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Sample records for factors predicting glycemic

  1. Glycemic variability is an independent predictive factor for development of hepatic fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

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    Motoi Hashiba

    Full Text Available Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH often have metabolic disorders including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We clarified the predictive factors in glucose metabolism for progression of hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD by the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (75gOGTT and a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS. One hundred sixty-nine patients (68 female and 101 male patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD with performance with 75gOGTT were enrolled and divided into four groups according to the stage of hepatic fibrosis (F0-3. The proportion of patients with T2DM significantly gradually increased, HbA1c and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were significantly elevated, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG was remarkably decreased with the progression of fibrosis. In the 75gOGTT, both plasma glucose and insulin secretion were remarkably increased with the progression of fibrosis. The only factor significantly associated with advanced fibrosis was 1,5-AG (P = 0.008 as determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. We next evaluated the changes in blood glucose during 24 hours by monitoring with the CGMS to confirm the relationship between glycemic variability and progression of fibrosis. Variability of median glucose, standard deviation of median glucose (P = 0.0022, maximum blood glucose (P = 0.0019, and ΔMin-max blood glucose (P = 0.0029 were remarkably higher in severe fibrosis than in mild fibrosis.Hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia, especially glycemic variability, are important predictive factors in glucose impairment for the progression of hepatic fibrosis in NAFLD.

  2. First trimester prediction of maternal glycemic status.

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    Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat; Doyle, Lauren E; Blitzer, Miriam; Baschat, Ahmet A

    2015-05-01

    To predict gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or normoglycemic status using first trimester maternal characteristics. We used data from a prospective cohort study. First trimester maternal characteristics were compared between women with and without GDM. Association of these variables with sugar values at glucose challenge test (GCT) and subsequent GDM was tested to identify key parameters. A predictive algorithm for GDM was developed and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) statistics was used to derive the optimal risk score. We defined normoglycemic state, when GCT and all four sugar values at oral glucose tolerance test, whenever obtained, were normal. Using same statistical approach, we developed an algorithm to predict the normoglycemic state. Maternal age, race, prior GDM, first trimester BMI, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were all significantly associated with GDM. Age, BMI, and SBP were also associated with GCT values. The logistic regression analysis constructed equation and the calculated risk score yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 85%, 62%, 13.8%, and 98.3% for a cut-off value of 0.042, respectively (ROC-AUC - area under the curve 0.819, CI - confidence interval 0.769-0.868). The model constructed for normoglycemia prediction demonstrated lower performance (ROC-AUC 0.707, CI 0.668-0.746). GDM prediction can be achieved during the first trimester encounter by integration of maternal characteristics and basic measurements while normoglycemic status prediction is less effective.

  3. Factors associated with glycemic control in people with diabetes at the Family Health Strategy in Pernambuco

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    Rodrigo Fonseca Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Identifying factors associated with glycemic control in people with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM registered in the Family Health Strategy (FHS in Pernambuco, Brazil. METHOD Associations between glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin A lower or equal to 7% presented by people with DM and variables related to sociodemographic conditions, lifestyle, characteristics of diabetes, treatment and follow-up of patients by health services were investigated by multiple regression. RESULTS More than 65% of the participants presented inadequate glycemic control, especially those with lower age, longer illness duration, more annual contacts with FHS and complex therapeutic regimen. People with DM without referrals to specialists presented greater glycemic control. Associations with education level and obesity did not remain significant in the multivariate model. CONCLUSION The evolution of diabetes hinders adequate control, however, attention to younger people with DM and referrals to specialists are factors that can improve glycemic control.

  4. Factors associated with glycemic control among diabetic adult out-patients in Northeast Ethiopia.

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    Fiseha, Temesgen; Alemayehu, Ermiyas; Kassahun, Wongelawit; Adamu, Aderaw; Gebreweld, Angesom

    2018-05-18

    The aim of this study was to determine the status of glycemic control and identify factors associated with poor glycemic control among diabetic out-patients. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 384 (126 type 1 and 258 type 2) diabetic adults attending a hospital in Northeast Ethiopia from January 1 to April 30, 2017. Of the total participants, 70.8% had poor status of glycemic control (defined as mean fasting blood glucose level above 130 mg/dl). In the multivariate analysis, rural residence (AOR = 2.61, 95% CI 1.37-4.96), low educational level (AOR = 7.10, 95% CI 2.94-17.17) and longer duration of diabetes (AOR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.18-4.08) were significantly associated with increased odds of poor glycemic control. Moreover, merchants (AOR = 3.39, 95% CI 1.16-9.96) were significantly more likely to have poor glycemic control compared to government employee. Diabetic patients receiving oral anti-diabetics (AOR = 5.12, 95% CI 2.10-12.52) or insulin (AOR = 3.26, 95% CI 1.26-8.48) were more likely to be poorly controlled. These results highlight the needed for appropriate management of patients focusing on associated factors identified for poor glycemic control to maintain good glycemic control and improve adverse outcomes of the disease in this study setting.

  5. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH POOR GLYCEMIC CONTROL AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS IN INDONESIA

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    Rian Adi Pamungkas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus becomes the public health problem in the wide world. Reasons for poor glycemic control in Type 2 diabetes are complex. Objective: To determine factors contributed to poor glycemic control among Indonesian patients with Type 2 Diabetes Methods: This was a cross sectional regression study. There were 70 respondents selected using purposive sampling. Pre-structured questionnaires were used to measure socio demographic, clinical characteristics, self-care management behaviors, medication adherence, barriers to adherence, and family support. Data were analyzed using chi-square and binary logistic regression. Results: Poor glycemic control was defined as HbA1c ≥7% or FBG ≥200 mg/dl. Findings of this study reported that 83% patients had or FBG ≥200 mg/dl, which confirmed as poor glycemic control. Logistic regression showed that increasing duration of diabetes (> 5 years, non-adherence to dietary behaviors recommendation through selecting healthy diet, arranging a meal plan, recognizing the amount calorie needs, managing dietary behaviors challenges, medication adherence, and family support were significantly influence poor glycemic control with increased odds ratio scores. Conclusion: The proportion of patients with poor glycemic control was raised. Increasing duration of diabetes, non- adherence to medication and dietary behaviors management, and lack of family support were associated with poor glycemic control. Thus, integration of diabetes self-management program with social support is needed to deal with patients’ need to achieve the great benefits in diabetes care.

  6. Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in the bread fortified with pomelo (Citrus maxima) fruit segments.

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    Reshmi, S K; Sudha, M L; Shashirekha, M N

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in breads incorporated with pomelo fruit (Citrus maxima) segments. Volume of the white and brown breads supplemented with pomelo fresh segments increased, while the crumb firmness decreased. Bread with 20% fresh and 5% dry pomelo segments were sensorily acceptable. Bioactive components such as phenolics, flavonoids, naringin and carotenoids were retained to a greater extent in bread containing dry pomelo segments. The pomelo incorporated bread had higher levels of resistant starch fractions (3.87-10.96%) with low predicted glycemic index (62.97-53.13%), despite their higher total starch (69.87-75.47%) content compared to control bread. Thus pomelo segments in the product formulations lowered the glycemic index probably by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activity which could be attributed to naringin. Hence fortified bread prepared from pomelo fruit segment is recommended to gain nutritional value and to decrease the risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants

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    Pao-Hwa Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL is inconclusive. Objective : This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP, serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help participants reduce BP by following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH dietary pattern, losing weight, reducing sodium and increasing physical activity. GI and GL were estimated from 24 h diet recall data at baseline, 6 and 18 months after intervention. PROC MIXED model was used to examine the association of changes in GI or GL with changes in CVD risk factors. Results: A total of 756 randomized participants, 62% females and 34% African Americans and who averaged 50.0±0.3 years old and 95.3±0.7 kg, were included in this report. Neither GI nor GL changes was associated with changes in any risk factors at 6 months. At 18 months, however, the GI change was significantly and positively associated with total cholesterol (TC change only (p<0.05, β = 23.80±12.11 mg/dL or 0.62±0.31 mmol/L with a significant age interaction. The GL change was significantly associated with TC (p=0.02, β = 0.28±0.15 mg/dL or 0.01±0.00 mmol/L positively and with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C changes negatively (p=0.03, β = − 0.01±0.00 mg/dL or −0.00±0.00 mmol/L, and significant age interactions were observed for both. Conclusion: GI and GL was associated with TC and LDL-C after controlling for energy, fat and fiber intake and other potential confounders and the associations were modified by age. Further investigation into this relationship is important because of its potential clinical impact.

  8. Hemorheological and Glycemic Parameters and HDL Cholesterol for the Prediction of Cardiovascular Events

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    Cho, Sung Woo; Kim, Byung Gyu; Kim, Byung Ok; Byun, Young Sup; Goh, Choong Won; Rhee, Kun Joo; Kwon, Hyuck Moon; Lee, Byoung Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Hemorheological and glycemic parameters and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are used as biomarkers of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. To investigate the association and clinical relevance of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and HDL cholesterol in the prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in an outpatient population. 708 stable patients who visited the outpatient department were enrolled and followed for a mean period of 28.5 months. Patients were divided into two groups, patients without MACE and patients with MACE, which included cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, newly diagnosed CHD, and cerebral vascular accident. We compared hemorheological and glycemic parameters and lipid profiles between the groups. Patients with MACE had significantly higher ESR, fibrinogen, fasting glucose, and HbA1c, while lower HDL cholesterol compared with patients without MACE. High ESR and fibrinogen and low HDL cholesterol significantly increased the risk of MACE in multivariate regression analysis. In patients with MACE, high fibrinogen and HbA1c levels increased the risk of multivessel CHD. Furthermore, ESR and fibrinogen were significantly positively correlated with HbA1c and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol, however not correlated with fasting glucose. Hemorheological abnormalities, poor glycemic control, and low HDL cholesterol are correlated with each other and could serve as simple and useful surrogate markers and predictors for MACE and CHD in outpatients

  9. Hemorheological and Glycemic Parameters and HDL Cholesterol for the Prediction of Cardiovascular Events

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    Cho, Sung Woo [Division of Cardiology - Department of Internal Medicine - Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Division of Cardiology - Department of Medicine - Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Gyu; Kim, Byung Ok; Byun, Young Sup; Goh, Choong Won; Rhee, Kun Joo [Division of Cardiology - Department of Internal Medicine - Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyuck Moon; Lee, Byoung Kwon, E-mail: cardiobk@yuhs.ac [Division of Cardiology - Department of Internal Medicine - Gangnam Severance Hospital - Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Hemorheological and glycemic parameters and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are used as biomarkers of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. To investigate the association and clinical relevance of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and HDL cholesterol in the prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in an outpatient population. 708 stable patients who visited the outpatient department were enrolled and followed for a mean period of 28.5 months. Patients were divided into two groups, patients without MACE and patients with MACE, which included cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, newly diagnosed CHD, and cerebral vascular accident. We compared hemorheological and glycemic parameters and lipid profiles between the groups. Patients with MACE had significantly higher ESR, fibrinogen, fasting glucose, and HbA1c, while lower HDL cholesterol compared with patients without MACE. High ESR and fibrinogen and low HDL cholesterol significantly increased the risk of MACE in multivariate regression analysis. In patients with MACE, high fibrinogen and HbA1c levels increased the risk of multivessel CHD. Furthermore, ESR and fibrinogen were significantly positively correlated with HbA1c and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol, however not correlated with fasting glucose. Hemorheological abnormalities, poor glycemic control, and low HDL cholesterol are correlated with each other and could serve as simple and useful surrogate markers and predictors for MACE and CHD in outpatients.

  10. [Socioeconomic, demographic, nutritional, and physical activity factors in the glycemic control of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

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    Marques, Rosana de Morais Borges; Fornés, Nélida Schmid; Stringhini, Maria Luiza Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    To identify the association of socioeconomic, demographic, nutritional and of physical activity factors in the glycemic control of adolescents with T1DM. Sectional study of 71 adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Socioeconomic, demographic and anthropometric data were obtained. The glycemic control was classified by the index of glycated hemoglobin (A1C). Four 24-hours recalls of food consumption and physical activity were applied. The A1C was inadequate for the majority of the adolescents. The low educational level of the caregivers influenced the inadequate glycemic control. Patients with lower insulin dose presented better glycemic control. The food consumption was high of fat and poor of carbohydrate. Most of the patients were sedentary. Factors related to education, insulin and food consumption influenced the glycemic control.

  11. Factors Related to the Glycemic Control in Lithuanian Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Kassem, Salem

    2017-01-01

    1) Adolescent female patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus have better glycemic control and higher levels of diabetes distress than male patients. 2) Parents of adolescents using insulin pumps experience higher diabetes distress than parents of adolescents using multiple daily injections. 3) No differences in diabetes-related factors, emotional state, diabetes-related distress (in adolescent patients and in their primary care-givers) and social factors in groups of adolescent patients ...

  12. Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of fried sweet potato cultivars

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    Amaka Odenigbo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. is a very rich source of starch. There is increased interest in starch digestibility and the prevention and management of metabolic diseases.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of starch fractions and predicted glycemic index of different cultivars of sweet potato. Material and Method: French fries produced from five cultivars of sweet potato (‘Ginseng Red’, ‘Beauregard’, ‘White Travis’, ‘Georgia Jet clone #2010’ and ‘Georgia Jet’ were used. The level of total starch (TS, resistant starch (RS, digestible starch (DS, and starch digestion index starch digestion index in the samples were evaluated. In vitro starch hydrolysis at 30, 90, and 120 min were determined enzymatically for calculation of rapidly digestible starch (RDS, predicted glycemic index (pGI and slowly digestible starch (SDS respectively. Results: The RS content in all samples had an inversely significant correlation with pGI (-0.52; P<0.05 while RDS had positive and significant influence on both pGI (r=0.55; P<0.05 and SDI (r= 0.94; P<0.01. ‘White Travis’ and ‘Ginseng Red’ had higher levels of beneficial starch fractions (RS and SDS with low pGI and starch digestion Index (SDI, despite their higher TS content. Generally, all the cultivars had products with low to moderate GI values. Conclusion: The glycemic index of these food products highlights the health promoting characteristics of sweet potato cultivars.

  13. Prediction of Adolescents’ Glycemic Control 1 Year After Diabetes-Specific Family Conflict

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    Hilliard, Marisa E.; Guilfoyle, Shanna M.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Hood, Korey K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test adherence to blood glucose monitoring (BGM) as a mediator between diabetes-specific family conflict and glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] levels) for 1 year. Design Three waves of prospective data spanning 1 year. Setting Diabetes clinic in a large tertiary care children’s hospital in the Midwestern United States. Participants One hundred forty-five dyads composed of an adolescent (aged 13–18 years) with type 1 diabetes mellitus and a parent. Main Exposures Adolescent- and parent-rated diabetes-specific family conflict and mean daily BGM frequency obtained through meter downloads. Main Outcome Measure Levels of HbA1c, abstracted from the medical record. Results In separate general linear models, higher adolescent-rated family conflict scores at baseline predicted less frequent BGM at 6 months (β=−0.08 [P=.01]) and higher HbA1c levels at 12 months (β=0.08 [P=.02]). In the multivariate model including baseline conflict and BGM as predictors of HbA1c levels, BGM was a significant predictor (β=−0.24 [P=.007]) and conflict was no longer significant (β=0.05 [P=.11]), supporting the mediation hypothesis. Post hoc probing showed that BGM explained 24% of the variance in the conflict-HbA1c link. The mediation between parent-reported conflict andHbA1c levels via BGM adherence was partially supported (conflict predicting HbA1c in the zero-order equation, β=−0.24 [P=.004]; multivariate equation, β=0.06 [P=.02]), and BGM frequency explained 16% of the conflict-HbA1c link. Conclusions Diabetes-specific family conflict in adolescence predicts deteriorations in BGM and subsequent glycemic control for at least 1 year. Results support ongoing intervention research designed to reduce family conflict and thus prevent a trajectory of declining adherence and glycemic control across adolescence. PMID:21727273

  14. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Mediates Glycemic Regulation by Hepatic JNK

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    Santiago Vernia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK-signaling pathway is implicated in metabolic syndrome, including dysregulated blood glucose concentration and insulin resistance. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a target of the hepatic JNK-signaling pathway and may contribute to the regulation of glycemia. To test the role of FGF21, we established mice with selective ablation of the Fgf21 gene in hepatocytes. FGF21 deficiency in the liver caused marked loss of FGF21 protein circulating in the blood. Moreover, the protective effects of hepatic JNK deficiency to suppress metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed mice were not observed in mice with hepatocyte-specific FGF21 deficiency, including reduced blood glucose concentration and reduced intolerance to glucose and insulin. Furthermore, we show that JNK contributes to the regulation of hepatic FGF21 expression during fasting/feeding cycles. These data demonstrate that the hepatokine FGF21 is a key mediator of JNK-regulated metabolic syndrome.

  15. Distinct lipid profiles predict improved glycemic control in obese, nondiabetic patients after a low-caloric diet intervention

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    Valsesia, Armand; Saris, Wim Hm; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An aim of weight loss is to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese subjects. However, the relation with long-term glycemic improvement remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the changes in lipid composition during weight loss and their association with long-term glycemic...... improvement. DESIGN: We investigated the plasma lipidome of 383 obese, nondiabetic patients within a randomized, controlled dietary intervention in 8 European countries at baseline, after an 8-wk low-caloric diet (LCD) (800-1000 kcal/d), and after 6 mo of weight maintenance. RESULTS: After weight loss......: In this study, we report a lipid signature of LCD success (for weight and glycemic outcome) in obese, nondiabetic patients. Lipid changes during an 8-wk LCD allowed us to predict insulin-resistant patients after 6 mo of weight maintenance. The determination of the lipid composition during an LCD enables...

  16. Predictive Clinical Parameters and Glycemic Efficacy of Vildagliptin Treatment in Korean Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Jin-Sun Chang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aims of this study are to investigate the glycemic efficacy and predictive parameters of vildagliptin therapy in Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes.MethodsIn this retrospective study, we retrieved data for subjects who were on twice-daily 50 mg vildagliptin for at least 6 months, and classified the subjects into five treatment groups. In three of the groups, we added vildagliptin to their existing medication regimen; in the other two groups, we replaced one of their existing medications with vildagliptin. We then analyzed the changes in glucose parameters and clinical characteristics.ResultsUltimately, 327 subjects were analyzed in this study. Vildagliptin significantly improved hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels over 6 months. The changes in HbA1c levels (ΔHbA1c at month 6 were -2.24% (P=0.000, -0.77% (P=0.000, -0.80% (P=0.001, -0.61% (P=0.000, and -0.34% (P=0.025 for groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively, with significance. We also found significant decrements in fasting plasma glucose levels in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 (P<0.05. Of the variables, initial HbA1c levels (P=0.032 and history of sulfonylurea use (P=0.026 were independently associated with responsiveness to vildagliptin treatment.ConclusionVildagliptin was effective when it was used in subjects with poor glycemic control. It controlled fasting plasma glucose levels as well as sulfonylurea treatment in Korean type 2 diabetic subjects.

  17. In vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of microwaved and conventionally baked pound cake.

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    Sánchez-Pardo, María Elena; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Mora-Escobedo, Rosalva; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2007-09-01

    The present study compares the effect of baking process (microwave vs conventional oven) on starch bioavailability in fresh pound cake crumbs and in crumbs from pound cake stored for 8 days. Proximal chemical analysis, resistant starch (RS), retrograded starch (RS3) and starch hydrolysis index (HI) were evaluated. The empirical formula suggested by Granfeldt was used to determine the predicted glycemic index (pGI). Pound cake, one of Mexico's major bread products, was selected for analysis because the quality defects often associated with microwave baking might be reduced with the use of high-fat, high-moisture, batted dough. Differences in product moisture, RS and RS3 were observed in fresh microwave-baked and conventionally baked pound cake. RS3 increased significantly in conventionally baked products stored for 8 days at room temperature, whereas no significantly changes in RS3 were observed in the microwaved product. HI values for freshly baked and stored microwaved product were 59 and 62%, respectively (P > 0.05), whereas the HI value for the conventionally baked product decreased significantly after 8 days of storage. A pound cake with the desired HI and GI characteristics might be obtained by adjusting the microwave baking process.

  18. A Mixed Methods Study Exploring the Factors and Behaviors That Affect Glycemic Control Following a Structured Education Program: The Irish DAFNE Study

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    Casey, Dympna; O'Hara, Mary Clare; Meehan, Ben; Byrne, Molly; Dinneen, Sean F.; Murphy, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To explain the factors affecting glycemic control (measured by HbA1c) following the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) program. Background: DAFNE is a structured education program designed to assist persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus achieve optimal glycemic control. However, not all participants reach this goal. Few studies…

  19. Nutritional status, glycemic control and its associated risk factors among a sample of type 2 diabetic individuals, a pilot study

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    Somayyeh Firouzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Malaysia, with most patients poorly controlled. Hence, this study aimed to determine nutritional and metabolic status as well as blood pressure of Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify associated risk factors for poor glycemic control. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited and completed a questionnaire covering socio-demographic status, 3-day diet records, and physical activity. Anthropometry and glycemic control parameters, lipid profile and blood pressure were also measured. Results: Subjects were on average 56.7±9.9 years old with a mean duration of diabetes of 6.5 ± 5.0 years. The mean hemoglobin A1c of the subjects was 7.6% ± 1.4%, with only 20.2% achieving the target goal of <6.5% with no significant differences between genders. The mean body mass index was 26.9 ± 4.7 kg/m 2 , with 86.5% either were overweight or obese. Only 10.6% of the subjects exercised daily. The proportions of macronutrients relative to total energy intake were consistent with the recommendations of most diabetes associations. The adjusted odds of having poor glycemic control were 3.235 (1.043-10.397 (P < 0.05 higher among those who had high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels below the normal range. Those taking one or two types of oral anti-diabetic drugs had 19.9 (2.959-87.391 (P < 0.01 and 14.3 (2.647-77.500 (P < 0.01 higher odds of poor glycemic control respectively compared to those who were being treated by diet alone. Conclusion: Poor glycemic control was prevalent among Malaysian diabetic patients, and this could be associated with low levels of HDL and being treated with oral anti-diabetes agents.

  20. Nutritional status, glycemic control and its associated risk factors among a sample of type 2 diabetic individuals, a pilot study.

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    Firouzi, Somayyeh; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd Yusof; Azmi, Kamaruddin Nor

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Malaysia, with most patients poorly controlled. Hence, this study aimed to determine nutritional and metabolic status as well as blood pressure of Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify associated risk factors for poor glycemic control. A total of 104 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited and completed a questionnaire covering socio-demographic status, 3-day diet records, and physical activity. Anthropometry and glycemic control parameters, lipid profile and blood pressure were also measured. Subjects were on average 56.7±9.9 years old with a mean duration of diabetes of 6.5 ± 5.0 years. The mean hemoglobin A1c of the subjects was 7.6% ± 1.4%, with only 20.2% achieving the target goal of 10.6% of the subjects exercised daily. The proportions of macronutrients relative to total energy intake were consistent with the recommendations of most diabetes associations. The adjusted odds of having poor glycemic control were 3.235 (1.043-10.397) (P types of oral anti-diabetic drugs had 19.9 (2.959-87.391) (P 1) and 14.3 (2.647-77.500) (P 1) higher odds of poor glycemic control respectively compared to those who were being treated by diet alone. Poor glycemic control was prevalent among Malaysian diabetic patients, and this could be associated with low levels of HDL and being treated with oral anti-diabetes agents.

  1. Nutritional status, glycemic control and its associated risk factors among a sample of type 2 diabetic individuals, a pilot study

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    Firouzi, Somayyeh; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd Yusof; Azmi, Kamaruddin Nor

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Malaysia, with most patients poorly controlled. Hence, this study aimed to determine nutritional and metabolic status as well as blood pressure of Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify associated risk factors for poor glycemic control. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited and completed a questionnaire covering socio-demographic status, 3-day diet records, and physical activity. Anthropometry and glycemic control parameters, lipid profile and blood pressure were also measured. Results: Subjects were on average 56.7±9.9 years old with a mean duration of diabetes of 6.5 ± 5.0 years. The mean hemoglobin A1c of the subjects was 7.6% ± 1.4%, with only 20.2% achieving the target goal of exercised daily. The proportions of macronutrients relative to total energy intake were consistent with the recommendations of most diabetes associations. The adjusted odds of having poor glycemic control were 3.235 (1.043-10.397) (P < 0.05) higher among those who had high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels below the normal range. Those taking one or two types of oral anti-diabetic drugs had 19.9 (2.959-87.391) (P < 0.01) and 14.3 (2.647-77.500) (P < 0.01) higher odds of poor glycemic control respectively compared to those who were being treated by diet alone. Conclusion: Poor glycemic control was prevalent among Malaysian diabetic patients, and this could be associated with low levels of HDL and being treated with oral anti-diabetes agents. PMID:25767521

  2. Gluten-free snacks using plantain-chickpea and maize blend: chemical composition, starch digestibility, and predicted glycemic index.

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    Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    An increase in celiac consumers has caused an increasing interest to develop good quality gluten-free food products with high nutritional value. Snack foods are consumed worldwide and have become a normal part of the eating habits of the celiac population making them a target to improve their nutritive value. Extrusion and deep-frying of unripe plantain, chickpea, and maize flours blends produced gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber contents (13.7-18.2 g/100 g) and low predicted glycemic index (28 to 35). The gluten-free snacks presented lower fat content (12.7 to 13.6 g/100 g) than those reported in similar commercial snacks. The snack with the highest unripe plantain flour showed higher slowly digestible starch (11.6 and 13.4 g/100 g) than its counterpart with the highest chickpea flour level (6 g/100 g). The overall acceptability of the gluten-free snacks was similar to that chili-flavored commercial snack. It was possible to develop gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber content and low predicted glycemic index with the blend of the 3 flours, and these gluten-free snacks may also be useful as an alternative to reduce excess weight and obesity problems in the general population and celiac community. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Interface design and human factors considerations for model-based tight glycemic control in critical care.

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    Ward, Logan; Steel, James; Le Compte, Aaron; Evans, Alicia; Tan, Chia-Siong; Penning, Sophie; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Desaive, Thomas; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Tight glycemic control (TGC) has shown benefits but has been difficult to implement. Model-based methods and computerized protocols offer the opportunity to improve TGC quality and compliance. This research presents an interface design to maximize compliance, minimize real and perceived clinical effort, and minimize error based on simple human factors and end user input. The graphical user interface (GUI) design is presented by construction based on a series of simple, short design criteria based on fundamental human factors engineering and includes the use of user feedback and focus groups comprising nursing staff at Christchurch Hospital. The overall design maximizes ease of use and minimizes (unnecessary) interaction and use. It is coupled to a protocol that allows nurse staff to select measurement intervals and thus self-manage workload. The overall GUI design is presented and requires only one data entry point per intervention cycle. The design and main interface are heavily focused on the nurse end users who are the predominant users, while additional detailed and longitudinal data, which are of interest to doctors guiding overall patient care, are available via tabs. This dichotomy of needs and interests based on the end user's immediate focus and goals shows how interfaces must adapt to offer different information to multiple types of users. The interface is designed to minimize real and perceived clinical effort, and ongoing pilot trials have reported high levels of acceptance. The overall design principles, approach, and testing methods are based on fundamental human factors principles designed to reduce user effort and error and are readily generalizable. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögebakan, Özlem; Kohl, Angela; Osterhoff, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes).......We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes)....

  5. Influence of psychosocial factors on self-care behaviors and glycemic control in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosansu, Gulhan; Erdogan, Semra

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of psychosocial factors on self-care behavior and glycemic control in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study used a cross-sectional questionnaire survey design (N = 350). Data were collected using the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale and the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire. The relationship between the study variables was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and structural equation modeling. Self-efficacy was associated with social support, outcome expectancies, perceived interference, educational level, and self-care and A1C. According to the structural equation model, self-efficacy was the predictor variable that influenced both self-care and glycemic control. Self-efficacy in achieving desired health outcomes was found to play a central role in Turkish patients. Although interventions are planned and implemented to achieve and maintain self-management in individuals with diabetes, strengthening psychosocial factors, particularly self-efficacy, may contribute to adjustment to disease and good glycemic control in the long term.

  6. Characterization of Factors Affecting Attainment of Glycemic Control in Asian Americans With Diabetes in a Culturally Specific Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hung; Wong, Sophia; Iftikar, Tracy; Keenan, Hillary; King, George L.; Hsu, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a culturally specific pilot clinic for Asian Americans (AA) in reaching glycemic target and to characterize factors affecting the attainment of glycemic control in comparison with white counterparts. Methods This electronic health record review included all new AA patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 109) in a culturally specific program and a randomly selected sample of new white patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 218) in the adult clinic within the same time period and diabetes center. Results AA and whites had a comparable proportion of patients with A1C ≤7% (32.1%, 34.9%; P = .621) at baseline and after 12 months of care (48.6%, 56.0%; P = .210), with a similar A1C decline (−0.9% ± 1.6%, −0.8% ± 1.7%, P = .710) by 12 months. Factors associated with the lack of success in reaching target in AA but not in whites included older age, lower educational attainment, less likelihood of having health insurance, and a need for more educational visits. The percentage of AA reaching A1C ≤7%, as compared to whites, worsened among those with highest initial A1C when stratified by ascending quartiles (96.7% vs 85.2%, P = .101; 61.9% vs 58.9%, P = .813; 24.0% vs 37.7%, P = .230; 15.2% vs 35.4%, P = .044). Conclusion While a culturally specific diabetes program in a specialty setting achieved a similar glycemic outcome for AA compared with whites, reasons for not reaching glycemic target differed. The findings suggest that the elimination of diabetes disparities requires not only culturally and linguistically specific programs, but must also identify and address the socio-environmental differences unique to each population. PMID:23771841

  7. Human glycemic response curves after intake of carbohydrate foods are accurately predicted by combining in vitro gastrointestinal digestion with in silico kinetic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Bellmann

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: Based on the demonstrated accuracy and predictive quality, this in vitro–in silico technology can be used for the testing of food products on their glycemic response under standardized conditions and may stimulate the production of (slow carbs for the prevention of metabolic diseases.

  8. Relative contributions of preprandial and postprandial glucose exposures, glycemic variability, and non-glycemic factors to HbA in individuals with and without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Kristine; Alssema, Marjan; Mela, David J

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: There is substantial interest in dietary approaches to reducing postprandial glucose (PPG) responses, but the quantitative contribution of PPG to longer-term glycemic control (reflected in glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c) in the general population is not known. This study quantif...

  9. Impact of Demographic, Socioeconomic and Psychological Factors on Glycemic Self-Management in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Alicia Gonzalez Zacarias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is reported as one of the most complex chronic diseases worldwide. In the United States, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM is the seventh leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Individuals with diabetes require lifelong personal care to reduce the possibility of developing long-term complications. A good knowledge of diabetes risk factors, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, family history of DM, and sedentary lifestyle, play an essential role in prevention and treatment. Also, socio-demographic, economic, psychological, and environmental factors are directly and indirectly associated with diabetes control and health outcomes. Our review intends to analyze the interaction between demographics, knowledge, environment, and other diabetes-related factors based on an extended literature search, and to provide insight for improving glycemic control and reducing the incidence of chronic complications.

  10. Effect of domestic cooking on the starch digestibility, predicted glycemic indices, polyphenol contents and alpha amylase inhibitory properties of beans (Phaseolis vulgaris) and breadfruit (Treculia africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinedum, E; Sanni, S; Theressa, N; Ebere, A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of processing on starch digestibility, predicted glycemic indices (pGI), polyphenol contents and alpha amylase inhibitory properties of beans (Phaseolis vulgaris) and breadfruit (Treculia africana) was studied. Total starch ranged from 4.3 to 68.3g/100g, digestible starch ranged from 4.3 to 59.2 to 65.7g/100g for the raw and processed legumes; Resistance starch was not detected in most of the legumes except in fried breadfruit and the starches in both the raw and processed breadfruit were more rapidly digested than those from raw and cooked beans. Raw and processed breadfruit had higher hydrolysis curves than raw and processed beans with the amylolysis level in raw breadfruit close to that of white bread. Raw beans had a low glycemic index (GI); boiled beans and breadfruit had intermediate glycemic indices respectively while raw and fried breadfruit had high glycemic indices. Aqueous extracts of the food samples had weak α-amylase inhibition compared to acarbose. The raw and processed legumes contained considerable amounts of dietary phenols and flavonoids. The significant correlation (r=0.626) between α-amylase inhibitory actions of the legumes versus their total phenolic contents suggests the contribution of the phenolic compounds in these legumes to their α-amylase inhibitory properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Use of Electrochemiluminescence Assays to Predict Autoantibody and Glycemic Progression Toward Type 1 Diabetes in Individuals with Single Autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosenko, Jay M; Yu, Liping; Skyler, Jay S; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Gottlieb, Peter A; Boulware, David; Miao, Dongmei; Palmer, Jerry P; Steck, Andrea K

    2017-03-01

    Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays have shown promise for enhancing the prediction of type 1 diabetes (T1D) with autoantibodies. We thus studied relatives of T1D patients to determine whether ECL assays can be used to refine risk assessments for T1D among individuals either positive for single GADA or single mIAA autoantibodies. TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) study participants with either GADA or mIAA single autoantibodies were tested for ECL positivity during their participation in the TrialNet PTP study. Those ECL positive (ECL + ) were compared with those ECL negative (ECL - ) for conversion to multiple autoantibodies, 6-month glycemic progression (PS6M), and the progression to T1D. The progression to multiple autoantibodies was significantly higher for those GADA/ECL + (n = 107) than those GADA/ECL - (n = 78) (P = 0.001) and for those mIAA/ECL + (n = 24) than those mIAA/ECL - (n = 63) (P < 0.001). The hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were 3.42 (1.58-7.39; P < 0.01) for GADA and 8.15 (3.02-22.00; P < 0.001) for mIAA. GADA/ECL + and mIAA/ECL + participants had significantly higher PS6M values than their ECL - counterparts (P = 0.001 for GADA and P = 0.009 for mIAA). Of those GADA/ECL + , 14% progressed to T1D; of those mIAA/ECL + , 17% progressed to T1D. Only 1 individual (positive for GADA) of the 141 who was ECL - progressed to T1D (median follow-up: 5 years). ECL measurements appear to have utility for natural history studies and prevention trials of individuals with single autoantibodies. Those ECL + are at appreciable risk for developing multiple autoantibodies and for glycemic progression toward T1D, whereas those ECL - are at very low risk.

  12. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance.To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study.Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured.Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%.A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  13. Quadratic prediction of factor scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansbeek, T

    1999-01-01

    Factor scores are naturally predicted by means of their conditional expectation given the indicators y. Under normality this expectation is linear in y but in general it is an unknown function of y. II is discussed that under nonnormality factor scores can be more precisely predicted by a quadratic

  14. Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hiroki; Iwase, Masanori; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ogata-Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Joudai, Tamaki; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations betwee...

  15. [Predictive factors of anxiety disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domschke, K

    2014-10-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most frequent mental disorders in Europe (12-month prevalence 14%) and impose a high socioeconomic burden. The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is complex with an interaction of biological, environmental and psychosocial factors contributing to the overall disease risk (diathesis-stress model). In this article, risk factors for anxiety disorders will be presented on several levels, e.g. genetic factors, environmental factors, gene-environment interactions, epigenetic mechanisms, neuronal networks ("brain fear circuit"), psychophysiological factors (e.g. startle response and CO2 sensitivity) and dimensional/subclinical phenotypes of anxiety (e.g. anxiety sensitivity and behavioral inhibition), and critically discussed regarding their potential predictive value. The identification of factors predictive of anxiety disorders will possibly allow for effective preventive measures or early treatment interventions, respectively, and reduce the individual patient's suffering as well as the overall socioeconomic burden of anxiety disorders.

  16. Pathways from emotional adjustment to glycemic control in youths with diabetes in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S M; Lee, P W; Low, L C; Cheng, A; Yeung, W; Huen, K F; O'Donnell, D

    2000-09-01

    To examine factors that influence emotional adjustment, adherence to diabetic care, and glycemic control in Hong Kong youths with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Seventy youths, their mothers, and matched controls provided information on health beliefs, authoritarian parenting style, parent-child conflict, emotional adjustment, and adherence to medical regimen. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were obtained to measure glycemic control. Predictors explained 34% of the variance in emotional adjustment and 39% of the variance in glycemic control. The data supported a pathway from emotional adjustment to self-efficacy to adherence behaviors to glycemic control. In contrast to Western culture and consistent with prediction, parenting style did not associate with negative outcomes, and even relatively low levels of parent-child conflict correlated negatively with emotional adjustment in this culture. Management of conflict and self-efficacy enhancing interactions are suggested interventions to enhance adherence to diabetic care in Hong Kong youths with IDDM.

  17. Correlation bethealtyy ween dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and blood lipid levels in a group of women from Ahvaz

    OpenAIRE

    Farideh Shishebor; Zahra Shamekhi; Majid Karandish; Seyed Mahmood Latifi

    2011-01-01

    Background & Objectives: There are limited number of studies conducted on the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of a food program and metabolic factors such as blood lipids in Asian countries including Iran. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of Iranian food program and blood lipids. Materials & Methods: The subjects were 95 women working in Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences in the range of 20 to 55 years old...

  18. Dietary Adherence, Glycemic Control, and Psychological Factors Associated with Binge Eating Among Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Chileans with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbozo, Sylvia; Flynn, Patricia M; Stevens, Serena D; Betancourt, Hector

    2015-12-01

    Despite the strong association between obesity and binge eating, limited research has examined the implications of binge eating on dietary adherence and psychological factors in ethnically diverse type 2 diabetes patients. This study investigated the prevalence of binge eating and its association with dietary adherence, glycemic control, and psychological factors among indigenous and non-indigenous type 2 diabetes patients in Chile. Participants were 387 indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous (non-Mapuche) adults with type 2 diabetes. Self-report measures of binge eating, dietary adherence, diet self-efficacy, body image dissatisfaction, and psychological well-being were administered. Participants' weight, height, and glycemic control (HbA(1c)) were also obtained. Approximately 8 % of the type 2 diabetes patients reported binge eating. The prevalence among Mapuche patients was 4.9 %, and among non-Mapuche patients, it was 9.9 %. Compared to non-binge eaters, binge eating diabetes patients had greater body mass index values, consumed more high-fat foods, were less likely to adhere to their eating plan, and reported poorer body image and emotional well-being. Results of this study extend previous research by examining the co-occurrence of binge eating and type 2 diabetes as well as the associated dietary behaviors, glycemic control, and psychological factors among indigenous and non-indigenous patients in Chile. These findings may increase our understanding of the health challenges faced by indigenous populations from other countries and highlight the need for additional research that may inform interventions addressing binge eating in diverse patients with type 2 diabetes.

  19. Gender, diabetes education, and psychosocial factors are associated with persistent poor glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes in the Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Junmei; Yeung, Roseanne; Luk, Andrea; Tutino, Greg; Zhang, Yuying; Kong, Alice; Chung, Harriet; Wong, Rebecca; Ozaki, Risa; Ma, Ronald; Tsang, Chiu-Chi; Tong, Peter; So, Wingyee; Chan, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Factors associated with persistent poor glycemic control were explored in patients with type 2 diabetes under the Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) program. Chinese adults enrolled in JADE with HbA1c ≥8% at initial comprehensive assessment (CA1) and repeat assessment were analyzed. The improved group was defined as those with a ≥1% absolute reduction in HbA1c, and the unimproved group was those with patients with HbA1c ≥8% at baseline, 1450 underwent repeat CA. After a median interval of 1.7 years (interquartile range[IQR] 1.1-2.2) between CA1 and CA2, the unimproved group (n = 677) had a mean 0.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3%, 0.5%) increase in HbA1c compared with a mean 2.8% reduction (95% CI -2.9, -2.6%) in the improved group (n = 773). The unimproved group had a female preponderance with lower education level, and was more likely to be insulin treated. Patients in the improved group received more diabetes education between CAs with improved self-care behaviors, whereas the unimproved group had worsening of health-related quality of life at CA2. Apart from female gender, long disease duration, low educational level, obesity, retinopathy, history of hypoglycemia, and insulin use, lack of education from diabetes nurses between CAs had the strongest association for persistent poor glycemic control. These results highlight the multidimensional nature of glycemic control, and the importance of diabetes education and optimizing diabetes care by considering psychosocial factors. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Andersen, Malene R

    2011-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance.......Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance....

  1. The one year exercise and lifestyle intervention program KLAKS: Effects on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors and glycemic control in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüher, Susann; Petroff, David; Wagner, Antje; Warich, Katja; Gausche, Ruth; Klemm, Thorsten; Wagner, Mario; Keller, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    Regular physical exercise within structured lifestyle programs may improve weight status and minimize metabolic risk factors in childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the one-year combined physical exercise/lifestyle program KLAKS on anthropometric and metabolic parameters and glycemic control in childhood obesity. 142 overweight/obese (BMI>90th percentile) candidates (7-18years) were enrolled, 115 participants completed the program. Anthropometrics and biochemical parameters were obtained at beginning and completion. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in a subgroup of participants. Course of glucose and insulin levels within OGTT was correlated with several parameters and is reported here for those who completed the program. The mean standard deviation scores (SDS) decreased significantly for BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and percentage body fat (all p≤0.01). Improved metabolic risk markers included mean glucose levels within an OGTT at follow-up compared to baseline (pexercise/lifestyle program KLAKS significantly improves markers of obesity and glycemic control. Impaired cardiometabolic risk markers, even subclinical, are also favorably influenced by program participation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiroki; Iwase, Masanori; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ogata-Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Joudai, Tamaki; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2013-12-11

    Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations between dietary fiber intake and various cardiovascular risk factors were investigated cross-sectionally. Body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein negatively associated with dietary fiber intake after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, total energy intake, fat intake, saturated fatty acid intake, leisure-time physical activity and use of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. The homeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol positively associated with dietary fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome after multivariate adjustments including obesity. Furthermore, dietary fiber intake was associated with lower prevalence of albuminuria, low estimated glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease after multivariate adjustments including protein intake. Additional adjustments for obesity, hypertension or metabolic syndrome did not change these associations. We demonstrated that increased dietary fiber intake was associated with better glycemic control and more favorable cardiovascular disease risk factors including chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients should be encouraged to consume more dietary fiber in daily life.

  3. Model-based analysis of postprandial glycemic response dynamics for different types of food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne J. Rozendaal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background & aims: Knowledge of postprandial glycemic response (PPGR dynamics is important in nutrition management and diabetes research, care and (selfmanagement. In daily life, food intake is the most important factor influencing the occurrence of hyperglycemia. However, the large variability in PPGR dynamics to different types of food is inadequately predicted by existing glycemic measures. The objective of this study was therefore to quantitatively describe PPGR dynamics using a systems approach. Methods: Postprandial glucose and insulin data were collected from literature for many different food products and mixed meals. The predictive value of existing measures, such as the Glycemic Index, was evaluated. A physiology-based dynamic model was used to reconstruct the full postprandial response profiles of both glucose and insulin simultaneously. Results: We collected a large range of postprandial glucose and insulin dynamics for 53 common food products and mixed meals. Currently available glycemic measures were found to be inadequate to describe the heterogeneity in postprandial dynamics. By estimating model parameters from glucose and insulin data, the physiology-based dynamic model accurately describes the measured data whilst adhering to physiological constraints. Conclusions: The physiology-based dynamic model provides a systematic framework to analyze postprandial glucose and insulin profiles. By changing parameter values the model can be adjusted to simulate impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Keywords: Postprandial glycemic response, Physiology-based dynamic model, Food intake, Computational modeling, Glucose, Insulin

  4. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Gloede, Lise; Jaster, Brent; Seidl, Kim; Green, Amber A; Talpers, Stanley

    2006-08-01

    We sought to investigate whether a low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Individuals with type 2 diabetes (n = 99) were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines (n = 50). Participants were evaluated at baseline and 22 weeks. Forty-three percent (21 of 49) of the vegan group and 26% (13 of 50) of the ADA group participants reduced diabetes medications. Including all participants, HbA(1c) (A1C) decreased 0.96 percentage points in the vegan group and 0.56 points in the ADA group (P = 0.089). Excluding those who changed medications, A1C fell 1.23 points in the vegan group compared with 0.38 points in the ADA group (P = 0.01). Body weight decreased 6.5 kg in the vegan group and 3.1 kg in the ADA group (P vegan group and 10.7% in the ADA group (P = 0.02). After adjustment for baseline values, urinary albumin reductions were greater in the vegan group (15.9 mg/24 h) than in the ADA group (10.9 mg/24 h) (P = 0.013). Both a low-fat vegan diet and a diet based on ADA guidelines improved glycemic and lipid control in type 2 diabetic patients. These improvements were greater with a low-fat vegan diet.

  5. Glycemic index and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Most snack foods Potatoes White rice Watermelon Meal Planning with the Glycemic Index When planning your meals: ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  6. Overall glycemic index and glycemic load of vegan diets in relation to plasma lipoproteins and triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Annika; Ströhle, Alexander; Koschizke, Jochen W; Leitzmann, Claus; Hahn, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the overall glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and intake of dietary fiber, and to examine the associations between these factors and plasma lipoproteins and triacylglycerols in adult vegans in the German Vegan Study (GVS). Cross-sectional study, Germany. Healthy men (n = 67) and women (n = 87), who fulfilled the study criteria (vegan diet for >or=1 year prior to study start; minimum age of 18 years; no pregnancy/childbirth during the last 12 months) and who participated in all study segments. The average dietary GL of the GVS population was 144, and the average GI was 51.4. The adjusted geometric mean total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased across the increasing quartiles of GL, carbohydrate and dietary fiber intake. The associations between total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and GL density and GI were inconsistent. Also, associations between GI, GL, the intake of carbohydrates, and triacylglycerol concentration were not observed. Fiber-rich vegan diets are characterized by a low GI and a low to moderate GL. The data do not support the hypothesis that a carbohydrate-rich diet per se is associated with unfavorable effects on triaclyglycerols that would be predicted to increase the risk of coronary heart disease. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A model of parental distress and factors that mediate its link with parental monitoring of youth diabetes care, adherence, and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elizabeth M; Weaver, Patrick; Chen, Rusan; Streisand, Randi; Holmes, Clarissa S

    2016-12-01

    Parental monitoring of adolescents' diabetes self-care is associated with better adherence and glycemic control (A1c). A number of parent-level factors are associated with higher levels of parental monitoring, including lower levels of parental distress (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety), as well as higher levels of parental self-efficacy for diabetes management and authoritative parenting. Often studied in isolation, these factors may be best considered simultaneously as they are interrelated and are associated with parental monitoring and youth adherence. Structural equation modeling with a cross-sectional sample of 257 parent/youth (aged 11-14) dyads: (a) examined a broad model of parental factors (i.e., parental distress, parental diabetes self-efficacy, authoritative parenting), and (b) assessed their relation to parental monitoring, youth adherence, and A1c. Post hoc analyses of variance (ANOVAs) evaluated clinical implications of daily parental monitoring. Parental distress was not related directly to parental monitoring. Instead less distress related indirectly to more monitoring via higher parental self-efficacy and more authoritative parenting which, in turn, related to better adherence and A1c. Higher parental self-efficacy also related directly to better youth adherence and then to better A1c. Clinically, more parental monitoring related to more daily blood glucose checks and to better A1c (8.48% vs. 9.17%). A broad model of parent-level factors revealed more parental distress was linked only indirectly to less monitoring via lower parental self-efficacy and less authoritative parenting. Behaviorally, more parental monitoring related to better adherence and to clinically better A1c in adolescents. Further study of parent-level factors that relate to parental distress and monitoring of adherence appears warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Examining predictive relationships among consumer values: factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining predictive relationships among consumer values: factors influencing behavioural intentions in retail purchase in Ghana. ... Journal of Business Research ... effects of age and gender differentials on values among retail consumers.

  9. Low-glycemic-load diets: impact on obesity and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Stacey J; Sears, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Historically, carbohydrates have been thought to play only a minor role in promoting weight gain and in predicting the risk of development of chronic disease. Most of the focus had been on reducing total dietary fat. During the last 20 years, fat intake decreased, while the number of individuals who were overweight or developed a chronic conditions have dramatically increased. Simultaneously, the calories coming from carbohydrate have also increased. Carbohydrates can be classified by their post-prandial glycemic effect, called the glycemic index or glycemic load. Carbohydrates with high glycemic indexes and high glycemic loads produce substantial increases in blood glucose and insulin levels after ingestion. Within a few hours after their consumption, blood sugar levels begin to decline rapidly due to an exaggerated increase in insulin secretion. A profound state of hunger is created. The continued intake of high-glycemic load meals is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. In this review, the terms glycemic index and glycemic load are defined, coupled with an overview of short- and long-term changes that occur from eating diets of different glycemic indexes and glycemic loads. Finally, practical strategies for how to design low-glycemic-load diets consisting primarily of low-glycemic carbohydrates are provided.

  10. Complexity factors and prediction of performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braarud, Per Oeyvind

    1998-03-01

    Understanding of what makes a control room situation difficult to handle is important when studying operator performance, both with respect to prediction as well as improvement of the human performance. A factor analytic approach identified eight factors from operators' answers to an 39 item questionnaire about complexity of the operator's task in the control room. A Complexity Profiling Questionnaire was developed, based on the factor analytic results from the operators' conception of complexity. The validity of the identified complexity factors was studied by prediction of crew performance and prediction of plant performance from ratings of the complexity of scenarios. The scenarios were rated by both process experts and the operators participating in the scenarios, using the Complexity Profiling Questionnaire. The process experts' complexity ratings predicted both crew performance and plant performance, while the operators' rating predicted plant performance only. The results reported are from initial studies of complexity, and imply a promising potential for further studies of the concept. The approach used in the study as well as the reported results are discussed. A chapter about the structure of the conception of complexity, and a chapter about further research conclude the report. (author)

  11. Association of insulin-like growth factor-1 with glycemic control and occurrence of severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Louise; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2012-01-01

    GH is implicated in the counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia. We tested whether IGF1 levels are associated with occurrence of severe hypoglycemic events in patients with type 1 diabetes and whether the IGF1 concentration is influenced by glycemic control....

  12. Examining Factors Predicting Students' Digital Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlevik, Ove Edvard; Guðmundsdóttir, Gréta Björk; Loi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting lower secondary school students' digital competence and to explore differences between students when it comes to digital competence. Results from a digital competence test and survey in lower secondary school will be presented. It is important to learn more about and investigate what…

  13. Achieving glycemic control in special populations in hospital: perspectives in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice Y Y

    2014-04-01

    Achieving and maintaining glycemic control in patients with diabetes admitted to hospital is challenging because of the many competing factors of nutrition, pharmacotherapy and other patient-related and systemic factors. For patients receiving enteral or parenteral feeding, eating irregularly or receiving glucocorticoid therapy, the challenges are even greater. The basic principles to follow when managing glycemia in these populations are as follows: 1) Recognition of those at risk for hyperglycemia; 2) frequent bedside glucose monitoring; 3) a proactive approach with routine insulin administration based on the predicted glucose patterns; 4) constant reassessment of the glycemic status and titration of the routine insulin accordingly. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictive factors for intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, A R; Anca, A F; Horhoianu, V V; Horhoianu, I A

    2014-06-15

    Reduced fetal growth is seen in about 10% of the pregnancies but only a minority has a pathological background and is known as intrauterine growth restriction or fetal growth restriction (IUGR / FGR). Increased fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity as well as adult pathologic conditions are often associated to IUGR. Risk factors for IUGR are easy to assess but have poor predictive value. For the diagnostic purpose, biochemical serum markers, ultrasound and Doppler study of uterine and spiral arteries, placental volume and vascularization, first trimester growth pattern are object of assessment today. Modern evaluations propose combined algorithms using these strategies, all with the goal of a better prediction of risk pregnancies.

  15. Factors associated with diabetes mellitus prediction among pregnant Arab subjects with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljohani, Naji; Al Serehi, Amal; Ahmed, Amjad M; Buhary, Badr Aldin M; Alzahrani, Saad; At-Taras, Eeman; Almujally, Najla; Alsharqi, Maha; Alqahtani, Mohammed; Almalki, Mussa

    2015-01-01

    There is scarcity of available information on the possible significant risk factors related to diabetes mellitus (DM) prediction among expectant Saudi mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The present study is the first to identify such risk factors in the Arab cohort. A total of 300 pregnant subjects (mean age 33.45 ± 6.5 years) were randomly selected from all the deliveries registered at the Obstetrics Department of King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh Saudi Arabia from April 2011 to March 2013. Demographic and baseline glycemic information were collected. A total of 7 highly significant and independent risk factors were identified: age, obesity, and family history of DM, GDM < 20 weeks, macrosomia, insulin therapy and recurrent GDM. Among these factors, subjects who had insulin therapy use are 5 times more likely to develop DMT2 (p-value 3.94 × 10(-14)) followed by recurrent GDM [odds-ratio 4.69 (Confidence Interval 2.34-4.84); P = 1.24 × 10(-13)). The identification of the risk factors mentioned with their respective predictive powers in the detection of DMT2 needs to be taken seriously in the post-partum assessment of Saudi pregnant patients at highest risk.

  16. Comparison of glycemic control and variability in patients with type 2 and posttransplantation diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werzowa, Johannes; Pacini, Giovanni; Hecking, Manfred; Fidler, Catharina; Haidinger, Michael; Brath, Helmut; Thomas, Andreas; Säemann, Marcus D; Tura, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication after renal transplantation leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) increased glycemic variability and poor glycemic control have been associated with cardiovascular complications. We therefore aimed at determining glycemic variability and glycemic control in subjects with PTDM in comparison to T2DM subjects. In this observational study we analyzed 10 transplanted subjects without diabetes (Control), 10 transplanted subjects with PTDM, and 8 non-transplanted T2DM subjects using Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM). Several indices of glycemic control quality and variability were computed. Many indices of both glycemic control quality and variability were different between control and PTDM subjects, with worse values in PTDM. The indices of glycemic control, such as glucose mean, GRADE and M-value, were similar in PTDM and T2DM, but some indices of glycemic variability, that is CONGA, lability index and shape index, showed a markedly higher (i.e., worse) value in T2DM than in PTDM (P value range: 0.001-0.035). Although PTDM and T2DM subjects showed similar glycemic control quality, glycemic variability was significantly higher in T2DM. These data underscore potential important pathophysiological differences between T2DM and PTDM indicating that increased glycemic variability may not be a key factor for the excess cardiovascular mortality in patients with PTDM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictive factors for early menarche in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chie, W C; Liu, Y H; Chi, J; Wu, V; Chen, A

    1997-06-01

    The rapid increase of breast cancer in Taiwan has prompted the authors to evaluate the predictive factors of early menarche among contemporary Taiwanese girls. A total of 895 four-grade girls from eight elementary schools in Taipei City and County were identified as a closed cohort from the first semester of 1993. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires and school records. A total of 799 girls who had not menstruated in the first year remained in the group through 1994. The effects of potential predictive factors were assessed by logistic regression. Among the 799 girls followed, 69 (8.6%) had first menstruation between the fourth and fifth grades. Height, weight, body mass index and maternal early onset of menarche were positively related to the onset of menarche within the preceding year. Energy consumption during exercise showed only moderate association after being adjusted for age and weight. Calorie intake from junk food was not associated with early menarche within the preceding year. Poor interpersonal family relationships and stressful life events also showed a moderate association with early menarche. The data obtained supported the hypothesis that height, weight, body mass index and maternal early menarche are positive predictive factors of early menarche. The effects of exercise and childhood stress are less prominent.

  18. Alternative Assessment of Glycemic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease associated with development of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Optimal glycemic control, usually measured by HbA1c is the cornerstone for prevention of complications. In this thesis glycemic variability (which resembles actual glucose levels,

  19. A global study of the unmet need for glycemic control and predictor factors among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who have achieved optimal fasting plasma glucose control on basal insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccah, Denis; Chou, Engels; Colagiuri, Stephen; Gaàl, Zsolt; Lavalle, Fernando; Mkrtumyan, Ashot; Nikonova, Elena; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Vidal, Josep; Davies, Melanie

    2017-03-01

    This study used data from different sources to identify the extent of the unmet need for postprandial glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after the initiation of basal insulin therapy in Europe, Asia Pacific, the United States, and Latin America. Different levels of evidence were used as available for each country/region, with data extracted from seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), three clinical trial registries (CTRs), and three electronic medical record (EMR) databases. Glycemic status was categorized as "well controlled" (glycated hemoglobin [HbA 1c ] at target [130/140 mg/dL, depending on country-specific recommendations]), or "uncontrolled" (both FPG and HbA 1c above target). Predictor factors were identified from the RCT data set using logistic regression analysis. RCT data showed that 16.9% to 28.0%, 42.7% to 54.4%, and 16.9% to 38.1% of patients with T2DM had well-controlled glycemia, residual hyperglycemia, and uncontrolled hyperglycemia, respectively. In CTRs, respective ranges were 21.8% to 33.6%, 31.5% to 35.6%, and 30.7% to 46.8%, and in EMR databases were 4.4% to 21.0%, 23.9% to 31.8%, and 53.6% to 63.8%. Significant predictor factors of residual hyperglycemia identified from RCT data included high baseline HbA 1c (all countries/regions except Brazil), high baseline FPG (United Kingdom/Japan), longer duration of diabetes (Brazil), and female sex (Europe/Latin America). Irrespective of intrinsic differences between data sources, 24% to 54% of patients with T2DM globally had residual hyperglycemia with HbA 1c not at target, despite achieving FPG control, indicating a significant unmet need for postprandial glycemic control. © 2016 The Authors. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Intermittent Vagal Nerve Block for Improvements in Obesity, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: 2-Year Results of the VBLOC DM2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikora, Scott A; Toouli, James; Herrera, Miguel F; Kulseng, Bård; Brancatisano, Roy; Kow, Lilian; Pantoja, Juan P; Johnsen, Gjermund; Brancatisano, Anthony; Tweden, Katherine S; Knudson, Mark B; Billington, Charles J; Billingto, Charles J

    2016-05-01

    One-year results of the VBLOC DM2 study found that intermittent vagal blocking (VBLOC therapy) was safe among subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and led to significant weight loss and improvements in glycemic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. Longer-term data are needed to determine whether the results are sustained. VBLOC DM2 is a prospective, observational study of 28 subjects with T2DM and body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m(2) to assess mid-term safety and weight loss and improvements in glycemic parameters, and other cardiovascular risk factors with VBLOC therapy. Continuous outcome variables are reported using mixed models. At 24 months, the mean percentage of excess weight loss was 22% (95% CI, 15 to 28, p Fasting plasma glucose declined by 15 mg/dL (95% CI, 0 to 29, p = 0.0564) on average from 151 mg/dL at baseline. Among subjects who were hypertensive at baseline, systolic blood pressure declined 10 mmHg (95% CI, 2 to 19, p = 0.02), diastolic blood pressure declined by 6 mmHg (95% CI, 0 to 12, p = 0.0423), and mean arterial pressure declined 7 mmHg (95% CI, 2 to 13, p = 0.014). Waist circumference was significantly reduced by 7 cm (95% CI, 4 to 10, p obesity and glycemic control were largely sustained after 2 years of treatment with VBLOC therapy with a well-tolerated risk profile.

  1. Shoulder dystocia: risk factors, predictability, and preventability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shobha H; Sokol, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Shoulder dystocia remains an unpredictable obstetric emergency, striking fear in the hearts of obstetricians both novice and experienced. While outcomes that lead to permanent injury are rare, almost all obstetricians with enough years of practice have participated in a birth with a severe shoulder dystocia and are at least aware of cases that have resulted in significant neurologic injury or even neonatal death. This is despite many years of research trying to understand the risk factors associated with it, all in an attempt primarily to characterize when the risk is high enough to avoid vaginal delivery altogether and prevent a shoulder dystocia, whose attendant morbidities are estimated to be at a rate as high as 16-48%. The study of shoulder dystocia remains challenging due to its generally retrospective nature, as well as dependence on proper identification and documentation. As a result, the prediction of shoulder dystocia remains elusive, and the cost of trying to prevent one by performing a cesarean delivery remains high. While ultimately it is the injury that is the key concern, rather than the shoulder dystocia itself, it is in the presence of an identified shoulder dystocia that occurrence of injury is most common. The majority of shoulder dystocia cases occur without major risk factors. Moreover, even the best antenatal predictors have a low positive predictive value. Shoulder dystocia therefore cannot be reliably predicted, and the only preventative measure is cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute effect of meal glycemic index and glycemic load on blood glucose and insulin responses in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Erik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Foods with contrasting glycemic index when incorporated into a meal, are able to differentially modify glycemia and insulinemia. However, little is known about whether this is dependent on the size of the meal. The purposes of this study were: i to determine if the differential impact on blood glucose and insulin responses induced by contrasting GI foods is similar when provided in meals of different sizes, and; ii to determine the relationship between the total meal glycemic load and the observed serum glucose and insulin responses. Methods Twelve obese women (BMI 33.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 were recruited. Subjects received 4 different meals in random order. Two meals had a low glycemic index (40–43% and two had a high-glycemic index (86–91%. Both meal types were given as two meal sizes with energy supply corresponding to 23% and 49% of predicted basal metabolic rate. Thus, meals with three different glycemic loads (95, 45–48 and 22 g were administered. Blood samples were taken before and after each meal to determine glucose, free-fatty acids, insulin and glucagon concentrations over a 5-h period. Results An almost 2-fold higher serum glucose and insulin incremental area under the curve (AUC over 2 h for the high- versus low-glycemic index same sized meals was observed (p Conclusion This study showed that foods of contrasting glycemic index induced a proportionally comparable difference in serum insulin response when provided in both small and large meals. The same was true for the serum glucose response but only in large meals. Glycemic load was useful in predicting the acute impact on blood glucose and insulin responses within the context of mixed meals.

  3. Can Childhood Factors Predict Workplace Deviance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-07-01

    Compared to the more common focus on street crime, empirical research on workplace deviance has been hampered by highly select samples, cross-sectional research designs, and limited inclusion of relevant predictor variables that bear on important theoretical debates. A key debate concerns the extent to which childhood conduct-problem trajectories influence crime over the life-course, including adults' workplace crime, whether childhood low self-control is a more important determinant than trajectories, and/or whether each or both of these childhood factors relate to later criminal activity. This paper provides evidence on this debate by examining two types of workplace deviance: production and property deviance separately for males and females. We use data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a birth cohort followed into adulthood, to examine how childhood factors (conduct-problem trajectories and low self-control) and then adult job characteristics predict workplace deviance at age 32. Analyses revealed that none of the childhood factors matter for predicting female deviance in the workplace but that conduct-problem trajectories did account for male workplace deviance.

