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Sample records for factors predicting glycemic

  1. Diabetes management and glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes: test of a predictive model

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    Ittenbach, Richard; Rohan, Jennifer M.; Gupta, Resmi; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a comprehensive model of biologic (pubertal status), family (communication and conflict), and psychological influences (behavioral autonomy) on diabetes management and glycemic control in a sample of youth (N = 226) with type 1 diabetes recruited during late childhood/early adolescence (ages 9–11 years). The study design was a prospective, multisite, multi-method study involving prediction of diabetes management and glycemic control 1 year post-baseline. The primary outcome measures included diabetes management behaviors based on the Diabetes Self-Management Profile (DSMP) administered separately to mothers and youth and glycemic control measured by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) obtained by blood samples and analyzed by a central laboratory to ensure standardization. Our hypothesized predictive model received partial support based on structural equation modeling analyses. Family conflict predicted less adequate glycemic control 1 year later (p < 0.05). Higher conflict predicted less adequate diabetes management and less adequate glycemic control. More advanced pubertal status also predicted less adequate glycemic control, but behavioral autonomy did not. Family conflict is an important, potentially clinically significant influence on glycemic control that should be considered in primary and secondary prevention in the management of type 1 diabetes in youth. PMID:22569775

  2. Factors associated with glycemic control in people with diabetes at the Family Health Strategy in Pernambuco

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    Rodrigo Fonseca Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Identifying factors associated with glycemic control in people with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM registered in the Family Health Strategy (FHS in Pernambuco, Brazil. METHOD Associations between glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin A lower or equal to 7% presented by people with DM and variables related to sociodemographic conditions, lifestyle, characteristics of diabetes, treatment and follow-up of patients by health services were investigated by multiple regression. RESULTS More than 65% of the participants presented inadequate glycemic control, especially those with lower age, longer illness duration, more annual contacts with FHS and complex therapeutic regimen. People with DM without referrals to specialists presented greater glycemic control. Associations with education level and obesity did not remain significant in the multivariate model. CONCLUSION The evolution of diabetes hinders adequate control, however, attention to younger people with DM and referrals to specialists are factors that can improve glycemic control.

  3. Glycemic outcome not predicted by baseline psychological measures in a diabetes management program.

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    Graco, Marnie; Hutchinson, Anastasia; Barker, Anna; Lawlor, Vicki; Wong, Rita; Fourlanos, Spiros

    2012-06-01

    The Northern Health Diabetes Hospital Admission Risk Program is a chronic disease management program that aims to improve the glycemic management of patients with diabetes. The aim of this project was to determine if there was any relationship between psychological characteristics and glycemic outcome in a diabetes management program. A prospective study of patients attending the diabetes management program investigated validated measures of cognition, stage of change, locus of control, self-efficacy, depression and anxiety, and quality of life. The study investigated 86 type 2 diabetes patients (mean age 59 years, 49% female). Glycemic control (HbA1c) was measured at baseline and after 12 months in the program. Glycemic control was poor on admission to the service with a mean HbA1c of 8.9%. The measures of cognition, self-efficacy, locus of control, mental health, and quality of life were not associated with improvements in HbA1c. Those participants with shorter duration of disease and more contacts with the service were significantly more likely to experience improvements in HbA1c. Psychometric data were not predictive of glycemic outcome. Rather, in this chronic disease management program, glycemia improved more in patients who were seen earlier in their disease course and managed more intensively, regardless of their psychometric status.

  4. Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in the bread fortified with pomelo (Citrus maxima) fruit segments.

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    Reshmi, S K; Sudha, M L; Shashirekha, M N

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in breads incorporated with pomelo fruit (Citrus maxima) segments. Volume of the white and brown breads supplemented with pomelo fresh segments increased, while the crumb firmness decreased. Bread with 20% fresh and 5% dry pomelo segments were sensorily acceptable. Bioactive components such as phenolics, flavonoids, naringin and carotenoids were retained to a greater extent in bread containing dry pomelo segments. The pomelo incorporated bread had higher levels of resistant starch fractions (3.87-10.96%) with low predicted glycemic index (62.97-53.13%), despite their higher total starch (69.87-75.47%) content compared to control bread. Thus pomelo segments in the product formulations lowered the glycemic index probably by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activity which could be attributed to naringin. Hence fortified bread prepared from pomelo fruit segment is recommended to gain nutritional value and to decrease the risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants

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    Pao-Hwa Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL is inconclusive. Objective : This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP, serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help participants reduce BP by following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH dietary pattern, losing weight, reducing sodium and increasing physical activity. GI and GL were estimated from 24 h diet recall data at baseline, 6 and 18 months after intervention. PROC MIXED model was used to examine the association of changes in GI or GL with changes in CVD risk factors. Results: A total of 756 randomized participants, 62% females and 34% African Americans and who averaged 50.0±0.3 years old and 95.3±0.7 kg, were included in this report. Neither GI nor GL changes was associated with changes in any risk factors at 6 months. At 18 months, however, the GI change was significantly and positively associated with total cholesterol (TC change only (p<0.05, β = 23.80±12.11 mg/dL or 0.62±0.31 mmol/L with a significant age interaction. The GL change was significantly associated with TC (p=0.02, β = 0.28±0.15 mg/dL or 0.01±0.00 mmol/L positively and with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C changes negatively (p=0.03, β = − 0.01±0.00 mg/dL or −0.00±0.00 mmol/L, and significant age interactions were observed for both. Conclusion: GI and GL was associated with TC and LDL-C after controlling for energy, fat and fiber intake and other potential confounders and the associations were modified by age. Further investigation into this relationship is important because of its potential clinical impact.

  6. Hemorheological and Glycemic Parameters and HDL Cholesterol for the Prediction of Cardiovascular Events

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    Cho, Sung Woo; Kim, Byung Gyu; Kim, Byung Ok; Byun, Young Sup; Goh, Choong Won; Rhee, Kun Joo; Kwon, Hyuck Moon; Lee, Byoung Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Hemorheological and glycemic parameters and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are used as biomarkers of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. To investigate the association and clinical relevance of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and HDL cholesterol in the prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in an outpatient population. 708 stable patients who visited the outpatient department were enrolled and followed for a mean period of 28.5 months. Patients were divided into two groups, patients without MACE and patients with MACE, which included cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, newly diagnosed CHD, and cerebral vascular accident. We compared hemorheological and glycemic parameters and lipid profiles between the groups. Patients with MACE had significantly higher ESR, fibrinogen, fasting glucose, and HbA1c, while lower HDL cholesterol compared with patients without MACE. High ESR and fibrinogen and low HDL cholesterol significantly increased the risk of MACE in multivariate regression analysis. In patients with MACE, high fibrinogen and HbA1c levels increased the risk of multivessel CHD. Furthermore, ESR and fibrinogen were significantly positively correlated with HbA1c and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol, however not correlated with fasting glucose. Hemorheological abnormalities, poor glycemic control, and low HDL cholesterol are correlated with each other and could serve as simple and useful surrogate markers and predictors for MACE and CHD in outpatients

  7. Hemorheological and Glycemic Parameters and HDL Cholesterol for the Prediction of Cardiovascular Events

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    Cho, Sung Woo [Division of Cardiology - Department of Internal Medicine - Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Division of Cardiology - Department of Medicine - Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Gyu; Kim, Byung Ok; Byun, Young Sup; Goh, Choong Won; Rhee, Kun Joo [Division of Cardiology - Department of Internal Medicine - Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyuck Moon; Lee, Byoung Kwon, E-mail: cardiobk@yuhs.ac [Division of Cardiology - Department of Internal Medicine - Gangnam Severance Hospital - Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Hemorheological and glycemic parameters and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are used as biomarkers of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. To investigate the association and clinical relevance of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and HDL cholesterol in the prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in an outpatient population. 708 stable patients who visited the outpatient department were enrolled and followed for a mean period of 28.5 months. Patients were divided into two groups, patients without MACE and patients with MACE, which included cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, newly diagnosed CHD, and cerebral vascular accident. We compared hemorheological and glycemic parameters and lipid profiles between the groups. Patients with MACE had significantly higher ESR, fibrinogen, fasting glucose, and HbA1c, while lower HDL cholesterol compared with patients without MACE. High ESR and fibrinogen and low HDL cholesterol significantly increased the risk of MACE in multivariate regression analysis. In patients with MACE, high fibrinogen and HbA1c levels increased the risk of multivessel CHD. Furthermore, ESR and fibrinogen were significantly positively correlated with HbA1c and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol, however not correlated with fasting glucose. Hemorheological abnormalities, poor glycemic control, and low HDL cholesterol are correlated with each other and could serve as simple and useful surrogate markers and predictors for MACE and CHD in outpatients.

  8. [Socioeconomic, demographic, nutritional, and physical activity factors in the glycemic control of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

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    Marques, Rosana de Morais Borges; Fornés, Nélida Schmid; Stringhini, Maria Luiza Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    To identify the association of socioeconomic, demographic, nutritional and of physical activity factors in the glycemic control of adolescents with T1DM. Sectional study of 71 adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Socioeconomic, demographic and anthropometric data were obtained. The glycemic control was classified by the index of glycated hemoglobin (A1C). Four 24-hours recalls of food consumption and physical activity were applied. The A1C was inadequate for the majority of the adolescents. The low educational level of the caregivers influenced the inadequate glycemic control. Patients with lower insulin dose presented better glycemic control. The food consumption was high of fat and poor of carbohydrate. Most of the patients were sedentary. Factors related to education, insulin and food consumption influenced the glycemic control.

  9. Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of fried sweet potato cultivars

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    Amaka Odenigbo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. is a very rich source of starch. There is increased interest in starch digestibility and the prevention and management of metabolic diseases.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of starch fractions and predicted glycemic index of different cultivars of sweet potato. Material and Method: French fries produced from five cultivars of sweet potato (‘Ginseng Red’, ‘Beauregard’, ‘White Travis’, ‘Georgia Jet clone #2010’ and ‘Georgia Jet’ were used. The level of total starch (TS, resistant starch (RS, digestible starch (DS, and starch digestion index starch digestion index in the samples were evaluated. In vitro starch hydrolysis at 30, 90, and 120 min were determined enzymatically for calculation of rapidly digestible starch (RDS, predicted glycemic index (pGI and slowly digestible starch (SDS respectively. Results: The RS content in all samples had an inversely significant correlation with pGI (-0.52; P<0.05 while RDS had positive and significant influence on both pGI (r=0.55; P<0.05 and SDI (r= 0.94; P<0.01. ‘White Travis’ and ‘Ginseng Red’ had higher levels of beneficial starch fractions (RS and SDS with low pGI and starch digestion Index (SDI, despite their higher TS content. Generally, all the cultivars had products with low to moderate GI values. Conclusion: The glycemic index of these food products highlights the health promoting characteristics of sweet potato cultivars.

