A martensite aging is accompanied by reconfiguration of the crystal defects system. > The reconfiguration causes an internal stressing of crystal lattice. > The internal stressing elevates the martensitic transformation temperature. > A theory that accounts for the internal stress adequately describes aging effects. > A quantitative description of aging effects observed in Au-Cd alloys is presented. - Abstract: The symmetry-conforming Landau theory has been developed for the description of interplay between the symmetry of the deformable crystal lattice and the configuration of crystallographic defects in martensitic alloys. For this purpose, the multi-component non-scalar order parameter describing the slow reconfiguration of defects after the deformation of crystal lattice has been introduced within the framework of the Landau theory of martensitic transformations (MTs). Due to the transformational equivalence of the configurational order parameter and strain/stress tensor components, the conception of stabilizing internal stress (SIS), which is linearly related to this parameter, has been formulated. The complete agreement between the developed theory and the symmetry-conforming short-range-order principle formulated by Ren and Otsuka has been established. The effect of stabilizing the product (martensitic) phase after aging has been described by considering the stress-temperature phase diagram, which was constructed by taking into account the time dependence of SIS. The applicability of the theory to the aging effects in the Au-Cd shape memory alloy has been demonstrated. The time dependencies of the experimentally observed slow changes in the MT temperatures, lattice parameters and yield stress values have been derived from the SIS conception.

  4. Assessing the Feasibility of International Branch Campuses: Factors Universities Consider when Establishing Campuses Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    locations in urban areas close to air and rail transportation. Three administrators with IBCs located over an hour from international airports noted that...countries. Research by Lane (2011), specifically in Malaysia and Dubai, suggests that IBCs typically serve at least one of the three purposes...described by Levy. The University of Nottingham’s campus in Malaysia , for instance, arguably offers a new pedagogical approach and opportunities that are

  5. Room temperature fatigue behaviour of a normalized steel SAE 4140 in torsion. Ermuedungsverhalten von normalisiertem 42CrMo4 unter Torsionsbeanspruchung bei Raumtemperatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, S.; Eifler, D.; Macherauch, E. (Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde 1)

    1990-05-01

    Cyclic deformation behaviour of a normalized steel SAE 4140 in shear strain-controlled torsion is characterized by cyclic softening and cyclic hardening. If mean shear stresses are superimposed to an alternating shear stress, cycle-dependent creep occurs, and the number of cycles to failure decreases. In shear strain-controlled torsional loading, mean stresses are observed to relax nearly to zero within a few cycles. Fatigue life is not influenced by mean shear strains. (orig.).

  6. Core Network System Architecture Evolution Technology and Evolution Solution%核心网体系架构演进(SAE)技术与演进方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周心广

    2009-01-01

    主要介绍面向全IP的核心网体系架构(SAE)的演进,包括SAE网络结构、网元功能、从2G/3G核心网向SAE的演进和组网方案、关键技术及未来发展,最后介绍了阿尔卡特朗讯和上海贝尔在SAE方面的工作.

  7. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a turbulent flow for internally grooved tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnusamy Selvaraj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports experimental studies on friction factor, Nusselt number, and thermal hydraulic performance of a tube equipped with the classic three modified internally grooved tubes. Heat transfer and friction factor characteristics and pres- sure drop results have been obtained experimentally for a fully developed water flow in a grooved tube is also reported. Tests were performed for Reynolds number ranges from 5000-13500 for different geometric grooved tubes (circular, square, and rapezium. The ratio of length-to-diameter is 38.69 D. Among the grooved tubes, heat transfer enhancement obtained up to 47% for circular grooved tube, 31% for square grooved tube, and 52% for trapezoidal grooved tube in comparison with the smooth tube. It has been observed that the friction factor high in the case of square grooved tube than those of other tubes.

  8. An international survey to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of research studies most likely to change orthopaedic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, P; de Sa, D; Evaniew, N; Farrokhyar, F; Bhandari, M; Ghert, M

    2016-04-01

    Evidence -based medicine (EBM) is designed to inform clinical decision-making within all medical specialties, including orthopaedic surgery. We recently published a pilot survey of the Canadian Orthopaedic Association (COA) membership and demonstrated that the adoption of EBM principles is variable among Canadian orthopaedic surgeons. The objective of this study was to conduct a broader international survey of orthopaedic surgeons to identify characteristics of research studies perceived as being most influential in informing clinical decision-making. A 29-question electronic survey was distributed to the readership of an established orthopaedic journal with international readership. The survey aimed to analyse the influence of both extrinsic (journal quality, investigator profiles, etc.) and intrinsic characteristics (study design, sample size, etc.) of research studies in relation to their influence on practice patterns. A total of 353 surgeons completed the survey. Surgeons achieved consensus on the 'importance' of three key designs on their practices: randomised controlled trials (94%), meta-analyses (75%) and systematic reviews (66%). The vast majority of respondents support the use of current evidence over historical clinical training; however subjective factors such as journal reputation (72%) and investigator profile (68%) continue to influence clinical decision-making strongly. Although intrinsic factors such as study design and sample size have some influence on clinical decision-making, surgeon respondents are equally influenced by extrinsic factors such as investigator reputation and perceived journal quality.Cite this article: Dr M. Ghert. An international survey to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of research studies most likely to change orthopaedic practice. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:130-136. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.54.2000578. © 2016 Ghert et al.

  9. Factors impacting the combination of topical corticosteroid therapies for psoriasis: perspectives from the international psoriasis council

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P.C. van de; Kragballe, K.; Segaert, S.; Lebwohl, M.

    2011-01-01

    Corticosteroids are the mainstay of topical therapies for the treatment of mild to moderate psoriasis. Selection of vehicle, concentrations of corticosteroid and coadministered medications, and frequency of administration are critical factors that enhance bioavailability of topical corticosteroids.

  10. Family and non-family businesses on internal factors of entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Nelson; Francisco DINIZ

    2012-01-01

    Small firms are a major player in development. Thus, entrepreneurship is frequently attached to these rms and it must be present in daily management of factors such as planning and cooperation. We intend to analyze these factors, comparing familiar and non-familiar businesses. This study was conducted in a Portuguese region in the north of Portugal - Vale do Sousa . The results allow us to conclude that even with some managerial di erences it was not possible to identif...

  11. Effect of contents oil temperature and flow rate in the electrochemical corrosion of the AISI-SAE1020-steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, M. L.; L, E. Vera; Pineda T, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Primary causes of corrosion in components and equipment used in the petroleum industry are due to the density differences present in the multiphase system Water/Hydrocarbon/CO2 as well as the presence of weak particles of carbonic acid. The present research is focus on the study of the corrosion rate of the steel AISI-SAE 1020 under a saturated CO2 multiphase system. The effects of fluid speed, temperature and oil content on the steel corrosion were carried out in an electrode of rotator cylinder and also using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results show that the effect of oil content in the rate of steel corrosion is inversely proportional with the speed of the rotor. Our observations indicate that increasing the rotor speed in systems containing 60% oil or higher produce a simultaneous increase in the degradation rate of materials. Similarly, temperatures higher than 60°C generate layers of siderite that reduce the electrochemical effect.

  12. Corrosion Resistance Properties of Aluminum Coating Applied by Arc Thermal Metal Spray in SAE J2334 Solution with Exposure Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arc thermal metal spray coating provides excellent corrosion, erosion and wear resistance to steel substrates. This paper incorporates some results of aluminum coating applied by this method on plain carbon steel. Thereafter, coated panels were exposed to an environment known to form stable corrosion products with aluminum. The coated panels were immersed in Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J2334 for different periods of time. This solution consists of an aqueous solution of NaCl, CaCl2 and NaHCO3. Various electrochemical techniques, i.e., corrosion potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and the potentiodynamic were used to determine the performance of stimulants in improving the properties of the coating. EIS studies revealed the kinetics and mechanism of corrosion and potentiodynamic attributed the formation of a passive film, which stifles the penetration of aggressive ions towards the substrate. The corrosion products that formed on the coating surface, identified using Raman spectroscopy, were Dawsonite (NaAlCO3(OH2 and Al(OH3. These compounds of aluminum are very sparingly soluble in aqueous solution and protect the substrate from pitting and uniform corrosion. The morphology and composition of corrosion products determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses indicated that the environment plays a decisive role in improving the corrosion resistance of aluminum coating.

  13. Effect of carburizing temperature and time on mechanical properties of AISI/SAE 1020 steel using carbonized palm kernel shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanike M. OLUWAFEMI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of varied carburizing temperatures and holding time on the mechanical properties of AISI/SAE1020 steel have been investigated. Standard test samples prepared from the steel sample were subjected to pack hardening process using carbonized palm kernel shell as a carburizer at 800°, 850°, 900° and 950°C and held for 60, 90 and 120 minutes, quenched in oil and temper at 500°C for 60 minutes. After pack hardening process, the test samples were subjected to tensile, impact and hardness tests. and from the data obtained Ultimate tensile strength (UTS and impact strength were calculated, the case and the core hardness of the carburized samples were taken and optical microscope was also used to observe the micro structural features of the case hardened, quenched and tempered samples. It was observed that at 800°, 850° and 900°C, the UTS and the micro hardness initially reduces to minimum and then increased as the carburizing temperature increased, but at 950°C, it was observed that the UTS increases with increase in holding time. It was concluded that the optimum combination of mechanical properties is achieved at the carburizing temperature of 950°C soaked for 120 minutes followed by oil quenching and tempered at 500°C for 60 minutes.

  14. FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION BASED ON MACROSCOPIC PLASTIC ZONE ON FRACTURE SURFACE OF AISI-SAE 1018 STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Domínguez Almaraz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with rotating bending fatigue tests at high speed (150 Hz carried out on AISI-SAE 1018 steel with a high content of impurities (non metallic inclusions, for which the high experimental stress inside the specimen is close to the elastic limit of the material. Simulations of rotating loading are obtained by Visual NASTRAN software in order to determine the numerical stresse and strain distributions inside a hypothetical homogeneous specimen; later, this information is used for the experimental set up. A general description of experimental test machine and experimental conditions are developed and then, the experimental results are presented and discussed according the observed failure origin related to the non metallic inclusions and the associated high stress zones. Finally, a simple model is proposed to predict the fatigue life for this non homogeneous steel under high speed rotating bending fatigue tests close to the elastic limit, based on the rate between the visual macro-plastic deformation zone at fracture surface and the total fracture surface, together with the crack initiation inclusion (or inclusions located at this zone.

  15. Influence to the doppler images by the defects of SAE in the probe of medical ultrasonic scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Sung [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Cheju Halla University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    A ultrasonic probe is very important in medical ultrasonic image, but the frequency of probe defects are often. Therefore practical tools for probe based ultrasonic QA should be developed. Advanced research on the effects of the probe defects on the quality of ultrasonic images is required. This study has investigated the effects of the defects in the probe elements influence Doppler images in the medical ultrasonic scanners. Especially the defects in a set of adjacent elements(SAE) electrically disconnected influence Doppler images were tested. The results show Doppler brightness and velocity became rapidly reduced as the defected elements is located centrally, as the defected elements is activated. The more the defected elements increased, the more Doppler brightness and velocity increased. As a set of the element disconnected moved, it appeared Doppler velocity starting to decrease and then was followed by brightness. The strength is not consistent with the velocity in the number and location of the defected elements. The defects in the probe elements influence Doppler velocity when the defected elements got out of the elements activated at Doppler mode.

  16. Fatigue life determination by damage measuring in SAE 8620 specimens steel subjected to multiaxial experiments in neutral and corrosive environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luiz L. da; Filho, Nelson do N.A.; Gomes, Paulo de T.V.; Rabello, Emerson G.; Mansur, Tanius R., E-mail: silvall@cdtn.br, E-mail: nnaf@cdtn.br, E-mail: ptvg@cdtn.br, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br, E-mail: tanius@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tencologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Fatigue is the fail phenomenon of a material subjected to cyclic loads. This phenomenon affects any component under loads (forces, temperatures, etc.) that changes in time. When there is a combined load, originating multiaxial fatigue, which is the most of the real loads, worst is the situation. Before the component fail, the fatigue phenomenon produces damages to its material and this is a cumulative process that could not be reduced. In the continuum mechanic context, material damage is defined as a parameter that reduces the component resistance and this could cause its fail. The process of damage measuring by changes in electrical resistance is used in this work, and from experimental results of SAE 8620 steel specimens subjected to multiaxial fatigue in corrosive and neutral environment, the remaining specimen time life could be determined. Each specimen has its initial electrical resistance measured and after a certain number of fatigue cycles stopping points, its electrical resistance was measured again. In order to study multiaxial fatigue in specimens, a machine that induces simultaneously bending and torsional loads in the specimen was developed. Air at the temperature range of 18 deg C and 20 deg C was considered neutral environment. The corrosive environment was a NaCl solution with a concentration of 3,5% in weigh. The experimental results showed that the measuring fatigue damage using the changes in electrical resistance is efficient and that is possible to estimate the effect of a corrosive environment in the fatigue damage. (author)

  17. Sinergia entre alta rugosidad superficial y ambiente corrosivo en el comportamiento a la fatiga del acero sae 1045

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILSON FERNANDO CEBALLOS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el estudio del comportamiento a fatiga del acero SAE 1045 en cuatro condiciones diferentes: superficie pulida (acabado espejo, ambiente corrosivo (jugo de caña de azúcar, alta rugosidad superficial (superficie equivalente a la encontrada típicamente en los ejes de molino de caña y una condición que involucra la combinación de las dos últimas. Las anteriores condiciones están presentes en los ejes de maza de molino de caña de azúcar durante el proceso de molienda. Se realizaron pruebas de fatiga en flexión rotatoria y se obtuvieron los valores de resistencia a la fatiga para las diferentes situaciones de ensayo. La disminución en resistencia a la fatiga para la sinergia entre la alta rugosidad y ambiente corrosivo fue del 8,7%, resultado estadísticamente representativo con menos de 0,01% de incertidumbre.

  18. Hepatitis C virus induces epidermal growth factor receptor activation via CD81 binding for viral internalization and entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Jingyu; Pantua, Homer; Ngu, Hai; Komuves, Laszlo; Diehl, Lauri; Schaefer, Gabriele; Kapadia, Sharookh B

    2012-10-01

    While epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to be important in the entry process for multiple viruses, including hepatitis C virus (HCV), the molecular mechanisms by which EGFR facilitates HCV entry are not well understood. Using the infectious cell culture HCV model (HCVcc), we demonstrate that the binding of HCVcc particles to human hepatocyte cells induces EGFR activation that is dependent on interactions between HCV and CD81 but not claudin 1. EGFR activation can also be induced by antibody mediated cross-linking of CD81. In addition, EGFR ligands that enhance the kinetics of HCV entry induce EGFR internalization and colocalization with CD81. While EGFR kinase inhibitors inhibit HCV infection primarily by preventing EGFR endocytosis, antibodies that block EGFR ligand binding or inhibitors of EGFR downstream signaling have no effect on HCV entry. These data demonstrate that EGFR internalization is critical for HCV entry and identify a hitherto-unknown association between CD81 and EGFR.

  19. Lost toy? Monsters under the bed? Contributions of temperament and family factors to early internalizing problems in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marakovitz, Susan E; Wagmiller, Robert L; Mian, Nicholas D; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Carter, Alice S

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the contribution of multiple risk factors to early internalizing problems and to investigate whether family and ecological context moderated the association between child temperament and internalizing outcomes. A sample of 1,202 mothers of 2- and 3-year-old children completed a survey of child social-emotional functioning, family environment, and violence exposure. Child temperament, maternal affective symptoms, and family expressiveness were associated with child anxiety and depression problems. Violence exposure was related only to child anxiety. When maternal affective symptoms were elevated, inhibited girls but not boys were rated as more anxious and youngsters with heightened negative emotionality were rated as more depressed. Family expressiveness moderated the association between inhibited temperament and anxiety symptoms.

  20. International Trade and Foreign Direct Investment as Innovation Factors of the U.S. Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napiórkowski1 Tomasz M.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to asses the hypothesis that foreign direct investment (FDI and international trade have had a positive impact on innovation in one of the most significant economies in the world, the United States (U.S.. To do so, the author used annual data from 1995 to 2010 to build a set of econometric models. In each model, 11 in total the number of patent applications by U.S. residents is regressed on inward FDI stock, exports and imports of the economy as a collective, and in each of the 10 SITC groups separately.

  1. Internal, corneal, and refractive astigmatism as prognostic factors for intrastromal corneal ring segment implantation in mild to moderate keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-García, Pablo; Alió, Jorge L; Vega-Estrada, Alfredo; Barraquer, Rafael I

    2014-10-01

    To improve the predictability of the visual and refractive outcomes of intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation in keratoconus patients and highlight the importance of internal astigmatism and its relationship to corneal and refractive astigmatism as prognostic factors. Vissum Corporación, Alicante, and Centro de Oftalmología Barrquer, Barcelona, Spain. Retrospective case series. Visual, refractive, topographic, and aberrometric variables were evaluated in eyes having ICRS implantation. The eyes were divided into 2 groups according to the relative position of the keratometric axis and refractive axis; that is, coincident axis (0 degree ± 15 [SD]) or uncoincident axis. Internal astigmatism was calculated by vectorial analysis. The relationship between topographic astigmatism and refractive astigmatism was evaluated. The follow-up was 6 months. Of the 127 eyes evaluated, 79 had grade II keratoconus and 48 had grade I keratoconus. Statistically significant differences were found in the relative position of the refractive axis and keratometric axis (P=.017). Internal astigmatism had a significant correlation with the gain in visual acuity in patients with grade II keratoconus (r = -0.455, P=.0001). This relationship was less significant in patients with grade I keratoconus (r = -0.391, P=.021). The predictability of visual and refractive outcomes can be significantly increased in grade II keratoconus patients when the relative position of the keratometric and refractive axes; the internal, corneal, and refractive astigmatism; and their combinations are used as prognostic factors. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of risk factors for candidemia in non-neutropenic patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine wards: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, M; Tiseo, G; Tascini, C; Russo, A; Sozio, E; Raponi, G; Rosin, C; Pignatelli, P; Carfagna, P; Farcomeni, A; Luzzati, R; Violi, F; Menichetti, F; Venditti, M

    2017-06-01

    An increasing prevalence of candidemia has been reported in Internal Medicine wards (IMWs). The aim of our study was to identify risk factors for candidemia among non-neutropenic patients hospitalized in IMWs. A multicenter case-control study was performed in three hospitals in Italy. Patients developing candidemia (cases) were compared to patients without candidemia (controls) matched by age, time of admission and duration of hospitalization. A logistic regression analysis identified risk factors for candidemia, and a new risk score was developed. Validation was performed on an external cohort of patients. Overall, 951 patients (317 cases of candidemia and 634 controls) were included in the derivation cohort, while 270 patients (90 patients with candidemia and 180 controls) constituted the validation cohort. Severe sepsis or septic shock, recent Clostridium difficile infection, diabetes mellitus, total parenteral nutrition, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, concomitant intravenous glycopeptide therapy, presence of peripherally inserted central catheter, previous antibiotic therapy and immunosuppressive therapy were factors independently associated with candidemia. The new risk score showed good area under the curve (AUC) values in both derivation (AUC 0.973 95% CI 0.809-0.997, pcandidemia. A new risk score with a good performance could facilitate the identification of candidates to early antifungal therapy. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The conditioning factor of international competitivity of Fraiburgo, a region of pomiculture in Santa Catarina State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria Fernandes de Souza SALGADO GUIMARÃES

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available During a long time the apple was one of the many agricultural products the country had to import, that situation began to change in 1960 when the Sociedade Agrícola Fraiburgo (SAFRA in Fraiburgo (Santa Catarina State was created. At first, it was aimed at the production of grapes and wine, but then the SAFRA company expanded its experience on the cultivation to other fruits including apple. Therefore, they created in 1963 a fruit field to study the apple behavior and its economical viability, the results showed the apple was the best fruit. In the end of the 1960’s, the apple plantation for commercial purpose started and that what wasn’t moved only by technical results but also for political reasons. Nowadays it is clear that environmental and socio-economic elements put Brazil into a very comfortable situation on the world trade ranking of apples. Research shows that environmental conditionings for the apple plantation are very important to the competition in the international market. This research was based upon the systemic competing’s studies, which is the metodology that considers the environmental conditionings for competing internationally.