  4. Factors associated with glycemic status and ability to adapt to changing demands in people with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-González, Bertha Cecilia; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther C; Rivera-Castillo, Alicia; González-Cantú, Arnulfo; Gómez-Meza, Marco Vinicio; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Zacarías

    2018-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus studies focus on metabolic indicators and different self-reported lifestyle or care behaviors. Self-reported instruments involve conscious process therefore responses might not reflect reality. Meanwhile implicit responses involve automatic, unconscious processes underlying social judgments and behavior. No studies have explored the combined influence of both metabolic indicators and implicit responses on lifestyle practices in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. The purpose was to investigate the explained variance of socio-demographic, metabolic, anthropometric, clinical, psychosocial, cognitive, and lifestyle variables on glycemic status and on the ability to adapt to changing demands in people with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus in Monterrey, Mexico. Adults with (n = 30, mean age 46.90 years old, 33.33% male) and without (n = 32, mean age: 41.69 years old, 21.87% male) type 2 diabetes mellitus were studied. Glycemic status was assessed using Bio-Rad D-10 Hemoglobin A1c Program, which uses ion-exchange high-performance chromatography. Stroop 2 test was used to assess the ability to changing demands. In participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus, less years of education, negative self-actualization, and higher levels of cholesterol and triglycerides explained more than 50% of the variance in glycemic status. In participants without type 2 diabetes mellitus, the variance (38.7%) was explained by total cholesterol, metabolic syndrome, high-density lipoprotein, and self-actualization scores; the latter in opposite direction. The ability to adapt to changing demands was explained by total cholesterol, malondialdehyde, insulin resistance, and triglycerides. In participants without type 2 diabetes mellitus, the contributing variables were metabolic syndrome and nutrition scores. Results showed significant effect on at least one of the following variables (socio-demographic, metabolic, or lifestyle subscale) on glycemic status

  5. Malnutrition predicting factors in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Soodeh Razeghi; Hosseini, Saeed; Razeghi, Effat; Meysamie, Ali pasha; Sadrzadeh, Haleh

    2010-09-01

    Malnutrition is a predictor of increased mortality in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Various factors may contribute to malnutrition in these patients including energy and protein intake, inflammation, and comorbidity. To determine the importance of these factors in malnutrition of chronic HD patients, we studied 112 chronic HD patients in two centers was evaluated with the Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS) and anthropometric and biochemical indices. Seventy six (67.8%) patients were classified as malnourished. According to DMS score, poor protein intake (r= -0.34, Penergy intake (r= - 0.18, Pmalnutrition in descending order of importance. Multiple regression analysis showed that only poor protein intake was the explanatory variable of anthropometric measurements decline including body mass index, triceps skin fold thick-ness, mid arm circumference, mid arm muscle circumference, fat free mass, fat mass, albumin, creatinine and transferrine. None of the mentioned factors predicted the decrease of biochemical markers. We conclude that the frequency of malnutrition is high in our population and poor protein intake is the primary contributing factor for this condition. Therefore, providing enough protein may be a simple and effective way in preventing malnutrition in these patients.

  6. Examining Factors Predicting Students’ Digital Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ove Edvard Hatlevik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting lower secondary school students’ digital competence and to explore differences between students when it comes to digital competence. Results from a digital competence test and survey in lower secondary school will be presented. It is important to learn more about and investigate what characterizes students’ digital competence. A sample of 852 ninth-grade Norwegian students from 38 schools participated in the study. The students answered a 26 item multiple-choice digital competence test and a self-report questionnaire about family background, motivation, and previous grades. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model of the hypothesised relationship between family background, mastery orientation, previous achievements, and digital competence. The results indicate variation in digital competence among the ninth-graders. Further, analyses showed that students’ conditions at home, i.e., language integration and cultural capital, together with mastery orientation and academic achievements predict students digital competence. This study indicates that that there is evidence of digital diversity between lower secondary students. It does not seem like the development of digital competence among the students happens automatically. Students’ family background and school performance are the most important factors. Therefore, as this study shows, it is necessary to further investigate how schools can identify students’ level of competence and to develop plans and actions for how schools can help to try to equalize differences.

  7. Counting Carbs? Understanding Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... compare how single servings of different foods affect blood sugar. It takes into account both the quality and quantity of carbs in a serving. . Some studies suggest that sticking to foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent ...

  8. Predictors of glycemic control among patients with Type 2 diabetes: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philis-Tsimikas Athena

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death and results in significant morbidity. The purpose of this study is to determine what demographic, health status, treatment, access/quality of care, and behavioral factors are associated with poor glycemic control in a Type 2 diabetic, low-income, minority, San Diego population. Methods Longitudinal observational data was collected on patients with Type 2 diabetes from Project Dulce, a program in San Diego County designed to care for an underserved diabetic population. The study sample included 573 patients with a racial/ethnic mix of 53% Hispanic, 7% black, 18% Asian, 20% white, and 2% other. We utilized mixed effects models to determine the factors associated with poor glycemic control using hemoglobin A1C (A1C as the outcome of interest. A multi-step model building process was used resulting in a final parsimonious model with main effects and interaction terms. Results Patients had a mean age of 55 years, 69% were female, the mean duration of diabetes was 7.1 years, 31% were treated with insulin, and 57% were obese. American Diabetes Association (ADA recommendations for blood pressure and total cholesterol were met by 71% and 68%, respectively. Results of the mixed effects model showed that patients who were uninsured, had diabetes for a longer period of time, used insulin or multiple oral agents, or had high cholesterol had higher A1C values over time indicating poorer glycemic control. The younger subjects also had poorer control. Conclusion This study provides factors that predict glycemic control in a specific low-income, multiethnic, Type 2 diabetic population. With this information, subgroups with high risk of disease morbidity were identified. Barriers that prevent these patients from meeting their goals must be explored to improve health outcomes.

  9. Evaluation of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese communities: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shan; Gu, Liubao; Lou, Qinglin; Ouyang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yun; Wu, Haidi; Bian, Rongwen

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic levels in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to explore the factors related to the results of glycemic control. A total of 2454 T2DM patients from 11 communities were examined for glycosylated hemoglobin levels and glycemic control options. Potential factors related to the results of glycemic control were analyzed using logistic regression. Of all the patients, 55.3 % achieved the glycemic control target of HbA1c 1.345, 95 % CI 1.022-1.769; P = 0.034), higher levels of fasting blood glucose (OR 1.954, 95 % CI 1.778-2.147; P 1), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.181, 95 % CI 1.020-1.367; P = 0.026) were significantly associated with poor glycemic control. The complexity of antidiabetics was also associated with poor glycemic control (P insulin injection was most strongly associated with poor glycemic control (OR 6.210, 95 % CI 4.054-9.514; P 1). Male patients with higher levels of total cholesterol, lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or longer diabetic durations showed poor glycemic control, which was not found in female patients. Glycemic control was not satisfactory in T2DM patients of Nanjing communities. Various factors are associated with poor results of glycemic control.

  10. Prevalence and predictive factors of post-traumatic hypopituitarism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, M; Juul, A; Poulsgaard, L

    2007-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and predictive factors of hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury (TBI).......To estimate the prevalence and predictive factors of hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury (TBI)....

  11. [Encopresis--predictive factors and outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehler-Wex, Claudia; Scheuerpflug, Peter; Peschke, Nicole; Roth, Michael; Reitzle, Karl; Warnke, Andreas

    2005-10-01

    comparison of diagnostic, clinical and therapeutic features and their predictive value for the outcome of encopresis in children and adolescents. 85 children and adolescents (aged 9.6 +/- 3.2 years) with severe encopresis (ICD 10: F98.1) were investigated during inpatient treatment and 35 of them again 5.5 +/- 1.8 years later. Mentally retarded patients were excluded. Inpatient therapy consisted of treating constipation and/or stool regulation by means of laxatives, behavioural approaches, and the specific therapy of comorbid psychiatric disorders. During inpatient treatment 22% of the patients experienced total remission, 8% an unchanged persistence of symptoms. Of the 35 patients studied at follow-up 5.5 years later, 40% were symptom-free. As main result, prognostic outcome depended significantly on sufficient treatment of obstipation. Another important factor was the specific therapeutic approach to psychiatric comorbidity, especially to ADHD. The outcome for patients with comorbid ICD 10: F43 was significantly better than for the other patients. Those who were symptom-free at discharge had significantly better long-term outcomes. Decisive to the success of encopresis treatment were the stool regulation and the specific therapy of associated psychiatric illnesses, in particular of ADHD. Inpatient treatment revealed significantly better long-term outcomes where total remission had been achieved by the time of discharge from hospital.

  12. Vocal fold hemorrhage: factors predicting recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Christen J; Murry, Thomas; Sulica, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fold hemorrhage is an acute phonotraumatic injury treated with voice rest; recurrence is a generally accepted indication for surgical intervention. This study aims to identify factors predictive of recurrence based on outcomes of a large clinical series. Retrospective cohort. Retrospective review of cases of vocal fold hemorrhage presenting to a university laryngology service. Demographic information was compiled. Videostroboscopic exams were evaluated for hemorrhage extent, presence of varix, mucosal lesion, and/or vocal fold paresis. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurrence was the main outcome measure. Follow-up telephone survey was used to complement clinical data. Forty-seven instances of vocal fold hemorrhage were evaluated (25M:22F; 32 professional voice users). Twelve of the 47 (26%) patients experienced recurrence. Only the presence of varix demonstrated significant association with recurrence (P = 0.0089) on multivariate logistic regression. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurred in approximately 26% of patients. Varix was a predictor of recurrence, with 48% of those with varix experiencing recurrence. Monitoring, behavioral management and/or surgical intervention may be indicated to treat patients with such characteristics. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Early Glycemic Control and Magnitude of HbA1c Reduction Predict Cardiovascular Events and Mortality: Population-Based Cohort Study of 24,752 Metformin Initiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Baggesen, Lisbeth M; Johnsen, Søren P; Pedersen, Lars; Nørrelund, Helene; Buhl, Esben S; Haase, Christiane L; Thomsen, Reimar W

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the association of early achieved HbA 1c level and magnitude of HbA 1c reduction with subsequent risk of cardiovascular events or death in patients with type 2 diabetes who initiate metformin. This was a population-based cohort study including all metformin initiators with HbA 1c tests in Northern Denmark, 2000-2012. Six months after metformin initiation, we classified patients by HbA 1c achieved (<6.5% or higher) and by magnitude of HbA 1c change from the pretreatment baseline. We used Cox regression to examine subsequent rates of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or death, controlling for baseline HbA 1c and other confounding factors. We included 24,752 metformin initiators (median age 62.5 years, 55% males) with a median follow-up of 2.6 years. The risk of a combined outcome event gradually increased with rising levels of HbA 1c achieved compared with a target HbA 1c of <6.5%: adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.18 (95% CI 1.07-1.30) for 6.5-6.99%, HR 1.23 (1.09-1.40) for 7.0-7.49%, HR 1.34 (1.14-1.57) for 7.5-7.99%, and HR 1.59 (1.37-1.84) for ≥8%. Results were consistent for individual outcome events and robust by age-group and other patient characteristics. A large absolute HbA 1c reduction from baseline also predicted outcome: adjusted HR 0.80 (0.65-0.97) for Δ = -4, HR 0.98 (0.80-1.20) for Δ = -3, HR 0.92 (0.78-1.08) for Δ = -2, and HR 0.99 (0.89-1.10) for Δ = -1 compared with no HbA 1c change (Δ = 0). A large initial HbA 1c reduction and achievement of low HbA 1c levels within 6 months after metformin initiation are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events and death in patients with type 2 diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  14. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Masala

    Full Text Available A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI or glycemic load (GL may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83% and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories with those with low MBD (N1+P1 through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048 while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further

  15. Evaluation of the utility of a glycemic pattern identification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Erik A; Tannan, Vinay

    2014-07-01

    With the increasing prevalence of systems allowing automated, real-time transmission of blood glucose data there is a need for pattern recognition techniques that can inform of deleterious patterns in glycemic control when people test. We evaluated the utility of pattern identification with a novel pattern identification system named Vigilant™ and compared it to standard pattern identification methods in diabetes. To characterize the importance of an identified pattern we evaluated the relative risk of future hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic events in diurnal periods following identification of a pattern in a data set of 536 patients with diabetes. We evaluated events 2 days, 7 days, 30 days, and 61-90 days from pattern identification, across diabetes types and cohorts of glycemic control, and also compared the system to 6 pattern identification methods consisting of deleterious event counts and percentages over 5-, 14-, and 30-day windows. Episodes of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, severe hypoglycemia, and severe hyperglycemia were 120%, 46%, 123%, and 76% more likely after pattern identification, respectively, compared to periods when no pattern was identified. The system was also significantly more predictive of deleterious events than other pattern identification methods evaluated, and was persistently predictive up to 3 months after pattern identification. The system identified patterns that are significantly predictive of deleterious glycemic events, and more so relative to many pattern identification methods used in diabetes management today. Further study will inform how improved pattern identification can lead to improved glycemic control. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  16. [Glycemic targets and cardiovascular morbi-mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordier, Lyse; Bauduceau, Bernard

    2013-05-01

    The 2008-year was full of learning experience and suspense in diabetologia. The past studies, UKPDS in type 2 diabetic patients and DCCT in type 1 diabetic patients have shown that intensive treatment during a short period did reduce the incidence of microvascular events and in the long term, the incidence of macrovascular events linked to diabetes. The conclusions of recent studies quote, from ACCORD, an increased mortality in the type 2 diabetic patients using intensive therapy, from ADVANCE, a reduction of microvascular complications and from VADT, no effect. The analysis of studies published since 2008 brings lessons for the clinical practice: presence of glycemic memory, absence of tensional memory, usefulness of control of every cardiovascular risk factors, need of early treatment of diabetes. Moreover, to define HbA1c objective, age, duration of diabetes, presence of cardiovascular risk factors, former HbA1c level and potential undesirable effects, such hypoglycaemia, must be considered. The management of type 2 diabetic patients requires an early, not to quick intensive treatment, which avoids hypoglycaemia and is combined with a strict control of cardiovascular risk factors. So, the recent position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) consideres needs and preferences of each patient and individualizes glycemic targets and treatments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Glycemic indices, glycemic load and glycemic response for seventeen varieties of dates grown in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGeffari, Metab Ali; Almogbel, Ebtehal Solaiman; Alhomaidan, Homaidan Turki; El-Mergawi, Ragab; Barrimah, Issam Alsaed

    2016-01-01

    Dates are consumed worldwide, and are an important fruit for many individuals in Saudi Arabia. Currently, limited information is available on the glycemic indices of different date varieties. To determine the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and glycemic response for 17 common date varieties in Saudi Arabia. Prospective clinical trial on healthy subjects. College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia. The available carbohydrate content of Tamer stage dates was determined using standard laboratory methods. Healthy subjects (ten males and nine females) received 50 g of glucose (on three separate occasions) and 50 g equivalent of available carbohydrates from the seventeen varieties of date (each once). The GI and GL were then calculated. GI, GL, and glycemic response. The mean (SEM) GI of the date samples was 55.2 (7.7) (range, 42.8-74.6). Sellaj and Maktoomi exhibited the highest GI (74.6 [10.1] and 71.0 [11.1]), respectively, whereas Shaqra, Sukkary, and Sag'ai had the lowest GI (42.8 [5.5], 43.4 [4.7] and 44.6 [6]), respectively. The GL of the date samples ranged from 8.5 to 24. Sellaj had a high GL (24), whereas Ajwah and Shaqra had a low GL (8.5 and 9.2). The analyses suggested no significant difference in GI between the date varieties. However, the GL values differed significantly between the 17 date varieties (P Saudi Arabia. The identification of date varieties with lower glycemic responses may help lower the GI of the diet of both healthy and diabetic Saudi individuals. We used dates at the Tamer stage, which may not be translatable to all types of dates.

  18. Skin Autofluorescence and Glycemic Variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, M. J.; Lefrandt, J. D.; Graaff, R.; Smit, A. J.

    Background: Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is accelerated during glycemic and oxidative stress and is an important predictor of complications in diabetes mellitus (DM). Study Design: Here we both review and present original data on the relationship between skin

  19. Organizational and Personality Factors Predicting Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings indicated that need for achievement and need for affiliation significantly independently predicted knowledge sharing intention among bankers, whereas need for power, organizational culture and organizational trust did not. This implies that emphasis should not be placed on need for power, organizational culture, ...

  20. Predictive risk factors for persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464...... patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...... risk factors for PPP were collected preoperatively (pain from the groin hernia, preoperative AAS score, pain from other body regions, and psychometric assessment). Pain scores were collected on days 7 and 30 postoperatively. Sensory functions including pain response to tonic heat stimulation were...

  1. Impact of Physical Activity on Glycemic Control and Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A Cross-sectional Multicenter Study of 18,028 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Barbara; Herbst, Antje; Pfeifer, Martin; Krakow, Dietmar; Zimny, Stefan; Kopp, Florian; Melmer, Andreas; Steinacker, Jürgen M; Holl, Reinhard W

    2015-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) can improve cardiovascular risk in the general population and in patients with type 2 diabetes. Studies also indicate an HbA(1c)-lowering effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. Since reports in patients with type 1 diabetes are scarce, this analysis aimed to investigate whether there is an association between PA and glycemic control or cardiovascular risk in subjects with type 1 diabetes. A total of 18,028 adults (≥18 to control, diabetes-related comorbidities, and cardiovascular risk factors. Data were adjusted for sex, age, and diabetes duration. P values for trend were given. SAS 9.4 was used for statistical analysis. An inverse association between PA and HbA(1c), diabetic ketoacidosis, BMI, dyslipidemia (all P control, diabetes-related comorbidities, and cardiovascular risk factors without an increase of adverse events. Hence, our data underscore the recommendation for subjects with type 1 diabetes to perform regular PA. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  2. Factors predicting dropout in student nursing assistants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dropout rate among student nursing assistants (NAs) in Danish health and social care education is high at >20%. AIMS: To explore if recent low back pain (LBP) history is a predictor of dropout among NA students, taking into account conventional risk factors for LBP, general health...

  3. PREDICTION OF STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS IN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    consider the effect of brace spacing on strengths of tubular K joints without consideration of same effect on square section K Joints. This lack of studies design strengths of gapped square section K joints makes availability of information on stress concentration factors in same joints scarce. However, information on 'Hot Spot' ...

  4. Factors predicting dropout in student nursing assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik; Mortensen, Ole Steen

    2008-12-01

    The dropout rate among student nursing assistants (NAs) in Danish health and social care education is high at >20%. To explore if recent low back pain (LBP) history is a predictor of dropout among NA students, taking into account conventional risk factors for LBP, general health and physical fitness. Prospective study with 14-month follow-up (the duration of the education) in two schools of health and social care in the Region of Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire, and their physical fitness (balance, back extension endurance, back flexion endurance and sagittal flexibility) was assessed at baseline. Dropout was defined as failure to complete NA education. A total of 790 subjects, 87% of those invited, completed the questionnaire; 612 subjects also completed the physical tests and were included in the present study and 500 (83%) were women. Recent LBP was not an independent predictor of school dropout. However, only among women who had LBP were other factors (a history of previous exposure to heavy physical workload, a low mental health score and failure to pass the back extension endurance test) associated with risk of dropout, OR (95% CI)=2.5 (1.2-5.3). Among men, only low height was significantly associated with dropout risk. A recent LBP history was not an independent single predictor of dropout from NA education but was a risk factor in combination with other factors.

  5. Prognostic and predictive factors in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolocan, A; Ion, D; Ciocan, D N; Paduraru, D N

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important public health problem; it is a leading cause of cancer mortality in the industrialized world, second to lung cancer: each year there are nearly one million new cases of CRC diagnosed worldwide and half a million deaths (1). This review aims to summarise the most important currently available markers for CRC that provide prognostic or predictive information. Amongst others, it covers serum markers such as CEA and CA19-9, markers expressed by tumour tissues, such as thymidylate synthase, and also the expression/loss of expression of certain oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes such as K-ras and p53. The prognostic value of genomic instability, angiogenesis and proliferative indices, such as the apoptotic index, are discussed. The advent of new therapies created the pathway for a personalized approach of the patient. This will take into consideration the complex genetic mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis, besides the classical clinical and pathological stagings. The growing number of therapeutic agents and known molecular targets in oncology lead to a compulsory study of the clinical use of biomarkers with role in improving response and survival, as well as in reducing toxicity and establishing economic stability. The potential predictive and prognostic biomarkers which have arisen from the study of the genetic basis of colorectal cancer and their therapeutical significance are discussed. RevistaChirurgia.

  6. Factors predicting dysphagia after anterior cervical surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Ma, Lei; Yang, Da-Long; Wang, Hui; Bai, Zhi-Long; Zhang, Li-Jun; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A multicenter retrospective study. The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors of dysphagia after anterior cervical surgery and factors affecting rehabilitation of dysphagia 2 years after surgery. Patients who underwent anterior cervical surgery at 3 centers from January 2010 to January 2013 were included. The possible factors included 3 aspects: demographic variables—age, sex, body mass index (BMI): hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, smoking, alcohol use, diagnose (cervical spondylotic myelopathy or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament), preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA), surgical-related variables—surgical option (ACDF, ACCF, ACCDF, or Zero profile), operation time, blood loss, operative level, superior fusion segment, incision length, angle of C2 to C7, height of C2 to C7, cervical circumference, cervical circumference/height of C2 to C7. The results of our study indicated that the rate of dysphagia at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery was 20%, 5.4%, 2.4%, 1.1%, and 0.4%, respectively. Our results showed that age (58.8 years old), BMI (27.3 kg/m2), course of disease (11.6 months), operation time (103.2 min), blood loss (151.6 mL), incision length (9.1 cm), cervical circumference (46.8 cm), angle of C2 to C7 (15.3°), cervical circumference/height of C2 to C7 (4.8), preoperative VAS (7.5), and ODI (0.6) in dysphagia group were significantly higher than those (52.0, 24.6, 8.6, 88.2, 121.6, 8.6, 42.3, 12.6, 3.7, 5.6, and 0.4, respectively) in nondysphagia group; however, height of C2 to C7 (9.9 vs 11.7 cm) and preoperative JOA (8.3 vs 10.7) had opposite trend between 2 groups. We could also infer that female, smoking, diabetes, ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, ACCDF, multilevel surgery, and superior fusion segment including C2 to C3 or C6 to C7 were the risk factors for dysphagia after surgery immediately. However

  7. Early dropout predictive factors in obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Ilaria; Falchi, Anna Giulia; Muggia, Chiara; Grecchi, Ilaria; Montagna, Elisabetta; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Tinelli, Carmine

    2014-02-01

    Diet attrition and failure of long term treatment are very frequent in obese patients. This study aimed to identify pre-treatment variables determining dropout and to customise the characteristics of those most likely to abandon the program before treatment, thus making it possible to modify the therapy to increase compliance. A total of 146 outpatients were consecutively enrolled; 73 patients followed a prescriptive diet while 73 followed a novel brief group Cognitive Behavioural Treatment (CBT) in addition to prescriptive diet. The two interventions lasted for six months. Anthropometric, demographic, psychological parameters and feeding behaviour were assessed, the last two with the Italian instrument VCAO Ansisa; than, a semi-structured interview was performed on motivation to lose weight. To identify the baseline dropout risk factors among these parameters, univariate and multivariate logistic models were used. Comparison of the results in the two different treatments showed a higher attrition rate in CBT group, despite no statistically significant difference between the two treatment arms (P = 0.127). Dropout patients did not differ significantly from those who did not dropout with regards to sex, age, Body Mass Index (BMI), history of cycling, education, work and marriage. Regardless of weight loss, the most important factor that determines the dropout appears to be a high level of stress revealed by General Health Questionnaire-28 items (GHQ-28) score within VCAO test. The identification of hindering factors during the assessment is fundamental to reduce the dropout risk. For subjects at risk, it would be useful to dedicate a stress management program before beginning a dietary restriction.

  8. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, fiber, simple sugars, and insulin resistance - The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Cathrine; Pedersen, Oluf; Færch, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    , and insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Multiple regressions were performed with HOMA-IR as the dependent variable and carbohydrate-related factors as explanatory variables. All models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity......, total energy intake, BMI, and waist circumference. RESULTS - intake of lactose was positively associated with HOMA-IR (P < 0.0001), whereas daily glycemic load and intake of glucose, fructose, dietary fiber, total carbohydrate, fruit, and vegetables were inversely associated with HOMA-IR (P < 0...

  9. Factors predicting malnutrition in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef El M′Barki Kadiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Signs of protein-energy malnutrition are common in maintenance hemodialyis (HD patients and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To evaluate the nutritional status and relationship between various parameters used for assessing malnutrition, we performed a cross-sectional study in 37 HD patients treated with thrice weekly sessions for at least two weeks. Global nutritional status was evaluated by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA scan. Body weight and several laboratory values, including serum albumin (Salb, serum prealbumin, bicarbonate, cholesterol, serum C-reactive protein (SCRP, and hemoglobin, were recorded. Dose of dialysis was evaluated by urea kinetic modeling. The patients were subdivided into two groups based on body mass index: group I, normal nutritional status (71% and group II, malnutrition (29%. The clinical factors associated with malnutrition included advanced age and cardio-vascular diseases (CVD, decreased fat mass (FM measured by DEXA, low Salb and prealbumin, and severe anemia. The Salb level was not only a predictor of nutritional status, but also was independently influenced by age and SCRP, which was more common in malnourished patients than in patients with normal nutritional status. Both low Kt/V and less weekly dialysis time were associated with malnutrition. The FM and lean body mass (LBM calculated by DEXA correlated with CVD and other markers of malnutrition (Salb, total cholesterol.

  10. Factors predictive of abnormal semen parameters in male partners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analysis was used to determine the predictive factors associated with abnormal semen parameters. .... for frequency, mean and χ2 with the level of significance set at p<0.05. ... was obtained from each couple participating in the study, following.

  11. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to glucose intolerance among Greenland's Inuit population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Aerde, Marieke A; Witte, Daniel Rinse; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Intake of carbohydrates which elicit a large glycemic response is hypothesized to increase the risk of diabetes. However, studies assessing the relationship between glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and diabetes are inconsistent. Only few studies have studied the relationship between GI ...

  12. A Review of the Relationship between Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Zeinali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent decades, studies on type 2 diabetes (T2D, have adopted a new approach to the field of a more complete collection of variables related to the lifestyles and diet of people. Diet is an important factor in increasing the rate of T2D among individuals. Considering the consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet, little attention has been paid to the type of carbohydrates consumed in the incidence of T2D. The present study aimed to review the literature on the relationship between the glycemic index (GI, the glycemic load, (GL and T2D, it also targets at evaluating and comparing the results of similar studies in other countries Methods: Using search engines, including PubMed, Science Direct, Embase and Scopus, and key words such as GI, GL, diabetes; articles with cross-sectional, clinical trial, Prospective and retrospective cohort designs between 2000 to 2016 were selected. Moreover, non-English language articles were not investigate. Results: The results of these studies showed that a diet containing low GI and GL has beneficial effects on the metabolism of glucose in the body and is also considered as a factor to protect the body against T2D and its complications. Conclusions: Monitoring eating habits of people with T2D can have beneficial effects on T2D and its associated risk factors.

  13. The Importance of Social Support on Glycemic Control in Low-Income Latinos with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotberg, Britt; Junqueira, Yasmine; Gosdin, Lucas; Mejia, Roberto; Umpierrez, Guillermo E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Latino population exhibits poorer glycemic control than the white population, leading to more frequent health complications and greater disease severity. Social support has been shown a significant factor in health and well-being. Purpose: To determine the association between glycemic control and social support in patients…

  14. Glycemic Index Biscuits Formulation of Pedada Flour (Sonneratia caseolaris) with Tubers Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyah; Susiloningsih, E. K. B.; Nilasari, K.

    2018-01-01

    The glycemic index of food is the level of food according to its effect on blood glucose levels. Foods with low glycemic index have been shown to improve glucose and fat levels in people with diabetes mellitus and improve insulin resistance. Pedada Fruits (Sonneratia caseolaris) is the one of mangrove fruits has a high fiber content, so it can be used as a raw material in biscuits production. The aim of this research to evaluate the glycemic index on the formula biscuit from the pedada flour and starch from white sweet potato, arrowroot, taro, potato and cassava mixed. This research used completely randomized design in factorial patern with one factor and five levels on formulation biscuit of pedada flour with tubers starch (20% : 80%). The biscuits product were measured of the proximate, crude fiber, glycemic index and glycemic load on wistar rats. The best treatment was 20% of pedada flour with 80% of taro starch which produced biscuit with 76.24% of yield, 2.58% of protein, 15.55% of fat, 2.72% of crude fiber, 48.83 of glycemic index and 7.39 of glycemic load.

  15. Predictive Factors associated with Death of Elderly in Nursing Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwol Sung, PhD, RN

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Dyspnea, problematic behaviors, and ADL data were identified as the key factors associated with death among nursing home residents. Future plans for the prediction of death among nursing home residents can be made by nursing staff, factoring in these identified variables, to ensure more comfortable conditions and more responsive care.

  16. Predictive risk factors for moderate to severe hyperbilirubinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Gláucia Macedo de Lima; Maria Amélia Sayeg Campos Porto; Arnaldo Prata Barbosa; Antonio José Ledo Alves da Cunha

    2007-01-01

    Objective: to describe predictive factors for severity of neonataljaundice in newborn infants treated at the University Neonatal Clinic,highlighting maternal, obstetric and neonatal factors. Methods: Acohort retrospective study by means of review of medical charts todefine risk factors associated with moderate and severe jaundice.The cohort consisted of newborns diagnosed with indirect neonatalhyperbilirubinemia and submitted to phototherapy. Risk was classifiedas maternal, prenatal, obstetri...

  17. Basic fibroblast growth factor predicts cardiovascular disease occurrence in participants from the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B Zimering

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to test whether plasma basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF levels predict future cardiovascular disease (CVD occurrence in adults from the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial. Methods: Nearly four- hundred veterans, 40 years of age or older, having a mean baseline diabetes duration of 11.4 years were recruited from outpatient clinics at six geographically distributed sites in the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT. Within the VADT, they were randomly assigned to intensive or standard glycemic treatment, with follow-up as much as seven and one-half years. Cardiovascular disease occurrence was examined at baseline in the patient population and during randomized treatment. Plasma bFGF was determined with a sensitive, specific two-site enzyme-linked immunoassay at the baseline study visit in all 399 subjects. Results: One hundred-five first cardiovascular events occurred in these 399 subjects. The best fit model of risk factors associated with the time to first cardiovascular disease occurrence (in the study over a seven and one-half year period had as significant predictors: prior cardiovascular event, (hazard ratio [HR] 3.378; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 3.079- 3.807; P < .0001, baseline plasma bFGF (HR 1.008; 95% CI 1.002-1.014; P =.01, age, (HR 1.027; 95% CI 1.004-1.051; P =.019, baseline plasma triglycerides, (HR 1.001; 95% CI 1.000-1.002; P =.02 and diabetes duration-treatment interaction (P =.03. Intensive glucose-lowering was associated with significantly decreased hazard ratios for CVD occurrence (0.38-0.63 in patients with known diabetes duration of 0-10 years, and non-significantly increased hazard ratios for CVD occurrence (0.82-1.78 in patients with longer diabetes duration. Conclusion: High level ofplasma basic fibroblast growth factor is a predictive biomarker of future cardiovascular

  18. A systems biology approach to transcription factor binding site prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhou

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The elucidation of mammalian transcriptional regulatory networks holds great promise for both basic and translational research and remains one the greatest challenges to systems biology. Recent reverse engineering methods deduce regulatory interactions from large-scale mRNA expression profiles and cross-species conserved regulatory regions in DNA. Technical challenges faced by these methods include distinguishing between direct and indirect interactions, associating transcription regulators with predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs, identifying non-linearly conserved binding sites across species, and providing realistic accuracy estimates.We address these challenges by closely integrating proven methods for regulatory network reverse engineering from mRNA expression data, linearly and non-linearly conserved regulatory region discovery, and TFBS evaluation and discovery. Using an extensive test set of high-likelihood interactions, which we collected in order to provide realistic prediction-accuracy estimates, we show that a careful integration of these methods leads to significant improvements in prediction accuracy. To verify our methods, we biochemically validated TFBS predictions made for both transcription factors (TFs and co-factors; we validated binding site predictions made using a known E2F1 DNA-binding motif on E2F1 predicted promoter targets, known E2F1 and JUND motifs on JUND predicted promoter targets, and a de novo discovered motif for BCL6 on BCL6 predicted promoter targets. Finally, to demonstrate accuracy of prediction using an external dataset, we showed that sites matching predicted motifs for ZNF263 are significantly enriched in recent ZNF263 ChIP-seq data.Using an integrative framework, we were able to address technical challenges faced by state of the art network reverse engineering methods, leading to significant improvement in direct-interaction detection and TFBS-discovery accuracy. We estimated the accuracy

  19. Analytical prediction of turbulent friction factor for a rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jun Ho; Park, Joo Hwan

    2011-01-01

    An analytical calculation has been performed to predict the turbulent friction factor in a rod bundle. For each subchannel constituting a rod bundle, the geometry parameters are analytically derived by integrating the law of the wall over each subchannel with the consideration of a local shear stress distribution. The correlation equations for a local shear stress distribution are supplied from a numerical simulation for each subchannel. The explicit effect of a subchannel shape on the geometry parameter and the friction factor is reported. The friction factor of a corner subchannel converges to a constant value, while the friction factor of a central subchannel steadily increases with a rod distance ratio. The analysis for a rod bundle shows that the friction factor of a rod bundle is largely affected by the characteristics of each subchannel constituting a rod bundle. The present analytic calculations well predict the experimental results from the literature with rod bundles in circular, hexagonal, and square channels.

  20. Preoperative predictive factors for hearing preservation in vestibular schwannoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohit; Piccirillo, Enrico; Jain, Yogesh; Augurio, Angela; Sanna, Mario

    2006-01-01

    We performed a retrospective chart review to evaluate the various predictive factors for postoperative hearing preservation in the surgical management of vestibular schwannoma. Of 792 patients operated on for vestibular schwannoma between April 1987 and July 2002, 107 were candidates for hearing preservation surgery. These patients were divided into group 1 (hearing preserved) and group 2 (hearing not preserved), and both of these groups were evaluated for age, sex, pure tone average, sound discrimination score, tumor size, and auditory brain stem response parameters. A corrected chi2 test and a corrected t-test were used for statistical analysis. Multiple regression analysis was further done to evaluate independent predictive factors, either alone or in combination. The results were evaluated by use of the modified Sanna classification and the guidelines of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS). Preoperative pure tone average and tumor size were the 2 predictive factors in our study. A Pearson correlation test showed that there was no multicollinearity between the factors. On multiple regression analysis by backward elimination of nonsignificant factors, we found that tumor size is an independent predictive factor for postoperative hearing. According to the modified Sanna classification, postoperative hearing was preserved in 11.2% of patients (equivalent to class A of AAO-HNS guidelines). In our series, preoperative pure tone average and tumor size were found to be predictors of postoperative hearing levels.

  1. PREDICTION OF SURGICAL TREATMENT WITH POUR PERITONITIS QUANTIFYING RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Churpiy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Explored the possibility of quantitative assessment of risk factors of complications in the treatment of diffuse peritonitis. Highlighted 53 groups of features that are important in predicting the course of diffuse peritonitis. The proposed scheme of defining the risk of clinical course of diffuse peritonitis can quantify the severity of the source of patients and in most cases correctly predict the results of treatment of disease.

  2. SHMF: Interest Prediction Model with Social Hub Matrix Factorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyuan Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social networks, microblog has become the major social communication tool. There is a lot of valuable information such as personal preference, public opinion, and marketing in microblog. Consequently, research on user interest prediction in microblog has a positive practical significance. In fact, how to extract information associated with user interest orientation from the constantly updated blog posts is not so easy. Existing prediction approaches based on probabilistic factor analysis use blog posts published by user to predict user interest. However, these methods are not very effective for the users who post less but browse more. In this paper, we propose a new prediction model, which is called SHMF, using social hub matrix factorization. SHMF constructs the interest prediction model by combining the information of blogs posts published by both user and direct neighbors in user’s social hub. Our proposed model predicts user interest by integrating user’s historical behavior and temporal factor as well as user’s friendships, thus achieving accurate forecasts of user’s future interests. The experimental results on Sina Weibo show the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed model.

  3. Bread Affects Clinical Parameters and Induces Gut Microbiome-Associated Personal Glycemic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korem, Tal; Zeevi, David; Zmora, Niv; Weissbrod, Omer; Bar, Noam; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Avnit-Sagi, Tali; Kosower, Noa; Malka, Gal; Rein, Michal; Suez, Jotham; Goldberg, Ben Z; Weinberger, Adina; Levy, Avraham A; Elinav, Eran; Segal, Eran

    2017-06-06

    Bread is consumed daily by billions of people, yet evidence regarding its clinical effects is contradicting. Here, we performed a randomized crossover trial of two 1-week-long dietary interventions comprising consumption of either traditionally made sourdough-leavened whole-grain bread or industrially made white bread. We found no significant differential effects of bread type on multiple clinical parameters. The gut microbiota composition remained person specific throughout this trial and was generally resilient to the intervention. We demonstrate statistically significant interpersonal variability in the glycemic response to different bread types, suggesting that the lack of phenotypic difference between the bread types stems from a person-specific effect. We further show that the type of bread that induces the lower glycemic response in each person can be predicted based solely on microbiome data prior to the intervention. Together, we present marked personalization in both bread metabolism and the gut microbiome, suggesting that understanding dietary effects requires integration of person-specific factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PREDICTION OF THE EXTREMAL SHAPE FACTOR OF SPHEROIDAL PARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hlubinka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the stereological unfolding problem for spheroidal particles the extremal shape factor is predicted. The theory of extreme values has been used to show that extremes of the planar shape factor of particle sections tend to the same limit distribution as extremes of the original shape factor for both the conditional and marginal distribution. Attention is then paid to the extreme shape factor conditioned by the particle size. Normalizing constants are evaluated for a parametric model and the numerical procedure is tested on real data from metallography.

  5. Glycemic index and glycemic load of selected Chinese traditional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Jun; Sun, Feng-Hua; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Huang, Ya-Jun

    2010-03-28

    To determine the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values of Chinese traditional foods in Hong Kong. Fifteen healthy subjects (8 males and 7 females) volunteered to consume either glucose or one of 23 test foods after 10-14 h overnight fast. The blood glucose concentrations were analyzed immediately before, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption using capillary blood samples. The GI value of each test food was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) value for the test food as a percentage of each subject's average IAUC value for the glucose. The GL value of each test food was calculated as the GI value of the food multiplied by the amount of the available carbohydrate in a usual portion size, divided by 100. Among all the 23 Chinese traditional foods tested, 6 of them belonged to low GI foods (Tuna Fish Bun, Egg Tart, Green Bean Dessert, Chinese Herbal Jelly, Fried Rice Vermicelli in Singapore-style, and Spring Roll), 10 of them belonged to moderate GI foods (Baked Barbecued Pork Puff, Fried Fritter, "Mai-Lai" Cake, "Pineapple" Bun, Fried Rice Noodles with Sliced Beef, Barbecue Pork Bun, Moon Cakes, Glutinous Rice Ball, Instant Sweet Milky Bun, and Salted Meat Rice Dumpling), the others belonged to high GI foods (Fried Rice in Yangzhou-Style, Sticky Rice Wrapped in Lotus Leaf, Steamed Glutinous Rice Roll, Jam and Peanut Butter Toast, Plain Steamed Vermicelli Roll, Red Bean Dessert, and Frozen Sweet Milky Bun). The GI and GL values for these Chinese traditional foods will provide some valuable information to both researchers and public on their food preference.

  6. Glycemic index and glycemic load of commercial Italian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scazzina, F; Dall'Asta, M; Casiraghi, M C; Sieri, S; Del Rio, D; Pellegrini, N; Brighenti, F

    2016-05-01

    The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are useful parameters in the nutritional classification of carbohydrate foods. Diets characterized by a low GI and/or a low GL have been repeatedly and independently associated with decreased risk of diabetes and other chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to report the GI and GL value of carbohydrate-rich foods available on the Italian market and mostly consumed in Italy. GI values were determined according to FAO/WHO (1997) and ISO (2010). Overall, the 141 commercial foods that were analyzed represent food categories that are the source of >80% carbohydrate intake in Italy. The food items chosen were based mainly on the market share of the brand within each food category and grouped into 13 food categories: 1) beverages: fermented milk drink, juice, smoothie, soft drink; 2) biscuits; 3) breads; 4) bread substitutes; 5) breakfast cereals; 6) cakes and snacks; 7) candy and confectionery; 8) cereals; 9) desserts and ice-creams; 10) marmalade and jam; 11) pasta; 12) pizza; 13) sugar and sweetener. This database of commercial Italian foods partly overcomes the lack of information on GI and GL of local foods, contributing to a better understanding of the association between GI/GL and health and providing a more informed choice to Italian consumers and health practitioners. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychosocial family factors and glycemic control among children aged 1-15 years with type 1 diabetes: a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugstvedt Anne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being the parents of children with diabetes is demanding. Jay Belsky's determinants of parenting model emphasizes both the personal psychological resources, the characteristics of the child and contextual sources such as parents' work, marital relations and social network support as important determinants for parenting. To better understand the factors influencing parental functioning among parents of children with type 1 diabetes, we aimed to investigate associations between the children's glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and 1 variables related to the parents' psychological and contextual resources, and 2 frequency of blood glucose measurement as a marker for diabetes-related parenting behavior. Methods Mothers (n = 103 and fathers (n = 97 of 115 children younger than 16 years old participated in a population-based survey. The questionnaire comprised the Life Orientation Test, the Oslo 3-item Social Support Scale, a single question regarding perceived social limitation because of the child's diabetes, the Relationship Satisfaction Scale and demographic and clinical variables. We investigated associations by using regression analysis. Related to the second aim hypoglycemic events, child age, diabetes duration, insulin regimen and comorbid diseases were included as covariates. Results The mean HbA1c was 8.1%, and 29% had HbA1c ≤ 7.5%. In multiple regression analysis, lower HbA1c was associated with higher education and stronger perceptions of social limitation among the mothers. A higher frequency of blood glucose measurement was significantly associated with lower HbA1c in bivariate analysis. Higher child age was significantly associated with higher HbA1c both in bivariate and multivariate analysis. A scatterplot indicated this association to be linear. Conclusions Most families do not reach recommended treatment goals for their child with type 1 diabetes. Concerning contextual sources of stress and support, the families who

  8. A randomized study of raisins versus alternative snacks on glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold; Weiter, Kathy; Anderson, James

    2015-02-01

    Just as the type and duration of physical activity can have variable effects on the glucose levels and other cardiometabolic parameters among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), so can the types of foods have variable effects as well. This 12-week randomized study of 51 study participants evaluated the impact of routine consumption of dark raisins versus alternative processed snacks on glucose levels and other cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type T2DM. In this study, compared to alternative processed snacks, those who consumed raisins had a significant 23% reduction in postprandial glucose levels (P = 0.024). Also compared to snacks, those who consumed raisins had a 19% reduction in fasting glucose and 0.12% reduction in hemoglobin A1c, although these latter findings did not achieve statistical significance. Regarding blood pressure, compared to alternative processed snacks, those who consumed raisins had a significant 8.7 mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure (P = 0.035) (7.5% [P = 0.031]) but did not experience a significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure. Compared to alternative processed snacks, those who consumed raisins did not have a significant improvement in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), triglyceride, or non-HDL cholesterol levels. Overall, these data support raisins as a healthy alternative compare to processed snacks in patients with T2DM.

  9. Factores de riesgo cardiovascular en niños con diabetes tipo 1 y su relación con el control de la glucemia Cardiovascular risk factors in children with type 1 diabetes and their relationship with the glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela V. Abregú

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Los pacientes con diabetes tienen un riesgo incrementado de desarrollar enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar factores de riesgo de ECV en niños con diabetes tipo 1 y su asociación con el grado de control glucémico. Se estudiaron 52 pacientes, entre 5 y 15 años, tratados con insulina corriente y NPH, comparados con 37 controles. Se investigó el grado de control glucémico, perfil lipídico, fibrinógeno plasmático, microalbuminuria y presión arterial. Los pacientes se agruparon en diabéticos con buen control glucémico [DBCG: hemoglobina glicosilada (HA1c 8%. La población con diabetes presentó valores incrementados de colesterol total (4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 3.1 ± 0.7 mmol/l, p = 0.0008, LDL-colesterol (2.4 ± 0.9 vs. 1.7 ± 0.7 mmol/l, p = 0.0001, HDL-colesterol (1.2 ± 0.3 vs. 1.0 ± 0.2 mmol/l, p = 0.0002, respecto a los sujetos controles. El 83% mostró un pobre control glucémico. No hubo diferencias significativas en el perfil lipídico entre DBCG y DPCG, excepto para HDL-colesterol que fue mayor en los DPCG (p = 0.007. Los niveles de fibrinógeno fueron mayores en DPCG que en DBCG (265 ± 46 vs. 229 ± 22 mg/dl, p = 0.02. Se detectaron tres pacientes con microalbuminuria y ninguno con hipertensión arterial. En la población estudiada los factores de riesgo cardiovascular más pronunciados fueron la dislipemia y la hiperglucemia, evidenciando la necesidad de la detección temprana de estos factores y un control metabólico riguroso.Diabetics have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors in infant-juvenile type 1 diabetics and their association with the degree of glycemic control. A total of 52 patients, aged 5-15 years, were studied and compared with 37 control subjects. The degree of glycemic control, lipid profile, plasma fibrinogen, microalbuminuria and blood pressure were investigated. The patients were grouped in

  10. Transcription factor binding sites prediction based on modified nucleosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Talebzadeh

    Full Text Available In computational methods, position weight matrices (PWMs are commonly applied for transcription factor binding site (TFBS prediction. Although these matrices are more accurate than simple consensus sequences to predict actual binding sites, they usually produce a large number of false positive (FP predictions and so are impoverished sources of information. Several studies have employed additional sources of information such as sequence conservation or the vicinity to transcription start sites to distinguish true binding regions from random ones. Recently, the spatial distribution of modified nucleosomes has been shown to be associated with different promoter architectures. These aligned patterns can facilitate DNA accessibility for transcription factors. We hypothesize that using data from these aligned and periodic patterns can improve the performance of binding region prediction. In this study, we propose two effective features, "modified nucleosomes neighboring" and "modified nucleosomes occupancy", to decrease FP in binding site discovery. Based on these features, we designed a logistic regression classifier which estimates the probability of a region as a TFBS. Our model learned each feature based on Sp1 binding sites on Chromosome 1 and was tested on the other chromosomes in human CD4+T cells. In this work, we investigated 21 histone modifications and found that only 8 out of 21 marks are strongly correlated with transcription factor binding regions. To prove that these features are not specific to Sp1, we combined the logistic regression classifier with the PWM, and created a new model to search TFBSs on the genome. We tested the model using transcription factors MAZ, PU.1 and ELF1 and compared the results to those using only the PWM. The results show that our model can predict Transcription factor binding regions more successfully. The relative simplicity of the model and capability of integrating other features make it a superior method

  11. Diabetes, glycemic control, and urinary incontinence in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Lefevre, Roger; Hacker, Michele R.; Golen, Toni H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate the association between urinary incontinence and glycemic control in women ages 20 to 85. METHODS We included 7,270 women from the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, stratified into three groups of glycemic control defined by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c): i) those below the diagnostic threshold (HbA1c8.5%) to allow for a different relationship between glycemic control and urinary incontinence within each group. The primary outcomes were the presence of any, only stress, only urgency, and mixed urinary incontinence. We calculated adjusted risk ratios using Poisson regressions with robust variance estimates. RESULTS The survey-weighted prevalence was 52.9% for any, 27.2% for only stress, 9.9% for only urgency, and 15.8% for mixed urinary incontinence. Among women with relatively controlled diabetes, each one-unit increase in HbA1c was associated with a 13% (95% CI: 1.03–1.25) increase for any urinary incontinence and a 34% (95% CI 1.06–1.69) increase in risk for only stress incontinence but was not significantly associated with only urgency and mixed incontinence. Other risk factors included body mass index, hormone replacement therapy, smoking, and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS Worsening glycemic control is associated with an increased risk for stress incontinence for women with relatively controlled diabetes. For those either below the diagnostic threshold or with poorly controlled diabetes, the risk may be driven by other factors. Further prospective investigation of HbA1c as a modifiable risk factor may motivate measures to improve continence in women with diabetes. PMID:26313496

  12. Predictive Factors for Death After Snake Envenomation in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Kyi-Phyu; Thanachartwet, Vipa; Soe, Chit; Desakorn, Varunee; Chamnanchanunt, Supat; Sahassananda, Duangjai; Supaporn, Thanom; Sitprija, Visith

    2018-06-01

    Factors predictive for death from snake envenomation vary between studies, possibly due to variation in host genetic factors and venom composition. This study aimed to evaluate predictive factors for death from snake envenomation in Myanmar. A prospective study was performed among adult patients with snakebite admitted to tertiary hospitals in Yangon, Myanmar, from May 2015 to August 2016. Data including clinical variables and laboratory parameters, management, and outcomes were evaluated. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to evaluate factors predictive for death at the time of presentation to the hospital. Of the 246 patients with snake envenomation recruited into the study, 225 (92%) survived and 21 (8%) died during hospitalization. The snake species responsible for a bite was identified in 74 (30%) of the patients; the majority of bites were from Russell's vipers (63 patients, 85%). The independent factors predictive for death included 1) duration from bite to arrival at the hospital >1 h (odds ratio [OR]: 9.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-75.2; P=0.04); 2) white blood cell counts >20 ×10 3 cells·μL -1 (OR: 8.9, 95% CI: 2.3-33.7; P=0.001); and 3) the presence of capillary leakage (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.2-11.2; P=0.02). A delay in antivenom administration >4 h increases risk of death (11/21 deaths). Patients who present with these independent predictive factors should be recognized and provided with early appropriate intervention to reduce the mortality rate among adults with snake envenomation in Myanmar. Copyright © 2018 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictive risk factors for moderate to severe hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Macedo de Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe predictive factors for severity of neonataljaundice in newborn infants treated at the University Neonatal Clinic,highlighting maternal, obstetric and neonatal factors. Methods: Acohort retrospective study by means of review of medical charts todefine risk factors associated with moderate and severe jaundice.The cohort consisted of newborns diagnosed with indirect neonatalhyperbilirubinemia and submitted to phototherapy. Risk was classifiedas maternal, prenatal, obstetric and neonatal factors; risk estimationwas based on the odds ratio (95% confidence interval; a bi-variantmultivariate regression logistic analysis was applied to variables forp < 0.1. Results: Of 818 babies born during the studied period, 94(11% had jaundice prior to hospital discharge. Phototherapy was usedon 69 (73% patients. Predictive factors for severity were multiparity;prolonged rupture of membranes, dystocia, cephalohematoma, a lowApgar score, prematurity and small-for-date babies. Following birth,breastfeeding, sepsis, Rh incompatibility, and jaundice presentingbefore the third day of life were associated with an increased risk ofhyperbilirubinemia and the need for therapy. Conclusion: Other thanthose characteristics that are singly associated with phototherapy,we concluded that multiparity, presumed neonatal asphyxia, low birthweight and infection are the main predictive factors leading to moderateand severe jaundice in newborn infants in our neonatal unit.

  14. Do Psychosocial Factors Predict Readmission among Diabetic Elderly Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Mousa; Baharlooei, Omeleila; AdelMehraban, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances in diabetes treatment, the rate of readmission is still relatively high among these patients, especially in older population. Various factors may predict readmission in these patients; hence, the aim of this study was to assess the role of psychosocial factors in predicting readmission among diabetic elderly hospitalized in selected hospitals of Isfahan. In this cross-sectional study conducted from January to September 2016, 150 diabetic elderly hospitalized in selected hospitals affiliated with Isfahan University of medical sciences were chosen using a convenient sampling method. The initial information was collected by a three-part questionnaire consisting of (a) demographic characteristics, (b) 21-item depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21), and (c) multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS). Further information about readmission was gathered 3 months after completing the questionnaires through a phone call follow-up. Descriptive and inferential statistics (discriminant function analysis test) were used to analyze the data. During 3 months after discharge, 44% of hospitalized diabetic elderly were readmitted. Analytical model predicted the readmission status of 109 individuals (of total 150 persons) in the studied units (success rate of 72.2%). Among predicting factors, depression and social support had the most and the least important roles in predicting readmission rate, respectively. Interventions to improve mental status (i.e., decreasing levels of depression, anxiety, and stress) and develop social support are suggested to reduce the risk of readmission among diabetic elderly patients. Nevertheless, future studies are needed to verify the value of such interventions.

  15. Psychosocial factors predicting risky sexual behaviour among long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social factors that included age, number of years of education, number of wives, number of intercourses in the last three months, number of partners apart from primary partners, and number of weeks spent outside home significantly jointly predicted sexual risk behaviour (R2 = .15, F(6, 147) = 4.39; p < .05) by accounting for ...

  16. Psychosocial Factors Predicting First-Year College Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei-Mancuso, Elizabeth J.; Newton, Fred B.; Kim, Eunhee; Wilcox, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This study made use of a model of college success that involves students achieving academic goals and life satisfaction. Hierarchical regressions examined the role of six psychosocial factors for college success among 579 first-year college students. Academic self-efficacy and organization and attention to study were predictive of first semester…

  17. Factors predictive of successful learning in postgraduate medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, P. B. A.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.; Nauta, M. C. E.; ten Cate, Th J.; Metz, J. C. M.; van Dijk, F. J. H.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE To establish which personal and contextual factors are predictive of successful outcomes in postgraduate medical education. METHOD We performed a follow-up study of 118 doctors on a postgraduate occupational health training programme on the management of mental health problems. The following

  18. Prediction of postpartum blood transfusion – risk factors and recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikkelsø, Anne J; Hjortøe, Sofie; Gerds, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to find clinically useful risk factors for postpartum transfusion and to assess the joint predictive value in a population of women with a first and second delivery. METHODS: All Danish women with a first and second delivery from January 2001 to September 2009 who gave birt...

  19. Potential predictive factors of positive prostate biopsy in the Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... Therefore, it might be inappropriate that we apply these western models to the. Chinese population that has a lower incidence of PCa. Therefore, this retrospective study aimed to determine predictive factors for a positive prostate biopsy in Chinese men. Our ultimate goal is to develop a simple model for ...

  20. Mathematical models for prediction of safety factors for a simply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the results obtained, mathematical prediction models were developed using a least square regression analysis for bending, shear and deflection modes of failure considered in the study. The results showed that the safety factors for material, dead and live load are not unique, but they are influenced by safety index ...

  1. Factors predicting mortality in elderly patients admitted to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The median age was 70 years (interquartile range 67 - 75 years). The overall ICU mortality was 44.7%, and 64% of deaths occurred within 5 days of admission. On univariate analysis, the factors predicting mortality were alcohol misuse (p=0.09), pneumonia (p.0.001), shock (p=0.001), dehydration (p=0.007), urine output ...

  2. Reply #1 to: Glycemic Choreoballism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cosentino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This Author Reply Letter was written in response to a Letter to the Editor:Lee D, Ahn T. Glycemic choreoballism. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2016; 6. doi: 10.7916/D8QJ7HNFThe Letter to the Editor, above, was written in response to these two Case Reports:Roy U, Das SK, Mukherjee A, et al. Irreversible hemichoreahemiballism in a case of nonketotic hyperglycemia presenting as the initial manifestation of diabetes mellitus. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2016; 6. doi: 10.7916/D8QZ2B3FCosentino C, Torres L, Nuñez Y, et al. Hemichorea/hemiballism associated with hyperglycemia: report of twenty cases. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2016; 6. doi: 10.7916/D8DN454P

  3. Prediction of software operational reliability using testing environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1995-01-01

    A number of software reliability models have been developed to estimate and to predict software reliability. However, there are no established standard models to quantify software reliability. Most models estimate the quality of software in reliability figures such as remaining faults, failure rate, or mean time to next failure at the testing phase, and they consider them ultimate indicators of software reliability. Experience shows that there is a large gap between predicted reliability during development and reliability measured during operation, which means that predicted reliability, or so-called test reliability, is not operational reliability. Customers prefer operational reliability to test reliability. In this study, we propose a method that predicts operational reliability rather than test reliability by introducing the testing environment factor that quantifies the changes in environments

  4. Effect of macronutrients and fiber on postprandial glycemic responses and meal glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huicui; Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2017-01-01

    Background: The potential confounding effect of different amounts and proportions of macronutrients across eating patterns on meal or dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations has remained partially unaddressed. Objective: The study aimed to determine the effects of different amounts of macronutrients and fiber on measured meal GI and GL values. Design: Four studies were conducted during which participants [n = 20–22; women: 50%; age: 50–80 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 25–30)] received food challenges containing different amounts of the variable nutrient in a random order. Added to the standard 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread was 12.5, 25, or 50 g carbohydrate; 12.5, 25, or 50 g protein; and 5.6, 11.1, or 22.2 g fat from rice cereal, tuna, and unsalted butter, respectively, and 4.8 or 9.6 g fiber from oat cereal. Arterialized venous blood was sampled for 2 h, and measured meal GI and GL and insulin index (II) values were calculated by using the incremental area under the curve (AUCi) method. Results: Adding carbohydrate to the standard white-bread challenge increased glucose AUCi (P < 0.0001), measured meal GI (P = 0.0066), and mean GL (P < 0.0001). Adding protein (50 g only) decreased glucose AUCi (P = 0.0026), measured meal GI (P = 0.0139), and meal GL (P = 0.0140). Adding fat or fiber had no significant effect on these variables. Adding carbohydrate (50 g), protein (50 g), and fat (11.1 g) increased the insulin AUCi or II; fiber had no effect. Conclusions: These data indicate that uncertainty in the determination of meal GI and GL values is introduced when carbohydrate-containing foods are consumed concurrently with protein (equal amount of carbohydrate challenge) but not with carbohydrate-, fat-, or fiber-containing foods. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether this uncertainty also influences the prediction of average dietary GI and GL values for eating patterns. This trial was registered at

  5. Effect of macronutrients and fiber on postprandial glycemic responses and meal glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huicui; Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2017-04-01

    Background: The potential confounding effect of different amounts and proportions of macronutrients across eating patterns on meal or dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations has remained partially unaddressed. Objective: The study aimed to determine the effects of different amounts of macronutrients and fiber on measured meal GI and GL values. Design: Four studies were conducted during which participants [ n = 20-22; women: 50%; age: 50-80 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 25-30)] received food challenges containing different amounts of the variable nutrient in a random order. Added to the standard 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread was 12.5, 25, or 50 g carbohydrate; 12.5, 25, or 50 g protein; and 5.6, 11.1, or 22.2 g fat from rice cereal, tuna, and unsalted butter, respectively, and 4.8 or 9.6 g fiber from oat cereal. Arterialized venous blood was sampled for 2 h, and measured meal GI and GL and insulin index (II) values were calculated by using the incremental area under the curve (AUC i ) method. Results: Adding carbohydrate to the standard white-bread challenge increased glucose AUC i ( P < 0.0001), measured meal GI ( P = 0.0066), and mean GL ( P < 0.0001). Adding protein (50 g only) decreased glucose AUC i ( P = 0.0026), measured meal GI ( P = 0.0139), and meal GL ( P = 0.0140). Adding fat or fiber had no significant effect on these variables. Adding carbohydrate (50 g), protein (50 g), and fat (11.1 g) increased the insulin AUC i or II; fiber had no effect. Conclusions: These data indicate that uncertainty in the determination of meal GI and GL values is introduced when carbohydrate-containing foods are consumed concurrently with protein (equal amount of carbohydrate challenge) but not with carbohydrate-, fat-, or fiber-containing foods. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether this uncertainty also influences the prediction of average dietary GI and GL values for eating patterns. This trial was registered at

  6. [Predictive factors associated with severity of asthma exacerbations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiş, Sibel; Kaplan, Eylem Sercan; Ozge, Cengiz; Bayindir, Suzan

    2008-01-01

    Several factors have been accused for asthma exacerbations, however, very few studies have evaluated whether different factors predict severity of asthma exacerbation. We aimed to determine the predictive factors for severity of asthma exacerbation. Retrospective analysis of data on 93 patients visited our emergency-department because of asthma exacerbation was reviewed. Hospitalization in intensive care unit and/or intubation because of asthma was accepted as the criteria for severe exacerbation. Logistic regression analysis estimated the strength of association of each variable, potentially related to severe asthmatic exacerbation, with severe/very severe as compared to mild/moderate asthmatic exacerbation. Independent variables included in the analysis were age, sex, smoking history, inhaler steroid using, compliance with medication, chronic asthma severity, presence of additional atopic diseases, prick test positivity, provocative factors, number of short-acting beta(2)-agonist using, number of visits to emergency department for asthma over one year period, previous severe exacerbation, pulmonary functions, and blood eosinophil count. 20 were severe/very severe and 73 mild/moderate asthmatic exacerbation. Frequent using of short-acting beta(2)-agonist (OR= 1.5, 95% CI= 1.08-5.3, p= 0.003), noncompliance with medication (OR= 3.6, 95% CI= 1.3-9.9, p= 0.013), previous severe asthmatic exacerbation (OR= 3.8, 95% CI= 1.48-10.01, p= 0.005) and recent admission to hospital (OR= 2.9, 95% CI= 1.07-8.09, p= 0.037) were found to be predictive factors for severe asthmatic exacerbation. Different predictive factors, in particular frequent using of short-acting beta(2)-agonist and noncompliance with medication may be associated with severe asthma exacerbations compared to milder exacerbations. This suggests different mechanisms are responsible for severity of asthma exacerbation.

  7. Relation of Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load to Coronary Artery Calcium in Asymptomatic Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kim, Boyoung; Ahn, Jiin; Kim, Chan-Won; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Yiyi; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-15

    The relation between glycemic index, glycemic load, and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between energy-adjusted glycemic index, glycemic load, and coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study was cross-sectional analysis of 28,429 asymptomatic Korean men and women (mean age 41.4 years) without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent a health screening examination between March 2011 and April 2013, and dietary intake over the preceding year was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cardiac computed tomography was used for CAC scoring. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 12.4%. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of glycemic index and glycemic load were 1.74 (1.08 to 2.81; p trend = 0.03) and 3.04 (1.43 to 6.46; p trend = 0.005), respectively. These associations did not differ by clinical subgroups, including the participants at low cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, these findings suggest that high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were associated with a greater prevalence and degree of CAC, with glycemic load having a stronger association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Predictive factors of complications during CT-guided transthoracic biopsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine-Delaruelle, C; Souquet, P-J; Gamondes, D; Pradat, E; de Leusse, A; Ferretti, G R; Couraud, S

    2017-04-01

    CT-guided transthoracic core-needle biopsy (TTNB) is frequently used for the diagnosis of lung nodules. The aim of this study is to describe TTNBs' complications and to investigate predictive factors of complications. All consecutive TTNBs performed in three centers between 2006 and 2012 were included. Binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Overall, 970 TTNBs were performed in 929 patients. The complication rate was 34% (life-threatening complication in 6%). The most frequent complications were pneumothorax (29% included 4% which required chest-tube) and hemoptysis (5%). The mortality rate was 0.1% (n=1). In multivariate analysis, predictive factor for a complication was small target size (AOR=0.984; 95% CI [0.976-0.992]; P<0.001). This predictive factor was also found for occurrence of life-threatening complication (AOR=0.982; [0.965-0.999]; P=0.037), of pneumothorax (AOR=0.987; [0.978-0.995]; P=0.002) and of hemoptysis (AOR=0.973; [0.951-0.997]; P=0.024). One complication occurred in one-third of TTNBs. The proportion of life-threatening complication was 6%. A small lesion size was predictive of complication occurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple-Factor Based Sparse Urban Travel Time Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of travel time is challenging given the sparseness of real-time traffic data and the uncertainty of travel, because it is influenced by multiple factors on the congested urban road networks. In our paper, we propose a three-layer neural network from big probe vehicles data incorporating multi-factors to estimate travel time. The procedure includes the following three steps. First, we aggregate data according to the travel time of a single taxi traveling a target link on working days as traffic flows display similar traffic patterns over a weekly cycle. We then extract feature relationships between target and adjacent links at 30 min interval. About 224,830,178 records are extracted from probe vehicles. Second, we design a three-layer artificial neural network model. The number of neurons in input layer is eight, and the number of neurons in output layer is one. Finally, the trained neural network model is used for link travel time prediction. Different factors are included to examine their influence on the link travel time. Our model is verified using historical data from probe vehicles collected from May to July 2014 in Wuhan, China. The results show that we could obtain the link travel time prediction results using the designed artificial neural network model and detect the influence of different factors on link travel time.