  10. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

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    Nathalie V. Kizirian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96 and late (n = 88 pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI and fat-free mass index (FFMI. In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037. In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010 and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034. Higher fat intake (%E and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy. Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity.

  11. Glycemic control and associated factors among type 2 diabetic patients at Shanan Gibe Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia.

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    Yigazu, Daniel Miteku; Desse, Tigestu Alemu

    2017-11-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the rate of glycemic control and factors affecting glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 174 type 2 diabetic patients were interviewed and were studied. Mean age of the patients was 48.98 ± 14.96 years (range 18-80 years). More than half (51.7%) of the patients were males. About a third of patients, 53 (30.5%), were on antidiabetic medications for less than 5 years. The most common prescribed antidiabetic medications were insulin, 48 (27.6%), and metformin 15 (8.6%). One hundred seven (61.5%) patients were on combination therapy (two drug treatment) and the remaining patients were on monotherapy. The majority, 103 (59.2%), of patients had uncontrolled blood glucose. A larger proportion of female patients, 54 (52.4%), had uncontrolled blood glucose than males. Level of education (p diabetes treatment (p patients to regular follow up (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.42, 95% CI 1.08-5.44, p = 0.03) and diabetes treatment for 5-10 years (AOR = 4.64, 95% CI 1.79-12.06, p = 0.002) are found to be independent predictors of glycemic control among type 2 diabetes patients.

  12. Factors associated with glycemic control in people with diabetes at the Family Health Strategy in Pernambuco.

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    Lima, Rodrigo Fonseca; Fontbonne, Annick; Carvalho, Eduardo Maia Freese de; Montarroyos, Ulisses Ramos; Barreto, Maria Nelly Sobreira de Carvalho; Cesse, Eduarda Ângela Pessoa

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors associated with glycemic control in people with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) registered in the Family Health Strategy (FHS) in Pernambuco, Brazil. Associations between glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin A lower or equal to 7%) presented by people with DM and variables related to sociodemographic conditions, lifestyle, characteristics of diabetes, treatment and follow-up of patients by health services were investigated by multiple regression. More than 65% of the participants presented inadequate glycemic control, especially those with lower age, longer illness duration, more annual contacts with FHS and complex therapeutic regimen. People with DM without referrals to specialists presented greater glycemic control. Associations with education level and obesity did not remain significant in the multivariate model. The evolution of diabetes hinders adequate control, however, attention to younger people with DM and referrals to specialists are factors that can improve glycemic control. Identificar fatores associados ao controle glicêmico em pessoas com Diabetes Mellitus (DM) tipo 2 cadastradas na Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF) em Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram investigadas, por regressão múltipla, as associações entre o controle glicêmico (hemoglobina A glicosilada menor ou maior ou igual a 7%) apresentado pelas pessoas com DM e variáveis relacionadas com condições sociodemográficas, hábitos de vida, características do diabetes, de seu tratamento e acompanhamento dos pacientes pelos serviços de saúde. Mais de 65% dos participantes apresentaram controle glicêmico inadequado, principalmente aqueles com idade menor, duração da doença mais longa, mais contatos anuais com a ESF e regime terapêutico complexo. Pessoas com DM sem encaminhamentos para especialistas apresentaram um maior descontrole glicêmico. Associações com escolaridade e obesidade não permaneceram significativas no modelo multivariado. A evolução do

  13. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Mediates Glycemic Regulation by Hepatic JNK

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    Santiago Vernia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK-signaling pathway is implicated in metabolic syndrome, including dysregulated blood glucose concentration and insulin resistance. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a target of the hepatic JNK-signaling pathway and may contribute to the regulation of glycemia. To test the role of FGF21, we established mice with selective ablation of the Fgf21 gene in hepatocytes. FGF21 deficiency in the liver caused marked loss of FGF21 protein circulating in the blood. Moreover, the protective effects of hepatic JNK deficiency to suppress metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed mice were not observed in mice with hepatocyte-specific FGF21 deficiency, including reduced blood glucose concentration and reduced intolerance to glucose and insulin. Furthermore, we show that JNK contributes to the regulation of hepatic FGF21 expression during fasting/feeding cycles. These data demonstrate that the hepatokine FGF21 is a key mediator of JNK-regulated metabolic syndrome.

  14. Predictive Clinical Parameters and Glycemic Efficacy of Vildagliptin Treatment in Korean Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Jin-Sun Chang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aims of this study are to investigate the glycemic efficacy and predictive parameters of vildagliptin therapy in Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes.MethodsIn this retrospective study, we retrieved data for subjects who were on twice-daily 50 mg vildagliptin for at least 6 months, and classified the subjects into five treatment groups. In three of the groups, we added vildagliptin to their existing medication regimen; in the other two groups, we replaced one of their existing medications with vildagliptin. We then analyzed the changes in glucose parameters and clinical characteristics.ResultsUltimately, 327 subjects were analyzed in this study. Vildagliptin significantly improved hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels over 6 months. The changes in HbA1c levels (ΔHbA1c at month 6 were -2.24% (P=0.000, -0.77% (P=0.000, -0.80% (P=0.001, -0.61% (P=0.000, and -0.34% (P=0.025 for groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively, with significance. We also found significant decrements in fasting plasma glucose levels in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 (P<0.05. Of the variables, initial HbA1c levels (P=0.032 and history of sulfonylurea use (P=0.026 were independently associated with responsiveness to vildagliptin treatment.ConclusionVildagliptin was effective when it was used in subjects with poor glycemic control. It controlled fasting plasma glucose levels as well as sulfonylurea treatment in Korean type 2 diabetic subjects.

  15. Direct and indirect effects of neighborhood factors and self-care on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

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    Smalls, Brittany L; Gregory, Chris M; Zoller, James S; Egede, Leonard E

    2015-03-01

    To determine whether neighborhood factors have direct or indirect effects, via self-care behaviors on glycemic control. Adult patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from an academic medical center and Veterans Affairs Medical Center in the southeastern United States. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to create latent variables for neighborhood factors and diabetes self-care behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to test direct and indirect effects between neighborhood factors and glycemic control as assessed by HbA1c levels. CFA yielded four latent variables for neighborhood factors (neighborhood violence, access to healthy food, social support, and neighborhood aesthetics) and one latent variable diabetes self-care. We found that social support (β=0.28, z=4.86, paccess to healthy foods (β=-0.17, z=-2.95, p=0.003) had direct effects on self-care; self-care (β=-0.15, z=-2.48, p=0.013) and neighborhood aesthetics (β=0.12, z=2.19, p=0.03) had direct effects on glycemic control; while social support (β=-0.04, z=-2.26, p=0.02) had an indirect effect on glycemic control via self-care. This study showed that self-care behaviors and neighborhood aesthetics have direct effects on glycemic control, social support and access to health foods had direct effects on self-care, and social support had an indirect effect on glycemic control via self-care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Distinct lipid profiles predict improved glycemic control in obese, nondiabetic patients after a low-caloric diet intervention

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    Valsesia, Armand; Saris, Wim Hm; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An aim of weight loss is to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese subjects. However, the relation with long-term glycemic improvement remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the changes in lipid composition during weight loss and their association with long-term glycemic...... improvement. DESIGN: We investigated the plasma lipidome of 383 obese, nondiabetic patients within a randomized, controlled dietary intervention in 8 European countries at baseline, after an 8-wk low-caloric diet (LCD) (800-1000 kcal/d), and after 6 mo of weight maintenance. RESULTS: After weight loss...... and glucose concentrations). Significant differences between the 2 groups were shown in leptin gene expression in adipose tissue biopsies. Significant differences were also observed in weight-related endpoints (body mass index, weight, and fat mass). The lipid signature allowed prediction of which subjects...

  17. Factors associated with glycemic control in adult type 1 diabetes patients treated with insulin pump therapy.

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    Matejko, Bartłomiej; Skupien, Jan; Mrozińska, Sandra; Grzanka, Małgorzata; Cyganek, Katarzyna; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Malecki, Maciej T; Klupa, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) by insulin pump seems to improve glycemia and quality of life as compared to conventional insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). However, while many T1DM subjects achieve excellent glycemic control, some others cannot reach recommended goals. In a retrospective analysis, we searched for factors associated with glycemic control in T1DM patients treated with insulin pump therapy. Data from 192 patients (133 women and 59 men) treated with personal insulin pumps at the Department of Metabolic Diseases, University Hospital, Krakow, Poland were analyzed. Sources of information included medical records, memory read-outs from insulin pumps and data from glucose meters. Univariate, multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis for the association with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level were performed. The mean age of the subjects was 28.9 (±11.2) years, the mean duration of T1DM-14.6 (±7.6) years, mean body mass index-23.5 (±3.1) kg/m2. The mean HbA1c level in the entire study group was 7.4% (57 mmol/mol). In the multivariate linear regression analysis, HbA1c correlated with the mean number of daily blood glucose measurements, number of hypoglycemic episodes per 100 blood glucose measurements, age at the examination, and continuous glucose monitoring system use. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for reaching the therapeutic target of HbA1cpump-treated T1DM subjects.

  18. Effects of a low-glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss.

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    Pereira, Mark A; Swain, Janis; Goldfine, Allison B; Rifai, Nader; Ludwig, David S

    2004-11-24

    Weight loss elicits physiological adaptations relating to energy intake and expenditure that antagonize ongoing weight loss. To test whether dietary composition affects the physiological adaptations to weight loss, as assessed by resting energy expenditure. DESIGN, STUDY, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomized parallel-design study of 39 overweight or obese young adults aged 18 to 40 years who received an energy-restricted diet, either low-glycemic load or low-fat. Participants were studied in the General Clinical Research Centers of the Brigham and Women's Hospital and the Children's Hospital, Boston, Mass, before and after 10% weight loss. The study was conducted from January 4, 2001, to May 6, 2003. Resting energy expenditure measured in the fasting state by indirect calorimetry, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and self-reported hunger. Resting energy expenditure decreased less with the low-glycemic load diet than with the low-fat diet, expressed in absolute terms (mean [SE], 96 [24] vs 176 [27] kcal/d; P = .04) or as a proportion (5.9% [1.5%] vs 10.6% [1.7%]; P = .05). Participants receiving the low-glycemic load diet reported less hunger than those receiving the low-fat diet (P = .04). Insulin resistance (P = .01), serum triglycerides (P = .01), C-reactive protein (P = .03), and blood pressure (P = .07 for both systolic and diastolic) improved more with the low-glycemic load diet. Changes in body composition (fat and lean mass) in both groups were very similar (P = .85 and P = .45, respectively). Changes in dietary composition within prevailing norms can affect physiological adaptations that defend body weight. Reduction in glycemic load may aid in the prevention or treatment of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus.