  4. Magnetic flux gradient observation during fatigue crack propagation: A case study of SAE 1045 carbon steel used for automotive transmission parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad S.R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the application of the metal magnetic memory (MMM technique for investigations on fatigue crack propagation in a ferromagnetic material. Fatigue failure caused by stress concentration is serious in practical engineering. However, early fatigue damages cannot be detected by using traditional nondestructive testing (NDT methods. Therefore this paper study about NDT method called metal magnetic memory (MMM that has potentials for evaluating the fatigue damage at the early damage and critical fracture stages. While its capacity to evaluate the distribution of self-magnetic leakage field signals on the component’s surface is well-established, there remains a need to scrutinize the physical mechanism and quantitative analysis aspects of this method. To begin with, a fatigue test involving a loading of 7kN was conducted on a SAE 1045 carbon steel specimen. This material is frequently used in the manufacturing of automotive transmission components that include the axle and spline shaft. MMM signals were measured along a scanning distance of 100 mm and analysed during the propagation stage. Other than revealing that the value of the magnetic flux gradient signals dH(y/dx increased in tandem with the crack length, the results also led to the detection of the crack growth location. It was anticipated that the dH(y/dx value will also exhibit an upward trend with a rise in the fatigue growth rate of da/dN. A modified Paris equation was utilized to correlate dH(y/dx with da/dn through the replacement of the stress intensity factor range ΔK. This resulted in the log-log plot of da/dN versus dH(y/dx portraying an inclination similar to the log-log plot of da/dN versus ΔK. A linear relationship was established between dH(y/dx and ΔK with the R2 value as 0.96. Players in the automotive industry can benefit from the disclosure that dH(y/dx can effectively replace ΔK for the monitoring of fatigue crack growth

  5. External and internal factors influencing self-directed online learning of physiotherapy undergraduate students in Sweden: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Sjödahl Hammarlund

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Online courses have become common in health sciences education. This learning environment can be designed using different approaches to support student learning. To further develop online environment, it is important to understand how students perceive working and learning online. The aim of this study is to identify aspects influencing students’ learning processes and their adaptation to self-directed learning online. Methods: Thirty-four physiotherapy students with a mean age of 25 years (range, 21 to 34 years participated. Qualitative content analysis and triangulation was used when investigating the students’ self-reflections, written during a five week self-directed, problem-oriented online course. Results: Two categories emerged: ‘the influence of the structured framework’ and ‘communication and interaction with teachers and peers.’ The learning processes were influenced by external factors, e.g., a clear structure including a transparent alignment of assignments and assessment. Important challenges to over-come were primarily internal factors, e.g., low self-efficacy, difficulties to plan the work effectively and adapting to a new environment. Conclusion: The analyses reflected important perspectives targeting areas which enable further course development. The influences of external and internal factors on learning strategies and self-efficacy are important aspects to consider when designing online courses. Factors such as pedagogical design, clarity of purpose, goals, and guidelines were important as well as continuous opportunities for communication and collaboration. Further studies are needed to understand and scaffold the motivational factors among students with low self-efficacy.

  6. mRNA decay factor AUF1 binds the internal ribosomal entry site of enterovirus 71 and inhibits virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Lin

    Full Text Available AU-rich element binding factor 1 (AUF1 has a role in the replication cycles of different viruses. Here we demonstrate that AUF1 binds the internal ribosome entry site (IRES of enterovirus 71 (EV71 and negatively regulates IRES-dependent translation. During EV71 infection, AUF1 accumulates in the cytoplasm where viral replication occurs, whereas AUF1 localizes predominantly in the nucleus in mock-infected cells. AUF1 knockdown in infected cells increases IRES activity and synthesis of viral proteins. Taken together, the results suggest that AUF1 interacts with the EV71 IRES to negatively regulate viral translation and replication.

  7. First International Workshop on Human Factors in Modeling (HuFaMo 2015)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald; Chaudron, Michel R. V.; Amaral, Vasco

    2015-01-01

    and systematic approaches to assert usability in modeling and confirm the claims of productivity. This workshop creates a space for discussion being a get together of both MDE, Usability, Human Interfaces and the Experimental Software engineering community. HuFaMo expressly focuses on human factors, in order...

  8. Targeting hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met) positive tumor cells using internalizing nanobody-decorated albumin nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heukers, Raimond|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325788103; Altintas, Isil|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341537160; Raghoenath, Smiriti; De Zan, Erica; Pepermans, Richard; Roovers, Rob C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/205435599; Haselberg, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822647; Hennink, Wim E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070880409; Schiffelers, Raymond M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/212909509; Kok, Robbert J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/170678326; Van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071919481

    2014-01-01

    The hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR, c-Met or Met) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is involved in embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and wound healing. Abnormal activation of this proto-oncogene product is implicated in the development, progression and metastasis of many cancers. Current

  9. International Comparisons of Infant Mortality and Related Factors : United States and Europe, 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDorman, M.F.; Mathews, T.J.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Zeitlin, J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This report investigates the reasons for the United States' high infant mortality rate when compared with European countries. Specifically, the report measures the impact on infant mortality differences of two major factors: the percentage of preterm births and gestational age-specific i

  10. Factors associated with therapeutic strategies in patients with splanchnic vein thrombosis: Results of an international registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, N.; Ageno, W.; Schulman, S.; Bang, S.M.; Sartori, M.T.; Grandone, E.; Beyer, J.; Barillari, G.; Di Minno, D.; Duce, R.; Malato, A.; Santoro, R.; Poli, D.; Verhamme, P.; Martinelli, I.; Kamphuisen, P.; Alatri, A.; Becattini, C.; Bucherini, E.; Piana, A.; De Stefano, V.; Dentali, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment of splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) is challenging due to the heterogeneous clinical presentation and the increased bleeding risk. We aimed to describe current treatment strategies and factors associated with therapeutic decisions. Materials and Methods Between May 2008 and Janu

  11. Factors Influencing Adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzeban, Abdulaziz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the challenges faced by accounting educators in their attempts to incorporate IFRS materials in their teaching and explores the impact of various factors (instructor's attitude, size of accounting department, teaching load, type of institution, teaching experience and teaching materials) on the time spent on…

  12. International cross-border migration in the South-East Baltic: factors, structure, consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemelyanova Larisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an integrated research encompassing both the study of migration processes in the South-East Baltic (volume, structure, directions and the analysis of factors affecting migration mobility of the population as well as the assessment of migration influence on the socioeconomic development of three border territories.

  13. Factors Influencing Adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzeban, Abdulaziz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the challenges faced by accounting educators in their attempts to incorporate IFRS materials in their teaching and explores the impact of various factors (instructor's attitude, size of accounting department, teaching load, type of institution, teaching experience and teaching materials) on the time spent on…

  14. Comparison of 50-year and 70-year internal-dose-conversion factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.T.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    The 50-year inhalation and ingestion dose commitments associated with an acute intake (of a radionuclide) of 3.7 x 10/sup 4/ Bq (1 ..mu..Ci) in one day were compared with the corresponding dose commitments calculated for a 70-year integration period resulting from a chronic intake of the same amount at a rate of 101 Bq/d (0.00274 ..mu..Ci/d) for one year. These values, known as dose conversion factors, estimate the dose accumulated during a given period of time following a unit of intake of a radionuclide. It was demonstrated that the acute intake of 3.7 x 10/sup 4/ Bq in one day and the chronic intake of 101 Bq/d for one year (a total intake of 3.7 x 10/sup 4/ Bq) result in essentially the same dose commitment for a relatively long integration period. Therefore, the comparison of 50-year acute dose conversion factors and 70-year chronic dose conversion factors is essentially only a measure of the additional dose accumulated in the 50 to 70 year period. It was found that for radionuclides with atomic mass less than 200 the percent difference in the 70-year and 50-year dose conversion factors was essentially zero in most cases. Differences of approximately 5 to 50% were obtained for dose conversion factors for most alpha emitters with atomic masses of greater than 200. Comparisons were made on the basis of both organ dose equivalent and effective dose equivalent. The implications and significance of these results are discussed.

  15. Geographical location as critical factor in design and planning for international projects; La localizacion geografica como factor critico en el diseno y planificacion de proyectos internacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matranga, Mariana; Rawson, Carola; Pandolfi, Juan Martin; Guamantica, Diego; Eberle, Juan Manuel; Mastandrea, Martin [TECNA S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    The success of an international project is closely linked to the knowledge of the scene where the steps of construction, installation and operation will take place. In that sense, early consideration of geographic factors, socio-economic and environmental impact has proven to be determinant for the successful development of the phases of design, construction, transportation, assembly and operation. In the case of the Planta de Tratamiento de Gas Sabalo, taking into account the above factors not only enabled the efficient development of the various phases of the project, but also complete stages of assembly and start-up in twenty weeks. The Planta de Tratamiento de Gas Sabalo is located in the Chaco, region in the Bolivian jungle, and has a capacity of 13.4 MMSCMD gas specification, which makes the plant increased capacity in Bolivia and one of the highest capacity in South America. Companies in Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador and Argentina were involved in the project, the latter in charge of its design, construction and management. Based on the experience of the project Sabalo, this article presents a series of lines especially applicable to international projects.

  16. Single-domain antibodies that compete with the natural ligand fibroblast growth factor block the internalization of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veggiani, Gianluca; Ossolengo, Giuseppe; Aliprandi, Marisa; Cavallaro, Ugo [IFOM-IEO Campus, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milano (Italy); Marco, Ario de, E-mail: ario.demarco@ung.si [IFOM-IEO Campus, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milano (Italy); Dept. Environmental Sciences, University of Nova Gorica (UNG), Vipavska 13, P.O. Box 301-SI-5000, Rozna Dolina, Nova Gorica (Slovenia)

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} Recombinant antibodies for FGFR1 were isolated from a llama naive library in VHH format. {yields} These antibodies compete with the natural ligand FGF-2 for the same epitope on FGFR1. {yields} The antibody competition inhibits the FGF-2-dependent internalization of FGFR1. -- Abstract: Single-domain antibodies in VHH format specific for fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) were isolated from a phage-display llama naive library. In particular, phage elution in the presence of the natural receptor ligand fibroblast growth factor (FGF) allowed for the identification of recombinant antibodies that compete with FGF for the same region on the receptor surface. These antibodies posses a relatively low affinity for FGFR1 and were never identified when unspecific elution conditions favoring highly affine binders were applied to panning procedures. Two populations of competitive antibodies were identified that labeled specifically the receptor-expressing cells in immunofluorescence and recognize distinct epitopes. Antibodies from both populations effectively prevented FGF-dependent internalization and nuclear accumulation of the receptor in cultured cells. This achievement indicates that these antibodies have a capacity to modulate the receptor physiology and, therefore, constitute powerful reagents for basic research and a potential lead for therapeutic applications.

  17. Internal and External Factors Affecting The Size of Paddy Field Sold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Rostiana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted  to identify internal condition of the farmers who sold their paddy field and analyze the effects of age, education level, number of family members, field productivity, location, and production cost to the total area of paddy field sold. This study used quantitative descriptive method. This research found that age, education level, number of family members, and location of the land had positive relation to the total area of paddy field sold. On the other hand, production cost and field productivity had negative relation to the total area of paddy field sold. Partially, field production and number of family members had no significant effect to the total area of paddy field sold.

  18. What Makes International Capital Flows So Volatile?: Push vs. Pull Factors in the Case of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Joon Kim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the determinants of financial capital flows in Korea, which provides an intriguing case for examining the volatility of such flows as an almost fully opened capital market. Our empirical analysis finds both pull and push factors have significantly affected all three types of foreign capital flows- foreign equity investment, foreign bond investment and foreign other-type investment- in Korea, though the relative importance of each factor varies by sample period and type of financial capital. First, the determinants of capital inflows changed substantially following the 1997 currency crisis. The impact of push factors on foreign investment strengthened, rendering the Korean stock and bond market more susceptible to external shocks. Second, the global financial crisis, which increased global financial instability and preference for safe assets, appears to have had a negative effect on other-type investment. However, fThis paper analyzes the determinants of financial capital flows in Korea, which provides an intriguing case for examining the volatility of such flows as an almost fully opened capital market. Our empirical analysis finds both pull and push factors have significantly affected all three types of foreign capital flows- foreign equity investment, foreign bond investment and foreign other-type investment- in Korea, though the relative importance of each factor varies by sample period and type of financial capital. First, the determinants of capital inflows changed substantially following the 1997 currency crisis. The impact of push factors on foreign investment strengthened, rendering the Korean stock and bond market more susceptible to external shocks. Second, the global financial crisis, which increased global financial instability and preference for safe assets, appears to have had a negative effect on other-type investment. However, foreign equity investment showed a quick recovery in the wake of global financial

  19. The interaction of internal and external factors in the transformation of employment patterns in Yucatán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Méndez Navarro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Residents in rural Yucatan, Mexico, have experienced dramatic employment changes from one generation to the next: most older men are farmers, while young men work in manufacturing and services. Young women engage informal employment much more than their mothers. We examine several factors originating outside the territory,including international markets and Mexican public policies, to see how they interact with social, political and cultural processes within the territory in the development of these occupational transformations. Attention to the role gender plays in external factors as well as in territorial processes drives our analysis of a key territorial process: the implementation of national legislation for sustainable rural development.

  20. Investigation of stress intensity factor for internal cracks in FG cylinders under static and dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shariati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available his paper investigates the variations of mode I stress intensity factor (KI for inner penny-shaped and circumferential cracks in functionally graded solid and hollow thick walled cylinders, respectively with the changes of crack geometry, material gradation and loading conditions. The functionally graded material of cylinders consists of epoxy and glass. It is assumed that the mechanical properties vary with a power law in the radial direction of cylinders. Micromechanical models for conventional composites are used to estimate the material properties of functionally graded cylinders. The equations of motion obtained from the extended finite element discretization are solved by the Newmark method in the time domain. The interaction integral method is employed to calculate the mode I stress intensity factor (KI. The MATLAB programming environment was implemented to solve the problem.

  1. Study of internal consistency and factor structure of three versions of the Zung’s rating instrument for anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana De La Ossa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Zung’s rating instrument for anxiety disorders has been used in several Colombian researches. Its internal consistency and factor structure have not been reported among university students.Objective: To calculate the internal consistency and explore the factor structure of three versions of the Zung’s rating instrument for anxiety disorders among university students.Method: Two-hundred and twenty-one medicine and psychology students of a private university in Cartagena, Colombia, completed the 20-item version of the Zung’s rating instrument for anxiety disorders. The mean of age of students was 20.5 years (SD=2.6, 64.4% were women, and 54.3% studied medicine. Cronbach alpha was computed and exploratory factor analysis was done for the three versions.Results: The 20-item version of the Zung’s rating instrument for anxiety disorders presents Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.77 and three principal factors accounted for 40.1% of the total variance. The 10-item version showed Cronbach alpha of 0.83 and two-dimensional structure responsible of 54.0% of the total variance. The 5-item version showed Cronbach alpha of 0.74 and one-dimensional structure accounted for 49.5% of the total variance.Conclusions: The 10- and 5-item version of the Zung’s rating instrument for anxiety disorders present better psychometric properties than the original 20-item version. It is necessary to estimate the properties of these versions compared with a gold standard.

  2. Study of internal consistency and factor structure of three versions of the Zung’s rating instrument for anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana De La Ossa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Zung’s rating instrument for anxiety disorders has been used in several Colombian researches. Its internal consistency and factor structure have not been reported among university students. Objective: To calculate the internal consistency and explore the factor structure of three versions of the Zung’s rating instrument for anxiety disorders among university students. Method: Two-hundred and twenty-one medicine and psychology students of a private university in Cartagena, Colombia, completed the 20-item version of the Zung’s rating instrument for anxiety disorders. The mean of age of students was 20.5 years (SD=2.6, 64.4% were women, and 54.3% studied medicine. Cronbach alpha was computed and exploratory factor analysis was done for the three versions. Results: The 20-item version of the Zung’s rating instrument for anxiety disorders presents Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.77 and three principal factors accounted for 40.1% of the total variance. The 10-item version showed Cronbach alpha of 0.83 and two-dimensional structure responsible of 54.0% of the total variance. The 5-item version showed Cronbach alpha of 0.74 and one-dimensional structure accounted for 49.5% of the total variance. Conclusions: The 10- and 5-item version of the Zung’s rating instrument for anxiety disorders present better psychometric properties than the original 20-item version. It is necessary to estimate the properties of these versions compared with a gold standard.

  3. ULUSLARARASI MUHASEBE HARMONİZASYONU VE ÇEVRESEL FAKTÖRLER-INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu DİNCER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Küreselleşmenin artan etkileri ve ulusal muhasebe sistemlerindeki farklılıklar nedeni ile finansal bilgi sağlayan işletmeler uluslararası anlamda finansal tablo kullanıcılarının ihtiyaçlarını karşılamakta zorluk çekmektedirler. Bu çalışmanın amacı Uluslararası Muhasebe Standartları/ Uluslararası Finansal Raporlama Standartları’nın (UMS/UFRS az gelişmiş ve gelişmekte olan ülkelerde uygulamaya konulmasını açıklayan faktörleri ortaya koyarak, bunları uygulayan ve uygulamayan ülkelerdeki farklılıklarını belirlemektir. Çalışmada kullanılmak üzere ilgili yazın taraması sonucu seçilen faktörler ekonomik büyüme, eğitim seviyesi, ülkenini dışarıya olan açıklığı, belli bir kültür grubuna bağlı olunması, finansal bir pazarın varlığıdır. Sonuçlar okur-yazarlık oranı ve ekonomik büyüme oranının daha yüksek olduğu az gelişmiş/ gelişmekte olan ülkeler UMS uygulamayı benimsemeye daha yatkın olduğunu ortaya koymuştur.-The financial information service companies are struggling to meet the needs of international financial statement users due to the growing effect of the globalization and the difficulties caused by the differences in national accounting systems. The purpose of this study is to determine the differences that are adopted and non-adopted International Accounting Standards/ International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS /IFRS by identifying the factors that could explain the adoption of international accounting standards in less developed/developing countries. According to the literature review, the following factors have been selected: economic growth, education level, the degree of external economic openness, cultural membership in a group of countries, and the existence of a capital market. The results indicate that less developed/ developing countries with the higher literacy rates, that have higher economic growth are the most likely to adopt

  4. Normalizing treatment influence on the forged steel SAE 8620 fracture properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Vida Gomes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In a PWR nuclear power plant, the reactor pressure vessel (RPV contains the fuel assemblies and reactor vessels internals and keeps the coolant at high temperature and high pressure during normal operation. The RPV integrity must be assured all along its useful life to protect the general public against a significant radiation liberation damage. One of the critical issues relative to the VPR structural integrity refers to the pressurized thermal shock (PTS accident evaluation. To better understand the effects of this kind of event, a PTS experiment has been planned using an RPV prototype. The RPV material fracture behavior characterization in the ductile-brittle transition region represents one of the most important aspects of the structural assessment process of RPV's under PTS. This work presents the results of fracture toughness tests carried out to characterize the RPV prototype material behavior. The test data includes Charpy energy curves, T0 reference temperatures for definition of master curves, and fracture surfaces observed in electronic microscope. The results are given for the vessel steel in the "as received" and normalized conditions. This way, the influence of the normalizing treatment on the fracture properties of the steel could be evaluated.