  10. Factors predicting survival following noninvasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peysson, S; Vandenberghe, N; Philit, F; Vial, C; Petitjean, T; Bouhour, F; Bayle, J Y; Broussolle, E

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of respiratory muscles is a major predicting factor for survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recent studies show that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) can relieve symptoms of alveolar hypoventilation. However, factors predicting survival in ALS patients when treated with NIV need to be clarified. We conducted a retrospective study of 33 consecutive ALS patients receiving NIV. Ten patients had bulbar onset. We determined the median survivals from onset, diagnosis and initiation of NIV and factors predicting survival. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier test and Cox proportional hazard models. The median initial and maximal total uses of NIV were 10 and 14 h/24h. The overall median survival from ALS onset was 34.2 months and worsened with increasing age and bulbar onset of the disease. The median survival from initiation of NIV was 8.4 months and was significantly poorer in patients with advanced age or with airway mucus accumulation. Survival from initiation of NIV was not influenced by respiratory parameters or bulbar symptoms. Advanced age at diagnosis and airway mucus accumulation represent poorer prognostic factors of ALS patients treated with NIV. NIV is a helpful treatment of sleep-disordered breathing, including patients with bulbar involvement. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Impact of different dietary approaches on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes: a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Chaimani, Anna; Hoffmann, Georg; Schwedhelm, Carolina; Boeing, Heiner

    2017-01-01

    Background Dietary advice is one of the cornerstones in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American Diabetes Association recommended a hypocaloric diet for overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes in order to induce weight loss. However, there is limited evidence on the optimal approaches to control hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes patients. The aim of the present study is to assess the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches on glycemic control and blood lipi...

  12. Impact of different dietary approaches on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes: a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Chaimani, Anna; Hoffmann, Georg; Schwedhelm, Carolina; Boeing, Heiner

    2017-03-20

    Dietary advice is one of the cornerstones in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American Diabetes Association recommended a hypocaloric diet for overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes in order to induce weight loss. However, there is limited evidence on the optimal approaches to control hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes patients. The aim of the present study is to assess the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches on glycemic control and blood lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a systematic review including a standard pairwise and network meta-analysis of randomized trials. We will conduct searches in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on the Cochrane Library, PubMed (from 1966), and Google Scholar. Citations, abstracts, and relevant papers will be screened for eligibility by two reviewers independently. Randomized controlled trials (with a control group or randomized trials with at least two intervention groups) will be included if they meet the following criteria: (1) include type 2 diabetes mellitus, (2) include patients aged ≥18 years, (3) include dietary intervention (different type of diets: e.g., Mediterranean dietary pattern, low-carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, vegetarian diet, high protein diet); either hypo, iso-caloric, or ad libitum diets, (4) minimum intervention period of 12 weeks. For each outcome measure of interest, random effects pairwise and network meta-analyses will be performed in order to determine the pooled relative effect of each intervention relative to every other intervention in terms of the post-intervention values (or mean differences between the changes from baseline value scores). Subgroup analyses are planned for study length, sample size, age, and sex. This systematic review will synthesize the available evidence on the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches in the management of glycosylated hemoglobin (primary outcome), fasting glucose

  13. Meta-analysis of the predictive factors of postpartum fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Hanan A; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2017-08-01

    Nearly 64% of new mothers are affected by fatigue during the postpartum period, making it the most common problem that a woman faces as she adapts to motherhood. Postpartum fatigue can lead to serious negative effects on the mother's health and the newborn's development and interfere with mother-infant interaction. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify predictive factors of postpartum fatigue and to document the magnitude of their effects using effect sizes. We used two search engines, PubMed and Google Scholar, to identify studies that met three inclusion criteria: (a) the article was written in English, (b) the article studied the predictive factors of postpartum fatigue, and (c) the article included information about the validity and reliability of the instruments used in the research. Nine articles met these inclusion criteria. The direction and strength of correlation coefficients between predictive factors and postpartum fatigue were examined across the studies to determine their effect sizes. Measurement of predictor variables occurred from 3days to 6months postpartum. Correlations reported between predictive factors and postpartum fatigue were as follows: small effect size (r range =0.10 to 0.29) for education level, age, postpartum hemorrhage, infection, and child care difficulties; medium effect size (r range =0.30 to 0.49) for physiological illness, low ferritin level, low hemoglobin level, sleeping problems, stress and anxiety, and breastfeeding problems; and large effect size (r range =0.50+) for depression. Postpartum fatigue is a common condition that can lead to serious health problems for a new mother and her newborn. Therefore, increased knowledge concerning factors that influence the onset of postpartum fatigue is needed for early identification of new mothers who may be at risk. Appropriate treatments, interventions, information, and support can then be initiated to prevent or minimize the postpartum fatigue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  14. Prediction of software operational reliability using testing environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1995-01-01

    For many years, many researches have focused on the quantification of software reliability and there are many models developed to quantify software reliability. Most software reliability models estimate the reliability with the failure data collected during the test assuming that the test environments well represent the operation profile. The experiences show that the operational reliability is higher than the test reliability User's interest is on the operational reliability rather than on the test reliability, however. With the assumption that the difference in reliability results from the change of environment, testing environment factors comprising the aging factor and the coverage factor are defined in this study to predict the ultimate operational reliability with the failure data. It is by incorporating test environments applied beyond the operational profile into testing environment factors. The application results are close to the actual data

  15. Predictive factors for cosmetic surgery: a hospital-based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Li, Qian; Zhou, Bei; Gao, Yanli; Ma, Jiehua; Li, Jingyun

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic surgery is becoming increasingly popular in China. However, reports on the predictive factors for cosmetic surgery in Chinese individuals are scarce in the literature. We retrospectively analyzed 4550 cosmetic surgeries performed from January 2010 to December 2014 at a single center in China. Data collection included patient demographics and type of cosmetic surgery. Predictive factors were age, sex, marital status, occupational status, educational degree, and having had children. Predictive factors for the three major cosmetic surgeries were determined using a logistic regression analysis. Patients aged 19-34 years accounted for the most popular surgical procedures (76.9 %). The most commonly requested procedures were eye surgery, Botox injection, and nevus removal. Logistic regression analysis showed that higher education level (college, P = 0.01, OR 1.21) was predictive for eye surgery. Age (19-34 years, P = 0.00, OR 33.39; 35-50, P = 0.00, OR 31.34; ≥51, P = 0.00, OR 16.42), female sex (P = 0.00, OR 9.19), employment (service occupations, P = 0.00, OR 2.31; non-service occupations, P = 0.00, OR 1.76), and higher education level (college, P = 0.00, OR 1.39) were independent predictive factors for Botox injection. Married status (P = 0.00, OR 1.57), employment (non-service occupations, P = 0.00, OR 1.50), higher education level (masters, P = 0.00, OR 6.61), and having children (P = 0.00, OR 1.45) were independent predictive factors for nevus removal. The principal three cosmetic surgeries (eye surgery, Botox injection, and nevus removal) were associated with multiple variables. Patients employed in non-service occupations were more inclined to undergo Botox injection and nevus removal. Cohort study, Level III.

  16. Factors predicting successful discontinuation of continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, S; Uchino, S; Uji, M; Ohnuma, T; Namba, Y; Kawarazaki, H; Toki, N; Takeda, K; Yasuda, H; Izawa, J; Tokuhira, N; Nagata, I

    2016-07-01

    This multicentre, retrospective observational study was conducted from January 2010 to December 2010 to determine the optimal time for discontinuing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) by evaluating factors predictive of successful discontinuation in patients with acute kidney injury. Analysis was performed for patients after CRRT was discontinued because of renal function recovery. Patients were divided into two groups according to the success or failure of CRRT discontinuation. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, urine output at discontinuation, creatinine level and CRRT duration were found to be significant variables (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for urine output, 0.814). In conclusion, we found that higher urine output, lower creatinine and shorter CRRT duration were significant factors to predict successful discontinuation of CRRT.

  17. Predictive factors for somatization in a trauma sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Unexplained somatic symptoms are common among trauma survivors. The relationship between trauma and somatization appears to be mediated by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, only few studies have focused on what other psychological risk factors may predispose...... a trauma victim towards developing somatoform symptoms. METHODS: The present paper examines the predictive value of PTSD severity, dissociation, negative affectivity, depression, anxiety, and feeling incompetent on somatization in a Danish sample of 169 adult men and women who were affected by a series...... of incompetence significantly predicted somatization in the trauma sample whereas dissociation, depression, and anxiety were not associated with degree of somatization. PTSD as a risk factor was mediated by negative affectivity....

  18. Incidence and predicting factors of falls of older inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Cristina de Almeida Abreu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and predicting factors associated with falls among older inpatients. METHODS Prospective cohort study conducted in clinical units of three hospitals in Cuiaba, MT, Midwestern Brazil, from March to August 2013. In this study, 221 inpatients aged 60 or over were followed until hospital discharge, death, or fall. The method of incidence density was used to calculate incidence rates. Bivariate analysis was performed by Chi-square test, and multiple analysis was performed by Cox regression. RESULTS The incidence of falls was 12.6 per 1,000 patients/day. Predicting factors for falls during hospitalization were: low educational level (RR = 2.48; 95%CI 1.17;5.25, polypharmacy (RR = 4.42; 95%CI 1.77;11.05, visual impairment (RR = 2.06; 95%CI 1.01;4.23, gait and balance impairment (RR = 2.95; 95%CI 1.22;7.14, urinary incontinence (RR = 5.67; 95%CI 2.58;12.44 and use of laxatives (RR = 4.21; 95%CI 1.15;15.39 and antipsychotics (RR = 4.10; 95%CI 1.38;12.13. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of falls of older inpatients is high. Predicting factors found for falls were low education level, polypharmacy, visual impairment, gait and balance impairment, urinary incontinence and use of laxatives and antipsychotics. Measures to prevent falls in hospitals are needed to reduce the incidence of this event.

  19. Determinants of Long-Term Durable Glycemic Control in New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Jin Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLong-term durable glycemic control is a difficult goal in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We evaluated the factors associated with durable glycemic control in a real clinical setting.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 194 new-onset, drug-naïve patients with T2DM who were diagnosed between January 2011 and March 2013, and were followed up for >2 years. Glycemic durability was defined as the maintenance of optimal glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] <7.0% for 2 years without substitution or adding other glucose-lowering agents. Clinical factors and glycemic markers associated with glycemic durability were compared between two groups: a durability group and a non-durability group.ResultsPatients in the durability group had a higher baseline body mass index (26.1 kg/m2 vs. 24.9 kg/m2 and lower HbA1c (8.6% vs. 9.7% than the non-durability group. The initial choice of glucose-lowering agents was similar in both groups, except for insulin and sulfonylureas, which were more frequently prescribed in the non-durability group. In multiple logistic regression analyses, higher levels of education, physical activity, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β were associated with glycemic durability. Notably, lower HbA1c (<7.0% at baseline and first follow-up were significantly associated with glycemic durability (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 7.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.51 to 22.3 (adjusted OR, 9.27; 95% CI, 1.62 to 53.1, respectively, after adjusting for confounding variables including the types of glucose-lowering agents.ConclusionEarly achievement of HbA1c level within the glycemic target was a determinant of long-term glycemic durability in new-onset T2DM, as were higher levels of education, physical activity, and HOMA-β.

  20. Predictive factors associated with death of elderly in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kiwol

    2014-06-01

    An increasing elderly population reflects a great need for readily accessible, clinically useful methods to identify mortality-related factors in nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with the deaths of nursing home residents. Data was collected from a Minimal Data Set of 195 elderly nursing home residents, followed by analysis of demographic factors, disease and nursing condition factors, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), cognitive function, behavioral patterns, and dysfunctional status. Major factors associated with death among nursing home residents were identified as dyspnea (odds ratio [OR] = 4.88), problematic behaviors (OR = 3.95), and ADL (OR = 3.61). These variables accounted for 31.1% of the variance in death. Dyspnea, problematic behaviors, and ADL data were identified as the key factors associated with death among nursing home residents. Future plans for the prediction of death among nursing home residents can be made by nursing staff, factoring in these identified variables, to ensure more comfortable conditions and more responsive care. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Understanding the Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and Their Practical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarim, Fernanda Lorenzi; Stancanelli, Mirtes; Brenzikofer, Rene; de Macedo, Denise Vaz

    2009-01-01

    We have introduced the study of synthesis pathways using two experiments: 1--the determination of the glycemic index (GI) of some foods and the effects of fiber and fat on the GI; 2--the determination of blood glucose levels after the ingestion of meals with high and low glycemic loads (GL). After a practice assembly, when the foods and meals that…

  2. Predictive factors of dropout from inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, H; Ali, A; Lambert, S; Radon, L; Huas, C; Curt, F; Berthoz, S; Godart, Nathalie

    2016-09-30

    Patients with severe Anorexia Nervosa (AN) whose condition is life-threatening or who are not receiving adequate ambulatory care are hospitalized. However, 40 % of these patients leave the hospital prematurely, without reaching the target weight set in the treatment plan, and this can compromise outcome. This study set out to explore factors predictive of dropout from hospital treatment among patients with AN, in the hope of identifying relevant therapeutic targets. From 2009 to 2011, 180 women hospitalized for AN (DSM-IV diagnosis) in 10 centres across France were divided into two groups: those under 18 years (when the decision to discharge belongs to the parents) and those aged 18 years and over (when the patient can legally decide to leave the hospital). Both groups underwent clinical assessment using the Morgan & Russell Global Outcome State questionnaire and the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) for assessment of eating disorder symptoms and outcome. Psychological aspects were assessed via the evaluation of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Socio-demographic data were also collected. A number of factors identified in previous research as predictive of dropout from hospital treatment were tested using stepwise descending Cox regressions. We found that factors predictive of dropout varied according to age groups (being under 18 as opposed to 18 and over). For participants under 18, predictive factors were living in a single-parent family, severe intake restriction as measured on the "dietary restriction" subscale of the Morgan & Russell scale, and a low patient-reported score on the EDE-Q "restraint concerns" subscale. For those over 18, dropout was predicted from a low depression score on the HADS, low level of concern about weight on the EDE-Q subscale, and lower educational status. To prevent dropout from hospitalization for AN, the appropriate therapeutic measures vary according to whether

  3. Predictive factors for anterior chamber fibrin formation after vitreoretinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Provetti Cunha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate possible predictive factors related to anterior chamber fibrin formation after vitreoretinal surgery in a large series of patients. Methods: The data of 185 eyes of 185 patients submitted to vitreoretinal surgery was reviewed. The following variables were evaluated: the postoperatively presence of fibrin, age, diabetes mellitus, the vitrectomy system gauge (20, 23 or 25 gauge, the type of vitreous substitute, the influence of prior surgical procedures and the combination with cataract extraction. To evaluate predictive factors for anterior chamber fibrin formation, univariate analysis was performed. A multivariate stepwise logistic regression model was adjusted to investigate factors associated with fibrin formation (p<0.05. Results: Fibrinoid anterior chamber reaction was found in 12 (6.4% patients. For multivariate logistic regression analysis, balanced salt solution (BSS, the chance of fibrin occurrence was 5 times greater (odds ratio 4.83, CI 95% 1.302 - 17.892; p=0.019, while combination with phacoemulsification increased the chance of fibrin formation by 20 times (odds ratio 20, CI 95% 2.480 - 161.347; p=0.005. No significant difference was found regarding other variables. Conclusion: Anterior chamber fibrin formation is an unwanted complication after vitreoretinal surgery. Factors such as combined performance of phacoemulsification and the use of balanced salt solution as a vitreous substitute may predispose the occurrence of this complication.

  4. Factors predicting labor induction success: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Joan M G

    2006-09-01

    Because of the risk of failed induction of labor, a variety of maternal and fetal factors as well as screening tests have been suggested to predict labor induction success. Certain characteristics of the woman (including parity, age, weight, height and body mass index), and of the fetus (including birth weight and gestational age) are associated with the success of labor induction; with parous, young women who are taller and lower weight having a higher rate of induction success. Fetuses with a lower birth weight or increased gestational age are also associated with increased induction success. The condition of the cervix at the start of induction is an important predictor, with the modified Bishop score being a widely used scoring system. The most important element of the Bishop score is dilatation. Other predictors, including transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and biochemical markers [including fetal fibronectin (fFN)] have been suggested. Meta-analyses of studies identified from MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE and published from 1990 to October 2005 were performed evaluating the use of TVUS and fFN in predicting labor induction success in women at term with singleton gestations. Both TVUS and Bishop score predicted successful induction [likelihood ratio (LR)=1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.51-2.20 and LR=2.10, 95%CI=1.67-2.64, respectively]. As well, fFN and Bishop score predicted successful induction (LR=1.49, 95%CI=1.20-1.85, and LR=2.62, 95%CI=1.88-3.64, respectively). Although TVUS and fFN predicted successful labor induction, neither has been shown to be superior to Bishop score. Further research is needed to evaluate these potential predictors and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), another potential biochemical marker.

  5. Drug-Target Interaction Prediction with Graph Regularized Matrix Factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Ali; Zhao, Peilin; Wu, Min; Li, Xiao-Li; Kwoh, Chee-Keong

    2017-01-01

    Experimental determination of drug-target interactions is expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, there is a continuous demand for more accurate predictions of interactions using computational techniques. Algorithms have been devised to infer novel interactions on a global scale where the input to these algorithms is a drug-target network (i.e., a bipartite graph where edges connect pairs of drugs and targets that are known to interact). However, these algorithms had difficulty predicting interactions involving new drugs or targets for which there are no known interactions (i.e., "orphan" nodes in the network). Since data usually lie on or near to low-dimensional non-linear manifolds, we propose two matrix factorization methods that use graph regularization in order to learn such manifolds. In addition, considering that many of the non-occurring edges in the network are actually unknown or missing cases, we developed a preprocessing step to enhance predictions in the "new drug" and "new target" cases by adding edges with intermediate interaction likelihood scores. In our cross validation experiments, our methods achieved better results than three other state-of-the-art methods in most cases. Finally, we simulated some "new drug" and "new target" cases and found that GRMF predicted the left-out interactions reasonably well.

  6. Link Prediction via Convex Nonnegative Matrix Factorization on Multiscale Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enming Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low rank matrices approximations have been used in link prediction for networks, which are usually global optimal methods and lack of using the local information. The block structure is a significant local feature of matrices: entities in the same block have similar values, which implies that links are more likely to be found within dense blocks. We use this insight to give a probabilistic latent variable model for finding missing links by convex nonnegative matrix factorization with block detection. The experiments show that this method gives better prediction accuracy than original method alone. Different from the original low rank matrices approximations methods for link prediction, the sparseness of solutions is in accord with the sparse property for most real complex networks. Scaling to massive size network, we use the block information mapping matrices onto distributed architectures and give a divide-and-conquer prediction method. The experiments show that it gives better results than common neighbors method when the networks have a large number of missing links.

  7. Predictive factors of thyroid cancer in patients with Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Meng; Wu, Mu Chao; Shang, Chang Zhen; Wang, Xiao Yi; Zhang, Jing Lu; Cheng, Hua; Xu, Ming Tong; Yan, Li

    2014-01-01

    The best preoperative examination in Graves' disease with thyroid cancer still remains uncertain. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of thyroid cancer in Graves' disease patients, and to identify the predictive factors and ultrasonographic features of thyroid cancer that may aid the preoperative diagnosis in Graves' disease. This retrospective study included 423 patients with Graves' disease who underwent surgical treatment from 2002 to 2012 at our institution. The clinical features and ultrasonographic findings of thyroid nodules were recorded. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer was determined according to the pathological results. Thyroid cancer was discovered in 58 of the 423 (13.7 %) surgically treated Graves' disease patients; 46 of those 58 patients had thyroid nodules, and the other 12 patients were diagnosed with incidentally discovered thyroid carcinomas without thyroid nodules. Among the 58 patients with thyroid cancer, papillary microcarcinomas were discovered in 50 patients, and multifocality and lymph node involvement were detected in the other 8 patients. Multivariate regression analysis showed younger age was the only significant factor predictive of metastatic thyroid cancer. Ultrasonographic findings of calcification and intranodular blood flow in thyroid nodules indicate that they are more likely to harbor thyroid cancers. Because the influencing factor of metastatic thyroid cancers in Graves' disease is young age, every suspicious nodule in Graves' disease patients should be evaluated and treated carefully, especially in younger patients because of the potential for metastasis.

  8. Intraoperative Factors that Predict the Successful Placement of Essure Microinserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthuis, Chloé J; Simon, Emmanuel G; Hébert, Thomas; Marret, Henri

    To determine whether the number of coils visualized in the uterotubal junction at the end of hysteroscopic microinsert placement predicts successful tubal occlusion. Cohort retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Department of obstetrics and gynecology in a teaching hospital. One hundred fifty-three women underwent tubal microinsert placement for permanent birth control from 2010 through 2014. The local institutional review board approved this study. Three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (3D TVU) was routinely performed 3 months after hysteroscopic microinsert placement to check position in the fallopian tube. The correlation between the number of coils visible at the uterotubal junction at the end of the hysteroscopic microinsert placement procedure and the device position on the 3-month follow-up 3D TVU in 141 patients was evaluated. The analysis included 276 microinserts placed during hysteroscopy. The median number of coils visible after the hysteroscopic procedure was 4 (interquartile range, 3-5). Devices for 30 patients (21.3%) were incorrectly positioned according to the 3-month follow-up 3D TVU, and hysterosalpingography was recommended. In those patients the median number of coils was in both the right (interquartile range, 2-4) and left (interquartile range, 1-3) uterotubal junctions. The number of coils visible at the uterotubal junction at the end of the placement procedure was the only factor that predicted whether the microinsert was well positioned at the 3-month 3D TVU confirmation (odds ratio, .44; 95% confidence interval, .28-.63). When 5 or more coils were visible, no incorrectly placed microinsert could be seen on the follow-up 3D TVU; the negative predictive value was 100%. No pregnancies were reported. The number of coils observed at the uterotubal junction at the time of microinsert placement should be considered a significant predictive factor of accurate and successful microinsert placement. Copyright © 2017

  9. Glycemic control and antidiabetic drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with renal complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huri HZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hasniza Zaman Huri,1,2 Lay Peng Lim,1 Soo Kun Lim3 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 2Clinical Investigation Centre, University Malaya Medical Centre, 3Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Good glycemic control can delay the progression of kidney diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients with renal complications. To date, the association between antidiabetic agents and glycemic control in this specific patient population is not well established.Purpose: This study aimed to identify antidiabetic regimens as well as other factors that associated with glycemic control in T2DM patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD.Patients and methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study involved 242 T2DM inpatients and outpatients with renal complications from January 2009 to March 2014 and was conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C was used as main parameter to assess patients’ glycemic status. Patients were classified to have good (A1C <7% or poor glycemic control (A1C ≥7% based on the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association.Results: Majority of the patients presented with CKD stage 4 (43.4%. Approximately 55.4% of patients were categorized to have poor glycemic control. Insulin (57.9% was the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic medication, followed by sulfonylureas (43%. Of all antidiabetic regimens, sulfonylureas monotherapy (P<0.001, insulin therapy (P=0.005, and combination of biguanides with insulin (P=0.038 were found to be significantly associated with glycemic control. Other factors including duration of T2DM (P=0.004, comorbidities such as anemia (P=0.024 and retinopathy (P=0.033, concurrent medications such as erythropoietin therapy (P=0.047, a-blockers (P=0.033, and antigouts (P=0.003 were also correlated with A1C.Conclusion: Identification of

  10. [Predictive factors of the outcomes of prenatal hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragagnini, Paolo; Estors, Blanca; Delgado, Reyes; Rihuete, Miguel Ángel; Gracia, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    To determine prenatal and postnatal independent predictors of poor outcome, spontaneous resolution, or the need for surgery in patients with prenatal hydronephrosis. We performed a retrospective study of patients with prenatal hydronephrosis. The renal pelvis APD was measured in the third prenatal trimester ultrasound, as well as in the first and second postnatal ultrasound. Other variables were taken into account, both prenatal and postnatal. For statistical analysis we used Student t-test, chi-square test, survival analysis, logrank test, and ROC curves. We included 218 patients with 293 renal units (RU). Of these, 147/293 (50.2%) RU were operated. 76/293 (25.9%) RU had spontaneous resolution and other 76/293 (25.9%) RU had poor outcome. As risk factors for surgery we found low birth weight (OR 3.84; 95% CI 1.24-11.84), prematurity (OR 4.17; 95% CI 1.35-12.88), duplication (OR 4.99; 95% CI 2.21-11.23) and the presence of nephrourological underlying pathology (OR 53.54; 95% CI 26.23-109.27). For the non-spontaneous resolution, we found as risk factors the alterations of amniotic fluid volume (RR 1.46; 95% CI 1.33-1.60) as well as the underlying nephrourological pathology and duplication. In the poor outcome, we found as risk factors the alterations of amniotic fluid volume (OR 4.54; 95% CI 1.31-15.62), the presence of nephrourological pathology (OR 4.81 95% CI 2.60-8.89) and RU that was operated (OR 4.23, 95% CI 2.35-7.60). The APD of the renal pelvis in all three ultrasounds were reliable for surgery prediction (area under the curve 0.65; 0.82; 0.71) or spontaneous resolution (area under the curve 0.80; 0.91; 0.80), only the first postnatal ultrasound has predictive value in the poor outcome (area under the curve 0.73). The higher sensitivity and specificity of the APD as predictor value was on the first postnatal ultrasound, 14.60 mm for surgery; 11.35 mm for spontaneous resolution and 15.50 mm for poor outcome. The higher APD in the renal pelvis in any of the

  11. The obesity epidemic: is glycemic index the key to unlocking a hidden addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, Simon; McRobbie, Hayden; Eyles, Helen; Walker, Natalie; Simmons, Greg

    2008-11-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is an important cause of a range of diseases and is estimated to be the seventh leading cause of death globally. In this paper we discuss evidence that food consumption shows similarities to features of other addictive behaviours, such as automaticity and loss of control. Glycemic index is hypothesised to be the element of food that predicts its addictive potential. Although we do not have substantive evidence of a withdrawal syndrome from high glycemic food abstinence, anecdotal reports exist. Empirical scientific and clinical studies support an addictive component of eating behaviour, with similar neurotransmitters and neural pathways triggered by food consumption, as with other drugs of addiction. The public health implications of such a theory are discussed, with reference to tobacco control. Subtle changes in the preparation and manufacturing of commonly consumed food items, reducing glycemic index through regulatory channels, may break such a cycle of addiction and draw large public health benefits.

  12. Value of multiple risk factors in predicting coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhengbin; Zhang Ruiyan; Zhang Qi; Yang Zhenkun; Hu Jian; Zhang Jiansheng; Shen Weifeng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to assess the relationship between correlative comprehension risk factors and coronary arterial disease and to build up a simple mathematical model to evaluate the extension of coronary artery lesion in patients with stable angina. Methods: A total of 1024 patients with chest pain who underwent coronary angiography were divided into CAD group(n=625)and control group(n=399) based on at least one significant coronary artery narrowing more than 50% in diameter. Independent risk factors for CAD were evaluated and multivariate logistic regression model and receiver-operating characteristic(ROC) curves were used to estimate the independent influence factor for CAD and built up a simple formula for clinical use. Results: Multivariate regression analysis revealed that UACR > 7.25 μg/mg(OR=3.6; 95% CI 2.6-4.9; P 20 mmol/L(OR=3.2; 95% CI 2.3-4.4; P 2 (OR=2.3; 95% CI 1.4-3.8; P 2.6 mmol/L (OR 2.141; 95% CI 1.586-2.890; P 7.25 μg/mg + 1.158 x hsCRP > 20 mmol/L + 0.891 GFR 2 + 0.831 x LVEF 2.6 mmol/L + 0.676 x smoking history + 0.594 x male + 0.459 x diabetes + 0.425 x hypertension). Area under the curve was 0.811 (P < 0.01), and the optimal probability value for predicting severe stage of CAD was 0.977 (sensitivity 49.0%, specificity 92.7% ). Conclusions: Risk factors including renal insufficiency were the main predictors for CAD. The logistic regression model is the non-invasive method of choice for predicting the extension of coronary artery lesion in patients with stable agiana. (authors)

  13. Effect of glycemic control on diabetic dyslipidemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Arshad, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether good glycemic control has an effect on lipid profile in diabetics After taking relevant history and physical examination, serum urea, creatinine, thyroid stimulating hormone, bilirubin, alanine transaminase and HbA1c were measured. Blood samples for determination of fasting plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL levels were collected in a fasting state. Patients were divided into two groups based on HbA1c levels. They were compared using SPSS 13. 42 patients had good glycemic control and 58 had poor control. The two groups were age and weight matched. 43 patients had abnormal lipid profiles. Serum total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower and HDL levels higher in the good control group but serum LDL levels were equal. Conclusion: Good glycemic control improves lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (author)

  14. Effect of glycemic control on diabetic dyslipidemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, W [Military Hospital Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Arshad, A R [Combined Military Hospital, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2010-03-15

    To determine whether good glycemic control has an effect on lipid profile in diabetics After taking relevant history and physical examination, serum urea, creatinine, thyroid stimulating hormone, bilirubin, alanine transaminase and HbA1c were measured. Blood samples for determination of fasting plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL levels were collected in a fasting state. Patients were divided into two groups based on HbA1c levels. They were compared using SPSS 13. 42 patients had good glycemic control and 58 had poor control. The two groups were age and weight matched. 43 patients had abnormal lipid profiles. Serum total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower and HDL levels higher in the good control group but serum LDL levels were equal. Conclusion: Good glycemic control improves lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (author)

  15. Network-based prediction and analysis of HIV dependency factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T M Murali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV Dependency Factors (HDFs are a class of human proteins that are essential for HIV replication, but are not lethal to the host cell when silenced. Three previous genome-wide RNAi experiments identified HDF sets with little overlap. We combine data from these three studies with a human protein interaction network to predict new HDFs, using an intuitive algorithm called SinkSource and four other algorithms published in the literature. Our algorithm achieves high precision and recall upon cross validation, as do the other methods. A number of HDFs that we predict are known to interact with HIV proteins. They belong to multiple protein complexes and biological processes that are known to be manipulated by HIV. We also demonstrate that many predicted HDF genes show significantly different programs of expression in early response to SIV infection in two non-human primate species that differ in AIDS progression. Our results suggest that many HDFs are yet to be discovered and that they have potential value as prognostic markers to determine pathological outcome and the likelihood of AIDS development. More generally, if multiple genome-wide gene-level studies have been performed at independent labs to study the same biological system or phenomenon, our methodology is applicable to interpret these studies simultaneously in the context of molecular interaction networks and to ask if they reinforce or contradict each other.

  16. Determining and predictive factors for the tumor radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennequin, Ch.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, Ch.; Quero, L.; Favaudon, V.

    2008-01-01

    Many predictive factors of tumor radiosensitivity have been described. Number of clonogenic cells, proliferation rate, hypoxia and intrinsic radiosensitivity are usually considered as the main parameters of tumor control. Intrinsic radiosensitivity is correlated in a first approach to the ability of the cell to detect and repair DNA damages, and so integrity of the different pathways involved in this function: P.A.R.P.-1, X.R.C.C.1, A.T.M., p 53, M.R.N. complex or B.R.C.A.1. Genetic polymorphisms of some of these genes, found in normal lymphocytes, have been correlated to late toxicity of normal tissues. But, in tumors, because of the difficulty to obtain samplings and heterogeneity, accurate molecular analysis is not possible in many cases, and no valuable test of radiosensitivity exist at this moment. For example, T.P. 53 gene has been evaluated in many studies and results regarding its potential as a predictive factor of tumor sensitivity are conflicting. Surviving fraction at 2 Gy (S.F.2) allowed a global evaluation of sensitivity, but the obtention of this parameter often takes a long time and failed in 20 to 40%. Evaluation of double-strand break repair capacity by immuno chemistry quantification of phosphorylated forms of A.T.M., H.2 A.X. or M.R.E.11 is an interesting topic. However, discovery of tumor stem cells in a number of epithelial tumors could revolutionize the understanding of radiosensitivity. Combination of genomic and functional techniques are probably essential to better predict this parameter. (authors)

  17. Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: predictive factors of intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbos, Florent; Bertrand, Gérald; Croisille, Laure; Ansart-Pirenne, Hélène; Bierling, Philippe; Kaplan, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    In Caucasians, fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is most frequently caused by maternal alloimmunization against the human platelet antigen HPA-1a. The most serious complication of severe FNAIT is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). ICH mainly occurs in utero; therefore, there is a need to identify noninvasive predictive factors of ICH to facilitate early identification of this condition and to determine response to maternal therapy. We studied gynecologic and immunogenetic variables of severe cases of anti-HPA-1a FNAIT within three groups: Group I, FNAIT without ICH; Group II, FNAIT with ICH; and Group III, suspected FNAIT cases without detectable maternal anti-HPA-1a alloantibodies. ICH was associated with a poor outcome because it led to death in 59% of cases. Multigravida (two or more pregnancies) was overrepresented in Group II, consistent with the high concentrations of maternal HPA-1a alloantibody and the frequent detection of a strong newborn-specific HLA class I antibody response at delivery. The proportion of HLA-DRB4*01:01P (*01:01 or *01:03) women was similar in Groups I and II, but this allele was overrepresented in Group III, in which FNAIT was less severe than in the other two groups. Finally, antenatal intravenous immunoglobulin therapy tended to be more effective in HLA-DRB3*01:01(+)/HLA-DRB4*01:01P(+) women than for HLA-DRB3*01:01(+)/HLA-DRB4*01:01P(-) women. The number of gestations is a predictive factor of ICH in anti-HPA-1a-alloimmunized women. Maternal immunogenetic variables should be investigated in the context of maternal immunization and may predict response to maternal therapy in subsequent pregnancies. © 2015 AABB.

  18. Factors predicting recovery from suicide in attempted suicide patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fan-Ko; Lu, Chu-Yun; Tseng, Yun Shan; Chiang, Chun-Ying

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the factors predicting suicide recovery and to provide guidance for healthcare professionals when caring for individuals who have attempted suicide. The high rate of suicide is a global health problem. Suicide prevention has become an important issue in contemporary mental health. Most suicide research has focused on suicidal prevention and care. There is a lack of research on the factors predicting suicidal recovery. A cross-sectional design was adopted. A correlational study with a purposive sample of 160 individuals from a suicide prevention centre in southern Taiwan was conducted. The questionnaires included the Brief Symptom Rating Scale-5, Suicidal Recovery Assessment Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions were used for the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 40.2 years. Many participants were striving to make changes to create a more stable and fulfilling life, had an improved recovery from suicide and had a good ability to adapt or solve problems. The linear regression showed that the Beck Hopelessness Scale scores (ß = -.551, p suicidal behaviour (ß = -.145, p = .008) were significant predictors of individuals' recovery from suicide. They accounted for 57.1% of the variance. Suicidal individuals who have a lower level of hopelessness, a better ability to cope with their mental condition and fewer past suicidal behaviours may better recover from suicide attempts. The nurses could use the results of this study to predict recovery from suicide in patients with attempted suicide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Induction of labour: clinical predictive factors for success and failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinelli, Laura; Serafini, Andrea; Nante, Nicola; Petraglia, Felice; Severi, Filiberto Maria; Messina, Gabriele

    2018-04-01

    Induction of labour (IOL) is a widely-used practice in obstetrics. Our aim was to evaluate predictors of vaginal delivery in postdate pregnancies induced with prostaglandins. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study with analytic component. A total of 145 women, admitted for IOL after the 41st week of gestation, were induced with a vaginal pessary releasing prostaglandins. Type of delivery, whether vaginal or caesarean, was the outcome. Several maternal and foetal variables were investigated. The Kaplan-Maier curves, monovariate and a multivariate logistic regression were carried out. In our population, 80.7% of women had vaginal delivery after the induction. Multiparity and a high Bishop score at the beginning of the IOL were protective factors for a vaginal delivery (respectively OR 0.16, p = .028 and OR 0.62, p = .034) while age >35 years, and the foetal birth weight >3500 g at the birth, resulted in being risk factors for caesarean section (respectively OR 4.20, p = .006 and OR 3.63, p = .013). IMPACT STATEMENT What is already known on this subject: Induction of labour (IOL) is a widely used practice in obstetrics. Scientific literature shows several predictors of successful induction, although there is no unanimity except for 'multiparity' and 'favourable Bishop score' which are associated with positive outcome of the induction. The main difficulty in finding other predictive factors is the heterogeneity of this field (different local protocols in each hospital, type of induction, populations and outcomes chosen in each study). In addition to that, populations are not always comparable due to the different gestation. For this reason, we decided to select a specific population of women, such as low risk postterm pregnancies induced with prostaglandins, in order to detect possible predictive factors for the success of the IOL for women with uncomplicated pregnancies. What the results of this study add: Our study agrees with existing

  20. Factors predicting outcome in whiplash injury: a systematic meta-review of prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrami, Pooria; Armstrong, Elizabeth; Naylor, Justine M; Harris, Ian A

    2017-03-01

    Whiplash injuries are among the leading injuries related to car crashes and it is important to determine the prognostic factors that predict the outcome of patients with these injuries. This meta-review aims to identify factors that are associated with outcome after acute whiplash injury. A systematic search for all systematic reviews on outcome prediction of acute whiplash injury was conducted across several electronic databases. The search was limited to publications in English, and there were no geographical or time of publication restrictions. Quality appraisal was conducted with A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews. The initial search yielded 207 abstracts; of these, 195 were subsequently excluded by topic or method. Twelve systematic reviews with moderate quality were subsequently included in the analysis. Post-injury pain and disability, whiplash grades, cold hyperalgesia, post-injury anxiety, catastrophizing, compensation and legal factors, and early healthcare use were associated with continuation of pain and disability in patients with whiplash injury. Post-injury magnetic resonance imaging or radiographic findings, motor dysfunctions, or factors related to the collision were not associated with continuation of pain and disability in patients with whiplash injury. Evidence on demographic and three psychological factors and prior pain was conflicting, and there is a shortage of evidence related to the significance of genetic factors. This meta-review suggests an association between initial pain and anxiety and the outcome of acute whiplash injury, and less evidence for an association with physical factors. Level 1.

  1. Predictive factors for oropharyngeal dysphagia after prolonged orotracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Carolina Martins de; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Salomão, Marina Silva; Bougo, Graziela Chamarelli; Vicente, Laélia Cristina Caseiro

    2017-09-13

    Lesions in the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx due to endotracheal intubation can cause reduction in the local motility and sensitivity, impairing the swallowing process, resulting in oropharyngeal dysphagia. To verify the predictive factors for the development of oropharyngeal dysphagia and the risk of aspiration in patients with prolonged orotracheal intubation admitted to an intensive care unit. This is an observational, analytical, cross-sectional and retrospective data collection study of 181 electronic medical records of patients submitted to prolonged orotracheal intubation. Data on age; gender; underlying disease; associated comorbidities; time and reason for orotracheal intubation; Glasgow scale on the day of the Speech Therapist assessment; comprehension; vocal quality; presence and severity of dysphagia; risk of bronchoaspiration; and the suggested oral route were collected. The data were analyzed through logistic regression. The level of significance was set at 5%, with a 95% Confidence Interval. The prevalence of dysphagia in this study was 35.9% and the risk of aspiration was 24.9%. As the age increased, the altered vocal quality and the degree of voice impairment increased the risk of the presence of dysphagia by 5-; 45.4- and 6.7-fold, respectively, and of aspiration by 6-; 36.4- and 4.8-fold. The increase in the time of orotracheal intubation increased the risk of aspiration by 5.5-fold. Patients submitted to prolonged intubation who have risk factors associated with dysphagia and aspiration should be submitted to an early speech-language/audiology assessment and receive appropriate and timely treatment. The recognition of these predictive factors by the entire multidisciplinary team can minimize the possibility of clinical complications inherent to the risk of dysphagia and aspiration in extubated patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  2. Predictors of glycemic control in children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus in Assiut-Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa A Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM may lead to severe long-term health consequences, such as renal failure, blindness, as well as heart and cerebrovascular disease. Although a direct relationship between blood glucose control and diabetes complications remains to be established beyond doubt, most diabetologists aim to achieve the best possible glucose control in their patients with T1DM. The aim of this study was to detect the predictors of glycemic control among children with T1DM in Assiut Governorate-Egypt. Materials and Methods : We enrolled 415 children aged 2 to 18 years with type 1 diabetes of >1-year duration. They were subjected to full history including demographic factors and disease-related factors. Examination was done with determination of the body mass index, and assessment of stage of maturity. Investigations included hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and lipid profile. Patients with HbA1c above the recommended values for age by the American Diabetes Association were considered as poor glycemic control group. Results : Of the studied cases, 190 cases (45.8% were of poor glycemic control. Patients with poor control had significantly higher mean age (16.83 ± 3.3 vs 9.77 ± 3.7, P<0.000. Girls aged 15 years or more had significantly higher prevalence of poor glycemic control than males of the same age group. As regard the disease-related factors, patients with poor control had significantly longer duration of disease (7.94 ± 2.6 vs 2.40 ± 2.0, P<0.000 and were older in age at onset of disease. Insulin regimen which consists of basal bolus insulin plus three injections of regular insulin was associated with more frequency of good glycemic control than other regimens. Patients with poor control had significantly higher mean of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than patients with good control. Adjusting for other variables, age of the patients, duration of

  3. Factors predicting for postimplantation urinary retention after permanent prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nancy; Wuu, C.-S.; Brody, Rachel; Laguna, Joe L.; Katz, Aaron E.; Bagiella, Emilia; Ennis, Ronald D.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Urinary retention requiring catheterization is a known complication among prostate cancer patients treated with permanent interstitial radioactive seed implantation. However, the factors associated with this complication are not well known. This study was conducted to determine these factors. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive prostate cancer patients treated with permanent interstitial implantation at our institution from 1996 to 1999 were evaluated. All patients underwent pre-implant ultrasound and postimplant CT volume studies. Isotopes used were 125 I (54 patients) or 103 Pd (37 patients). Twenty-three patients were treated with a combination of 45 Gy of external beam radiation therapy as well as seed implantation, of which only 3 patients were treated with 125 I. Mean pretreatment prostate ultrasound volume was 35.4 cc (range, 10.0-70.2 cc). The mean planning ultrasound target volume (PUTV) was 39.6 cc (range, 16.1-74.5 cc), whereas the mean posttreatment CT target volume was 55.0 cc (range, 20.2-116 cc). Patient records were reviewed to determine which patients required urinary catheterization for relief of urinary obstruction. The following factors were analyzed as predictors for urinary retention: clinical stage; Gleason score; prostate-specific antigen; external beam radiation therapy; hormone therapy; pre-implant urinary symptoms (asymptomatic/nocturia x 1 vs. more significant urinary symptoms); pretreatment ultrasound prostate volume; PUTV; PUTV within the 125%, 150%, 200%, 250%, 300% isodose lines; postimplant CT volume within the 125%, 150%, 200%, 250%, 300% isodose lines; D90; D80; D50; ratio of post-CT volume to the PUTV; the absolute change in volume between the CT volume and PUTV; number of needles used; activity per seed; and the total activity of the implant. Statistical analyses using logistic regression and χ2 were performed. Results: Eleven of 91 (12%) became obstructed. Significant factors predicting for urinary retention

  4. Multinational study in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: association of age, ketoacidosis, HLA status, and autoantibodies on residual beta-cell function and glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H.B.; Swift, P.G.F.; Holl, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    .005), and by stimulated C-peptide (p IA; p = 0.02) and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA; p = 0.0004) at 1 month. HbA1c at 12 months was predicted by HbA1c at diagnosis (p ... (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Younger age, ketoacidosis at diagnosis, and IA and GADA 1 month after diagnosis were the strongest explanatory factors for residual beta-cell function at 12 months. Glycemic control at 12 months was influenced predominantly by ethnicity, HbA1c at diagnosis, and GADA at 1......Objective: To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Subjects and Methods: Clinical information and blood samples were collected from 275 children. HbA1c, antibodies, HLA typing and mixed meal...

  5. Prediction of software operational reliability using testing environment factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung

    1995-02-01

    Software reliability is especially important to customers these days. The need to quantify software reliability of safety-critical systems has been received very special attention and the reliability is rated as one of software's most important attributes. Since the software is an intellectual product of human activity and since it is logically complex, the failures are inevitable. No standard models have been established to prove the correctness and to estimate the reliability of software systems by analysis and/or testing. For many years, many researches have focused on the quantification of software reliability and there are many models developed to quantify software reliability. Most software reliability models estimate the reliability with the failure data collected during the test assuming that the test environments well represent the operation profile. User's interest is on the operational reliability rather than on the test reliability, however. The experiences show that the operational reliability is higher than the test reliability. With the assumption that the difference in reliability results from the change of environment, testing environment factor comprising the aging factor and the coverage factor are defined in this work to predict the ultimate operational reliability with the failure data. It is by incorporating test environments applied beyond the operational profile into testing environment factor Test reliability can also be estimated with this approach without any model change. The application results are close to the actual data. The approach used in this thesis is expected to be applicable to ultra high reliable software systems that are used in nuclear power plants, airplanes, and other safety-critical applications

  6. Laparascopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: Can preoperative factors predict conversion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Iftikhar A.; El-Tinay, Omer E.

    2004-01-01

    To determine if preoperative clinical, laboratory and radiology data can predict conversion of laparascopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis to open procedure. Retrospective analysis of 44 laparascopic cholecystectomies were performed for acute cholecystitisbetween August 2000 and July 2002 at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data related to age and sex of patients, maximum body temprature,white blood cell count, gallbladder wall thickness or ultrasonography and timing of surgery from onset of symptoms were collected.The procedure was converted from laparascopic to open cholecystectomy in 10 patients (23%). Conversion rate was significantly high (33% versus zero; p=0.01) if the gallbladder wall was thickened. Conversion rate was significantly low ( Zero versus 32%: p=0.01) if the procedure was performed within 48 hours from the onset of the symptoms. The data relawted to age, sex, white blood cell count and body temprature did not reliably predict conversion of laparascopic cholecystectomy (LD) for acute cholecystitis to open procedure. There was no mortality or major morbidity. Laparascopic cholecystectomy is a safe modality of treatment for acute cholecystitis. Factors associated with increased conversion rate are thickened gallbladder wall on ultrasonographyand delay in surgery for more than 48 hours from the onset of symptoms. (author)

  7. Variability, Predictability, and Race Factors Affecting Performance in Elite Biathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skattebo, Øyvind; Losnegard, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    To investigate variability, predictability, and smallest worthwhile performance enhancement in elite biathlon sprint events. In addition, the effects of race factors on performance were assessed. Data from 2005 to 2015 including >10,000 and >1000 observations for each sex for all athletes and annual top-10 athletes, respectively, were included. Generalized linear mixed models were constructed based on total race time, skiing time, shooting time, and proportions of targets hit. Within-athlete race-to-race variability was expressed as coefficient of variation of performance times and standard deviation (SD) in proportion units (%) of targets hit. The models were adjusted for random and fixed effects of subject identity, season, event identity, and race factors. The within-athlete variability was independent of sex and performance standard of athletes: 2.5-3.2% for total race time, 1.5-1.8% for skiing time, and 11-15% for shooting times. The SD of the proportion of hits was ∼10% in both shootings combined (meaning ±1 hit in 10 shots). The predictability in total race time was very high to extremely high for all athletes (ICC .78-.84) but trivial for top-10 athletes (ICC .05). Race times during World Championships and Olympics were ∼2-3% faster than in World Cups. Moreover, race time increased by ∼2% per 1000 m of altitude, by ∼5% per 1% of gradient, by 1-2% per 1 m/s of wind speed, and by ∼2-4% on soft vs hard tracks. Researchers and practitioners should focus on strategies that improve biathletes' performance by at least 0.8-0.9%, corresponding to the smallest worthwhile enhancement (0.3 × within-athlete variability).

  8. Encopresis in children. Outcome and predictive factors of successful management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Adnan A; Mekael, Farag M

    2012-06-01

    To elucidate our experience and outcome in the management of childhood encopresis, and to emphasize the factors that may predict successful management. This prospective study was carried out between September 2003 and September 2011 in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Al-Thoura Teaching Hospital, Al-Beida and Al-Butnan Medical Teaching Center, Tobruk, Libya. One hundred and thirty-two patients (117 male, 15 female) took part of the study. The male and female ratio was 7.8:1. The participants were patients aged 4-9 years. There were 30 (22.7%) patients between 4-5 years, 61 (46.2%) between 6-7 years, and 41 (31%) between 8-9 years. Nonretentive encopresis patients were 36 (27.2%) (Group I) and 96 (72.8%) patients had retentive encopresis (Group II). Patients with low fluid intake were 87 (65.9%) and low fiber diet were 91 (68.9%). Patients with delayed toilet training were 99 (75%). The total rate of successful conservative treatment was 70.5%. The rate of successful treatment in Group I was 94.4% and in Group II was 61.5%. We observed 18.2% of the patients had recurrence of encopresis. The factors found to predict good resolution rate after medical treatment included: cooperation of the parent and patient, female gender, ages above 5 years, and non-retentive encopresis. Encopresis remains a problem for the parents and the patients. Clinical evaluation is indispensable. Good outcome can be achieved effectively. Cooperative parents and patient, female gender, age above 5 years, and nonretentive encopresis are predictors for good response to medical treatment.

  9. Blood glucose monitoring and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: meter downloads versus self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Shanna M; Crimmins, Nancy A; Hood, Korey K

    2011-09-01

    Reported frequencies of blood glucose monitoring (BGM) by both adolescents and their caregivers serve as adherence proxies when meter downloads are not available. Yet, correlates of reported BGM frequencies and their predictive utility are understudied. To identify sociodemographic, psychological, and disease-specific correlates of reported BGM frequencies in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to explore the predictive utility of BGM indices on glycemic control. Study participants included caregivers and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (N=143, 13-18 yr) receiving diabetes treatment at a tertiary care setting. At the initial visit, adolescents and caregivers reported on daily BGM frequencies. A sub-sample provided meter downloads. Adolescents also completed a depression inventory. Three months later, adolescents provided blood sampling for A1c assessment. Multivariate general linear modeling identified that older adolescent age and more depressive symptoms were associated with reports of less frequent BGM. Two stepwise multivariate regression models examined the predictive utility of BGM indices (i.e., adolescent-reported BGM, caregiver-reported BGM, meter download) on glycemic control. Caregiver-reported BGM frequency predicted glycemic control in the absence of meter download data (pmeter download data were the most robust predictor of glycemic control (pMeter downloads have the most robust association with glycemic control when contextual variables are considered. Caregiver-reported BGM frequencies can serve as reliable substitutes in the absence of meter download, but they may not be as reliable in adolescents with depressive symptoms. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Impact of postoperative glycemic control and nutritional status on clinical outcomes after total pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hao-Jun; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2017-01-14

    To evaluate the impact of glycemic control and nutritional status after total pancreatectomy (TP) on complications, tumor recurrence and overall survival. Retrospective records of 52 patients with pancreatic tumors who underwent TP were collected from 2007 to 2015. A series of clinical parameters collected before and after surgery, and during the follow-up were evaluated. The associations of glycemic control and nutritional status with complications, tumor recurrence and long-term survival were determined. Risk factors for postoperative glycemic control and nutritional status were identified. High early postoperative fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels (OR = 4.074, 95%CI: 1.188-13.965, P = 0.025) and low early postoperative prealbumin levels (OR = 3.816, 95%CI: 1.110-13.122, P = 0.034) were significantly associated with complications after TP. Postoperative HbA1c levels over 7% (HR = 2.655, 95%CI: 1.299-5.425, P = 0.007) were identified as one of the independent risk factors for tumor recurrence. Patients with postoperative HbA1c levels over 7% had much poorer overall survival than those with HbA1c levels less than 7% (9.3 mo vs 27.6 mo, HR = 3.212, 95%CI: 1.147-8.999, P = 0.026). Patients with long-term diabetes mellitus (HR = 15.019, 95%CI: 1.278-176.211, P = 0.031) and alcohol history (B = 1.985, SE = 0.860, P = 0.025) tended to have poor glycemic control and lower body mass index levels after TP, respectively. At least 3 mo are required after TP to adapt to diabetes and recover nutritional status. Glycemic control appears to have more influence over nutritional status on long-term outcomes after TP. Improvement in glycemic control and nutritional status after TP is important to prevent early complications and tumor recurrence, and improve survival.

  11. Interaction between functional health literacy, patient activation, and glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodard LD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available LeChauncy D Woodard, Cassie R Landrum, Amber B Amspoker, David Ramsey, Aanand D Naik Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety, Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Section of Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Background: Functional health literacy (FHL and patient activation can impact diabetes control through enhanced diabetes self-management. Less is known about the combined effect of these characteristics on diabetes outcomes. Using brief, validated measures, we examined the interaction between FHL and patient activation in predicting glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c control among a cohort of multimorbid diabetic patients.Methods: We administered a survey via mail to 387 diabetic patients with coexisting ­hypertension and ischemic heart disease who received outpatient care at one regional VA medical center between November 2010 and December 2010. We identified patients with the study conditions using the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision-Clinical ­Modification (ICD-9-CM diagnoses codes and Current Procedure Terminology (CPT ­procedures codes. Surveys were returned by 195 (50.4% patients. We determined patient activation levels based on participant responses to the 13-item Patient Activation Measure and FHL levels using the single-item screening question, “How confident are you filling out medical forms by yourself?” We reviewed patient medical records to assess glycemic control. We used multiple logistic regression to examine whether activation and FHL were individually or jointly related to HbA1c control.Results: Neither patient activation nor FHL was independently related to glycemic control in the unadjusted main effects model; however, the interaction between the two was significantly associated with glycemic control (odds ratio 1.05 [95% confidence

  12. Factors Predicting Survival after Transarterial Chemoembolization of Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Farina M. Hanif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transarterial chemoembolization is the preferred treatment for unresectable, intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. Survival after transarterial chemoembolization can be highly variable. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that predict overall survival of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma who undergo transarterial chemoembolization as the initial therapy. Methods:We included patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization from 2007 to 2012 in this study. Patient’s age, gender, cause of cirrhosis, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score, model of end-stage liver disease score, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score, Okuda stage, alpha- fetoprotein level, site, size and number of tumors were recorded. Radiological response to transarterial chemoembolization was assessed by computerized tomography scan at 1 and 3 months after the procedure. Repeat sessions of transarterial chemoembolization were performed according to the response. We performed survival assessment and all patients were assessed for survival at the last follow-up. Results: Included in this study were 71 patients of whom there were 57 (80.3 % males, with a mean age of 51.9±12.1 years (range: 18-76 years. The mean follow-up period was 12.5±10.7 months. A total of 31 (43.7% patients had only one session of transarterial chemoembolization, 17 (23.9% underwent 2 and 11 (15.5% had 3 or more sessions. On univariate analysis, significant factors that predicted survival included serum bilirubin (P=0.02, esophageal varices (P=0.002, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score (P=0.003, tumor size (P=0.005, >3 sessions of transarterial chemoembolization (P=0.006 and patient's age (P=0.001. Cox regression analysis showed that tumor size of 1 transarterial chemoembolization session (P=0.004 were associated with better survival. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that survival after transarterial chemoem- bolization is predicted by tumor size

  13. Vasculogenesis and Diabetic Erectile Dysfunction: How Relevant Is Glycemic Control?

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    Castela, Angela; Gomes, Pedro; Silvestre, Ricardo; Guardão, Luísa; Leite, Liliana; Chilro, Rui; Rodrigues, Ilda; Vendeira, Pedro; Virag, Ronald; Costa, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a complication of diabetes, condition responsible for causing endothelial dysfunction (EDys) and hampering repair mechanisms. However, scarce information is available linking vasculogenesis mediated by Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) and diabetes-associated ED. Furthermore, it remains to be elucidated if glycemic control plays a role on EPCs functions, EPCs modulators, and penile vascular health. We evaluated the effects of diabetes and insulin therapy on bone marrow (BM) and circulating EPCs, testosterone, and systemic/penile Stromal Derived Factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) expression. Male Wistar rats were divided into groups: age-matched controls, 8-weeks streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetics, and insulin-treated 8-weeks diabetics. EPCs were identified by flow cytometry for CD34/CD133/VEGFR2/CXCR4 antigens. Systemic SDF-1α and testosterone levels were evaluated by ELISA. Penile SDF-1α protein expression was assessed, in experimental and human diabetic cavernosal samples, by immunohistochemical techniques. Diabetic animals presented a reduction of BM-derived EPCs and an increase in putative circulating endothelial cells (CECs) sloughed from vessels wall. These alterations were rescued by insulin therapy. In addition, glycemic control promoted an increase in systemic testosterone and SDF-1α levels, which were significantly decreased in animals with diabetes. SDF-1α protein expression was reduced in experimental and human cavernosal diabetic samples, an effect prevented by insulin in treated animals. Insulin administration rescued the effects of diabetes on BM function, CECs levels, testosterone, and plasmatic/penile SDF-1α protein expression. This emphasizes the importance of glycemic control in the prevention of diabetes-induced systemic and penile EDys, by the amelioration of endothelial damage, and increase in protective pathways. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 82-91, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Predictive factors for intraoperative excessive bleeding in Graves' disease.

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    Yamanouchi, Kosho; Minami, Shigeki; Hayashida, Naomi; Sakimura, Chika; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    In Graves' disease, because a thyroid tends to have extreme vascularity, the amount of intraoperative blood loss (AIOBL) becomes significant in some cases. We sought to elucidate the predictive factors of the AIOBL. A total of 197 patients underwent thyroidectomy for Graves' disease between 2002 and 2012. We evaluated clinical factors that would be potentially related to AIOBL retrospectively. The median period between disease onset and surgery was 16 months (range: 1-480 months). Conventional surgery was performed in 125 patients, whereas video-assisted surgery was performed in 72 patients. Subtotal and near-total/total thyroidectomies were performed in 137 patients and 60 patients, respectively. The median weight of the thyroid was 45 g (range: 7.3-480.0 g). Univariate analysis revealed that the strongest correlation of AIOBL was noted with the weight of thyroid (p Graves' disease, and preparation for blood transfusion should be considered in cases where thyroids weigh more than 200 g. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  15. Factors predicting barriers to exercise in midlife Australian women.

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    McGuire, Amanda; Seib, Charrlotte; Anderson, Debra

    2016-05-01

    Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. They are, though, largely attributable to modifiable lifestyle risk factors, including lack of exercise. This study aims to investigate what factors predict perceptions of barriers to exercise in midlife women. This cross-sectional descriptive study collected data from midlife Australian women by online questionnaire. Volunteers aged between 40 and 65 years were recruited following media publicity about the study. The primary outcome measure was perceived exercise barriers (EBBS Barriers sub-scale). Other self-report data included: exercise, smoking, alcohol, fruit and vegetable consumption, body mass index, physical and mental health and well-being (MOS SF-12v2) and exercise self-efficacy. On average, the 225 participants were aged 50.9 years (SD=5.9). The significant predictors of perceived barriers to exercise were perceived benefits of exercise, exercise self-efficacy, physical well-being and mental well-being. These variables explained 41% of the variance in the final model (F (8219)=20.1, pexercise correlate with beliefs about the health benefits of exercise, exercise self-efficacy, physical and mental well-being. These findings have application to health promotion interventions targeting exercise behaviour change in midlife women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Osteoporosis-Related Mortality: Time-Trends and Predictive Factors

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    Nelly Ziadé

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is one of the leading causes of handicap worldwide and a major contributor to the global burden of diseases. In particular, osteoporosis is associated with excess mortality. We reviewed the impact of osteoporosis on mortality in a population by defining three categories: mortality following hip fractures, mortality following other sites of fractures, and mortality associated with low bone mineral density (BMD. Hip fractures, as well as other fractures at major sites are all associated with excess mortality, except at the forearm site. This excess mortality is higher during the first 3-6 months after the fracture and then declines over time, but remains higher than the mortality of the normal population up to 22 years after the fracture. Low BMD is also associated with high mortality, with hazard ratios of around 1.3 for every decrease in 1 standard deviation of bone density at 5 years, independently of fractures, reflecting a more fragile population. Finally predictors of mortality were identified and categorised in demographic known factors (age and male gender and in factors reflecting a poor general health status such as the number of comorbidities, low mental status, or level of social dependence. Our results indicate that the management of a patient with osteoporosis should include a multivariate approach that could be based on predictive models in the future.

  17. Relationships Between Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Fitness.

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    Moxley, Elizabeth W; Smith, Donald; Quinn, Lauretta; Park, Chang

    2018-07-01

    Diabetes is a serious health problem affecting approximately 29.1 million individuals in the United States. Another 86 million have prediabetes. The development and implementation of lifestyle modifications such as physical activity for these persons are among the most effective methods for prevention and treatment. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between glycemic control (HbA1c) and cardiovascular fitness (peak maximal oxygen uptake [VO 2 peak] and ventilatory threshold [VT]) in overweight/obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In addition, the influences of body mass index (BMI) and insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA %S]) on the relationship between glycemic control and cardiovascular fitness were explored. Data were abstracted from a completed study that included 51 overweight or obese subjects with T2DM ( n = 18), impaired glucose tolerance ( n = 8), or normal glucose tolerance ( n = 25). Relationships between glycemic control (HbA1c) and cardiovascular fitness (VO 2 peak and VT) were determined using correlational analysis and multiple linear regression analyses. A statistically significant relationship was observed between HbA1c and cardiovascular fitness. However, BMI and HOMA %S did not influence the relationship between glycemic control and cardiovascular fitness. HbA1c contributes to VO 2 peak and VT in obese and overweight subjects across glucose tolerance categories. Significant results were achieved despite the fact that there was a limited range of HbA1c based on the study inclusion criteria. This finding suggests that even a mild decrease in glycemic control can negatively influence cardiovascular fitness.

  18. Factors predicting recurrence in successfully treated cases of anisometropic amblyopia

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    Rohit Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Recurrence after successful treatment of amblyopia is known and understanding the risk factors could help effective management. Aim: To measure incidence of recurrence in successfully treated cases of anisometropic amblyopia and evaluate factors predicting it. Settings and Design: Cohort Study at a tertiary level institution. Materials and Methods: Successfully treated anisometropic amblyopes aged 4−12 years were followed up for 1 year after stopping therapy. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, refractive error, stereoacuity and contrast sensitivity were evaluated at baseline and follow-up. Statistical Analysis: Intergroup analysis with appropriate tests: Chi-square test, Fisher′s exact test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and paired t-test. Results: One hundred and two patients with mean age at diagnosis 7.06 μ 1.81 years were followed-up for a mean duration of 1.0 μ 0.2 years. The mean pre-treatment BCVA (LogMAR score at diagnosis was 0.73 μ 0.36 units which improved to 0.20 μ 0.00 with treatment and after 1 year of stopping treatment was 0.22 μ 0.07. Thirteen (12.74% patients showed amblyopia recurrence during follow-up. Risk of recurrence was higher with older age of onset of treatment (6.64 μ 1.77 years without recurrence v/s 8.53 μ 1.39 years with recurrence, P = 0.0014. Greater extent of improvement of VA (P = 0.048 and final VA at stopping occlusion (P = 0.03 were associated with higher recurrence. Binocularity status or stereoacuity changes were not associated with risk of recurrence. Conclusions: Significant numbers of children suffer recurrence of amblyopia after stopping therapy. Older age, better BCVA after stopping therapy and greater magnitude of improvement in BCVA are important risk factors for recurrence. Careful follow-up is essential for early detection and management of recurrence.

  19. Orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testes: factors predicting success.

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    Stec, Andrew A; Tanaka, Stacy T; Adams, Mark C; Pope, John C; Thomas, John C; Brock, John W

    2009-10-01

    Intra-abdominal testes can be treated with several surgical procedures. We evaluated factors influencing the outcome of orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testis. We retrospectively reviewed 156 consecutive orchiopexies performed for intra-abdominal testis, defined as a nonpalpable testis on examination and located in the abdomen at surgery. All surgical approaches were included in the study. Primary outcome was the overall success rate and secondary outcomes were success based on surgical approach, age and a patent processus vaginalis. Success was considered a testis with normal texture and size compared to the contralateral testis at followup. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine factors predictive of success. The overall success rate of all orchiopexies was 79.5%. Median patient age at orchiopexy was 12 months and mean followup was 16 months. Of the patients 117 had a patent processus vaginalis at surgery. One-stage abdominal orchiopexy was performed in 92 testes with 89.1% success. Of these cases 32 were performed laparoscopically with 96.9% success. One-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy was performed in 27 testes and 2-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy was performed in 37 with success in 63.0% and 67.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that 1-stage orchiopexy without vessel division had more successful outcomes than 1 and 2-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy (OR 0.24, p = 0.007 and 0.29, p = 0.19, respectively). Neither age at surgery nor an open internal ring was significant (p = 0.49 and 0.12, respectively). The overall success of orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testis is 79.5%. While patient selection remains a critical factor, 1-stage orchiopexy without vessel division was significantly more successful and a laparoscopic approach was associated with the fewest failures for intra-abdominal testes.