  19. Nutritional status, glycemic control and its associated risk factors among a sample of type 2 diabetic individuals, a pilot study

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    Somayyeh Firouzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Malaysia, with most patients poorly controlled. Hence, this study aimed to determine nutritional and metabolic status as well as blood pressure of Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify associated risk factors for poor glycemic control. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited and completed a questionnaire covering socio-demographic status, 3-day diet records, and physical activity. Anthropometry and glycemic control parameters, lipid profile and blood pressure were also measured. Results: Subjects were on average 56.7±9.9 years old with a mean duration of diabetes of 6.5 ± 5.0 years. The mean hemoglobin A1c of the subjects was 7.6% ± 1.4%, with only 20.2% achieving the target goal of <6.5% with no significant differences between genders. The mean body mass index was 26.9 ± 4.7 kg/m 2 , with 86.5% either were overweight or obese. Only 10.6% of the subjects exercised daily. The proportions of macronutrients relative to total energy intake were consistent with the recommendations of most diabetes associations. The adjusted odds of having poor glycemic control were 3.235 (1.043-10.397 (P < 0.05 higher among those who had high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels below the normal range. Those taking one or two types of oral anti-diabetic drugs had 19.9 (2.959-87.391 (P < 0.01 and 14.3 (2.647-77.500 (P < 0.01 higher odds of poor glycemic control respectively compared to those who were being treated by diet alone. Conclusion: Poor glycemic control was prevalent among Malaysian diabetic patients, and this could be associated with low levels of HDL and being treated with oral anti-diabetes agents.

  20. Nutritional status, glycemic control and its associated risk factors among a sample of type 2 diabetic individuals, a pilot study

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    Somayyeh Firouzi; Mohd Yusof Barakatun-Nisak; Kamaruddin Nor Azmi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Malaysia, with most patients poorly controlled. Hence, this study aimed to determine nutritional and metabolic status as well as blood pressure of Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify associated risk factors for poor glycemic control. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited and completed a questionnaire covering socio-demographic status, 3-day diet records, and physica...

  1. Gluten-free snacks using plantain-chickpea and maize blend: chemical composition, starch digestibility, and predicted glycemic index.

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    Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    An increase in celiac consumers has caused an increasing interest to develop good quality gluten-free food products with high nutritional value. Snack foods are consumed worldwide and have become a normal part of the eating habits of the celiac population making them a target to improve their nutritive value. Extrusion and deep-frying of unripe plantain, chickpea, and maize flours blends produced gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber contents (13.7-18.2 g/100 g) and low predicted glycemic index (28 to 35). The gluten-free snacks presented lower fat content (12.7 to 13.6 g/100 g) than those reported in similar commercial snacks. The snack with the highest unripe plantain flour showed higher slowly digestible starch (11.6 and 13.4 g/100 g) than its counterpart with the highest chickpea flour level (6 g/100 g). The overall acceptability of the gluten-free snacks was similar to that chili-flavored commercial snack. It was possible to develop gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber content and low predicted glycemic index with the blend of the 3 flours, and these gluten-free snacks may also be useful as an alternative to reduce excess weight and obesity problems in the general population and celiac community. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors

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    Gögebakan, Özlem; Kohl, Angela; Osterhoff, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes).......We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes)....

  3. Influence of psychosocial factors on self-care behaviors and glycemic control in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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    Cosansu, Gulhan; Erdogan, Semra

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of psychosocial factors on self-care behavior and glycemic control in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study used a cross-sectional questionnaire survey design (N = 350). Data were collected using the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale and the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire. The relationship between the study variables was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and structural equation modeling. Self-efficacy was associated with social support, outcome expectancies, perceived interference, educational level, and self-care and A1C. According to the structural equation model, self-efficacy was the predictor variable that influenced both self-care and glycemic control. Self-efficacy in achieving desired health outcomes was found to play a central role in Turkish patients. Although interventions are planned and implemented to achieve and maintain self-management in individuals with diabetes, strengthening psychosocial factors, particularly self-efficacy, may contribute to adjustment to disease and good glycemic control in the long term.

  4. Characterization of Factors Affecting Attainment of Glycemic Control in Asian Americans With Diabetes in a Culturally Specific Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hung; Wong, Sophia; Iftikar, Tracy; Keenan, Hillary; King, George L.; Hsu, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a culturally specific pilot clinic for Asian Americans (AA) in reaching glycemic target and to characterize factors affecting the attainment of glycemic control in comparison with white counterparts. Methods This electronic health record review included all new AA patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 109) in a culturally specific program and a randomly selected sample of new white patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 218) in the adult clinic within the same time period and diabetes center. Results AA and whites had a comparable proportion of patients with A1C ≤7% (32.1%, 34.9%; P = .621) at baseline and after 12 months of care (48.6%, 56.0%; P = .210), with a similar A1C decline (−0.9% ± 1.6%, −0.8% ± 1.7%, P = .710) by 12 months. Factors associated with the lack of success in reaching target in AA but not in whites included older age, lower educational attainment, less likelihood of having health insurance, and a need for more educational visits. The percentage of AA reaching A1C ≤7%, as compared to whites, worsened among those with highest initial A1C when stratified by ascending quartiles (96.7% vs 85.2%, P = .101; 61.9% vs 58.9%, P = .813; 24.0% vs 37.7%, P = .230; 15.2% vs 35.4%, P = .044). Conclusion While a culturally specific diabetes program in a specialty setting achieved a similar glycemic outcome for AA compared with whites, reasons for not reaching glycemic target differed. The findings suggest that the elimination of diabetes disparities requires not only culturally and linguistically specific programs, but must also identify and address the socio-environmental differences unique to each population. PMID:23771841

  5. Nutritional status, glycemic control and its associated risk factors among a sample of type 2 diabetic individuals, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzi, Somayyeh; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd Yusof; Azmi, Kamaruddin Nor

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Malaysia, with most patients poorly controlled. Hence, this study aimed to determine nutritional and metabolic status as well as blood pressure of Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify associated risk factors for poor glycemic control. A total of 104 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited and completed a questionnaire covering socio-demographic status, 3-day diet records, and physical activity. Anthropometry and glycemic control parameters, lipid profile and blood pressure were also measured. Subjects were on average 56.7±9.9 years old with a mean duration of diabetes of 6.5 ± 5.0 years. The mean hemoglobin A1c of the subjects was 7.6% ± 1.4%, with only 20.2% achieving the target goal of diabetes associations. The adjusted odds of having poor glycemic control were 3.235 (1.043-10.397) (P diabetic drugs had 19.9 (2.959-87.391) (P Malaysian diabetic patients, and this could be associated with low levels of HDL and being treated with oral anti-diabetes agents.

  6. Influence of socioeconomic and psychological factors in glycemic control in young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Carlos Jefferson do Nascimento; Alves, Crésio de Aragão Dantas

    2018-01-04

    To evaluate the influence of socioeconomic and psychological factors on glycemic control in young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. This was a cross-sectional study assessing prepubertal children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The authors analyzed the socioeconomic status using the Brazil Economic Classification Criterion (Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil [CCEB]) and psychological conditions through the Brazilian version of the Problem Areas in Diabetes, associated with glycemic control, measured by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Descriptive analysis was used. The variables were assessed by bivariate and multivariate robust Poisson regression model, as well as Fisher's exact and Pearson's chi-squared tests to obtain the ratios of gross and adjusted prevalence ratio, with confidence interval being estimated at 95%. A total of 68 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus were included in the study. A negative association between glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin levels), socioeconomic status (Brazil Economic Classification Criterion), and psychological condition (Brazilian version of the Problem Areas in Diabetes) was observed. Among the study participants, 73.5% (n=50) of the children had an unfavorable socioeconomic status; these participants were 1.4 times more likely to present altered glycated hemoglobin values. In relation to individuals with compromised psychological status, 26 (38.2%) had a score above 70, thus being classified with psychological stress; these children were 1.68 times more likely (95% confidence interval: 1.101, 1.301) to have higher glycated hemoglobin levels. The socioeconomic conditions and psychological characteristics of the study participants were negatively associated with glycated hemoglobin results. These data reinforce the importance of the studied variables as predictors of glycemic control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  7. Human glycemic response curves after intake of carbohydrate foods are accurately predicted by combining in vitro gastrointestinal digestion with in silico kinetic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Bellmann

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: Based on the demonstrated accuracy and predictive quality, this in vitro–in silico technology can be used for the testing of food products on their glycemic response under standardized conditions and may stimulate the production of (slow carbs for the prevention of metabolic diseases.

  8. Impact of Demographic, Socioeconomic and Psychological Factors on Glycemic Self-Management in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Alicia Gonzalez Zacarias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is reported as one of the most complex chronic diseases worldwide. In the United States, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM is the seventh leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Individuals with diabetes require lifelong personal care to reduce the possibility of developing long-term complications. A good knowledge of diabetes risk factors, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, family history of DM, and sedentary lifestyle, play an essential role in prevention and treatment. Also, socio-demographic, economic, psychological, and environmental factors are directly and indirectly associated with diabetes control and health outcomes. Our review intends to analyze the interaction between demographics, knowledge, environment, and other diabetes-related factors based on an extended literature search, and to provide insight for improving glycemic control and reducing the incidence of chronic complications.