  5. Magnetic field dependence of the internal quality factor and noise performance of lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Daniel; Abitbol, Maximilian H; Bryan, Sean; Cantor, Robin; Day, Peter K; Jones, Glenn; Mauskopf, Philip; McCarrick, Heather; Miller, Amber; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    We present a technique for increasing the internal quality factor of kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) by nulling ambient magnetic fields with a properly applied magnetic field. The KIDs used in this study are made from thin-film aluminum, they are mounted inside a light-tight package made from bulk aluminum, and they are operated near $150 \\, \\mathrm{mK}$. Since the thin-film aluminum has a slightly elevated critical temperature ($T_\\mathrm{c} = 1.4 \\, \\mathrm{K}$), it therefore transitions before the package ($T_\\mathrm{c} = 1.2 \\, \\mathrm{K}$), which also serves as a magnetic shield. On cooldown, ambient magnetic fields as small as approximately $30 \\, \\mathrm{\\mu T}$ can produce vortices in the thin-film aluminum as it transitions because the bulk aluminum package has not yet transitioned and therefore is not yet shielding. These vortices become trapped inside the aluminum package below $1.2 \\, \\mathrm{K}$ and ultimately produce low internal quality factors in the thin-film superconducting resonators. W...

  6. Proliferative response of fibroblasts expressing internalization-deficient epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors is altered via differential EGF depletion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C C; Wells, A; Lauffenburger, D A

    1994-01-01

    We describe experiments comparing the proliferation responses to epidermal growth factor (EGF) by NR6 fibroblasts expressing genetically engineered epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs). These cells present either wild-type (WT) EGFR or a cytoplasmic domain-truncated (c'973) EGFR that exhibits a decreased ligand-induced internalization rate constant. In two distinct in vitro proliferation assays, with or without medium replenishment, we measured the specific cell proliferation rate constants and EGF depletion kinetics for both WT and c'973 cells. When EGF depletion is minimized by replenishment, the EGF concentration dependencies of the two cell types are similar, whereas when EGF depletion is not prevented, maximal proliferation of WT cells requires an initial EGF concentration that is approximately 10x that required by c'973 cells. However, when EGF depletion is accounted for, the dependencies of growth rate for the two cell types on the current EGF concentration in both assays are essentially identical. Our results demonstrate that diminished depletion of EGF from the extracellular medium is a major reason for increased mitogenic sensitivity to EGF by cells possessing internalization-deficient receptors.

  7. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-08-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese Internalized Homophobia (IH) scale for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n = 1187), or as bisexual (n = 641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n = 353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscale associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates, including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage, and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates, and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the minority stress model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed.

  8. Factors associated with knowledge, attitude and practice related to hepatitis B and C among international students of Universiti Putra Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Abdulrahman; Munn Sann, Lye; Abdul Rahman, Hejar

    2016-07-21

    Knowledge of hepatitis B and C has been reported to be low among respondents in different studies. We conducted a cross-sectional study among international students of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) to ascertain their levels of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding hepatitis B and C and its associated factors. Six hundred and sixty two (662) international students participated in this study. A cluster sampling method was employed and data was generated using self-administered questionnaire, which was validated and its reliability checked. Normality test was conducted followed by descriptive statistics, spearman's correlation and Chi-square tests to explore associations between variables in the study. The response rate was 71.49 %. Of these, 50.3 % of the respondents had better knowledge of hepatitis B; 52.7 % had better knowledge of hepatitis C; 54.8 % had positive attitude towards hepatitis B and C and 77.6 % had safer practices towards hepatitis B and C. Positive correlations were found between knowledge of hepatitis B and knowledge of hepatitis C; knowledge hepatitis B and attitude; knowledge hepatitis C and attitude; knowledge hepatitis B and practice; knowledge hepatitis C and practice; and attitude and practice regarding hepatitis B and C. Similarly, some socio-demographic variables and history of hepatitis were found to be associated with knowledge, attitude and practice related to hepatitis B and C. The levels of knowledge and attitude towards hepatitis B and C were low among respondents but majority of them exhibited safe practices. The study level, faculty, age, nationality, marital status and gender of the respondents were significantly associated with their levels of knowledge, attitude and practices towards the disease. These findings imply that there is need for hepatitis health promotion among the international students of UPM and possibly other international students across the globe. It will serve to improve their levels of knowledge

  9. Factors limiting performance in a multitone intensity-discrimination task: disentangling non-optimal decision weights and increased internal noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oberfeld

    Full Text Available To identify factors limiting performance in multitone intensity discrimination, we presented sequences of five pure tones alternating in level between loud (85 dB SPL and soft (30, 55, or 80 dB SPL. In the "overall-intensity task", listeners detected a level increment on all of the five tones. In the "masking task", the level increment was imposed only on the soft tones, rendering the soft tones targets and loud tones task-irrelevant maskers. Decision weights quantifying the importance of the five tone levels for the decision were estimated using methods of molecular psychophysics. Compatible with previous studies, listeners placed higher weights on the loud tones than on the soft tones in the overall-intensity condition. In the masking task, the decisions were systematically influenced by the to-be-ignored loud tones (maskers. Using a maximum-likelihood technique, we estimated the internal noise variance and tested whether the internal noise was higher in the alternating-level five-tone sequences than in sequences presenting only the soft or only the loud tones. For the overall-intensity task, we found no evidence for increased internal noise, but listeners applied suboptimal decision weights. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that the presence of the loud tones does not impair the precision of the representation of the intensity of the soft tones available at the decision stage, but that this information is not used in an optimal fashion due to a difficulty in attending to the soft tones. For the masking task, in some cases our data indicated an increase in internal noise. Additionally, listeners applied suboptimal decision weights. The maximum-likelihood analyses we developed should also be useful for other tasks or other sensory modalities.

  10. Phytoplankton stimulation in frontal regions of Benguela upwelling filaments by internal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Wasmund

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Filaments are intrusions of upwelling water into the sea, separated from the surrounding water by fronts. Current knowledge explains the enhanced primary production and phytoplankton growth found in frontal areas by external factors like nutrient input. The question is whether this enhancement is also caused by intrinsic factors, i.e. simple mixing without external forcing. In order to study the direct effect of frontal mixing on organisms, disturbing external influx has to be excluded. Therefore mixing was simulated by joining waters originating from inside and outside the filament in mesocosms (tanks. These experiments were conducted during two cruises in the northern Benguela upwelling system in September 2013 and January 2014. The mixed waters reached a much higher net primary production and chlorophyll a (chla concentration than the original waters already 2-3 days after their merging. The peak in phytoplankton biomass stays longer than the chla peak. After their maxima, primary production rates decreased quickly due to depletion of the nutrients. The increase in colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM may indicate excretion and degradation. Zooplankton is not quickly reacting on the changed conditions. We conclude that already simple mixing of two water bodies, which occurs generally at fronts between upwelled and ambient water, leads to a short-term stimulation of the phytoplankton growth. However, after the exhaustion of the nutrient stock, external nutrient supply is necessary to maintain the enhanced phytoplankton growth in the frontal area. Based on these data, some generally important ecological factors are discussed as for example nutrient ratios and limitations, silicate requirements and growth rates.

  11. Examining Factors of Acculturative Stress on International Students as They Affect Utilization of Campus-Based Health and Counseling Services at Four-Year Public Universities in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Paul N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined factors of acculturative stress experienced by international students as they affect utilization of campus-based health and counseling services. Eight hundred thirty-eight international students studying at 11 four-year public institutions in the State of Ohio were surveyed to determine how frequently they had experienced 20…

  12. Socio-Economic, Environmental and Personal Factors in the Choice of Country and Higher Education Institution for Studying Abroad among International Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the pull factors that influenced international students' choice of country and institution for their Master's education. Design/Methodology/ Approach: This qualitative study relied upon focus group interviews with 70 international students registered in taught Master programmes at a higher…

  13. Socio-Economic, Environmental and Personal Factors in the Choice of Country and Higher Education Institution for Studying Abroad among International Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the pull factors that influenced international students' choice of country and institution for their Master's education. Design/Methodology/ Approach: This qualitative study relied upon focus group interviews with 70 international students registered in taught Master programmes at a higher…

  14. Examining Factors of Acculturative Stress on International Students as They Affect Utilization of Campus-Based Health and Counseling Services at Four-Year Public Universities in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Paul N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined factors of acculturative stress experienced by international students as they affect utilization of campus-based health and counseling services. Eight hundred thirty-eight international students studying at 11 four-year public institutions in the State of Ohio were surveyed to determine how frequently they had experienced 20…

  15. Research perspectives in the etiology of congenital anorectal malformations using data of the International Consortium on Anorectal Malformations: evidence for risk factors across different populations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, C.H.W.; Blaauw, I. de; Marcelis, C.L.M.; Wijnen, R.M.H.; Brunner, H.G.; Midrio, P.; Gamba, P.; Clementi, M.; Jenetzky, E.; Zwink, N.; Reutter, H.; Bartels, E.; Grasshoff-Derr, S.; Holland-Cunz, S.; Hosie, S.; Marzheuser, S.; Schmiedeke, E.; Cretolle, C.; Sarnacki, S.; Levitt, M.A.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Roeleveld, N.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The recently established International Consortium on Anorectal Malformations aims to identify genetic and environmental risk factors in the etiology of syndromic and nonsyndromic anorectal malformations (ARM) by promoting collaboration through data sharing and combined research activities.

  16. Research perspectives in the etiology of congenital anorectal malformations using data of the International Consortium on Anorectal Malformations: evidence for risk factors across different populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.W. Wijers (Charlotte); I. de Blaauw (Ivo); C.L.M. Marcellis; R.M.H. Wijnen (René); H. Brunner (Han); P. Midrio (Paola); P. Gamba (Piergiorgio); M. Clementi (Maurizio); E. Jenetzky (Ekkehart); N. Zwink (Nadine); H. Reutter (Heiko); E. Bartels (Enrika); S. Grasshoff-Derr (Sabine); S. Holland-Cunz (Stefan); S. Hosie (Stuart); S. Märzheuser (Stefanie); E. Schmiedeke (Eberhard); C. Crétolle (Célia); S. Sarnacki (Sabine); M.A. Levitt (Marc); N.V.A.M. Knoers (Nine); N. Roeleveld (Nel); I.A.L.M. Rooij (Iris)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The recently established International Consortium on Anorectal Malformations aims to identify genetic and environmental risk factors in the etiology of syndromic and nonsyndromic anorectal malformations (ARM) by promoting collaboration through data sharing and combined research

  17. Risk and protective factors across multiple microsystems associated with internalizing symptoms and aggressive behavior in rural adolescents: Modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Evans, Caroline B R; Wu, Qi; Rose, Roderick A; Bacallao, Martica; Cotter, Katie L

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined risk and protective factors across microsystems that impact the development of internalizing symptoms and aggression over 4 years in a sample of culturally diverse, rural adolescents. We explored whether risk and protective factors across microsystems were associated with changes in rates of internalizing symptoms and aggressive behavior. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project (RAP), a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 students from 26 public middle schools and 12 public high schools. Three level HLM models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and aggression. Compared with other students, risk for internalizing symptoms and aggression was elevated for youth exposed to risk factors in the form of school hassles, parent-child conflict, peer rejection, and delinquent friends. Microsystem protective factors in the form of ethnic identity, religious orientation, and school satisfaction decreased risk for aggression, but were not associated with internalizing symptoms, whereas future orientation and parent support decreased risk for internalizing symptoms, but not aggression. Results indicate that risks for internalizing symptoms and aggression are similar, but that unique protective factors are related to these adolescent behavioral health outcomes. Implications and limitations were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Virtual Test for the Effect of Rear Wing Attack Angle on the Performance of Formula SAE Car%尾翼攻角变化对方程式赛车性能影响的虚拟试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊; 吴志成; 陈思忠

    2012-01-01

    In order to compare the performance of Formula SAE car with different rear wing attack angles, the virtual prototype model of a certain Formula SAE car was built by ADAMS with considering the nonlinear factors and aerodynamics characteristics. By comparison with actual test data, the correctness of the virtual prototype model was verified. Based on these, a feasible method was proposed which can take the aerodynamics characteristics of the rear wing into simulation. The comparison among different rear wing attack angles was performed according to the lift and drag characteristics of the rear wing. The results show that the increase of the attack angle has a little effect on acceleration performance. Besides, the transient performance and the crosswind stability are improved with the increase of attack angle, but the tendency to understeer is aggravated.%为对比方程式赛车尾翼攻角不同时的性能.应用ADAMS建立了某方程式赛车的虚拟样机模型,并考虑了非线性因素及空气动力特性.通过与实车试验结果的对比,验证了虚拟样机模型的准确性.在此基础上,提出了一种切实可行的方法在仿真中计入了尾翼的空气动力特性.并根据不同攻角时的尾翼升阻特性,对尾翼攻角不同时的各项性能进行了对比.对比结果表明,攻角的增大对赛车的直线加速性能影响很小,提高了赛车的瞬态响应性能和侧风稳定性,但加重了赛车的不足转向特性.

  19. Microstructure and Properties of SAE 2205 Stainless Steel After Salt Bath Nitrocarburizing at 450 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Gu, Tan; Zeng, Dezhi; Huang, Runbo; Ji, Xiong; Fan, Hongyuan

    2014-04-01

    Nitrocarburizing of the type SAE 2205 duplex stainless steel was conducted at 450 °C, using a type of salt bath chemical surface treatment, and the microstructure and properties of the nitrided surface were systematically researched. Experimental results revealed that a modified layer transformed on the surface of samples with the thickness ranging from 3 to 28 μm changed with the treatment time. After 2205 duplex stainless steel was subjected to salt bath nitriding at 450 °C for time less than 8 h, the preexisting ferrite zone in the surface transformed into austenite by active nitrogen diffusion. The main phase of the nitrided layer was the expanded austenite. When the treatment time was extended to 16 h, the preexisting ferrite zone in the expanded austenite was decomposed and transformed partially into ɛ-nitride precipitate. When the treatment time extended to 40 h, the preexisting ferrite zone in the expanded austenite was transformed into ɛ-nitride and CrN precipitate. Further, a large amount of nitride precipitated from preexisting austenite zone. The nitrided layer depth thickness changed intensively with the increasing nitriding time. The growth of the nitride layer takes place mainly by nitrogen diffusion according to the expected parabolic rate law. The salt bath nitriding can effectively improve the surface hardness. The maximum values measured from the treated surface are observed to be approximately 1400 HV0.1 after 8 h, which is about 3.5 times as hard as the untreated material (396 HV0.1). Low-temperature nitriding can improve the erosion/corrosion resistance. After nitriding for 4 h, the sample has the best corrosion resistance.

  20. Musculoskeletal Injury in Professional Dancers: Prevalence and Associated Factors: An International Cross-Sectional Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Craig L; Cassidy, J. David; Côté, Pierre;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with injury in professional ballet and modern dancers, and assess if dancers are reporting their injuries and explore reasons for not reporting injuries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Participants...... specific characteristics included number of years in present dance company, number of years dancing professionally, number of years dancing total, and rank in the company. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported injury and Self-Estimated Functional Inability because of Pain. RESULTS: A total of 260 dancers...... participated in the study with an overall response rate of 81%. The point prevalence of self-reported injury in professional ballet and modern dancers was 54.8% (95% CI, 47.7-62.1) and 46.3% (95% CI, 35.5-57.1), respectively. Number of years dancing professionally (OR = 4.4, 95% CI, 1.6-12.3) and rank (OR = 2...

  1. Specialization of the Romanian Economy as a Factor of Increasing Competitiveness in the International Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Carmen MUNTEAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A major importance in study performance of trade is presented by specialization profile, usually measured by comparative advantage. However, the specialization of a country in a particular sector can be measured by various indicators, their choice depending on many factors, so below, we present some of these indicators as they were by logically structured by different authors. Important to note is that if the product group that we identified to have relative comparative advantage with bigger share to export or import to / from EU and also in the total export and import, this is a first indication that it retains the advantage comparison, almost at all groups (with some minor exceptions. Romania exports respectively imports in large enough share to / from the European Union.

  2. International projects and cross-cultural adjustments of British expatriates in Middle East: A qualitative investigation of influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Konanahalli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased globalisation within the British AEC (Architectural Engineering and Construction sector has increased the need for companies to transfer their staff to manage their overseas operations. To be able to perform abroad, expatriates must harmonise themselves to the conditions prevailing in the host country. These include getting accustomed to living, working and interacting with the host country nationals. The process is commonly referred to as ‘cross-cultural adjustment’. Various factors influence the process of adjustment. In order to identify these issues, a qualitative study was undertaken, which mainly comprised of a comprehensive literature review and interviews with British expatriates working on international AEC assignments in Middle Eastern countries. The current study focuses on exploring the role of the organisation, host country, work related factors and their ability to dictate a British expatriate's adjustment. The findings suggest that success of expatriation does not entirely rest on an expatriate's ability but also on organisational support and assistance that expatriates receive prior to and during the assignment. Organisational factors such as, selection mechanisms, job design, training, logistical and social support, mentoring, etc., influence various aspects of expatriate adjustment. Striking cultural contrasts between British and Arab culture both in work and non work situations also dictate the level of support required by the expatriate, suggesting that expatriate relocation to less developed, remote or politically unstable regions, demands additional support and consideration by the parent company. This study is relevant to the AEC companies employing British expatriates, who need to be cognisant of the issues highlighted above to make rational and informed decisions when handling international assignments in the Middle East.