  20. Prediction of nucleosome positioning based on transcription factor binding sites.

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    Xianfu Yi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The DNA of all eukaryotic organisms is packaged into nucleosomes, the basic repeating units of chromatin. The nucleosome consists of a histone octamer around which a DNA core is wrapped and the linker histone H1, which is associated with linker DNA. By altering the accessibility of DNA sequences, the nucleosome has profound effects on all DNA-dependent processes. Understanding the factors that influence nucleosome positioning is of great importance for the study of genomic control mechanisms. Transcription factors (TFs have been suggested to play a role in nucleosome positioning in vivo. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR feature selection algorithm, the nearest neighbor algorithm (NNA, and the incremental feature selection (IFS method were used to identify the most important TFs that either favor or inhibit nucleosome positioning by analyzing the numbers of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs in 53,021 nucleosomal DNA sequences and 50,299 linker DNA sequences. A total of nine important families of TFs were extracted from 35 families, and the overall prediction accuracy was 87.4% as evaluated by the jackknife cross-validation test. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with the notion that TFs are more likely to bind linker DNA sequences than the sequences in the nucleosomes. In addition, our results imply that there may be some TFs that are important for nucleosome positioning but that play an insignificant role in discriminating nucleosome-forming DNA sequences from nucleosome-inhibiting DNA sequences. The hypothesis that TFs play a role in nucleosome positioning is, thus, confirmed by the results of this study.

  1. Factors predicting recurrence in successfully treated cases of anisometropic amblyopia

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    Saxena, Rohit; Puranik, Shraddha; Singh, Digvijay; Menon, Vimla; Sharma, Pradeep; Phuljhele, Swati

    2013-01-01

    Context: Recurrence after successful treatment of amblyopia is known and understanding the risk factors could help effective management. Aim: To measure incidence of recurrence in successfully treated cases of anisometropic amblyopia and evaluate factors predicting it. Settings and Design: Cohort Study at a tertiary level institution. Materials and Methods: Successfully treated anisometropic amblyopes aged 4−12 years were followed up for 1 year after stopping therapy. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive error, stereoacuity and contrast sensitivity were evaluated at baseline and follow-up. Statistical Analysis: Intergroup analysis with appropriate tests: Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and paired t-test. Results: One hundred and two patients with mean age at diagnosis 7.06 ± 1.81 years were followed-up for a mean duration of 1.0 ± 0.2 years. The mean pre-treatment BCVA (LogMAR score) at diagnosis was 0.73 ± 0.36 units which improved to 0.20 ± 0.00 with treatment and after 1 year of stopping treatment was 0.22 ± 0.07. Thirteen (12.74%) patients showed amblyopia recurrence during follow-up. Risk of recurrence was higher with older age of onset of treatment (6.64 ± 1.77 years without recurrence v/s 8.53 ± 1.39 years with recurrence, P = 0.0014). Greater extent of improvement of VA (P = 0.048) and final VA at stopping occlusion (P = 0.03) were associated with higher recurrence. Binocularity status or stereoacuity changes were not associated with risk of recurrence. Conclusions: Significant numbers of children suffer recurrence of amblyopia after stopping therapy. Older age, better BCVA after stopping therapy and greater magnitude of improvement in BCVA are important risk factors for recurrence. Careful follow-up is essential for early detection and management of recurrence. PMID:24343594

  2. Factors predicting recurrence in successfully treated cases of anisometropic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Rohit; Puranik, Shraddha; Singh, Digvijay; Menon, Vimla; Sharma, Pradeep; Phuljhele, Swati

    2013-11-01

    Recurrence after successful treatment of amblyopia is known and understanding the risk factors could help effective management. To measure incidence of recurrence in successfully treated cases of anisometropic amblyopia and evaluate factors predicting it. Cohort Study at a tertiary level institution. Successfully treated anisometropic amblyopes aged 4-12 years were followed up for 1 year after stopping therapy. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive error, stereoacuity and contrast sensitivity were evaluated at baseline and follow-up. Intergroup analysis with appropriate tests: Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and paired t-test. One hundred and two patients with mean age at diagnosis 7.06 μ 1.81 years were followed-up for a mean duration of 1.0 μ 0.2 years. The mean pre-treatment BCVA (LogMAR score) at diagnosis was 0.73 μ 0.36 units which improved to 0.20 μ 0.00 with treatment and after 1 year of stopping treatment was 0.22 μ 0.07. Thirteen (12.74%) patients showed amblyopia recurrence during follow-up. Risk of recurrence was higher with older age of onset of treatment (6.64 μ 1.77 years without recurrence v/s 8.53 μ 1.39 years with recurrence, P = 0.0014). Greater extent of improvement of VA (P = 0.048) and final VA at stopping occlusion (P = 0.03) were associated with higher recurrence. Binocularity status or stereoacuity changes were not associated with risk of recurrence. Significant numbers of children suffer recurrence of amblyopia after stopping therapy. Older age, better BCVA after stopping therapy and greater magnitude of improvement in BCVA are important risk factors for recurrence. Careful follow-up is essential for early detection and management of recurrence.

  3. Utility of different glycemic control metrics for optimizing management of diabetes.

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    Kohnert, Klaus-Dieter; Heinke, Peter; Vogt, Lutz; Salzsieder, Eckhard

    2015-02-15

    The benchmark for assessing quality of long-term glycemic control and adjustment of therapy is currently glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Despite its importance as an indicator for the development of diabetic complications, recent studies have revealed that this metric has some limitations; it conveys a rather complex message, which has to be taken into consideration for diabetes screening and treatment. On the basis of recent clinical trials, the relationship between HbA1c and cardiovascular outcomes in long-standing diabetes has been called into question. It becomes obvious that other surrogate and biomarkers are needed to better predict cardiovascular diabetes complications and assess efficiency of therapy. Glycated albumin, fructosamin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol have received growing interest as alternative markers of glycemic control. In addition to measures of hyperglycemia, advanced glucose monitoring methods became available. An indispensible adjunct to HbA1c in routine diabetes care is self-monitoring of blood glucose. This monitoring method is now widely used, as it provides immediate feedback to patients on short-term changes, involving fasting, preprandial, and postprandial glucose levels. Beyond the traditional metrics, glycemic variability has been identified as a predictor of hypoglycemia, and it might also be implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular diabetes complications. Assessment of glycemic variability is thus important, but exact quantification requires frequently sampled glucose measurements. In order to optimize diabetes treatment, there is a need for both key metrics of glycemic control on a day-to-day basis and for more advanced, user-friendly monitoring methods. In addition to traditional discontinuous glucose testing, continuous glucose sensing has become a useful tool to reveal insufficient glycemic management. This new technology is particularly effective in patients with complicated diabetes and provides the opportunity to characterize

  4. The effects of glycemic control on seizures and seizure-induced excitotoxic cell death

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    Schauwecker Paula

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder after stroke, affecting more than 50 million persons worldwide. Metabolic disturbances are often associated with epileptic seizures, but the pathogenesis of this relationship is poorly understood. It is known that seizures result in altered glucose metabolism, the reduction of intracellular energy metabolites such as ATP, ADP and phosphocreatine and the accumulation of metabolic intermediates, such as lactate and adenosine. In particular, it has been suggested that the duration and extent of glucose dysregulation may be a predictor of the pathological outcome of status. However, little is known about neither the effects of glycemic control on brain metabolism nor the effects of managing systemic glucose concentrations in epilepsy. Results In this study, we examined glycemic modulation of kainate-induced seizure sensitivity and its neuropathological consequences. To investigate the relationship between glycemic modulation, seizure susceptibility and its neuropathological consequences, C57BL/6 mice (excitotoxin cell death resistant were subjected to hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, followed by systemic administration of kainic acid to induce seizures. Glycemic modulation resulted in minimal consequences with regard to seizure severity but increased hippocampal pathology, irrespective of whether mice were hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic prior to kainate administration. Moreover, we found that exogenous administration of glucose following kainic acid seizures significantly reduced the extent of hippocampal pathology in FVB/N mice (excitotoxin cell death susceptible following systemic administration of kainic acid. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that modulation of the glycemic index can modify the outcome of brain injury in the kainate model of seizure induction. Moreover, modulation of the glycemic index through glucose rescue greatly diminishes the extent of seizure

  5. Glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus prevents coronary arterial wall infection

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    Morteza Izadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a very well-known risk factor for development of atherosclerosis, and it has been hypothesized that poor glycemic control and hyperglycemia plays a major role in this process. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the associates of poor glycemic control in Iranian patients who have already undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, with especial focus on the inhabitation of infectious agents within the coronary arterial wall. METHODS: In January 2010, 52 consecutive patients with type 2 DM who undergone CABG at the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran were included into this cross-sectional study and biopsy specimens from their coronary plaques were taken and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods for detecting Helicobacter species, cytomegalovirus (CMV and Chlamydia pneumoniae, and their potential relation to the glycemic control status in these patients. RESULTS: Compared to that in diabetic patients with mean fasting blood sugar (FBS levels FBS < 126, atherosclerotic lesions in type 2 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control (FBS > 126 were significantly more likely to be positive for CMV PCR test (41% vs. 9%, respectively; P = 0.05. In laboratorial test results, mean triglyceride level was significantly higher among patients of poor glycemic control (168 ± 89 vs. 222 ± 125 mg/dl, respectively; P = 0.033. Hypertension was also significantly more prevalent in this population (73% vs. 36%, respectively; P = 0.034. CONCLUSION: Type 2 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control can be at higher risk for developing CMV infection in their coronary arterial wall, which can promote atherosclerosis formation process in this patient population. According to the findings of this study, we recommend better control of serum glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients to prevent formation/progression of atherosclerosis.   Keywords

  6. Successful External Cephalic Version: Factors Predicting Vaginal Birth

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    Lim, Pei Shan; Ng, Beng Kwang; Ali, Anizah; Shafiee, Mohamad Nasir; Kampan, Nirmala Chandralega; Mohamed Ismail, Nor Azlin; Omar, Mohd Hashim; Abdullah Mahdy, Zaleha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the maternal and fetal outcomes of successful external cephalic version (ECV) as well as factors predicting vaginal birth. Methods. The ECV data over a period of three years at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) between 1 September 2008 and 30 September 2010 was reviewed. Sixty-seven patients who had successful ECV were studied and reviewed for maternal, fetal, and labour outcomes. The control group comprised patients with cephalic singletons of matching parity who delivered following the index cases. Results. The mean gestational age at ECV was 263 ± 6.52 days (37.5 weeks ± 6.52 days). Spontaneous labour and transient cardiotocographic (CTG) changes were the commonest early adverse effects following ECV. The reversion rate was 7.46%. The mean gestational age at delivery of the two groups was significantly different (P = 0.000) with 277.9 ± 8.91 days and 269.9 ± 9.68 days in the study group and control groups, respectively. The study group needed significantly more inductions of labour. They required more operative deliveries, had more blood loss at delivery, a higher incidence of meconium-stained liquor, and more cord around the neck. Previous flexed breeches had a threefold increase in caesarean section rate compared to previous extended breeches (44.1% versus 15.2%, P = 0.010). On the contrary, an amniotic fluid index (AFI) of 13 or more is significantly associated with a higher rate of vaginal birth (86.8% versus 48.3%, P = 0.001). Conclusions. Patients with successful ECV were at higher risk of carrying the pregnancy beyond 40 weeks and needing induction of labour, with a higher rate of caesarean section and higher rates of obstetrics complications. Extended breech and AFI 13 or more were significantly more likely to deliver vaginally postsuccessful ECV. This additional information may be useful to caution a patient with breech that ECV does not bring them to behave exactly like a normal cephalic, so that they

  7. Successful External Cephalic Version: Factors Predicting Vaginal Birth

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    Pei Shan Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the maternal and fetal outcomes of successful external cephalic version (ECV as well as factors predicting vaginal birth. Methods. The ECV data over a period of three years at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC between 1 September 2008 and 30 September 2010 was reviewed. Sixty-seven patients who had successful ECV were studied and reviewed for maternal, fetal, and labour outcomes. The control group comprised patients with cephalic singletons of matching parity who delivered following the index cases. Results. The mean gestational age at ECV was 263±6.52 days (37.5 weeks ± 6.52 days. Spontaneous labour and transient cardiotocographic (CTG changes were the commonest early adverse effects following ECV. The reversion rate was 7.46%. The mean gestational age at delivery of the two groups was significantly different (P=0.000 with 277.9±8.91 days and 269.9±9.68 days in the study group and control groups, respectively. The study group needed significantly more inductions of labour. They required more operative deliveries, had more blood loss at delivery, a higher incidence of meconium-stained liquor, and more cord around the neck. Previous flexed breeches had a threefold increase in caesarean section rate compared to previous extended breeches (44.1% versus 15.2%, P=0.010. On the contrary, an amniotic fluid index (AFI of 13 or more is significantly associated with a higher rate of vaginal birth (86.8% versus 48.3%, P=0.001. Conclusions. Patients with successful ECV were at higher risk of carrying the pregnancy beyond 40 weeks and needing induction of labour, with a higher rate of caesarean section and higher rates of obstetrics complications. Extended breech and AFI 13 or more were significantly more likely to deliver vaginally postsuccessful ECV. This additional information may be useful to caution a patient with breech that ECV does not bring them to behave exactly like a normal cephalic, so that they

  8. Prevalence, Predictive Factors, and Characteristics of Osteoporosis in Hyperthyroid Patients

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    Ayotunde O. Ale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The osteoporosis in thyroid disorder has the lowest report especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims to determine the prevalence, predictive factors, and characteristics of osteoporosis in hyperthyroid patients. Method. Forty (40 hyperthyroid patients and healthy controls ages 21–50 years were recruited in this study. Questionnaires were administered to capture bio- and clinical data. Biochemical tests included blood, thyroid functions, intact parathyroid hormone, corrected calcium, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D tests. Bone mineral density (BMD was also evaluated. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 21. A p value < 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results. Osteoporosis was observed in 18 (45% of study subjects, 13 (72.2% females and 5 (27.8% males, respectively. The BMD of the hyperthyroid patients had a negative correlation with free triiodothyronine, FT3 (r=−0.49, p=0.005, FT4 (r=−0.33, p=0.009, corrected calcium (r=−0.31, p=0.039, alkaline phosphatase (r=−0.53, p<0.001, and osteocalcin (r=−0.61, p<0.001. Conversely, a positive association with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH (r=0.54, p<0.001 was observed. Multiple regression showed osteocalcin (p<0.001 and TSH (p=0.015 as independent predictors of osteoporosis. Conclusion. Thyrotoxicosis is a risk factor for osteoporosis occurrence, and we recommend routine screening for this bone disease in persons over 20 years old with this disorder.

  9. Factors predicting the outcome of acute renal failure in pregnancy

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    Khana, N.; Akhtar, F.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the factors predicting renal outcome in patients developing acute renal failure in pregnancy. Study Design: Descriptive cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Nephrology Unit of Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, from October 2006 to March 2007. Methodology: Patients with acute renal failure due to complications of pregnancy, with normal size of both the kidneys on ultrasound were enrolled, and followed for a period of 60 days or until recovery of renal function. Patient's age and parity, presence of antenatal care, type of complication of pregnancy, foetal outcome and duration of oliguria were compared between patients who remained dialysis dependent and those who recovered renal function. Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and student's t-test, were used for determining the association of categorical and continuous variables with dialysis dependency. Results: The mean age was 29 +- 6 years. Most patients came from rural areas of interior Sindh. Sixty eight percent did not have antenatal checkups. Antepartum haemorrhage (p=0.002) and prolonged duration of oliguria (35 +- 15.7 days, p= < 0.001) were associated with dialysis dependency, which was observed in 50% of the study group. Conclusion: Ante-partum haemorrhage and prolonged oliguria were strong predictors of irreversible renal failure. This highlights the need for early recognition and referral, and the importance of trained birth attendants and antenatal care. (author)

  10. Can we Predict Disease Course with Clinical Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Golovics, Petra A; Lakatos, Peter L

    2018-01-01

    The disease phenotype at diagnosis and the disease course of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) show remarkable heterogeneity across patients. This review aims to summarize the currently available evidence on clinical and some environmental predictive factors, which clinicians should evaluate in the everyday practice together with other laboratory and imaging data to prevent disease progression, enable a more personalized therapy, and avoid negative disease outcomes. In recent population-based epidemiological and referral cohort studies, the evolution of disease phenotype of CD and UC varied significantly. Most CD and severe UC patients still require hospitalization or surgery/colectomy during follow-up. A change in the natural history of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) with improved outcomes in parallel with tailored positioning of aggressive immunomodulator and biological therapy has been suspected. According to the currently available literature, it is of major importance to refer IBD cases at risk for adverse disease outcomes as early during the disease course as possible. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. mathematical models for prediction of safety factors for a simply

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Keywords: reliability, code calibration, load factor, safety factor, design, steel beam. 1. INTRODUCTION ... safety factors for the design of a simply supported steel beam using regression .... 5 design criteria for a solid timber portal frame.

  12. Factores predictivos de las infecciones posoperatorias Prediction factors of the postoperative infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pascual Bestard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la génesis de las infecciones posquirúrgicas es multifactorial. Existen estudios internacionales que evidencian los diversos factores predictivos relacionados con la aparición de estas complicaciones, las que todavía afectan a un número considerable de pacientes intervenidos, todo lo cual justifica el interés en la realización de este trabajo. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento de algunos de los factores predictivos relacionados con la aparición de las infecciones posoperatorias en nuestro medio. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal de los pacientes ingresados y operados que presentaron infecciones posquirúrgicas en el servicio de cirugía general del Hospital Provincial Docente "Saturnino Lora" de Santiago de Cuba, durante el año 2008, según posibles factores predictivos seleccionados. Resultados: con relación al grado de contaminación, la tasa global de infección posoperatoria y la de heridas limpias estuvo en límites universalmente aceptados, aunque fueron más elevadas en las intervenciones urgentes, sucias y contaminadas para las localizadas en el sitio quirúrgico, así como en enfermos con estado físico preoperatorio según la American Society of Anaesthesiology (ASA ASA II Y ASA III, con independencia de su estado nutricional y el tiempo quirúrgico en que se efectuaron las intervenciones. Conclusiones: las tasas de infecciones posquirúrgicas aumentaron en la medida en que fueron desfavorables las condiciones bajo las que se efectuaron las operaciones, y los factores predictivos seleccionados se relacionaron principalmente para las localizadas en el sitio quirúrgico, con el grado de contaminación, el tipo de intervención y el estado físico preoperatorio del paciente.Introduction: the genesis of the postsurgical infections is multifactor. The are many international studies evidencing the different prediction factors related to the appearance of these complications

  13. Glycemic load, glycemic index, bread and incidence of overweight/obesity in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente-Arrillaga, Carmen; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Zazpe, Itziar; Vazquez-Ruiz, Zenaida; Benito-Corchon, Silvia; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2014-10-22

    To evaluate prospectively the relationship between white, or whole grain bread, and glycemic index, or glycemic load from diet and weight change in a Mediterranean cohort. We followed-up 9 267 Spanish university graduates for a mean period of 5 years. Dietary habits at baseline were assessed using a semi-quantitative 136-item food-frequency questionnaire. Average yearly weight change was evaluated according to quintiles of baseline glycemic index, glycemic load, and categories of bread consumption. We also assessed the association between bread consumption, glycemic index, or glycemic load, and the incidence of overweight/obesity. White bread and whole-grain bread were not associated with higher weight gain. No association between glycemic index, glycemic load and weight change was found.White bread consumption was directly associated with a higher risk of becoming overweight/obese (adjusted OR (≥2 portions/day) versus (≤1 portion/week): 1.40; 95% CI: 1.08-1.81; p for trend: 0.008). However, no statistically significant association was observed between whole-grain bread, glycemic index or glycemic load and overweight/obesity. Consumption of white bread (≥2 portions/day) showed a significant direct association with the risk of becoming overweight/obese.

  14. Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and Their Association with C-Reactive Protein and Incident Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geertruida J. van Woudenbergh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate whether the Glycemic Index (GI or Glycemic Load (GL of a diet is associated with C-reactive Protein (CRP and risk of type 2 diabetes in a prospective study. Materials and Methods. Our analysis included 4,366 participants who did not have diabetes at baseline. During follow-up 456 diabetes cases were confirmed. Dietary GI and GL were derived from a food-frequency questionnaire and its association with CRP was examined cross-sectionally using linear regression models. The association of GI and GL with diabetes incidence was examined using Cox proportional hazard models. Results. GL, but not GI, was associated with lnCRP at baseline (bGL=0.11 per 50 units; P=.01. When comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of GI with respect to diabetes incidence, a Relative Risk (RR of 0.95 [95%CI 0.75, 1.21] was found after adjustment for lifestyle and nutritional factors. For GL the RR for diabetes incidence was 1.00 [95%CI 0.74, 1.36]. Additional adjustment for CRP did not change RRs. Conclusion. Since GI was not associated with CRP and risk of type 2 diabetes, it is unlikely that a high GI diet induces the previously shown positive association between CRP and risk of type 2 diabetes by increasing CRP concentrations.

  15. Predictive factors for perioperative blood transfusion in neck dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Warshavsky, Anton; Carmel, Narin-Nard; Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Abergel, Avraham; Fliss, Dan M; Yehuda, Moshe

    2016-04-01

    There is growing interest in reducing the exposure of patients to allogeneic blood transfusions by lowering preoperative cross-matched blood ordering and adopting alternative practices, such as autologous blood donations. Our aim was to investigate the predictors for perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) in head and neck cancer patients undergoing neck dissection (ND). Retrospective cohort study. Retrospective observational study. All patients who underwent ND between January 2011 and August 2014. The primary outcome measure was PBT. Predictors tested included: gender, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists comorbidity score, Charlson comorbidity index, preoperative hemoglobin level, head and neck primary tumor location, tumor and nodal staging, side and laterality of ND, central versus lateral ND, elective ND, preoperative chemotherapy/radiotherapy/I(131) therapy, history of previous ND, other surgical procedures in addition to the ND, bone resection, use and type of reconstruction, and the use of bony free flap reconstruction. Twenty-one preoperative and operative variables were tested for an association with PBT using univariate and multivariate analyses. Multivariate analysis found only the following three predictors to be significantly associated with PBT in patients undergoing ND: low preoperative hemoglobin level, advanced N stage, and concurrent reconstructive surgery. Evaluation of specific risk factors for predicting the need for PBT prior to neck dissection may be helpful in identifying the head and neck cancer patients in whom preoperative ordering of cross-matched blood is required or who could benefit from alternative means, such as preoperative autologous blood donation. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Patterns, incidence and predictive factors for pain after interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, A.; Tam, C.L.; Thacker, D.E.; Walker, A.L.; Parkinson, A.S.; DeMello, W.; Bradley, A.J.; Tuck, J.S.; Laasch, H.-U.; Butterfield, J.S.; Ashleigh, R.J.; England, R.E.; Martin, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate prospectively the pattern, severity and predictive factors of pain after interventional radiological procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients undergoing non-arterial radiological interventional procedures were assessed using a visual-analogue scale (VAS) for pain before and at regular intervals for 24 h after their procedure. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty patients (87 men, mean age 62 years, range 18-92 years) were entered into the study. Significant increases in VAS score occurred 8 h after percutaneous biliary procedures (+47.7 mm, SD 14.9 mm; p=0.001), 6 h after central venous access and gastrostomy insertion (+23.7 mm, SD 19.5 mm; p=0.001 and +28.4 mm, SD 9.7 mm; p=0.007, respectively) and 4 h after oesophageal stenting (+27.8 mm, SD 20.2 mm, p=0.001). Non-significant increases in VAS pain score were observed after duodenal and colonic stenting (duodenal: +5.13 mm, SD 7.47 mm; p=0.055, colonic: +23.3 mm, SD 13.10 mm, p=0.250) at a mean of 5 h (range 4-6 h). Patients reported a significant reduction in pain score for nephrostomy insertion (-28.4 mm, SD 7.11 mm, p=0.001). Post-procedural analgesia was required in 99 patients (69.2%), 40 (28.0%) requiring opiates. Maximum post-procedural VAS pain score was significantly higher in patients who had no pre-procedural analgesia (p=0.003). CONCLUSION: Post-procedural pain is common and the pattern and severity of pain between procedures is variable. Pain control after interventional procedures is often inadequate, and improvements in pain management are required

  17. Glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Uchôa Passos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases. Nine fruits were investigated: coconut water (for the purpose of this study, coconut water was classified as a “fruit”, guava, tamarind, passion fruit, custard apple, hog plum, cashew, sapodilla, and soursop. The GI and GL were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization protocol. The GL was calculated taking into consideration intake recommendation guidelines; 77.8% of the fruits had low GI although significant oscillations were observed in some graphs, which may indicate potential risks of disease. Coconut water and custard apple had a moderate GI, and all fruits had low GL. The fruits evaluated are healthy and can be consumed following the daily recommended amount. However, caution is recommended with fruits causing early glycemic peak and the fruits with moderated GI (coconut water and custard apple.

  18. A low-glycemic-index diet reduces plasma PAI-1 activity in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    diet. Still, the relevance of GI in preventing the metabolic syndrome is controversial. Objectives The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 10 weeks intake of a low glycemic index vs. a high glycemic index high-carbohydrate, low fat ad libitum diet on plasma PAI-1 activity...... to decrease during weight loss. However, the beneficial effects of healthy diets on PAI-1 levels may not solely depend on weight loss, but other factors may also play a role. For example better glycemic control has been observed in diabetic patients after a low glycemic index (GI) diet compared to a high GI...... and antigen levels in overweight women. Methods 45 healthy overweight women (BMI 27.6 ± 0.2 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to a parallel 10 week intervention with a low GI (n=23) or high GI (n=22) diet. Fasting blood samples were obtained before and after the 10 weeks. To study the postprandial effect of LGI...

  19. Studies on the glycemic response of wheat at various level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    estimating the glycemic index of various processing effect subjected to wheat ... Over-consumption of milled cereals is sometimes blamed for obesity ... Glycemic index (GI) is a measure of the glycemic effect of carbohydrate in a particular food,.

  20. Predictive Risk Factors in the Treatment of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebriz Hale Aktun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to investigate predictive risk factors in the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Patients and Methods A total of 256 pregnant women who underwent 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT during 24–28 weeks of pregnancy were included according to the World Health Organization criteria. Demographic characteristics of the patients, including age, parity, family history of diabetes, body weight before pregnancy, and body weight at the diagnosis of GDM, were recorded. Fasting insulin and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c values at the time of diagnosis were evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups: those requiring insulin treatment (insulin group, n = 89 and those receiving diet therapy (diet group, n = 167 during pregnancy according to the American Diabetes Association recommendations. Results A total of 34.76% of the pregnant women with GDM required insulin treatment. The mean age of these patients was significantly higher compared to the diet group (34.9 ± 0.6 years vs. 31.9 ± 0.6 years; P = 0.004. Body mass index before pregnancy was also significantly higher in the insulin group than that in the diet group (32 ± 0.9 kg/m 2 vs. 29 ± 0.7 kg/m 2 ; P = 0.004. Fasting blood glucose (FBG during OGTT was 105.6 ± 2.1 mg/dL and 96.7 ± 1.1 mg/dL in the insulin group and diet group, respectively ( P < 0.001. There was no significant difference in fasting plasma glucose during OGTT between the groups ( P = 0.069, while plasma glucose at two hours was 161.1 ± 6.8 mg/dL in the insulin group and 145.1 ± 3.7 mg/dL in the diet group ( P = 0.027. At the time of diagnosis, HbA1c values were significantly higher in the insulin group compared to the diet group (5.3 ± 0.1 vs. 4.9 ± 0.1; P = 0.001. There was no significant difference in FBG and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance values between the groups ( P = 0.908, P = 0.073. Conclusion Our study results suggest that age, family history of diabetes, body

  1. A study of risk factors and predictive factors in intraoperative floppy iris syndrome during phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Xin Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the incidence of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome(IFISin patients undergoing phacoemulsification in a Chinese hospital, and to assess new risk factors and predictive factors for IFIS. METHODS: A prospective, observational case series. In the consecutive cataract surgeries performed in one year, the medicine administration, pupil size(PSbefore and after mydriasis, and signs of IFIS were recorded. RESULTS: Totally 807 patients(1 068 eyesunderwent cataract surgeries. Among the 1 068 eyes, signs of IFIS were noted in 34 eyes. Strong positive correlations were showed between finasteride(6.4%, OR=5.885, tamsulosin(25%, OR=21.578, reserpine(16.7%, OR=12.947, clozapine(66.7%, OR=139.467, post-panretinal photocoagulation(14.3%, OR=10.789and IFIS. Pupil size was inversely related to IFIS incidence(PPCONCLUSION: The incidence rate of IFIS was 3.18%. Reserpine, clozapine and post-panretinal photocoagulation emerged as new risk factors for IFIS. A small dilated pupil may imply IFIS occurrence.

  2. Antithyroid Therapy Improves Glycemic Control in Hyperthyroid Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

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    Vlad Mihaela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Thyroid disorders are more frequently met in patients with diabetes mellitus than in general population. Thyroid hormones increase glycemia by several mechanisms, but the effect of antithyroid treatment on glucose control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM cases is not well studied. The aim of our work was to analyze the evolution of glycemic control of T1DM patients submitted to specific therapy when hyperthyroidism was diagnosed. Material and method. The study group comprised by 37 patients, 35 women (94.6% and 2 men (5.4%, known as having T1DM and diagnosed with hyperthyroidism during a 10-years interval. They were treated with antithyroid medication and reassessed after 6 months regarding thyroid function and glycemic control. Results. In the whole group, there was a significant decrease in mean HbA1c level (with 0.41% and a significant increase in the percentage of patients being in the glycemic target (from 10.8% to 35.1%. The better glycemic control was obtained with a lower mean insulin dose. Patients who became euthyroid had a better evolution regarding glucose control in comparison to those who remained hyperthyroid. Changes in other cardiovascular risk factors were noted: systolic blood pressure decreased; diastolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and body weight increased. TSH and HbA1c values were inversely correlated. Conclusions. The therapeutic control of excessive thyroid function significantly contributes to the improvement of glycemic control in patients with T1DM and induces changes in the cardiovascular risk factors profile.

  3. Predictive Factors associated with Death of Elderly in Nursing Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Kiwol Sung, PhD, RN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: An increasing elderly population reflects a great need for readily accessible, clinically useful methods to identify mortality-related factors in nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with the deaths of nursing home residents. Methods: Data was collected from a Minimal Data Set of 195 elderly nursing home residents, followed by analysis of demographic factors, disease and nursing condition factors, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), co...

  4. Predictive factors for masticatory performance in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, H.W. van; Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Steenks, M.H.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.; Groot, I.J.M. de; Kalaykova, S.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) report masticatory and swallowing problems. Such problems may cause complications such as choking, and feeling of food sticking in the throat. We investigated whether masticatory performance in DMD is objectively impaired, and explored predictive

  5. Índice glicêmico: uma abordagem crítica acerca de sua utilização na prevenção e no tratamento de fatores de risco cardiovasculares Glycemic index: a critical analysis of its use as a tool to prevent and treat cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Queiroz Carvalho

    2008-10-01

    amount. The glycemic index is an indicator of carbohydrate quality. Its use in free living conditions has been questioned, due to the interference of several factors which are difficult to control under such conditions. The aim of this paper was to critically analyze studies that evaluated the effect of the glycemic index of foods in the manifestation of cardiovascular diseases and its risk factors.

  6. Association between glycemic control and morning blood surge with vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Kumari Nuthalapati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Morning blood pressure surge (MBPS is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. However, little is known about the association between glycemic control and MBPS, and its effect on vascular injury in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The current study examined the association between glycemic control and MBPS and the involvement of MBPS in the development of vascular dysfunction in T2DM patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-two consecutive T2DM outpatients from the Department of Cardiology and Endocrinology were enrolled in this study. We did MBPS in T2DM patients, 85 (male (69.7% patients and 37 (female patients (30.3%; mean age 60.1 ± 9.39; (n = 122 using 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and assessed vascular function by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD. Results: The correlation between MBPS and various clinical variables were examined by single regression analysis in all subjects. MBPS showed significant and positive correlation with pulse rate (P = 0.01, fasting blood sugar (P = 0.002, and postprandial blood sugar (P = 0.05. To further confirm the association of insulin resistance (IR with MBPS in T2DM patients, we examined the correlation between homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR, an established marker of IR and MBPS in diabetic (DM patients who were not taking insulin no significant association with MBPS in T2DM patients (P = 0.41, angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blocker (P = 0.07. We examined the relationship between MBPS and vascular injury by measuring endothelium-dependent FMD and endothelium-independent NMD in T2DM patients. Among the various traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis such as DM duration (P = 0.04, platelet reactivity (P = 0.04 and morning surge (P = 0.002 emerged as significant factors. HOMA-IR was a negative correlation with FMD. Conclusions: The current study demonstrated that

  7. The prevalence and determinants of poor glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzaheb RA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Riyadh A Alzaheb,1 Abdullah H Altemani2 1Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia Background: Although the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is rising sharply in Saudi Arabia, data on glycemic control, crucial to reducing diabetes mellitus complications, remain scarce. This study therefore investigated glycemic control status and the factors influencing poor glycemic control among adult T2DM patients in Saudi Arabia.Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 423 T2DM patients at a diabetic center in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia between September 2016 and July 2017. Glycemic levels were measured via fasting blood glucose (FBG levels, and “poor glycemic control” was defined as FBG >130 mg/dL. Poor glycemic control’s risk factors were identified using a logistic regression.Results: In the sample, 74.9% of the patients had poor blood glycemic control. Logistic regression revealed that T2DM patients had an increased chance of poorly controlled diabetes if they had family histories of diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =7.38, 95% CI 4.09–13.31, longer diabetic durations (AOR =2.33, 95% CI 1.14–4.78 for 5–10 years and AOR =5.19, 95% CI 2.50–10.69 for >10 years, insufficient physical exercise (AOR =19.02, 95% CI 6.23–58.06, or were overweight (AOR =3.79, 95% CI 2.00–7.18, or obese (AOR =5.35, 95% CI 2.72–12.59.Conclusion: A high proportion of the sampled patients had poor glycemic control, therefore, health care professionals should manage the associated risk factors to limit disease complications and improve the health of patients with diabetes. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, glycemic control, Saudi Arabia

  8. The Glycemic Response Does Not Reflect the In Vivo Starch Digestibility of Fiber-Rich Wheat Products in Healthy Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelderink, C.; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Wang, H.W.; Schepers, M.; Preston, T.; Boer, T.; Vonk, R.J.; Schierbeek, H.; Priebe, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Starchy food products differ in the rate of starch digestion, which can affect their metabolic impact. In this study, we examined how the in vivo starch digestibility is reflected by the glycemic response, because this response is often used to predict starch digestibility. Ten healthy male

  9. Glycemic Variation in Tumor Patients with Total Parenteral Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Cheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperglycemia is associated with poor clinical outcomes and mortality in several patients. However, studies evaluating hyperglycemia variation in tumor patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between glycemia and tumor kinds with TPN by monitoring glycemic variation in tumor patients. Methods: This retrospective clinical trial selected 312 patients with various cancer types, whose unique nutrition treatment was TPN during the monitoring period. All patients had blood glucose (BG values assessed at least six times daily during the TPN infusion. The glycemic variation before and after TPN was set as the indicator to evaluate the factors influencing BG. Results: The clinical trial lasted 7.5 ± 3.0 days adjusted for age, gender, family cancer history and blood types. There were six cancer types: Hepatic carcinoma (HC, 21.8%, rectal carcinoma (17.3%, colon carcinoma (CC, 14.7%, gastric carcinoma (29.8%, pancreatic carcinoma (11.5%, and duodenal carcinoma (DC, 4.8%. The patients were divided into diabetes and nondiabetes groups. No statistical differences in TPN glucose content between diabetes and nondiabetes groups were found; however, the tumor types affected by BG values were obvious. With increasing BG values, DC, HC and CC were more represented than other tumor types in this sequence in diabetic individuals, as well as in the nondiabetic group. BG was inclined to be more easily influenced in the nondiabetes group. Other factors did not impact BG values, including gender, body mass index, and TPN infusion duration time. Conclusions: When tumor patients are treated with TPN, BG levels should be monitored according to different types of tumors, besides differentiating diabetes or nondiabetes patients. Special BG control is needed for DC, HC and CC in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. If BG overtly increases, positive measurements are needed to control BG

  10. Factors predicting early return of continence after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Jaspreet S; Eastham, James A

    2010-05-01

    Success of radical prostatectomy is measured by control of cancer and return of urinary and sexual function. Urinary incontinence is generally considered the greatest impairment in immediate postoperative urinary function. Multiple factors are associated with earlier return of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy. These factors can be divided into those known prior to surgery, and therefore possibly not modifiable, and factors that can be controlled during surgery or surgical planning. In addition, various postoperative maneuvers can help hasten urinary continence. This article examines the effect of known factors related to early return of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy.

  11. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Alvarez-Aguirre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents.METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used.RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year.CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users.

  12. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2014-01-01

    to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users.

  13. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users. PMID:25591103

  14. Equivalent glycemic load (EGL: a method for quantifying the glycemic responses elicited by low carbohydrate foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spolar Matt

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycemic load (GL is used to quantify the glycemic impact of high-carbohydrate (CHO foods, but cannot be used for low-CHO foods. Therefore, we evaluated the accuracy of equivalent-glycemic-load (EGL, a measure of the glycemic impact of low-CHO foods defined as the amount of CHO from white-bread (WB with the same glycemic impact as one serving of food. Methods Several randomized, cross-over trials were performed by a contract research organization using overnight-fasted healthy subjects drawn from a pool of 63 recruited from the general population by newspaper advertisement. Incremental blood-glucose response area-under-the-curve (AUC elicited by 0, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50 g CHO portions of WB (WB-CHO and 3, 5, 10 and 20 g glucose were measured. EGL values of the different doses of glucose and WB and 4 low-CHO foods were determined as: EGL = (F-B/M, where F is AUC after food and B is y-intercept and M slope of the regression of AUC on grams WB-CHO. The dose-response curves of WB and glucose were used to derive an equation to estimate GL from EGL, and the resulting values compared to GL calculated from the glucose dose-response curve. The accuracy of EGL was assessed by comparing the GL (estimated from EGL values of the 4 doses of oral-glucose with the amounts actually consumed. Results Over 0–50 g WB-CHO (n = 10, the dose-response curve was non-linear, but over the range 0–20 g the curve was indistinguishable from linear, with AUC after 0, 5, 10 and 20 g WB-CHO, 10 ± 1, 28 ± 2, 58 ± 5 and 100 ± 6 mmol × min/L, differing significantly from each other (n = 48. The difference between GL values estimated from EGL and those calculated from the dose-response curve was 0 g (95% confidence-interval, ± 0.5 g. The difference between the GL values of the 4 doses of glucose estimated from EGL, and the amounts of glucose actually consumed was 0.2 g (95% confidence-interval, ± 1 g. Conclusion EGL, a measure of the glycemic impact of

  15. Mother-father informant discrepancies regarding diabetes management: associations with diabetes-specific family conflict and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Erica D; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan M; Rohan, Jennifer M; Pulgaron, Elizabeth R; Drotar, Dennis

    2012-09-01

    To examine the relationship of mother-father informant discrepancies regarding diabetes management to diabetes-specific family conflict and glycemic control. One hundred thirty-six mothers and fathers of youth with Type 1 diabetes reported on the youth's diabetes management, diabetes-specific family conflict, and amount of paternal involvement in diabetes care. Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was used to measure glycemic control. As hypothesized, mother-father discrepancies regarding diabetes management were positively associated with frequency of diabetes-specific family conflict. Contrary to hypotheses, mother-father discrepancies regarding diabetes management predicted poorer glycemic control for youth with less involved fathers only. Results highlight the importance of caregivers being consistent about pediatric illness management and support the idea that informant discrepancies represent an important window into the functioning of the family system. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Glycemic Index values of some Jaffna fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selladurai Pirasath

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has recently increased in developing countries. Scientific data on glycemic index values of common meals is essential to modify the diets for diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain, ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain, and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya. The results will be helpful to physicians and the general public to decide the benefits ofthe consumption of fruits, particularly by diabetic and coronary heart disease patients.Methods: Healthy volunteers (20 Nos. of 21.05(±0.92 years, 53.90 (±9.36 kg body weights, 153.92 (±9.15 m heights, and 20.55 (±2.22 kgm-2body mass indexes were selected with their written consent. After overnight fasting, 75g glucose and each test fruit containing 75g digestible carbohydrate were administered at different instances and blood glucose levels were measured half hourly for two hours. The glycemic response and GI values were calculated and analyzed by Randomized Complete Block Design using SAS analytical package.Results: The mean GI values of the ‘Kathali’, ‘Kappal’, ‘Itharai’ varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya were 54.45 (±9.26, 50.43 (±5.79, 48.47 (±10.13, 65.36 (±8.00 and 34.80 (±12.78 % respectively. The GI value of papaya differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits. The GI value of ‘Itharai’ variety of plantain differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits except the ‘Kappal’ varietyof plantain.Conclusion: The three varieties of plantains and papaya were low GI fruits, and jack fruit was found to be an intermediate GI fruit. The presence of dietary fiber, esp. soluble fiber, reduces the glycemicresponse and glycemic index of foods.

  17. Some Results on Mean Square Error for Factor Score Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijnen, Wim P.

    2006-01-01

    For the confirmatory factor model a series of inequalities is given with respect to the mean square error (MSE) of three main factor score predictors. The eigenvalues of these MSE matrices are a monotonic function of the eigenvalues of the matrix gamma[subscript rho] = theta[superscript 1/2] lambda[subscript rho] 'psi[subscript rho] [superscript…

  18. Serum bilirubin levels are positively associated with glycemic variability in women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Lee Kyung; Roh, Eun; Kim, Min Joo; Kim, Min Kyeong; Park, Kyeong Seon; Kwak, Soo Heon; Cho, Young Min; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Jung, Hye Seung

    2016-11-01

    Glycemic variability is known to induce oxidative stress. We investigated the relationships between glycemic variability and serum bilirubin levels, an endogenous anti-oxidant, in patients with diabetes. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 77 patients with type 2 diabetes who had been recruited to two clinical studies from 2008 to 2014. There were no participants with diseases of the pancreas, liver, biliary tract and chronic renal insufficiency. Glycemic variation was calculated by a continuous glucose monitoring system, and correlation analyses were carried out to evaluate their association with bilirubin levels. Multiple linear regression was carried out to identify independent factors influencing bilirubin levels and glycemic variation. Among the participants, 42.3% were men. The mean (standard deviation) age was 61.5 years (10.4 years), body mass index was 24.2 kg/m 2 (2.8 kg/m 2 ), diabetes duration was 17.7 years (9.5 years), hemoglobin A 1c was 60.7 mmol/mol (7.1 mmol/mol; 7.7 [0.7]%) and bilirubin was 11.8 μmol/L (4.10 μmol/L). Serum bilirubin levels were not different according to age, body mass index and hemoglobin A 1c . However, the mean amplitude of glucose excursion was positively associated with bilirubin levels in women (r = 0.588, P bilirubin and mean amplitude of glucose excursion remained significant (r = 0.566, P bilirubin was an independent determinant for the mean amplitude of glucose excursion in women. 1,5-Anhydroglucitol was also associated with bilirubin levels in women. Bilirubin level within the physiological range might be an independent predictor for glycemic variability in women with type 2 diabetes. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with dietary glycemic index in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Beng-In; Sathyasuryan, Daniel Robert; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; pfoods containing high dietary glycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  20. Patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunpreet Singh Kahlon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : Till now estimation of blood glucose is the highly effective method for diagnosing diabetes mellitus but it provides a short-term picture of control. More evidence is required to prove that plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels together gives a better estimate of glycemic control and compliance with treatment. Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS is a simplified screening tool for identifying undiagnosed diabetic subjects, requires minimum time, and effort and can help to considerably reduce the costs of screening. Objective : To study patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. To find out correlation between levels of plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics and to calculate IDRS of the study population. Materials and Methods : A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 known diabetic patients attending outpatient department of a rural medical college in Haryana, India. Following standard procedures and protocols FPG and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured to find out a pattern of glycemic control in them after taking their written and informed consent. A correlation between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting blood glucose was also calculated. These patients were made to fill a performa and their demographic and clinical risk factors were noted and based on this, their IDRS was calculated. This was done to validate the IDRS in Indian rural population. Results : Fifty-two percent of the population had fasting plasma glucose level between 125-150 mg/dl, 21% had this level between 151-175 mg/dl. Thirteen percent of the study subjects had HbA1C between 6.5-7.5, more than half (57.3% had this value between 7.5-8.5, 12% and 18% had values between 8.5-9.5 and 9.5-10.5, respectively. Twelve percent of the participants had HbA1C level higher than 10.5. Correlation of fasting plasma glucose level and HbA1C was also studied and found that correlation coefficient came

  1. Patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Arunpreet Singh; Pathak, Rambha

    2011-07-01

    Till now estimation of blood glucose is the highly effective method for diagnosing diabetes mellitus but it provides a short-term picture of control. More evidence is required to prove that plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels together gives a better estimate of glycemic control and compliance with treatment. Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS) is a simplified screening tool for identifying undiagnosed diabetic subjects, requires minimum time, and effort and can help to considerably reduce the costs of screening. To study patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. To find out correlation between levels of plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics and to calculate IDRS of the study population. A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 known diabetic patients attending outpatient department of a rural medical college in Haryana, India. Following standard procedures and protocols FPG and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured to find out a pattern of glycemic control in them after taking their written and informed consent. A correlation between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting blood glucose was also calculated. These patients were made to fill a performa and their demographic and clinical risk factors were noted and based on this, their IDRS was calculated. This was done to validate the IDRS in Indian rural population. Fifty-two percent of the population had fasting plasma glucose level between 125-150 mg/dl, 21% had this level between 151-175 mg/dl. Thirteen percent of the study subjects had HbA1C between 6.5-7.5, more than half (57.3%) had this value between 7.5-8.5, 12% and 18% had values between 8.5-9.5 and 9.5-10.5, respectively. Twelve percent of the participants had HbA1C level higher than 10.5. Correlation of fasting plasma glucose level and HbA1C was also studied and found that correlation coefficient came out to be .311. This correlation was found to be statistically

  2. Analysis of Factors that Predict Clinical Performance in Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Casey B.; Dey, Eric L.; Fantone, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    Academic achievement indices including GPAs and MCAT scores are used to predict the spectrum of medical student academic performance types. However, use of these measures ignores two changes influencing medical school admissions: student diversity and affirmative action, and an increased focus on communication skills. To determine if GPA and MCAT…

  3. Predicting factors influencing crop raiding by elephants in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nyirenda et al.

    By developing predictive models of binary logistic regression and employing questionnaire surveys, we .... Lupande Game Management Area (GMA), covering an area of 4 840 km2 constitutes the ...... Temporal trends in elephant ... the modern conservation paradigm: Can agricultural communities co- exist with elephant?

  4. Prevalence of microalbuminuria with relation to glycemic control in type-2 diabetic patients in Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.A.; Baig, J.A.; Iqbal, T.; Kazmi, T.; Baig, M.; Husain, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine disorders characterized by hyperglycaemia. Diabetic nephropathy is a consequence of long standing diabetes. The prevalence of microalbuminuria predicts progression to diabetic nephropathy. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria in relation to duration of diabetes, BMI, Serum Creatinine and HbA1c in an ethnic group of Type 2 diabetes mellitus residing in Karachi. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a community diabetic centre, located at Garden East Karachi from July to December 2007. One hundred known Type 2 diabetic patients with age 30 - 70 years were included in the study. Informed consent and a structured questionnaire of each patient were recorded. Fasting venous blood and morning urine sample was collected for analysis of creatinine, HbA1c and microalbuminuria respectively. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 13.0. Pearson correlation was applied to observe association of microalbuminuria with different parameters. All p-values 7%) or heredity factors. Screening for microalbuminuria and HbA1c test should be done in both newly and already diagnosed Type 2 diabetic patients as an early marker of renal dysfunction and glycemic control. (author)

  5. Glycemic allostasis during mental activities on fasting in non alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glycemic allostasis is the process by which blood glucose stabilization is achieved through the balancing of glucose consumption rate and release into the blood stream under a variety of stressors.This paper reviews findings on the dynamics of glycemic levels during mental activities on fasting in non‑alcohol users and ...

  6. The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the severity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    factors associated with injuries or return-to-play (RTP) time. Objectives: To .... metacarpal fractures contributing mostly to the prolonged recovery ... to recover from TBIs/hypoxia. This follows .... gear and the legality of knee and elbow strikes to.

  7. Predictive factors associated with prolonged chest drain production after esophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagarde, S. M.; Omloo, J. M. T.; Ubbink, D. T.; Busch, O. R. C.; Obertop, H.; van Lanschot, J. J. B.

    2007-01-01

    After esophagectomy, pleural drainage is performed to ensure complete drainage of the pleural cavities. The aim of this study was to detect predisposing factors for prolonged drainage. Patients who underwent transhiatal or extended transthoracic esophagectomy for adenocarcinoma of the distal

  8. Conversion Factors for Predicting Unshielded Dose Rates in Shielded Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapham, M.; Seamans Jr, J.V.; Arbon, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the methodology developed and used by the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project for determining the activity content and the unshielded surface dose rate for lead lined containers contaminated with transuranic waste. Several methods were investigated: - Direct measurement of the dose rate after removing the shielding. - Use of a MicroShield R derived dose conversion factor, (mRem/hr unshielded )/(mRem/hr shielded ), applied to the measured surface dose rate to estimate the unshielded surface dose rate. - Use of a MicroShield R derived activity conversion factor, mRem/hr unshielded /Ci, applied to the measured activity to estimate the unshielded dose rate. - Use of an empirically derived activity conversion factor, mRem/hr unshielded /Ci, applied to the measured activity to estimate the unshielded dose rate. The last approach proved to be the most efficacious by using a combination of nondestructive assay and empirically defined dose rate conversion factors. Empirically derived conversion factors were found to be highly dependent upon the matrix of the waste. Use of conversion factors relied on activity values corrected to address the presence of a lead liner. (authors)

  9. LABOR PRODUCTIVITY AS A FACTOR FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the potential of the labor productivity in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The population subjected to the analysis included all companies form Timis County with yearly sales of over 2200 Euros. The interest for the labor productivity was based on the recommendations of the scientific literature, as well as on the availability of information concerning its values to all stakeholders. The event on which the research was focused was represented by the manifestation of bankruptcy 2 years after the date of the financial statements of reference. All tests were performed over a paired sample of 1424 companies. The methodology employed in evaluating the potential of the labor productivity was based on the general accuracy ensured by the ratio (63.2% and the Area Under the ROC Curve (0.665. The results confirm the practical utility of the labor productivity in the prediction of bankruptcy.

  10. Impact Factors and Prediction of Popular Topics in a Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M B; Seitz, K.

    2016-01-01

    been on peripheral nerves 23. Surprisingly many good scientific papers on obstetrics/fetal US and musculoskeletal US have low citation rates 24 25 26. Our predictions for 2016 based on the topics of submitted articles in the last 12 months are that CEUS and elastography will continue to be popular...... topics.It is also worth mentioning that there can be a discrepancy between which titles are cited and which are accessed online. In addition to international guidelines, our CME articles are usually popular according to online access. CME articles are well established educational papers...... and recommendations is important to UIM/EJU. Although we see popular topics like CEUS and elastography, it is not possible to predict which articles will be read or even cited based on the topic, with multicenter studies being the exception....

  11. Cognitive deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors: Identification of predictive factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Tonny Solveig; Ehrenfels, Susanne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2003-01-01

    To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors.......To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors....

  12. The Role of Socioeconomic Factors in the Prediction of Persistence in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dika, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    While research literature suggests that socioeconomic factors play a role in predicting educational attainment, very little research has been done to examine these relationships using data from Puerto Rico. A logistic regression approach was adopted to investigate the extent to which family and school socioeconomic factors predict retention from…

  13. LABOR PRODUCTIVITY AS A FACTOR FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluates the potential of the labor productivity in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The population subjected to the analysis included all companies form Timis County with yearly sales of over 2200 Euros. The interest for the labor productivity was based on the recommendations of the scientific literature, as well as on the availability of information concerning its values to all stakeholders. The event on which the research was focused was represented by the manif...

  14. Hope matters to the glycemic control of adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fábio R M; Sigulem, Daniel; Areco, Kelsy C N; Gabbay, Monica A L; Dib, Sergio A; Bernardo, Viviane

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the association of hope and its factors with depression and glycemic control in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. A total of 113 patients were invited to participate. Significant negative correlations were found between hope and HbA1c and also between hope and depression. Hope showed a significant association with HbA1c and depression in the stepwise regression model. Among the hope factors, "inner positive expectancy" was significantly associated with HbA1c and depression. This study supports that hope matters to glycemic control and depression. Intervention strategies focusing on hope should be further explored. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Nutritional composition, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptical quality of glucomannan-enriched soy milk ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adah, S.; Candra, O. M.; Nugrahani, G.; Pramono, A.; Afifah, D. N.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decades, the number of childhood obesity cases has increased significantly, which led to an increase in the number of adults suffering from degenerative diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Glucomannan-Enriched Soy Milk Ice Cream (GSMIC) may prevent obesity in children. The aim of the study was to test the level of carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fiber, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality of GSMIC. This experiment used a completely randomized design to test three formulations of glucomannan flour and soy milk (0.5%, 1.5%, and 2.5%). The products were tested for nutritional composition, and evaluated on glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality. GSMIC 2.5% had higher levels of dietary fiber and high carbohydrate, protein, and fat content compared to ice cream (3.99%, 30.7%, 1.50%, 1.33%, respectively). The glycemic index of ice cream and 2.5% GSMIC were 75.83 (75%) and 51.48 (51%), respectively, while the glycemic load of ice cream and 2.5% GSMIC were 9.04 and 11.61, respectively. Based on the organoleptic analysis, formulation preferred by the panellists was 2.5% glucomannan flour. Glucomannan flour affected the level of carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fiber, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality in soy milk ice cream.

  16. Predictive factors for relapse in patients on buprenorphine maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Michael; Finlayson, Alistair J Reid; Wang, Li; Martin, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in the use of buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid dependence, clinical outcomes of this treatment approach continue to need evaluation. This study examines factors associated with relapse and retention during buprenorphine treatment in a sample of opioid dependent outpatients. In a retrospective chart review of 62 patients with opioid dependence, relapse was determined by self-report, urine toxicology screens, and by checking the state controlled substance monitoring database. Data was analyzed using two-way tests of association and logistic regression. Patients with comorbid anxiety disorders, active benzodiazepine use (contrary to clinic policy), or active alcohol abuse, were significantly more likely to relapse. Patients who relapsed were also more likely to be on a higher buprenorphine maintenance dose. This study identifies relapse risk factors during buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence. Future research is needed to determine whether modifying these factors may lead to improved treatment outcomes. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  17. Predictive Factors of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altino, Denise Meira; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite; Lopes, Juliana de Lima

    2017-12-01

    To identify the predictive factors of anxiety and depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Cross-sectional and retrospective study conducted with 120 patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome. Factors interfering with anxiety and depression were assessed. Anxiety was related to sex, stress, years of education, and depression, while depression was related to sex, diabetes mellitus, obesity, years of education, and trait-anxiety. Obesity and anxiety were considered predictive factors for depression, while depression and fewer years of education were considered predictive factors for anxiety. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Local connectome phenotypes predict social, health, and cognitive factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Powell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The unique architecture of the human connectome is defined initially by genetics and subsequently sculpted over time with experience. Thus, similarities in predisposition and experience that lead to similarities in social, biological, and cognitive attributes should also be reflected in the local architecture of white matter fascicles. Here we employ a method known as local connectome fingerprinting that uses diffusion MRI to measure the fiber-wise characteristics of macroscopic white matter pathways throughout the brain. This fingerprinting approach was applied to a large sample (N = 841 of subjects from the Human Connectome Project, revealing a reliable degree of between-subject correlation in the local connectome fingerprints, with a relatively complex, low-dimensional substructure. Using a cross-validated, high-dimensional regression analysis approach, we derived local connectome phenotype (LCP maps that could reliably predict a subset of subject attributes measured, including demographic, health, and cognitive measures. These LCP maps were highly specific to the attribute being predicted but also sensitive to correlations between attributes. Collectively, these results indicate that the local architecture of white matter fascicles reflects a meaningful portion of the variability shared between subjects along several dimensions. The local connectome is the pattern of fiber systems (i.e., number of fibers, orientation, and size within a voxel, and it reflects the proximal characteristics of white matter fascicles distributed throughout the brain. Here we show how variability in the local connectome is correlated in a principled way across individuals. This intersubject correlation is reliable enough that unique phenotype maps can be learned to predict between-subject variability in a range of social, health, and cognitive attributes. This work shows, for the first time, how the local connectome has both the sensitivity and the specificity to

  19. Hemodynamic and metabolic factors in the prediction of diastolic dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Pareek, M.; Olesen, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    , and later detection of grade 2 or 3 diastolic dysfunction (DD) in 243 men and 22 women aged 28 to 57 years at the time of inclusion, using binary logistic regression analysis. Study subjects came from a random population based sample and were included 1974-1992, whilst the echocardiography was performed...... between HOMA-2B and other variables in the prediction of diastolic dysfunction. Conclusions: In a binary logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, and time, HOMA-2B was significantly associated with the development of grade 2 or 3 diastolic dysfunction. It is suggested that subjects with increased...

  20. Predictive and Prognostic Factors in Colorectal Cancer: A Personalized Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Rockall

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is an exciting time for all those engaged in the treatment of colorectal cancer. The advent of new therapies presents the opportunity for a personalized approach to the patient. This approach considers the complex genetic mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis in addition to classical clinicopathological staging. The potential predictive and prognostic biomarkers which have stemmed from the study of the genetic basis of colorectal cancer and therapeutics are discussed with a focus on mismatch repair status, KRAS, BRAF, 18qLOH, CIMP and TGF-β.

  1. Learning in manufacturing organizations : what factors predict effectiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shipton, H.; Dawson, J.; West, M.A.; Patterson, M.G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues that it is possible to identify factors which pre-dispose organizations to adopt effective learning strategies and processes. It is hypothesized that effective OL is associated with: profitability, environmental uncertainty, structure, approach to HRM and quality orientation. The

  2. Factors predicting the outcome of non-operative management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.M. Maarouf

    Predictors of non-operative management failure of high-grade blunt renal trauma. 45 and computed .... perform univariate and multivariate analyses of the risk factors. The .... possible. At our institutions, renal trauma management decisions were based on the ... gency nephrectomy and thus limits the possibility of preserving.

  3. Predictive factors of bladder outlet obstruction following the tension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Elghamrawi

    On the other hand, multivariate analysis indicated that Qmax was the only factor independently related to postoperative bladder outlet obstruction after TVTO (p = 0.002, odds ratio = 0.658, 95% CI for odds ratio 0.507–0.855). Discussion. Stress urinary incontinence defined as the involuntary loss of urine during increases in ...

  4. Medical and sociodemographic factors predict persistent smoking after coronary events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverre, Elise; Otterstad, Jan Erik; Gjertsen, Erik; Gullestad, Lars; Husebye, Einar; Dammen, Toril; Moum, Torbjørn; Munkhaugen, John

    2017-09-06

    Understanding the determinants of persistent smoking after a coronary event constitutes the basis of modelling interventions of smoking cessation in secondary prevention programs. We aim to identify the potentially modifiable medical, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, comprising the study factors, associated with unfavourable risk factor control after CHD events. A cross-sectional explorative study used logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between study factors and smoking status in 1083 patients hospitalized with myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization. Hospital record data, a self-report questionnaire, clinical examination and blood samples were applied. At the index hospitalization, 390 patients were smoking and at follow-up after 2-36 months 167 (43%) of these had quit, while 230 reported persistent smoking. In adjusted analyses, unemployed or disability benefits (Odds ratio (OR) 4.1), low education (OR 3.5), longer smoking duration (OR 2.3) and not having ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as index event (OR 2.3) were significantly associated with persistent smoking. Psychosocial factors at follow-up were not associated with persistent smoking. Smokers reported high motivation for cessation, with 68% wanting help to quit. Only 42% had been offered nicotine replacement therapy or other cessation aids. Smokers rated use of tobacco as the most important cause of their coronary disease (6.8 on a 1-10 Likert scale). Low socioeconomic status, prior duration of smoking, and not having STEMI as index event were associated with persisting smoking. Persistent smokers in this study seem to have an acceptable risk perception and were motivated to cease smoking, but needed assistance through cessation programs including prescription of pharmacological aids. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02309255 , registered retrospectively.

  5. Glycemic control and diabetes-related health care costs in type 2 diabetes; retrospective analysis based on clinical and administrative databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degli Esposti L

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Luca Degli Esposti,1 Stefania Saragoni,1 Stefano Buda,1 Alessandra Sturani,2 Ezio Degli Esposti11CliCon Srl, Health, Economics and Outcomes Research, Ravenna, Italy; 2Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna, ItalyBackground: Diabetes is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases, and its prevalence is predicted to increase in the next two decades. Diabetes imposes a staggering financial burden on the health care system, so information about the costs and experiences of collecting and reporting quality measures of data is vital for practices deciding whether to adopt quality improvements or monitor existing initiatives. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between health care costs and level of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes using clinical and administrative databases.Methods: A retrospective analysis using a large administrative database and a clinical registry containing laboratory results was performed. Patients were subdivided according to their glycated hemoglobin level. Multivariate analyses were used to control for differences in potential confounding factors, including age, gender, Charlson comorbidity index, presence of dyslipidemia, hypertension, or cardiovascular disease, and degree of adherence with antidiabetic drugs among the study groups.Results: Of the total population of 700,000 subjects, 31,022 were identified as being diabetic (4.4% of the entire population. Of these, 21,586 met the study inclusion criteria. In total, 31.5% of patients had very poor glycemic control and 25.7% had excellent control. Over 2 years, the mean diabetes-related cost per person was: €1291.56 in patients with excellent control; €1545.99 in those with good control; €1584.07 in those with fair control; €1839.42 in those with poor control; and €1894.80 in those with very poor control. After adjustment, compared with the group having excellent control, the estimated excess cost

  6. Factors Predicting Inter-Ethnic Friendships at the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan H. M. Hashim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored factors that may contribute to inter-ethnic friendships, both in terms of quantity and satisfaction with those friendships. Participants were 200 working adults who were studying part-time in a long-distance program in a university in Malaysia. In general, demographic factors (gender, ethnicity, education, and income had no significant relationships with number of inter-ethnic friends and satisfaction people had with inter-ethnic friendships. Ethnic identity and stress at work also did not have significant relationships with number of inter-ethnic friends. However, they were significantly related to satisfaction with inter-ethnic friendships. People with higher ethnic identification were more satisfied with inter-ethnic friendships whereas people with more stress at work reported lower satisfaction with inter-ethnic friendships.

  7. FACTORS PREDICTING CONSUMERS' ASSESSMENT OF ADVERTISEMENTS ON SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES

    OpenAIRE

    Hossam Deraz; Gabriel Baffour Awuah; Desalegn Abraha Gebrekidan

    2015-01-01

    Marketers act on social networking sites (SNSs) in order to be more efficient in merchandising their products and/or services. Even so, the scope of the published studies regarding the assessment of advertisements on social networking sites (SNAs) is limited. Consequently, the present study aimed to consider credibility and interactivity, in addition to information, entertainment and irritation values, as main factors for consumers’ assessment of SNAs, as perceived by SNSs’ users. An analysis...