  9. Effect of domestic cooking on the starch digestibility, predicted glycemic indices, polyphenol contents and alpha amylase inhibitory properties of beans (Phaseolis vulgaris) and breadfruit (Treculia africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinedum, E; Sanni, S; Theressa, N; Ebere, A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of processing on starch digestibility, predicted glycemic indices (pGI), polyphenol contents and alpha amylase inhibitory properties of beans (Phaseolis vulgaris) and breadfruit (Treculia africana) was studied. Total starch ranged from 4.3 to 68.3g/100g, digestible starch ranged from 4.3 to 59.2 to 65.7g/100g for the raw and processed legumes; Resistance starch was not detected in most of the legumes except in fried breadfruit and the starches in both the raw and processed breadfruit were more rapidly digested than those from raw and cooked beans. Raw and processed breadfruit had higher hydrolysis curves than raw and processed beans with the amylolysis level in raw breadfruit close to that of white bread. Raw beans had a low glycemic index (GI); boiled beans and breadfruit had intermediate glycemic indices respectively while raw and fried breadfruit had high glycemic indices. Aqueous extracts of the food samples had weak α-amylase inhibition compared to acarbose. The raw and processed legumes contained considerable amounts of dietary phenols and flavonoids. The significant correlation (r=0.626) between α-amylase inhibitory actions of the legumes versus their total phenolic contents suggests the contribution of the phenolic compounds in these legumes to their α-amylase inhibitory properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance.To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study.Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured.Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%.A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  11. The effects of the dietary glycemic load on type 2 diabetes risk factors during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittas, Anastassios G; Roberts, Susan B; Das, Sai Krupa; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Saltzman, Edward; Golden, Julie; Stark, Paul C; Greenberg, Andrew S

    2006-12-01

    To compare the effects of two calorie-restricted diets that differ in glycemic load (GL) on glucose tolerance and inflammation. Thirty-four healthy overweight adults, ages 24 to 42 years, were randomized to 30% provided calorie-restricted diets with high (HG) or low (LG) glycemic load for 6 months. Outcomes were changes in glucose-insulin dynamics and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Compared with baseline, levels of fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, post-load insulin at 30 minutes, and incremental area-under-the-curve-insulin during the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in both groups at 6 months (p range, 0.01 to 0.05), but after adjustment for baseline values and weight change, there were no differences between the two groups with regard to changes over time in any parameter. The mean percentage change in insulin sensitivity by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test was +26% in the HG group and +24% in the LG group (p = 0.83); first-phase acute insulin release was -20% in the HG group and -21% in the LG group (p = 0.77). More participants on the LG diet (14 of 16 subjects) had a decline in serum CRP, compared with those on the HG diet (7 of 16 subjects) (p loss. This finding highlights the importance of absolute weight loss over the dietary macronutrient composition used to achieve weight loss. The finding of greater declines in CRP concentration after consumption of a low-GL diet warrants further investigation.

  12. Distinct lipid profiles predict improved glycemic control in obese, nondiabetic patients after a low-caloric diet intervention: the Diet, Obesity and Genes randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsesia, Armand; Saris, Wim Hm; Astrup, Arne; Hager, Jörg; Masoodi, Mojgan

    2016-09-01

    An aim of weight loss is to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese subjects. However, the relation with long-term glycemic improvement remains unknown. We evaluated the changes in lipid composition during weight loss and their association with long-term glycemic improvement. We investigated the plasma lipidome of 383 obese, nondiabetic patients within a randomized, controlled dietary intervention in 8 European countries at baseline, after an 8-wk low-caloric diet (LCD) (800-1000 kcal/d), and after 6 mo of weight maintenance. After weight loss, a lipid signature identified 2 groups of patients who were comparable at baseline but who differed in their capacities to lose weight and improve glycemic control. Six months after the LCD, one group had significant glycemic improvement [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) mean change: -0.92; 95% CI: -1.17, -0.67)]. The other group showed no improvement in glycemic control (HOMA-IR mean change: -0.26; 95% CI: -0.64, 0.13). These differences were sustained for ≥1 y after the LCD. The same conclusions were obtained with other endpoints (Matsuda index and fasting insulin and glucose concentrations). Significant differences between the 2 groups were shown in leptin gene expression in adipose tissue biopsies. Significant differences were also observed in weight-related endpoints (body mass index, weight, and fat mass). The lipid signature allowed prediction of which subjects would be considered to be insulin resistant after 6 mo of weight maintenance [validation's receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC): 71%; 95% CI: 62%, 81%]. This model outperformed a clinical data-only model (validation's ROC AUC: 61%; 95% CI: 50%, 71%; P = 0.01). In this study, we report a lipid signature of LCD success (for weight and glycemic outcome) in obese, nondiabetic patients. Lipid changes during an 8-wk LCD allowed us to predict insulin-resistant patients after 6 mo of weight

  13. Quadratic prediction of factor scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansbeek, T

    1999-01-01

    Factor scores are naturally predicted by means of their conditional expectation given the indicators y. Under normality this expectation is linear in y but in general it is an unknown function of y. II is discussed that under nonnormality factor scores can be more precisely predicted by a quadratic

  14. Comparison between adherence assessments and blood glucose monitoring measures to predict glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telo, Gabriela Heiden; de Souza, Martina Schaan; Andrade, Thais Stürmer; Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to treatment has been defined as the degree to which a patient's behavior corresponds to medical or health advice; however, the most appropriate method to evaluate adherence to diabetes care has yet to be identified. We conducted analyses to compare adherence assessments and blood glucose monitoring measures with regard to their ability to predict glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes. We analyzed four instruments to evaluate adherence: Self-Care Inventory-Revised, a self-administered survey; Diabetes Self-Monitoring Profile (DSMP), administered by trained researchers; a categorical (yes/no/sometimes) adherence self-evaluation; and a continuous (0-100) adherence self-evaluation. Blood glucose monitoring frequency was evaluated by self-report, diary, and meter download. Participants (n = 82) were aged 39.0 ± 13.1 years with a mean diabetes duration of 21.2 ± 11.1 years; 27 % monitored blood glucose >4 times/day. The DSMP score was the strongest predictor of glycemic control (r = -0.32, P = 0.004) among adherence assessments, while blood glucose monitoring frequency assessed by meter download was the strongest predictor among blood glucose monitoring measures (r = -40, P self-report assessments had a significant but weak correlation with glycemic control (r ≤ 0.28, P ≤ 0.02). The final adjusted model identified the assessment of blood glucose monitoring frequency by meter download as the most robust predictor of HbA1c (estimate effect size = -0.58, P = 0.003). In efforts to evaluate adherence, blood glucose monitoring frequency assessed by meter download has the strongest relationship with glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes.

  15. The Role of Glycemic Control and Variability in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziralli, Irini P

    2018-02-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and is considered the leading cause of visual impairment in working-aged adults worldwide. The duration of DM and hyperglycemia have been associated with DR, although the exact role in the pathogenesis of DR and diabetic macular edema remains controversial. As a result, a reasonable question arising is whether control of blood glucose levels may alter the course of DR. Studies have shown that glycemic control remains an important factor for the presence and progression of DR. HbA1c seems to be an indicator which cannot demonstrate exactly the degree of glycemic control, while sudden variations of blood glucose may play an important role in DR; therefore, glycemic variability may be useful to predict DM complications, such as DR.

  16. Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hiroki; Iwase, Masanori; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ogata-Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Joudai, Tamaki; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations betwee...

  17. Glycemic variability is an important risk factor for cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Zhu, Yanhua; Yang, Xubin; Deng, Hongrong; Yan, Jinhua; Lin, Shaoda; Yang, Huazhang; Chen, Hong; Weng, Jianping

    2016-07-15

    The relationship between glycemic variability, another component of glycemic disorders as well as chronic sustained hyperglycemia, and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) has not been clarified. Our aim is to investigate the association between glycemic variability and CAN in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. Ewing tests were performed in 90 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients and 37 participants with normal glucose tolerance as control from May 1, 2009, through September 30, 2010. According to the scores from Ewing tests, diabetic patients were divided into two groups: without CAN (CAN-) and with CAN (CAN+). All participants underwent a 48-h to 72-h continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Coefficient of variability of glycemia (%CV), mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) and means of daily differences (MODD) were calculated with the CGM data. The prevalence of CAN in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 22.2%. An increasing trend of glycemic variability was found from control group, CAN- group to CAN+ group. MAGE in CAN+ group was significantly higher than that in CAN- group (5.27±1.99mmol/L vs. 4.04±1.39mmol/L, P=0.001). In the Logistic regression analysis, a significant relationship was shown between MAGE and CAN [odds ratio (OR): 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.73, P=0.018)]. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for MAGE was superior to those for other dysglycemic indices in detecting CAN. Glycemic variability is associated with CAN in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Among the glycemic variability indices, MAGE is a significant indicator for detecting CAN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender, diabetes education, and psychosocial factors are associated with persistent poor glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes in the Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Junmei; Yeung, Roseanne; Luk, Andrea; Tutino, Greg; Zhang, Yuying; Kong, Alice; Chung, Harriet; Wong, Rebecca; Ozaki, Risa; Ma, Ronald; Tsang, Chiu-Chi; Tong, Peter; So, Wingyee; Chan, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Factors associated with persistent poor glycemic control were explored in patients with type 2 diabetes under the Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) program. Chinese adults enrolled in JADE with HbA1c ≥8% at initial comprehensive assessment (CA1) and repeat assessment were analyzed. The improved group was defined as those with a ≥1% absolute reduction in HbA1c, and the unimproved group was those with education level, and was more likely to be insulin treated. Patients in the improved group received more diabetes education between CAs with improved self-care behaviors, whereas the unimproved group had worsening of health-related quality of life at CA2. Apart from female gender, long disease duration, low educational level, obesity, retinopathy, history of hypoglycemia, and insulin use, lack of education from diabetes nurses between CAs had the strongest association for persistent poor glycemic control. These results highlight the multidimensional nature of glycemic control, and the importance of diabetes education and optimizing diabetes care by considering psychosocial factors. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Pathways from emotional adjustment to glycemic control in youths with diabetes in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S M; Lee, P W; Low, L C; Cheng, A; Yeung, W; Huen, K F; O'Donnell, D

    2000-09-01

    To examine factors that influence emotional adjustment, adherence to diabetic care, and glycemic control in Hong Kong youths with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Seventy youths, their mothers, and matched controls provided information on health beliefs, authoritarian parenting style, parent-child conflict, emotional adjustment, and adherence to medical regimen. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were obtained to measure glycemic control. Predictors explained 34% of the variance in emotional adjustment and 39% of the variance in glycemic control. The data supported a pathway from emotional adjustment to self-efficacy to adherence behaviors to glycemic control. In contrast to Western culture and consistent with prediction, parenting style did not associate with negative outcomes, and even relatively low levels of parent-child conflict correlated negatively with emotional adjustment in this culture. Management of conflict and self-efficacy enhancing interactions are suggested interventions to enhance adherence to diabetic care in Hong Kong youths with IDDM.

  20. Salivary interleukin-17 and tumor necrosis factor-α in relation to periodontitis and glycemic status in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsoy, Ulvi Kahraman; Yildiz Çiftlikli, Sinem; Könönen, Eija; Gürsoy, Mervi; Doğan, Başak

    2015-09-01

    Poorly-controlled glycemic status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is suggested to play a role in the periodontal inflammatory process by aggregating the local cytokine response. Our objectives were to profile salivary interleukin (IL)-17 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in subjects with T2DM and to examine their relevance for the periodontal health status and glycemic control levels. Unstimulated whole saliva samples, together with full-mouth periodontal recordings (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP %], gingival index [GI], probing pocket depth [PPD], and clinical attachment level [CAL]), were collected from 123 subjects with T2DM. Additionally, demographic and general health parameters, including fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), were collected. Salivary IL-17 and TNF-α concentrations were analyzed using the Luminex®-xMAP™ technique. Subjects with poorly-controlled T2DM (HbA1c ≥ 7) had elevated serum triglyceride (P periodontal disease in T2DM. The association between PPD and IL-17 in saliva, however, is independent from the effect of glycemic status. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Factors Influencing Disease Self-Management Among Veterans with Diabetes and Poor Glycemic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Karin M.; McFarland, Lynne; Reiber, Gayle

    2007-01-01

    Specific Aim Although the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has made significant organizational changes to improve diabetes care, diabetes self-management has received limited attention. The purpose of this study is to assess factors influencing diabetes self-management among veterans with poorly controlled diabetes. Methods Surveys were mailed to patients with type 2 diabetes and a HbA1c of 8% or greater who attended 1 of 2 VA Medical Centers in Washington State (n?=?1,286). Validated surv...