  3. International projects and cross-cultural adjustments of British expatriates in Middle East: A qualitative investigation of influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Konanahalli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Increased globalisation within the British AEC (Architectural Engineering and Construction sector has increased the need for companies to transfer their staff to manage their overseas operations. To be able to perform abroad, expatriates must harmonise themselves to the conditions prevailing in the host country. These include getting accustomed to living, working and interacting with the host country nationals. The process is commonly referred to as ‘cross-cultural adjustment’. Various factors influence the process of adjustment. In order to identify these issues, a qualitative study was undertaken, which mainly comprised of a comprehensive literature review and interviews with British expatriates working on international AEC assignments in Middle Eastern countries. The current study focuses on exploring the role of the organisation, host country, work related factors and their ability to dictate a British expatriate's adjustment. The findings suggest that success of expatriation does not entirely rest on an expatriate's ability but also on organisational support and assistance that expatriates receive prior to and during the assignment. Organisational factors such as, selection mechanisms, job design, training, logistical and social support, mentoring, etc., influence various aspects of expatriate adjustment. Striking cultural contrasts between British and Arab culture both in work and non work situations also dictate the level of support required by the expatriate, suggesting that expatriate relocation to less developed, remote or politically unstable regions, demands additional support and consideration by the parent company. This study is relevant to the AEC companies employing British expatriates, who need to be cognisant of the issues highlighted above to make rational and informed decisions when handling international assignments in the Middle East.

  4. The use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to classify the factors influencing mobility reported by persons with an amputation: An international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Seema; Kohler, Friedbert; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Jayaraman, Arun; Li, Jianin; Pieber, Karin; Schiappacasse, Carolina

    2017-08-01

    Amputation of lower limb results in limitations in mobility which are amenable to multiple rehabilitation interventions. The challenges faced by the persons with lower limb amputation vary internationally. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health provides a common language to describe the function of persons with lower limb amputation across various countries. This article reports the concepts in mobility important to persons with lower limb amputation across six countries using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Qualitative study using focus groups and individual interviews. Focus groups and individual interviews of persons with lower limb amputation were organised across six countries to identify the issues faced by patients with an amputation during and after their amputation, subsequent rehabilitation and on an ongoing basis in their daily life. Meaningful concepts were extracted from the responses and linked to suitable second-level and where applicable third-level International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categories. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categorical frequencies were analysed to represent the prevalence and spread of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categories by location. A total of 133 patients were interviewed. A large percentage (93%) of the identified concepts could be matched to International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categories for quantitative analysis. The important concepts in mobility were similar across different countries. The comprehensiveness of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a classification system for human function and its universality across the globe is demonstrated by the large proportion of the concepts contained in the interviews from across the study centres that could be matched to International

  5. Health Anxiety Levels in Patients Admitted to Internal Medicine Outpatient Clinic for Several Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Health anxiety (HA in patients consist of incorrect reference to normal bodily sensations as a signs of a serious disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the HA in patients admitted to internal medicine outpatient clinic for several times within one year. Material and Method: 60 patients who admitted more than one time to internal medicine outpatient clinic within one year and the control group consisted of 60 people were enrolled in this study. Short-form of health anxiety inventory (SAE-KF was given to these groups, The results were compared statistically. Results: SAE-KF scores were significantly higher in the patient group (11.17 ± 6.07 than the control group (10.71±4.44 (Z=-5.96, P

  6. Cellular Internalization of Fibroblast Growth Factor-12 Exerts Radioprotective Effects on Intestinal Radiation Damage Independently of FGFR Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Fumiaki, E-mail: f_naka@nirs.go.jp [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Umeda, Sachiko [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Yasuda, Takeshi [Radiation Emergency Medicine Research Program, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Fujita, Mayumi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Asada, Masahiro [Signaling Molecules Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Meineke, Viktor [Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology affiliated to the University of Ulm, Munich (Germany); Imamura, Toru [Signaling Molecules Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Several fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) were shown to inhibit radiation-induced tissue damage through FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling; however, this signaling was also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of several malignant tumors. In contrast, FGF12 cannot activate any FGFRs. Instead, FGF12 can be internalized readily into cells using 2 cell-penetrating peptide domains (CPP-M, CPP-C). Therefore, this study focused on clarifying the role of FGF12 internalization in protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury. Methods and Materials: Each FGF or peptide was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 hours before or after total body irradiation with γ rays at 9 to 12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Administration of FGF12 after radiation exposure was as effective as pretreatment in significantly promoting intestinal regeneration, proliferation of crypt cells, and epithelial differentiation. Two domains, comprising amino acid residues 80 to 109 and 140 to 169 of FGF12B, were identified as being responsible for the radioprotective activity, so that deletion of both domains from FGF12B resulted in a reduction in activity. Interestingly, these regions included the CPP-M and CPP-C domains, respectively; however, CPP-C by itself did not show an antiapoptotic effect. In addition, FGF1, prototypic FGF, possesses a domain corresponding to CPP-M, whereas it lacks CPP-C, so the fusion of FGF1 with CPP-C (FGF1/CPP-C) enhanced cellular internalization and increased radioprotective activity. However, FGF1/CPP-C reduced in vitro mitogenic activity through FGFRs compared with FGF1, implying that FGFR signaling might not be essential for promoting the radioprotective effect of FGF1/CPP-C. In addition, internalized FGF12 suppressed the activation of p38α after irradiation, resulting in reduced radiation-induced apoptosis. Conclusions: These findings indicate that FGF12 can protect the

  7. Effects of hyperthermia on binding, internalization, and degradation of epidermal growth factor. [/sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magun, B.E.; Fennie, C.W.

    1981-04-01

    /sup 125/I-epidermal growth factor was used as a molecular probe to study the effects of hyperthermia and local anesthetics on cultured Rat-1 cells. Heating cells at 45/sup 0/C for times up to 1 h caused a continuous decrease in EGF binding. Scatchard analysis showed that the decreased binding resulted from a decrease in the affinity of the EGF receptors rather than from a decrease in receptor number. Exposure to 42/sup 0/C had no effect on degradation. We compared the effects of heat to those caused by the local anesthetics procaine the lidocaine, which have been shown to prevent EGF degradation. Because procaine and lidocaine have been shown by others to potentiate the killing effects of hyperthermia on tumors and in cultured cells, we suggest that hyperthermia and the local anesthetics may act at the same cellular site. By inhibiting the action of lysosomes, hyperthermia and local anesthetics may permit potentially toxic materials to enter the cell by endocytosis, where they would accumulate and induce lethal damage.

  8. Epidermal growth factor receptors destined for the nucleus are internalized via a clathrin-dependent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis Campos, Ana Carolina; Rodrigues, Michele Angela; Andrade, Carolina de; Miranda de Goes, Alfredo [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nathanson, Michael H. [Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Gomes, Dawidson A., E-mail: dawidson@icb.ufmg.br [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} EGF and its receptor translocates to the nucleus in liver cells. {yields} Real time imaging shows that EGF moves to the nucleus. {yields} EGF moves with its receptor to the nucleus. {yields} Dynamin and clathrin are necessary for EGFR nuclear translocation. -- Abstract: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) transduces its actions via the EGF receptor (EGFR), which can traffic from the plasma membrane to either the cytoplasm or the nucleus. However, the mechanism by which EGFR reaches the nucleus is unclear. To investigate these questions, liver cells were analyzed by immunoblot of cell fractions, confocal immunofluorescence and real time confocal imaging. Cell fractionation studies showed that EGFR was detectable in the nucleus after EGF stimulation with a peak in nuclear receptor after 10 min. Movement of EGFR to the nucleus was confirmed by confocal immunofluorescence and labeled EGF moved with the receptor to the nucleus. Small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown clathrin in order to assess the first endocytic steps of EGFR nuclear translocation in liver cells. A mutant dynamin (dynamin K44A) was also used to determine the pathways for this traffic. Movement of labeled EGF or EGFR to the nucleus depended upon dynamin and clathrin. This identifies the pathway that mediates the first steps for EGFR nuclear translocation in liver cells.

  9. Measuring Environmental Factors: Unique and Overlapping International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Coverage of 5 Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W; Miskovic, Ana; Semik, Patrick; Wong, Alex; Dashner, Jessica; Baum, Carolyn; Magasi, Susan; Hammel, Joy; Tulsky, David S; Garcia, Sofia F; Jerousek, Sara; Lai, Jin-Shei; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Gray, David B

    2016-12-01

    To describe the unique and overlapping content of the newly developed Environmental Factors Item Banks (EFIB) and 7 legacy environmental factor instruments, and to evaluate the EFIB's construct validity by examining associations with legacy instruments. Cross-sectional, observational cohort. Community. A sample of community-dwelling adults with stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury (N=568). None. EFIB covering domains of the built and natural environment; systems, services, and policies; social environment; and access to information and technology; the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF) short form; the Facilitators and Barriers Survey/Mobility (FABS/M) short form; the Home and Community Environment Instrument (HACE); the Measure of the Quality of the Environment (MQE) short form; and 3 of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System's (PROMIS) Quality of Social Support measures. The EFIB and legacy instruments assess most of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) environmental factors chapters, including chapter 1 (products and technology; 75 items corresponding to 11 codes), chapter 2 (natural environment and human-made changes; 31 items corresponding to 7 codes), chapter 3 (support and relationships; 74 items corresponding to 7 codes), chapter 4 (attitudes; 83 items corresponding to 8 codes), and chapter 5 (services, systems, and policies; 72 items corresponding to 16 codes). Construct validity is provided by moderate correlations between EFIB measures and the CHIEF, MQE barriers, HACE technology mobility, FABS/M community built features, and PROMIS item banks and by small correlations with other legacy instruments. Only 5 of the 66 legacy instrument correlation coefficients are moderate, suggesting they measure unique aspects of the environment, whereas all intra-EFIB correlations were at least moderate. The EFIB measures provide a brief and focused assessment of ICF

  10. Self-reported symptoms and risk factors for digital ischaemia among international world-class beach volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Pol, Daan; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Maas, Mario; Kuijer, P Paul F M

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms is remarkably high among elite indoor volleyball players. Since the exposure to sport-specific demands may be higher in beach volleyball compared to indoor volleyball, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms and associated risk factors among world-class beach volleyball players. Therefore, a questionnaire survey was performed among beach volleyball players active during the 2013 Grand Slam Beach Volleyball in the Netherlands. In total, 60 of the 128 beach volleyball players (47%) participated: 26 males and 34 females from 17 countries. The self-reported prevalence of cold or blue or pale digits in the dominant hand during or immediately after practice or competition was 38% (n = 23). Two risk factors were independently associated with symptoms of blue or pale digits: more than 14 years playing volleyball (odds ratio (OR) 4.42, 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 1.30-15.07) and sex (female) (OR 4.62, 90% CI 1.15-18.57). In conclusion, the prevalence of symptoms associated with digital ischaemia is high among international world-class beach volleyball players. Female sex and the length of the volleyball career were independently associated with an increased risk of ischaemia-related symptoms. The high prevalence of these seemingly innocuous symptoms and possible associated risk factors warrant regular monitoring since early detection can potentially prevent thromboembolic complications and irreversible tissue damage.

  11. Internalization of nerve growth factor by pheochromocytoma PC12 cells: absence of transfer to the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, H; Schäfer, T; Korsching, S; Thoenen, H

    1982-06-01

    The intracellular distribution of 125I-labeled nerve growth factor (NGF) in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells was studied by quantitative electron microscopic (EM) autoradiography and by subcellular fractionation. PC12 cells were grown as monolayer cultures in medium supplemented with serum in the presence of 125I-NGF. EM autoradiography showed that 125I-NGF was localized at the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic compartments but did not accumulate in the nuclear chromatin or in the nuclear membrane compartment of cells analyzed after 1 hr and 1, 2, and 8 d of incubation with 125I-NGF. 125I-NGF also was not detected in nuclear subcellular fractions prepared from cells grown in serum-supplemented medium either in suspension for 1 d or in monolayer cultures for 1 to 8 d. In contrast, and in confirmation of the results of Yankner and Shooter (Yankner, B. A., and E. M. Shooter (1979) Pro. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 76: 1269-1273), about 60% of the cell-bound 125I-NGF was found in the nuclear pellet after cell fractionation if the cells had been kept previously in suspension for 1 d in phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.2% glucose, 0.1% bovine serum albumin, and 125I-NGF. The ultrastructure of PC12 cells grown under such conditions, however, revealed signs of varying degrees of damage. Autoradiography of the nuclear pellet from these cells showed the grains to be located mainly over damaged nuclei or over cell debris between nuclei. It is concluded that NGF, after binding to specific receptors at the plasma membrane, is transferred to membrane-confined cytoplasmic compartments but does not have to be transferred further to the nuclear membrane or to the nuclear chromatin as a prerequisite for its physiological action.

  12. Wind of Change or Wind of Challenges: Implementation factors regarding wind energy development, an international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Gartman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Countries promoting renewable energies encounter a variety of phenomena that can challenge the implementation of further onshore wind energy development. Those challenges can be observed in many multi-level governance systems, as exhibited in the U.S., Germany, and Mexico, where various regulatory and institutional levels must agree on goals and responsibilities. This is a challenge, as both forms of governance (top-down and bottom-up dominated are present in wind energy planning and policy. (1 Political and market phenomena, (2 siting issues, (3 the green vs. green dilemma, and (4 social acceptance are selected challenges within the different levels of decision-making processes in wind energy implementation. (1 Political and financial factors can influence the development by implementing incentive- and market-based policies, command-and-control policies, and feed-in tariffs. However, success of these policy designs for renewable energies is based on different political environments, and their electricity markets nationally, regionally, or statewide. (2 Spatial limitations in planning are created based on limited land availability due to conflicts with other land uses such as aviation, nature reserves, residential areas, their respective buffers. (3 The "green vs. green" dilemma involves the incoherent relationship between policies promoting renewable energies with policies protection species and their environments, becoming a major point of concern during siting and operations of wind energy. (4 Lastly, while there is a general overall support for wind energy, social acceptance on a local level is influenced by institutional settings i.e. information availability, as well as public and stakeholder concerns. Involvement in decision-making as well as financial participation (e.g. community-ownership affects public participation and acceptance. This paper goes into detail on these phenomena and discusses case studies in Europe and North America

  13. Internalization and down-regulation of the human epidermal growth factor receptor are regulated by the carboxyl-terminal tyrosines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Beguinot, L

    1991-01-01

    with receptors in which 1, 2, or all 3 tyrosines were changed to phenylalanines. The triple point mutant EGF-R, expressed in NIH-3T3, exhibited low autophosphorylation in vivo, low biological and reduced kinase activities. Single and double point mutants were down-regulated, as well as wild type EGF-R......The C terminus of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) contains three tyrosines (Y1068, Y1148, and Y1173) which correspond to the major autophosphorylation sites. To investigate the role of the tyrosines in internalization and down-regulation of the EGF-R, mutational analysis was performed...... in response to EGF showing a half-life of about 1 h. Degradation of the triple point mutant, however, was impaired and resulted in a half-life of 4 h in the presence of EGF. EGF-dependent down-regulation of surface receptors was decreased in the triple point mutant EGF-R as was internalization and degradation...

  14. Clinical decisions in patients with diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors. A statement of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Huelgas, R; Pérez-Jiménez, F; Serrano-Ríos, M; González-Santos, P; Román, P; Camafort, M; Conthe, P; García-Alegría, J; Guijarro, R; López-Miranda, J; Tirado-Miranda, R; Valdivielso, P

    2014-05-01

    Although the mortality associated to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been reduced in the last decades, CVD remains the main cause of mortality in Spain and they are associated with an important morbidity and a huge economic burden. The increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes could be slowing down the mortality reduction in Spain. Clinicians have often difficulty making clinical decisions due to the multiple clinical guidelines available. Moreover, in the current context of economic crisis it is critical to promote an efficient use of diagnostic and therapeutic proceedings to ensure the viability of public health care systems. The Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) has coordinated a consensus document to answer questions of daily practice with the aim of facilitating physicians' decision-making in the management of diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors from a cost-efficiency point of view. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Internal Factors within Entrepreneurs that Influence the Acceptance and Use of Social Commerce among SMEs in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilahwati Binti Adam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Current technological advances, particularly in information and communications technology (ICT and social media have sparked a phenomenon in the business world. The existence of social commerce (s-commerce, which is a combination of e-commerce and social media, has opened up greater opportunities for SMEs in Malaysia. The use of s-commerce as a medium for marketing and buying and selling is capable of helping SMEs to increase the sales and profitability of their businesses. However, according to studies conducted by SME Corp Malaysia, the usage of e-commerce and social media is still low. Attitude and self-efficacy are variables that are often used in studies related to entrepreneurs and their intention to accept a new business innovation or technology. Therefore, this study was undertaken to identify the internal factors within entrepreneurs, namely attitude and self-efficacy, which influence the acceptance and use of s-commerce among SMEs in Malaysia.

  16. International note: what factors are associated with reading, mathematics, and science literacy of Indian adolescents? A multilevel examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2014-06-01

    A sample of 15-year-olds in India took part in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) for the first time in 2010. The PISA reading, mathematics, and science literacy scores of Indian adolescents were considerably lower than their counterparts in most PISA participating countries. In order to explore potential reasons for this, the present study, therefore, drawing on data from the fourth cycle of PISA and employing multilevel modeling, examined the relations of student- and school-level factors to reading, mathematics, and science literacy among 4826 15-year-old students from 213 schools in India. Gender, metacognitive learning strategies, students' positive attitudes toward school, and students' positive perceptions of classroom climate were found to be significantly associated with Indian adolescents' performance on the PISA assessment.

  17. General formulation of rovibrational kinetic energy operators and matrix elements in internal bond-angle coordinates using factorized Jacobians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Wassja A.; Leonhard, Kai

    2016-12-01

    We show how inverse metric tensors and rovibrational kinetic energy operators in terms of internal bond-angle coordinates can be obtained analytically following a factorization of the Jacobian worked out by Frederick and Woywod. The structure of these Jacobians is exploited in two ways: On one hand, the elements of the metric tensor as well as its determinant all have the form ∑rmsin (αn) cos (βo) . This form can be preserved by working with the adjugate metric tensor that can be obtained without divisions. On the other hand, the adjugate can be obtained with less effort by exploiting the lower triangular structure of the Jacobians. Together with a suitable choice of the wavefunction, we avoid singularities and show how to obtain analytical expressions for the rovibrational kinetic energy matrix elements.

  18. LTE/SAE安全体系的研究及其在终端的实现%LTE/SAE Security Mechanism and Its Realization in UE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊华; 李小文

    2010-01-01

    本文针对3GPP最新发布的LTE/SAE ReIease8及ReIease9标准,首先概述了LTE/SAE的安全功能,然后详细研究了LTE/SAE的安全体系架构、安全机制,最后对终端安全流程的实现做了详细的设计,该方案对LTE/SAE系统的安全性具有重要作用.