  8. Predictive factors for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after pancreatoduodenectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Uemura, Kenichiro; Hayashidani, Yasuo; Sudo, Takeshi; Ohge, Hiroki; Sueda, Taijiro

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) with pancreaticogastrostomy (PG). A (13)C-labeled mixed triglyceride breath test was performed in 61 patients after PD to assess exocrine pancreatic function. Percent (13)CO(2) cumulative dose at 7 h pancreatic insufficiency. Abdominal computed tomography scans were utilized to assess the dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (MPD dilatation) in the remnant. Thirty-eight of 61 patients (62.3%) were diagnosed with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Univariate analysis identified significant associations between two preoperative factors (preoperative impaired endocrine function and a hard pancreatic texture induced by preexisting obstructive pancreatitis), plus one postoperative factor (MPD dilatation caused by PG stricture) and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (P pancreatic insufficiency after PD may be partly explainable by preexisting obstructive pancreatitis prior to surgery, surgeons desiring to obtain better postoperative exocrine pancreatic function after PD would be well-advised to devote considerable attention to preventing PG stricture.

  9. Cfh genotype interacts with dietary glycemic index to modulate age-related macular degeneration-like features in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Genetics and diet contribute to the relative risk for developing AMD, but their interactions are poorly understood. Genetic variations in Complement Factor H (CFH), and dietary glycemic index (GI) are major ris...

  10. Factors that might be predictive of completion of vaginismus treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdel, Kadir; Yılmaz Özpolat, Ayşegül; Çeri, Özge; Kumbasar, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Vaginismus is defined as a recurrent or persistent involuntary spasm of the musculature of the outer third of the vagina that interferes with sexual intercourse. The aim of this study was to assess the level of symptoms of depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and perfectionism among patients with vaginismus, as well as to determine if these clinical variables are related to the completion of treatment. The study included 20 women with vaginismus and their spouses that were referred as outpatients to Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Consultation and Liaison Unit. All couples underwent cognitive behavioral therapy, which was administered as 40-60-min weekly sessions. At the first (assessment) session, the female patients were assessed using a sociodemographic evaluation form, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI), the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), and the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS). The male spouses were evaluated using the GRISS. The same scales were administered after the completion of treatment to those that completed the treatment. The correlation between completion of treatment, and an elevated level of anxiety and self-oriented perfectionism was significant (P Vaginismus is not only a sexual dysfunction, but it is related to multiple components of mental health. Anxiety and a perfectionist personality trait were important factors associated with the completion of treatment; therefore, these factors should be evaluated before treatment.

  11. Predictive factors for homologous transfusion during paediatric scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Claire; Michelet, Daphné; Hilly, Julie; Diallo, Thierno; Vidal, Christophe; Delivet, Honorine; Nivoche, Yves; Mazda, Keyvan; Dahmani, Souhayl

    2015-12-01

    Blood saving strategies during paediatric spinal surgery often include recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) and antifibrinolytic therapy (AFT). The goal of this study was to investigate additional preventive factors involved in the risk of blood transfusion. This prospective study was designed with the aim of identifying factors associated with the perioperative (defined as the intraoperative and the first postoperative day) probability of homologous red cell transfusion during scoliosis surgery in children operated during a one year period in our institution. The predictors analysed were: age, weight less than the 3rd percentile (W 255 minutes. ROC analysis for the latter model found an area under the curve of 0.9 (95% confidence interval: 0.8-0.97). The accuracy of the model was 92.3% (97.4% for non-transfusion and 69.2% for transfusion). Multivariate sensitivity analysis excluding patients with no preoperative administration of EPO found similar results. The current results indicate that optimising nutritional status might prevent allogenic blood transfusion and requires further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors predicting hyperkalemia in patients with cirrhosis receiving spironolactone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Z.; Mumtaz, K.; Salam, A.; Jafri, W.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors leading to hyperkalemia in patients with cirrhosis receiving spironolactone. Results: Patients with hyperkalemia (K>5 mmol/l) had higher blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and bilirubin levels (p=0.004, 0.001 and 0.044 respectively). Their serum sodium and albumin levels were lower (p=0.000 and 0.017 respectively). They had advanced cirrhosis with high Pugh score (p=0.003). These patients were on higher dose of spironolactone (p=0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that dose of spironolactone > 100 mg/day, serum creatinine >1.3 mg/dl, persistence of ascites and edema, and female gender were important predictors of development of hyperkalemia. Conclusion: Patients with cirrhosis receiving high dose of the diuretic, having edema, ascites and high serum creatinine are at the greater risk of developing hyperkalemia during spironolactone therapy. (author)

  13. Prediction of Radial Distance of Extraprostatic Extension From Pretherapy Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, David J.; Sengupta, Shomik; Hillman, David W.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Cheville, John C.; Wilson, Torrence M.; Mynderse, Lance A.; Choo, Richard; Davis, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Extraprostatic extension (EPE) of tumor conveys an adverse prognosis in early-stage prostate cancer. Previous studies reported on the linear and radial distance of EPE (EPEr) as measured from the prostate edge. In this study, the correlation of the EPEr from a large whole mount prostatectomy series was determined with respect to the needle biopsy and prostatectomy specimen findings. Methods and Materials: In a 24-month period, 404 patients underwent radical prostatectomy and the specimens were whole mounted. The preoperative records, biopsy findings, and EPEr from these specimens were evaluated. Results: The range of the EPEr distance was 0.0-5.7 mm. A three-category model was used that included 283 patients (70%) with no EPE, 59 (15%) with 'near EPE' (range, 0.01-0.59 mm), and 62 (15%) with 'far EPE' (≥0.6 mm). Univariate analysis revealed that patient age and prostate volume did not correlate with EPEr, in contrast to all other factors evaluated. Multivariate analysis identified the preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen, the percentage of cancer in the biopsy cores, and clinical tumor stage as significant. However, the Gleason score was not associated with the EPEr. Greater discrimination was possible in estimating the probability of extension in the 'near' category than in the 'far' category. Conclusion: EPEr is associated with the preoperative prostate-specific antigen level, percentage of cancer in the biopsy cores, and clinical tumor stage. These data might be useful in planning local therapies for prostate cancer, but additional studies identifying factors associated with EPEr beyond 3-5 mm could have relevance regarding the appropriate radiotherapeutic management strategies

  14. Family Factors Predict Treatment Outcome for Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youth receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods We analyzed data from a sample of youth who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; mean age = 12.43 years) as part of a larger randomized clinical trial. Youngsters and their families were assessed by an independent evaluator (IE) pre- and post- FCBT using a standardized battery of measures evaluating family functioning and OCD symptom severity. Family conflict and cohesion were measured via parent self-report on the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994) and parental blame was measured using parent self-report on the Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale (PABS; Peris, 2008b). Symptom severity was rated by IE’s using the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS; Scahill et al., 1997). Results Families with lower levels of parental blame and family conflict and higher levels of family cohesion at baseline were more likely to have a child who responded to FCBT treatment even after adjusting for baseline symptom severity compared to families who endorsed higher levels of dysfunction prior to treatment. In analyses using both categorical and continuous outcome measures, higher levels of family dysfunction and difficulty in higher number of domains of family functioning were associated with lower rates of treatment response. In addition, changes in family cohesion predicted response to FCBT controlling for baseline symptom severity. Conclusions Findings speak to the role of the family in treatment for childhood OCD and highlight potential targets for future family interventions. PMID:22309471

  15. Shared Responsibility for Type 1 Diabetes Care Is Associated With Glycemic Variability and Risk of Glycemic Excursions in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Arwen M; Noser, Amy E; Clements, Mark A; Patton, Susana R

    2018-01-01

    We examined how parent and youth responsibility for type 1 diabetes (T1D) care is related to adherence and glycemic outcomes, namely, glycemic variability and risk of glycemic excursions. One hundred thirty-five parent-youth dyads (10-16 years old; diagnosed with T1D for at least 6 months) participated in this study. Percent responsibility of T1D care attributed to the youth, parent, or shared was measured using the Diabetes Family Responsibility Questionnaire. We collected youth's hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glucometer downloads to examine relationships between responsibility and HbA1c, frequency of blood glucose monitoring (self-monitoring blood glucose, SMBG), risk of glycemic excursions, and actual glycemic variability using bivariate correlations and path analysis. Participants reported shared responsibility for almost half of T1D self-care tasks. Bivariate correlations showed shared responsibility was associated with less variability, whereas parent responsibility was associated with greater glycemic variability and risk for glycemic excursions. Youth responsibility was associated with lower frequency of SMBG. The path analyses confirmed our correlational findings (pshypothesis that shared T1D responsibility is associated with better diabetes outcomes in youth. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Calculating meal glycemic index by using measured and published food values compared with directly measured meal glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Hayley; Williams, Sheila; Brown, Rachel; Venn, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    Glycemic index (GI) testing is normally based on individual foods, whereas GIs for meals or diets are based on a formula using a weighted sum of the constituents. The accuracy with which the formula can predict a meal or diet GI is questionable. Our objective was to compare the GI of meals, obtained by using the formula and by using both measured food GI and published values, with directly measured meal GIs. The GIs of 7 foods were tested in 30 healthy people. The foods were combined into 3 meals, each of which provided 50 g available carbohydrate, including a staple (potato, rice, or spaghetti), vegetables, sauce, and pan-fried chicken. The mean (95% CI) meal GIs determined from individual food GI values and by direct measurement were as follows: potato meal [predicted, 63 (56, 70); measured, 53 (46, 62)], rice meal [predicted, 51 (45, 56); measured, 38 (33, 45)], and spaghetti meal [predicted, 54 (49, 60); measured, 38 (33, 44)]. The predicted meal GIs were all higher than the measured GIs (P < 0.001). The extent of the overestimation depended on the particular food, ie, 12, 15, and 19 GI units (or 22%, 40%, and 50%) for the potato, rice, and spaghetti meals, respectively. The formula overestimated the GI of the meals by between 22% and 50%. The use of published food values also overestimated the measured meal GIs. Investigators using the formula to calculate a meal or diet GI should be aware of limitations in the method. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12611000210976.

  17. The prediction of resting energy expenditure in type 2 diabetes mellitus is improved by factoring for glycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougeon, R; Lamarche, M; Yale, J-F; Venuta, T

    2002-12-01

    Predictive equations have been reported to overestimate resting energy expenditure (REE) for obese persons. The presence of hyperglycemia results in elevated REE in obese persons with type 2 diabetes, and its effect on the validity of these equations is unknown. We tested whether (1) indicators of diabetes control were independent associates of REE in type 2 diabetes and (2) their inclusion would improve predictive equations. A cross-sectional study of 65 (25 men, 40 women) obese type 2 diabetic subjects. Variables measured were: REE by ventilated-hood indirect calorimetry, body composition by bioimpedance analysis, body circumferences, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A(1c). Data were analyzed using stepwise multiple linear regression. REE, corrected for weight, fat-free mass, age and gender, was significantly greater with FPG>10 mmol/l (P=0.017) and correlated with FPG (P=0.013) and hemoglobin A(1c) as percentage upper limit of normal (P=0.02). Weight was the main determinant of REE. Together with hip circumference and FPG, it explained 81% of the variation. FPG improved the predictability of the equation by >3%. With poor glycemic control, it can represent an increase in REE of up to 8%. Our data indicate that in a population of obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, REE is better predicted when fasting plasma glucose is included as a variable.

  18. Wind tunnel testing to predict control room atmospheric dispersion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmquist, L.J.; Harden, P.A.; Muraida, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Recent concerns at Palisades about control room habitability in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident have led to an extensive effort to increase control room habitability margin. The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system servicing the control room has the potential for unfiltered in-leakage through its normal outside air intake louvered isolation dampers during emergency mode. The current limiting control room habitability analysis allows for 1.2 x 10 -2 m 3 /s (25 ft 3 /min) unfiltered in-leakage into the control room envelope. This leakage value was not thought to be achievable with the existing as-built configuration. Repairing the system was considered as a potential solution; however, this would be costly and could negatively affect plant operation. In addition, the system would still be required to meet the low specified unfiltered in-leakage. A second approach to this problem was to determine the atmospheric dispersion factors (x/Q's) through a wind tunnel test using a scale model of Palisades. The results of the wind tunnel testing could yield more realistic x/Q's for control room habitability than previously employed methods. Palisades selected the wind tunnel study option based on its ease of implementation, realistic results, and low cost. More importantly, the results of the study could increase the allowable unfiltered in-leakage

  19. Factors that predict consumer acceptance of enriched processed meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liran C; Henchion, Maeve; De Brún, Aoife; Murrin, Celine; Wall, Patrick G; Monahan, Frank J

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to understand predictors of consumers' purchase intention towards processed meat based functional foods (i.e. enriched processed meat). A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 486 processed meat consumers in spring 2016. Results showed that processed meats were perceived differently in healthiness, with sausage-type products perceived less healthy than cured meat products. Consumers were in general more uncertain than positive about enriched processed meat but differences existed in terms of the attitudes and purchase intention. Following regression analysis, consumers' purchase intention towards enriched processed meat was primarily driven by their attitudes towards the product concept. Perceived healthiness of existing products and eating frequency of processed meat were also positively associated with the purchase intention. Other factors such as general food choice motives, socio-demographic characteristics, consumer health and the consumption of functional foods and dietary supplements in general, were not significant predictors of the purchase intention for enriched processed meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inequalities versus Utilization: Factors Predicting Access to Healthcare in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Buer Boyetey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Universal access to health care remains a significant source of inequality especially among vulnerable groups. Challenges such as lack of insurance coverage, absence of certain types of care, as well as high individual financial care cost can be blamed for the growing inequality in the healthcare sector. The concern is worrying especially when people are denied care. It is in this light that the study set to find out what factors are likely to impact the chances of access to health care, so far as the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey Data 2014 data are concerned, particularly to examine the differences in access to healthcare in connection with varying income groups, educational levels and residential locations. The study relied on the logistic regression analysis to establish that people with some level of education have greater chances of accessing health care compared with those without education. Also chances of access to health care in the sample were high for people in the lower quartile and upper quartile of the household wealth index and a local minimum for those in the middle class. It became evident also that increased number of people with NHIS or PHIS or combination of cash with NHIS or PHIS will give rise to a corresponding increment in the probability of gaining access to health care.

  1. The Relationship Between Perceived Family Climate and Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Adolescent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eray, Şafak; Uçar, Halit Necmi; Çetinkaya, Fatma; Eren, Erdal; Vural, Pınar

    2017-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disease which ranks third in children under age 16 years. Expressed emotion (EE) is a term that indicates a specific family climate including lack of emotional support (LES), irritability, and emotional over-involvement. It is known that the family environment is highly important for glycemic control in diabetic adolescents. In this study, the relationship between perceived EE and glycemic control in adolescents diagnosed with T1DM not accompanied by psychopathology were investigated. The study included 49 adolescents with T1DM and 50 adolescents as a control group. Adolescents with psychopathology and intellectual disability were excluded from the study. Perceived EE was measured by the Shortened Level of Expressed Emotion Scale (SLEES) and blood sugar regulation was assessed by HbA1c levels. The adolescents with T1DM showed a significant difference in perceived EE (p=0.020) and LES (p=0.014) when compared with the control group. When diabetic adolescents were compared among themselves, the diabetic adolescents with poor glycemic control perceived greater EE (p=0.033) and less emotional support (p=0.049). In regression analyses, the predictive power of mother's educational level, the employment status of mothers and the subscale "LES" of SLEES combined to explain HbA1c level was determined to be 37.8%. The strong relationship between perceived EE and glycemic control showed us that perceived EE can hinder treatment compliance without causing psychopathology. For this reason, it is recommended that not only patients with psychopathology, but all diabetic adolescents receive psychosocial support and family interventions.

  2. Factors predicting physical activity among children with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Shahram; Yee, Chu Tang; Chung, Paul J

    2013-07-18

    Obesity is especially prevalent among children with special needs. Both lack of physical activity and unhealthful eating are major contributing factors. The objective of our study was to investigate barriers to physical activity among these children. We surveyed parents of the 171 children attending Vista Del Mar School in Los Angeles, a nonprofit school serving a socioeconomically diverse group of children with special needs from kindergarten through 12th grade. Parents were asked about their child's and their own physical activity habits, barriers to their child's exercise, and demographics. The response rate was 67%. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of children being physically active at least 3 hours per week. Parents reported that 45% of the children were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38% with autism, and 34% with learning disabilities; 47% of children and 56% of parents were physically active less than 3 hours per week. The top barriers to physical activity were reported as child's lack of interest (43%), lack of developmentally appropriate programs (33%), too many behavioral problems (32%), and parents' lack of time (29%). However, child's lack of interest was the only parent-reported barrier independently associated with children's physical activity. Meanwhile, children whose parents were physically active at least 3 hours per week were 4.2 times as likely to be physically active as children whose parents were less physically active (P = .01). In this group of students with special needs, children's physical activity was strongly associated with parental physical activity; parent-reported barriers may have had less direct effect. Further studies should examine the importance of parental physical activity among children with special needs.

  3. Predictive factors from videourodynamic study for delayed urinary continence after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Tang Huang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Preoperative small bladder capacity at FS, large prostate, and BOO are predicting factors of SUI at 6 months after LRP. Baseline DO and BOO did not have an impact on postoperative urgency or UUI.

  4. Biological lifestyle factors in adult distance education: predicting cognitive and learning performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M. (2015, 20 October). Biological lifestyle factors in adult distance education: predicting cognitive and learning performance. Presentation given for the inter-faculty Data Science group at the Open University of the Netherlands, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  5. Frost tolerance in wild potatoes : Assessing the predictivity of taxonomic, geographic and ecological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.; Jacobs, M.; Bamberg, J.B.; Spooner, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    The use of genetic resources could be more effective and efficient if we were able to predict the presence or absence of useful traits in different populations or accessions. We analyzed the extent to which taxonomic, geographic and ecological factors can predict the presence of frost tolerance in

  6. Internet gambling is a predictive factor of Internet addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critselis, Elena; Janikian, Mari; Paleomilitou, Noni; Oikonomou, Despoina; Kassinopoulos, Marios; Kormas, George; Tsitsika, Artemis

    2013-12-01

    Adolescent Internet gambling is associated with concomitant addictive behaviors. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of Internet gambling practices, its impact upon psychosocial development and to evaluate the association between gambling practices and Internet addictive behavior among Cypriot adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample (n = 805) of adolescents attending selected public schools (9th and 10th grades) in Cyprus. Anonymous self-completed questionnaires were used including the Internet Addiction Test and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Among the study population (n = 805), approximately one third (n = 28; 34.9%) reported Internet gambling. Internet gamblers were twice as likely to utilize Internet café portals (adjusted odds ratio for gender and age, AOR: 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 1.56-2.91) for interactive game-playing (AOR: 6.84; 95% CI: 4.23-11.07), chat-rooms (AOR: 2.57; 95% CI: 1.31-4.85), and retrieval of sexual information (AOR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.42-2.81). Among Internet gamblers 26.0% (n = 73) reported borderline addictive Internet use and 4.3% (n = 12) addictive behavior. Internet gamblers more often had comprehensive psychosocial and emotional maladjustment (AOR: 4.00; 95% CI: 1.97-8.13), including Abnormal Conduct Problems (AOR: 3.26; 95% CI: 2.00-5.32), Emotional Symptoms (AOR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.02-3.11), and Peer Problems (AOR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.08-5.48) scores. The multivariate regression analyses indicated that the single independent predictor associated with Internet addictive behavior was Internet gambling (AOR: 5.66; 95% CI: 1.45-22.15). Internet gambling is associated with addictive Internet use, as well as emotional maladjustment and behavioral problems, among Cypriot adolescents. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate whether Internet gambling constitutes a risk factor for the development of Internet addictive behavior among adolescents.

  7. Predictive factors for moderate or severe exacerbations in asthma patients receiving outpatient care

    OpenAIRE

    Guti?rrez, Francisco Javier ?lvarez; Galv?n, Marta Ferrer; Gallardo, Juan Francisco Medina; Mancera, Marta Barrera; Romero, Beatriz Romero; Falc?n, Auxiliadora Romero

    2017-01-01

    Background Asthma exacerbations are important events that affect disease control, but predictive factors for severe or moderate exacerbations are not known. The objective was to study the predictive factors for moderate (ME) and severe (SE) exacerbations in asthma patients receiving outpatient care. Methods Patients aged?>?12?years with asthma were included in the study and followed-up at 4-monthly intervals over a 12-month period. Clinical (severity, level of control, asthma control test [AC...

  8. Postural hypotension in type 1 diabetes: The influence of glycemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-04

    saharan ... Key words: Diabetes mellitus, duration, glycemic control, postural hypotension. Date of ... or older) provided informed consent before enrolment in the study. .... asymptomatic despite significant falls in blood pressure.[26].

  9. Prediction of beef carcass and meat traits from rearing factors in young bulls and cull cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulat, J; Picard, B; Léger, S; Monteils, V

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the beef carcass and LM (thoracis part) characteristics and the sensory properties of the LM from rearing factors applied during the fattening period. Individual data from 995 animals (688 young bulls and 307 cull cows) in 15 experiments were used to establish prediction models. The data concerned rearing factors (13 variables), carcass characteristics (5 variables), LM characteristics (2 variables), and LM sensory properties (3 variables). In this study, 8 prediction models were established: dressing percentage and the proportions of fat tissue and muscle in the carcass to characterize the beef carcass; cross-sectional area of fibers (mean fiber area) and isocitrate dehydrogenase activity to characterize the LM; and, finally, overall tenderness, juiciness, and flavor intensity scores to characterize the LM sensory properties. A random effect was considered in each model: the breed for the prediction models for the carcass and LM characteristics and the trained taste panel for the prediction of the meat sensory properties. To evaluate the quality of prediction models, 3 criteria were measured: robustness, accuracy, and precision. The model was robust when the root mean square errors of prediction of calibration and validation sub-data sets were near to one another. Except for the mean fiber area model, the obtained predicted models were robust. The prediction models were considered to have a high accuracy when the mean prediction error (MPE) was ≤0.10 and to have a high precision when the was the closest to 1. The prediction of the characteristics of the carcass from the rearing factors had a high precision ( > 0.70) and a high prediction accuracy (MPE 0.10). Only the flavor intensity of the beef score could be satisfactorily predicted from the rearing factors with high precision ( = 0.72) and accuracy (MPE = 0.10). All the prediction models displayed different effects of the rearing factors according to animal categories

  10. Glycemic screening and recurrent carbohydrate metabolism disorders with endocrine pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.А. Lutsenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of glycated hemoglobin for diabetes mellitus (DM diagnosis is recommended by World Health Organization as of 2011. The level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ≥ 6.5 % is a diagnostic criterion for DM but HbA1c level of 6.0–6.4 % does not exclude diabetes mellitus diagnosis with hyperglycemia. Moreover, when diagnosing, evaluation of this criterion is a must, since decision about the nature and the scope of sugar-reducing therapy is based on the level of HbA1c. Counterregulatory hormones are glucagon, adre­nalin, somatotropin, glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones. Pathogenic mechanism of carbohydrate metabolism disorders with hypersecretion of counterregulatory hormones is caused by peripheral insulin resistance, decrease in insulin secretion, increase in gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in liver and increase in the absorption of intestinal glucose with insulin being the only hormone decreasing the blood glucose. So, the endocrine diseases (hypercorticism, acromegalia, pheochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism and hyperthyroidism with excessive secretion of counterregulatory hormones suggest the necessity of secondary diabetes diagnosis. Screening tests with quite high sensitivity and specificity have been developed for early diagnosis of endocrynopathies. Screening tests for hypercorticism diagnosis are dexamethasone (1 mg suppression test, daily urinary cortisol excretion and nighttime salivary cortisol. Optimal test for screening acromegalia is considered to be insulin-like growth factor 1 which shows the secretion of somatotropic hormone during previous day and is not subject to significant fluctuations. One-time detection of increased insulin-like growth factor 1 level compared to referential values for specific sex and age is enough for confirmation of hypersomatotropinemia. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is recommended as a screening test for thyrotoxicosis diagnosis. When choosing this test, doctor should consider the parameter of

  11. Quantifying direct effects of social determinants of health on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebekah J; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Egede, Leonard E

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if self-care is the pathway through which social determinants of health impact diabetes outcomes by analyzing the direct and indirect effects of socioeconomic and psychosocial factors on self-care and glycemic control. Six hundred fifteen adults were recruited from two primary care clinics in the southeastern United States. A series of confirmatory factor analyses identified the latent factors underlying social status, psychosocial determinants (psychological distress, self-efficacy, and social support), and self-care (diet, exercise, foot care, glucose testing, and medication adherence). Structured equation modeling investigated the relationship among social determinants, self-care and glycemic control. Latent variables were created for diabetes self-care, psychological distress, self-efficacy, social support, and social status. The final model [χ(2)(275)=450.07, Psocial support (r=0.14, P=0.01), and higher self-efficacy (r=0.47, Psocial support (r=0.10, P=0.02), and higher self-efficacy (r=-0.37, Psocial determinants of health variables were included in the model, self-care was no longer significantly associated with glycemic control (r=0.01, P=0.83). This study suggests a direct relationship between psychosocial determinants of health and glycemic control. Although associated with self-care, the relationship between social determinants of health and glycemic control is not mediated by self-care. Development of interventions should take psychosocial factors into account as independent influences on diabetes outcomes, rather than as indirect influences via self-care behavior.

  12. Gastritis in patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy: Prevalence, ethnic distribution, and impact on glycemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath-Wolfson, Lea; Varona, Roy; Bubis, Golan; Tatarov, Alexander; Koren, Rumelia; Ram, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a therapeutic option in severely obese patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) gastritis and non-Helicobacter gastritis in the gastrectomy specimens, and its association to other variables.One hundred six sleeve gastrectomy specimens were examined histopathologically for the presence of gastritis and its relation to other factors like ethnicity, glycemic control, and postoperative complications.Twelve patients had HP gastritis, 39 had non-HP gastritis, and 55 had normal mucosa. There was a statistical difference between the Arab and Jewish Israeli patients in our study. Twenty-eight of the Arab patients had HP gastritis and 48% had non-HP gastritis. In the Jewish population 6% had HP gastritis and 34% had non-HP gastritis. The preoperative glycemic control was worse in the gastritis group with a mean HbA1c of 8.344% while in the normal mucosa group the mean HbA1c was 6.55. After operation the glycemic control reverted to normal in most the diabetic patients. There were few postoperative complications however, they were not related to HP.There is a high incidence of gastritis in obese patients. The incidence of gastritis in the Arab population in our study was higher than that in the Jewish population. The glycemic control before surgery was worse in patients with gastritis than in the normal mucosa group. HP bares no risk for postoperative complications after LSG and does not affect weight loss. However a larger cohort of patients must be studied to arrive at conclusive results.

  13. Association among individual deprivation, glycemic control, and diabetes complications: the EPICES score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihan, Hélène; Laurent, Silvana; Sass, Catherine; Nguyen, Gérard; Huot, Caroline; Moulin, Jean Jacques; Guegen, René; Le Toumelin, Philippe; Le Clésiau, Hervé; La Rosa, Emilio; Reach, Gérard; Cohen, Régis

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have related poor glycemic control and/or some diabetes complications to low socioeconomic status. Some aspects of socioeconomic status have not been assessed in these studies. In the present study, we used an individual index of deprivation, the Evaluation de la Précarité et des Inégalités de santé dans les Centres d'Examens de Santé (Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers [EPICES]) score, to determine the relationship among glycemic control, diabetes complications, and individual conditions of deprivation. We conducted a cross-sectional prevalence study in 135 consecutive diabetic patients (age 59.41 +/- 13.2 years [mean +/- SD]) admitted in the hospitalization unit of a French endocrine department. Individual deprivation was assessed by the EPICES score, calculated from 11 socioeconomic questions. Glycemic control, lipid levels, blood pressure, retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy were assessed. HbA(1c) level was significantly correlated with the EPICES score (r = 0.366, P < 0.001). The more deprived patients were more likely than the less deprived patients to have poor glycemic control (beta = 1.984 [SE 0.477], P < 0.001), neuropathy (odds ratio 2.39 [95% CI 1.05-5.43], P = 0.037), retinopathy (3.66 [1.39-9.64], P = 0.009), and being less often admitted for 1-day hospitalization (0.32 [0.14-0.74], P = 0.008). No significant relationship was observed with either nephropathy or cardiovascular risk factors. Deprivation status is associated with poor metabolic control and more frequent microvascular complications, i.e., retinopathy and neuropathy. The medical and economic burden of deprived patients is high.

  14. Predictive factors for pharyngocutaneous fistulization after total laryngectomy: a Dutch Head and Neck Society audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansaat, Liset; van der Noort, Vincent; Bernard, Simone E; Eerenstein, Simone E J; Plaat, Boudewijn E C; Langeveld, Ton A P M; Lacko, Martin; Hilgers, Frans J M; de Bree, Remco; Takes, Robert P; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2018-03-01

    Incidences of pharyngocutaneous fistulization (PCF) after total laryngectomy (TL) reported in the literature vary widely, ranging from 2.6 to 65.5%. Comparison between different centers might identify risk factors, but also might enable improvements in quality of care. To enable this on a national level, an audit in the 8 principle Dutch Head and Neck Centers (DHNC) was initiated. A retrospective chart review of all 324 patients undergoing laryngectomy in a 2-year (2012 and 2013) period was performed. Overall PCF%, PCF% per center and factors predictive for PCF were identified. Furthermore, a prognostic model predicting the PCF% per center was developed. To provide additional data, a survey among the head and neck surgeons of the participating centers was carried out. Overall PCF% was 25.9. The multivariable prediction model revealed that previous treatment with (chemo)radiotherapy in combination with a long interval between primary treatment and TL, previous tracheotomy, near total pharyngectomy, neck dissection, and BMI model. PCF performance rate (difference between the PCF% and the predicted PCF%) per DHNC, though, shows that not all differences are explained by factors established in the prediction model. However, these factors explain enough of the differences that, compensating for these factors, hospital is no longer independently predictive for PCF. This nationwide audit has provided valid comparative PCF data confirming the known risk factors from the literature which are important for counseling on PCF risks. Data show that variations in PCF% in the DHNCs (in part) are explainable by the variations in these predictive factors. Since elective neck dissection is a major risk factor for PCF, it only should be performed on well funded indication.

  15. Predictive factors for red blood cell transfusion in children undergoing noncomplex cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaj, Muj; Faraoni, David; Willems, Ariane; Sanchez Torres, Cristel; Van der Linden, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is frequently required in pediatric cardiac surgery and is associated with altered outcome and increased costs. Determining which factors predict transfusion in this context will enable clinicians to adopt strategies that will reduce the risk of RBC transfusion. This study aimed to assess predictive factors associated with RBC transfusion in children undergoing low-risk cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Children undergoing surgery to repair ventricular septal defect or atrioventricular septal defect from 2006 to 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Demography, preoperative laboratory testing, intraoperative data, and RBC transfusion were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to define factors that were able to predict RBC transfusion. Then, we employed receiver operating characteristic analysis to design a predictive score. Among the 334 children included, 261 (78%) were transfused. Age (43 mL/kg), type of oxygenator used, minimal temperature reached during CPB (<32°C), and preoperative hematocrit (<34%) were independently associated with RBC transfusion in the studied population. A predictive score 2 or greater was the best predictor of RBC transfusion. The present study identified several factors that were significantly associated with perioperative RBC transfusion. Based on these factors, we designed a predictive score that can be used to develop a patient-based blood management program with the aim of reducing the incidence of RBC transfusion. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors predictive for incidence and remission of internet addiction in young adolescents: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Lin, Huang-Chi; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the incidence and remission rates for Internet addiction and the associated predictive factors in young adolescents over a 1-year follow-up. This was a prospective, population-based investigation. Five hundred seventeen students (267 male and 250 female) were recruited from three junior high schools in southern Taiwan. The factors examined included gender, personality, mental health, self-esteem, family function, life satisfaction, and Internet activities. The result revealed that the 1-year incidence and remission rates for Internet addiction were 7.5% and 49.5% respectively. High exploratory excitability, low reward dependence, low self-esteem, low family function, and online game playing predicted the emergency of the Internet addiction. Further, low hostility and low interpersonal sensitivity predicted remission of Internet addiction. The factors predictive incidence and remission of Internet addiction identified in this study could be provided for prevention and promoting remission of Internet addiction in adolescents.

  17. Association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and body mass index in the Inter99 study: is underreporting a problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Toft, U.; Tetens, Inge

    2006-01-01

    Background: The few studies examining the potential associations between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and body mass index (BMI) have provided no clear pictures. Underreporting of energy intake may be one explanation for this. Objective: We examined the associations between GI, GL...... a positive association between GI, GL, and BMI. Energy adjustment and the exclusion of LERs significantly affected the results of the analysis; thus, we stress the importance of energy adjustment....

  18. Predictive factors of unfavorable prostate cancer in patients who underwent prostatectomy but eligible for active surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seol Ho Choo

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: A significant proportion of patients who were candidates for active surveillance had unfavorable prostate cancer. Age, PSA density, and two positive cores were independent significant predictive factors for unfavorable prostate cancer. These factors should be considered when performing active surveillance.

  19. School Violence in Taiwan: Examining How Western Risk Factors Predict School Violence in an Asian Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2010-01-01

    The current study explores whether theorized risk factors in Western countries can be used to predict school violence perpetration in an Asian cultural context. The study examines the associations between risk factors and school violence perpetration in Taiwan. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 14,022 students from…

  20. Some new results on correlation-preserving factor scores prediction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, J.M.F.; Krijnen, W.P.; Wansbeek, T.J.; Shapiro, A.

    1999-01-01

    Anderson and Rubin and McDonald have proposed a correlation-preserving method of factor scores prediction which minimizes the trace of a residual covariance matrix for variables. Green has proposed a correlation-preserving method which minimizes the trace of a residual covariance matrix for factors.

  1. Predictive factors for complications in children with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R; Varjavandi, V; Krishnan, U

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of complications in children with esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) at a tertiary pediatric hospital and to identify predictive factors for their occurrence. A retrospective chart review of 110 patients born in or transferred to Sydney Children's Hospital with EA/TEF between January 1999 and December 2010 was done. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for the occurrence of complications in these children. From univariate analysis, early esophageal stricture formation was more likely in children with 'long-gap' EA (odds ratio [OR] = 16.32). Patients with early strictures were more likely to develop chest infections (OR = 3.33). Patients with severe tracheomalacia were more likely to experience 'cyanotic/dying' (OR = 180) and undergo aortopexy (OR = 549). Patients who had gastroesophageal reflux disease were significantly more likely to require fundoplication (OR = 10.83) and undergo aortopexy (OR = 6.417). From multivariate analysis, 'long-gap' EA was a significant predictive factor for late esophageal stricture formation (P = 0.007) and for gastrostomy insertion (P = 0.001). Reflux was a significant predictive factor for requiring fundoplication (P = 0.007) and gastrostomy (P = 0.002). Gastrostomy insertion (P = 0.000) was a significant predictive factor for undergoing fundoplication. Having a prior fundoplication (P = 0.001) was a significant predictive factor for undergoing a subsequent aortopexy. Predictive factors for the occurrence of complications post EA/TEF repair were identified in this large single centre pediatric study. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  2. Using TESS to predict transcription factor binding sites in DNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    This unit describes how to use the Transcription Element Search System (TESS). This Web site predicts transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in DNA sequence using two different kinds of models of sites, strings and positional weight matrices. The binding of transcription factors to DNA is a major part of the control of gene expression. Transcription factors exhibit sequence-specific binding; they form stronger bonds to some DNA sequences than to others. Identification of a good binding site in the promoter for a gene suggests the possibility that the corresponding factor may play a role in the regulation of that gene. However, the sequences transcription factors recognize are typically short and allow for some amount of mismatch. Because of this, binding sites for a factor can typically be found at random every few hundred to a thousand base pairs. TESS has features to help sort through and evaluate the significance of predicted sites.

  3. Prediction and Factor Extraction of Drug Function by Analyzing Medical Records in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Nohara, Yasunobu; Nakamura, Masafumi; Nakashima, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization has declared Bangladesh one of 58 countries facing acute Human Resources for Health (HRH) crisis. Artificial intelligence in healthcare has been shown to be successful for diagnostics. Using machine learning to predict pharmaceutical prescriptions may solve HRH crises. In this study, we investigate a predictive model by analyzing prescription data of 4,543 subjects in Bangladesh. We predict the function of prescribed drugs, comparing three machine-learning approaches. The approaches compare whether a subject shall be prescribed medicine from the 21 most frequently prescribed drug functions. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) were selected as a way to evaluate and assess prediction models. The results show the drug function with the best prediction performance was oral hypoglycemic drugs, which has an average AUC of 0.962. To understand how the variables affect prediction, we conducted factor analysis based on tree-based algorithms and natural language processing techniques.

  4. Effect of glycemic index on obesity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elisângela Vitoriano; Costa, Jorge de Assis; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Evaluate the effect of glycemic index (GI) on biochemical parameters, food intake, energy metabolism, anthropometric measures and body composition in overweight subjects. Simple blind study, in which nineteen subjects were randomly assigned to consume in the laboratory two daily low GI (n = 10) or high GI (n = 9) meals, for forty-five consecutive days. Habitual food intake was assessed at baseline. Food intake, anthropometric measures and body composition were assessed at each 15 days. Energy metabolism and biochemical parameters were evaluated at baseline and the end of the study. Low GI meals increased fat oxidation, and reduced waist circumference and HOMA-IR, while high GI meals increased daily dietary fiber and energy intake compared to baseline. There was a higher reduction on waist circumference and body fat, and a higher increase on postprandial fat oxidation in response to the LGI meals than after high GI meals. High GI meals increased fasting respiratory coefficient compared to baseline and low GI meals. The results of the present study showed that the consumption of two daily low GI meals for forty-five consecutive days has a positive effect on obesity control, whereas, the consumption of high GI meals result has the opposite effect.

  5. Systematic review of prognostic factors predicting outcome in non-surgically treated patients with sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwoerd, A J H; Luijsterburg, P A J; Lin, C W C; Jacobs, W C H; Koes, B W; Verhagen, A P

    2013-09-01

    Identification of prognostic factors for surgery in patients with sciatica is important to be able to predict surgery in an early stage. Identification of prognostic factors predicting persistent pain, disability and recovery are important for better understanding of the clinical course, to inform patient and physician and support decision making. Consequently, we aimed to systematically review prognostic factors predicting outcome in non-surgically treated patients with sciatica. A search of Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Cinahl, up to March 2012 was performed for prospective cohort studies on prognostic factors for non-surgically treated sciatica. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion and assessed the risk of bias. Outcomes were pain, disability, recovery and surgery. A best evidence synthesis was carried out in order to assess and summarize the data. The initial search yielded 4392 articles of which 23 articles reporting on 14 original cohorts met the inclusion criteria. High clinical, methodological and statistical heterogeneity among studies was found. Reported evidence regarding prognostic factors predicting the outcome in sciatica is limited. The majority of factors that have been evaluated, e.g., age, body mass index, smoking and sensory disturbance, showed no association with outcome. The only positive association with strong evidence was found for leg pain intensity at baseline as prognostic factor for subsequent surgery. © 2013 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  6. Population-Level Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes From Claims Data and Analysis of Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavian, Narges; Blecker, Saul; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Nigam, Somesh; Sontag, David

    2015-12-01

    We present a new approach to population health, in which data-driven predictive models are learned for outcomes such as type 2 diabetes. Our approach enables risk assessment from readily available electronic claims data on large populations, without additional screening cost. Proposed model uncovers early and late-stage risk factors. Using administrative claims, pharmacy records, healthcare utilization, and laboratory results of 4.1 million individuals between 2005 and 2009, an initial set of 42,000 variables were derived that together describe the full health status and history of every individual. Machine learning was then used to methodically enhance predictive variable set and fit models predicting onset of type 2 diabetes in 2009-2011, 2010-2012, and 2011-2013. We compared the enhanced model with a parsimonious model consisting of known diabetes risk factors in a real-world environment, where missing values are common and prevalent. Furthermore, we analyzed novel and known risk factors emerging from the model at different age groups at different stages before the onset. Parsimonious model using 21 classic diabetes risk factors resulted in area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.75 for diabetes prediction within a 2-year window following the baseline. The enhanced model increased the AUC to 0.80, with about 900 variables selected as predictive (p differences between AUCs). Similar improvements were observed for models predicting diabetes onset 1-3 years and 2-4 years after baseline. The enhanced model improved positive predictive value by at least 50% and identified novel surrogate risk factors for type 2 diabetes, such as chronic liver disease (odds ratio [OR] 3.71), high alanine aminotransferase (OR 2.26), esophageal reflux (OR 1.85), and history of acute bronchitis (OR 1.45). Liver risk factors emerge later in the process of diabetes development compared with obesity-related factors such as hypertension and high hemoglobin A1c. In conclusion, population-level risk

  7. Predictors of glycemic control in the first year of diagnosis of childhood onset type 1 diabetes: A systematic review of quantitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarello Paes, Veena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitrios; Edge, Julie; Taylor-Robinson, David; Stephenson, Terence; Amin, Rakesh

    2018-02-01

    Early glycemic control is associated with reduced future vascular complications risk in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to systematically review evidence on the predictors of glycemic control within 12 months of diagnosis of childhood onset T1D. Inclusion criteria for the electronic search were: interventional and observational studies that assessed and quantified an association between the predictor and glycemic control within 12 months of diagnosis of childhood onset T1D. A total of 17 915 articles were identified from 6 databases and 20 studies were finally included in the analysis. Harvest plots and narrative synthesis were used to summarize data from intervention (n = 0), prospective/retrospective cohort (n = 15), and cross-sectional (n = 5) studies. Significant predictors of poorer glycemic control 0 to 3 months after diagnosis were older age and female gender. Non-white ethnicity, diabetes autoantibody positivity, measures of deprivation, and non-private health insurance were potential predictors. Predictors of poorer glycemic control 4 to 12 months after diagnosis were: older age, non-white ethnicity, a single parent family, high hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels at diagnosis, longer T1D duration, and non-intensive insulin therapy. Potential predictors included: family with health issues, clinical factors, and comorbidities at diagnosis. Most significant predictors of poor glycemic control within 12 months of diagnosis of childhood onset T1D are non-modifiable. These factors need to be recognized and addressed through individualized and multidisciplinary diabetes care. Further research is required to confirm the association of potential predictors with early glycemic control. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Brewer's Yeast Improves Glycemic Indices in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Payam; Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali; Djalali, Mahmoud; Derakhshanian, Hoda; Hajianfar, Hossein; Bahonar, Ahmad; Djazayery, Abolghassem

    2013-10-01

    Brewer's yeast may have beneficial effects on insulin receptors because of itsglucose tolerance factor in diabetic patients. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brewer's yeast supplementation on glycemic indices in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial, 84 adults (21 men and 63 women) aged 46.3 ± 6.1 years old with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: Supplement group receiving brewer's yeast (six 300mg tablets/day, total 1800 mg) and control group receiving placebo (six 300mg tablets/day) for 12 weeks. Body weight, height, body mass index, food consumption (based on 24h food record), fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin sensitivity, and insulin resistance were measured before and after the intervention. Data analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 18.0). The changes in FBS, glycosylated hemoglobin, and insulin sensitivity were significantly different between the two groups during the study (respectively P brewer›s yeast besides the usual treatment of diabetes can ameliorate blood glucose variables in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  9. Individuals with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Trade Increased Hyperglycemia for Decreased Hypoglycemia When Glycemic Variability is not Improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangam, Sujit R; Hayter, Gary; Dunn, Timothy C

    2018-02-01

    Glycemic variability refers to oscillations in blood glucose within a day and differences in blood glucose at the same time on different days. Glycemic variability is linked to hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. The relationship among these three important metrics is examined here, specifically to show how reduction in both hypo- and hyperglycemia risk is dependent on changes in variability. To understand the importance of glycemic variability in the simultaneous reduction of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia risk, we introduce the glycemic risk plot-estimated HbA1c % (eA1c) vs. minutes below 70 mg/dl (MB70) with constant variability contours for predicting post-intervention risks in the absence of a change in glycemic variability. The glycemic risk plot illustrates that individuals who do not reduce glycemic variability improve one of the two metrics (hypoglycemia risk or hyperglycemia risk) at the cost of the other. It is important to reduce variability to improve both risks. These results were confirmed by data collected in a randomized controlled trial consisting of individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes on insulin therapy. For type 1, a total of 28 individuals out of 35 (80%) showed improvement in at least one of the risks (hypo and/or hyper) during the 100-day course of the study. Seven individuals (20%) showed improvement in both. Similar data were observed for type 2 where a total of 36 individuals out of 43 (84%) showed improvement in at least one risk and 8 individuals (19%) showed improvement in both. All individuals in the study who showed improvement in both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia risk also showed a reduction in variability. Therapy changes intended to improve an individual's hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia risk often result in the reduction of one risk at the expense of another. It is important to improve glucose variability to reduce both risks or at least maintain one risk while reducing the other. Abbott Diabetes Care.

  10. Pomegranate juice, but not an extract, confers a lower glycemic response on a high-glycemic index food: randomized, crossover, controlled trials in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimi, Asimina; Nyambe-Silavwe, Hilda; Gauer, Julia S; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Williamson, Gary

    2017-12-01

    Background: Low-glycemic index diets have demonstrated health benefits associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Objectives: We tested whether pomegranate polyphenols could lower the glycemic response of a high-glycemic index food when consumed together and the mechanism by which this might occur. Design: We compared the acute effect of a pomegranate juice and a polyphenol-rich extract from pomegranate (supplement) on the bread-derived postprandial blood glucose concentration in 2 randomized, crossover, controlled studies (double-blinded for the supplements), each on 16 healthy volunteers. An additional randomized, crossover, controlled study on 16 volunteers consuming constituent fruit acids in a pH-balanced solution (same pH as pomegranate) and bread was conducted to determine any contributions to postprandial responses caused by acidic beverages. Results: As primary outcome, the incremental area under the curve for bread-derived blood glucose (-33.1% ± 18.1%, P = 0.000005) and peak blood glucose (25.4% ± 19.3%, P = 0.0004) were attenuated by pomegranate juice, compared with a control solution containing the equivalent amount of sugars. In contrast, the pomegranate supplement, or a solution containing the malic and citric acid components of the juice, was ineffective. The pomegranate polyphenol punicalagin was a very effective inhibitor of human α-amylase in vitro, comparable to the drug acarbose. Neither the pomegranate extract nor the individual component polyphenols inhibited 14 C-D-glucose transport across differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers, but they inhibited uptake of 14 C-glucose into Xenopus oocytes expressing the human glucose transporter type 2. Further, some of the predicted pomegranate gut microbiota metabolites modulated 14 C-D-glucose and 14 C-deoxy-D-glucose uptake into hepatic HepG2 cells. Conclusions: These data indicate that pomegranate polyphenols, when present in a beverage but not in a supplement, can reduce the

  11. Does glycemic variability impact mood and quality of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penckofer, Sue; Quinn, Lauretta; Byrn, Mary; Ferrans, Carol; Miller, Michael; Strange, Poul

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes is a chronic condition that significantly impacts quality of life. Poor glycemic control is associated with more diabetes complications, depression, and worse quality of life. The impact of glycemic variability on mood and quality of life has not been studied. A descriptive exploratory design was used. Twenty-three women with type 2 diabetes wore a continuous glucose monitoring system for 72 h and completed a series of questionnaires. Measurements included (1) glycemic control shown by glycated hemoglobin and 24-h mean glucose, (2) glycemic variability shown by 24-h SD of the glucose readings, continuous overall net glycemic action (CONGA), and Fourier statistical models to generate smoothed curves to assess rate of change defined as "energy," and (3) mood (depression, anxiety, anger) and quality of life by questionnaires. Women with diabetes and co-morbid depression had higher anxiety, more anger, and lower quality of life than those without depression. Certain glycemic variability measures were associated with mood and quality of life. The 24-h SD of the glucose readings and the CONGA measures were significantly associated with health-related quality of life after adjusting for age and weight. Fourier models indicated that certain energy components were significantly associated with depression, trait anxiety, and overall quality of life. Finally, subjects with higher trait anxiety tended to have steeper glucose excursions. Data suggest that greater glycemic variability may be associated with lower quality of life and negative moods. Implications include replication of the study in a larger sample for the assessment of blood glucose fluctuations as they impact mood and quality of life.

  12. Glycemic control in diabetes in three Danish counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lone G M; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Heickendorff, Lene; Møller, Holger Jon; Hendel, Jørn; Christensen, Cramer; Schmitz, Anita; Reinholdt, Birgitte; Lund, Erik D; Christensen, Niels J; Hansen, Erik Kjaersgaard; Hastrup, Jens; Skjødt, Hanne; Eriksen, Ebbe Wendel; Brandslund, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a proxy measure for glycemic control in diabetes. We investigated the trend for glycemic control in patients from three Danish counties using HbA1c measurements. We studied 2454 patients from a population of 807,000 inhabitants for whom routine monitoring of diabetes using HbA1c-DCCT aligned was initiated in 2001. We estimated the incidence of monitored patients in the population. The progress in patients with originally diabetic HbA1c levels was investigated by cumulative probability plots, and the individual trend in clinical outcome was investigated by a modified difference plot. The age-standardized incidence of monitored patients was or=6.62% HbA1c) showed on average 15% improved glycemic control in the first year. Further improvement was limited. The overall percentage above the treatment target (>or=6.62% HbA1c) was 51% in 2003 compared to 59% in 2001, and the percentage with poor glycemic control (>or=10.0% HbA1c) was reduced from 19% to 4%. Of patients with originally diabetic HbA1c levels, 15% showed progress in glycemic control, and 28% reached treatment targets. In patients with originally normal HbA1c, 75% showed an upward trend in HbA1c levels, which reached diabetic concentrations in 17%. Patients with diabetic first HbA1c concentrations (>or=6.62% HbA1c) showed on average 15% improved glycemic control in the first year. Further improvement was limited. In individual patients, 75% with originally diabetic HbA1c levels showed improved glycemic control after 3 years, while 78% with originally normal concentrations showed an upward trend in HbA1c levels.

  13. Glycemic index and glycemic load in the Opuntia ficus-indica fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Salas, María de Jesús; Novelo-Huerta, Hilda Irene; De León-Salas, Marcela Alejandra; Sánchez-Murillo, Mayra Elisa; Mata-Obregón, María Del Carmen; Garza-Juárez, Aurora de Jesús

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that support the clinical usage of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in the prevention of chronic disease. To determine the GI and GL of the Opuntia ficus-indica fruit. An analytic, transversal study was made involving 25 healthy volunteers accepted by an informed consent with a normal body mass index, glucose, glycoside hemoglobin, cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The homogeneity of the population was evaluated with anthropometrical and biochemical data using principal component analysis (PCA). The equivalent of 50 g of carbohydrates test food (tuna) and 50 g of dextrose as food standard was provided for the measure of the glucose curve. The GI was determined by calculating the area under the curve by the triangulation method. The CG was reported as the product of IG by carbohydrate loading provided. The IG of the tuna was 48.01 ± 17.4, classified as low, while the CG was 24.0 ± 8.7 rated as high. The chemometric analysis by PCA showed that the selection of the normal population for determining the IG, it is important to consider the values of cholesterol and triglycerides. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  14. HOMA-IR Values are Associated With Glycemic Control in Japanese Subjects Without Diabetes or Obesity: The KOBE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Takumi; Higashiyama, Aya; Kubota, Yoshimi; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kadota, Aya; Nishida, Yoko; Imano, Hironori; Nishikawa, Tomofumi; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that insulin resistance was a major risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals without diabetes or obesity. We aimed to clarify the association between insulin resistance and glycemic control in Japanese subjects without diabetes or obesity. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study including 1083 healthy subjects (323 men and 760 women) in an urban area. We performed multivariate regression analyses to estimate the association between the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values and markers of glycemic control, including glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, after adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with the lowest tertile of HOMA-IR values, the highest tertile was significantly associated with HbA1c and FPG levels after adjustment for potential confounders, both in men (HbA1c: β = 1.83, P = 0.001; FPG: β = 0.49, P HOMA-IR values was inversely associated with 1,5-AG levels compared with the lowest tertile (β = -18.42, P = 0.009) only in men. HOMA-IR values were associated with markers of glycemic control in Japanese subjects without diabetes or obesity. Insulin resistance may influence glycemic control even in a lean, non-diabetic Asian population.

  15. Associations between lower urinary tract dysfunction and glycemic control in women with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Huai-Ching; Tai, Tong-Yuan; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Wang, Shin-Wei; Yu, Hong-Jeng

    2016-04-01

    Patients with diabetes are predisposed to develop a variety of complications, including lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction. We aimed to examine the associations between glycemic control and LUT dysfunction in women with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We included 400 women with T2D (age range, 48-75 years) in this cross-sectional analysis. The participants were divided into tertiles according to glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurements. The mean HbA1c levels for tertiles 1, 2, and 3 were 6.2% (N=132), 7.1% (N=132), and 8.4% (N=136), respectively. We evaluated LUT dysfunction with the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI) questionnaire, uroflowmetry (UFM), and post-void residual (PVR). No significant differences were found among HbA1c tertiles regarding storage, voiding and total AUA-SI scores, and prevalence of LUT symptoms. However, women in tertile 3 had higher prevalences of severe LUT symptoms (AUA-SI≥20) and clinically significant PVR (≥100mL) compared to women in the other tertiles. Multivariate analysis revealed that diabetic neuropathy, but not HbA1c, significantly predicted LUT symptoms in women with T2D after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI) and hypertension. However, HbA1c was associated with an increased risk of developing clinically significant PVR. Our findings do not support significant associations between glycemic control and LUT symptoms in women with T2D. However, women with poor glycemic control are more likely to develop urinary retention than women with proper glycemic control. Clinicians should, therefore, be aware of and educate patients about the association between urinary retention and glycemic control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An analysis of predictive factors for concurrent acute-on-chronic liver failure and hepatorenal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Yanfang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo learn the clinical characteristics of concurrent acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS, and to investigate the predictive factors for HRS in patients with ACLF. MethodsA total of 806 patients with ACLF who were admitted to our hospital from January 2012 to May 2014 were selected and divided into two groups according to the incidence of concurrent HRS. Clinical indices and laboratory test results were analyzed in the two groups, and the multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to figure out independent indices for the prediction of HRS in patients with ACLF. A prediction model was established and the receiver operating characteristic curve was drawn to evaluate the accuracy of the prediction model. Comparison of continuous data between the two groups was made by t test, and comparison of categorical data between the two groups was made by χ2 test. ResultsIn all patients with ACLF, 229 had HRS and 577 had no HRS. The univariate logistic regression analysis showed that hepatic encephalopathy, peritonitis, infection, age, cystatin C (Cys-C, serum creatinine (SCr, blood urea nitrogen, albumin, prealbumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, total cholesterol, K+, Na+, phosphorus, Ca2+, prothrombin time, prothrombin activity, international normalized ratio, and hematocrit were significant predictive factors for HRS. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that concurrent peritonitis, Cys-C, SCr, and HCO3- were independent predictive factors for HRS in patients with ACLF (OR=3.155, P<0.01; OR=30.773, P<0.01; OR=1062, P<0.01; OR=0.915, P<0.05. The model was proved of great value in prediction. ConclusionConcurrent peritonitis, Cys-C, SCr, and HCO3- are effective predictive factors for HRS in patients with ACLF.

  17. PREDICTION OF SURGICAL TREATMENT WITH POUR PERITONITIS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT QUANTIFYING RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Churpiy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There was investigated the possibility of quantitative assessment of risk factors of complications in the treatment of diffuse peritonitis. There were ditermined 70 groups of features that are important in predicting the course of diffuse peritonitis. The proposed scheme is the definition of risk clinical course of diffuse peritonitis can quantify the severity of the original patients and in most cases is correctly to predict the results of treatment of disease.

  18. Impact of Glucose Meter Error on Glycemic Variability and Time in Target Range During Glycemic Control After Cardiovascular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, Brad S; Meeusen, Jeffrey W; Bryant, Sandra C

    2015-08-25

    We retrospectively studied the impact of glucose meter error on the efficacy of glycemic control after cardiovascular surgery. Adult patients undergoing intravenous insulin glycemic control therapy after cardiovascular surgery, with 12-24 consecutive glucose meter measurements used to make insulin dosing decisions, had glucose values analyzed to determine glycemic variability by both standard deviation (SD) and continuous overall net glycemic action (CONGA), and percentage glucose values in target glucose range (110-150 mg/dL). Information was recorded for 70 patients during each of 2 periods, with different glucose meters used to measure glucose and dose insulin during each period but no other changes to the glycemic control protocol. Accuracy and precision of each meter were also compared using whole blood specimens from ICU patients. Glucose meter 1 (GM1) had median bias of 11 mg/dL compared to a laboratory reference method, while glucose meter 2 (GM2) had a median bias of 1 mg/dL. GM1 and GM2 differed little in precision (CV = 2.0% and 2.7%, respectively). Compared to the period when GM1 was used to make insulin dosing decisions, patients whose insulin dose was managed by GM2 demonstrated reduced glycemic variability as measured by both SD (13.7 vs 21.6 mg/dL, P meter error (bias) was associated with decreased glycemic variability and increased percentage of values in target glucose range for patients placed on intravenous insulin therapy following cardiovascular surgery. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. Predicting risk for childhood asthma by pre-pregnancy, perinatal, and postnatal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hui-Ju; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Guo, Yue Leon

    2015-05-01

    Symptoms of atopic disease start early in human life. Predicting risk for childhood asthma by early-life exposure would contribute to disease prevention. A birth cohort study was conducted to investigate early-life risk factors for childhood asthma and to develop a predictive model for the development of asthma. National representative samples of newborn babies were obtained by multistage stratified systematic sampling from the 2005 Taiwan Birth Registry. Information on potential risk factors and children's health was collected by home interview when babies were 6 months old and 5 yr old, respectively. Backward stepwise regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors of childhood asthma for predictive models that were used to calculate the probability of childhood asthma. A total of 19,192 children completed the study satisfactorily. Physician-diagnosed asthma was reported in 6.6% of 5-yr-old children. Pre-pregnancy factors (parental atopy and socioeconomic status), perinatal factors (place of residence, exposure to indoor mold and painting/renovations during pregnancy), and postnatal factors (maternal postpartum depression and the presence of atopic dermatitis before 6 months of age) were chosen for the predictive models, and the highest predicted probability of asthma in 5-yr-old children was 68.1% in boys and 78.1% in girls; the lowest probability in boys and girls was 4.1% and 3.2%, respectively. This investigation provides a technique for predicting risk of childhood asthma that can be used to developing a preventive strategy against asthma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [The glycemic index of some foods common in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; Roca-Vides, R A; López-Pérez, R J; de Vivero, I; Ruiz-Velazco, M

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the increase of glycemia due to the ingestion of usual food in Mexico, portions with 50 g of carbohydrate form white corn tortilla, yellow corn tortilla, spaghetti, rice, potatoes, beans brown and black, nopal (prickle pear cactus) and peanuts, compared with white bread, were given to 21 healthy and 27 non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Serum glucose and insulin were measured every 30 min for 180 min long. Glycemic index was obtained as: (area under curve of glucose with test food/area under curve of glucose with white bread) X 100. A corrected index was calculated subtracting the area corresponding to initial values. Insulin index was obtained similarly. Each sample was studied 14-18 times. Glycemic and insulin indexes of white and yellow corn tortilla, spaghetti, rice and potatoes were not different from bread (P greater than 0.05). Corrected glycemic indexes of brown beans (54 +/- 15, +/- SE) and black beans (43 +/- 17) were low (p less than 0.05), as well as corrected insulin indexes (69 +/- 11 and 64 +/- 10 respectively, (P less than 0.02). Peanuts had low glycemic (33 +/- 17, P less than 0.01), but normal insulin index. Nopal had very low glycemic and insulin indexes (10 +/- 17 and 10 +/- 16, P less than 0.0001). These data might be useful in prescribing diets for diabetic subjects.

  1. Intensive glycemic control and cardiovascular disease: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aparna; Reynolds, L Raymond; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2010-07-01

    Cardiovascular complications constitute the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) provided consistent evidence that intensive glycemic control prevents the development and progression of microvascular complications in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, whether intensive glucose lowering also prevents macrovascular disease and major cardiovascular events remains unclear. Extended follow-up of participants in these studies demonstrated that intensive glycemic control reduced the long-term incidence of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular disease. By contrast, the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial, Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial, and Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT) results suggested that intensive glycemic control to near normoglycemia had either no, or potentially even a detrimental, effect on cardiovascular outcomes. This article discusses the effects of intensive glycemic control on cardiovascular disease, and examines key differences in the design of these trials that might have contributed to their disparate findings. Recommendations from the current joint ADA, AHA, and ACCF position statement on intensive glycemic control and prevention of cardiovascular disease are highlighted.

  2. [Advance in researches on vegetation cover and management factor in the soil erosion prediction model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Jianping; Liu, Baoyuan

    2002-08-01

    Vegetation cover and land management are the main limiting factors of soil erosion, and quantitative evaluation on the effect of different vegetation on soil erosion is essential to land use and soil conservation planning. The vegetation cover and management factor (C) in the universal soil loss equation (USLE) is an index to evaluate this effect, which has been studied deeply and used widely. However, the C factor study is insufficient in China. In order to strengthen the research of C factor, this paper reviewed the developing progress of C factor, and compared the methods of estimating C value in different USLE versions. The relative studies in China were also summarized from the aspects of vegetation canopy coverage, soil surface cover, and root density. Three problems in C factor study were pointed out. The authors suggested that cropland C factor research should be furthered, and its methodology should be unified in China to represent reliable C values for soil loss prediction and conservation planning.

  3. Predictive factors for postoperative visual function of primary chronic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after scleral buckling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Li, Jiu-Ke; Jin, Xiao-Hong; Dai, Yuan-Min; Li, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate predictive factors for postoperative visual function of primary chronic rhegmatgenous retinal detachment (RRD) after sclera buckling (SB). Totally 48 patients (51 eyes) with primary chronic RRD were included in this prospective interventional clinical cases study, which underwent SB alone from June 2008 to December 2014. Age, sex, symptoms duration, detached extension, retinal hole position, size, type, fovea on/off, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), posterior vitreous detachment (PVD), baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), operative duration, follow up duration, final BCVA were measured. Pearson correlation analysis, Spearman correlation analysis and multivariate linear stepwise regression were used to confirm predictive factors for better final visual acuity. Student's t-test, Wilcoxon two-sample test, Chi-square test and logistic stepwise regression were used to confirm predictive factors for better vision improvement. Baseline BCVA was 0.8313±0.6911 logMAR and final BCVA was 0.4761±0.4956 logMAR. Primary surgical success rate was 92.16% (47/51). Correlation analyses revealed shorter symptoms duration (r=0.3850, P=0.0053), less detached area (r=0.5489, Ppredictive factors were better baseline BCVA [partial R-square (PR(2))=0.5316, Ppredictive factors for better vision improvement were better baseline vision [odds ratio (OR) =50.369, P=0.0041] and longer follow up duration (OR=1.144, P=0.0067). Independent predictive factors for better visual outcome of primary chronic RRD after SB are better baseline BCVA, shorter symptoms duration, shorter operative duration and longer follow up duration, while independent predictive factors for better vision improvement after operation are better baseline vision and longer follow up duration.

  4. Predicting Factors of INSURE Failure in Low Birth Weight Neonates with RDS; A Logistic Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Najafian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Respiratory Distress syndrome is the most common respiratory disease in premature neonate and the most important cause of death among them. We aimed to investigate factors to predict successful or failure of INSURE method as a therapeutic method of RDS.Methods:In a cohort study,45 neonates with diagnosed RDS and birth weight lower than 1500g were included and they underwent INSURE followed by NCPAP(Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. The patients were divided into failure or successful groups and factors which can predict success of INSURE were investigated by logistic regression in SPSS 16th version.Results:29 and16 neonates were observed in successful and failure groups, respectively. Birth weight was the only variable with significant difference between two groups (P=0.002. Finally logistic regression test showed that birth weight is only predicting factor for success (P: 0.001, EXP[β]: 0.009, CI [95%]: 1.003-0.014 and mortality (P: 0.029, EXP[β]: 0.993, CI [95%]: 0.987-0.999 of neonates treated with INSURE method.Conclusion:Predicting factors which affect on success rate of INSURE can be useful for treating and reducing charge of neonate with RDS and the birth weight is one of the effective factor on INSURE Success in this study.