  2. Impact of leisure-time physical activity on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizu, Shinako; Kishimoto, Hiro; Iwase, Masanori; Fujii, Hiroki; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ide, Hitoshi; Jodai, Tamaki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2014-01-01

    The effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors are not fully understood in Asian type 2 diabetic patients, who are typically non-obese. We studied associations between LTPA and glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 4,870 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients aged ≥ 20 years were divided into eight groups according to their LTPA. We investigated associations between the amount and intensity levels of physical activity (PA) and glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular risk factors, and low-grade systemic inflammation in a cross-sectional study. LTPA was dose-dependently associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, but not with blood pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol or adiponectin. The amount of PA required to lower HbA1c was greater than that required to improve cardiovascular risk factors. LTPA was inversely associated with HbA1c in non-obese participants but not in obese participants after multivariate adjustments for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, energy intake, cardiovascular diseases, depressive symptoms, and treatment of diabetes. Higher-intensity LTPA, not lower-intensity LTPA was associated with HbA1c after multivariate adjustments with further adjustment including BMI. LTPA was dose-dependently associated with better glycemic control and amelioration of some cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, increased higher-intensity LTPA may be appropriate for glycemic control.

  3. Impact of leisure-time physical activity on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinako Kaizu

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA on glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors are not fully understood in Asian type 2 diabetic patients, who are typically non-obese. We studied associations between LTPA and glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: A total of 4,870 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients aged ≥ 20 years were divided into eight groups according to their LTPA. We investigated associations between the amount and intensity levels of physical activity (PA and glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular risk factors, and low-grade systemic inflammation in a cross-sectional study. RESULTS: LTPA was dose-dependently associated with body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, but not with blood pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol or adiponectin. The amount of PA required to lower HbA1c was greater than that required to improve cardiovascular risk factors. LTPA was inversely associated with HbA1c in non-obese participants but not in obese participants after multivariate adjustments for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, energy intake, cardiovascular diseases, depressive symptoms, and treatment of diabetes. Higher-intensity LTPA, not lower-intensity LTPA was associated with HbA1c after multivariate adjustments with further adjustment including BMI. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: LTPA was dose-dependently associated with better glycemic control and amelioration of some cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, increased higher-intensity LTPA may be appropriate for glycemic control.

  4. Dietary Adherence, Glycemic Control, and Psychological Factors Associated with Binge Eating Among Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Chileans with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbozo, Sylvia; Flynn, Patricia M; Stevens, Serena D; Betancourt, Hector

    2015-12-01

    Despite the strong association between obesity and binge eating, limited research has examined the implications of binge eating on dietary adherence and psychological factors in ethnically diverse type 2 diabetes patients. This study investigated the prevalence of binge eating and its association with dietary adherence, glycemic control, and psychological factors among indigenous and non-indigenous type 2 diabetes patients in Chile. Participants were 387 indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous (non-Mapuche) adults with type 2 diabetes. Self-report measures of binge eating, dietary adherence, diet self-efficacy, body image dissatisfaction, and psychological well-being were administered. Participants' weight, height, and glycemic control (HbA(1c)) were also obtained. Approximately 8 % of the type 2 diabetes patients reported binge eating. The prevalence among Mapuche patients was 4.9 %, and among non-Mapuche patients, it was 9.9 %. Compared to non-binge eaters, binge eating diabetes patients had greater body mass index values, consumed more high-fat foods, were less likely to adhere to their eating plan, and reported poorer body image and emotional well-being. Results of this study extend previous research by examining the co-occurrence of binge eating and type 2 diabetes as well as the associated dietary behaviors, glycemic control, and psychological factors among indigenous and non-indigenous patients in Chile. These findings may increase our understanding of the health challenges faced by indigenous populations from other countries and highlight the need for additional research that may inform interventions addressing binge eating in diverse patients with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Andersen, Malene R

    2011-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance.......Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance....

  6. Intermittent Vagal Nerve Block for Improvements in Obesity, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: 2-Year Results of the VBLOC DM2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikora, Scott A; Toouli, James; Herrera, Miguel F; Kulseng, Bård; Brancatisano, Roy; Kow, Lilian; Pantoja, Juan P; Johnsen, Gjermund; Brancatisano, Anthony; Tweden, Katherine S; Knudson, Mark B; Billington, Charles J; Billingto, Charles J

    2016-05-01

    One-year results of the VBLOC DM2 study found that intermittent vagal blocking (VBLOC therapy) was safe among subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and led to significant weight loss and improvements in glycemic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. Longer-term data are needed to determine whether the results are sustained. VBLOC DM2 is a prospective, observational study of 28 subjects with T2DM and body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m(2) to assess mid-term safety and weight loss and improvements in glycemic parameters, and other cardiovascular risk factors with VBLOC therapy. Continuous outcome variables are reported using mixed models. At 24 months, the mean percentage of excess weight loss was 22% (95% CI, 15 to 28, p obesity and glycemic control were largely sustained after 2 years of treatment with VBLOC therapy with a well-tolerated risk profile.

  7. Hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy: Predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, Cristiana; Monteiro, Francisco; Oliveira, Pedro; Ribeiro, Leandro; de Almeida, Mário Giesteira; Condé, Artur

    To evaluate the incidence and predictive factors for transient and permanent hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy. We studied all the 162 patients that underwent thyroid surgery in the ENT department of the Centro Hospitalar Vila Nova Gaia/Espinho from January 2005 to December 2014. We reviewed pre-operative, 6h and 12h after surgery ionized calcium and PTH levels. All patients were reviewed and evaluated according to the following criteria: gender, age, thyroid function, histologic diagnosis of the specimen, surgery extension and presence or absence of hypoparathyroidism. There were 31 (19.1%) cases of transient hypoparathyroidism and 8 (5%) of permanent hypoparathyroidism. No significant difference was found for transient hypoparathyroidism when patients were analyzed by gender. However, all cases of permanent hypoparathyroidism were observed in female individuals. Comparing hemithyroidectomy with all other surgical procedures, we found that extension of surgery was a great predictor of transient (p=0.0001) and permanent (p=0.001) hypoparathyroidism. Diagnosis of malignancy was a strong predictor of transient hypoparathyroidism (p=0.002). It was also associated with permanent hypoparathyroidism, although differences did not reach statistical significance (p=0.096). Extension of surgery (total thyroidectomy) and diagnosis of malignancy are predictors of transient and permanent hypoparathyroidism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiroki; Iwase, Masanori; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ogata-Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Joudai, Tamaki; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2013-12-11

    Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations between dietary fiber intake and various cardiovascular risk factors were investigated cross-sectionally. Body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein negatively associated with dietary fiber intake after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, total energy intake, fat intake, saturated fatty acid intake, leisure-time physical activity and use of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. The homeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol positively associated with dietary fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome after multivariate adjustments including obesity. Furthermore, dietary fiber intake was associated with lower prevalence of albuminuria, low estimated glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease after multivariate adjustments including protein intake. Additional adjustments for obesity, hypertension or metabolic syndrome did not change these associations. We demonstrated that increased dietary fiber intake was associated with better glycemic control and more favorable cardiovascular disease risk factors including chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients should be encouraged to consume more dietary fiber in daily life.

  9. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Gloede, Lise; Jaster, Brent; Seidl, Kim; Green, Amber A; Talpers, Stanley

    2006-08-01

    We sought to investigate whether a low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Individuals with type 2 diabetes (n = 99) were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines (n = 50). Participants were evaluated at baseline and 22 weeks. Forty-three percent (21 of 49) of the vegan group and 26% (13 of 50) of the ADA group participants reduced diabetes medications. Including all participants, HbA(1c) (A1C) decreased 0.96 percentage points in the vegan group and 0.56 points in the ADA group (P = 0.089). Excluding those who changed medications, A1C fell 1.23 points in the vegan group compared with 0.38 points in the ADA group (P = 0.01). Body weight decreased 6.5 kg in the vegan group and 3.1 kg in the ADA group (P vegan group and 10.7% in the ADA group (P = 0.02). After adjustment for baseline values, urinary albumin reductions were greater in the vegan group (15.9 mg/24 h) than in the ADA group (10.9 mg/24 h) (P = 0.013). Both a low-fat vegan diet and a diet based on ADA guidelines improved glycemic and lipid control in type 2 diabetic patients. These improvements were greater with a low-fat vegan diet.

  10. A model of parental distress and factors that mediate its link with parental monitoring of youth diabetes care, adherence, and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elizabeth M; Weaver, Patrick; Chen, Rusan; Streisand, Randi; Holmes, Clarissa S

    2016-12-01

    Parental monitoring of adolescents' diabetes self-care is associated with better adherence and glycemic control (A1c). A number of parent-level factors are associated with higher levels of parental monitoring, including lower levels of parental distress (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety), as well as higher levels of parental self-efficacy for diabetes management and authoritative parenting. Often studied in isolation, these factors may be best considered simultaneously as they are interrelated and are associated with parental monitoring and youth adherence. Structural equation modeling with a cross-sectional sample of 257 parent/youth (aged 11-14) dyads: (a) examined a broad model of parental factors (i.e., parental distress, parental diabetes self-efficacy, authoritative parenting), and (b) assessed their relation to parental monitoring, youth adherence, and A1c. Post hoc analyses of variance (ANOVAs) evaluated clinical implications of daily parental monitoring. Parental distress was not related directly to parental monitoring. Instead less distress related indirectly to more monitoring via higher parental self-efficacy and more authoritative parenting which, in turn, related to better adherence and A1c. Higher parental self-efficacy also related directly to better youth adherence and then to better A1c. Clinically, more parental monitoring related to more daily blood glucose checks and to better A1c (8.48% vs. 9.17%). A broad model of parent-level factors revealed more parental distress was linked only indirectly to less monitoring via lower parental self-efficacy and less authoritative parenting. Behaviorally, more parental monitoring related to better adherence and to clinically better A1c in adolescents. Further study of parent-level factors that relate to parental distress and monitoring of adherence appears warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Association of adherence to a Mediterranean diet with glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in youth with type I diabetes: the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, V W; Lamichhane, A P; Crandell, J L; Couch, S C; Liese, A D; The, N S; Tzeel, B A; Dabelea, D; Lawrence, J M; Marcovina, S M; Kim, G; Mayer-Davis, E J