  19. Sixteen-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index - Confirmatory factor analytic evidence, internal consistency, and construct validity in a young adult sample from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Arrindell, Willem A.; Bernstein, Amit; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the 16-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Reiss Peterson, Gursky, & McNally 1986) in a young adult sample (n = 420)from the Netherlands. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to comparatively e

  20. Protective Factors Interrupting the Continuity from School Bullying to Later Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: A Systematic Review of Prospective Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ttofi, Maria M.; Bowes, Lucy; Farrington, David P.; Lösel, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review is presented, based on prospective longitudinal studies, on protective factors that interrupt the continuity from bullying perpetration at school to externalizing problem behaviors later in life; and from bullying victimization to later internalizing problems. Some common factors were established, which seem to interrupt the…

  1. Behind the curtain of the European journal of physical and rehabilitation medicine: internal audit, impact factor, and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, S

    2010-06-01

    The European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EJPRM) is listed in PubMed and Current Contents and in 2010 will have its first Impact Factor; the unofficial one in the last two years was around 1.00, coming from 0.04 in 2004; also the independent SCImago Journal Rate and Cites per Doc (2 years) have increased steadily since 2005. These results in the main bibliometric indexes are due to many reasons, including a careful internal audit to guarantee a continuous quality increase of the journal. The aim of this short paper is to report the results of this audit. We continuously register each step of our editorial work to check if there is any problem and where. The evolution of these indicators in the last five years is here analyzed using simple statistical tools. The EJPRM receives today 12 papers per month and publishes more than 600 pages in 4 issues. The rejection rate is now around 60%, starting from 40% in 2005. The review and publication times are 1.54 (quartiles 0.57-2.79) and 8.4 (5.47-10.93) months, respectively: these parameters have decreased in these years, particularly the last one. Papers are mainly clinically oriented, original papers prevails with a 12% of RCTs, meta-analysis and Cochrane reviews in the last 5 years. The EJPRM has a well balanced coverage of different rehabilitation topics. How these indices have been used to improve quality for the readers and authors is here discussed. The actual literature requires such a process, that is one of the main points for quality continuous improvement of scientific journals. The growth of the EJPRM in these years comes from the internal audit using the correct quality indicators and working to increase the actual standards. Together with this, also external factors (development of the specialty in our continent and region, European Society and Mediterranean Forum of PRM role, etc.) and other internal ones (e-Pub, Open Access, Special Sections, Awards, Cochrane reviews, collaboration with

  2. Theoretical Analysis Model of the Adoption of Reactive and Proactive Eco-Innovation Strategies: the Influence of Contextual Factors Internal and External to Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlete Beatriz Maçaneiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide research propositions of the relationship between internal and external contextual factors and strategies for reac tive and proactive eco-innovation, defining the theoretical analysis model from these propositi ons. Therefore, this study is characterized as a theoretical essay, adopting the methodological procedure of literature review, through an analysis of national and international articles on the subject of eco-innovation strategy. As a result, the external and internal factors that affe ct the adoption of eco-innovation strategies were defined and propositions were made for their r elationship. With this theoretical approach and the establishment of the factors, it was possib le to design the theoretical model to analyze the impact of contextual factors on the adoption of eco-innovation strategies.

  3. Stress intensity factors and crack opening areas for axial through cracks in hollow cylinders under internal pressure loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlers, R.

    1986-01-01

    For a linear-elastic cylinder with an axial through crack subject to internal pressure loading, stress intensity factors and crack opening areas were calculated by the finite element method. Wall thickness and crack length were varied for constant mean radius of the cylinder, thus varying the shell parameter lambda with 2.5 factors depend on lambda as well as on R/t and show considerable differences to solutions based on shallow shell theory even for very short cracks. The range of validity of these solutions is discussed. Starting from the observation that the energy release rate for a semi-infinite crack is finite, a simple interpolation formula is given that retains the proper asymptotic behaviour for very long and very short cracks. Crack opening areas are given and compared to an approximate analytical formula from the literature. Some general limitations of the validity of the present results, particularly the required minimum lengths of the cylinder, are discussed.

  4. An Assessment of Students' Perceptions toward Factors Influencing Supervised Agricultural Experience Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lauren J.; Rayfield, John; Moore, Lori L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate student perceptions toward factors influencing Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) participation. This descriptive study was conducted in 120 randomly selected agricultural education programs throughout four purposively selected states representative of the National FFA regions. Within each state…

  5. Sae pekki! / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2002-01-01

    Meelelahutus- ja pilasaatest "Wremja" Kanal2-s (stsenaristid Andrus Kivirähk ja Mart Juur, näitlejad Dan Põldroos, Jan Uuspõld, Rednar Annus) pärit "rullnokad" ja nende prototüübid või epigoonid meie igapäeva-elus

  6. Chronic and acute anemia and extracranial internal carotid stenosis are risk factors for silent cerebral infarcts in sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaudin, Françoise; Verlhac, Suzanne; Arnaud, Cécile; Kamdem, Annie; Vasile, Manuela; Kasbi, Florence; Hau, Isabelle; Madhi, Fouad; Fourmaux, Christine; Biscardi, Sandra; Epaud, Ralph; Pondarré, Corinne

    2015-03-05

    Early transcranial Doppler (TCD) screening of the Créteil sickle cell anemia (SCA)-newborn cohort, and rapid initiation of transfusion programs, resulted in successful prevention of overt strokes, but a high cumulative risk of silent cerebral infarcts (SCI) remained, suggesting that TCD screening does not identify all patients with SCA at risk for SCI. We hypothesized that episodes of hypoperfusion/hypoxia, as observed during acute chest syndromes or acute anemic events (AAE), and extracranial internal carotid artery (eICA) stenoses, detectable via submandibular Doppler sonography and cervical magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), could also be risk factors for SCI. This study includes 189 stroke-free patients with SCA from the Créteil newborn cohort (1992-2010) followed longitudinally by magnetic resonance imaging/MRA, including cervical MRA at the last assessment. All patients with abnormal TCD and/or intracranial stenoses were placed on a transfusion program. Mean follow-up was 9.9 years (range, 2.2-19.9 years; 1844 patient-years). Annual rates of clinical events were calculated. The cumulative risk for SCI was 39.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.5%-54.7%) by age 18 years, with no plateau. We confirm that baseline hemoglobin level lower than 7 g/dL before age 3 years is a highly significant predictive risk factor for SCI (hazard ratio, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.43-6.17; P = .004). Furthermore, we show that AAE rate (odds ratio, 2.64 per unit increase; 95% CI, 1.09-6.38; P = .031) and isolated eICA stenosis (odds ratio, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.18-8.70; P = .023) are significant and independent risk factors for SCI.

  7. Clinically significant fatigue: prevalence and associated factors in an international sample of adults with multiple sclerosis recruited via the internet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey J Weiland

    Full Text Available Fatigue contributes a significant burden of disease for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS. Modifiable lifestyle factors have been recognized as having a role in a range of morbidity outcomes in PwMS. There is significant potential to prevent and treat fatigue in PwMS by addressing modifiable risk factors.To explore the associations between clinically significant fatigue and demographic factors, clinical factors (health-related quality of life, disability and relapse rate and modifiable lifestyle, disease-modifying drugs (DMD and supplement use in a large international sample of PwMS.PwMS were recruited to the study via Web 2.0 platforms and completed a comprehensive survey measuring demographic, lifestyle and clinical characteristics, including health-related quality of life, disability, and relapse rate.Of 2469 participants with confirmed MS, 2138 (86.6% completed a validated measure of clinically significant fatigue, the Fatigue Severity Scale. Participants were predominantly female from English speaking countries, with relatively high levels of education, and due to recruitment methods may have been highly pro-active about engaging in lifestyle management and self-help. Approximately two thirds of our sample (1402/2138; 65.6% (95% CI 63.7-67.7 screened positive for clinically significant fatigue. Bivariate associations were present between clinically significant fatigue and several demographic, clinical, lifestyle, and medication variables. After controlling for level of disability and a range of stable socio-demographic variables, we found increased odds of fatigue associated with obesity, DMD use, poor diet, and reduced odds of fatigue with exercise, fish consumption, moderate alcohol use, and supplementation with vitamin D and flaxseed oil.This study supports strong and significant associations between clinically significant fatigue and modifiable lifestyle factors. Longitudinal follow-up of this sample may help clarify the contribution

  8. Óxidos Mistos de Al2O3/ZrO2 como Inibidores de Corrosão do Aço SAE 1020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of Al2O3/ZrO2 mixed oxides synthesized by sol-gel process with different amounts of ZrO2 (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass in the Al2O3 matrix and different temperatures of calcination, such as interesting inhibitor materials of corrosive processes of SAE 1020 steel. The materials were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy Fourier Transform (FTIR and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD techniques. FTIR spectra show the typical Al-O and Zr-O bonds vibrations in the mixed oxides. The XRD patterns of the samples calcined at 800 °C and 1000 °C shows the ZrO2 tetragonal and γ-Al2O3 face-centered cubic (FCC phases. The corrosion tests showed that the SAE 1020 steel covered with mixed oxides have an anodic passive region, thereby inhibiting the corrosive processes on the metal surface. Furthermore, the found values for steel coated with mixed oxide synthesized indicate a decrease in corrosion potentials (Ecor and corrosion current (icor. With respect to different samples of mixed oxides, the sample with 20 % of ZrO2 in the Al2O3 matrix proved to be the best inhibitor of steel corrosion, with the lowest values of corrosion potential and corrosion current, - 1.32 V and 0.31 μA cm-2, respectively.

  9. Universal-diverse orientation in Asian international students: confirmatory factor analysis of the Miville-Guzman universality-diversity scale, short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Karen; DeBlaere, Cirleen

    2014-07-01

    Despite apparent relevance to Asian international students, universal-diverse orientation (UDO) has not been psychometrically validated with this population. The current study investigated the most researched UDO measure, the Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale, Short Form (M-GUDS-S; Fuertes, Miville, Mohr, Sedlacek, & Gretchen, 2000), with 333 Asian international college students. The M-GUDS-S evidenced good reliability and convergent validity, and analyses confirmed a three-factor structure, supporting expanded use of the scale.

  10. Factors associated with intern noncompliance with the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education’s 30-hour duty period requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2003 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education mandated work hour restrictions. Violations can results in a residency program being cited or placed on probation. Recurrent violations could results in loss of accreditation. We wanted to determine specific intern and workload factors associated with violation of a specific mandate, the 30-hour duty period requirement. Methods Retrospective review of interns’ performance against the 30-hour duty period requirement during inpatient ward rotations at a pediatric residency program between June 24, 2008 and June 23, 2009. The analytical plan included both univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Twenty of the 26 (77%) interns had 80 self-reported episodes of continuous work hours greater than 30 hours. In multivariable analysis, noncompliance was inversely associated with the number of prior inpatient rotations (odds ratio: 0.49, 95% confidence interval (0.38, 0.64) per rotation) but directly associated with the total number of patients (odds ratio: 1.30 (1.10, 1.53) per additional patient). The number of admissions on-call, number of admissions after midnight and number of discharges post-call were not significantly associated with noncompliance. The level of noncompliance also varied significantly between interns after accounting for intern experience and workload factors. Subject to limitations in statistical power, we were unable to identify specific intern characteristics, such as demographic variables or examination scores, which account for the variation in noncompliance between interns. Conclusions Both intern and workload factors were associated with pediatric intern noncompliance with the 30-hour duty period requirement during inpatient ward rotations. Residency programs must develop information systems to understand the individual and experience factors associated with noncompliance and implement appropriate interventions to ensure compliance with the

  11. Model of International Student Persistence: Factors Influencing Retention of International Undergraduate Students at Two Public Statewide Four-Year University Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwai, Chee Khei

    2010-01-01

    The current global economy has created a new middle class around the world, making higher education more accessible to a wider population. The increasing diversity in U.S. higher education is not only the result of minority American students, but also due to the increasing enrollment of international students. This study examined the factors…

  12. Factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression amongst internally displaced persons in northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyok Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 20 year war in northern Uganda between the Lord's Resistance Army and the Ugandan government has resulted in the displacement of up to 2 million people within Uganda. The purpose of the study was to measure rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression amongst these internally displaced persons (IDPs, and investigate associated demographic and trauma exposure risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional multi-staged, random cluster survey with 1210 adult IDPs was conducted in November 2006 in Gulu and Amuru districts of northern Uganda. Levels of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (original version, and levels of depression were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the association of demographic and trauma exposure variables on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Results Over half (54% of the respondents met symptom criteria for PTSD, and over two thirds (67% of respondents met symptom criteria for depression. Over half (58% of respondents had experienced 8 or more of the 16 trauma events covered in the questionnaire. Factors strongly linked with PTSD and depression included gender, marital status, distance of displacement, experiencing ill health without medical care, experiencing rape or sexual abuse, experiencing lack of food or water, and experiencing higher rates of trauma exposure. Conclusion This study provides evidence of exposure to traumatic events and deprivation of essential goods and services suffered by IDPs, and the resultant effect this has upon their mental health. Protection and social and psychological assistance are urgently required to help IDPs in northern Uganda re-build their lives.

  13. Endothelial Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2c Inhibits Migration of Smooth Muscle Cells Through Fenestrations in the Internal Elastic Lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao Wei; Lowery, Anthony M; Sun, Li-Yan; Singer, Harold A; Dai, Guohao; Adam, Alejandro P; Vincent, Peter A; Schwarz, John J

    2017-07-01

    Laminar flow activates myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors in vitro to induce expression of atheroprotective genes in the endothelium. Here we sought to establish the role of Mef2c in the vascular endothelium in vivo. To study endothelial Mef2c, we generated endothelial-specific deletion of Mef2c using Tie2-Cre or Cdh5-Cre-ER(T2) and examined aortas and carotid arteries by en face immunofluorescence. We observed enhanced actin stress fiber formation in the Mef2c-deleted thoracic aortic endothelium (laminar flow region), similar to those observed in normal aortic inner curvature (disturbed flow region). Furthermore, Mef2c deletion resulted in the de novo formation of subendothelial intimal cells expressing markers of differentiated smooth muscle in the thoracic aortas and carotids. Lineage tracing showed that these cells were not of endothelial origin. To define early events in intimal development, we induced endothelial deletion of Mef2c and examined aortas at 4 and 12 weeks postinduction. The number of intimal cell clusters increased from 4 to 12 weeks, but the number of cells within a cluster peaked at 2 cells in both cases, suggesting ongoing migration but minimal proliferation. Moreover, we identified cells extending from the media through fenestrations in the internal elastic lamina into the intima, indicating transfenestral smooth muscle migration. Similar transfenestral migration was observed in wild-type carotid arteries ligated to induce neointimal formation. These results indicate that endothelial Mef2c regulates the endothelial actin cytoskeleton and inhibits smooth muscle cell migration into the intima. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Factors associated with elevated ALT in an international HIV/HBV co-infected cohort on long-term HAART.

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    Jennifer Audsley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV infection increases the risk for ALT elevations in HIV-HBV co-infected patients during the first year of HAART; however, there is limited data on the prevalence of ALT elevations with prolonged HAART in this patient group. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify factors associated with ALT elevations in an HIV-HBV co-infected cohort receiving prolonged HAART, data from 143 co-infected patients on HAART enrolled in an international HIV-HBV co-infected cohort where ALT measurements were obtained every 6 months was analysed. A person-visit analysis was used to determine frequency of ALT elevation (≥ 2.5×ULN at each visit. Factors associated with ALT elevation were determined using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for correlated data. The median time on HAART at the end of follow-up was 5.6 years (range 0.4-13.3 years. During follow-up, median ALT was 36 U/L with 10.6% of person-visits classified as having ALT elevation. Most ALT elevations were grade 2 (86.5%, with only 13.5% of all ALT elevations grade 3 or higher. Univariate associations with ALT elevation (p1 year of HAART was uncommon, and severe ALT elevations were rare. HIV-HBV co-infected patients on long-term HAART who are either HBeAg positive or have a CD4 count of <200 cells/ml are at increased risk for ALT elevations.

  15. Os principais fatores internos e as exportações microrregionais brasileiras The internal factors of Brazilian exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admir Antonio Betarelli Junior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o comportamento das exportações como função da disponibilidade da infraestrutura de transporte e do nível de PIB per capita das microrregiões brasileiras em 2003. Para esse propósito, foi implementada preliminarmente uma análise exploratória de dados espaciais e, em uma etapa posterior, desenvolveu-se uma análise econométrico-espacial por meio da inclusão da defasagem espacial do termo de erro. Os resultados indicam que o crescimento econômico contribui de forma significativa para o desempenho exportador das microrregiões.The export growth plays an important role in the economic development and in the reduction of external vulnerability. This work analyzes the behavior the Brazilian exports in 2003 at the micro-regional level. Such an analysis evaluates the internal factors (GDP per capita and transport infrastructure that influence the growth of the exports. To do so, an exploratory analysis of spatial data is preliminarily implemented. Further, spatial econometric analysis is developed by means of the inclusion of a spatially lagged of the error term. The main finding indicates that economic growth contributes significantly for the microregions´exporting performance.

  16. Both external and internal factors as an explanation of depopulation of cities on the area of Poland

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    Kantor-Pietraga Iwona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is an attempt of explanation basic factors of depopulation in case of cities in Poland in the 20st and in the beginning of 21st century. Author takes into consideration only large urban centers with population more than 50 thousands inhabitants. Population changes are described according to historical periods: 1900-1946 (including World War II, postwar period (1946-1989 and period socio-economic and political changes in Poland (1990-2010. A key question is basic thesis that different determinants of depopulation have two sources: internal as well as external ones. Some of them arise only in defined periods and social-economic conditions. The most important have been underlined in this paper. It has been highlighted that is visible different between simply depopulation of cities as consequence of military operations, for example and contemporary urban shrinkage as an effect of compound social-economic background. Paper gives some reflections on different possibilities for defense of cities not only against consequences of the second demographic transition but also functional changes, especially in case of larger post-industrial centers. Important question that have been underlined in paper is problem of urban shrinkage as contemporary dimension of depopulation. Presented information clearly shows that in demographic terms process of contemporary shrinkage is comparable with urban demographic decline of the WW2 period.

  17. Risk factors for arterial and venous thrombosis in WHO-defined essential thrombocythemia: an international study of 891 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carobbio, Alessandra; Thiele, Juergen; Passamonti, Francesco; Rumi, Elisa; Ruggeri, Marco; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Randi, Maria Luigia; Bertozzi, Irene; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Antonioli, Elisabetta; Gisslinger, Heinz; Buxhofer-Ausch, Veronika; Finazzi, Guido; Gangat, Naseema; Tefferi, Ayalew; Barbui, Tiziano

    2011-06-02

    In an international collaborative study, a central histologic review identified 891 patients with essential thrombocythemia, strictly defined by World Health Organization criteria. After a median follow-up of 6.2 years, 109 (12%) patients experienced arterial (n = 79) or venous (n = 37) thrombosis. In multivariable analysis, predictors of arterial thrombosis included age more than 60 years (P = .03; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.7), thrombosis history (P = .003; HR = 2.1), cardiovascular risk factors including tobacco use, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus (P = .007; HR = 1.9), leukocytosis (> 11 × 10(9)/L; P = .04; HR = 1.7), and presence of JAK2V617F (P = .009; HR = 2.6). In contrast, only male gender predicted venous thrombosis. Platelet count more than 1000 × 10(9)/L was associated with a lower risk of arterial thrombosis (P = .007; HR = 0.4). These associations, except the one with leukocytosis, remained significant (or near significant) when analysis was restricted to JAK2V617F-positive cases. The current study clarifies the contribution of specific disease and host characteristics to the risk of arterial versus venous thrombosis in essential thrombocythemia.