  5. Predicting Factors of INSURE Failure in Low Birth Weight Neonates with RDS; A Logistic Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Najafian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Respiratory Distress syndrome is the most common respiratory disease in premature neonate and the most important cause of death among them. We aimed to investigate factors to predict successful or failure of INSURE method as a therapeutic method of RDS. Methods:In a cohort study,45 neonates with diagnosed RDS and birth weight lower than 1500g were included and they underwent INSURE followed by NCPAP(Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. The patients were divided into failure or successful groups and factors which can predict success of INSURE were investigated by logistic regression in SPSS 16th version. Results:29 and16 neonates were observed in successful and failure groups, respectively. Birth weight was the only variable with significant difference between two groups (P=0.002. Finally logistic regression test showed that birth weight is only predicting factor for success (P: 0.001, EXP[β]: 0.009, CI [95%]: 1.003-0.014 and mortality (P: 0.029, EXP[β]: 0.993, CI [95%]: 0.987-0.999 of neonates treated with INSURE method. Conclusion:Predicting factors which affect on success rate of INSURE can be useful for treating and reducing charge of neonate with RDS and the birth weight is one of the effective factor on INSURE Success in this study.

  6. Transcriptome profiling from adipose tissue during a low-calorie diet reveals predictors of weight and glycemic outcomes in obese, nondiabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armenise, Claudia; Lefebvre, Gregory C; Carayol, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    and glycemic outcomes both at LCD termination and 6 mo after the LCD.Design: Using RNA sequencing (RNAseq), we analyzed transcriptome changes in AT from 191 obese, nondiabetic patients within a multicenter, controlled dietary intervention. Expression changes were associated with outcomes after an 8-wk LCD (800......-1000 kcal/d) and 6 mo after the LCD. Results were validated by using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in 350 subjects from the same cohort. Statistical models were constructed to classify weight maintainers or glycemic improvers.Results: With RNAseq analyses, we identified 1173...... expression combined with clinical variables enabled us to distinguish weight and glycemic responders from nonresponders. These potential biomarkers may help clinicians understand intersubject variability and better predict the success of dietary interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials...

  7. Controlling factors of uranium mineralization and prospect prediction in Qimantage area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Chunling; Zhu Pengfei; Cai Yuqi; Zhang Wenming; Zhao Yong'an; Song Jiye; Zhang Xiaojin

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of regional geology in Qimantage area, the condition for uranium mineralization is summarized in regional geology setting, volcanic, granite and faults. This study shows that this area has favorable prospect for uranium mineralization. The metallogenic model is built up according to the controlling factors over uranium mineralization. Under this model, six potential areas are predicted in MRAS software with mineralization factors of synthetically geological information method. (authors)

  8. Aspect-Aware Latent Factor Model: Rating Prediction with Ratings and Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Zhiyong; Ding, Ying; Zhu, Lei; Kankanhalli, Mohan

    2018-01-01

    Although latent factor models (e.g., matrix factorization) achieve good accuracy in rating prediction, they suffer from several problems including cold-start, non-transparency, and suboptimal recommendation for local users or items. In this paper, we employ textual review information with ratings to tackle these limitations. Firstly, we apply a proposed aspect-aware topic model (ATM) on the review text to model user preferences and item features from different aspects, and estimate the aspect...

  9. Semen parameters can be predicted from environmental factors and lifestyle using artificial intelligence methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girela, Jose L; Gil, David; Johnsson, Magnus; Gomez-Torres, María José; De Juan, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    Fertility rates have dramatically decreased in the last two decades, especially in men. It has been described that environmental factors as well as life habits may affect semen quality. In this paper we use artificial intelligence techniques in order to predict semen characteristics resulting from environmental factors, life habits, and health status, with these techniques constituting a possible decision support system that can help in the study of male fertility potential. A total of 123 young, healthy volunteers provided a semen sample that was analyzed according to the World Health Organization 2010 criteria. They also were asked to complete a validated questionnaire about life habits and health status. Sperm concentration and percentage of motile sperm were related to sociodemographic data, environmental factors, health status, and life habits in order to determine the predictive accuracy of a multilayer perceptron network, a type of artificial neural network. In conclusion, we have developed an artificial neural network that can predict the results of the semen analysis based on the data collected by the questionnaire. The semen parameter that is best predicted using this methodology is the sperm concentration. Although the accuracy for motility is slightly lower than that for concentration, it is possible to predict it with a significant degree of accuracy. This methodology can be a useful tool in early diagnosis of patients with seminal disorders or in the selection of candidates to become semen donors.

  10. Correlation between glycemic excursion by CGMS and diabetic retinopathy among Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Li; Ji Ning; Zhu Wei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate correlation between glycemic excursion by CGMS and diabetic retinopathy among type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Used continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) to monitoring glycemic excursion within a day of twenty four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inspect fundus photography, correlation was analyzed. Results: Glycemic excursion might reveal the risk for diabetic retinopathy better than HbA1c does. Conclusion: Diabetic retinopathy may correlate with glycemic excursion. (authors)

  11. PRISM offers a comprehensive genomic approach to transcription factor function prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Wenger, A. M.; Clarke, S. L.; Guturu, H.; Chen, J.; Schaar, B. T.; McLean, C. Y.; Bejerano, G.

    2013-01-01

    The human genome encodes 1500-2000 different transcription factors (TFs). ChIP-seq is revealing the global binding profiles of a fraction of TFs in a fraction of their biological contexts. These data show that the majority of TFs bind directly next to a large number of context-relevant target genes, that most binding is distal, and that binding is context specific. Because of the effort and cost involved, ChIP-seq is seldom used in search of novel TF function. Such exploration is instead done using expression perturbation and genetic screens. Here we propose a comprehensive computational framework for transcription factor function prediction. We curate 332 high-quality nonredundant TF binding motifs that represent all major DNA binding domains, and improve cross-species conserved binding site prediction to obtain 3.3 million conserved, mostly distal, binding site predictions. We combine these with 2.4 million facts about all human and mouse gene functions, in a novel statistical framework, in search of enrichments of particular motifs next to groups of target genes of particular functions. Rigorous parameter tuning and a harsh null are used to minimize false positives. Our novel PRISM (predicting regulatory information from single motifs) approach obtains 2543 TF function predictions in a large variety of contexts, at a false discovery rate of 16%. The predictions are highly enriched for validated TF roles, and 45 of 67 (67%) tested binding site regions in five different contexts act as enhancers in functionally matched cells.

  12. PRISM offers a comprehensive genomic approach to transcription factor function prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Wenger, A. M.

    2013-02-04

    The human genome encodes 1500-2000 different transcription factors (TFs). ChIP-seq is revealing the global binding profiles of a fraction of TFs in a fraction of their biological contexts. These data show that the majority of TFs bind directly next to a large number of context-relevant target genes, that most binding is distal, and that binding is context specific. Because of the effort and cost involved, ChIP-seq is seldom used in search of novel TF function. Such exploration is instead done using expression perturbation and genetic screens. Here we propose a comprehensive computational framework for transcription factor function prediction. We curate 332 high-quality nonredundant TF binding motifs that represent all major DNA binding domains, and improve cross-species conserved binding site prediction to obtain 3.3 million conserved, mostly distal, binding site predictions. We combine these with 2.4 million facts about all human and mouse gene functions, in a novel statistical framework, in search of enrichments of particular motifs next to groups of target genes of particular functions. Rigorous parameter tuning and a harsh null are used to minimize false positives. Our novel PRISM (predicting regulatory information from single motifs) approach obtains 2543 TF function predictions in a large variety of contexts, at a false discovery rate of 16%. The predictions are highly enriched for validated TF roles, and 45 of 67 (67%) tested binding site regions in five different contexts act as enhancers in functionally matched cells.

  13. A 3-Year Study of Predictive Factors for Positive and Negative Appendicectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dwayne T S; Maluda, Melissa; Lee, Lisa; Premaratne, Chandrasiri; Khamhing, Srisongham

    2018-03-06

    Early and accurate identification or exclusion of acute appendicitis is the key to avoid the morbidity of delayed treatment for true appendicitis or unnecessary appendicectomy, respectively. We aim (i) to identify potential predictive factors for positive and negative appendicectomies; and (ii) to analyse the use of ultrasound scans (US) and computed tomography (CT) scans for acute appendicitis. All appendicectomies that took place at our hospital from the 1st of January 2013 to the 31st of December 2015 were retrospectively recorded. Test results of potential predictive factors of acute appendicitis were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher exact test, logistic regression analysis, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values calculation. 208 patients were included in this study. 184 patients had histologically proven acute appendicitis. The other 24 patients had either nonappendicitis pathology or normal appendix. Logistic regression analysis showed statistically significant associations between appendicitis and white cell count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, and bilirubin. Neutrophil count was the test with the highest sensitivity and negative predictive values, whereas bilirubin was the test with the highest specificity and positive predictive values (PPV). US and CT scans had high sensitivity and PPV for diagnosing appendicitis. No single test was sufficient to diagnose or exclude acute appendicitis by itself. Combining tests with high sensitivity (abnormal neutrophil count, and US and CT scans) and high specificity (raised bilirubin) may predict acute appendicitis more accurately.

  14. Risk factors predict post-traumatic stress disorder differently in men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elklit Ask

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About twice as many women as men develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, even though men as a group are exposed to more traumatic events. Exposure to different trauma types does not sufficiently explain why women are more vulnerable. Methods The present work examines the effect of age, previous trauma, negative affectivity (NA, anxiety, depression, persistent dissociation, and social support on PTSD separately in men and women. Subjects were exposed to either a series of explosions in a firework factory near a residential area or to a high school stabbing incident. Results Some gender differences were found in the predictive power of well known risk factors for PTSD. Anxiety predicted PTSD in men, but not in women, whereas the opposite was found for depression. Dissociation was a better predictor for PTSD in women than in men in the explosion sample but not in the stabbing sample. Initially, NA predicted PTSD better in women than men in the explosion sample, but when compared only to other significant risk factors, it significantly predicted PTSD for both men and women in both studies. Previous traumatic events and age did not significantly predict PTSD in either gender. Conclusion Gender differences in the predictive value of social support on PTSD appear to be very complex, and no clear conclusions can be made based on the two studies included in this article.

  15. Development of scaling factor prediction method for radionuclide composition in low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak

    1995-02-01

    Low-level radioactive waste management require the knowledge of the natures and quantities of radionuclides in the immobilized or packaged waste. U. S. NRC rules require programs that measure the concentrations of all relevant nuclides either directly or indirectly by relating difficult-to-measure radionuclides to other easy-to-measure radionuclides with application of scaling factors. Scaling factors previously developed through statistical approach can give only generic ones and have many difficult problem about sampling procedures. Generic scaling factors can not take into account for plant operation history. In this study, a method to predict plant-specific and operational history dependent scaling factors is developed. Realistic and detailed approach are taken to find scaling factors at reactor coolant. This approach begin with fission product release mechanisms and fundamental release properties of fuel-source nuclide such as fission product and transuranic nuclide. Scaling factors at various waste streams are derived from the predicted reactor coolant scaling factors with the aid of radionuclide retention and build up model. This model make use of radioactive material balance within the radioactive waste processing systems. Scaling factors at reactor coolant and waste streams which can include the effects of plant operation history have been developed according to input parameters of plant operation history

  16. Effects of hypocaloric diets with different glycemic indexes on endothelial function and glycemic variability in overweight and in obese adult patients at increased cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Silvio; Cosentino, Loretta; Rosafio, Giuseppe; Morgana, Manuela; Mattina, Alessandro; Sprini, Delia; Verga, Salvatore; Rini, Giovam Battista

    2013-06-01

    The role of glycemic index of the diet in glucose control and cardiovascular prevention is still not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hypocaloric diets with different glycemic indexes and glycemic loads on endothelial function and glycemic variability in nondiabetic participants at increased cardiovascular risk. Forty nondiabetic obese participants were randomly assigned to a three-month treatment with either a low glycemic index (LGI; n=19) or high glycemic index (HGI; n=21) hypocaloric diet with similar macronutrient and fiber content. Endothelial function was measured as flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery before and after dieting. In addition, 48-h continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring was done before and after dieting in a subgroup of 24 participants. The amount of weight loss after dieting was similar in both groups. The glycemic index of the diet significantly influenced the FMD (Pdiet, and -0.9±3.6% after the HGI diet (Pdiet on results was observed. The glycemic index of the diet significantly influenced the 48-h glycemic variability measured as coefficient of variability (CV%; Pdiet (from 23.5 to 20.0%) and increased after the HGI diet (from 23.6 to 26.6%). The change in percentage of FMD was inversely correlated with the change in the 48-h glycemic CV% (r=-0.45; Phypocaloric diet in nondiabetic obese persons. ISRCTN56834511. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors of Predicted Learning Disorders and their Interaction with Attentional and Perceptual Training Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friar, John T.

    Two factors of predicted learning disorders were investigated: (1) inability to maintain appropriate classroom behavior (BEH), (2) perceptual discrimination deficit (PERC). Three groups of first-graders (BEH, PERC, normal control) were administered measures of impulse control, distractability, auditory discrimination, and visual discrimination.…

  18. Beyond Engagement Analytics: Which Online Mixed-Data Factors Predict Student Learning Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-method study focuses on online learning analytics, a research area of importance. Several important student attributes and their online activities are examined to identify what seems to work best to predict higher grades. The purpose is to explore the relationships between student grade and key learning engagement factors using a large…

  19. Factors Predicting Turkish and Korean Students' Science and Mathematics Achievement in TIMSS 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Mustafa Sami; Erbilgin, Evrim; Arikan, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    This study makes an important contribution to an expanding body of international comparative studies by exploring factors predicting differences in science and mathematics achievement by students in Turkey and the Republic of Korea on the 2011 TIMSS assessment. While these countries are similar with regards to population size, cultural beliefs…

  20. Predicting Factors of Chronic Subdural Hematoma Following Surgical Clipping in Unruptured and Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min-Yong; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Chang-Young

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the differences in the incidence, predicting factors, and clinical course of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) following surgical clipping between unruptured (UIA) and ruptured intracranial aneurysm (RIA). We conducted a retrospective analysis of 752 patients (UIA : 368 and RIA : 384) who underwent surgical clipping during 8 years. The incidence and predicting factors of CSDH development in the UIA and RIA were compared according to medical records and radiological data. The incidence of postoperative CSDH was higher in the UIA (10.9%) than in the RIA (3.1%) (p=0.000). In multivariate analysis, a high Hounsfield (HF) unit (blood clots) for subdural fluid collection (SFC), persistence of SFC ≥5 mm and male sex in the UIA and A high HF unit for SFC and SFC ≥5 mm without progression to hydrocephalus in the RIA were identified as the independent predicting factors for CSDH development (psubdural space and persistence of SFC ≥5 mm were predicting factors in both UIA and RIA. However, progression to hydrocephalus may have in part contributed to low CSDH development in the RIA. We suggest that cleaning of blood clots in the subdural space and efforts to minimize SFC ≥5 mm at the end of surgery is helpful to prevent CSDH following aneurysmal clipping.

  1. The Predictive Effect of Big Five Factor Model on Social Reactivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study tested a model of providing a predictive explanation of Big Five Factor on social reactivity among secondary school adolescents of Cross River State, Nigeria. A sample of 200 students randomly selected across 12 public secondary schools in the State participated in the study (120 male and 80 female). Data ...

  2. Contextual Predictive Factors of Child Sexual Abuse: The Role of Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Clemencia; Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Botero, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the Colombian coasts, as well as to assess the role of parent-child interactions on its occurrence and to identify factors from different environmental levels that predict it. Methods: This cross-sectional study explores the results of 1,089 household interviews responded by mothers.…

  3. The Factors Predicting Stress, Anxiety and Depression in the Parents of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Nicholas Henry; Norris, Kimberley; Quinn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The factors predicting stress, anxiety and depression in the parents of children with autism remain poorly understood. In this study, a cohort of 250 mothers and 229 fathers of one or more children with autism completed a questionnaire assessing reported parental mental health problems, locus of control, social support, perceived parent-child…

  4. Predictive Factors for Mortality and Morbidity of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Shiraishi

    2012-04-01

    Conclusions: Emergency open repair can be safely performed in patients for infrarenal rAAA. In particular, we identified specific independent predictive factors of clinical examination and laboratory studies for mortality, major morbidity and renal insufficiency. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(2.000: 94-101

  5. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Predicts Mortality Risk in Older Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K.S.; Mortensen, E.L.; Avlund, K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To test the hypothesis that low circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a secretory member of the neurotrophin family that has a protective role in neurodegeneration and stress responses and a regulatory role in metabolism, predicts risk of all-cause mortality in 85-year...

  6. Using Hierarchical Linear Modelling to Examine Factors Predicting English Language Students' Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Karen; ElAtia, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Using Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM), this study aimed to identify factors such as ESL/ELL/EAL status that would predict students' reading performance in an English language arts exam taken across Canada. Using data from the 2007 administration of the Pan-Canadian Assessment Program (PCAP) along with the accompanying surveys for students and…

  7. Predictive factors of work disability in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, de E.M.; Sluiter, J.K.; Nijssen, TF; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Frings-Dresen, MH

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work disability-a common outcome of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-is a societal (for example, financial costs) and individual problem (for example, loss of status, income, social support, and distraction from pain and distress). Until now, factors that predict work disability in RA have not

  8. Cowpeas in Northern Ghana and the Factors that Predict Caregivers’ Intention to Give Them to Schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abizari, A.R.; Pilime, N.; Armar-Klemesu, M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cowpeas are important staple legumes among the rural poor in northern Ghana. Our objectives were to assess the iron and zinc content of cowpea landraces and identify factors that predict the intention of mothers/caregivers to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. Methods and Findings We

  9. Reduced mandibular range of motion in Duchenne muscular dystrophy : Predictive factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruggen, H. W.; Van Den Engel-Hoek, L.; Steenks, M. H.; Bronkhorst, E. M.; Creugers, N. H J; de Groot, I. J M; Kalaykova, S. I.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) experience negative effects upon feeding and oral health. We aimed to determine whether the mandibular range of motion in DMD is impaired and to explore predictive factors for the active maximum mouth opening (aMMO). 23 patients with DMD (mean age 16·7

  10. Serum Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in the Prediction of Preterm Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Brad; Garvin, Sicily; Grove, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a soluble mediator that helps govern the interaction between cytokines and stress hormones (e.g. cortisol). We determined if maternal MIF levels predicted subsequent preterm delivery (PTD). Study Design: A nested case-control study...

  11. Identification of the Predictive Power of Five Factor Personality Traits for Individual Instrument Performance Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Gökhan; Dalkiran, Esra

    2017-01-01

    This study, with the aim of identifying the predictive power of the five-factor personality traits of music teacher candidates on individual instrument performance anxiety, was designed according to the relational screening model. The study population was students attending the Music Education branch of Fine Arts Education Departments in…

  12. Factors That Predict Marijuana Use and Grade Point Average among Undergraduate College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Marlena B.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors that predict marijuana use and grade point average among undergraduate college students using the Core Institute national database. The Core Alcohol and Drug Survey was used to collect data on students' attitudes, beliefs, and experiences related to substance use in college. The sample used in this…

  13. Comparing statistical and machine learning classifiers: alternatives for predictive modeling in human factors research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, Brian; Meyer, Gérard; Kuntz, Lois-Ann

    2003-01-01

    Multivariate classification models play an increasingly important role in human factors research. In the past, these models have been based primarily on discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Models developed from machine learning research offer the human factors professional a viable alternative to these traditional statistical classification methods. To illustrate this point, two machine learning approaches--genetic programming and decision tree induction--were used to construct classification models designed to predict whether or not a student truck driver would pass his or her commercial driver license (CDL) examination. The models were developed and validated using the curriculum scores and CDL exam performances of 37 student truck drivers who had completed a 320-hr driver training course. Results indicated that the machine learning classification models were superior to discriminant analysis and logistic regression in terms of predictive accuracy. Actual or potential applications of this research include the creation of models that more accurately predict human performance outcomes.

  14. Impact of night sleep duration on glycemic and triglyceride levels in Chinese with different glycemic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Anping; Pan, Changyu; Lu, Juming; Dou, Jingtao; Lu, Zhaohui; Ba, Jianming; Wang, Baoan; Mu, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between night sleep duration and glycemic and triglyceride (TG) levels among people with different glycemic status. In all, 18,121 subjects aged ≥40 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, including 4318 with impaired glucose regulation (IGR), 4225 with diabetes, and 9578 with normal glucose regulation (NGR). The IGR + diabetes and NGR groups were divided into three subgroups according to self-reported night sleep duration as follows: (i) 9 h. The associations of sleep duration with HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h post-load plasma glucose (PPG), and TG levels were examined. Long night sleep duration (>9 h) was associated with higher HbA1c, FPG, PPG, and TG levels compared with sleep duration of 6-9 h (P index and depressive symptoms, and remained significant even after adjusting for snoring. A significant interaction between sleep duration and TG or snoring was observed for HbA1c levels, which attenuated the sleep-HbA1c association in the IGR + diabetes group. However, no significant association was observed between short night sleep duration and HbA1c levels. Long night sleep duration is associated with higher HbA1c, FPG, PPG, and TG levels in IGR and diabetes patients, independent of potential confounders. This may be important in clinical management of IGR and diabetes patients. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and metabolic profile in children with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, F; Pellegrini, N; Salvatici, E; Rovelli, V; Banderali, G; Radaelli, G; Scazzina, F; Giovannini, M; Verduci, E

    2017-02-01

    No data exist in the current literature on the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of the diet of phenylketonuric (PKU) children. The aims of this study were to examine the dietary GI and GL in PKU children on a low-phenylalanine (Phe)-diet and to evaluate whether an association may exist between the carbohydrate quality and the metabolic profile. Twenty-one PKU children (age 5-11 years) and 21 healthy children, gender and age matched, were enrolled. Dietary (including GI and GL) and blood biochemical assessments were performed. No difference was observed for daily energy intake between PKU and healthy children. Compared to healthy controls, PKU children consumed less protein (p = 0.001) and fat (p = 0.028), and more carbohydrate (% of total energy, p = 0.004) and fiber (p = 0.009). PKU children had higher daily GI than healthy children (mean difference (95% confidence interval), 13.7 (9.3-18.3)) and higher GL (31.7 (10.1-53.2)). PKU children exhibited lower blood total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels (p triglyceride level (p = 0.014) than healthy children, while glucose and insulin concentrations did not differ. In PKU children the dietary GL was associated with triglyceride glucose index (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.515, p = 0.034). In PKU children a relationship of the dietary treatment with GI and GL, blood triglycerides and triglyceride glucose index may exist. Improvement towards an optimal diet for PKU children could include additional attention to the management of dietary carbohydrate quality. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of the informal primary caretaker on glycemic control among prepubertal pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Nallely Zurita-Cruz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: In prepubertal type 1 diabetic patients (DM1, the availability of an informal primary caregiver (ICP is critical to making management decisions; in this study, the ICP-related risk factors associated with glycemic control were identified. Patients, materials, and methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was performed. Fifty-five patients with DM1 under the age of 11 years were included. The patient-related factors associated with glycemic control evaluated were physical activity, DM1 time of evolution, and adherence to medical indications. The ICP-related factors evaluated were education, employment aspects, depressive traits (Beck questionnaire, family functionality (family APGAR, support of another person in patient care, stress (Perceived Stress Scale, and socioeconomic status (Bronfman questionnaire. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Results: The patients' median age was 8 years; 29 patients had good glycemic control, and 26 were uncontrolled. The main risk factor associated with glycemic dyscontrol was stress in the ICP (OR 24.8; 95% CI 4.06-151.9, p = 0.001. While, according to the linear regression analysis it was found that lower level of education (β 0.991, 95% CI 0.238-1.743, p = 0.011 and stress (β 1.918, 95% CI 1.10-2.736, p = 0.001 in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction (β 1.256, 95% CI 0.336-2.177, p = 0.008 were associated with higher levels of glycated hemoglobin. Conclusions: Level of education and stress in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction, are factors that influence the lack of controlled blood glucose levels among prepubertal DM1 patients.

  17. Gender differences in the factors predicting initial engagement at cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdas, Paul Michael; Harrison, Alexander Stephen; Doherty, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether there are gender differences in the factors that predict attendance at the initial cardiac rehabilitation baseline assessment (CR engagement) after referral. Using data from the National Audit of Cardiac Rehabilitation, we analysed data on 95 638 patients referred to CR following a cardiovascular diagnosis/treatment between 2013 and 2016. Eighteen factors that have been shown in previous research to be important predictors of CR participation were investigated and grouped into four categories: sociodemographic factors, cardiac risk factors, patient medical status and service-level factors. Logistic binary regression models were built for male patients and female patients, assessing the likelihood for CR engagement. Each included predictors such as age, number of comorbidities and social deprivation score. There were no important differences in the factors that predict the likelihood of CR engagement in men and women. Seven factors associated with a reduced probability of CR engagement, and eight factors associated with increased probability, were identified. Fourteen of the 15 factors identified as predicting the likelihood for engagement/non-engagement were the same for both men and women. Increasing age, being South Asian or non-white ethnicity (other than Black) and being single were all associated with a reduced likelihood of attending an initial CR baseline assessment in both men and women. Male patients with diabetes were 11% less likely to engage with CR; however, there was no significant association in women. Results showed that the overwhelmingly important determinant of CR engagement observed in both men and women was receiving an invitation to attend an assessment session (OR 4.223 men/4.033women; pgender differences in predictors of CR uptake should probably be more nuanced and informed by the stage of the patient care pathway.

  18. C-Peptide Level in Fasting Plasma and Pooled Urine Predicts HbA1c after Hospitalization in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remi Sonoda

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate how measures of insulin secretion and other clinical information affect long-term glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Between October 2012 and June 2014, we monitored 202 diabetes patients who were admitted to the hospital of Asahi Life Foundation for glycemic control, as well as for training and education in diabetes management. We measured glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c six months after discharge to assess disease management. In univariate analysis, fasting plasma C-peptide immunoreactivity (F-CPR and pooled urine CPR (U-CPR were significantly associated with HbA1c, in contrast to ΔCPR and C-peptide index (CPI. This association was strongly independent of most other patient variables. In exploratory factor analysis, five underlying factors, namely insulin resistance, aging, sex differences, insulin secretion, and glycemic control, represented patient characteristics. In particular, insulin secretion and resistance strongly influenced F-CPR, while insulin secretion affected U-CPR. In conclusion, the data indicate that among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, F-CPR and U-CPR may predict improved glycemic control six months after hospitalization.

  19. Formulating the strength factor α for improved predictability of radiation hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, L., E-mail: tanl@ornl.gov; Busby, J.T.

    2015-10-15

    Analytical equations were developed to calculate the strength factors of precipitates, Frank loops, and cavities in austenitic alloys, which strongly depend on barrier type, size, geometry and density, as well as temperature. Calculated strength factors were successfully used to estimate radiation hardening using the broadly employed dispersed barrier-hardening model, leading to good agreement with experimentally measured hardening in neutron-irradiated type 304 and 316 stainless steel variants. The formulated strength factor provides a route for more reliable hardening predictions and can be easily incorporated into component simulations and design.

  20. Predicting Health Resilience in Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes: A Test of the Resilience Model Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Jennifer M; Huang, Bin; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan; Dolan, Lawrence; Reeves, Grafton; Drotar, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    This research examined whether individual and family-level factors during the transition from late childhood to early adolescence protected individuals from an increased risk of poor glycemic control across time, which is a predictor of future diabetes-related complications (i.e., health resilience). This longitudinal, multisite study included 239 patients with type 1 diabetes and their caregivers. Glycemic control was based on hemoglobin A1c. Individual and family-level factors included: demographic variables, youth behavioral regulation, adherence (frequency of blood glucose monitoring), diabetes self-management, level of parental support for diabetes autonomy, level of youth mastery and responsibility for diabetes management, and diabetes-related family conflict. Longitudinal mixed-effects logistic regression indicated that testing blood glucose more frequently, better self-management, and less diabetes-related family conflict were indicators of health resilience. Multiple individual and family-level factors predicted risk for future health complications. Future research should develop interventions targeting specific individual and family-level factors to sustain glycemic control within recommended targets, which reduces the risk of developing future health complications during the transition to adolescence and adulthood. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Estimating the reliability of glycemic index values and potential sources of methodological and biological variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Meng, Huicui; Tighiouart, Hocine; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2016-10-01

    The utility of glycemic index (GI) values for chronic disease risk management remains controversial. Although absolute GI value determinations for individual foods have been shown to vary significantly in individuals with diabetes, there is a dearth of data on the reliability of GI value determinations and potential sources of variability among healthy adults. We examined the intra- and inter-individual variability in glycemic response to a single food challenge and methodologic and biological factors that potentially mediate this response. The GI value for white bread was determined by using standardized methodology in 63 volunteers free from chronic disease and recruited to differ by sex, age (18-85 y), and body mass index [BMI (in kg/m 2 ): 20-35]. Volunteers randomly underwent 3 sets of food challenges involving glucose (reference) and white bread (test food), both providing 50 g available carbohydrates. Serum glucose and insulin were monitored for 5 h postingestion, and GI values were calculated by using different area under the curve (AUC) methods. Biochemical variables were measured by using standard assays and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean ± SD GI value for white bread was 62 ± 15 when calculated by using the recommended method. Mean intra- and interindividual CVs were 20% and 25%, respectively. Increasing sample size, replication of reference and test foods, and length of blood sampling, as well as AUC calculation method, did not improve the CVs. Among the biological factors assessed, insulin index and glycated hemoglobin values explained 15% and 16% of the variability in mean GI value for white bread, respectively. These data indicate that there is substantial variability in individual responses to GI value determinations, demonstrating that it is unlikely to be a good approach to guiding food choices. Additionally, even in healthy individuals, glycemic status significantly contributes to the variability in GI value

  2. In vitro starch digestibility and expected glycemic index of pound cakes baked in two-cycle microwave-toaster and conventional oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-zaragoza, Francisco J; Sánchez-Pardo, María E; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2010-11-01

    Bread baking technology has an important effect on starch digestibility measured as its predicted glycemic index tested in vitro. The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in predicted glycemic index of pound cake baked in a two-cycle microwave toaster and a conventional oven. The glycemic index was calculated from hydrolysis index values by the Granfeldt method. Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in hydrolysis index (60.67 ± 3.96 for the product baked in microwave oven and 65.94 ± 4.09 for the product baked in conventional oven) and predicted glycemic index content (60.5 for product baked in microwave oven and 65 for the product baked in conventional oven) in freshly-baked samples. Results clearly demonstrate that the baking pound cake conventional process could be replicated using a two-cycle multifunction microwave oven, reducing the traditional baking time. Further research is required in order to achieve pound cake crumb uniformity.

  3. What Factors are Predictive of Patient-reported Outcomes? A Prospective Study of 337 Shoulder Arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsen, Frederick A; Russ, Stacy M; Vu, Phuong T; Hsu, Jason E; Lucas, Robert M; Comstock, Bryan A

    2016-11-01

    Although shoulder arthroplasties generally are effective in improving patients' comfort and function, the results are variable for reasons that are not well understood. We posed two questions: (1) What factors are associated with better 2-year outcomes after shoulder arthroplasty? (2) What are the sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values of a multivariate predictive model for better outcome? Three hundred thirty-nine patients having a shoulder arthroplasty (hemiarthroplasty, arthroplasty for cuff tear arthropathy, ream and run arthroplasty, total shoulder or reverse total shoulder arthroplasty) between August 24, 2010 and December 31, 2012 consented to participate in this prospective study. Two patients were excluded because they were missing baseline variables. Forty-three patients were missing 2-year data. Univariate and multivariate analyses determined the relationship of baseline patient, shoulder, and surgical characteristics to a "better" outcome, defined as an improvement of at least 30% of the maximal possible improvement in the Simple Shoulder Test. The results were used to develop a predictive model, the accuracy of which was tested using a 10-fold cross-validation. After controlling for potentially relevant confounding variables, the multivariate analysis showed that the factors significantly associated with better outcomes were American Society of Anesthesiologists Class I (odds ratio [OR], 1.94; 95% CI, 1.03-3.65; p = 0.041), shoulder problem not related to work (OR, 5.36; 95% CI, 2.15-13.37; p factors listed above. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve generated from the cross-validated enhanced predictive model was 0.79 (generally values of 0.7 to 0.8 are considered fair and values of 0.8 to 0.9 are considered good). The false-positive fraction and the true-positive fraction depended on the cutoff probability selected (ie, the selected probability above which the prediction would be classified as

  4. The use of patient factors to improve the prediction of operative duration using laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiels, Cornelius A; Yu, Denny; Abdelrahman, Amro M; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Hallbeck, Susan; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Bingener, Juliane

    2017-01-01

    Reliable prediction of operative duration is essential for improving patient and care team satisfaction, optimizing resource utilization and reducing cost. Current operative scheduling systems are unreliable and contribute to costly over- and underestimation of operative time. We hypothesized that the inclusion of patient-specific factors would improve the accuracy in predicting operative duration. We reviewed all elective laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed at a single institution between 01/2007 and 06/2013. Concurrent procedures were excluded. Univariate analysis evaluated the effect of age, gender, BMI, ASA, laboratory values, smoking, and comorbidities on operative duration. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed using the significant factors (p historical surgeon-specific and procedure-specific operative duration. External validation was done using the ACS-NSQIP database (n = 11,842). A total of 1801 laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients met inclusion criteria. Female sex was associated with reduced operative duration (-7.5 min, p < 0.001 vs. male sex) while increasing BMI (+5.1 min BMI 25-29.9, +6.9 min BMI 30-34.9, +10.4 min BMI 35-39.9, +17.0 min BMI 40 + , all p < 0.05 vs. normal BMI), increasing ASA (+7.4 min ASA III, +38.3 min ASA IV, all p < 0.01 vs. ASA I), and elevated liver function tests (+7.9 min, p < 0.01 vs. normal) were predictive of increased operative duration on univariate analysis. A model was then constructed using these predictive factors. The traditional surgical scheduling system was poorly predictive of actual operative duration (R 2  = 0.001) compared to the patient factors model (R 2  = 0.08). The model remained predictive on external validation (R 2  = 0.14).The addition of surgeon as a variable in the institutional model further improved predictive ability of the model (R 2  = 0.18). The use of routinely available pre-operative patient factors improves the prediction of operative

  5. Glycemic control and diabetes-related health care costs in type 2 diabetes; retrospective analysis based on clinical and administrative databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degli Esposti, Luca; Saragoni, Stefania; Buda, Stefano; Sturani, Alessandra; Degli Esposti, Ezio

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases, and its prevalence is predicted to increase in the next two decades. Diabetes imposes a staggering financial burden on the health care system, so information about the costs and experiences of collecting and reporting quality measures of data is vital for practices deciding whether to adopt quality improvements or monitor existing initiatives. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between health care costs and level of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes using clinical and administrative databases. A retrospective analysis using a large administrative database and a clinical registry containing laboratory results was performed. Patients were subdivided according to their glycated hemoglobin level. Multivariate analyses were used to control for differences in potential confounding factors, including age, gender, Charlson comorbidity index, presence of dyslipidemia, hypertension, or cardiovascular disease, and degree of adherence with antidiabetic drugs among the study groups. Of the total population of 700,000 subjects, 31,022 were identified as being diabetic (4.4% of the entire population). Of these, 21,586 met the study inclusion criteria. In total, 31.5% of patients had very poor glycemic control and 25.7% had excellent control. Over 2 years, the mean diabetes-related cost per person was: €1291.56 in patients with excellent control; €1545.99 in those with good control; €1584.07 in those with fair control; €1839.42 in those with poor control; and €1894.80 in those with very poor control. After adjustment, compared with the group having excellent control, the estimated excess cost per person associated with the groups with good control, fair control, poor control, and very poor control was €219.28, €264.65, €513.18, and €564.79, respectively. Many patients showed suboptimal glycemic control. Lower levels of glycated hemoglobin were associated with lower diabetes

  6. Predictive factors for gastroduodenal toxicity based on endoscopy following radiotherapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, H. [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Health Sciences and Technology; Oh, D.; Park, H.C.; Han, Y.; Lim, D.H. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kang, S.W. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiologic Science; Paik, S.W. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Medicine

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to determine predictive factors for gastroduodenal (GD) toxicity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who were treated with radiotherapy (RT). Patients and methods: A total of 90 HCC patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) before and after RT were enrolled. RT was delivered as 30-50 Gy (median 37.5 Gy) in 2-5 Gy (median 3.5 Gy) per fraction. All endoscopic findings were reviewed and GD toxicities related to RT were graded by the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. The predictive factors for the {>=} grade 2 GD toxicity were investigated. Results: Endoscopic findings showed erosive gastritis in 14 patients (16 %), gastric ulcers in 8 patients (9 %), erosive duodenitis in 15 patients (17 %), and duodenal ulcers in 14 patients (16 %). Grade 2 toxicity developed in 19 patients (21 %) and grade 3 toxicity developed in 8 patients (9 %). V{sub 25} for stomach and V{sub 35} for duodenum (volume receiving a RT dose of more than x Gy) were the most predictive factors for {>=} grade 2 toxicity. The gastric toxicity rate at 6 months was 2.9 % for V{sub 25} {<=} 6.3 % and 57.1 % for V{sub 25} > 6.3 %. The duodenal toxicity rate at 6 months was 9.4 % for V{sub 35} > 5.4 % and 45.9 % for V{sub 35} > 5.4 %. By multivariate analysis including the clinical factors, V{sub 25} for stomach and V{sub 35} for duodenum were the significant factors. Conclusion: EGD revealed that GD toxicity is common following RT for HCC. V{sub 25} for the stomach and V{sub 35} for the duodenum were the significant factors to predict {>=} grade 2 GD toxicity. (orig.)

  7. Major controlling factors and predictions for cadmium transfer from the soil into spinach plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenfei; Ding, Qiong; Wei, Dongpu; Li, Jumei; Chen, Shibao; Ma, Yibing

    2013-07-01

    Predicting the mobility, bioavailability and transfer of cadmium (Cd) in the soil-plant system is of great importance with regards to food safety and environmental management. In this study, the transfer characteristics of Cd (exogenous salts) from a wide range of Chinese soils to spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) were investigated. The major controlling factors and prediction equations for Cd transfer in the soil-plant system were also investigated. The results showed that plant Cd concentration was positively correlated with soil Cd concentration. The maximum transfer factor (ratio of the Cd concentration in the plant to that in the soil) was found in acid soils. The extended Freundlich-type function was able to describe the Cd transfer from soil to spinach plants. Combining soil total Cd, pH and organic carbon (OC) content in the prediction equation greatly improved the correlation performance compared with predictions based on total Cd only. A slight protection effect of OC on Cd uptake was observed at low soil Cd concentrations. The results are a useful tool that can be used to predict Cd transfer from soil to plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization for temporal link prediction in dynamic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoke; Sun, Penggang; Wang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    Many networks derived from society and nature are temporal and incomplete. The temporal link prediction problem in networks is to predict links at time T + 1 based on a given temporal network from time 1 to T, which is essential to important applications. The current algorithms either predict the temporal links by collapsing the dynamic networks or collapsing features derived from each network, which are criticized for ignoring the connection among slices. to overcome the issue, we propose a novel graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm (GrNMF) for the temporal link prediction problem without collapsing the dynamic networks. To obtain the feature for each network from 1 to t, GrNMF factorizes the matrix associated with networks by setting the rest networks as regularization, which provides a better way to characterize the topological information of temporal links. Then, the GrNMF algorithm collapses the feature matrices to predict temporal links. Compared with state-of-the-art methods, the proposed algorithm exhibits significantly improved accuracy by avoiding the collapse of temporal networks. Experimental results of a number of artificial and real temporal networks illustrate that the proposed method is not only more accurate but also more robust than state-of-the-art approaches.

  9. Predictive factors for mortality in Fournier' gangrene: a series of 59 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Marín, Andrés; Turégano Fuentes, Fernando; Cuadrado Ayuso, Marta; Andueza Lillo, Juan Antonio; Cano Ballesteros, Juan Carlos; Pérez López, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) is the necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genital area and presents a high mortality rate. The aim was to assess prognostic factors for mortality, create a new mortality predictive scale and compare it with previously published scales in patients diagnosed with FG in our Emergency Department. Retrospective analysis study between 1998 and 2012. Of the 59 patients, 44 survived (74%) (S) and 15 died (26%) (D). Significant differences were found in peripheral vasculopathy (S 5 [11%]; D 6 [40%]; P=.023), hemoglobin (S 13; D 11; P=.014), hematocrit (S 37; D 31.4; P=.009), white blood cells (S 17,400; D 23,800; P=.023), serum urea (S 58; D 102; PFournier's gangrene severity index score (FGSIS) (S 4; D 7; P=.002) and Uludag Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index (UFGSI) (S 9; D 13; P=.004). Independent predictive factors were peripheral vasculopathy, serum potassium and severe sepsis criteria, and a model was created with an area under the ROC curve of 0.850 (0.760-0.973), higher than FGSIS (0.746 [0.601-0.981]) and UFGSI (0.760 [0.617-0.904]). FG showed a high mortality rate. Independent predictive factors were peripheral vasculopathy, potassium and severe sepsis criteria creating a predictive model that performed better than those previously described. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Personality and Defense Styles: Clinical Specificities and Predictive Factors of Alcohol Use Disorder in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribadier, Aurélien; Dorard, Géraldine; Varescon, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated personality traits and defense styles in order to determine clinical specificities and predictive factors of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in women. A female sample, composed of AUD outpatients (n = 48) and a control group (n = 50), completed a sociodemographic self-report and questionnaires assessing personality traits (BFI), defense mechanisms and defense styles (DSQ-40). Comparative and correlational analyses, as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regressions, were performed. AUD women presented with higher neuroticism and lower extraversion and conscientiousness. They used less mature and more neurotic and immature defense styles than the control group. Concerning personality traits, high neuroticism and lower conscientiousness were predictive of AUD, as well as low mature, high neurotic, and immature defense styles. Including personality traits and defense styles in a logistic model, high neuroticism was the only AUD predictive factor. AUD women presented clinical specificities and predictive factors in personality traits and defense styles that must be taken into account in AUD studies. Implications for specific treatment for women are discussed.

  11. Predictive model of thrombospondin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in breast tumor tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrs, Jennifer A; Sulistio, Christopher D; Finley, Stacey D

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood capillaries from pre-existing vessels, is a hallmark of cancer. Thus far, strategies for reducing tumor angiogenesis have focused on inhibiting pro-angiogenic factors, while less is known about the therapeutic effects of mimicking the actions of angiogenesis inhibitors. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) is an important endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis that has been investigated as an anti-angiogenic agent. TSP1 impedes the growth of new blood vessels in many ways, including crosstalk with pro-angiogenic factors. Due to the complexity of TSP1 signaling, a predictive systems biology model would provide quantitative understanding of the angiogenic balance in tumor tissue. Therefore, we have developed a molecular-detailed, mechanistic model of TSP1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a promoter of angiogenesis, in breast tumor tissue. The model predicts the distribution of the angiogenic factors in tumor tissue, revealing that TSP1 is primarily in an inactive, cleaved form due to the action of proteases, rather than bound to its cellular receptors or to VEGF. The model also predicts the effects of enhancing TSP1's interactions with its receptors and with VEGF. To provide additional predictions that can guide the development of new anti-angiogenic drugs, we simulate administration of exogenous TSP1 mimetics that bind specific targets. The model predicts that the CD47-binding TSP1 mimetic dramatically decreases the ratio of receptor-bound VEGF to receptor-bound TSP1, in favor of anti-angiogenesis. Thus, we have established a model that provides a quantitative framework to study the response to TSP1 mimetics.

  12. Environmental Factors Affecting Asthma and Allergies: Predicting and Simulating Downwind Exposure to Airborne Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Huete, Alfredo; Solano, Ramon; Ratana, Piyachat; Jiang, Zhangyan; Flowers, Len; Zelicoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the environmental factors that affect asthma and allergies and work to predict and simulate the downwind exposure to airborne pollen. Using a modification of Dust REgional Atmosphere Model (DREAM) that incorporates phenology (i.e. PREAM) the aim was to predict concentrations of pollen in time and space. The strategy for using the model to simulate downwind pollen dispersal, and evaluate the results. Using MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to get seasonal sampling of Juniper, the pollen chosen for the study, land cover on a near daily basis. The results of the model are reviewed.

  13. Endovascular Treatment of Malignant Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: Results and Predictive Factors of Clinical Efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagedet, Dorothee, E-mail: DFagedet@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de medecine interne, Pole Pluridisciplinaire de Medecine (France); Thony, Frederic, E-mail: FThony@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de radiologie et imagerie medicale, Pole d' Imagerie (France); Timsit, Jean-Francois, E-mail: JFTimsit@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de reanimation, Pole Medecine Aiguee Communautaire (France); Rodiere, Mathieu, E-mail: MRodiere@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de radiologie et imagerie medicale, Pole d' Imagerie (France); Monnin-Bares, Valerie, E-mail: v-monnin@chu-montpellier.fr [CHRU Arnaud de Villeneuve, Imagerie Medicale Thoracique Cardiovasculaire (France); Ferretti, Gilbert R., E-mail: GFerretti@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de radiologie et imagerie medicale, Pole d' Imagerie (France); Vesin, Aurelien; Moro-Sibilot, Denis, E-mail: DMoro.pneumo@chu-grenoble.fr [University Grenoble 1 e Albert Bonniot Institute, Inserm U823 (France)

    2013-02-15

    To demonstrate the effectiveness of endovascular treatment (EVT) with self-expandable bare stents for malignant superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) and to analyze predictive factors of EVT efficacy. Retrospective review of the 164 patients with malignant SVCS treated with EVT in our hospital from August 1992 to December 2007 and followed until February 2009. Endovascular treatment includes angioplasty before and after stent placement. We used self-expandable bare stents. We studied results of this treatment and looked for predictive factors of clinical efficacy, recurrence, and complications by statistical analysis. Endovascular treatment was clinically successful in 95% of cases, with an acceptable rate of early mortality (2.4%). Thrombosis of the superior vena cava was the only independent factor for EVT failure. The use of stents over 16 mm in diameter was a predictive factor for complications (P = 0.008). Twenty-one complications (12.8%) occurred during the follow-up period. Relapse occurred in 36 patients (21.9%), with effective restenting in 75% of cases. Recurrence of SVCS was significantly increased in cases of occlusion (P = 0.01), initial associated thrombosis (P = 0.006), or use of steel stents (P = 0.004). Long-term anticoagulant therapy did not influence the risk of recurrence or complications. In malignancy, EVT with self-expandable bare stents is an effective SVCS therapy. These results prompt us to propose treatment with stents earlier in the clinical course of patients with SVCS and to avoid dilatation greater than 16 mm.

  14. Endovascular Treatment of Malignant Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: Results and Predictive Factors of Clinical Efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagedet, Dorothée; Thony, Frederic; Timsit, Jean-François; Rodiere, Mathieu; Monnin-Bares, Valérie; Ferretti, Gilbert R.; Vesin, Aurélien; Moro-Sibilot, Denis

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the effectiveness of endovascular treatment (EVT) with self-expandable bare stents for malignant superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) and to analyze predictive factors of EVT efficacy. Retrospective review of the 164 patients with malignant SVCS treated with EVT in our hospital from August 1992 to December 2007 and followed until February 2009. Endovascular treatment includes angioplasty before and after stent placement. We used self-expandable bare stents. We studied results of this treatment and looked for predictive factors of clinical efficacy, recurrence, and complications by statistical analysis. Endovascular treatment was clinically successful in 95% of cases, with an acceptable rate of early mortality (2.4%). Thrombosis of the superior vena cava was the only independent factor for EVT failure. The use of stents over 16 mm in diameter was a predictive factor for complications (P = 0.008). Twenty-one complications (12.8%) occurred during the follow-up period. Relapse occurred in 36 patients (21.9%), with effective restenting in 75% of cases. Recurrence of SVCS was significantly increased in cases of occlusion (P = 0.01), initial associated thrombosis (P = 0.006), or use of steel stents (P = 0.004). Long-term anticoagulant therapy did not influence the risk of recurrence or complications. In malignancy, EVT with self-expandable bare stents is an effective SVCS therapy. These results prompt us to propose treatment with stents earlier in the clinical course of patients with SVCS and to avoid dilatation greater than 16 mm.

  15. A novel method for improved accuracy of transcription factor binding site prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Khamis, Abdullah M.; Motwalli, Olaa Amin; Oliva, Romina; Jankovic, Boris R.; Medvedeva, Yulia; Ashoor, Haitham; Essack, Magbubah; Gao, Xin; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2018-01-01

    Identifying transcription factor (TF) binding sites (TFBSs) is important in the computational inference of gene regulation. Widely used computational methods of TFBS prediction based on position weight matrices (PWMs) usually have high false positive rates. Moreover, computational studies of transcription regulation in eukaryotes frequently require numerous PWM models of TFBSs due to a large number of TFs involved. To overcome these problems we developed DRAF, a novel method for TFBS prediction that requires only 14 prediction models for 232 human TFs, while at the same time significantly improves prediction accuracy. DRAF models use more features than PWM models, as they combine information from TFBS sequences and physicochemical properties of TF DNA-binding domains into machine learning models. Evaluation of DRAF on 98 human ChIP-seq datasets shows on average 1.54-, 1.96- and 5.19-fold reduction of false positives at the same sensitivities compared to models from HOCOMOCO, TRANSFAC and DeepBind, respectively. This observation suggests that one can efficiently replace the PWM models for TFBS prediction by a small number of DRAF models that significantly improve prediction accuracy. The DRAF method is implemented in a web tool and in a stand-alone software freely available at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/DRAF.

  16. A novel method for improved accuracy of transcription factor binding site prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Khamis, Abdullah M.

    2018-03-20

    Identifying transcription factor (TF) binding sites (TFBSs) is important in the computational inference of gene regulation. Widely used computational methods of TFBS prediction based on position weight matrices (PWMs) usually have high false positive rates. Moreover, computational studies of transcription regulation in eukaryotes frequently require numerous PWM models of TFBSs due to a large number of TFs involved. To overcome these problems we developed DRAF, a novel method for TFBS prediction that requires only 14 prediction models for 232 human TFs, while at the same time significantly improves prediction accuracy. DRAF models use more features than PWM models, as they combine information from TFBS sequences and physicochemical properties of TF DNA-binding domains into machine learning models. Evaluation of DRAF on 98 human ChIP-seq datasets shows on average 1.54-, 1.96- and 5.19-fold reduction of false positives at the same sensitivities compared to models from HOCOMOCO, TRANSFAC and DeepBind, respectively. This observation suggests that one can efficiently replace the PWM models for TFBS prediction by a small number of DRAF models that significantly improve prediction accuracy. The DRAF method is implemented in a web tool and in a stand-alone software freely available at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/DRAF.

  17. Factors predicting work outcome in Japanese patients with schizophrenia: role of multiple functioning levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Sumiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia suggest recovery of cognitive, everyday, and social functioning. Specifically improvement of work status is considered to be most important for their independent living and self-efficacy. The main purposes of the present study were 1 to identify which outcome factors predict occupational functioning, quantified as work hours, and 2 to provide cut-offs on the scales for those factors to attain better work status. Forty-five Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 111 healthy controls entered the study. Cognition, capacity for everyday activities, and social functioning were assessed by the Japanese versions of the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB, the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment-Brief (UPSA-B, and the Social Functioning Scale Individuals’ version modified for the MATRICS-PASS (Modified SFS for PASS, respectively. Potential factors for work outcome were estimated by multiple linear regression analyses (predicting work hours directly and a multiple logistic regression analyses (predicting dichotomized work status based on work hours. ROC curve analyses were performed to determine cut-off points for differentiating between the better- and poor work status. The results showed that a cognitive component, comprising visual/verbal learning and emotional management, and a social functioning component, comprising independent living and vocational functioning, were potential factors for predicting work hours/status. Cut-off points obtained in ROC analyses indicated that 60–70% achievements on the measures of those factors were expected to maintain the better work status. Our findings suggest that improvement on specific aspects of cognitive and social functioning are important for work outcome in patients with schizophrenia.

  18. Factors predicting work outcome in Japanese patients with schizophrenia: role of multiple functioning levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Chika; Harvey, Philip D; Takaki, Manabu; Okahisa, Yuko; Sato, Taku; Sora, Ichiro; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki

    2015-09-01

    Functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia suggest recovery of cognitive, everyday, and social functioning. Specifically improvement of work status is considered to be most important for their independent living and self-efficacy. The main purposes of the present study were 1) to identify which outcome factors predict occupational functioning, quantified as work hours, and 2) to provide cut-offs on the scales for those factors to attain better work status. Forty-five Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 111 healthy controls entered the study. Cognition, capacity for everyday activities, and social functioning were assessed by the Japanese versions of the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB), the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment-Brief (UPSA-B), and the Social Functioning Scale Individuals' version modified for the MATRICS-PASS (Modified SFS for PASS), respectively. Potential factors for work outcome were estimated by multiple linear regression analyses (predicting work hours directly) and a multiple logistic regression analyses (predicting dichotomized work status based on work hours). ROC curve analyses were performed to determine cut-off points for differentiating between the better- and poor work status. The results showed that a cognitive component, comprising visual/verbal learning and emotional management, and a social functioning component, comprising independent living and vocational functioning, were potential factors for predicting work hours/status. Cut-off points obtained in ROC analyses indicated that 60-70% achievements on the measures of those factors were expected to maintain the better work status. Our findings suggest that improvement on specific aspects of cognitive and social functioning are important for work outcome in patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Association between depression and glycemic control among type 2 diabetes patients in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispín-Trebejo, Brenda; Robles-Cuadros, María Cristina; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    There is limited and controversial information regarding the potential impact of depression on glycemic control. This study aims to evaluate the association between depression and poor glycemic control. In addition, the prevalence of depression and rates of poor glycemic control were determined. Cross-sectional study performed in the endocrinology unit of two hospitals of ESSALUD in Peru. The outcome of interest was poor glycemic control, evaluated by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c: diabetes patients. Our results suggest that early detection of depression might be important to facilitate appropriate glycemic control and avoid further metabolic complications. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Integrating the ICF with positive psychology: Factors predicting role participation for mothers with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Ruth S; Kern, Margaret L; Brusilovsky, Eugene

    2015-05-01

    Being a mother has become a realizable life role for women with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Identifying psychosocial factors that facilitate participation in important life roles-including motherhood-is essential to help women have fuller lives despite the challenge of their illness. By integrating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and a positive psychology perspective, this study examined how environmental social factors and positive personal factors contribute to daily role participation and satisfaction with parental participation. One hundred and 11 community-dwelling mothers with MS completed Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales, the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey, the Short Form-36, and the Parental Participation Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses examined associations between social support and positive personal factors (environmental mastery, self-acceptance, purpose in life) with daily role participation (physical and emotional) and satisfaction with parental participation. One-way ANOVAs tested synergistic combinations of social support and positive personal factors. Social support predicted daily role participation (fewer limitations) and greater satisfaction with parental participation. Positive personal factors contributed additional unique variance. Positive personal factors and social support synergistically predicted better function and greater satisfaction than either alone. Integrating components of the ICF and positive psychology provides a useful model for understanding how mothers with MS can thrive despite challenge or impairment. Both positive personal factors and environmental social factors were important contributors to positive role functioning. Incorporating these paradigms into treatment may help mothers with MS participate more fully in meaningful life roles. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. What are the most crucial soil factors for predicting the distribution of alpine plant species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, A.; Pinto-Figueroa, E.; Yashiro, E.; Guisan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays the use of species distribution models (SDM) is common to predict in space and time the distribution of organisms living in the critical zone. The realized environmental niche concept behind the development of SDM imply that many environmental factors must be accounted for simultaneously to predict species distributions. Climatic and topographic factors are often primary included, whereas soil factors are frequently neglected, mainly due to the paucity of soil information available spatially and temporally. Furthermore, among existing studies, most included soil pH only, or few other soil parameters. In this study we aimed at identifying what are the most crucial soil factors for explaining alpine plant distributions and, among those identified, which ones further improve the predictive power of plant SDMs. To test the relative importance of the soil factors, we performed plant SDMs using as predictors 52 measured soil properties of various types such as organic/inorganic compounds, chemical/physical properties, water related variables, mineral composition or grain size distribution. We added them separately to a standard set of topo-climatic predictors (temperature, slope, solar radiation and topographic position). We used ensemble forecasting techniques combining together several predictive algorithms to model the distribution of 116 plant species over 250 sites in the Swiss Alps. We recorded the variable importance for each model and compared the quality of the models including different soil proprieties (one at a time) as predictors to models having only topo-climatic variables as predictors. Results show that 46% of the soil proprieties tested become the second most important variable, after air temperature, to explain spatial distribution of alpine plants species. Moreover, we also assessed that addition of certain soil factors, such as bulk soil water density, could improve over 80% the quality of some plant species models. We confirm that soil p

  2. Linear and nonlinear models for predicting fish bioconcentration factors for pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jintao; Xie, Chun; Zhang, Ting; Sun, Jinfang; Yuan, Xuejie; Yu, Shuling; Zhang, Yingbiao; Cao, Yunyuan; Yu, Xingchen; Yang, Xuan; Yao, Wu

    2016-08-01

    This work is devoted to the applications of the multiple linear regression (MLR), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP NN) and projection pursuit regression (PPR) to quantitative structure-property relationship analysis of bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of pesticides tested on Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Molecular descriptors of a total of 107 pesticides were calculated with the DRAGON Software and selected by inverse enhanced replacement method. Based on the selected DRAGON descriptors, a linear model was built by MLR, nonlinear models were developed using MLP NN and PPR. The robustness of the obtained models was assessed by cross-validation and external validation using test set. Outliers were also examined and deleted to improve predictive power. Comparative results revealed that PPR achieved the most accurate predictions. This study offers useful models and information for BCF prediction, risk assessment, and pesticide formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular modelling of the Norrie disease protein predicts a cystine knot growth factor tertiary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitinger, T; Meindl, A; Bork, P; Rost, B; Sander, C; Haasemann, M; Murken, J

    1993-12-01

    The X-lined gene for Norrie disease, which is characterized by blindness, deafness and mental retardation has been cloned recently. This gene has been thought to code for a putative extracellular factor; its predicted amino acid sequence is homologous to the C-terminal domain of diverse extracellular proteins. Sequence pattern searches and three-dimensional modelling now suggest that the Norrie disease protein (NDP) has a tertiary structure similar to that of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta). Our model identifies NDP as a member of an emerging family of growth factors containing a cystine knot motif, with direct implications for the physiological role of NDP. The model also sheds light on sequence related domains such as the C-terminal domain of mucins and of von Willebrand factor.

  4. Predictive factors for the development of diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P.; Kühl, C.; Bertelsen, Aksel

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of diabetes in women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and to identify predictive factors for development of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Two to 11 years post partum, glucose tolerance was investigated in 241...... women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and 57 women without previous gestational diabetes mellitus (control group). RESULTS: Diabetes developed in 42 (17.4%) women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (3.7% insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 13.7% non...... of previous patients with gestational diabetes mellitus in whom plasma insulin was measured during an oral glucose tolerance test in late pregnancy a low insulin response at diagnosis was found to be an independent predictive factor for diabetes development. CONCLUSIONS: Women with previous dietary...

  5. Fuzzy Regression Prediction and Application Based on Multi-Dimensional Factors of Freight Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mengting; Li, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Based on the reality of the development of air cargo, the multi-dimensional fuzzy regression method is used to determine the influencing factors, and the three most important influencing factors of GDP, total fixed assets investment and regular flight route mileage are determined. The system’s viewpoints and analogy methods, the use of fuzzy numbers and multiple regression methods to predict the civil aviation cargo volume. In comparison with the 13th Five-Year Plan for China’s Civil Aviation Development (2016-2020), it is proved that this method can effectively improve the accuracy of forecasting and reduce the risk of forecasting. It is proved that this model predicts civil aviation freight volume of the feasibility, has a high practical significance and practical operation.

  6. A six-factor model of brand personality and its predictive validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Marko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines applicability and usefulness of HEXACO-based model in the description of brand personality. Following contemporary theoretical developments in human personality research, Study 1 explored the latent personality structure of 120 brands using descriptors of six personality traits as defined in HEXACO model: Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness. The results of exploratory factor analyses have supported HEXACO personality six-factor structure to a large extent. In Study 2 we addressed the question of predictive validity of HEXACO-based brand personality. Brand personality traits, but predominantly Honesty-Humility, accounted for substantial amount of variance in prediction of important aspects of consumer-brand relationship: attitude toward brand, perceived quality of a brand, and brand loyalty. The implications of applying HEXACO-based brand personality in marketing research are discussed. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 179018 and Grant no. 175012

  7. Work-related psychosocial stress and glycemic control among working adults with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annor, Francis B; Roblin, Douglas W; Okosun, Ike S; Goodman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and four subscales of work-related psychosocial stress at study baseline and over time. We used survey data from a major HMO located in the Southeastern part of the US on health and healthy behaviors linked with patients' clinical, pharmacy and laboratory records for the period between 2005 and 2009. Study participants (n=537) consisted of working adults aged 25-59 years, diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) but without advanced micro or macrovascular complications at the time of the survey. We estimated the baseline (2005) association between HbA1c and work-related psychosocial stress and their interactions using linear regression analysis. Using individual growth model approach, we estimated the association between HbA1c over time and work-related psychosocial stress. Each of the models controlled for socio-demographic variables, diet and physical activity factor, laboratory factor, physical examinations variables and medication use in a hierarchical fashion. After adjusting for all study covariates, we did not find a significant association between work-related psychosocial stress and glycemic control either at baseline or over time. Among fairly healthy middle aged working adults with DM, work-related psychosocial stress was not directly associated with glycemic control. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting patriarchy: using individual and contextual factors to examine patriarchal endorsement in communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Courtney A; Wright, Emily M

    2013-04-01

    In much feminist literature, patriarchy has often been studied as a predictive variable for attitudes toward or acts of violence against women. However, rarely has patriarchy been examined as an outcome across studies. The current study works toward filling this gap by examining several individual-and neighborhood-level factors that might influence patriarchy. Specifically, this research seeks to determine if neighborhood-level attributes related to socioeconomic status, family composition, and demographic information affect patriarchal views after individual-level correlates of patriarchy were controlled. Findings suggest that factors at both the individual- and neighborhood levels, particularly familial characteristics and dynamics, do influence the endorsement of patriarchal views.

  9. Predictive Factors for Differentiating Between Septic Arthritis and Lyme Disease of the Knee in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Keith D; Brusalis, Christopher M; Nduaguba, Afamefuna M; Sankar, Wudbhav N

    2016-05-04

    Differentiating between septic arthritis and Lyme disease of the knee in endemic areas can be challenging and has major implications for patient management. The purpose of this study was to identify a prediction rule to differentiate septic arthritis from Lyme disease in children presenting with knee pain and effusion. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients younger than 18 years of age with knee effusions who underwent arthrocentesis at our institution from 2005 to 2013. Patients with either septic arthritis (positive joint fluid culture or synovial white blood-cell count of >60,000 white blood cells/mm(3) with negative Lyme titer) or Lyme disease (positive Lyme immunoglobulin G on Western blot analysis) were included. To avoid misclassification bias, undiagnosed knee effusions and joints with both a positive culture and positive Lyme titers were excluded. Historical, clinical, and laboratory data were compared between groups to identify variables for comparison. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictive variables. One hundred and eighty-nine patients were studied: 23 with culture-positive septic arthritis, 26 with culture-negative septic arthritis, and 140 with Lyme disease. Multivariate binary logistic regression identified pain with short arc motion, history of fever reported by the patient or a family member, C-reactive protein of >4 mg/L, and age younger than 2 years as independent predictive factors for septic arthritis. A simpler model was developed that showed that the risk of septic arthritis with none of these factors was 2%, with 1 of these factors was 18%, with 2 of these factors was 45%, with 3 of these factors was 84%, or with all 4 of these factors was 100%. Although septic arthritis of the knee and Lyme monoarthritis share common features that can make them difficult to distinguish clinically, the presence of pain with short arc motion, C-reactive protein of >4.0 mg/L, patient-reported history of

  10. Factors predicting survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients on non-invasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Calzada, Nuria; Prats Soro, Enric; Mateu Gomez, Lluis; Giro Bulta, Esther; Cordoba Izquierdo, Ana; Povedano Panades, Monica; Dorca Sargatal, Jordi; Farrero Muñoz, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Non invasive ventilation (NIV) improves quality of life and extends survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. However, few data exist about the factors related to survival. We intended to assess the predictive factors that influence survival in patients after NIV initiation. Patients who started NIV from 2000 to 2014 and were tolerant (compliance ≥ 4 hours) were included; demographic, disease related and respiratory variables at NIV initiation were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier test and Cox proportional hazard models. 213 patients were included with median survival from NIV initiation of 13.5 months. In univariate analysis, the identified risk factors for mortality were severity of bulbar involvement (HR 2), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) % (HR 0.99) and ALSFRS-R (HR 0.97). Multivariate analysis showed that bulbar involvement (HR 1.92) and ALSFRS-R (HR 0.97) were independent predictive factors of survival in patients on NIV. In our study, the two prognostic factors in ALS patients following NIV were the severity of bulbar involvement and ALSFRS-R at the time on NIV initiation. A better assessment of bulbar involvement, including evaluation of the upper airway, and a careful titration on NIV are necessary to optimize treatment efficacy.