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between a Mediterranean diet and glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors among youth with type I diabetes (TID). Incident TID cases aged Mediterranean diet score was assessed using a modified KIDMED index (mKIDMED). Multivariate linear regression and longitudinal mixed model were applied to determine the association between mKIDMED score and log-HbA1c, lipids, blood pressure (BP) and obesity. In cross-sectional analyses using baseline data, for individuals with the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 7.5%, a two-point higher mKIDMED score (1 s.d.) was associated with 0.15% lower HbA1c (P=0.02). A two-point higher mKIDMED score was associated with 4.0 mg/dl lower total cholesterol (TC) (P=0.006), 3.4 mg/dl lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P=0.004), 3.9 mg/dl lower non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) (P=0.004) and 0.07 lower LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (P=0.02). Using longitudinal data, a two-point increase in mKIDMED score was associated with 0.01% lower log-HbA1c (P=0.07), 1.8 mg/dl lower TC (P=0.05), 1.6 mg/dl lower LDL-C (P=0.03) and 1.8 mg/dl lower non-HDL-C (P=0.03) than would otherwise have been expected. HbA1c mediated ∼20% of the association for lipids in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models. An unexpected positive association between mKIDMED score and systolic BP was found among non-Hispanic white youth in cross-sectional analyses (P=0.009). Mediterranean diet was not associated with obesity. Mediterranean diet may improve glycemic control and cardiovascular health in TID youth.

  12. Association of adherence to a Mediterranean diet with glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in youth with type 1 diabetes: The SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Victor W.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Couch, Sarah C.; Liese, Angela D.; The, Natalie S.; Tzeel, Benjamin A.; Dabelea, Dana; Lawrence, Jean M.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Kim, Grace; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives This study aimed to determine the association between a Mediterranean diet and glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors among youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Subjects/Methods Incident T1D cases aged Mediterranean diet score was assessed using a modified KIDMED index (mKIDMED). Multivariate linear regression and longitudinal mixed model were applied to determine the association between mKIDMED score and log-HbA1c, lipids, blood pressure (BP), and obesity. Results In cross-sectional analyses using baseline data, for individuals with an HbA1c of 7.5%, a two-point higher mKIDMED score (one standard deviation) was associated with 0.15% lower HbA1c (P=0.02). A two-point higher mKIDMED score was associated with 4.0 mg/dL lower total cholesterol (TC) (P=0.006), 3.4 mg/dL lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C (P=0.004), 3.9 mg/dL lower non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL)-C (P=0.004), and 0.07 lower LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (P=0.02). Using longitudinal data, a two-point increase in mKIDMED score was associated with 0.01% lower log-HbA1c (P=0.07), 1.8 mg/dL lower TC (P=0.05), 1.6 mg/dL lower LDL-C (P=0.03), and 1.8 mg/dL lower non-HDL-C (P=0.03) than would otherwise have been expected. HbA1c mediated about 20% of the association for lipids in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models. An unexpected positive association between mKIDMED score and systolic BP was found among non-Hispanic white youth in cross-sectional analyses (P=0.009). Mediterranean diet was not associated with obesity. Conclusions Mediterranean diet may improve glycemic control and cardiovascular health in T1D youth. PMID:26908421

  13. Evaluation of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese communities: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shan; Gu, Liubao; Lou, Qinglin; Ouyang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yun; Wu, Haidi; Bian, Rongwen

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic levels in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to explore the factors related to the results of glycemic control. A total of 2454 T2DM patients from 11 communities were examined for glycosylated hemoglobin levels and glycemic control options. Potential factors related to the results of glycemic control were analyzed using logistic regression. Of all the patients, 55.3 % achieved the glycemic control target of HbA1c diet and exercise, insulin injection was most strongly associated with poor glycemic control (OR 6.210, 95 % CI 4.054-9.514; P diabetic durations showed poor glycemic control, which was not found in female patients. Glycemic control was not satisfactory in T2DM patients of Nanjing communities. Various factors are associated with poor results of glycemic control.

  14. Predicting the effectiveness of insulin pump therapy on glycemic control in clinical practice: a retrospective study of patients with type 1 diabetes from 10 outpatient diabetes clinics in Sweden over 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Mark; Matuleviciene, Viktorija; Attvall, Stig; Ekelund, Magnus; Pivodic, Aldina; Dahlqvist, Sofia; Fahlén, Martin; Haraldsson, Börje; Lind, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Multicenter long-term studies of predictors for the effectiveness of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in clinical practice are lacking. We hypothesized that there are substantially greater reductions in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in patients with poor glycemic control and that other predictors may also exist. We used data from 10 outpatient diabetic clinics in Sweden and studied CSII treatment over 5 years. Patients with HbA1c values available ≤ 6 months before starting CSII and at 5 years were included (n = 272, 82% of CSII patients) along with 2,437 contemporaneous controls on multiple daily insulin injections (MDI). Baseline variables evaluated were age, sex, diabetes duration, insulin dose, body mass index (BMI), HbA1c at baseline, and outpatient clinical care unit. At 5 years, significantly greater reductions in HbA1c by CSII compared with MDI were found for patients with higher baseline HbA1c (P = 0.032) and lower baseline BMI (P = 0.013). For baseline HbA1c levels of 7.0%, 8.0%, and 9.0% and a BMI of 25 kg/m(2), the reduction in HbA1c level by CSII was 0.08% (difference not significant), 0.16% (95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.29%), and 0.25% (95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.39%), respectively. Corresponding analyses for the change in HbA1c level from start to 1 and 2 years revealed a significant interaction of insulin pump therapy only with baseline HbA1c levels (P pump therapy, but effects remain relatively modest even for patients with poor control. Factors predicting successful insulin pump use need further study.

  15. [Glycemic variability and continuous monitoring of glycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prázný, Martin; Soupal, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Blood glucose levels are not constant in ther human body even in physiological status. It fluctuates depending on food intake, exercise, psychological and other factors. Normally it fluctuates between 3.9 to 7.5 mmol/l and in fasting in the standard conditions it does not exceed even more narrow range 3.9 to 5.5 mmol/l. Fluctuations are more pronounced in patient with diabetes. Hyperglycemia is a common and basic pathology in diabetes, however, antidiabetic drug often cause hypoglycemia, both increasing the range for glucose fluctuations. The level of glucose fluctuation is called glycemic variability (GV). Glycemic variability is now a favorite target of scientific research in dia-betology. Increased glycemic variability is associated with hypoglycemia, possibly may contribute to chronic dia-betes complications and negatively influences quality of life of diabetic patients. Last but not least, thanks to the new technology of continuous glucose monitoring, we can better describe and measure it. Finally, glycemic variability emerges as a potentially important therapeutical target.Key words: continuous glucose monitoring - glycemic variability - insulin pump - sensor augmented pump.

  16. Complexity factors and prediction of performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braarud, Per Oeyvind

    1998-03-01

    Understanding of what makes a control room situation difficult to handle is important when studying operator performance, both with respect to prediction as well as improvement of the human performance. A factor analytic approach identified eight factors from operators' answers to an 39 item questionnaire about complexity of the operator's task in the control room. A Complexity Profiling Questionnaire was developed, based on the factor analytic results from the operators' conception of complexity. The validity of the identified complexity factors was studied by prediction of crew performance and prediction of plant performance from ratings of the complexity of scenarios. The scenarios were rated by both process experts and the operators participating in the scenarios, using the Complexity Profiling Questionnaire. The process experts' complexity ratings predicted both crew performance and plant performance, while the operators' rating predicted plant performance only. The results reported are from initial studies of complexity, and imply a promising potential for further studies of the concept. The approach used in the study as well as the reported results are discussed. A chapter about the structure of the conception of complexity, and a chapter about further research conclude the report. (author)

  17. Low-glycemic-load diets: impact on obesity and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Stacey J; Sears, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Historically, carbohydrates have been thought to play only a minor role in promoting weight gain and in predicting the risk of development of chronic disease. Most of the focus had been on reducing total dietary fat. During the last 20 years, fat intake decreased, while the number of individuals who were overweight or developed a chronic conditions have dramatically increased. Simultaneously, the calories coming from carbohydrate have also increased. Carbohydrates can be classified by their post-prandial glycemic effect, called the glycemic index or glycemic load. Carbohydrates with high glycemic indexes and high glycemic loads produce substantial increases in blood glucose and insulin levels after ingestion. Within a few hours after their consumption, blood sugar levels begin to decline rapidly due to an exaggerated increase in insulin secretion. A profound state of hunger is created. The continued intake of high-glycemic load meals is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. In this review, the terms glycemic index and glycemic load are defined, coupled with an overview of short- and long-term changes that occur from eating diets of different glycemic indexes and glycemic loads. Finally, practical strategies for how to design low-glycemic-load diets consisting primarily of low-glycemic carbohydrates are provided.

  18. Glycemic variability: Clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi Venkata Satya Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycemic control and its benefits in preventing microvascular diabetic complications are convincingly proved by various prospective trials. Diabetes control and complications trial (DCCT had reported variable glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C as a cause of increased microvascular complications in conventional glycemic control group versus intensive one. However, in spite of several indirect evidences, its link with cardiovascular events or macrovascular complications is still not proved. Glycemic variability (GV is one more tool to explain relation between hyperglycemia and increased cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. In fact GV along with fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, HbA1C, and quality of life has been proposed to form glycemic pentad, which needs to be considered in diabetes management. Postprandial spikes in blood glucose as well as hypoglycemic events, both are blamed for increased cardiovascular events in Type 2 diabetics. GV includes both these events and hence minimizing GV can prevent future cardiovascular events. Modern diabetes management modalities including improved sulfonylureas, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1-based therapy, newer basal insulins, and modern insulin pumps address the issue of GV effectively. This article highlights mechanism, clinical implications, and measures to control GV in clinical practice.