  18. Computational fluid dynamics analysis on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a turbulent flow for internally grooved tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents computational fluid dynamics studies on heat transfer, pressure drop, friction factor, Nusselt number and thermal hydraulic performance of a plain tube and tube equipped with the three types of internal grooves (circular, square and trapezoidal.Water was used as the working fluid. Tests were performed for Reynolds number ranges from 5000 to 13500 for plain tube and different geometry inside grooved tubes. The maximum increase of pressure drop was obtained from numerical modeling 74% for circular, 38% for square and 78% for trapezoidal grooved tubes were compared with plain tube. Based on computational fluid dynamics analysis the average Nusselt number was increased up to 37%, 26% and 42% for circular, square and trapezoidal grooved tubes respectively while compared with the plain tube. The thermal hydraulic performance was obtained from computational fluid dynamics analysis up to 38% for circular grooved tube, 27% for square grooved tube and 40% for trapezoidal grooved tube while compared with the plain tube.

  19. Similarities in transcription factor IIIC subunits that bind to the posterior regions of internal promoters for RNA polymerase III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsutani Sachiko

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase III (RNAP III transcribes the genes for small RNAs like tRNAs, 5S rRNA, and several viral RNAs, and short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs. The genes for these RNAs and SINEs have internal promoters that consist of two regions. These two regions are called the A and B blocks. The multisubunit transcription factor TFIIIC is required for transcription initiation of RNAP III; in transcription of tRNAs, the B-block binding subunit of TFIIIC recognizes a promoter. Although internal promoter sequences are conserved in eukaryotes, no evidence of homology between the B-block binding subunits of vertebrates and yeasts has been reported previously. Results Here, I reported the results of PSI-BLAST searches using the B-block binding subunits of human and Shizosacchromyces pombe as queries, showing that the same Arabidopsis proteins were hit with low E-values in both searches. Comparison of the convergent iterative alignments obtained by these PSI-BLAST searches revealed that the vertebrate, yeast, and Arabidopsis proteins have similarities in their N-terminal one-third regions. In these regions, there were three domains with conserved sequence similarities, one located in the N-terminal end region. The N-terminal end region of the B-block binding subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tentatively identified as a HMG box, which is the DNA binding motif. Although I compared the alignment of the N-terminal end regions of the B-block binding subunits, and their homologs, with that of the HMG boxes, it is not clear whether they are related. Conclusion Molecular phylogenetic analyses using the small subunit rRNA and ubiquitous proteins like actin and α-tubulin, show that fungi are more closely related to animals than either is to plants. Interestingly, the results obtained in this study show that, with respect to the B-block binding subunits of TFIIICs, animals appear to be evolutionarily closer to plants

  20. Research on the Influencing Factors of Internal Control Enforcement%关于内部控制执行的影响因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江婷婷

    2012-01-01

    我国内部控制规范体系得到了进一步的完善,而内部控制能否有效执行成为相关方面关注的重点问题之一。文章以此为背景,剖析影响企业内控执行的诸多因素,指出企业应根据这些因素抓住关键控制点建立内部控制制度,以点带面,以期加快企业内部控制的建设进程。%With the issuing of a series of guidelines concerned with internal control,the internal control system of norms has been further improved,while the effective execution of internal control is one of the important issues which the relevant organizations are focusing on.This as the background,the paper analyzes the factors influencing the implementation of internal control and points out that enterprises should focus on these factors to establish internal control system basing on critical control point to accelerate the construction process of internal control.

  1. Incidence and risk factors for surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jiashen; Chang, Hengrui; Zhu, Yanbin; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Zhanle; Zhang, Huixin; Zhang, Yingze

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively summarize the risk factors associated with surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture. Medline, Embase, CNKI, Wanfang database and Cochrane central database were searched for relevant original studies from database inception to October 2016. Eligible studies had to meet quality assessment criteria according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and had to evaluate the risk factors for surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture. Stata 11.0 software was used for this meta-analysis. Eight studies involving 2214 cases of tibial plateau fracture treated by open reduction and internal fixation and 219 cases of surgical site infection were included in this meta-analysis. The following parameters were identified as significant risk factors for surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture (p internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture. Surgeons should be cognizant of these risks and give relevant preoperative advice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Coincident resection at both ends of random, γ-induced double-strand breaks requires MRX (MRN, Sae2 (Ctp1, and Mre11-nuclease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Westmoreland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Resection is an early step in homology-directed recombinational repair (HDRR of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. Resection enables strand invasion as well as reannealing following DNA synthesis across a DSB to assure efficient HDRR. While resection of only one end could result in genome instability, it has not been feasible to address events at both ends of a DSB, or to distinguish 1- versus 2-end resections at random, radiation-induced "dirty" DSBs or even enzyme-induced "clean" DSBs. Previously, we quantitatively addressed resection and the role of Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 complex (MRX at random DSBs in circular chromosomes within budding yeast based on reduced pulsed-field gel electrophoretic mobility ("PFGE-shift". Here, we extend PFGE analysis to a second dimension and demonstrate unique patterns associated with 0-, 1-, and 2-end resections at DSBs, providing opportunities to examine coincidence of resection. In G2-arrested WT, Δrad51 and Δrad52 cells deficient in late stages of HDRR, resection occurs at both ends of γ-DSBs. However, for radiation-induced and I-SceI-induced DSBs, 1-end resections predominate in MRX (MRN null mutants with or without Ku70. Surprisingly, Sae2 (Ctp1/CtIP and Mre11 nuclease-deficient mutants have similar responses, although there is less impact on repair. Thus, we provide direct molecular characterization of coincident resection at random, radiation-induced DSBs and show that rapid and coincident initiation of resection at γ-DSBs requires MRX, Sae2 protein, and Mre11 nuclease. Structural features of MRX complex are consistent with coincident resection being due to an ability to interact with both DSB ends to directly coordinate resection. Interestingly, coincident resection at clean I-SceI-induced breaks is much less dependent on Mre11 nuclease or Sae2, contrary to a strong dependence on MRX complex, suggesting different roles for these functions at "dirty" and clean DSB ends. These approaches apply to resection at

  3. Coincident resection at both ends of random, γ-induced double-strand breaks requires MRX (MRN, Sae2 (Ctp1, and Mre11-nuclease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Westmoreland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Resection is an early step in homology-directed recombinational repair (HDRR of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. Resection enables strand invasion as well as reannealing following DNA synthesis across a DSB to assure efficient HDRR. While resection of only one end could result in genome instability, it has not been feasible to address events at both ends of a DSB, or to distinguish 1- versus 2-end resections at random, radiation-induced "dirty" DSBs or even enzyme-induced "clean" DSBs. Previously, we quantitatively addressed resection and the role of Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 complex (MRX at random DSBs in circular chromosomes within budding yeast based on reduced pulsed-field gel electrophoretic mobility ("PFGE-shift". Here, we extend PFGE analysis to a second dimension and demonstrate unique patterns associated with 0-, 1-, and 2-end resections at DSBs, providing opportunities to examine coincidence of resection. In G2-arrested WT, Δrad51 and Δrad52 cells deficient in late stages of HDRR, resection occurs at both ends of γ-DSBs. However, for radiation-induced and I-SceI-induced DSBs, 1-end resections predominate in MRX (MRN null mutants with or without Ku70. Surprisingly, Sae2 (Ctp1/CtIP and Mre11 nuclease-deficient mutants have similar responses, although there is less impact on repair. Thus, we provide direct molecular characterization of coincident resection at random, radiation-induced DSBs and show that rapid and coincident initiation of resection at γ-DSBs requires MRX, Sae2 protein, and Mre11 nuclease. Structural features of MRX complex are consistent with coincident resection being due to an ability to interact with both DSB ends to directly coordinate resection. Interestingly, coincident resection at clean I-SceI-induced breaks is much less dependent on Mre11 nuclease or Sae2, contrary to a strong dependence on MRX complex, suggesting different roles for these functions at "dirty" and clean DSB ends. These approaches apply to resection at

  4. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF CREATION OF AN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CENTER AS IMPORTANT CIS AND EVRASES COUNTRIES INTERGATION FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Balabanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of forming in Moscow a regional (to be in future transformed into a global international Single Economic Space (SES financial center should become for the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS and Euroasian Economic Community (EvrAsES countries an universal integration instrument to be used to create their common economic and commercial space. The international center along with SES national financial centers will form an internationally competitive polycentric financial network with single institutional (regulatory, law, customs, etc.agreements. A mechanism should be formed to attract countries outside Customs Union to participate in creation of the international financial center.

  5. Multimethod Assessment of Psychopathy in Relation to Factors of Internalizing and Externalizing from the Personality Assessment Inventory: The Impact of Method Variance and Suppressor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigen, Daniel M.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Poythress, Norman G.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Edens, John F.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Research to date has revealed divergent relations across factors of psychopathy measures with criteria of "internalizing" (INT; anxiety, depression) and "externalizing" (EXT; antisocial behavior, substance use). However, failure to account for method variance and suppressor effects has obscured the consistency of these findings across distinct…

  6. Core Self-Evaluations as Personal Factors in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Model: An Application in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmanian, Rana; Smedema, Susan Miller; Thompson, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate Chan, Gelman, Ditchman, Kim, and Chiu's (2009) revised World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model using core self-evaluations (CSE) to account for Personal Factors in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: One hundred eighty-seven adults with SCI were…

  7. Study of the Factors Affecting the Mathematics Achievement of Turkish Students According to Data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzeller, Cem Oktay; Eser, Mehmet Taha; Aksu, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to determine the factors affecting the mathematics achievement of students in Turkey based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment 2012 and the correct classification ratio of the established model. The study used mathematics achievement as a dependent variable while sex, having a study room, preparation…

  8. Multimethod Assessment of Psychopathy in Relation to Factors of Internalizing and Externalizing from the Personality Assessment Inventory: The Impact of Method Variance and Suppressor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigen, Daniel M.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Poythress, Norman G.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Edens, John F.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Research to date has revealed divergent relations across factors of psychopathy measures with criteria of "internalizing" (INT; anxiety, depression) and "externalizing" (EXT; antisocial behavior, substance use). However, failure to account for method variance and suppressor effects has obscured the consistency of these findings…

  9. 论文体构成的内在因素%On the Internal Factors of Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁群

    2000-01-01

    The internal factors of style mainly consist of the three parts-meeting the particular needs of society,using the particular way of thinking and selecting the particular type of writing which are deeply related with each other. Meeting the particular needs of society is the deepest motive of the style's formation and development and is the essential property to decide the style as it is;using the particular way of thinking is the means of thinking to meet the needs of society and influences the style's whole pattern in its content and form;selecting the particular style of writing is the selection and adjustment to the expressive pattern under the demands of the needs of society end the way of thinking.%文体构成的内在因素主要由适应特定的社会需要、运用特定的思维方式、选择特定的语体形态这三个方面构成,而且彼此之间有着深刻的内在联系。适应特定的社会需要是文体形成和发展的最深层动因,是决定一种文体之所以是这种文体的本质属性;运用特定的思维方式是文体为满足社会需要而采取的思想时策,它从 内容和形式两个方面深刻地影响着文体的整体形态;选择特定的语体形态是在特定社会需要、思维方式的要求下对语言形态的选择和调整。

  10. [Prevalence and factors associated with clinical counselling on drug use among internal specialists residents of Andalusia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Jiménez, María de la Villa; Pérez-Milena, Alejandro; Valverde-Bolívar, Francisco Javier; Rosa-Garrido, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    To determine the frequency of offering clinical counseling against the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs by internal specialist residents (EIR) of Andalusia, and the factors related to such advice. Multicenter cross-sectional study by self-administered questionnaire sent by mail. EIR of Andalusia. The questionnaire collected the frequency of counseling against the use of alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs (dependent variable). age/gender, specialty, drug consumption and Fagerström test. Out of a total of 4245 participants, 66% responded, 29% did not respond, and 5% poorly completed questionnaires. The mean age was 29.1(±SD 5.1) years, 69% female, 89% Spanish nationality, 84% in medical training (73% hospital, 27% family medicine). The frequency of counseling against tobacco (85%) and alcohol (82%) is higher than illegal drugs (56%, p<.001, χ(2) test). Counseling against alcohol consumption is related to family medicine (OR=2.8; 95% CI [1.4-4.6]) and nursing (OR=2.5 [1.7-4.4]), and the age of first alcohol consumption (OR=1.07 [1.03-1.1]). Counseling against smoking is related to family medicine (OR=12.9;[7.6-21.9]) and nursing (OR=8.4;[4.3-16.5]), personal consumption of tobacco (OR=1.5 [1.2-2.0]), and wine (OR=1.1 [1.04-1.3]), and age of first alcohol consumption (OR=1.06 [1.01-1.1]). Counseling against illegal drugs is related to the age of first alcohol consumption (OR=1.09 [1.05-1.1]) and smoking (OR=.58 [.4-.7]). There is a high frequency of counseling against consumption of tobacco and alcohol by EIR, although remarkably smaller for illegal drugs. The influencing factors are both formative elements of their own specialty such as personal consumption of alcohol and tobacco, which should be considered for improvement of this preventive activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. An Examination of Individual Level Factors in Stress and Coping Processes: Perspectives of Chinese International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2011-01-01

    No empirical research has focused solely upon understanding the stress and coping processes of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examines the individual-level variables that affect the stress-coping process of Chinese international students and how they conceptualize and adapt to their stress at an…

  12. An Examination of Individual Level Factors in Stress and Coping Processes: Perspectives of Chinese International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2011-01-01

    No empirical research has focused solely upon understanding the stress and coping processes of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examines the individual-level variables that affect the stress-coping process of Chinese international students and how they conceptualize and adapt to their stress at an…

  13. Study on the types of craters produced in the impact of projectiles 5,56 SS109, over steel targets AISI-SAE 1045; Estudio de los tipos de crateres obtenidos en el impacto de proyectiles 5,56 SS109, sobre blancos de acero AISI-SAE 1045

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A.; Espejo, E.; Martinez, L. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Santa Fe de Bogota (Colombia)

    2000-07-01

    The present work describes the morphology and formation of the types of craters obtained with the impact of projectiles 5,56 SS109 over seven steel plates AISI-SAE 1045 that received different cycles of heat treatment. A comparison between the type of deformation and fracture structures and the ones generated by the impact of this projectiles over one steel armor plate was made. Each one of the craters was characterized by visual and metallography observation. The influence of the plate microstructure on the efficiency for stopping the projectile and the mechanism of craters formation was evaluated. (Author) 10 refs.

  14. Sociocultural pressures, thin-ideal internalization, self-objectification, and body dissatisfaction: could feminist beliefs be a moderating factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Taryn A; Crowther, Janis H

    2007-09-01

    Theory and research suggest that sociocultural pressures, thin-ideal internalization, and self-objectification are associated with body dissatisfaction, while feminist beliefs may serve a protective function. This research examined thin-ideal internalization and self-objectification as mediators and feminist beliefs as a moderator in the relationship between sociocultural pressures to meet the thin-ideal and body dissatisfaction. Female undergraduate volunteers (N=195) completed self-report measures assessing sociocultural influences, feminist beliefs, thin-ideal internalization, self-objectification, and body dissatisfaction. Multisample structural equation modeling showed that feminist beliefs moderate the relationship between media awareness and thin-ideal internalization, but not the relationship between social influence and thin-ideal internalization. Research and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Estudio electroquímico del acero aisi-sae 1020, nitrurado vía plasma durante tiempos de 10 y 15 horas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Uriel Tovar-Quiroz

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation was nitrided the steel AISI-SAE 1020 by means of the process plasma nitriding during 10 and 15 hours continuous. The potential difference applied between 400 and 500 V. The nitrogen flow was 0.5 ml/s constant. The final temperature of treatment was 82 OC for the substratum nitrided for 10 hours and of 88 ºC for 15 hours; these temperatures were obtained without auxiliary warming. With a potentiostatic- galvanostatic tester GAMRY, was eiecuted the technical electrochemical EIS and Tatel, the plasma nitriding improved the corrosion resistance of the steel nitrided. A equip of micro hardness tester HVS-iOOO, showed an increase on the hardness of the material nitrured.

  16. EVALUACIÓN EXPERIMENTAL DE LA RESISTENCIA A LA CORROSIÓN DE UN ACERO AISI-SAE 4140 IMPLANTADO CON IONES DE NITRÓGENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIO PEÑA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la resistencia a la corrosión de un acero AISI-SAE 4140 implantado con iones de Nitrógeno mediante la técnica 3DII (Implantación Iónica Tridimensional. Se evaluaron diferentes rugosidades de las muestras implantadas mediante técnicas electroquímicas de Rp, EIS y Tafel en una salmuera al 3% de NaCl, donde se obtuvo la mayor resistencia a la corrosión para el material implantado con menor rugosidad. Se produjo la formación de una posible capa protectora estable con la inmersión de las muestras en el electrolito de trabajo para tiempos superiores a 240 horas.

  17. Consumer Behavior on The Choice of Typical Regional Food Products Based on External and Internal Factors, Perception, Attitude and Consumer Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Gemina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior will determine their decision making in the buying process. The approach to the decision making process that gives a specific description on the reason why consumers behave in certain ways was conducted by: 1 formulating structural variables that affect external and internal factors towards perception; 2 formulating structural variables of perception towards attitude and preference; 3 formulating structural variables of attitude and preference towards consumer behavior on typical food products of Bandung and Cianjur. The survey research method and form of research were verification, while the sampling method conducted was the simple random sampling by distributing questionnaires to 100 respondents. The data quality testing performed were the validity test and the reliability test. For the path analysis research model, data transformation from ordinal to interval was previously conducted using the method of successive interval. Results of the study revealed that consumer external and internal environmental factors together have a positive effect towards consumer perception. The effect of consumer external environmental factors are greater than the consumer internal environmental factors towards consumer perception. The more mature consumers are, either from the aspect of their way of thinking or educative factors obtained from education and insight, the more developed are their perception towards food products. Consumer perception has a positive effect towards consumer attitude and preference. The variable of consumer attitude and preference has a positive effect towards consumer behavior in consuming typical regional food products.

  18. Estudio de los tipos de cráteres obtenidos en el impacto de proyectiles 5,56 SS109, sobre blancos de acero AISI-SAE 1045

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, Álvaro

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the morphology and formation of the types of craters obtained with the impact of projectiles 5,56 SS109 over seven steel plates AISI-SAE 1045 that received different cycles of heat treatment. A comparison between the type of deformation and fracture structures and the ones generated by the impact of this projectile over one steel armor plate was made. Each one of the craters was characterized by visual and metallography observation. The influence of the plate microstructure on the efficiency for stopping the projectile and the mechanism of craters formation was evaluated.

    En el presente trabajo se describe la morfología y formación de los tipos de cráteres obtenidos, en el impacto de proyectiles 5,56 SS109, sobre siete chapas de acero AISI-SAE 1045 que fueron sometidas a diferentes tratamientos térmicos, comparando el tipo de estructuras de deformación y fractura obtenidas con las formadas por el impacto de uno de estos proyectiles sobre una chapa comercial para blindaje. Cada uno de los cráteres se caracterizó mediante ensayos de inspección visual y metalografía evaluándose, a partir de los resultados, el papel que ejerce la microestructura obtenida sobre el nivel de eficiencia en la detención del proyectil por parte de la chapa y el mecanismo de formación de los cráteres.