  11. Evaluation of prognostic and predictive factors in breast cancer in Cuba. Its role in personalized therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez Goyanes, Rosa Irene

    2011-01-01

    The identification of prognostic and predictive factors in breast cancer has allowed applying personalized therapeutic programs without achieving, still, the individualization for all patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of estrogen receptors, progesterone and HER2 along with the expression of the EGFR1 and ganglioside NglicolilGM3. 1509 patients found the frequency of expression of the aforementioned receivers, which were correlated with the morphological and General variables. It was compared the AcM recognition ior egf/r3 with a game of diagnosis - shopping, and the AcM 14F7 vitro tissue fresh and included in paraffin and in vivo labelled with 99mTc. It was obtained the frequency in Cuba of these prognostic and prediction markers of response, noting her hormone dependence of tumor associated with less aggressive features. The AcM 14F7 showed a broad recognition that was not correlated with prognostic factors, but was able to detect live in primary breast tumors. The ior egf/r3 exhibited 100% specificity and positive predictive value, as well as a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 68 and 73% respectively. The recognition of the AcM 14F7 and ior egf/r3 opens a new possibility of therapeutic directed against these targets for breast cancer (author)

  12. Semantic Factors Predict the Rate of Lexical Replacement of Content Words

    OpenAIRE

    Vejdemo, Susanne; H?rberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The rate of lexical replacement estimates the diachronic stability of word forms on the basis of how frequently a proto-language word is replaced or retained in its daughter languages. Lexical replacement rate has been shown to be highly related to word class and word frequency. In this paper, we argue that content words and function words behave differently with respect to lexical replacement rate, and we show that semantic factors predict the lexical replacement rate of content words. For t...

  13. Utility of Childhood Glucose Homeostasis Variables in Predicting Adult Diabetes and Related Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quoc Manh; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Xu, Ji-Hua; Chen, Wei; Kieltyka, Lyn; Berenson, Gerald S.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examines the usefulness of childhood glucose homeostasis variables (glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance index [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance {HOMA-IR}]) in predicting pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes and related cardiometabolic risk factors in adulthood. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This retrospective cohort study consisted of normoglycemic (n = 1,058), pre-diabetic (n = 37), and type 2 diabetic (n = 25) adults aged 19–39 years who were followed o...

  14. Prevalence and predictive factors for regional osteopenia in women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinspoon, S; Thomas, E; Pitts, S; Gross, E; Mickley, D; Miller, K; Herzog, D; Klibanski, A

    2000-11-21

    Anorexia nervosa is highly prevalent among young women. To determine prevalence and predictive factors for regional bone loss. Prospective cohort analysis. University hospital. 130 women with anorexia nervosa. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The prevalence of osteopenia (-1.0 SD >/= T-score > -2.5 SD) and osteoporosis (T-score anorexia nervosa. Weight, but not estrogen use, is a significant predictor of BMD in this population at all skeletal sites.

  15. Predicting the change of child’s behavior problems: sociodemographic and maternal parenting stress factors

    OpenAIRE

    Viduolienė, Evelina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: evaluate 1) whether child’s externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2) the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3) which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child’s externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach: participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months) with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990) and ...

  16. Predicting Factors of INSURE Failure in Low Birth Weight Neonates with RDS; A Logistic Regression Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Najafian; Aminsaburi Aminsaburi; Seyyed Hassan Fakhraei; Abolfazl afjeh; Fatemeh Eghbal; Reza Noroozian

    2015-01-01

    Background:Respiratory Distress syndrome is the most common respiratory disease in premature neonate and the most important cause of death among them. We aimed to investigate factors to predict successful or failure of INSURE method as a therapeutic method of RDS. Methods:In a cohort study,45 neonates with diagnosed RDS and birth weight lower than 1500g were included and they underwent INSURE followed by NCPAP(Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure). The patients were divided into failu...

  17. Incidental, small (< 3 cm), unilocular, pancreatic cysts: Factors that predict lesion progression during imaging surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Go Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Soo; Kim, Jin Woong; Heo, Suk Hee; Lim, Hyo Soon; Jun, Chung Hwan; Jeong, Yong Yeon [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To explore the features that predict size increase and development of potential malignant features in incidentally detected, unilocular cystic pancreatic lesions (CPLs) less than 3 cm in diameter, during subsequent follow-up. We retrieved data of patients diagnosed with unilocular CPLs less than 3 cm in diameter during the period from November 2003 through December 2014, using a computerized search. All serial CT and MR images were analyzed to identify the number, size, and location of CPLs; dilatation of the main pancreatic duct; and occurrence of worrisome features and high-risk stigmata of malignancy in the lesion. The characteristics of CPLs were compared between the increase (i.e., size increase during subsequent follow-up) and no-increase groups. For CPLs in the increase group, subgroup analysis was performed according to the lesion size at the last follow-up (< 3 cm vs. ≥ 3 cm). Among 553 eligible patients, 132 (23.9%) had CPLs that increased in size, and 421 (76.1%) had CPLs that did not, during follow-up. Of the 132, 12 (9.1%) CPLs increased to diameters ≥ 3 cm at the final follow-up. Among the various factors, follow-up duration was a significant independent factor for an interval size increase of CPLs (p < 0.001). In the increase group, initial cyst size was a significant independent factor to predict later size increase to or beyond 3 cm in diameter (p < 0.001), and the initial cyst diameter ≥ 1.5 cm predicted such a growth with a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 72%, respectively. No significant factors to predict the development of potential malignant features were identified. Follow-up duration was associated with an interval size increase of CPLs. Among the growing CPLs, initial cyst size was associated with future lesion growth to and beyond 3 cm.

  18. Incremental validity of positive orientation: predictive efficiency beyond the five-factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Roland Miciuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The relation of positive orientation (a basic predisposition to think positively of oneself, one’s life and one’s future and personality traits is still disputable. The purpose of the described research was to verify the hypothesis that positive orientation has predictive efficiency beyond the five-factor model. Participants and procedure One hundred and thirty participants (at the mean age M = 24.84 completed the following questionnaires: the Self-Esteem Scale (SES, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R, the Positivity Scale (P-SCALE, the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCC, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES and the Life Engagement Test (LET. Results The introduction of positive orientation as an additional predictor in the second step of regression analyses led to better prediction of the following variables: purpose in life, self-concept clarity and generalized self-efficacy. This effect was the strongest for predicting purpose in life (i.e. 14% increment of the explained variance. Conclusions The results confirmed our hypothesis that positive orientation can be characterized by incremental validity – its inclusion in the regression model (in addition to the five main factors of personality increases the amount of explained variance. These findings may provide further evidence for the legitimacy of measuring positive orientation and personality traits separately.

  19. Intrinsic predictive factors for ankle sprain in active university students: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noronha, M; França, L C; Haupenthal, A; Nunes, G S

    2013-10-01

    The ankle is the joint most affected among the sports-related injuries. The current study investigated whether certain intrinsic factors could predict ankle sprains in active students. The 125 participants were submitted to a baseline assessment in a single session were then followed-up for 52 weeks regarding the occurrence of sprain. The baseline assessment were performed in both ankles and included the questionnaire Cumberland ankle instability tool - Portuguese, the foot lift test, dorsiflexion range of motion, Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), the side recognition task, body mass index, and history of previous sprain. Two groups were used for analysis: one with those who suffered an ankle sprain and the other with those who did not suffer an ankle sprain. After Cox regression analysis, participants with history of previous sprain were twice as likely to suffer subsequent sprains [hazard ratio (HR) 2.21 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-4.57] and people with better performance on the SEBT in the postero-lateral (PL) direction were less likely to suffer a sprain (HR 0.96 and 95% CI 0.92-0.99). History of previous sprain was the strongest predictive factor and a weak performance on SEBT PL was also considered a predictive factor for ankle sprains. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Predictive factor and antihypertensive usage of tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced hypertension in kidney cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    IZUMI, KOUJI; ITAI, SHINGO; TAKAHASHI, YOSHIKO; MAOLAKE, AERKEN; NAMIKI, MIKIO

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension (HT) is the common adverse event associated with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR-TKI). The present study was performed to identify the predictive factors of TKI-induced HT and to determine the classes of antihypertensive agents (AHTA) that demonstrate optimal efficacy against this type of HT. The charts of 50 cases of patients that had received VEGFR-TKI treatment were retrospectively examined. The association between patient background and TKI-induced HT, and the effect of administering AHTA were analyzed. High systolic blood pressure at baseline was identified to be a predictive factor for HT. In addition, there was no difference observed between calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and angiotensin receptor II blockers (ARBs) as first-line AHTA for the control of HT. The findings of the present study may aid with predicting the onset of TKI-induced HT, as well as for its management via the primary use of either CCBs or ARBs. PMID:24959266

  1. Perceived participation and autonomy: aspects of functioning and contextual factors predicting participation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahpour, Mandana; Tham, Kerstin; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Jonsson, Hans

    2011-04-01

    To describe perceived participation and autonomy among a sample of persons with stroke in Iran and to identify different aspects of functioning and contextual factors predicting participation after stroke. A cross-sectional study. A total of 102 persons, between 27 and 75 years of age, diagnosed with first-ever stroke. Participants were assessed for different aspects of functioning, contextual factors and health conditions. Participation was assessed using the Persian version of the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire. This study demonstrated that the majority of the study population perceived their participation and autonomy to be good to fair in the different domains of their participation, but not with respect to the autonomy outdoors domain. In addition, physical function was found to be the most important variable predicting performance-based participation, whereas mood state was the most important variable predicting social-based participation. The results emphasize the importance of physical function, mood state and access to caregiving services as predictors of participation in everyday life after stroke. Whilst there are two dimensions of participation in this Persian sample of persons with stroke, the factors explaining participation seem to be the same across the cultures.

  2. Predicting and influencing voice therapy adherence using social-cognitive factors and mobile video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leer, Eva; Connor, Nadine P

    2015-05-01

    Patient adherence to voice therapy is an established challenge. The purpose of this study was (a) to examine whether adherence to treatment could be predicted from three social-cognitive factors measured at treatment onset: self-efficacy, goal commitment, and the therapeutic alliance, and (b) to test whether the provision of clinician, self-, and peer model mobile treatment videos on MP4 players would influence the same triad of social cognitive factors and the adherence behavior of patients. Forty adults with adducted hyperfunction with and without benign lesions were prospectively randomized to either 4 sessions of voice therapy enhanced by MP4 support or without MP4 support. Adherence between sessions was assessed through self-report. Social cognitive factors and voice outcomes were assessed at the beginning and end of therapy. Utility of MP4 support was assessed via interviews. Self-efficacy and the therapeutic alliance predicted a significant amount of adherence variance. MP4 support significantly increased generalization, self-efficacy for generalization, and the therapeutic alliance. An interaction effect demonstrated that MP4 support was particularly effective for patients who started therapy with poor self-efficacy for generalization. Adherence may be predicted and influenced via social-cognitive means. Mobile technology can extend therapy to extraclinical settings.

  3. Predicting Short-Term Subway Ridership and Prioritizing Its Influential Factors Using Gradient Boosting Decision Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between short-term subway ridership and its influential factors is crucial to improving the accuracy of short-term subway ridership prediction. Although there has been a growing body of studies on short-term ridership prediction approaches, limited effort is made to investigate the short-term subway ridership prediction considering bus transfer activities and temporal features. To fill this gap, a relatively recent data mining approach called gradient boosting decision trees (GBDT is applied to short-term subway ridership prediction and used to capture the associations with the independent variables. Taking three subway stations in Beijing as the cases, the short-term subway ridership and alighting passengers from its adjacent bus stops are obtained based on transit smart card data. To optimize the model performance with different combinations of regularization parameters, a series of GBDT models are built with various learning rates and tree complexities by fitting a maximum of trees. The optimal model performance confirms that the gradient boosting approach can incorporate different types of predictors, fit complex nonlinear relationships, and automatically handle the multicollinearity effect with high accuracy. In contrast to other machine learning methods—or “black-box” procedures—the GBDT model can identify and rank the relative influences of bus transfer activities and temporal features on short-term subway ridership. These findings suggest that the GBDT model has considerable advantages in improving short-term subway ridership prediction in a multimodal public transportation system.

  4. Structure-aided prediction of mammalian transcription factor complexes in conserved non-coding elements

    KAUST Repository

    Guturu, H.

    2013-11-11

    Mapping the DNA-binding preferences of transcription factor (TF) complexes is critical for deciphering the functions of cis-regulatory elements. Here, we developed a computational method that compares co-occurring motif spacings in conserved versus unconserved regions of the human genome to detect evolutionarily constrained binding sites of rigid TF complexes. Structural data were used to estimate TF complex physical plausibility, explore overlapping motif arrangements seldom tackled by non-structure-aware methods, and generate and analyse three-dimensional models of the predicted complexes bound to DNA. Using this approach, we predicted 422 physically realistic TF complex motifs at 18% false discovery rate, the majority of which (326, 77%) contain some sequence overlap between binding sites. The set of mostly novel complexes is enriched in known composite motifs, predictive of binding site configurations in TF-TF-DNA crystal structures, and supported by ChIP-seq datasets. Structural modelling revealed three cooperativity mechanisms: direct protein-protein interactions, potentially indirect interactions and \\'through-DNA\\' interactions. Indeed, 38% of the predicted complexes were found to contain four or more bases in which TF pairs appear to synergize through overlapping binding to the same DNA base pairs in opposite grooves or strands. Our TF complex and associated binding site predictions are available as a web resource at http://bejerano.stanford.edu/complex.

  5. Simplified method to predict mutual interactions of human transcription factors based on their primary structure

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian

    2011-07-05

    Background: Physical interactions between transcription factors (TFs) are necessary for forming regulatory protein complexes and thus play a crucial role in gene regulation. Currently, knowledge about the mechanisms of these TF interactions is incomplete and the number of known TF interactions is limited. Computational prediction of such interactions can help identify potential new TF interactions as well as contribute to better understanding the complex machinery involved in gene regulation. Methodology: We propose here such a method for the prediction of TF interactions. The method uses only the primary sequence information of the interacting TFs, resulting in a much greater simplicity of the prediction algorithm. Through an advanced feature selection process, we determined a subset of 97 model features that constitute the optimized model in the subset we considered. The model, based on quadratic discriminant analysis, achieves a prediction accuracy of 85.39% on a blind set of interactions. This result is achieved despite the selection for the negative data set of only those TF from the same type of proteins, i.e. TFs that function in the same cellular compartment (nucleus) and in the same type of molecular process (transcription initiation). Such selection poses significant challenges for developing models with high specificity, but at the same time better reflects real-world problems. Conclusions: The performance of our predictor compares well to those of much more complex approaches for predicting TF and general protein-protein interactions, particularly when taking the reduced complexity of model utilisation into account. © 2011 Schmeier et al.

  6. Simplified method to predict mutual interactions of human transcription factors based on their primary structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Schmeier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical interactions between transcription factors (TFs are necessary for forming regulatory protein complexes and thus play a crucial role in gene regulation. Currently, knowledge about the mechanisms of these TF interactions is incomplete and the number of known TF interactions is limited. Computational prediction of such interactions can help identify potential new TF interactions as well as contribute to better understanding the complex machinery involved in gene regulation. METHODOLOGY: We propose here such a method for the prediction of TF interactions. The method uses only the primary sequence information of the interacting TFs, resulting in a much greater simplicity of the prediction algorithm. Through an advanced feature selection process, we determined a subset of 97 model features that constitute the optimized model in the subset we considered. The model, based on quadratic discriminant analysis, achieves a prediction accuracy of 85.39% on a blind set of interactions. This result is achieved despite the selection for the negative data set of only those TF from the same type of proteins, i.e. TFs that function in the same cellular compartment (nucleus and in the same type of molecular process (transcription initiation. Such selection poses significant challenges for developing models with high specificity, but at the same time better reflects real-world problems. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of our predictor compares well to those of much more complex approaches for predicting TF and general protein-protein interactions, particularly when taking the reduced complexity of model utilisation into account.

  7. Structure-aided prediction of mammalian transcription factor complexes in conserved non-coding elements

    KAUST Repository

    Guturu, H.; Doxey, A. C.; Wenger, A. M.; Bejerano, G.

    2013-01-01

    Mapping the DNA-binding preferences of transcription factor (TF) complexes is critical for deciphering the functions of cis-regulatory elements. Here, we developed a computational method that compares co-occurring motif spacings in conserved versus unconserved regions of the human genome to detect evolutionarily constrained binding sites of rigid TF complexes. Structural data were used to estimate TF complex physical plausibility, explore overlapping motif arrangements seldom tackled by non-structure-aware methods, and generate and analyse three-dimensional models of the predicted complexes bound to DNA. Using this approach, we predicted 422 physically realistic TF complex motifs at 18% false discovery rate, the majority of which (326, 77%) contain some sequence overlap between binding sites. The set of mostly novel complexes is enriched in known composite motifs, predictive of binding site configurations in TF-TF-DNA crystal structures, and supported by ChIP-seq datasets. Structural modelling revealed three cooperativity mechanisms: direct protein-protein interactions, potentially indirect interactions and 'through-DNA' interactions. Indeed, 38% of the predicted complexes were found to contain four or more bases in which TF pairs appear to synergize through overlapping binding to the same DNA base pairs in opposite grooves or strands. Our TF complex and associated binding site predictions are available as a web resource at http://bejerano.stanford.edu/complex.

  8. Assessing the model transferability for prediction of transcription factor binding sites based on chromatin accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Zibetti, Cristina; Wan, Jun; Wang, Guohua; Blackshaw, Seth; Qian, Jiang

    2017-07-27

    Computational prediction of transcription factor (TF) binding sites in different cell types is challenging. Recent technology development allows us to determine the genome-wide chromatin accessibility in various cellular and developmental contexts. The chromatin accessibility profiles provide useful information in prediction of TF binding events in various physiological conditions. Furthermore, ChIP-Seq analysis was used to determine genome-wide binding sites for a range of different TFs in multiple cell types. Integration of these two types of genomic information can improve the prediction of TF binding events. We assessed to what extent a model built upon on other TFs and/or other cell types could be used to predict the binding sites of TFs of interest. A random forest model was built using a set of cell type-independent features such as specific sequences recognized by the TFs and evolutionary conservation, as well as cell type-specific features derived from chromatin accessibility data. Our analysis suggested that the models learned from other TFs and/or cell lines performed almost as well as the model learned from the target TF in the cell type of interest. Interestingly, models based on multiple TFs performed better than single-TF models. Finally, we proposed a universal model, BPAC, which was generated using ChIP-Seq data from multiple TFs in various cell types. Integrating chromatin accessibility information with sequence information improves prediction of TF binding.The prediction of TF binding is transferable across TFs and/or cell lines suggesting there are a set of universal "rules". A computational tool was developed to predict TF binding sites based on the universal "rules".

  9. Identifying barriers to glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes after completion of an accredited education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, Chris M; Lantaff, Wendy M; Olenik, Nicole L

    The objective of this study was to identify patient-perceived barriers to achieving A1C targets after receiving instruction in an accredited diabetes education program. Qualitative research using semistructured interviews and thematic analyses. One pharmacist-run diabetes center located within an independent community pharmacy in a suburban region of southern Indiana. A total of 17 participants between the ages of 41-78 were interviewed in March and April 2016. Not applicable. Patient-perceived barriers to attaining glycemic control after completion of a pharmacist-taught diabetes self-management education (DSME) program accredited by the American Association of Diabetes Educators. Participants reported a variety of perceived barriers to glycemic control subsequent to the receipt of structured education. Seven major themes emerged: 1) health care provider factors; 2) self-identified indiscretions; 3) psychological barriers and poor social support; 4) knowledge deficits; 5) personal injury or adverse drug events; 6) time constraints and competing life demands; and 7) financial constraints. Participants reported a variety of perceived barriers to achieving A1C targets after completing DSME. Incorporation of solutions and coping mechanisms to these barriers into diabetes education programs may help patients attain glycemic control. Other factors may require individualized attention outside of DSME in follow-up episodes of diabetes care. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors associated with therapeutic inertia in hypertension: validation of a predictive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redón, Josep; Coca, Antonio; Lázaro, Pablo; Aguilar, Ma Dolores; Cabañas, Mercedes; Gil, Natividad; Sánchez-Zamorano, Miguel Angel; Aranda, Pedro

    2010-08-01

    To study factors associated with therapeutic inertia in treating hypertension and to develop a predictive model to estimate the probability of therapeutic inertia in a given medical consultation, based on variables related to the consultation, patient, physician, clinical characteristics, and level of care. National, multicentre, observational, cross-sectional study in primary care and specialist (hospital) physicians who each completed a questionnaire on therapeutic inertia, provided professional data and collected clinical data on four patients. Therapeutic inertia was defined as a consultation in which treatment change was indicated (i.e., SBP >or= 140 or DBP >or= 90 mmHg in all patients; SBP >or= 130 or DBP >or= 80 in patients with diabetes or stroke), but did not occur. A predictive model was constructed and validated according to the factors associated with therapeutic inertia. Data were collected on 2595 patients and 13,792 visits. Therapeutic inertia occurred in 7546 (75%) of the 10,041 consultations in which treatment change was indicated. Factors associated with therapeutic inertia were primary care setting, male sex, older age, SPB and/or DBP values close to normal, treatment with more than one antihypertensive drug, treatment with an ARB II, and more than six visits/year. Physician characteristics did not weigh heavily in the association. The predictive model was valid internally and externally, with acceptable calibration, discrimination and reproducibility, and explained one-third of the variability in therapeutic inertia. Although therapeutic inertia is frequent in the management of hypertension, the factors explaining it are not completely clear. Whereas some aspects of the consultations were associated with therapeutic inertia, physician characteristics were not a decisive factor.

  11. Beyond the first episode: candidate factors for a risk prediction model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brendan P

    2010-01-01

    Many early psychosis services are financially compromised and cannot offer a full tenure of care to all patients. To maintain viability of services it is important that those with schizophrenia are identified early to maximize long-term outcomes, as are those with better prognoses who can be discharged early. The duration of untreated psychosis remains the mainstay in determining those who will benefit from extended care, yet its ability to inform on prognosis is modest in both the short and medium term. There are a number of known or putative genetic and environmental risk factors that have the potential to improve prognostication, though a multivariate risk prediction model combining them with clinical characteristics has yet to be developed. Candidate risk factors for such a model are presented, with an emphasis on environmental risk factors. More work is needed to corroborate many putative factors and to determine which of the established factors are salient and which are merely proxy measures. Future research should help clarify how gene-environment and environment-environment interactions occur and whether risk factors are dose-dependent, or if they act additively or synergistically, or are redundant in the presence (or absence) of other factors.

  12. Using an artificial neural network to predict carbon dioxide compressibility factor at high pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohagheghian, Erfan [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada); Zafarian-Rigaki, Habiballah; Motamedi-Ghahfarrokhi, Yaser; Hemmati-Sarapardeh, Abdolhossein [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Carbon dioxide injection, which is widely used as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method, has the potential of being coupled with CO{sub 2} sequestration and reducing the emission of greenhouse gas. Hence, knowing the compressibility factor of carbon dioxide is of a vital significance. Compressibility factor (Z-factor) is traditionally measured through time consuming, expensive and cumbersome experiments. Hence, developing a fast, robust and accurate model for its estimation is necessary. In this study, a new reliable model on the basis of feed forward artificial neural networks is presented to predict CO{sub 2} compressibility factor. Reduced temperature and pressure were selected as the input parameters of the proposed model. To evaluate and compare the results of the developed model with pre-existing models, both statistical and graphical error analyses were employed. The results indicated that the proposed model is more reliable and accurate compared to pre-existing models in a wide range of temperature (up to 1,273.15 K) and pressure (up to 140MPa). Furthermore, by employing the relevancy factor, the effect of pressure and temprature on the Z-factor of CO{sub 2} was compared for below and above the critical pressure of CO{sub 2}, and the physcially expected trends were observed. Finally, to identify the probable outliers and applicability domain of the proposed ANN model, both numerical and graphical techniques based on Leverage approach were performed. The results illustrated that only 1.75% of the experimental data points were located out of the applicability domain of the proposed model. As a result, the developed model is reliable for the prediction of CO{sub 2} compressibility factor.

  13. Evaluation of glycated albumin (GA) and GA/HbA1c ratio for diagnosis of diabetes and glycemic control: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Sara; Rabiee, Mohammad; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Abdolrahim, Mojgan; Rajab, Asadollah; Jazayeri, Hossein E; Tayebi, Lobat

    2017-06-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic high blood glucose concentrations (hyperglycemia). When it is left untreated or improperly managed, it can lead to acute complications including diabetic ketoacidosis and non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma. In addition, possible long-term complications include impotence, nerve damage, stroke, chronic kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, foot ulcers, and retinopathy. Historically, universal methods to measure glycemic control for the diagnosis of diabetes included fasting plasma glucose level (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2HP), and random plasma glucose. However, these measurements did not provide information about glycemic control over a long period of time. To address this problem, there has been a switch in the past decade to diagnosing diabetes and its severity through measurement of blood glycated proteins such as Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glycated albumin (GA). Diagnosis and evaluation of diabetes using glycated proteins has many advantages including high accuracy of glycemic control over a period of time. Currently, common laboratory methods used to measure glycated proteins are high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), immunoassay, and electrophoresis. HbA1c is one of the most important diagnostic factors for diabetes. However, some reports indicate that HbA1c is not a suitable marker to determine glycemic control in all diabetic patients. GA, which is not influenced by changes in the lifespan of erythrocytes, is thought to be a good alternative indicator of glycemic control in diabetic patients. Here, we review the literature that has investigated the suitability of HbA1c, GA and GA:HbA1c as indicators of long-term glycemic control and demonstrate the importance of selecting the appropriate glycated protein based on the patient's health status in order to provide useful and modern point-of-care monitoring and treatment.

  14. Prediction of safety critical software operational reliability from test reliability using testing environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1999-01-01

    It has been a critical issue to predict the safety critical software reliability in nuclear engineering area. For many years, many researches have focused on the quantification of software reliability and there have been many models developed to quantify software reliability. Most software reliability models estimate the reliability with the failure data collected during the test assuming that the test environments well represent the operation profile. User's interest is however on the operational reliability rather than on the test reliability. The experiences show that the operational reliability is higher than the test reliability. With the assumption that the difference in reliability results from the change of environment, from testing to operation, testing environment factors comprising the aging factor and the coverage factor are developed in this paper and used to predict the ultimate operational reliability with the failure data in testing phase. It is by incorporating test environments applied beyond the operational profile into testing environment factors. The application results show that the proposed method can estimate the operational reliability accurately. (Author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  15. Predicting the cosmological constant with the scale-factor cutoff measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Simone, Andrea; Guth, Alan H.; Salem, Michael P.; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that anthropic selection from a landscape with a flat prior distribution of cosmological constant Λ gives a reasonable fit to observation. However, a realistic model of the multiverse has a physical volume that diverges with time, and the predicted distribution of Λ depends on how the spacetime volume is regulated. A very promising method of regulation uses a scale-factor cutoff, which avoids a number of serious problems that arise in other approaches. In particular, the scale-factor cutoff avoids the 'youngness problem' (high probability of living in a much younger universe) and the 'Q and G catastrophes' (high probability for the primordial density contrast Q and gravitational constant G to have extremely large or small values). We apply the scale-factor cutoff measure to the probability distribution of Λ, considering both positive and negative values. The results are in good agreement with observation. In particular, the scale-factor cutoff strongly suppresses the probability for values of Λ that are more than about 10 times the observed value. We also discuss qualitatively the prediction for the density parameter Ω, indicating that with this measure there is a possibility of detectable negative curvature.

  16. The prediction of output factors for spread-out proton Bragg peak fields in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooy, Hanne M; Rosenthal, Stanley J; Engelsman, Martijn; Mazal, Alejandro; Slopsema, Roelf L; Paganetti, Harald; Flanz, Jacob B

    2005-01-01

    The reliable prediction of output factors for spread-out proton Bragg peak (SOBP) fields in clinical practice remained unrealized due to a lack of a consistent theoretical framework and the great number of variables introduced by the mechanical devices necessary for the production of such fields. These limitations necessitated an almost exclusive reliance on manual calibration for individual fields and empirical, ad hoc, models. We recently reported on a theoretical framework for the prediction of output factors for such fields. In this work, we describe the implementation of this framework in our clinical practice. In our practice, we use a treatment delivery nozzle that uses a limited, and constant, set of mechanical devices to produce SOBP fields over the full extent of clinical penetration depths, or ranges, and modulation widths. This use of a limited set of mechanical devices allows us to unfold the physical effects that affect the output factor. We describe these effects and their incorporation into the theoretical framework. We describe the calibration and protocol for SOBP fields, the effects of apertures and range-compensators and the use of output factors in the treatment planning process

  17. Predictive factors in patients eligible for pegfilgrastim prophylaxis focusing on RDI using ordered logistic regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbayashi, Yuko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Kanazawa, Motohiro; Nakajima, Yuki; Kawano, Rumi; Tabuchi, Yusuke; Yoshioka, Tomoko; Ihara, Norihiko; Hosokawa, Toyoshi; Takayama, Koichi; Shikata, Keisuke; Taguchi, Tetsuya

    2018-03-16

    Although pegfilgrastim prophylaxis is expected to maintain the relative dose intensity (RDI) of chemotherapy and improve safety, information is limited. However, the optimal selection of patients eligible for pegfilgrastim prophylaxis is an important issue from a medical economics viewpoint. Therefore, this retrospective study identified factors that could predict these eligible patients to maintain the RDI. The participants included 166 cancer patients undergoing pegfilgrastim prophylaxis combined with chemotherapy in our outpatient chemotherapy center between March 2015 and April 2017. Variables were extracted from clinical records for regression analysis of factors related to maintenance of the RDI. RDI was classified into four categories: 100% = 0, 85% or predictive factors in patients eligible for pegfilgrastim prophylaxis to maintain the RDI. Threshold measures were examined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis curve. Age [odds ratio (OR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.11; P maintenance. ROC curve analysis of the group that failed to maintain the RDI indicated that the threshold for age was 70 years and above, with a sensitivity of 60.0% and specificity of 80.2% (area under the curve: 0.74). In conclusion, younger age, anemia (less), and administration of pegfilgrastim 24-72 h after chemotherapy were significant factors for RDI maintenance.

  18. Principal component analysis for predicting transcription-factor binding motifs from array-derived data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenti Matthew P

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The responses to interleukin 1 (IL-1 in human chondrocytes constitute a complex regulatory mechanism, where multiple transcription factors interact combinatorially to transcription-factor binding motifs (TFBMs. In order to select a critical set of TFBMs from genomic DNA information and an array-derived data, an efficient algorithm to solve a combinatorial optimization problem is required. Although computational approaches based on evolutionary algorithms are commonly employed, an analytical algorithm would be useful to predict TFBMs at nearly no computational cost and evaluate varying modelling conditions. Singular value decomposition (SVD is a powerful method to derive primary components of a given matrix. Applying SVD to a promoter matrix defined from regulatory DNA sequences, we derived a novel method to predict the critical set of TFBMs. Results The promoter matrix was defined to establish a quantitative relationship between the IL-1-driven mRNA alteration and genomic DNA sequences of the IL-1 responsive genes. The matrix was decomposed with SVD, and the effects of 8 potential TFBMs (5'-CAGGC-3', 5'-CGCCC-3', 5'-CCGCC-3', 5'-ATGGG-3', 5'-GGGAA-3', 5'-CGTCC-3', 5'-AAAGG-3', and 5'-ACCCA-3' were predicted from a pool of 512 random DNA sequences. The prediction included matches to the core binding motifs of biologically known TFBMs such as AP2, SP1, EGR1, KROX, GC-BOX, ABI4, ETF, E2F, SRF, STAT, IK-1, PPARγ, STAF, ROAZ, and NFκB, and their significance was evaluated numerically using Monte Carlo simulation and genetic algorithm. Conclusion The described SVD-based prediction is an analytical method to provide a set of potential TFBMs involved in transcriptional regulation. The results would be useful to evaluate analytically a contribution of individual DNA sequences.

  19. Factors Predicting Treatment Failure in Patients Treated with Iodine-131 for Graves’ Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, Kuruva; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Bhoil, Amit; Bhattacharya, Anish; Dutta, Pinaki; Bhansali, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of Graves' disease with iodine-131 ( 131 I) is well-known; however, all patients do not respond to a single dose of 131 I and may require higher and repeated doses. This study was carried out to identify the factors, which can predict treatment failure to a single dose of 131 I treatment in these patients. Data of 150 patients with Graves' disease treated with 259-370 MBq of 131 I followed-up for at least 1-year were retrospectively analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict factors which can predict treatment failure, such as age, sex, duration of disease, grade of goiter, duration of treatment with anti-thyroid drugs, mean dosage of anti-thyroid drugs used, 99m Tc-pertechnetate ( 99m TcO 4 - ) uptake at 20 min, dose of 131 I administered, total triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels. Of the 150 patients, 25 patients required retreatment within 1 year of initial treatment with 131 I. Logistic regression analysis revealed that male sex and 99m TcO 4 - uptake were associated with treatment failure. On receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, area under the curve (AUC) was significant for 99m TcO 4 - uptake predicting treatment failure (AUC = 0.623; P = 0.039). Optimum cutoff for 99m TcO 4 - uptake was 17.75 with a sensitivity of 68% and specificity of 66% to predict treatment failure. Patients with >17.75% 99m TcO 4 - uptake had odds ratio of 3.14 (P = 0.014) for treatment failure and male patients had odds ratio of 1.783 for treatment failure. Our results suggest that male patients and patients with high pre-treatment 99m TcO 4 - uptake are more likely to require repeated doses of 131 I to achieve complete remission

  20. Dietary glycemic load and glycemic index and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in Dutch men and women: the EPIC-MORGEN study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koert N J Burger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The associations of glycemic load (GL and glycemic index (GI with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD are not well-established, particularly in men, and may be modified by gender. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether high dietary GL and GI increase the risk of CVD in men and women. METHODS: A large prospective cohort study (EPIC-MORGEN was conducted within the general Dutch population among 8,855 men and 10,753 women, aged 21-64 years at baseline (1993-1997 and free of diabetes and CVD. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire and GI and GL were calculated using Foster-Powell's international table of GI. Information on morbidity and mortality was obtained through linkage with national registries. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs for incident coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke, while adjusting for age, CVD risk factors, and dietary factors. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 11.9 years, 581 CHD cases and 120 stroke cases occurred among men, and 300 CHD cases and 109 stroke cases occurred among women. In men, GL was associated with an increased CHD risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.02-1.35], while no significant association was found in women (1.09 [0.89-1.33]. GI was not associated with CHD risk in both genders, while it was associated with increased stroke risk in men (1.27 [1.02-1.58] but not in women (0.96 [0.75-1.22]. Similarly, total carbohydrate intake and starch intake were associated with a higher CHD risk in men (1.23 [1.04-1.46]; and 1.24 [1.07-1.45], but not in women. CONCLUSION: Among men, high GL and GI, and high carbohydrate and starch intake, were associated with increased risk of CVD.

  1. Factors Predicting Recovery of Oral Intake in Stroke Survivors with Dysphagia in a Convalescent Rehabilitation Ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Yasunori; Nakayama, Sayaka; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Ohori, Isao; Komatsu, Nahoko; Nishimura, Hitoshi; Katsuki, Yasuo

    2017-05-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy may be performed in dysphagic stroke patients. However, some patients regain complete oral intake without gastrostomy. This study aimed to investigate the predictive factors of intake, thereby determining gastrostomy indications. Stroke survivors admitted to our convalescent rehabilitation ward who underwent gastrostomy or nasogastric tube placement from 2009 to 2015 were divided into 2 groups based on intake status at discharge. Demographic data and Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Dysphagia Severity Scale (DSS), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores on admission were compared between groups. We evaluated the factors predicting intake using a stepwise logistic regression analysis. Thirty-four patients recovered intake, whereas 38 achieved incomplete intake. Mean age was lower, mean body mass index (BMI) was higher, and mean time from stroke onset to admission was shorter in the complete intake group. The complete intake group had less impairment in terms of GCS, FIM, and DSS scores. In the stepwise logistic regression analysis, BMI, FIM-cognitive score, and DSS score were significant independent factors predicting intake. The formula of BMI × .26 + FIM cognitive score × .19 + DSS score × 1.60 predicted recovery of complete intake with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 84.2%. Stroke survivors with dysphagia with a high BMI and FIM-cognitive and DSS scores tended to recover oral intake. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors Predicting the Provision of Smoking Cessation Services Among Occupational Health Nurses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatdokmaiprai, Kannikar; Kalampakorn, Surintorn; McCullagh, Marjorie; Lagampan, Sunee; Keeratiwiriyaporn, Sansanee

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors predicting occupational health nurses' provision of smoking cessation services. Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 254 occupational health nurses in Thailand. Analysis by structural equation modeling revealed that self-efficacy directly and positively influenced smoking cessation services, and mediated the relationship between workplace factors, nurse factors, and smoking cessation services. The final model had good fit to the data, accounting for 20.4% and 38.0% of the variance in self-efficacy and smoking cessation services, respectively. The findings show that self-efficacy is a mediator that influences provision of smoking cessation services by occupational health nurses. Interventions to enhance nurses' self-efficacy in providing smoking cessation services are expected to promote provision of smoking cessation services to workers.

  3. Predictive factors for the development of persistent pain after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Duriaud, Helle Molter; Jensen, Helle Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that 15% to 25% of patients treated for breast cancer experience long-term moderate-to-severe pain in the area of surgery, potentially lasting for several years. Few prospective studies have included all potential risk factors for the development of persistent pain...... after breast cancer surgery (PPBCS). The aim of this prospective cohort study was to comprehensively identify factors predicting PPBCS. Patients scheduled for primary breast cancer surgery were recruited. Assessments were conducted preoperatively, the first 3 days postoperatively, and 1 week, 6 months...... were included, and 475 (88%) were available for analysis at 1 year. At 1-year follow-up, the prevalence of moderate-to-severe pain at rest was 14% and during movement was 7%. Factors associated with pain at rest were age breast conserving surgery (OR: 2.0, P...

  4. Identifying the necessary and sufficient number of risk factors for predicting academic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio, Robert; Hunt, Elizabeth; Bornovalova, Marina

    2012-03-01

    Identifying the point at which individuals become at risk for academic failure (grade point average [GPA] academic success or failure. This study focused on 12 school-related factors. Using a thorough 5-step process, we identified which unique risk factors place one at risk for academic failure. Academic engagement, academic expectations, academic self-efficacy, homework completion, school relevance, school safety, teacher relationships (positive relationship), grade retention, school mobility, and school misbehaviors (negative relationship) were uniquely related to GPA even after controlling for all relevant covariates. Next, a receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine a cutoff point for determining how many risk factors predict academic failure (GPA academic failure, which provides a way for early identification of individuals who are at risk. Further implications of these findings are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Ecological Factors Predict Transition Readiness/Self-Management in Youth With Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javalkar, Karina; Johnson, Meredith; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V; Ocegueda, Sofia; Detwiler, Randal K; Ferris, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Health care transition readiness or self-management among adolescents and young adults (AYA) with chronic conditions may be influenced by factors related to their surrounding environment. Study participants were AYA diagnosed with a chronic condition and evaluated at pediatric- and adult-focused subspecialty clinics at the University of North Carolina Hospital Systems. All participants were administered a provider-administered self-management/transition-readiness tool, the UNC TRxANSITION Scale. Geographic area and associated characteristics (ecological factors) were identified for each participant's ZIP code using the published U.S. Census data. The Level 1 model of the hierarchical linear regression used individual-level predictors of transition readiness/self-management. The Level 2 model incorporated the ecological factors. We enrolled 511 AYA with different chronic conditions aged 12-31 years with the following characteristics: mean age of 20± 4 years, 45% white, 42% black, and 54% female. Participants represented 214 ZIP codes in or around North Carolina, USA. The Level 1 model showed that age, gender, and race were significant predictors of transition readiness/self-management. On adding the ecological factors in the Level 2 model, race was no longer significant. Participants from a geographic area with a greater percentage of females (β = .114, p = .005) and a higher median income (β = .126, p = .002) had greater overall transition readiness. Ecological factors also predicted subdomains of transition readiness/self-management. In this cohort of adolescents and young adults with different chronic conditions, ecological disparities such as sex composition, median income, and language predict self-management/transition readiness. It is important to take ecological risk factors into consideration when preparing patients for health self-management or transition. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  6. Predictive factors of occult neck metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fortes Bittar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: It is well established that cervical lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. The definition of parameters and classifications that could separate patients in groups of low, intermediate and high-risk is being attempted for several years. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine possible predictive factors related to the occurrence of occult cervical lymph node metastasis through the analysis of histopathological reports of surgical specimens obtained after oral squamous cell carcinoma resection and selective neck dissections of patients initially classified as N0. METHODS: This was a primary, retrospective, observational, case-control study. Histopathological reports were reviewed to determine if some findings were related to the occurrence of occult lymph node metastasis. The events analyzed were oral cavity subsites, pT-stage, muscular infiltration, desmoplasia, vascular emboli, perineural infiltration, tumor thickness and compromised margins. RESULTS: Occult cervical metastasis accounted for 19.10 percent of the cases. Desmoplasia, perineural infiltration, tumor thickness and pT4a stage are predictive factors of occult neck metastasis (p-value = 0.0488, 0.0326, 0.0395, 0.0488, respectively. CONCLUSION: The accurate definition of predictive factors of occult cervical metastasis may guide the selection of patients that should be referred to radiotherapy, avoiding the unnecessary exposure of low-risk patients to radiation and allowing a better regional control of the disease in those of moderate or high risk.

  7. Demographic Factors and Hospital Size Predict Patient Satisfaction Variance- Implications for Hospital Value-Based Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C.; Ornstein, Katherine; Holcombe, Randall F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) incentivizes quality performance based healthcare by linking payments directly to patient satisfaction scores obtained from Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) surveys. Lower HCAHPS scores appear to cluster in heterogeneous population dense areas and could bias CMS reimbursement. Objective Assess nonrandom variation in patient satisfaction as determined by HCAHPS. Design Multivariate regression modeling was performed for individual dimensions of HCAHPS and aggregate scores. Standardized partial regression coefficients assessed strengths of predictors. Weighted Individual (hospital) Patient Satisfaction Adjusted Score (WIPSAS) utilized four highly predictive variables and hospitals were re-ranked accordingly. Setting 3,907 HVBP-participating hospitals. Patients 934,800 patient surveys, by most conservative estimate. Measurements 3,144 county demographics (U.S. Census), and HCAHPS. Results Hospital size and primary language (‘non-English speaking’) most strongly predicted unfavorable HCAHPS scores while education and white ethnicity most strongly predicted favorable HCAHPS scores. The average adjusted patient satisfaction scores calculated by WIPSAS approximated the national average of HCAHPS scores. However, WIPSAS changed hospital rankings by variable amounts depending on the strength of the predictive variables in the hospitals’ locations. Structural and demographic characteristics that predict lower scores were accounted for by WIPSAS that also improved rankings of many safety-net hospitals and academic medical centers in diverse areas. Conclusions Demographic and structural factors (e.g., hospital beds) predict patient satisfaction scores even after CMS adjustments. CMS should consider WIPSAS or a similar adjustment to account for the severity of patient satisfaction inequities that hospitals could strive to correct. PMID:25940305

  8. A comprehensive performance evaluation on the prediction results of existing cooperative transcription factors identification algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fu-Jou; Chang, Hong-Tsun; Huang, Yueh-Min; Wu, Wei-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic transcriptional regulation is known to be highly connected through the networks of cooperative transcription factors (TFs). Measuring the cooperativity of TFs is helpful for understanding the biological relevance of these TFs in regulating genes. The recent advances in computational techniques led to various predictions of cooperative TF pairs in yeast. As each algorithm integrated different data resources and was developed based on different rationales, it possessed its own merit and claimed outperforming others. However, the claim was prone to subjectivity because each algorithm compared with only a few other algorithms and only used a small set of performance indices for comparison. This motivated us to propose a series of indices to objectively evaluate the prediction performance of existing algorithms. And based on the proposed performance indices, we conducted a comprehensive performance evaluation. We collected 14 sets of predicted cooperative TF pairs (PCTFPs) in yeast from 14 existing algorithms in the literature. Using the eight performance indices we adopted/proposed, the cooperativity of each PCTFP was measured and a ranking score according to the mean cooperativity of the set was given to each set of PCTFPs under evaluation for each performance index. It was seen that the ranking scores of a set of PCTFPs vary with different performance indices, implying that an algorithm used in predicting cooperative TF pairs is of strength somewhere but may be of weakness elsewhere. We finally made a comprehensive ranking for these 14 sets. The results showed that Wang J's study obtained the best performance evaluation on the prediction of cooperative TF pairs in yeast. In this study, we adopted/proposed eight performance indices to make a comprehensive performance evaluation on the prediction results of 14 existing cooperative TFs identification algorithms. Most importantly, these proposed indices can be easily applied to measure the performance of new

  9. Comprehensive prediction in 78 human cell lines reveals rigidity and compactness of transcription factor dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Aleksander; Szczurek, Ewa; Jauch, Ralf; Tiuryn, Jerzy; Prabhakar, Shyam

    2013-01-01

    The binding of transcription factors (TFs) to their specific motifs in genomic regulatory regions is commonly studied in isolation. However, in order to elucidate the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, it is essential to determine which TFs bind DNA cooperatively as dimers and to infer the precise nature of these interactions. So far, only a small number of such dimeric complexes are known. Here, we present an algorithm for predicting cell-type–specific TF–TF dimerization on DNA on a large scale, using DNase I hypersensitivity data from 78 human cell lines. We represented the universe of possible TF complexes by their corresponding motif complexes, and analyzed their occurrence at cell-type–specific DNase I hypersensitive sites. Based on ∼1.4 billion tests for motif complex enrichment, we predicted 603 highly significant cell-type–specific TF dimers, the vast majority of which are novel. Our predictions included 76% (19/25) of the known dimeric complexes and showed significant overlap with an experimental database of protein–protein interactions. They were also independently supported by evolutionary conservation, as well as quantitative variation in DNase I digestion patterns. Notably, the known and predicted TF dimers were almost always highly compact and rigidly spaced, suggesting that TFs dimerize in close proximity to their partners, which results in strict constraints on the structure of the DNA-bound complex. Overall, our results indicate that chromatin openness profiles are highly predictive of cell-type–specific TF–TF interactions. Moreover, cooperative TF dimerization seems to be a widespread phenomenon, with multiple TF complexes predicted in most cell types. PMID:23554463

  10. Human Factors Predicting Failure and Success in Hospital Information System Implementations in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Frank; Karara, Gustave; Nyssen, Marc

    2015-01-01

    From 2007 through 2014, the authors participated in the implementation of open source hospital information systems (HIS) in 19 hospitals in Rwanda, Burundi, DR Congo, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, and Mali. Most of these implementations were successful, but some failed. At the end of a seven-year implementation effort, a number of risk factors, facilitators, and pragmatic approaches related to the deployment of HIS in Sub-Saharan health facilities have been identified. Many of the problems encountered during the HIS implementation process were not related to technical issues but human, cultural, and environmental factors. This study retrospectively evaluates the predictive value of 14 project failure factors and 15 success factors in HIS implementation in the Sub-Saharan region. Nine of the failure factors were strongly correlated with project failure, three were moderately correlated, and one weakly correlated. Regression analysis also confirms that eight factors were strongly correlated with project success, four moderately correlated, and two weakly correlated. The study results may help estimate the expedience of future HIS projects.

  11. Chronic dry eye in PRK and LASIK: manifestations, incidence and predictive factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Kraig S.; Sia, Rose K.; Ryan, Denise S.; Mines, Michael J.; Dartt, Darlene A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate dry eye manifestations following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and determine the incidence and predictive factors of chronic dry eye using a set of dry eye criteria. Setting Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA Methods This is a prospective non-randomized clinical study of 143 active duty U.S. Army personnel aged 29.9±5.2 years with myopia or myopic astigmatism (manifest spherical equivalent −3.83±1.96 diopters) undergoing either PRK or LASIK. Dry eye evaluation was performed pre- and postoperatively. Main outcome measures included dry eye manifestations, incidence, and predictive factors of chronic dry eye. Results Schirmer scores, corneal sensitivity, ocular surface staining, surface regularity index (SRI), and responses to dry eye questionnaire significantly changed over time after PRK. After LASIK, significant changes were observed in tear breakup time, corneal sensitivity, ocular surface staining, and responses to questionnaire. At twelve months postoperatively, 5.0% of PRK and 0.8% of LASIK participants developed chronic dry eye. Regression analysis showed preoperatively lower Schirmer score will significantly influence development of chronic dry eye after PRK whereas preoperatively lower Schirmer score or higher ocular surface staining score will significantly influence the occurrence of chronic dry eye after LASIK. Conclusions Chronic dry eye is uncommon after PRK and LASIK. Ocular surface and tear film characteristics during preoperative examination may help predict chronic dry eye development in PRK and LASIK. PMID:26796443

  12. Neighborhood Regularized Logistic Matrix Factorization for Drug-Target Interaction Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Wu, Min; Miao, Chunyan; Zhao, Peilin; Li, Xiao-Li

    2016-02-01

    In pharmaceutical sciences, a crucial step of the drug discovery process is the identification of drug-target interactions. However, only a small portion of the drug-target interactions have been experimentally validated, as the experimental validation is laborious and costly. To improve the drug discovery efficiency, there is a great need for the development of accurate computational approaches that can predict potential drug-target interactions to direct the experimental verification. In this paper, we propose a novel drug-target interaction prediction algorithm, namely neighborhood regularized logistic matrix factorization (NRLMF). Specifically, the proposed NRLMF method focuses on modeling the probability that a drug would interact with a target by logistic matrix factorization, where the properties of drugs and targets are represented by drug-specific and target-specific latent vectors, respectively. Moreover, NRLMF assigns higher importance levels to positive observations (i.e., the observed interacting drug-target pairs) than negative observations (i.e., the unknown pairs). Because the positive observations are already experimentally verified, they are usually more trustworthy. Furthermore, the local structure of the drug-target interaction data has also been exploited via neighborhood regularization to achieve better prediction accuracy. We conducted extensive experiments over four benchmark datasets, and NRLMF demonstrated its effectiveness compared with five state-of-the-art approaches.

  13. Subchannel friction factors for rod bundles: laminar flow predictions and their application to turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.P.

    1979-02-01

    For the calculation of friction factors the use of correlations validated for smooth circular tubes along with the duct hydraulic diameter is known to be inappropriate for certain non-circular geometries. In order to test the validity and range of application of such correlations to the subchannels of rod bundles a computer programme has been written for the prediction of subchannel laminar velocity distributions and friction coefficients for fully developed flow. The theoretical basis and development of the programme is described along with comparisons between predictions and existing solutions for some simple geometries. Using the computer programme a wide range of calculations have been carried out for flow sections representing edge, corner and internal subchannels of rod bundles with particular emphasis on those of in-line pin bundle geometries. Where comparison can be made the predicted laminar coefficients are in excellent agreement with existing solutions. Although the approach adopted here could be used as the basis of a model for the subchannel axial friction factor, careful account should be taken of enhanced turbulent momentum transfer in situations where the flow is not unidirectional. (UK)

  14. Progression of diffuse esophageal spasm to achalasia: incidence and predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, L H S; Herbella, F A M; Rodriguez, T N; Trivino, T; Farah, J F M

    2013-07-01

    The progression of certain primary esophageal motor disorders to achalasia has been documented; however, the true incidence of this decay is still elusive. This study aims to evaluate: (i) the incidence of the progression of diffuse esophageal spasm to achalasia, and (ii) predictive factors to this progression. Thirty-five patients (mean age 53 years, 80% females) with a manometric picture of diffuse esophageal spasm were followed for at least 1 year. Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease confirmed by pH monitoring or systemic diseases that may affect esophageal motility were excluded. Esophageal manometry was repeated in all patients. Five (14%) of the patients progressed to achalasia at a mean follow-up of 2.1 (range 1-4) years. Demographic characteristics were not predictive of transition to achalasia, while dysphagia (P= 0.005) as the main symptom and the wave amplitude of simultaneous waves less than 50 mmHg (P= 0.003) were statistically significant. In conclusion, the transition of diffuse esophageal spasm to achalasia is not frequent at a 2-year follow-up. Dysphagia and simultaneous waves with low amplitude are predictive factors for this degeneration. © 2012 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  15. [Lightning-caused fire, its affecting factors and prediction: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Li; Bi, Wu; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Zi-Bo; Li, Di-Fei

    2013-09-01

    Lightning-caused fire is the most important natural fire source. Its induced forest fire brings enormous losses to human beings and ecological environment. Many countries have paid great attention to the prediction of lightning-caused fire. From the viewpoint of the main factors affecting the formation of lightning-caused fire, this paper emphatically analyzed the effects and action mechanisms of cloud-to-ground lightning, fuel, meteorology, and terrain on the formation and development process of lightning-caused fire, and, on the basis of this, summarized and reviewed the logistic model, K-function, and other mathematical methods widely used in prediction research of lightning-caused fire. The prediction methods and processes of lightning-caused fire in America and Canada were also introduced. The insufficiencies and their possible solutions for the present researches as well as the directions of further studies were proposed, aimed to provide necessary theoretical basis and literature reference for the prediction of lightning-caused fire in China.

  16. Predicting success in an online parenting intervention: the role of child, parent, and family factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittman, Cassandra K; Farruggia, Susan P; Palmer, Melanie L; Sanders, Matthew R; Keown, Louise J

    2014-04-01

    The present study involved an examination of the extent to which a wide range of child, parent, family, and program-related factors predicted child behavior and parenting outcomes after participation in an 8-session online version of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. Participants were mothers and fathers of 97 children aged between 3 and 8 years displaying elevated levels of disruptive behavior problems. For both mothers and fathers, poorer child behavior outcomes at postintervention were predicted by the number of sessions of the intervention completed by the family. For mothers, postintervention child behavior was also predicted by the quality of the mother-child relationship at baseline; for fathers, baseline child behavior severity was an additional predictor. Mothers' postintervention ineffective parenting was predicted by session completion and preintervention levels of ineffective parenting, whereas the only predictor of fathers' ineffective parenting at postintervention was preintervention levels of ineffective parenting. Socioeconomic risk, parental adjustment, and father participation in the intervention were not significant predictors of mother- or father-reported treatment outcomes. The implications of the findings for the provision of online parenting support are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Predicting protein-protein interactions from multimodal biological data sources via nonnegative matrix tri-factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Huang, Heng; Ding, Chris; Nie, Feiping

    2013-04-01

    Protein interactions are central to all the biological processes and structural scaffolds in living organisms, because they orchestrate a number of cellular processes such as metabolic pathways and immunological recognition. Several high-throughput methods, for example, yeast two-hybrid system and mass spectrometry method, can help determine protein interactions, which, however, suffer from high false-positive rates. Moreover, many protein interactions predicted by one method are not supported by another. Therefore, computational methods are necessary and crucial to complete the interactome expeditiously. In this work, we formulate the problem of predicting protein interactions from a new mathematical perspective--sparse matrix completion, and propose a novel nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF)-based matrix completion approach to predict new protein interactions from existing protein interaction networks. Through using manifold regularization, we further develop our method to integrate different biological data sources, such as protein sequences, gene expressions, protein structure information, etc. Extensive experimental results on four species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens, and Caenorhabditis elegans, have shown that our new methods outperform related state-of-the-art protein interaction prediction methods.

  18. Predictive factors associated with neck pain in patients with cervical disc degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingde; Tian, Weifeng; Cao, Peng; Wang, Haonan; Zhang, Bing; Shen, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The predictive factors associated with neck pain remain unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess predictive factors, especially Modic changes (MCs), associated with the intensity and duration of neck pain in patients with cervical disc degenerative disease. We retrospectively reviewed patients in our hospital from January 2013 to December 2016. Severe neck pain (SNP) and persistent neck pain (PNP) were the 2 main outcomes, and were assessed based on the numerical rating scale (NRS). Basic data, and also imaging data, were collected and analyzed as potential predictive factors. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to assess the predictive factors for neck pain. In all, 381 patients (193 males and 188 females) with cervical degenerative disease were included in our study. The number of patients with SNP and PNP were 94 (24.67%) and 109 (28.61%), respectively. The NRS of neck pain in patients with type 1 MCs was significantly higher than type 2 MCs (4.8 ± 0.9 vs 3.9 ± 1.1; P = .004). The multivariate logistic analysis showed that kyphosis curvature (odds ratio [OR] 1.082, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.044–1.112), spondylolisthesis (OR 1.339, 95% CI 1.226–1.462), and annular tear (OR 1.188, 95% CI 1.021–1.382) were factors associated with SNP, whereas kyphosis curvature (OR 1.568, 95% CI 1.022–2.394), spondylolisthesis (OR 1.486, 95% CI 1.082–2.041), and MCs (OR 1.152, 95% CI 1.074–1.234) were associated with PNP. We concluded that kyphosis curvature, spondylolisthesis, and annular tear are associated with SNP, whereas kyphosis curvature, spondylolisthesis, and MCs are associated with PNP. This study supports the view that MCs can lead to a long duration of neck pain. PMID:29069048

  19. Predictive factors for malignancy in incidental pulmonary nodules detected in breast cancer patients at baseline CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Mark M.; Mortani Barbosa, Eduardo J. [University of Pennsylvania, Division of Cardiothoracic Imaging, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Pulmonary nodules are commonly encountered at staging CTs in patients with extrathoracic malignancies, but their significance on a per-patient basis remains uncertain. We undertook a retrospective analysis of pulmonary nodules identified in patients with a diagnosis of breast cancer from 2010 - 2015, evaluating nodules present at a baseline CT (i.e. prevalent nodules). We reviewed 211 patients with 248 individual nodules. The rate of malignancy in prevalent nodules is low, approximately 13 %. Variables associated with metastasis include pleural studding, hilar lymphadenopathy and the presence of extrapulmonary metastasis, as well as number of nodules, nodule size and nodule shape. Using a combination of these factors, we have developed an evidence-based multivariate decision tree to predict which nodules are malignant in these patients, which is 91 % accurate and 100 % sensitive for metastasis. We propose a simplified clinical prediction algorithm to guide radiologists and oncologists in managing patients with breast cancer and incidental pulmonary nodules. (orig.)

  20. Nutrition factors predict earlier acquisition of motor and language milestones among young children in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora; Jean Louis Dulience, Sherlie; Wolff, Patricia; Cox, Katherine; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Kohl, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    To examine the nutrition-related factors associated with motor and language development among young children living in a poor urban area of Haiti. Children aged 6-11 months (n = 583) were enrolled and followed monthly for one year. World Health Organization motor developmental milestones and vowel and consonant counts were assessed. Longitudinal regression models were applied to assess the association of anthropometric, dietary intake, infectious disease morbidity and socio-economic and demographic factors on developmental outcomes. At baseline, 9.4% were stunted or length-for-age Z score < -2, and 30.2% were mild-to-moderately stunted or length-for-age Z score < -1. Stunting status was significantly associated with motor and phonetic language acquisition at each time point during infancy. Several nutrition factors significantly predicted earlier achievement of motor and language development outcomes in longitudinal models: child anthropometry; breastfeeding and complementary feeding frequencies; dietary diversity; egg and oil intake; and reduced infectious disease morbidities. Increases in the length-for-age Z score significantly predicted all motor and language outcomes and yielded the best fit models compared to other anthropometric indicators (p < 0.001). Child development interventions may be enhanced by incorporating nutrition strategies such as improved diet quality, breastfeeding promotion and diarrhoeal disease mitigation. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Exchange rate prediction with multilayer perceptron neural network using gold price as external factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fathian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of predicting the exchange rate time series in the foreign exchange rate market is going to be solved using a time-delayed multilayer perceptron neural network with gold price as external factor. The input for the learning phase of the artificial neural network are the exchange rate data of the last five days plus the gold price in two different currencies of the exchange rate as the external factor for helping the artificial neural network improving its forecast accuracy. The five-day delay has been chosen because of the weekly cyclic behavior of the exchange rate time series with the consideration of two holidays in a week. The result of forecasts are then compared with using the multilayer peceptron neural network without gold price external factor by two most important evaluation techniques in the literature of exchange rate prediction. For the experimental analysis phase, the data of three important exchange rates of EUR/USD, GBP/USD, and USD/JPY are used.

  2. Predictive factors of user acceptance on the primary educational mathematics aids product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, I.; Margunani; Dwijanto

    2018-03-01

    Mathematics learning in primary schools requires instructional media. According to Piaget's theory, students are still in the concrete operational stage. For this reason, the development of the primary level mathematics aids is needed to support the development of successful mathematics learning. The stages of this research are the stages of commercialization with preparatory, marketing, and measurement analysis procedures. Promotion as part of marketing is done by doing a demonstration to the teacher. Measurements were performed to explore the predictive factors of user feasibility in adopting the product. Measurements were conducted using the concept of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Measurement variables include external variables, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude, intention to use, and actual use. The result of this research shows that the contribution of predictive factors of mathematics teachers on the teaching aids product as follows: the external variable and perceived ease of use at 74%, perceived usefulness at 72%, intention to use (behavioral) at 58%, attitude at 52%, and the consequence factor (actual use) at 42%.

  3. Metallic ureteral stents in malignant ureteral obstruction: clinical factors predicting stent failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Po-Ming; Hsu, Jui-Shan; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Wang, Shuo-Meng; Lee, Yuan-Ju; Huang, Kuo-How; Yu, Hong-Jheng; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Liang, Po-Chin

    2014-06-01

    To provide clinical outcomes of the Resonance metallic ureteral stent in patients with malignant ureteral obstruction, as well as clinical factors predicting stent failure. Cancer patients who have received Resonance stents from July 2009 to March 2012 for ureteral obstruction were included for chart review. Stent failure was detected by clinical symptoms, image studies, and renal function tests. Survival analysis for stent duration was used to estimate patency rate and factors predicting stent failure. A total of 117 stents were inserted successfully into 94 ureteral units in 79 patients. There were no major complications. These stents underwent survival analysis and proportional hazard regression. The median duration for the stents was 5.77 months. In multivariate analysis, age (P=0.043), preoperative serum creatinine level (P=0.0174), and cancer type (P=0.0494) were significant factors associated with stent failure. Cancer treatment before and after stent insertion had no effect on stent duration. Resonance stents are effective and safe in relieving malignant ureteral obstructions. Old age and high serum creatinine level are predictors for stent failure. Stents in patients with lower gastrointestinal cancers have longer functional duration.