  19. Examining Factors Predicting Students' Digital Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlevik, Ove Edvard; Guðmundsdóttir, Gréta Björk; Loi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting lower secondary school students' digital competence and to explore differences between students when it comes to digital competence. Results from a digital competence test and survey in lower secondary school will be presented. It is important to learn more about and investigate what…

  20. Relationship between adherence to diet, glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 1 diabetes: a nationwide survey in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the relationship between adherence to the diet reported by patients with type 1 diabetes under routine clinical care in Brazil, and demographic, socioeconomic status, glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted between December 2008 and December 2010 in 28 public clinics in 20 Brazilian cities. The data was obtained from 3,180 patients, aged 22 ± 11.8 years (56.3% females, 57.4% Caucasians and 43.6% non-Caucasians). The mean time since diabetes diagnosis was 11.7 ± 8.1 years. Results Overall, 1,722 (54.2%) of the patients reported to be adherent to the diet without difference in gender, duration of diabetes and socioeconomic status. Patients who reported adherence to the diet had lower BMI, HbA1c, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, non HDL-cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure and had more HbA1c at goal, performed more frequently self-monitoring of blood glucose (p diet plans (p patients who reported to be adherent were obese or overweight (p = 0.005). The quantity of food and time schedule of the meals were the most frequent complaints. Logistic regression analysis showed that ethnicity, (Caucasians, (OR 1.26 [1.09-1.47]), number of medical clinical visits in the last year (OR 1.10 [1.06-1.15]), carbohydrate counting, (OR 2.22 [1.49-3.30]) and diets recommended by diabetes societies’, (OR 1.57 [1.02-2.41]) were related to greater patients’ adherence (p patients’ adherence (p patients to overcome barriers that impair an optimized adherence to the diet. PMID:24607084

  1. Profiles and factors associated with poor glycemic control among inpatients with diabetes mellitus type 2 as a primary diagnosis in a teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniza Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Diabetes mellitus is a growing health problem in most countries. In Malaysia, there was an increase in prevalence over the years. This makes diabetes also a growing concern in Malaysia, which warrants strengthening of the prevention and control programme. Aims: This paper aims to describe the profiles of diabetes mellitus type 2 in tertiary setting and to identify the risk factors for high level of HbA1c among the study population. The findings will give a glimpse on current status of diabetes in our country and may reflect the achievement of the country in combating this disease. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in UKM Medical Centre. Methods and Material: Medical records of patient with E11 ICD-10 code were collected using Case Report Form. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis done of mean and median while test of association were done using Spearman correlation and logistic regression. Results: The results showed that majority of inpatients of DMT2 showed mean age of 58.8 + 12.6 years and most were males (56.7% with secondary level of education (41.7%. Median duration of disease was 12.0 + 11.0 years with median HbA1c level of 8.9 ± 4.4%. Only small proportion of patients achieved the desired level of HbA1c <6.5% (21.3% and significant association was found with tertiary level of education [AOR=0.10, 95%CI=0.01-0.96] and with type of anti-diabetic therapy [AOR=15.90, 95%CI=2.03-124.30]. Conclusions: In conclusion, diabetes mellitus type 2 inpatients still showed unsatisfactory glycemic control and holistic approach using health education should be advocated continuously in the future in view of education being one of the predictors for the good HbA1c outcome.

  2. Glycemic Status in Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S; Nanda, R; Mangaraj, M; Rathod, P K; Mishra, P K

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphorus(OP) poisoning, in addition to its cholinergic manifestations shows metabolic derangements leading to hyperglycemia. Apart from inhibiting acetylcholinesterase it also induces oxidative stress to exhibit this manifestation. The present study aims to assess the glycemic status of OP poisoned patients and its association with various factors in OP poisoning like oxidative stress and dose of atropine. This is a prospective study which recruited 102 patients above 18 years of age with history of OP poisoning. They were categorized into 3 grades-mild, moderate and severe based on the Peradeniya Organophosphorus Poisining Scale. The routine biochemical parameters along with serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and cholinesterase were estimated in the study group. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria were observed, with majority cases of hyperglycemia (57%) noticed in the severe group. There was a rise in the random plasma glucose (RPG), serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total dose of atropine across the groups along with a fall in the serum cholinesterase with increase in severity of poisoning. The fall in plasma glucose at the time of discharge was significant in all three groups when compared to the admission random plasma glucose(RPG) level. This transient hyperglycemia exhibited a significant positive association with serum MDA and dose of atropine administered during treatment (p<0.05). Glycemic status in OP poisoning may play a role in identifying the severity of poisoning at the time of admission.

  3. Predictive factors for early menarche in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chie, W C; Liu, Y H; Chi, J; Wu, V; Chen, A

    1997-06-01

    The rapid increase of breast cancer in Taiwan has prompted the authors to evaluate the predictive factors of early menarche among contemporary Taiwanese girls. A total of 895 four-grade girls from eight elementary schools in Taipei City and County were identified as a closed cohort from the first semester of 1993. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires and school records. A total of 799 girls who had not menstruated in the first year remained in the group through 1994. The effects of potential predictive factors were assessed by logistic regression. Among the 799 girls followed, 69 (8.6%) had first menstruation between the fourth and fifth grades. Height, weight, body mass index and maternal early onset of menarche were positively related to the onset of menarche within the preceding year. Energy consumption during exercise showed only moderate association after being adjusted for age and weight. Calorie intake from junk food was not associated with early menarche within the preceding year. Poor interpersonal family relationships and stressful life events also showed a moderate association with early menarche. The data obtained supported the hypothesis that height, weight, body mass index and maternal early menarche are positive predictive factors of early menarche. The effects of exercise and childhood stress are less prominent.

  4. Achieving glycemic control in special populations in hospital: perspectives in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice Y Y

    2014-04-01

    Achieving and maintaining glycemic control in patients with diabetes admitted to hospital is challenging because of the many competing factors of nutrition, pharmacotherapy and other patient-related and systemic factors. For patients receiving enteral or parenteral feeding, eating irregularly or receiving glucocorticoid therapy, the challenges are even greater. The basic principles to follow when managing glycemia in these populations are as follows: 1) Recognition of those at risk for hyperglycemia; 2) frequent bedside glucose monitoring; 3) a proactive approach with routine insulin administration based on the predicted glucose patterns; 4) constant reassessment of the glycemic status and titration of the routine insulin accordingly. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Shoulder dystocia: risk factors, predictability, and preventability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shobha H; Sokol, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Shoulder dystocia remains an unpredictable obstetric emergency, striking fear in the hearts of obstetricians both novice and experienced. While outcomes that lead to permanent injury are rare, almost all obstetricians with enough years of practice have participated in a birth with a severe shoulder dystocia and are at least aware of cases that have resulted in significant neurologic injury or even neonatal death. This is despite many years of research trying to understand the risk factors associated with it, all in an attempt primarily to characterize when the risk is high enough to avoid vaginal delivery altogether and prevent a shoulder dystocia, whose attendant morbidities are estimated to be at a rate as high as 16-48%. The study of shoulder dystocia remains challenging due to its generally retrospective nature, as well as dependence on proper identification and documentation. As a result, the prediction of shoulder dystocia remains elusive, and the cost of trying to prevent one by performing a cesarean delivery remains high. While ultimately it is the injury that is the key concern, rather than the shoulder dystocia itself, it is in the presence of an identified shoulder dystocia that occurrence of injury is most common. The majority of shoulder dystocia cases occur without major risk factors. Moreover, even the best antenatal predictors have a low positive predictive value. Shoulder dystocia therefore cannot be reliably predicted, and the only preventative measure is cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of glycemic control and variability in patients with type 2 and posttransplantation diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werzowa, Johannes; Pacini, Giovanni; Hecking, Manfred; Fidler, Catharina; Haidinger, Michael; Brath, Helmut; Thomas, Andreas; Säemann, Marcus D; Tura, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication after renal transplantation leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) increased glycemic variability and poor glycemic control have been associated with cardiovascular complications. We therefore aimed at determining glycemic variability and glycemic control in subjects with PTDM in comparison to T2DM subjects. In this observational study we analyzed 10 transplanted subjects without diabetes (Control), 10 transplanted subjects with PTDM, and 8 non-transplanted T2DM subjects using Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM). Several indices of glycemic control quality and variability were computed. Many indices of both glycemic control quality and variability were different between control and PTDM subjects, with worse values in PTDM. The indices of glycemic control, such as glucose mean, GRADE and M-value, were similar in PTDM and T2DM, but some indices of glycemic variability, that is CONGA, lability index and shape index, showed a markedly higher (i.e., worse) value in T2DM than in PTDM (P value range: 0.001-0.035). Although PTDM and T2DM subjects showed similar glycemic control quality, glycemic variability was significantly higher in T2DM. These data underscore potential important pathophysiological differences between T2DM and PTDM indicating that increased glycemic variability may not be a key factor for the excess cardiovascular mortality in patients with PTDM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancement of a modified Mediterranean-style, low glycemic load diet with specific phytochemicals improves cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with metabolic syndrome and hypercholesterolemia in a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babish John G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the worldwide dietary pattern becomes more westernized, the metabolic syndrome is reaching epidemic proportions. Lifestyle modifications including diet and exercise are recommended as first-line intervention for treating metabolic syndrome. Previously, we reported that a modified Mediterranean-style, low glycemic load diet with soy protein and phytosterols had a more favorable impact than the American Heart Association Step 1 diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors. Subsequently, we screened for phytochemicals with a history of safe use that were capable of increasing insulin sensitivity through modulation of protein kinases, and identified hops rho iso-alpha acid and acacia proanthocyanidins. The objective of this study was to investigate whether enhancement of a modified Mediterranean-style, low glycemic load diet (MED with specific phytochemicals (soy protein, phytosterols, rho iso-alpha acids and proanthocyanidins; PED could improve cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with metabolic syndrome and hypercholesterolemia. Methods Forty-nine subjects with metabolic syndrome and hypercholesterolemia, aged 25–80, entered a randomized, 2-arm, 12-week intervention trial; 23 randomized to the MED arm; 26 to the PED arm. Forty-four subjects completed at least 8 weeks [MED (n = 19; PED (n = 25]. All subjects were instructed to follow the same aerobic exercise program. Three-day diet diaries and 7-day exercise diaries were assessed at each visit. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline, 8 and 12 weeks for analysis. Results Both arms experienced equal weight loss (MED: -5.7 kg; PED: -5.9 kg. However, at 12 weeks, the PED arm experienced greater reductions (P P P P P Conclusion These results demonstrate that specific phytochemical supplementation increased the effectiveness of the modified Mediterranean-style low glycemic load dietary program on variables associated with metabolic syndrome and CVD.

  8. [Predictive factors for acute radiation pneumonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpin, D; Mahé, M-A; Servois, V; Claude, L

    2009-06-01

    Thoracic irradiation is a major weapon in the treatment of nonmetastatic primary lung cancer, in particular in patients presenting a locally advanced disease of the mediastinium. Acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP) is one of the main limiting toxicities. The purpose of this work is to sum up the current state of knowledge of the factors of risk of developing ARP. The incidence after conventional irradiation, in patients with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is about 7 to 10% in the moderate although symptomatic forms of ARP and about 1 to 3% in the severe forms. The factors related to the patient, the tumour or treatments prior to the irradiation do not determine any specific risk of ARP besides an age of over 65 years that remains debatable. The validated predictive factors of ARP are mainly related to the irradiation factors (healthy lung volumes irradiated, average dose of irradiation, etc.). Nevertheless, in spite of the adjustment of these parameters, the individual susceptibility to the toxicity of thoracic radiotherapy remains significant, directing current research to the biological markers intrinsic to the patient. In particular, the involvement of early variations of certain cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TGF-ss) in the occurrence of ARP during irradiation has been suggested and studies are under way to confirm their involvement and determine their role.