  19. Semantic structures of world image as internal factors in the self-destructive behavior of today’s teenagers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroleva N.N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a theoretical and methodological analysis and empirical study of semantic formations in the structure of a world image as factors in teenagers’ self-destructive behavior in contemporary Russian society. During the teenage years the value-semantic bases of a world image are being formed. A world image is the integral, multilevel representation of the subject, which consists of social reality and himself/herself; it exists in the mind as a unity of sensual fabrications, significations, and personalized meanings. Transformations of semantic components of a world image that are inadequate for the environment or that are externally and internally rigid can serve as preconditions for disadaptation and for one of its extreme forms—self-destructive behavior. The purpose of our empirical research was to determine the main characteristics of basic conceptual formations in the structure of a world image—that is, attitudes, intentions, motives, and values— that serve as predictors of disadaptation in modern teenagers. The teenagers in the study were born in different generations with a ten-year interval (1990–1991 and 2000–2001. Our empirical research of the semantic world-image structures that serve as bases for the self-destructive behavior of modern teenagers consisted of two phases. The first phase provided a comparative analysis of the relationships, value preferences, and basic conceptual intentions that raise the possibility of disadaptation and self-destructive behavior among teenagers. In order to perform this analysis, we analyzed data from the Character-Pathological Diagnostic Poll (PDP of A. E. Lichko. During the second phase, a comparative analysis was carried out of the basic semantic components of teenagers’ images of the world and self-destructive and normative behavior. The main conceptual world-image structures were defined with the help of projective methods: the Thematic Apperception

  20. Utilization of internal standard response factors to estimate the concentration of organic compounds leached from pharmaceutical packaging systems and application of such estimated concentrations to safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis; Odufu, Alex

    2012-03-01

    Substances from packaging systems that are leached into packaged medical products may have a safety impact on patients to whom such medical products are administered. The potential safety impact depends on the identity and concentration of the leached substances. The concentration above which a leachable must be identified in order to assess its safety impact is frequently estimated using an internal standard to "calibrate" the analytical response of a chromatographic system. Such an estimate is accurate to the extent that the responses of the internal standard and leachables are similar. To establish the accuracy of the internal standard approach, a database of gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) responses was generated for thirty-eight leachables and eight internal standard candidates. Although the FID and MS responses of many of the leachables and internal standards fell within a narrow band, acidic and basic compounds produced responses that were discernibly different from those of neutral analytes. While most of the internal standards were suited for concentration estimation, three of the candidates, dimethylphthalate, triphenylphosphate and 4,4-dibromobiphenyl, produced the smallest mean error in estimated concentration for the analytes examined. As the FID and MS responses were linear, internal standards could be used to estimate leachables concentrations even when the difference in leachable versus internal standard concentrations was as great as a factor of 25. A multiplier may be appropriate to adjust an estimated concentration to its greatest possible value, and it is this value that is used to convert an estimated Analytical Evaluation Threshold (AET) into a working or final AET.

  1. Influential internal and external factors in German policy towards Turkey’s EU membership: more than ‘privileged partnership’; less than full membership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcen ÖNER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the internal and external factors that influence Germany’s policy concerning Turkey’s EU membership bid. Firstly, it explains the theoretical framework and historical background of Germany’s policies regarding Turkey’s EU membership. Secondly, it analyses the role of internal and external factors related to the EU as well as external factors related to Turkey. The internal factors include the integration problems of Turkish immigrants and the rise of Islamophobia in Europe. Their influence on the role of the German public opinion is analysed. Then, the perceptions of Germany’s political elites and civil society are discussed, based on face-to-face, in-depth interviews conducted by the author with representatives of several politicians from different political parties in the German federal parliament. Additional interviews were conducted with representatives of several foundations and business organisations in Berlin and one German-Turkish business organisation in Istanbul. Finally, the article argues that Germany has been trying to develop a policy which is in between the idea of a ‘privileged partnership’ and the full membership of Turkey and tries to evaluate the reasons behind that.

  2. The impact of variation in scaling factors on the estimation of internal dose metrics: a case study using bromodichloromethane (BDCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models include values for metabolic rate parameters extrapolated from in vitro metabolism studies using scaling factors such as mg of microsomal protein per gram of liver (MPPGL) and liver mass (FVL). Variation in scaling factor ...

  3. Clinically Significant Fatigue: Prevalence and Associated Factors in an International Sample of Adults with Multiple Sclerosis Recruited via the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Weiland, Tracey J.; Jelinek, George A.; Claudia H. Marck; Emily J Hadgkiss; van der Meer, Dania M.; Pereira, Naresh G.; Taylor, Keryn L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Fatigue contributes a significant burden of disease for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Modifiable lifestyle factors have been recognized as having a role in a range of morbidity outcomes in PwMS. There is significant potential to prevent and treat fatigue in PwMS by addressing modifiable risk factors. Objectives To explore the associations between clinically significant fatigue and demographic factors, clinical factors (health-related quality of life, disability and relapse...

  4. Consensus on the use of neutrophil-stimulating hematopoietic growth factors in clinical practice : An international viewpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, JJ; deVries, EGE; Dale, DC; Piccart, M; Glaspy, J; Hamilton, A

    1997-01-01

    Hematopoietic growth factors (CSFs) are now available for use in patients with myelosuppression due to congenital, acquired and therapy-induced conditions. Variations in the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in differen

  5. International migration from non-endemic settings as a protective factor for HIV/STI risk among female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Liu, Vivian; Nguyen, Paul; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-02-01

    Given heterogeneous evidence regarding the impacts of migration on HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs), we explored factors associated with international migration among FSWs in Vancouver, Canada. We draw on baseline questionnaire and HIV/STI testing data from a community-based cohort, AESHA, from 2010-2012. Logistic regression identified correlates of international migration. Of 650 FSWs, 163 (25.1%) were international migrants, who primarily worked in formal indoor establishments. HIV/STI prevalence was lower among migrants than Canadian-born women (5.5 vs. 25.9%). In multivariate analysis, international migration was positively associated with completing high school, supporting dependents, and paying a third party, and negatively associated with HIV, injecting drugs and inconsistent condom use with clients. Although migrants experience lower workplace harms and HIV risk than Canadian-born women, they face concerning levels of violence, police harassment, and HIV/STIs. Research exploring structural and socio-cultural factors shaping risk mitigation and migrants' access to support remains needed.

  6. Associations of Lifestyle, Medication, and Socio-Demographic Factors with Disability in People with Multiple Sclerosis: An International Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jelinek, George A.; De Livera, Alysha M.; Claudia H. Marck; Brown, Chelsea R; Neate, Sandra L; Taylor, Keryn L.; Weiland, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Emerging evidence links modifiable lifestyle risk factors to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). We sought further evidence around this hypothesis through detailed analysis of the association with disability of lifestyle behaviours of a large international sample of people with MS. Materials and Methods A total of 2469 people with MS from 57 countries provided self-reported data via cross-sectional online survey on lifestyle (mostly with validated tools) and the primary ...

  7. Source apportionment of NMVOCs in the Kathmandu Valley during the SusKat-ABC international field campaign using positive matrix factorization

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Sinha, Vinayak; Sinha, Baerbel; Panday, Arnico K.; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2017-01-01

    A positive matrix factorization model (US EPA PMF version 5.0) was applied for the source apportionment of the dataset of 37 NMVOCs measured over a period of 19 December 2012–30 January 2013 during the SusKat-ABC international air pollution measurement campaign using a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer in the Kathmandu Valley. In all, eight source categories were identified with the PMF model using the new "constrained model operation" mode. Unresolved industrial emiss...

  8. Maternal prenatal anxiety and child brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype: effects on internalizing symptoms from 4 to 15 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kieran J; Glover, Vivette; Holbrook, Joanna D; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Multiple behavioral and health outcomes, including internalizing symptoms, may be predicted from prenatal maternal anxiety, depression, or stress. However, not all children are affected, and those that are can be affected in different ways. Here we test the hypothesis that the effects of prenatal anxiety are moderated by genetic variation in the child's brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children population cohort. Internalizing symptoms were assessed from 4 to 13 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 8,584); a clinical interview with the adolescents was conducted at age 15 years (n = 4,704). Obstetric and psychosocial risk and postnatal maternal symptoms were included as covariates. Results show that prenatal maternal anxiety predicted internalizing symptoms, including with the diagnostic assessment at 15 years. There was a main effect of two BDNF polymorphisms (rs6265 [val66met] and rs11030104) on internalizing symptoms up to age 13. There was also genetic moderation of the prenatal anxiety effect by different BDNF polymorphisms (rs11030121 and rs7124442), although significant effects were limited to preadolescence. The findings suggest a role for BDNF gene-environment interactions in individual vulnerability to the effects of prenatal anxiety on child internalizing symptoms.

  9. COSMIC (Cohort Studies of Memory in an International Consortium): An international consortium to identify risk and protective factors and biomarkers of cognitive ageing and dementia in diverse ethnic and sociocultural groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A large number of longitudinal studies of population-based ageing cohorts are in progress internationally, but the insights from these studies into the risk and protective factors for cognitive ageing and conditions like mild cognitive impairment and dementia have been inconsistent. Some of the problems confounding this research can be reduced by harmonising and pooling data across studies. COSMIC (Cohort Studies of Memory in an International Consortium) aims to harmonise data from international cohort studies of cognitive ageing, in order to better understand the determinants of cognitive ageing and neurocognitive disorders. Methods/Design Longitudinal studies of cognitive ageing and dementia with at least 500 individuals aged 60 years or over are eligible and invited to be members of COSMIC. There are currently 17 member studies, from regions that include Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. A Research Steering Committee has been established, two meetings of study leaders held, and a website developed. The initial attempts at harmonising key variables like neuropsychological test scores are in progress. Discussion The challenges of international consortia like COSMIC include efficient communication among members, extended use of resources, and data harmonisation. Successful harmonisation will facilitate projects investigating rates of cognitive decline, risk and protective factors for mild cognitive impairment, and biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Extended implications of COSMIC could include standardised ways of collecting and reporting data, and a rich cognitive ageing database being made available to other researchers. COSMIC could potentially transform our understanding of the epidemiology of cognitive ageing, and have a world-wide impact on promoting successful ageing. PMID:24195705

  10. The core ideology of Ecological Marxism:Marx is the pioneer of internal factors theory of ecological environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paperfrom the unified visual angle of philosophy and economics has observed Marx's theory of ecological economics,clarified the misundemtanding on Marx's theory of nature and ecological environmental thought at home and abroad for a long time,studied systematically and deeply the Marx's thought that natural and ecological environment is external condition and internal elements of human social economic growth,confirmed firstly Marx is the forerunner who established the theory of internal cause of natural ecological environment.It is offar-reaching academic and practical significance.

  11. 采用同源重组技术构建金黄色葡萄球菌sae基因缺失突变株%Construction of a Sae-Deleted Mutant of Staphylococcus aureus by Homologous Recombination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐俊妮; 康铭松; 周锐; 史贤明; 陈焕春

    2012-01-01

    In this study, two pairs of primers were designed according to the upstream and downstream sequence of sae gene and used to amplify the homologous arms by PCR. Then the upstream and downsiream homologous arms were cloned into the shuttle vector pBT2 with the Em resistance gene fragment from the plasmid p646 inserted as a selection marker between the two sequences. The plasmid pBT2Asae was constructed. The homologous recombination vector was subsequently transformed into S. aureus RN4220 by electroporation, S. aureus KNΔsae deletion mutant was successfully selected by homologous recombination at 40 ℃ and confirmed by PCR. Subsequently, the sae gene expression level was also valuated by RT-PCR. This study provided the useful tool for further exploring the regulation mechanism of sae gene in S. aureus.%针对金黄色葡萄球菌sae基因前后两段序列设计两对引物,PCR扩增出sae基因上下游同源臂序列,克隆到穿梭载体pBT2中;两段序列之间用来自质粒p646的Em抗性基因片段连接,作为筛选标记,从而构建同源重组穿梭质粒pBT2△sae;将pBT2△sae电转化到金黄色葡萄球菌菌株RN4220中,40℃经过七轮培养,进行抗性培养基筛选和PCR验证,以及RT-PCR观察基因表达水平.获得一株金黄色葡萄球菌sae基因缺失突变株RN△sae,为进一步研究sae基因的调控机制等提供有用的实验材料.

  12. Modelling Li-ion cell thermal runaway triggered by an internal short circuit device using an efficiency factor and Arrhenius formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel model for analyzing the thermal runaway in Li-ion battery cells with an internal short circuit device implanted in the cell. The model is constructed using Arrhenius formulations for representing the self-heating chemical reactions and the State of Charge. The model...... accounts for a local short-circuit, which is triggered by the device embedded in the cell windings (jelly roll). The short circuit is modeled by calculating the total available electrical energy and adding an efficiency factor for the conversion of electric energy into thermal energy. The efficiency factor...

  13. Factors associated with internalizing or somatic symptoms in a cross-sectional study of school children in grades 1-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydersen Stian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School related factors that may contribute to children's subjective health have not been extensively studied. We assessed whether factors assumed to promote health and factors assumed to have adverse effects were associated with self-reported internalizing or somatic symptoms. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 230 boys and 189 girls in grades 1-10 from five schools responded to the same set of questions. Proportional odds logistic regression was used to assess associations of school related factors with the prevalence of sadness, anxiety, stomach ache, and headache. Results In multivariable analyses, perceived loneliness showed strong and positive associations with sadness (odds ratio, 1.94, 95% CI 1.42 to 2.64, anxiety (odds ratio, 1.78, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.42, and headache (odds ratio, 1.47, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.96, with consistently stronger associations for girls than boys. Among assumed health promoting factors, receiving necessary help from teachers was associated with lower prevalence of stomach ache in girls (odds ratio, 0.51, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.87. Conclusions These findings suggest that perceived loneliness may be strongly related to both internalizing and somatic symptoms among school children, and for girls, the associations of loneliness appear to be particularly strong.

  14. Analysis of Heat Transfer Characteristics Based on Design Factors for Determining the Internal Geometry of Metal Insulation in Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki O; Yu, Jeong Ho; Lee, Tae Ho; Jeon, Hyun Ik; Ha, Seung Woo; Cho, Sun Young [KLES Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    A heat insulating material used in the industrial site normally derives its heat insulating performance by using a low thermal conductivity material such as glass fiber. In case of the metal insulation for nuclear power plant, in contrast, only TP 304 stainless steel foil having high thermal conductivity is the only acceptable material. So, it is required to approach in structural aspect to ensure the insulation performance. In this study, the design factors related to the metal insulation internal structure were determined considering the three modes of heat transfer, i.e., conduction, convection, and radiation. The analysis of heat flow was used to understand the ratio of the heat transfer from each factor to the overall heat transfer from all the factors. Based on this study, in order to minimize the convection phenomenon caused by the internal insulation, a multiple foil was inserted in the insulation. The increase in the conduction heat transfer rate was compared, and the insulation performance under the three modes of heat transfer was analyzed in order to determine the internal geometry.

  15. Analysis of heat transfer characteristics based on design factors for determining the internal geometry of metal insulation in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki O; Yu, Jeong Ho; Lee, Tae Ho; Jeon, Hyun Ik; Ha, Seung Woo; Cho, Sun Young [KLES Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    A heat insulating material used in the industrial site normally derives its heat insulating performance by using a low thermal conductivity material such as glass fiber. In case of the metal insulation for nuclear power plant, in contrast, only TP 304 stainless steel foil having high thermal conductivity is the only acceptable material. So, it is required to approach in structural aspect to ensure the insulation performance. In this study, the design factors related to the metal insulation internal structure were determined considering the three modes of heat transfer, i.e., conduction, convection, and radiation. The analysis of heat flow was used to understand the ratio of the heat transfer from each factor to the overall heat transfer from all the factors. Based on this study, in order to minimize the convection phenomenon caused by the internal insulation, a multiple foil was inserted in the insulation. The increase in the conduction heat transfer rate was compared, and the insulation performance under the three modes of heat transfer was analyzed in order to determine the internal geometry.

  16. Factors influencing dyslipidemia in statin-treated patients in Lebanon and Jordan: results of the Dyslipidemia International Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar ST

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sami T Azar,1 Hadi Abu Hantash,2 Selim Jambart,3 Mohammad M El-Zaheri,4 Rachoin Rachoin,5 Amal Chalfoun,6 Layla Lahoud,6 Osama Okkeh,2 Peter Bramlage,7 Philippe Brudi,8 Baishali M Ambegaonkar81American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Istishari Hospital, Amman, Jordan; 3St Joseph University Faculty of Medicine, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Jordan Hospital, Amman, Jordan; 5Notre Dame des Secours Hospital, Jbeil, Lebanon; 6MSD Levant, Beirut, Lebanon; 7Institut für Pharmakologie und präventive Medizin, Mahlow, Germany; 8Merck and Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USABackground: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Therefore, as part of the Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS, we have analyzed the prevalence of lipid abnormalities and risk factors for dyslipidemia in statin-treated patients in Lebanon and Jordan.Methods: This cross-sectional, multicenter study enrolled 617 patients at 13 hospitals in Lebanon and Jordan. Patients were at least 45 years old and had been treated with statins for at least 3 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine patient characteristics contributing to dyslipidemia during statin therapy.Results: Our findings indicated that 55.9% of statin-treated patients (mean age 60.3 years, 47% female in Lebanon and Jordan did not achieve goal levels for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol which were dependent on Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE risk, and 70% of patients (76% men and 63.3% of women were at very high cardiovascular risk. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals were not achieved in 67.2% of those with very high cardiovascular risk. The most commonly prescribed statin was atorvastatin (44.6%, followed by simvastatin (27.7%, rosuvastatin (21.2%, fluvastatin (3.3%, pravastatin (3%, and lovastatin (0.2%. Approximately half of the population was treated with a statin dose potency of 4, equaling 40 mg of simvastatin. In

  17. Development of a survey instrument to investigate the primary care factors related to differences in cancer diagnosis between international jurisdictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Peter W; Hamilton, Willie; Aldersey, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Overlevelsen efter kræft varierer betydeligt mellem lande. Derfor blev the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP) etableret i 2009. ICBP er et internationalt samarbejde mellem Australien, Canada, Norge, Sverige, Storbritannien og Danmark, der særligt fokuserer på, hvordan og hvorfor...

  18. Influence of Risk Factors and Cultural Assets on Latino Adolescents' Trajectories of Self-Esteem and Internalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul Richard; Rose, Roderick A.; Bacallao, Martica

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined longitudinal, person-centered trajectories of acculturation, internalizing symptoms, and self-esteem in 349 Latino adolescents. We compared acculturation measures (time in the US, culture-of-origin involvement, US cultural involvement, for both parents and adolescents); acculturation stressors (perceived discrimination,…

  19. Nontumorous enlargement of the internal auditory canal. A risk factor for sensorineural hearing loss? A high resolution CT-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmer, H.; Rummeny, E.J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Niedermeyer, H.P. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). ENT-Clinic; Kehl, V. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Inst. for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology

    2015-06-15

    First aim of the study was to define normal shape and diameter of the internal auditory canal (IAC). In the second part the clinical relevance of IAC-enlargement was analyzed, considering also lesions of the subtle structures at the fundus of the internal auditory canal. 440 high resolution CT-scans of the temporal bone were used for retrospective analysis of the internal auditory canal and its fundus region. The mean value of the IAC diameter in axial and coronal plane was determined. In 20 of 440 patients IAC enlargement was found. In the group with pronounced enlargement (3fold SD) nearly all patients suffered from hearing impairment. In some of them we found structural abnormalities near the IAC fundus in the CSF/perilymph border zone. A new CT-based definition of normal shape and diameter of the internal auditory canal is presented. There is some evidence that a pathologic transmission of CSF-pressure in case of IAC-enlargement and/or abnormal fistulous communications could play an important role in the pathophysiology of hearing loss.