  4. Predictive factors of mortality within 30 days in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Min, Bo Ram; Kim, Eun Soo; Park, Kyung Sik; Cho, Kwang Bum; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Chung, Woo Jin; Hwang, Jae Seok; Jeon, Seong Woo

    2016-01-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is a common medical emergency that can be life threatening. This study evaluated predictive factors of 30-day mortality in patients with this condition. A prospective observational study was conducted at a single hospital between April 2010 and November 2012, and 336 patients with symptoms and signs of gastrointestinal bleeding were consecutively enrolled. Clinical characteristics and endoscopic findings were reviewed to identify potential factors associated with 30-day mortality. Overall, 184 patients were included in the study (men, 79.3%; mean age, 59.81 years), and 16 patients died within 30 days (8.7%). Multivariate analyses revealed that comorbidity of diabetes mellitus (DM) or metastatic malignancy, age ≥ 65 years, and hypotension (systolic pressure < 90 mmHg) during hospitalization were significant predictive factors of 30-day mortality. Comorbidity of DM or metastatic malignancy, age ≥ 65 years, and hemodynamic instability during hospitalization were predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with NVUGIB. These results will help guide the management of patients with this condition.

  5. Perceived heart risk factors can predict experienced psychological stress in outpatient cardiac rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was done to investigate the role of perceived heart risk factors (PHRFs in the prediction of psychological symptoms of cardiac rehabilitation (CR patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 124 CR patients referred to Kermanshah Hospital of Imam Ali were assessed during April–July 2015. PHRFs scale and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale-21 used for data collection. The data were analyzed using linear multiple regression analysis. Results: The mean age of samples (69.4% male was 58.9 ± 9.7 years. The results of regression analysis evidenced that there is no significant relationship between any of the PHRFs with depression and anxiety (P > 0.05; however, biological (P = 0.018 and psychological (P = 0.019 risk factors significantly can predict stress. The model generally can explain 6.4% of the stress variance. Conclusion: PHRFs are included some significant predictors for experienced stress among the CR patients. Given that the biological and psychological risk factors are more effective in experienced stress by the patients, it is recommended that specialists pay more attention to the potential psychological outcomes of this group of patients.

  6. Clinicopathologic Predictive Factors of Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ronghao; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Kun; Fan, Jinchuan; Li, Guojun; Song, Xicheng; Li, Chao

    Cervical lymph node metastasis (LNM) has been proven to be a predictor for locoregional recurrence in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Clinicopathological features could be effective predictive factors for central and lateral LNM of DTC, and provide references to surgeons for cervical neck dissection. Retrospective analysis of clinicopathological data was performed on 420 patients who underwent initial surgery from 2010 to 2015. The incidence of central and lateral LNM was calculated. Of 420 patients, 247 (58.8%) exhibited central LNM, and 185 (44.1%) exhibited lateral LNM. There were 29 (6.9%) cases confirmed to have skip metastasis. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that tumour location, tumour size, multifocality, capsular invasion, affected lobes, and age were independent predictors of central LNM. Tumour location, capsular invasion, affected lobes, and tumour size were independent predictors of lateral LNM. Our findings suggest that tumour location, affected lobes, capsular invasion, age, tumour size and multifocality may be taken as predictive factors for cervical LNM of DTC. Meticulous perioperative evaluation of cervical LNM and prophylactic cervical lymph node dissection that aims to remove the occult lymph nodes may be an option for DTC with risk factors. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  7. Predicting Resident Performance from Preresidency Factors: A Systematic Review and Applicability to Neurosurgical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Kelly, Patrick D; Dewan, Michael C; Morone, Peter J; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Magarik, Jordan A; Baticulon, Ronnie E; Zusman, Edie E; Solomon, Gary S; Wellons, John C

    2018-02-01

    Neurosurgical educators strive to identify the best applicants, yet formal study of resident selection has proved difficult. We conducted a systematic review to answer the following question: What objective and subjective preresidency factors predict resident success? PubMed, ProQuest, Embase, and the CINAHL databases were queried from 1952 to 2015 for literature reporting the impact of preresidency factors (PRFs) on outcomes of residency success (RS), among neurosurgery and all surgical subspecialties. Due to heterogeneity of specialties and outcomes, a qualitative summary and heat map of significant findings were constructed. From 1489 studies, 21 articles met inclusion criteria, which evaluated 1276 resident applicants across five surgical subspecialties. No neurosurgical studies met the inclusion criteria. Common objective PRFs included standardized testing (76%), medical school performance (48%), and Alpha Omega Alpha (43%). Common subjective PRFs included aggregate rank scores (57%), letters of recommendation (38%), research (33%), interviews (19%), and athletic or musical talent (19%). Outcomes of RS included faculty evaluations, in-training/board exams, chief resident status, and research productivity. Among objective factors, standardized test scores correlated well with in-training/board examinations but poorly correlated with faculty evaluations. Among subjective factors, aggregate rank scores, letters of recommendation, and athletic or musical talent demonstrated moderate correlation with faculty evaluations. Standardized testing most strongly correlated with future examination performance but correlated poorly with faculty evaluations. Moderate predictors of faculty evaluations were aggregate rank scores, letters of recommendation, and athletic or musical talent. The ability to predict success of neurosurgical residents using an evidence-based approach is limited, and few factors have correlated with future resident performance. Given the importance of

  8. Climatic, Edaphic Factors and Cropping History Help Predict Click Beetle (Coleoptera: Elateridae) (Agriotes spp.) Abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozina, A; Lemic, D; Bazok, R; Mikac, K M; Mclean, C M; Ivezić, M; Igrc Barčić, J

    2015-01-01

    It is assumed that the abundance of Agriotes wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) is affected by agro-ecological factors such as climatic and edaphic factors and the crop/previous crop grown at the sites investigated. The aim of this study, conducted in three different geographic counties in Croatia from 2007 to 2009, was to determine the factors that influence the abundance of adult click beetle of the species Agriotes brevis Cand., Agriotes lineatus (L.), Agriotes obscurus (L.), Agriotes sputator (L.), and Agriotes ustulatus Schall. The mean annual air temperature, total rainfall, percentage of coarse and fine sand, coarse and fine silt and clay, the soil pH, and humus were investigated as potential factors that may influence abundance. Adult click beetle emergence was monitored using sex pheromone traps (YATLORf and VARb3). Exploratory data analysis was preformed via regression tree models and regional differences in Agriotes species' abundance were predicted based on the agro-ecological factors measured. It was found that the best overall predictor of A. brevis abundance was the previous crop grown. Conversely, the best predictor of A. lineatus abundance was the current crop being grown and the percentage of humus. The best predictor of A. obscurus abundance was soil pH in KCl. The best predictor of A. sputator abundance was rainfall. Finally, the best predictors of A. ustulatus abundance were soil pH in KCl and humus. These results may be useful in regional pest control programs or for predicting future outbreaks of these species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  9. Perforated Peptic Ulcer Repair: Factors Predicting Conversion in Laparoscopy and Postoperative Septic Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Markus K; Wrann, Simon; Widmer, Jeannette; Klasen, Jennifer; Weber, Markus; Hahnloser, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    The surgical treatment for perforated peptic ulcers can be safely performed laparoscopically. The aim of the study was to define simple predictive factors for conversion and septic complications. This retrospective case-control study analyzed patients treated with either laparoscopic surgery or laparotomy for perforated peptic ulcers. A total of 71 patients were analyzed. Laparoscopically operated patients had a shorter hospital stay (13.7 vs. 15.1 days). In an intention-to-treat analysis, patients with conversion to open surgery (analyzed as subgroup from laparoscopic approach group) showed no prolonged hospital stay (15.3 days) compared to patients with a primary open approach. Complication and mortality rates were not different between the groups. The statistical analysis identified four intraoperative risk factors for conversion: Mannheim peritonitis index (MPI) > 21 (p = 0.02), generalized peritonitis (p = 0.04), adhesions, and perforations located in a region other than the duodenal anterior wall. We found seven predictive factors for septic complications: age >70 (p = 0.02), cardiopulmonary disease (p = 0.04), ASA > 3 (p = 0.002), CRP > 100 (p = 0.005), duration of symptoms >24 h (p = 0.02), MPI > 21(p = 0.008), and generalized peritonitis (p = 0.02). Our data suggest that a primary laparoscopic approach has no disadvantages. Factors necessitating conversions emerged during the procedure inhibiting a preoperative selection. Factors suggesting imminent septic complications can be assessed preoperatively. An assessment of the proposed parameters may help optimize the management of possible septic complications.

  10. Preservation of renal function by intensive glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Toriu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 67-year-old Japanese woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus. At 47 years of age, her hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c was 10.0%, and she had overt nephropathy. The first renal biopsy yielded a diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy. Intensive glycemic control was initiated and her HbA1c improved to 6.0%. Renal dysfunction showed no progression for 15 years. At 62 years of age, a second renal biopsy was performed. Glomerular lesions did not show progression but tubulointerstitial fibrosis and vascular lesions showed progression compared with the first biopsy. Intensive glycemic control can prevent the progression of glomerular lesions, but might not be effective for interstitial and vascular lesions.

  11. THE EFFECTS OF POOR GLYCEMIC CONTROL AND OF NON-SURGICAL PERIODONTAL THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia OANȚĂ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the diabetic status and severity of the periodontal involvement, and also of the non-surgical periodontal therapy on the periodontal status of patients with diabetes mellitus. Materials and method: The study was conducted on 21 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (study group and 10 systemically healthy subjects (control group. We examined: the degree of glycemic control (by measuring the glycated hemoglobin, the periodontal and oral hygiene parameters at the baseline and 4 weeks, 6 months and 12 months after the periodontal treatment (scaling and root planning. Results and discussion: Subjects with a poor glycemic control presented a higher percentage of sites with attachment loss, significantly higher amounts of bacterial plaque, sub-gingival calculus and gingival bleeding - when compared with the control group or with subjects with good or moderated glycemic control. In the same group, a rapid recurrence of the deep periodontal pockets was observed after 12 months. Conclusions: A prolonged poor control of glycemia and the time elapsed from the debut of diabetes were closely related with its complications. The comparison between the diabetes and the control groups demonstrated that diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for the periodontal disease.

  12. A study on improvement of scaling factor prediction using artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Chul; Hwang, Ki Ha; Kang, Sang Hee; Lee, Kun Jai

    2003-01-01

    Final disposal of radioactive waste generated from Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) requires the detailed knowledge of the natures and quantities of radionuclides in waste package. Many of these radionuclides are difficult to measure and expensive to assay. Thus it is suggested to the indirect method by which the concentrations of DTM (Difficult-to Measure) nuclide is decided using the relation of concentrations (Scaling Factor) between Key (Easy-to-Measure) nuclide and DTM nuclide with measured concentrations of Key nuclide. In general, scaling factor is determined by using of log mean average (LMA) and regression. These methods are adequate to apply most corrosion product nuclides. But in case of fission product nuclides and some corrosion product nuclides, the predicted values aren't well matched with the original values. In this study, the models using artificial neural network (ANN) for C-14 and Sr-90 are compared with those using LMA and regression. The assessment of models is executed in the two parts divided by a training part and a validation part. For all of two nuclides in the training part, the predicted values using ANN are well matched with the measured values compared with those using LMA and regression. In the validation part, the accuracy of the predicted values using ANN is better than that using LMA and is similar to or better than that using regression. It is concluded that the predicted values using ANN model are better than those using conventional model in some nuclides and ANN model can be used as the complement of LMA and regression model

  13. UTAUT2 Based Predictions of Factors Influencing the Technology Acceptance of Phablets by DNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yo Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The smart mobile devices have emerged during the past decade and have become one of the most dominant consumer electronic products. Therefore, exploring and understanding the factors which can influence the acceptance of novel mobile technology have become the essential task for the vendors and distributors of mobile devices. The Phablets, integrated smart devices combining the functionality and characteristics of both tablet PCs and smart phones, have gradually become possible alternatives for smart phones. Therefore, predicting factors which can influence the acceptance of Phablets have become indispensable for designing, manufacturing, and marketing of such mobile devices. However, such predictions are not easy. Meanwhile, very few researches tried to study related issues. Consequently, the authors aim to explore and predict the intentions to use and use behaviors of Phablets. The second generation of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2 is introduced as a theoretic basis. The Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL based Network Process (DNP will be used to construct the analytic framework. In light of the analytic results, the causal relationships being derived by the DEMATEL demonstrate the direct influence of the habit on other dimensions. Also, based on the influence weights being derived, the use intention, hedonic motivation, and performance expectancy are the most important dimensions. The analytic results can serve as a basis for concept developments, marketing strategy definitions, and new product designs of the future Phablets. The proposed analytic framework can also be used for predicting and analyzing consumers’ preferences toward future mobile devices.

  14. Prediction of Febrile Neutropenia after Chemotherapy Based on Pretreatment Risk Factors among Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roen, Ashley; Daugaard, Gedske; Brown, Peter; Sengeløv, Henrik; Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens; Helleberg, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a common complication to chemotherapy associated with a high burden of morbidity and mortality. Reliable prediction of individual risk based on pretreatment risk factors allows for stratification of preventive interventions. We aimed to develop such a risk stratification model to predict FN in the 30 days after initiation of chemotherapy. Methods We included consecutive treatment-naïve patients with solid cancers and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas at Copenhagen University Hospital, 2010–2015. Data were obtained from the PERSIMUNE repository of electronic health records. FN was defined as neutrophils ≤0.5 × 10E9/L ​at the time of either a blood culture sample or death. Time from initiation of chemotherapy to FN was analyzed using Fine-Gray models with death as a competing event. Risk factors investigated were: age, sex, body surface area, haemoglobin, albumin, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and chemotherapy drugs. Parameter estimates were scaled and summed to create the risk score. The scores were grouped into four: low, intermediate, high and very high risk. Results Among 8,585 patients, 467 experienced FN, incidence rate/30 person-days 0.05 (95% CI, 0.05–0.06). Age (1 point if > 65 years), albumin (1 point if 2) and chemotherapy (range -5 to 6 points/drug) predicted FN. Median score at inclusion was 2 points (range –5 to 9). The cumulative incidence and the incidence rates and hazard ratios of FN are shown in Figure 1 and Table 1, respectively. Conclusion We developed a risk score to predict FN the first month after initiation of chemotherapy. The score is easy to use and provides good differentiation of risk groups; the score needs independent validation before routine use. Disclosures All authors: No reported disclosures.

  15. Identifying the bleeding trauma patient: predictive factors for massive transfusion in an Australasian trauma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jeremy Ming; Hitos, Kerry; Fletcher, John P

    2013-09-01

    Military and civilian data would suggest that hemostatic resuscitation results in improved outcomes for exsanguinating patients. However, identification of those patients who are at risk of significant hemorrhage is not clearly defined. We attempted to identify factors that would predict the need for massive transfusion (MT) in an Australasian trauma population, by comparing those trauma patients who did receive massive transfusion with those who did not. Between 1985 and 2010, 1,686 trauma patients receiving at least 1 U of packed red blood cells were identified from our prospectively maintained trauma registry. Demographic, physiologic, laboratory, injury, and outcome variables were reviewed. Univariate analysis determined significant factors between those who received MT and those who did not. A predictive multivariate logistic regression model with backward conditional stepwise elimination was used for MT risk. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS PASW. MT patients had a higher pulse rate, lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, lower systolic blood pressure, lower hemoglobin level, higher Injury Severity Score (ISS), higher international normalized ratio (INR), and longer stay. Initial logistic regression identified base deficit (BD), INR, and hemoperitoneum at laparotomy as independent predictive variables. After assigning cutoff points of BD being greater than 5 and an INR of 1.5 or greater, a further model was created. A BD greater than 5 and either INR of 1.5 or greater or hemoperitoneum was associated with 51 times increase in MT risk (odds ratio, 51.6; 95% confidence interval, 24.9-95.8). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the model was 0.859. From this study, a combination of BD, INR, and hemoperitoneum has demonstrated good predictability for MT. This tool may assist in the determination of those patients who might benefit from hemostatic resuscitation. Prognostic study, level III.

  16. Optimal factors of diffusion tensor imaging predicting cortico spinal tract injury in patients with brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Zhi Gang; Niu, Chen; Zhang, Qiu Li; Zhang, Ming [Dept. of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Qian, Yu Cheng [Dept. of Medical Imaging, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China)

    2017-09-15

    To identify the optimal factors in diffusion tensor imaging for predicting corticospinal tract (CST) injury caused by brain tumors. This prospective study included 33 patients with motor weakness and 64 patients with normal motor function. The movement of the CST, minimum distance between the CST and the tumor, and relative fractional anisotropy (rFA) of the CST on diffusion tensor imaging, were compared between patients with motor weakness and normal function. Logistic regression analysis was used to obtain the optimal factor predicting motor weakness. In patients with motor weakness, the displacement (8.44 ± 6.64 mm) of the CST (p = 0.009), minimum distance (3.98 ± 7.49 mm) between the CST and tumor (p < 0.001), and rFA (0.83 ± 0.11) of the CST (p < 0.001) were significantly different from those of the normal group (4.64 ± 6.65 mm, 14.87 ± 12.04 mm, and 0.98 ± 0.05, respectively) (p = 0.009, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001). The frequencies of patients with the CST passing through the tumor (6%, p = 0.002), CST close to the tumor (23%, p < 0.001), CST close to a malignant tumor (high grade glioma, metastasis, or lymphoma) (19%, p < 0.001), and CST passing through infiltrating edema (19%, p < 0.001) in the motor weakness group, were significantly different from those of the patients with normal motor function (0, 8, 1, and 10%, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that decreased rFA and CST close to a malignant tumor were effective variables related to motor weakness. Decreased fractional anisotropy, combined with closeness of a malignant tumor to the CST, is the optimal factor in predicting CST injury caused by a brain tumor.

  17. Predictive factors for birth weight of newborns of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sara de Oliveira Corrêa da; Saunders, Cláudia; Zajdenverg, Lenita; Moreira, Luciana Novaes; Heidelmann, Sonaly Petronilho; Pereira, Ariane Cristine Dos Santos; Padilha, Patricia de Carvalho

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the predictive factors of birth weight (BW) of newborns of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cross-sectional study was performed among pregnant women with GDM treated in a public maternity unit, Brazil. We selected 283 pregnant women, with nutritional follow-up initiated till the 28th gestational week, singleton pregnancy, without chronic diseases and with birth weight information of the newborns. The predictive factors of BW were identified by multivariate linear regression. Mean maternal age was 31.2 ± 5.8 years; 64.4% were non-white; 70.1% were pre-gestational overweight or obese. Mean BW was 3234.3 ± 478.8 g. An increase of 1 kg of weight in the first and third trimesters increased BW by 21 g (p = 0.01) and 27 g (p = 0.03), respectively. Similarly, the other predictive factors of BW were pre-gestational body mass index (β = 17.16, p = 0.02) and postprandial plasma glucose in the third trimester (β = 4.14, p = 0.008), in the model adjusted by gestational age at delivery (β = 194.68, p gestational age at birth, and maternal pre-gestational and gestational anthropometric characteristics. Maternal glycaemic levels may also influence BW. The results may contribute to a review of prenatal routines for pregnant women with GDM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Impact of EuroSCORE II Risk Factors on Prediction of Long-Term Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barili, Fabio; Pacini, Davide; D'Ovidio, Mariangela; Dang, Nicholas C; Alamanni, Francesco; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Grossi, Claudio; Davoli, Marina; Fusco, Danilo; Parolari, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    The European System for Cardiac Operation Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II has not been tested yet for predicting long-term mortality. This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between EuroSCORE II and long-term mortality and to develop a new algorithm based on EuroSCORE II factors to predict long-term survival after cardiac surgery. Complete data on 10,033 patients who underwent major cardiac surgery during a 7-year period were retrieved from three prospective institutional databases and linked with the Italian Tax Register Information System. Mortality at follow-up was analyzed with time-to-event analysis. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival at 1 and 5 were, respectively, 95.0% ± 0.2% and 84.7% ± 0.4%. Both discrimination and calibration of EuroSCORE II decreased in the prediction of 1-year and 5-year mortality. Nonetheless, EuroSCORE II was confirmed to be an independent predictor of long-term mortality with a nonlinear trend. Several EuroSCORE II variables were independent risk factors for long-term mortality in a regression model, most of all very low ejection fraction (less than 20%), salvage operation, and dialysis. In the final model, isolated mitral valve surgery and isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery were associated with improved long-term survival. The EuroSCORE II cannot be considered a direct estimator of long-term risk of death, as its performance fades for mortality at follow-up longer than 30 days. Nonetheless, it is nonlinearly associated with long-term mortality, and most of its variables are risk factors for long-term mortality. Hence, they can be used in a different algorithm to stratify the risk of long-term mortality after surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Improved USLE-K factor prediction: A case study on water erosion areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility (K-factor is an essential factor in soil erosion prediction and conservation practises. The major obstacles to any accurate, large-scale soil erodibility estimation are the lack of necessary data on soil characteristics and the misuse of variable K-factor calculators. In this study, we assessed the performance of available erodibility estimators Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE, Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC and the Geometric Mean Diameter based (Dg model for different geographic regions based on the Chinese soil erodibility database (CSED. Results showed that previous estimators overestimated almost all K-values. Furthermore, only the USLE and Dg approaches could be directly and reliably applicable to black and loess soil regions. Based on the nonlinear best fitting techniques, we improved soil erodibility prediction by combining Dg and soil organic matter (SOM. The NSE, R2 and RE values were 0.94, 0.67 and 9.5% after calibrating the results independently; similar model performance was showed for the validation process. The results obtained via the proposed approach were more accurate that the former K-value predictions. Moreover, those improvements allowed us to effectively establish a regional soil erodibility map (1:250,000 scale of water erosion areas in China. The mean K-value of Chinese water erosion regions was 0.0321 (t ha h·(ha MJ mm−1 with a standard deviation of 0.0107 (t ha h·(ha MJ mm−1; K-values present a decreasing trend from North to South in water erosion areas in China. The yield soil erodibility dataset also satisfactorily corresponded to former K-values from different scales (local, regional, and national.

  20. Thyroiditis de Quervain. Are there predictive factors for long-term hormone-replacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenke, S; Klett, R; Braun, S; Zimny, M

    2013-01-01

    Subacute thyroiditis is a usually self-limiting disease of the thyroid. However, approximately 0.5-15% of the patients require permanent thyroxine substitution. Aim was to determine predictive factors for the necessity of long-term hormone-replacement (LTH). We retrospectively reviewed the records of 72 patients with subacute thyroiditis. Morphological and serological parameters as well as type of therapy were tested as predictive factors of consecutive hypothyroidism. Mean age was 49 ± 11 years, f/m-ratio was 4.5 : 1. Thyroid pain and signs of hyperthyroidism were leading symptoms. Initial subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism was found in 20% and 37%, respectively. Within six months after onset 15% and 1.3% of the patients developed subclinical or overt hypothyroidism, respectively. At latest follow-up 26% were classified as liable to LTH. At onset the thyroid was enlarged in 64%, and at latest follow-up in 8.3%, with a significant reduction of the thyroid volume after three months. At the endpoint the thyroid volume was less in patients in the LTH group compared with the non-LTH group (41.7% vs. 57.2% of sex-adjusted upper norm, p = 0.041). Characteristic ultrasonographic features occurred in 74% of the patients in both lobes. Serological and morphological parameters as well as type of therapy were not related with the need of LTH. In this study the proportion of patients who received LTH was 26%. At the endpoint these patients had a lower thyroid volume compared with euthyroid patients. No predictive factors for LTH were found.

  1. Evaluation of a New Digital Automated Glycemic Pattern Detection Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comellas, María José; Albiñana, Emma; Artes, Maite; Corcoy, Rosa; Fernández-García, Diego; García-Alemán, Jorge; García-Cuartero, Beatriz; González, Cintia; Rivero, María Teresa; Casamira, Núria; Weissmann, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    Blood glucose meters are reliable devices for data collection, providing electronic logs of historical data easier to interpret than handwritten logbooks. Automated tools to analyze these data are necessary to facilitate glucose pattern detection and support treatment adjustment. These tools emerge in a broad variety in a more or less nonevaluated manner. The aim of this study was to compare eDetecta, a new automated pattern detection tool, to nonautomated pattern analysis in terms of time investment, data interpretation, and clinical utility, with the overarching goal to identify early in development and implementation of tool areas of improvement and potential safety risks. Multicenter web-based evaluation in which 37 endocrinologists were asked to assess glycemic patterns of 4 real reports (2 continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII] and 2 multiple daily injection [MDI]). Endocrinologist and eDetecta analyses were compared on time spent to analyze each report and agreement on the presence or absence of defined patterns. eDetecta module markedly reduced the time taken to analyze each case on the basis of the emminens eConecta reports (CSII: 18 min; MDI: 12.5), compared to the automatic eDetecta analysis. Agreement between endocrinologists and eDetecta varied depending on the patterns, with high level of agreement in patterns of glycemic variability. Further analysis of low level of agreement led to identifying areas where algorithms used could be improved to optimize trend pattern identification. eDetecta was a useful tool for glycemic pattern detection, helping clinicians to reduce time required to review emminens eConecta glycemic reports. No safety risks were identified during the study.

  2. Measuring the glycemic index of foods: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Thomas M S; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Abernethy, John; Astrup, Arne; Atkinson, Fiona; Axelsen, Mette; Björck, Inger; Brighenti, Furio; Brown, Rachel; Brynes, Audrey; Casiraghi, M Cristina; Cazaubiel, Murielle; Dahlqvist, Linda; Delport, Elizabeth; Denyer, Gareth S; Erba, Daniela; Frost, Gary; Granfeldt, Yvonne; Hampton, Shelagh; Hart, Valerie A; Hätönen, Katja A; Henry, C Jeya; Hertzler, Steve; Hull, Sarah; Jerling, Johann; Johnston, Kelly L; Lightowler, Helen; Mann, Neil; Morgan, Linda; Panlasigui, Leonora N; Pelkman, Christine; Perry, Tracy; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Pieters, Marlien; Ramdath, D Dan; Ramsingh, Rayna T; Robert, S Daniel; Robinson, Carol; Sarkkinen, Essi; Scazzina, Francesca; Sison, Dave Clark D; Sloth, Birgitte; Staniforth, Jane; Tapola, Niina; Valsta, Liisa M; Verkooijen, Inge; Weickert, Martin O; Weseler, Antje R; Wilkie, Paul; Zhang, Jian

    2008-01-01

    Many laboratories offer glycemic index (GI) services. We assessed the performance of the method used to measure GI. The GI of cheese-puffs and fruit-leather (centrally provided) was measured in 28 laboratories (n=311 subjects) by using the FAO/WHO method. The laboratories reported the results of their calculations and sent the raw data for recalculation centrally. Values for the incremental area under the curve (AUC) reported by 54% of the laboratories differed from central calculations. Because of this and other differences in data analysis, 19% of reported food GI values differed by >5 units from those calculated centrally. GI values in individual subjects were unrelated to age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index, or AUC but were negatively related to within-individual variation (P=0.033) expressed as the CV of the AUC for repeated reference food tests (refCV). The between-laboratory GI values (mean+/-SD) for cheese-puffs and fruit-leather were 74.3+/-10.5 and 33.2+/-7.2, respectively. The mean laboratory GI was related to refCV (P=0.003) and the type of restrictions on alcohol consumption before the test (P=0.006, r2=0.509 for model). The within-laboratory SD of GI was related to refCV (P<0.001), the glucose analysis method (P=0.010), whether glucose measures were duplicated (P=0.008), and restrictions on dinner the night before (P=0.013, r2=0.810 for model). The between-laboratory SD of the GI values is approximately 9. Standardized data analysis and low within-subject variation (refCV<30%) are required for accuracy. The results suggest that common misconceptions exist about which factors do and do not need to be controlled to improve precision. Controlled studies and cost-benefit analyses are needed to optimize GI methodology. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00260858.

  3. Predictive factors for pregnancy hypertension in primiparous adolescents: analysis of prenatal care, ABPM and microalbuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Regina Coeli Marques; Campos, Henry de Holanda; Bruno, Zenilda Vieira; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani

    2006-10-01

    To quantify PH prevalence in primiparous adolescents; define predictive factors for the occurrence of PH and its impact on newborns. We followed 29 primiparous adolescents from the prenatal period through the 12th week of the puerperium, with a mean of sixteen years of age, served at the Outpatient Facility for Adolescents of Maternidade Escola Assis Chateaubriand (MEAC) of Universidade Federal do Ceará (Fortaleza, Brazil). The pregnant adolescents were divided into two groups, that is, those who remained normotensive (Group I) and those who developed PH (Group II). The variables investigated in the assessment of the value of predictability for the development of PH were anthropometric measures, socioeconomic aspects, smoking habit, inheritance for SAH (father/mother), prenatal tests requested in the first prenatal care visit in addition to microalbuminuria and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in the 28th week of gestation. The pregnant adolescents were followed up at delivery and late puerperium (12th week after the puerperium). The newborns to the mothers included in our study were assessed at birth according to the Apgar score and the Capurro method, for weight, height and perinatal hypoxia. The prevalence of PH was 51.7%. Inheritance for SAH presented the highest predictive value for PH with an odds ratio of 10.99. Diastolic arterial pressure equal to or above 70 mmHg at the gestational age of 35 weeks was statistically significant as a predictive value for PH. At ABPM we found a predictive value for PH: diastolic pressure load during alertness, diastolic and systolic pressure load during night sleep, pressure variability and maximum diastolic pressure during sleep. Specifically a maximum diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) at ABPM during the period of night sleep (3)64 mmHg presented an odds ratio of 6 for PH with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 60% for the development of PH. The research for PH predictive factors in primiparous adolescents

  4. Genome wide predictions of miRNA regulation by transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffalo, Matthew; Bar-Joseph, Ziv

    2016-09-01

    Reconstructing regulatory networks from expression and interaction data is a major goal of systems biology. While much work has focused on trying to experimentally and computationally determine the set of transcription-factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate genes in these networks, relatively little work has focused on inferring the regulation of miRNAs by TFs. Such regulation can play an important role in several biological processes including development and disease. The main challenge for predicting such interactions is the very small positive training set currently available. Another challenge is the fact that a large fraction of miRNAs are encoded within genes making it hard to determine the specific way in which they are regulated. To enable genome wide predictions of TF-miRNA interactions, we extended semi-supervised machine-learning approaches to integrate a large set of different types of data including sequence, expression, ChIP-seq and epigenetic data. As we show, the methods we develop achieve good performance on both a labeled test set, and when analyzing general co-expression networks. We next analyze mRNA and miRNA cancer expression data, demonstrating the advantage of using the predicted set of interactions for identifying more coherent and relevant modules, genes, and miRNAs. The complete set of predictions is available on the supporting website and can be used by any method that combines miRNAs, genes, and TFs. Code and full set of predictions are available from the supporting website: http://cs.cmu.edu/~mruffalo/tf-mirna/ zivbj@cs.cmu.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Predictive Factors of Clinical Response of Infliximab Therapy in Active Nonradiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the efficiency and the predictive factors of clinical response of infliximab in active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis patients. Methods. Active nonradiographic patients fulfilling ESSG criteria for SpA but not fulfilling modified New York criteria were included. All patients received infliximab treatment for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was ASAS20 response at weeks 12 and 24. The abilities of baseline parameters and response at week 2 to predict ASAS20 response at weeks 12 and 24 were assessed using ROC curve and logistic regression analysis, respectively. Results. Of 70 axial SpA patients included, the proportions of patients achieving an ASAS20 response at weeks 2, 6, 12, and 24 were 85.7%, 88.6%, 87.1%, and 84.3%, respectively. Baseline MRI sacroiliitis score (AUC = 0.791; P=0.005, CRP (AUC = 0.75; P=0.017, and ASDAS (AUC = 0.778, P=0.007 significantly predicted ASAS20 response at week 12. However, only ASDAS (AUC = 0.696, P=0.040 significantly predicted ASAS20 response at week 24. Achievement of ASAS20 response after the first infliximab infusion was a significant predictor of subsequent ASAS20 response at weeks 12 and 24 (wald χ2=6.87, P=0.009, and wald χ2=5.171, P=0.023. Conclusions. Infliximab shows efficiency in active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis patients. ASDAS score and first-dose response could help predicting clinical efficacy of infliximab therapy in these patients.

  6. Frequency of reporting and predictive factors for anxiety and depression in patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, N; Zeng, L; Zhang, L; Leung, M; Khan, L; Presutti, R; Nguyen, J; Holden, L; Culleton, S; Chow, E

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with advanced cancer has been reported to be on average 25% and to significantly affect patients' quality of life. Despite high prevalence rates, these disorders remain underdiagnosed and undertreated. The purpose of our study was to examine the self-report rates of anxiety and depression with the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) and to assess the predictive factors for these reports in cancer patients with metastatic disease. Consecutive patients who attended the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program (RRRP) completed the ESAS as well as baseline demographic information. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors that significantly predicted anxiety and/or depression. Pearson χ(2) was used to test goodness-of-fit for categorical variables and established whether or not an observed frequency distribution differed from a predicted frequency distribution. A univariate analysis was conducted first and those variables with a P valueanalysis. A score test was used to test the proportional odds assumption. In total, 1439 patients seen in the RRRP between January 1999 and October 2009 completed ESAS questionnaires. Fifty-five per cent of patients reported at least mild symptoms of depression and 65% reported at least mild anxiety. In the univariate analysis, patients who were female, who had a lower performance status score, or primary lung cancer were more likely to report depressed and anxious feelings. Primary prostate cancer patients were significantly less likely to report depression and anxiety. Patients referred for spinal cord compression were significantly less depressed. The multivariate models showed that younger patients were significantly more anxious than older patients and females reported more anxiety than males. Patients who reported higher feelings of nausea, tiredness, drowsiness, dyspnoea, and worse appetite and overall well-being on the ESAS tool were more likely to

  7. Autonomy and social norms in a three factor grief model predicting perinatal grief in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R; Lee, Jerry W

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal grief following stillbirth is a significant social and mental health burden. We examined associations among the following latent variables: autonomy, social norms, self-despair, strained coping, and acute grief-among poor, rural women in India who experienced stillbirth. A structural equation model was built and tested using quantitative data from 347 women of reproductive age in Chhattisgarh. Maternal acceptance of traditional social norms worsens self-despair and strained coping, and increases the autonomy granted to women. Greater autonomy increases acute grief. Greater despair and acute grief increase strained coping. Social and cultural factors were found to predict perinatal grief in India.

  8. Predictive Factors of Potential Malignant Transformation in Recurrent Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor: Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Mokhtari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT demonstrates considerable diversity in histopathology and clinical behavior. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC is the rare malignant counterpart of CCOT and it frequently arises from malignant transformation of a recurrent CCOT. In this paper, we present a case of CCOT and discuss its distinct histopathologic features in recurrence. Then, we will have a review on clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical aspects of GCOC in the literature. Predictive factors of malignant transformation in a benign CCOT will also be discussed.

  9. Salivary function and glycemic control in older persons with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E M; Taylor, G W; Borrell, L N; Ship, J A

    2000-03-01

    There is no consensus on the possible association between diabetes and salivary dysfunction in older persons with diabetes. This study's purpose was to investigate the effect of diabetes and glycemic control on salivary function in an older population. Twenty nine persons with type 2 diabetes and 23 nondiabetic control subjects participated (age range, 54-90 years). Diabetic status was determined by a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) test and a 2-hour glucose tolerance test. Poor glycemic control was defined as HbA(1c) >9%. Unstimulated whole saliva, unstimulated parotid, and stimulated parotid flow rates were measured, and subjects completed a standardized xerostomia questionnaire. Persons with poorly controlled diabetes had lower (P =.01) stimulated parotid flow rates than persons with well-controlled diabetes and nondiabetic control subjects. There were no significant differences in xerostomic complaints based on diabetic or glycemic control status or salivary flow rates. These results provide some evidence that poorly controlled diabetes may be associated with salivary dysfunction in older adults who have no concomitant complaints of xerostomia.

  10. Variability in Glycemic Control with Temperature Transitions during Therapeutic Hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal K. Haase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH and continuous insulin may be at increased risk of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, particularly during temperature transitions. This study aimed to evaluate frequency of glucose excursions during each phase of TH and to characterize glycemic control patterns in relation to survival. Methods. Patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital for circulatory arrest and treated with both therapeutic hypothermia and protocol-based continuous insulin between January 2010 and June 2013 were included. Glucose measures, insulin, and temperatures were collected through 24 hours after rewarming. Results. 24 of 26 patients experienced glycemic excursions. Hyperglycemic excursions were more frequent during initiation versus remaining phases (36.3%, 4.3%, 2.5%, and 4.0%, p=0.002. Hypoglycemia occurred most often during rewarming (0%, 7.7%, 23.1%, and 3.8%, p=0.02. Patients who experienced hypoglycemia had higher insulin doses prior to rewarming (16.2 versus 2.1 units/hr, p=0.03. Glucose variation was highest during hypothermia and trended higher in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (13.38 versus 9.16, p=0.09. Frequency of excursions was also higher in nonsurvivors (32.3% versus 19.8%, p=0.045. Conclusions. Glycemic excursions are common and occur more often in nonsurvivors. Excursions differ by phase but risk of hypoglycemia is increased during rewarming.

  11. Chemical compositions and glycemic responses to banana varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2011-06-01

    Chemical compositions and glycemic indices of four varieties of banana (Musa spp.) (kolikuttu-Silk AAB, embul-Mysore AAB, anamalu-Gros Michel AAA, seeni kesel-Pisang Awak ABB) were determined. Silk, Gros Michel, Pisang Awak and Mysore contained the highest percentages of starch (14%), sucrose (38%), free glucose (29%) and fructose (58%) as a percentage of the total available carbohydrate content respectively. Total dietary fiber contents of four varieties ranged from 2.7 to 5.3%. Glycemic indices of Silk, Mysore, Gros Michel and Pisang Awak were 61 ± 5, 61 ± 6, 67 ± 7, 69 ± 9 and can be categorized as low against white bread as the standard. A single banana of the four varieties elicited a low glycemic load. Thus, consumption of a banana from any of these varieties can be recommended as a snack for healthy or diabetic patients who are under dietary management or pharmacological drugs to regulate blood glucose responses in between meals.

  12. Predictions of baryon form factors for the electromagnetic and weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiehlmann, H.D.

    1978-05-01

    The electromagnetic and weak form factors of the baryon matrix elements (with B the nucleon or the Λ(1232)-resonance) are determined via sumrules by the experimentally known form factors of the nucleon matrix element for momentum transfers 0 2 2 . The operator Jμ denotes either the electromagnetic current or the weak hypercharge-conserving current of the I. class. The sumrules are derived from the superconvergence of properly chosen reaction amplitudes. The results allow an absolute determination of the cross sections of a series of peripheral reactions. An important and interesting consequence for the considered matrix elements of the weak current is that the properties of CVC of PCAC follow from the sumrules without additional assumptions. Finally the predictions of relativistic SU(6)-models are checked. One gets surprisingly a good confirmation of the essential results of these models, the reliability of which has almost been unknown on account of a series of speculative assumptions. (orig.) [de

  13. Hemodynamic and glucometabolic factors in the prediction of left ventricular filling pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, M; Nielsen, M L; Olesen, T B

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore possible hemodynamic and glucometabolic determinants of left ventricular filling pressures as assessed by the non-invasive surrogate marker, averaged E/é, in otherwise healthy, middle-aged male survivors from a random population sample. DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective.......01). We did not find any significant interactions in the prediction of E/é. CONCLUSION: In a prospective population-based cohort study including apparently healthy, middle-aged male subjects, higher age, BMI, and creatinine, but not SBP or HR, were significantly associated with higher left ventricular...... population-based cohort study examining associations between hemodynamic factors [systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR)), glucometabolic factors (fasting blood glucose, fasting plasma insulin, Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) derived indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-2B) and insulin sensitivity...

  14. Gender identity outcomes in children with disorders/differences of sex development: Predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakula, Dana M; Mullins, Alexandria J; Sharkey, Christina M; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Mullins, Larry L; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2017-06-01

    Disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) comprise multiple congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, and/or anatomical sex are discordant. The prediction of future gender identity (i.e., self-identifying as male, female, or other) in children with DSD can be imprecise, and current knowledge about the development of gender identity in people with, and without DSD, is limited. However, sex of rearing is the strongest predictor of gender identity for the majority of individuals with various DSD conditions. When making decisions regarding sex of rearing biological factors (e.g., possession of a Y chromosome, degree and duration of pre- and postnatal androgen exposure, phenotypic presentation of the external genitalia, and fertility potential), social and cultural factors, as well as quality of life should be considered. Information on gender identity outcomes across a range of DSD diagnoses is presented to aid in sex of rearing assignment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictive and prognostic factors associated with soft tissue sarcoma response to chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Robin J; Litière, Saskia; Lia, Michela

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 62012 study was a Phase III trial of doxorubicin versus doxorubicin-ifosfamide chemotherapy in 455 patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Analysis of the main study showed that combination chemotherapy...... improved tumor response and progression-free survival, but differences in overall survival (OS) were not statistically significant. We analyzed factors prognostic for tumor response and OS, and assessed histological subgroup and tumor grade as predictive factors to identify patients more likely to benefit...... patients had improved tumor response compared to other histological subgroups, whilst patients with metastases other than lung, liver or bone had a poorer response [odds ratio (OR) 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23-0.78; p = 0.006]. Patients with bone metastases had reduced OS [hazard ratio (HR) 1...

  16. Predicting and understanding comprehensive drug-drug interactions via semi-nonnegative matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Mao, Kui-Tao; Shi, Jian-Yu; Huang, Hua; Chen, Zhi; Dong, Kai; Yiu, Siu-Ming

    2018-04-11

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) always cause unexpected and even adverse drug reactions. It is important to identify DDIs before drugs are used in the market. However, preclinical identification of DDIs requires much money and time. Computational approaches have exhibited their abilities to predict potential DDIs on a large scale by utilizing pre-market drug properties (e.g. chemical structure). Nevertheless, none of them can predict two comprehensive types of DDIs, including enhancive and degressive DDIs, which increases and decreases the behaviors of the interacting drugs respectively. There is a lack of systematic analysis on the structural relationship among known DDIs. Revealing such a relationship is very important, because it is able to help understand how DDIs occur. Both the prediction of comprehensive DDIs and the discovery of structural relationship among them play an important guidance when making a co-prescription. In this work, treating a set of comprehensive DDIs as a signed network, we design a novel model (DDINMF) for the prediction of enhancive and degressive DDIs based on semi-nonnegative matrix factorization. Inspiringly, DDINMF achieves the conventional DDI prediction (AUROC = 0.872 and AUPR = 0.605) and the comprehensive DDI prediction (AUROC = 0.796 and AUPR = 0.579). Compared with two state-of-the-art approaches, DDINMF shows it superiority. Finally, representing DDIs as a binary network and a signed network respectively, an analysis based on NMF reveals crucial knowledge hidden among DDIs. Our approach is able to predict not only conventional binary DDIs but also comprehensive DDIs. More importantly, it reveals several key points about the DDI network: (1) both binary and signed networks show fairly clear clusters, in which both drug degree and the difference between positive degree and negative degree show significant distribution; (2) the drugs having large degrees tend to have a larger difference between positive degree

  17. Incidence, predictive factors, and clinical outcomes of acute kidney injury after gastric surgery for gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Seong Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI, a serious surgical complication, is common after cardiac surgery; however, reports on AKI after noncardiac surgery are limited. We sought to determine the incidence and predictive factors of AKI after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and its effects on the clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 4718 patients with normal renal function who underwent partial or total gastrectomy for gastric cancer between June 2002 and December 2011. Postoperative AKI was defined by serum creatinine change, as per the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guideline. RESULTS: Of the 4718 patients, 679 (14.4% developed AKI. Length of hospital stay, intensive care unit admission rates, and in-hospital mortality rate (3.5% versus 0.2% were significantly higher in patients with AKI than in those without. AKI was also associated with requirement of renal replacement therapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that male gender; hypertension; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; hypoalbuminemia (<4 g/dl; use of diuretics, vasopressors, and contrast agents; and packed red blood cell transfusion were independent predictors for AKI after gastric surgery. Postoperative AKI and vasopressor use entailed a high risk of 3-month mortality after multiple adjustments. CONCLUSIONS: AKI was common after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and associated with adverse outcomes. We identified several factors associated with postoperative AKI; recognition of these predictive factors may help reduce the incidence of AKI after gastric surgery. Furthermore, postoperative AKI in patients with gastric cancer is an important risk factor for short-term mortality.

  18. Consumer factors predicting level of treatment response to illness management and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Dominique A; McGuire, Alan B; Luther, Lauren; Anderson, Adrienne I; Phalen, Peter; McGrew, John H

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to identify consumer-level predictors of level of treatment response to illness management and recovery (IMR) to target the appropriate consumers and aid psychiatric rehabilitation settings in developing intervention adaptations. Secondary analyses from a multisite study of IMR were conducted. Self-report data from consumer participants of the parent study (n = 236) were analyzed for the current study. Consumers completed prepost surveys assessing illness management, coping, goal-related hope, social support, medication adherence, and working alliance. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were run to identify self-report variables that predicted level of treatment response to IMR. Analyses revealed that goal-related hope significantly predicted level of improved illness self-management, F(1, 164) = 10.93, p consumer-level predictors of level of treatment response have not been explored for IMR. Although 2 significant predictors were identified, study findings suggest more work is needed. Future research is needed to identify additional consumer-level factors predictive of IMR treatment response in order to identify who would benefit most from this treatment program. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Using sequence-specific chemical and structural properties of DNA to predict transcription factor binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Bauer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An important step in understanding gene regulation is to identify the DNA binding sites recognized by each transcription factor (TF. Conventional approaches to prediction of TF binding sites involve the definition of consensus sequences or position-specific weight matrices and rely on statistical analysis of DNA sequences of known binding sites. Here, we present a method called SiteSleuth in which DNA structure prediction, computational chemistry, and machine learning are applied to develop models for TF binding sites. In this approach, binary classifiers are trained to discriminate between true and false binding sites based on the sequence-specific chemical and structural features of DNA. These features are determined via molecular dynamics calculations in which we consider each base in different local neighborhoods. For each of 54 TFs in Escherichia coli, for which at least five DNA binding sites are documented in RegulonDB, the TF binding sites and portions of the non-coding genome sequence are mapped to feature vectors and used in training. According to cross-validation analysis and a comparison of computational predictions against ChIP-chip data available for the TF Fis, SiteSleuth outperforms three conventional approaches: Match, MATRIX SEARCH, and the method of Berg and von Hippel. SiteSleuth also outperforms QPMEME, a method similar to SiteSleuth in that it involves a learning algorithm. The main advantage of SiteSleuth is a lower false positive rate.

  20. Cytological Sampling Versus Forceps Biopsy During Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Analysis of Factors Predicting Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, C. R.; Byass, O. R.; Cast, J. E. I., E-mail: james.cast@hey.nhs.uk [Hull Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of cytological sampling and forceps biopsy in obstructing biliary lesions and to identify factors predictive of success. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 119) with suspected malignant inoperable obstructive jaundice treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during 7 years were included (60 male; mean age 72.5 years). All patients underwent forceps biopsy plus cytological sampling by washing the forceps device in cytological solution. Patient history, procedural and pathological records, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Histological diagnosis after forceps biopsy was more successful than cytology: Sensitivity was 78 versus 61%, and negative predictive value was 30 versus 19%. Cytology results were never positive when the forceps biopsy was negative. The cytological sample was negative and forceps sample positive in 2 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, 16 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, and 1 case of benign disease. Diagnostic accuracy was predicted by low bilirubin (p < 0.001), aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), and white cell count (p {<=} 0.05). Conclusions: This technique is safe and effective and is recommended for histological diagnosis during PTBD in patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures. Diagnostic yield is greater when bilirubin levels are low and there is no sepsis; histological diagnosis by way of forceps biopsy renders cytological sampling unnecessary.

  1. An approach for prediction of petroleum production facility performance considering Arctic influence factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xueli; Barabady, Javad; Markeset, Tore

    2010-01-01

    As the oil and gas (O and G) industry is increasing the focus on petroleum exploration and development in the Arctic region, it is becoming increasingly important to design exploration and production facilities to suit the local operating conditions. The cold and harsh climate, the long distance from customer and suppliers' markets, and the sensitive environment may have considerable influence on the choice of design solutions and production performance characteristics such as throughput capacity, reliability, availability, maintainability, and supportability (RAMS) as well as operational and maintenance activities. Due to this, data and information collected for similar systems used in a normal climate may not be suitable. Hence, it is important to study and develop methods for prediction of the production performance characteristics during the design and operation phases. The aim of this paper is to present an approach for prediction of the production performance for oil and gas production facilities considering influencing factors in Arctic conditions. The proportional repair model (PRM) is developed in order to predict repair rate in Arctic conditions. The model is based on the proportional hazard model (PHM). A simple case study is used to demonstrate how the proposed approach can be applied.

  2. Predictive Factors in OCT Analysis for Visual Outcome in Exudative AMD

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    Maria-Andreea Gamulescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reliable predictive factors for therapy outcome may enable treating physicians to counsel their patients more efficiently concerning probability of improvement or time point of discontinuation of a certain therapy. Methods. This is a retrospective analysis of 87 patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration who received three monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections. Visual acuity before initiation of intravitreal therapy and 4–6 weeks after last intravitreal injection was compared and related to the preoperative visualisation of continuity of the outer retinal layers as assessed by OCT: external limiting membrane (ELM, inner photoreceptor segments (IPS, junction between inner and outer segments (IS/OS, and outer photoreceptor segments (OPS. Results. Visual acuity increased in 40 of 87 (46.0% patients, it remained stable in 25 (28.7%, and 22 (25.3% patients had decreased visual acuity four to six weeks after triple intravitreal ranibizumab injections. No statistically significant predictive value could be demonstrated for grade of continuity of outer retinal layers concerning visual acuity development. Conclusions. In our series of AMD patients, grade of continuity of outer retinal layers was not a significant predictive value for visual acuity development after triple ranibizumab injections.

  3. A longitudinal examination of factors predicting anxiety during the transition to middle school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Norton, Peter; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    The transition from elementary to middle or junior high school is commonly regarded as a period of stress and turmoil for young adolescents, and has been associated with changes in anxiety and other psychological problems. However, less is known about risk and resilience factors that may predict these changes. This study examined changes in anxiety, as well as predictors of these changes among 77, predominantly Caucasian (88%), male and female (52%) adolescents from Grades 6 to 8. Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine the predicted grade and gender differences. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the prediction of eighth grade anxiety symptoms by sixth grade self-worth, perceived social acceptance, and social support, as well as the potential moderating role of gender in these relations. Results suggested a significant decrease in anxiety, particularly social anxiety, over this period for boys but not girls. Examination of predictors of changes in anxiety suggested that, in general, global self-worth, social acceptance, and gender were each associated with overall and social anxiety. Findings are integrated with extant literature on developmental changes associated with anxiety and school transitions and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20711893

  4. Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial.

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    Ebbeling, Cara B; Leidig, Michael M; Feldman, Henry A; Lovesky, Margaret M; Ludwig, David S

    2007-05-16

    The results of clinical trials involving diet in the treatment of obesity have been inconsistent, possibly due to inherent physiological differences among study participants. To determine whether insulin secretion affects weight loss with 2 popular diets. Randomized trial of obese young adults (aged 18-35 years; n = 73) conducted from September 2004 to December 2006 in Boston, Mass, and consisting of a 6-month intensive intervention period and a 12-month follow-up period. Serum insulin concentration at 30 minutes after a 75-g dose of oral glucose was determined at baseline as a measure of insulin secretion. Outcomes were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months. Missing data were imputed conservatively. A low-glycemic load (40% carbohydrate and 35% fat) vs low-fat (55% carbohydrate and 20% fat) diet. Body weight, body fat percentage determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Change in body weight and body fat percentage did not differ between the diet groups overall. However, insulin concentration at 30 minutes after a dose of oral glucose was an effect modifier (group x time x insulin concentration at 30 minutes: P = .02 for body weight and P = .01 for body fat percentage). For those with insulin concentration at 30 minutes above the median (57.5 microIU/mL; n = 28), the low-glycemic load diet produced a greater decrease in weight (-5.8 vs -1.2 kg; P = .004) and body fat percentage (-2.6% vs -0.9%; P = .03) than the low-fat diet at 18 months. There were no significant differences in these end points between diet groups for those with insulin concentration at 30 minutes below the median level (n = 28). Insulin concentration at 30 minutes after a dose of oral glucose was not a significant effect modifier for cardiovascular disease risk factors. In the full cohort, plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations improved more on the low-glycemic load diet, whereas low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

  5. Bone mineral density before and after OLT: long-term follow-up and predictive factors.

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    Guichelaar, Maureen M J; Kendall, Rebecca; Malinchoc, Michael; Hay, J Eileen

    2006-09-01

    Fracturing after liver transplantation (OLT) occurs due to the combination of preexisting low bone mineral density (BMD) and early posttransplant bone loss, the risk factors for which are poorly defined. The prevalence and predictive factors for hepatic osteopenia and osteoporosis, posttransplant bone loss, and subsequent bone gain were studied by the long-term posttransplant follow-up of 360 consecutive adult patients with end-stage primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Only 20% of patients with advanced PBC or PSC have normal bone mass. Risk factors for low spinal BMD are low body mass index, older age, postmenopausal status, muscle wasting, high alkaline phosphatase and low serum albumin. A high rate of spinal bone loss occurred in the first 4 posttransplant months (annual rate of 16%) especially in those with younger age, PSC, higher pretransplant bone density, no inflammatory bowel disease, shorter duration of liver disease, current smoking, and ongoing cholestasis at 4 months. Factors favoring spinal bone gain from 4 to 24 months after transplantation were lower baseline and/or 4-month bone density, premenopausal status, lower cumulative glucocorticoids, no ongoing cholestasis, and higher levels of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone. Bone mass therefore improves most in patients with lowest pretransplant BMD who undergo successful transplantation with normal hepatic function and improved gonadal and nutritional status. Patients transplanted most recently have improved bone mass before OLT, and although bone loss still occurs early after OLT, these patients also have a greater recovery in BMD over the years following OLT.

  6. [Preoperative Prognostic Nutrition Index Is a Predictive Factor of Complications in Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuki; Sagawa, Masano; Yokomizo, Hajime; Okayama, Sachiyo; Yamada, Yasufumi; Usui, Takebumi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Shimakawa, Takeshi; Katsube, Takao; Kato, Hiroyuki; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2017-10-01

    Paitients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed a database of 188 patients who underwent resection for colorectal cancer with laparoscopic surgery between July 2007 and March 2015. The prognostic nutrition index(PNI), modified Glas- gow prognostic score(mGPS), controlling nutritional status(CONUT), and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio(N/L)were measured in these patients. We examined the association between postoperative complications and clinicopathological factors. The study included 110 men and 78 women. Median age was 68 years. The site of the primary lesion was colon in 118 and rectum in 70 patients. Postoperative complications higher than Grade II(Clavien-Dindo classification)were reported in 24(12.8%)patients: Surgical site infection(SSI)in 12, remote infection in 7, ileus in 5, and others in 2 patients. Clinicopathological factors related to complications were rectal surgery, large amount of intraoperative bleeding, and long operative time. The related immunologic and nutritional factors were mGPS 2, PNI below 40, and N/L above 3. CONUT was not associated with complications in ourcases. mGPS, PNI, and N/L are predictive factors for complications in laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

  7. Incidence, Mortality, and Predictive Factors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

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    Kenichi Hosonuma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study aims to analyze in detail the incidence, mortality using the standardized incidence ratio (SIR, and standardized mortality ratio (SMR of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, because no large case studies have focused on the detailed statistical analysis of them in Asia. Methods. The study cohorts were consecutively diagnosed at Gunma University and its affiliated hospitals. Age- or sex-specific annual cancer incidence and deaths were obtained from Japanese Cancer Registry and Death Registry as a reference for the comparison of SIR or SMR of HCC. Moreover, univariate analyses and multivariate analyses were performed to clarify predictive factors for the incidence of HCC. Results. The overall 179 patients were followed up for a median of 97 months. HCC had developed in 13 cases. SIR for HCC was 11.6 (95% confidence interval (CI, 6.2–19.8 and SMR for HCC was 11.2 (95% CI, 5.4–20.6 in overall patients. The serum albumin levels were a predictive factor for the incidence of HCC in overall patients. Conclusions. The incidence and mortality of HCC in PBC patients were significantly higher than those in Japanese general population. PBC patients with low serum albumin levels were populations at high risk for HCC.

  8. Spontaneous prematurity in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a retrospective cohort study about prenatal predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Bruna Maria Lopes; Rodrigues, Agatha S; Carvalho, Mario Henrique Burlacchini; Bittar, Roberto Eduardo; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Bernardes, Lisandra Stein

    2018-01-12

    To evaluate possible predictive factors of spontaneous prematurity in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). A retrospective cohort study was performed. Inclusion criteria were presence of CDH; absence of fetoscopy; absence of karyotype abnormality; maximum of one major malformation associated with diaphragmatic hernia; ultrasound monitoring at the Obstetrics Clinic of Clinicas Hospital at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, from January 2001 to October 2014. The data were obtained through the electronic records and ultrasound system of our fetal medicine service. The following variables were analyzed: maternal age, primiparity, associated maternal diseases, smoking, previous spontaneous preterm birth, fetal malformation associated with hernia, polyhydramnios, fetal growth restriction, presence of intrathoracic liver, invasive procedures performed, side of hernia and observed-to- expected lung to head ratio (o/e LHR). On individual analysis, variables were assessed using the Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney test. A multiple logistic regression model was applied to select variables independently influencing the prediction of preterm delivery. A ROC curve was constructed with the significant variable, identifying the values with best sensitivity and specificity to be suggested for use in clinical practice. Eighty fetuses were evaluated, of which, 21 (26.25%) were premature. O/e LHR was the only factor associated with prematurity (p = 0.020). The ROC curve showed 93% sensitivity with 48.4% specificity for the cutoff of 40%. O/e LHR was the only predictor of prematurity in this sample.

  9. Factors Predicting Mathematics Achievement of 8th Graders in TIMSS 2015

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    Mehmet Hayri SARI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the study, it is aimed to investigate the student, teacher and school factors predicting mathematics achievement of Turkish 8th grade students in TIMSS 2015. The group of the study consists of 6079 students and 220 teachers who attended TIMSS from Turkey. The data of the study was obtained from student and teacher questionnaires and mathematics cognitive test scores. In the data analysis, multilevel regression analysis was used in which dependent variables were plausible mathematics scores and independent variables were student, teacher and school scale scores. According to results, 34% percent of student-level variance was explained by student-level variables. It was found that self-confidence level of students was the most important predictor of mathematics achievement among student-level variables. Additionally, educational resources at home variable was also among the important predictors of mathematics achievement. Teacher and school factors explained 29% of between school variance. Among these variables, school emphasis on academic success and teaching limited by student needs were two significant variables that could predict mathematics achievement of students.

  10. Psychological, interpersonal, and clinical factors predicting time spent on physical activity among Mexican patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra Sagarduy, José Luis; Camacho Mata, Dacia Yurima; Moral de la Rubia, José; Piña López, Julio Alfonso; Yunes Zárraga, José Luis Masud

    2018-01-01

    It is widely known that physical activity is the key to the optimal management and clinical control of hypertension. This research was conducted to identify factors that can predict the time spent on physical activity among Mexican adults with hypertension. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 182 Mexican patients with hypertension, who completed a set of self-administered questionnaires related to personality, social support, and medical adherence and health care behaviors, body mass index, and time since the disease diagnosis. Several path analyses were performed in order to test the predictors of the study behavior. Lower tolerance to frustration, more tolerance to ambiguity, more effective social support, and less time since the disease diagnosis predicted more time spent on physical activity, accounting for 13.3% of the total variance. The final model shows a good fit to the sample data ( p BS =0.235, χ 2 / gl =1.519, Jöreskog and Sörbom's Goodness of Fit Index =0.987, adjusted modality =0.962, Bollen's Incremental Fit Index =0.981, Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index =0.946, standardized root mean square residual =0.053). The performance of physical activity in patients with hypertension depends on a complex set of interactions between personal, interpersonal, and clinical variables. Understanding how these factors interact might enhance the design of interdisciplinary intervention programs so that quality of life of patients with hypertension improves and they might be able to manage and control their disease well.

  11. Fear of cancer recurrence and its predictive factors among Iranian cancer patients

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    Alireza Mohajjel Aghdam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fear of cancer recurrence (FOCR is one of the most important psychological problems among cancer patients. In extensive review of related literature there were no articles on FOCR among Iranian cancer patients. Aim: The aim of present study was to investigation FOCR and its predictive factors among Iranian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study 129 cancer patients participated. For data collection, the demographic checklist and short form of fear of progression questionnaire was used. Logistic regression was used to determine predictive factors of FOCR. Result: Mean score of FOCR among participants was 44.8 and about 50% of them had high level of FOCR. The most important worries of participants were about their family and the future of their children and their lesser worries were about the physical symptoms and fear of physical damage because of cancer treatments. Also, women, breast cancer patient, and patients with lower level of education have more FOCR. Discussion: There is immediate need for supportive care program designed for Iranian cancer patients aimed at decreasing their FOCR. Especially, breast cancer patients and the patient with low educational level need more attention.

  12. Sleep Pattern, Duration and Quality in Relation with Glycemic Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Mohammad Hossein Gozashti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances have been shown to be associated with diabetes control, but the relation between planned wakings or napping with glycemic indices has not been evaluated yet. This study evaluated the relation between sleep quality, duration, and pattern, including daytime napping of people with diabetes and their glycemic control. A cross-sectional correlation research design was used for this study. We enrolled 118 people with type 2 diabetes receiving oral agents without major complications at the Shahid Bahonar Center, Kerman. The age, weight, height, serum HbA1c, as well as other glycemic indices and lipid profile were measured. BMI was also calculated. All participants were requested to fill in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaire to evaluate their sleep quality. In addition, they were inquired about their sleep schedule during day and night. Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the correlation between HbA1c and sleep pattern variables. The variables were also compared between participants with or without napping using t-test. All analyses were performed with the SPSS version 19 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA. The mean age was 58±11 years and mean HbA1c (% was 7.8±11 (62±13 mmol/mol. Sleep duration and the number of sleep segments significantly predicted HbA1c (F (2,114=5.232, P=0.007, R2=0.084. A one-hour increment in sleep duration was associated with a 0.174% (1.4 mmol/mol decrement in HbA1c. PSQI score did not contribute to the regression model. Moreover, participants who napped (66% had a lower HbA1c (7.6±1 compared to others (8.1±1.3 (P=0.04. We concluded that napping and segmented sleep are associated with a better glycemic control in type 2 diabetes and there is a linear correlation between sleep duration and better glycemic control.

  13. Sleep Pattern, Duration and Quality in Relation with Glycemic Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Eslami, Nazanin; Radfar, Mohammad Hadi; Pakmanesh, Hamid

    2016-11-01

    Sleep disturbances have been shown to be associated with diabetes control, but the relation between planned wakings or napping with glycemic indices has not been evaluated yet. This study evaluated the relation between sleep quality, duration, and pattern, including daytime napping of people with diabetes and their glycemic control. A cross-sectional correlation research design was used for this study. We enrolled 118 people with type 2 diabetes receiving oral agents without major complications at the Shahid Bahonar Center, Kerman. The age, weight, height, serum HbA1c, as well as other glycemic indices and lipid profile were measured. BMI was also calculated. All participants were requested to fill in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire to evaluate their sleep quality. In addition, they were inquired about their sleep schedule during day and night. Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the correlation between HbA1c and sleep pattern variables. The variables were also compared between participants with or without napping using t-test. All analyses were performed with the SPSS version 19 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The mean age was 58±11 years and mean HbA1c (%) was 7.8±11 (62±13 mmol/mol). Sleep duration and the number of sleep segments significantly predicted HbA1c (F (2,114)=5.232, P=0.007, R2=0.084). A one-hour increment in sleep duration was associated with a 0.174% (1.4 mmol/mol) decrement in HbA1c. PSQI score did not contribute to the regression model. Moreover, participants who napped (66%) had a lower HbA1c (7.6±1) compared to others (8.1±1.3) (P=0.04). We concluded that napping and segmented sleep are associated with a better glycemic control in type 2 diabetes and there is a linear correlation between sleep duration and better glycemic control.

  14. Psychological Factors Predict Local and Referred Experimental Muscle Pain: A Cluster Analysis in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer E.; Watson, David; Frey-L