  20. "We Are in Transylvania, and Transylvania Is Not England": Location as a Significant Factor in International School Micropolitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffyn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at research undertaken into two international schools focusing on micropolitics and the importance of school location. Location appears to have a significant impact on the behaviour of those associated with each school, such as reactions to physical environment, local culture and clientele. These affect the micropolitical…

  1. Influence of Risk Factors and Cultural Assets on Latino Adolescents' Trajectories of Self-Esteem and Internalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul Richard; Rose, Roderick A.; Bacallao, Martica

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined longitudinal, person-centered trajectories of acculturation, internalizing symptoms, and self-esteem in 349 Latino adolescents. We compared acculturation measures (time in the US, culture-of-origin involvement, US cultural involvement, for both parents and adolescents); acculturation stressors (perceived discrimination,…

  2. Self-Reported Internalization Symptoms and Family Factors in Indigenous Sami and Non-Sami Adolescents in North Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bals, Margrethe; Turi, Anne Lene; Vitterso, Joar; Skre, Ingunn; Kvernmo, Siv

    2011-01-01

    Through differences in family socialization between indigenous and non-indigenous youth, there may be cultural differences in the impact of family factors on mental health outcome. Using structural equation modelling, this population-based study explored the relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression and family factors in indigenous…

  3. Avaliação metalúrgica da soldagem de revestimento inox austenítico sobre aço SAE 4130

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio de Souza Elias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma avaliação metalúrgica da soldagem de revestimento inox austenítico sobre a área de selagem de tubos de Riser fabricados em aço SAE 4130. O estudo foi dividido em duas etapas. A primeira etapa teve como objetivo a determinação da taxa de diluição e taxa de deposição para os níveis máximo e mínimo de energia de soldagem conforme procedimentos de soldagem (EPS com os processos TIG e ER. A seguir, foi feita análise e estudo com o diagrama de Schaeffler para identificar os consumíveis de solda mais adequados, conforme critérios de qualidade estabelecidos. Este estudo identificou o metal de adição 312 para a primeira camada, o 309 e 308 para a segunda. Todos usando o nível máximo de energia de soldagem e o processo de soldagem ER, com benefícios à produtividade. A segunda etapa teve como objetivo a validação dos resultados empíricos encontrados na 1ª etapa, com a execução de soldas de revestimento com duas camadas cada, e a caracterização metalúrgica das juntas soldadas por ensaios mecânicos e análise microestrutural por MO e MEV. Os resultados dos ensaios mecânicos e da microestrutura foram considerados satisfatórios, atendendo os critérios de qualidade adotados. Foi observada uma microestrutura austeno-ferritica com teor de ferrita delta entre 10 a 15 % nas duas camadas do revestimento. O eletrodo 312 assumiu posição de destaque na aplicação da 1ª camada da solda de revestimento sobre o aço SAE 4130, em função do seu maior teor de ferrita delta e cromo, evitando a formação de trincas a quente. Para a segunda camada, tanto o 309 como o 308 podem ser usados. Todas as soldas foram feitas com elevada energia de soldagem, garantindo o aumento da produtividade, sem alteração significativa nas características físicas e mecânicas.

  4. Multilevel risk factors and developmental assets for internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in disadvantaged adolescents: modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Rose, Roderick; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica

    2014-11-01

    The current study filled significant gaps in our knowledge of developmental psychopathology by examining the influence of multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in an exceptionally culturally diverse sample of rural adolescents. Integrating ecological and social capital theories, we explored if positive microsystem transactions are associated with self-esteem while negative microsystem transactions increase the chances of internalizing problems. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle school students from 28 public schools in two rural, disadvantaged counties in North Carolina. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and self-esteem. Relative to other students, risk for internalizing problems and low self-esteem was elevated for aggressive adolescents, students who were hassled or bullied at school, and those who were rejected by peers or in conflict with their parents. Internalizing problems were also more common among adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and neighborhoods, among those in schools with more suspensions, in students who reported being pressured by peers, and in youth who required more teacher support. It is likely that these experiences left adolescents disengaged from developing social capital from ecological microsystems (e.g., family, school, peers). On the positive side, support from parents and friends and optimism about the future were key assets associated with lower internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Self-esteem was also positively related to religious orientation, school satisfaction, and future optimism. These variables show active engagement with ecological microsystems. The implications and limitations were discussed.

  5. Dendrochemical patterns of calcium, zinc, and potassium related to internal factors detected by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin T.; Balouet, Jean Christophe; Shortle, Walter C.; Chalot, Michel; Beaujard, François; Grudd, Håkan; Vroblesky, Don A.; Burkem, Joel G.

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provides highly sensitive and precise spatial resolution of cation content in individual annual growth rings in trees. The sensitivity and precision have prompted successful applications to forensic dendrochemistry and the timing of environmental releases of contaminants. These applications have highlighted the need to distinguish dendrochemical effects of internal processes from environmental contamination. Calcium, potassium, and zinc are three marker cations that illustrate the influence of these processes. We found changes in cation chemistry in tree rings potentially due to biomineralization, development of cracks or checks, heartwood/sapwood differentiation, intra-annual processes, and compartmentalization of infection. Distinguishing internal from external processes that affect dendrochemistry will enhance the value of EDXRF for both physiological and forensic investigations.

  6. An international survey to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of research studies most likely to change orthopaedic practice

    OpenAIRE

    Thornley, P; de SA, D.; Evaniew, N.; Farrokhyar, F.; Bhandari, M.; Ghert, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Evidence -based medicine (EBM) is designed to inform clinical decision-making within all medical specialties, including orthopaedic surgery. We recently published a pilot survey of the Canadian Orthopaedic Association (COA) membership and demonstrated that the adoption of EBM principles is variable among Canadian orthopaedic surgeons. The objective of this study was to conduct a broader international survey of orthopaedic surgeons to identify characteristics of research studies per...

  7. Internal Audit of Quality in 5s Environment: Perception on Critical Factors, Effectiveness and Impact on Organizational Performance

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Quality Environment (5S) Practice is a concept which has been widely adopted by organizations as one way to achieve Total Quality Management (TQM) and business excellence. 5S refers to 5 principles to maintain quality which emanate from Japanese word Seiri (sorting), Seiton (straightening), Seiso (shining), Seiketsu (standardize) and Shitsuke (sustain). 5s concept aims to create a conducive, clean and tidy workplace which in turn can improve work quality and performance. Internal audit of 5S ...

  8. Sensitivity of emergent sociohydrologic dynamics to internal system properties and external sociopolitical factors: Implications for water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafei, Y.; Tonts, M.; Sivapalan, M.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged that effective management of water resources requires a holistic understanding of the coevolving dynamics inherent in the coupled human-hydrology system. One of the fundamental information gaps concerns the sensitivity of coupled system feedbacks to various endogenous system properties and exogenous societal contexts. This paper takes a previously calibrated sociohydrology model and applies an idealized implementation, in order to: (i) explore the sensitivity of emergent dynamics resulting from bidirectional feedbacks to assumptions regarding (a) internal system properties that control the internal dynamics of the coupled system and (b) the external sociopolitical context; and (ii) interpret the results within the context of water resource management decision making. The analysis investigates feedback behavior in three ways, (a) via a global sensitivity analysis on key parameters and assessment of relevant model outputs, (b) through a comparative analysis based on hypothetical placement of the catchment along various points on the international sociopolitical gradient, and (c) by assessing the effects of various direct management intervention scenarios. Results indicate the presence of optimum windows that might offer the greatest positive impact per unit of management effort. Results further advocate management tools that encourage an adaptive learning, community-based approach with respect to water management, which are found to enhance centralized policy measures. This paper demonstrates that it is possible to use a place-based sociohydrology model to make abstractions as to the dynamics of bidirectional feedback behavior, and provide insights as to the efficacy of water management tools under different circumstances.

  9. Search methods and use techniques of SEA CD-ROM based on Folio Views%基于Folio Views的SAE CD-ROM检索方法及使用技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳英; 陈茜

    2005-01-01

    SAE的系列产品作为汽车工程的重要科技文献,具有很高的学术价值.本文对Folio Views软件、SAECD-ROM内容、基于Folio Views的SAE CD-ROM的检索方法、检索技巧及如何获取全文进行介绍.

  10. Tribological Bench and Engine Dynamometer Tests of a Low Viscosity SAE 0W-16 Engine Oil Using a Combination of Ionic Liquid and ZDDP as Anti-Wear Additives

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported an oil-miscible phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL) with effective anti-wear functionality when added to a base oil by itself or combined with a conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) for a synergistic effect. In this research, we investigated whether this synergy manifests in formulated engine oils. An experimental SAE 0W-16 engine oil was generated using a combination of IL and ZDDP with equal phosphorus contribution. The prototype engine oil w...

  11. Learning and Living Overseas: Exploring Factors that Influence Meaningful Learning and Assimilation: How International Students Adjust to Studying in the UK from a Socio-Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Taylor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a considerable amount of research investigating students’ transition from college to university but it is important this focus is directed specifically towards the transition of international students, as the difficulties they face are profound. The literature surrounding international students seems to lack an in-depth understanding of how multiple contextual factors influence how students adjust to Higher Education. Therefore, the present study utilizes Bronfenbrenner’s (2009 ecological theory of human development in order to understand both immediate and distal environmental influences and how they interact to impact on the individual’s development from a holistic perspective. Five international students participated in a time line interview. Findings suggest that international students face a number of challenges when transitioning from their home country to study in higher education in the UK, particularly in the areas of language competence; cultural assimilation and social relationships. This in turn prevented meaningful learning occurring. Applying Bronfenbrenner’s theory, the participants’ broader environment was analysed, which encouraged an examination of the challenges they faced which regards to cultural influences, government influences and university policies, as well as influences from within their immediate environment.

  12. 内部控制审计收费的影响因素研究%Research on the Influencing Factors of Internal Control Audit Fees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方红星; 陈娇娇; 于巧叶

    2016-01-01

    Using the data from the main band listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges that disclosed sepa-rately internal control audit fees and financial statements audit fees from 2011 to 2014, from the perspectives of the features of listed companies, characteristics of accounting firm as well as internal control audit engagement, this paper theoretically analy-ses and empirically tests the factors influencing audit fees of internal control. It finds that the size of company, the company’s business complex level, the state-ownership, the accounting firm’s reputation and the level of assurance of internal control service have a significant positive association with the internal control audit fees, and the quality of internal control, continuous internal control audit period and integrated audit have a significant negative association with the internal control audit fees.%选取2011—2014年沪深两市单独披露内部控制审计收费的主板上市公司作为研究对象,立足于被审计单位特征、会计师事务所特征以及内部控制审计业务特征三个方面,在理论分析的基础上,实证检验内部控制审计收费的影响因素。研究发现:公司规模、业务复杂程度、国有产权性质、会计师事务所声誉及其所提供的内部控制服务的保证程度与内部控制审计收费显著正相关;公司的内部控制质量、连续内部控制审计年限及事务所整合审计与内部控制审计收费显著负相关。

  13. Economic factor environmental protection. Productivity of the German environmental and climate protection industry in international competition; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Umwelt- und Klimaschutzwirtschaft im internationalen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Krawczyk, Olaf [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (NIW), Hannover (Germany); Walz, Rainer; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Frietsch, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The analysis on the economic factor environment and the German environmental industry on international competition is faced to methodological limits, since the environmental industry does not present itself as an homogeneous sector. The study is organized in the following chapters: introduction - the importance of environmental industry; classification of environmental and climate protection industry; productivity volume and production structure; international competition for potential environmental protection products; environmental protection industry and innovative performance. Integrated environmental solutions are of increasing significance, avoiding emissions and products and production process from beginning on. All known forecast indicate an expansive market development. In addition the rising prices for crude oil may push the search for innovative solutions to substitute fossil energy sources. The environmental industry should look for globally transferable solutions in order to promote global sustainable growth.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 24: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SAE mail survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).

  15. Electrochemical evaluation of the corrosion behaviour for structural steel SAE 1005 exposed to two different atmospheres (urban and industrial) and comparison with atmospheric corrosion gravimetric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Y.; Guerrero, L.; Castiblanco, H.; Torres, C.; Palacios, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Atmospheric corrosion is a phenomenon we see every day in our environment that arises due to environmental pollution we generate, there is currently very little information on atmospheric corrosion in the department of Boyacá and in general, in Colombia. The aim of this paper is to analyse which of these two environments is more aggressive and wherein the steel corrodes faster. To analyse these phenomenon specimens made in steel SAE 105 exposed for five months to the atmosphere in the municipalities of Tunja and Nobsa (an urban atmosphere and other industrial atmosphere) were installed, a control was carried to verify the amount of time that will be exposed each of these samples to the atmosphere, of Thus it may determine the lifetime of a structural steel. For the analysis of these samples electrochemical tests were carried out to calculate the rate of corrosion and resistance to polarization, also the gravimetric method be conducted to compare what was the amount of mass lost during the time of exposure to each of the samples.

  16. High-temperature oxidation studies of cold-sprayed Ni-20Cr and Ni-50Cr coatings on SAE 213-T22 boiler steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Niraj; Singh, Harpreet; Prakash, Satya

    2009-05-01

    The high-temperature oxidation behavior of cold-sprayed Ni-20Cr and Ni-50Cr coatings on SAE 213-T22 boiler steel has been investigated at 900 °C in air under cyclic heating and cooling conditions for 50 cycles. The kinetics of oxidation of coated and bare boiler steel has been established with the help of weight change measurements. It was observed that all the coated and bare steels obeyed parabolic rate law of oxidation. X-ray diffraction, FE-SEM/EDAX and X-ray mapping techniques were used to analyse the oxidation products of the coated and uncoated boiler steel. The uncoated steel suffered corrosion in the form of intense spalling and peeling of its oxide scale, which was perhaps due to the formation of unprotective Fe 2O 3 oxide scale. Both the coatings showed better resistance to the air oxidation as compared to the uncoated steel. The Ni-50Cr coating was found to be more protective than the Ni-20Cr-coated steel. The formation of oxides and spinels of nickel and chromium may be contributing to the development of air oxidation resistance in the coatings.

  17. Formula SAE赛车转向节的拓扑优化%Topological Optimization of the Steering Knuckle in a Formula SAE Racing Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾忠敏; 张英朝

    2012-01-01

    运用OptiStruct求解器对某一Formula SAE赛车的后转向节进行多工况加权拓扑优化,并将结果和以往的设计方案进行对比.结果表明,优化后在强度和刚度满足要求的条件下,后转向节的质量减轻45.1%,说明了该方法的可行性和有效性.%A multi-load case weighted topology optimization is conducted on the steering knuckle of a Formula SAE racing car by using OptiStruct solver and the results are compared with early design schemes. The results show that after optimization the mass of the rear steering knuckle is reduced by 45. 1% , while its strength and stiffness meet requirements, demonstrating the feasibility and effectiveness of the method used.

  18. ANÁLISE DO BALANCIM DA SUSPENSÃO DO PROTÓTIPO FÓRMULA SAE POR MÉTODO DE ELEMENTOS FINITOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlan Almeida Barroso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo o estudo do balancim, um dispositivo da suspensão do veículo Fórmula SAE que recebe os esforços oriundos do movimento de rolagem do veículo e os transmite para a estrutura do chassi de uma forma minimizada por uma relação de momento e suavizada pelo conjunto mola – amortecedor. Realiza-se uma revisão sobre parâmetros usados em dinâmica veicular e uma análise geométrica das forças e dos esforços provocados por tais. Em seguida, faz-se a análise pelo método dos elementos finitos, que utiliza a teoria de discretização de sistemas e analisa a resistência do componente baseado na energia de distorção, determinando a tensão máxima sofrida pelo componente e a região de maior solicitação e o fator de segurança para um carregamento estático

  19. Candidemia in Patients with Body Temperature Below 37°C and Admitted to Internal Medicine Wards: Assessment of Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascini, Carlo; Falcone, Marco; Bassetti, Matteo; De Rosa, Francesco G; Sozio, Emanuela; Russo, Alessandro; Sbrana, Francesco; Ripoli, Andrea; Merelli, Maria; Scarparo, Claudio; Carmassi, Franco; Venditti, Mario; Menichetti, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    An increasing number of candidemia episodes has been reported in patients cared for in internal medicine wards. These usually older and frail patients may not be suspected as having candidemia because they lack fever at the onset of the episode. To identify the risk factors associated with the lack of fever at the onset of candidemia (ie, the collection of the first positive blood culture for Candida spp.) in patients cared for in internal medicine wards, we compared 2 group of patients with or without fever. We retrospectively review data charts from 3 tertiary care, university hospitals in Italy, comparing patients with or without fever at onset of candidemia. Consecutive candidemic episodes in afebrile patients and matched febrile controls were identified during the 3-year study period. Patient baseline characteristics and several infection-related variables were examined. Random forest analysis was used, given the number of predictors to be considered and the potential complexity of their relations with the onset of fever. We identified 147 candidemic episodes without fever at onset and 147 febrile candidemia episodes. Factors associated with the lack of fever at onset of candidemia were diabetes, Clostridium difficile infection, and a shorter delta time from internal medicine wards admission to the onset of candidemia. The only variable associated with fever was the use of intravascular devices. Quite unexpectedly, antifungal therapy was administered more frequently to patients without fever, and no differences on 30-day mortality rate were documented in the 2 study groups. Clinicians should be aware that an increasing number of patients with invasive candidiasis cared for in internal medicine wards may lack fever at onset, especially those with diabetes and C. difficile infection. Candidemia should be suspected in patients with afebrile systemic inflammatory response syndrome or in worsening clinical condition: blood cultures should be taken, and a timely

  20. Empirical analysis of contributing factors to heating in lithium-ion cells: Anode entropy versus internal resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Rengaswamy; Carkhuff, Bliss G.

    2013-11-01

    Charging a battery beyond its maximum capacity can lead both to cell overheating and to the venting of gasses. A fundamental understanding of cell heating could lead to the development of real-time sensors that anticipate and avert catastrophic battery failure. Joule heating (also called ohmic or resistive heating) from cell internal resistance (Rint) dominates the overall thermal energy (ΔQ) generated during charging. Contrary to prior hypotheses, though, Joule heating does not appear to contribute to venting observed during overcharging. In this manuscript, we examine an alternate hypothesis, that heat released by the entropy change in the anode (ΔSanode) and the concomitant increase in the anode temperature (Tanode) triggers the venting. Using our recently developed non-invasive battery internal temperature (BIT) sensor to monitor Tanode, we separated the contributions of ΔSanode, Rint and the anode resistance (Ranode) to ΔQ. These quantities were tracked during constant current charging of a 18650 Lithium-ion cell, from zero state of charge (SoC) to overcharge. The resulting analysis suggests that anode entropy change is more important than resistive heating resulting from Ranode to the overall thermal energy. Anode entropy measurements, enabled by the BIT sensor, might serve as an alternative or adjunct method for anticipating and avoiding cell venting events.