  9. Malnutrition predicting factors in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Soodeh Razeghi; Hosseini, Saeed; Razeghi, Effat; Meysamie, Ali pasha; Sadrzadeh, Haleh

    2010-09-01

    Malnutrition is a predictor of increased mortality in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Various factors may contribute to malnutrition in these patients including energy and protein intake, inflammation, and comorbidity. To determine the importance of these factors in malnutrition of chronic HD patients, we studied 112 chronic HD patients in two centers was evaluated with the Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS) and anthropometric and biochemical indices. Seventy six (67.8%) patients were classified as malnourished. According to DMS score, poor protein intake (r= -0.34, Penergy intake (r= - 0.18, Pmalnutrition in descending order of importance. Multiple regression analysis showed that only poor protein intake was the explanatory variable of anthropometric measurements decline including body mass index, triceps skin fold thick-ness, mid arm circumference, mid arm muscle circumference, fat free mass, fat mass, albumin, creatinine and transferrine. None of the mentioned factors predicted the decrease of biochemical markers. We conclude that the frequency of malnutrition is high in our population and poor protein intake is the primary contributing factor for this condition. Therefore, providing enough protein may be a simple and effective way in preventing malnutrition in these patients.

  10. Examining Factors Predicting Students’ Digital Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ove Edvard Hatlevik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting lower secondary school students’ digital competence and to explore differences between students when it comes to digital competence. Results from a digital competence test and survey in lower secondary school will be presented. It is important to learn more about and investigate what characterizes students’ digital competence. A sample of 852 ninth-grade Norwegian students from 38 schools participated in the study. The students answered a 26 item multiple-choice digital competence test and a self-report questionnaire about family background, motivation, and previous grades. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model of the hypothesised relationship between family background, mastery orientation, previous achievements, and digital competence. The results indicate variation in digital competence among the ninth-graders. Further, analyses showed that students’ conditions at home, i.e., language integration and cultural capital, together with mastery orientation and academic achievements predict students digital competence. This study indicates that that there is evidence of digital diversity between lower secondary students. It does not seem like the development of digital competence among the students happens automatically. Students’ family background and school performance are the most important factors. Therefore, as this study shows, it is necessary to further investigate how schools can identify students’ level of competence and to develop plans and actions for how schools can help to try to equalize differences.

  11. Acute effect of meal glycemic index and glycemic load on blood glucose and insulin responses in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Erik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Foods with contrasting glycemic index when incorporated into a meal, are able to differentially modify glycemia and insulinemia. However, little is known about whether this is dependent on the size of the meal. The purposes of this study were: i to determine if the differential impact on blood glucose and insulin responses induced by contrasting GI foods is similar when provided in meals of different sizes, and; ii to determine the relationship between the total meal glycemic load and the observed serum glucose and insulin responses. Methods Twelve obese women (BMI 33.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 were recruited. Subjects received 4 different meals in random order. Two meals had a low glycemic index (40–43% and two had a high-glycemic index (86–91%. Both meal types were given as two meal sizes with energy supply corresponding to 23% and 49% of predicted basal metabolic rate. Thus, meals with three different glycemic loads (95, 45–48 and 22 g were administered. Blood samples were taken before and after each meal to determine glucose, free-fatty acids, insulin and glucagon concentrations over a 5-h period. Results An almost 2-fold higher serum glucose and insulin incremental area under the curve (AUC over 2 h for the high- versus low-glycemic index same sized meals was observed (p Conclusion This study showed that foods of contrasting glycemic index induced a proportionally comparable difference in serum insulin response when provided in both small and large meals. The same was true for the serum glucose response but only in large meals. Glycemic load was useful in predicting the acute impact on blood glucose and insulin responses within the context of mixed meals.

  12. Acute effect of meal glycemic index and glycemic load on blood glucose and insulin responses in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, José; Aguirre, Carolina; Díaz, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Objective Foods with contrasting glycemic index when incorporated into a meal, are able to differentially modify glycemia and insulinemia. However, little is known about whether this is dependent on the size of the meal. The purposes of this study were: i) to determine if the differential impact on blood glucose and insulin responses induced by contrasting GI foods is similar when provided in meals of different sizes, and; ii) to determine the relationship between the total meal glycemic load and the observed serum glucose and insulin responses. Methods Twelve obese women (BMI 33.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2) were recruited. Subjects received 4 different meals in random order. Two meals had a low glycemic index (40–43%) and two had a high-glycemic index (86–91%). Both meal types were given as two meal sizes with energy supply corresponding to 23% and 49% of predicted basal metabolic rate. Thus, meals with three different glycemic loads (95, 45–48 and 22 g) were administered. Blood samples were taken before and after each meal to determine glucose, free-fatty acids, insulin and glucagon concentrations over a 5-h period. Results An almost 2-fold higher serum glucose and insulin incremental area under the curve (AUC) over 2 h for the high- versus low-glycemic index same sized meals was observed (p < 0.05), however, for the serum glucose response in small meals this was not significant (p = 0.38). Calculated meal glycemic load was associated with 2 and 5 h serum glucose (r = 0.58, p < 0.01) and insulin (r = 0.54, p < 0.01) incremental and total AUC. In fact, when comparing the two meals with similar glycemic load but differing carbohydrate amount and type, very similar serum glucose and insulin responses were found. No differences were observed for serum free-fatty acids and glucagon profile in response to meal glycemic index. Conclusion This study showed that foods of contrasting glycemic index induced a proportionally comparable difference in serum insulin response when

  13. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, fiber, simple sugars, and insulin resistance - The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Cathrine; Pedersen, Oluf; Færch, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index daily glycemic, load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The inter99 study is a nonpharmacolo......OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index daily glycemic, load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The inter99 study...... is a nonpharmacological intervention study. We used baseline data and examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors and an estimate of insulin resistance in 5,675 subjects at 30 - 60 years. The dietary intake was estimated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire......, and insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Multiple regressions were performed with HOMA-IR as the dependent variable and carbohydrate-related factors as explanatory variables. All models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity...

  14. Predictive factors for immunotherapy in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidó, Cristina; González-Cao, Maria; Karachaliou, Niki; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-09-01

    Immunotherapy has emerged as an exciting strategy for cancer treatment. Therapeutic blockade of immune checkpoint regulators favors the ability of T cell responses to increase anti-tumor immunity. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) are two T cell-inhibitory receptors with independent mechanisms of action. Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting either CTLA-4, PD-1 or its ligand PD-L1 are currently yielding promising results in terms of efficacy in several clinical studies with melanoma patients and are being developed and tested as immunotherapy agents for multiple cancer types. To date, no reliable predictors of activity and efficacy of immunotherapy have yet been identified or validated. Even so, determining which patients derive clinical benefit from immune checkpoint agents remains an important clinical question and efforts to identify predictive markers of response are ongoing. This article reviews the current potential predictive factors for CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoints inhibitors in melanoma.

  15. Prevalence and predictive factors of post-traumatic hypopituitarism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, M; Juul, A; Poulsgaard, L

    2007-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and predictive factors of hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury (TBI).......To estimate the prevalence and predictive factors of hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury (TBI)....

  16. Predictors of glycemic control among patients with Type 2 diabetes: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philis-Tsimikas Athena

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death and results in significant morbidity. The purpose of this study is to determine what demographic, health status, treatment, access/quality of care, and behavioral factors are associated with poor glycemic control in a Type 2 diabetic, low-income, minority, San Diego population. Methods Longitudinal observational data was collected on patients with Type 2 diabetes from Project Dulce, a program in San Diego County designed to care for an underserved diabetic population. The study sample included 573 patients with a racial/ethnic mix of 53% Hispanic, 7% black, 18% Asian, 20% white, and 2% other. We utilized mixed effects models to determine the factors associated with poor glycemic control using hemoglobin A1C (A1C as the outcome of interest. A multi-step model building process was used resulting in a final parsimonious model with main effects and interaction terms. Results Patients had a mean age of 55 years, 69% were female, the mean duration of diabetes was 7.1 years, 31% were treated with insulin, and 57% were obese. American Diabetes Association (ADA recommendations for blood pressure and total cholesterol were met by 71% and 68%, respectively. Results of the mixed effects model showed that patients who were uninsured, had diabetes for a longer period of time, used insulin or multiple oral agents, or had high cholesterol had higher A1C values over time indicating poorer glycemic control. The younger subjects also had poorer control. Conclusion This study provides factors that predict glycemic control in a specific low-income, multiethnic, Type 2 diabetic population. With this information, subgroups with high risk of disease morbidity were identified. Barriers that prevent these patients from meeting their goals must be explored to improve health outcomes.

  17. A 13-week low glycemic load diet and lifestyle modification program combining low glycemic load protein shakes and targeted nutraceuticals improved weight loss and cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Babish, John G; Lamb, Joseph J; Eliason, Sarah; Brabazon, Holly; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Tripp, Matthew L

    2017-12-01

    An open-label, randomized, exploratory study of 44 healthy overweight subjects with cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) risk factors was conducted to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of a proprietary lifestyle modification program without (DIET) and with (PROG) targeted nutraceutical supplementation, including phytosterols, antioxidants, probiotics, fish oil, berberine, and soy, pea, and whey proteins over 13 weeks. Key metrics were recorded at baseline and weeks 9 and 13. For the DIET and PROG groups, compliance was 85% and 86%, respectively, with no adverse events related to the diet or supplements. Twelve subjects discontinued participation before week 9 for reasons unrelated to the study. PROG subjects experienced greater decreases (p < 0.05) than DIET in body mass, fat mass, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, TG, cholesterol / HDL ratio, TG/HDL ratio, apolipoprotein B / apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and hs-CRP. The Framingham 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score decreased by 40% (p < 0.01) in the PROG arm versus no change for the DIET arm. As a pilot study, it was not possible to state whether the observed effects were the result of nutraceutical supplementation alone or the result of additive or synergistic interactions among diet, lifestyle modifications, and nutraceutical supplementation. Moreover, individuals with CMS risk factors following a lifestyle modification program received additional health benefits from targeted nutraceutical supplementation.

  18. Honey and Glycemic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Silici

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Honey is a natural substance produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera L. from the nectar of blossoms or from secretions of living parts of plants or excretions of plant sucking insects on the living parts of plants, which honeybees collect, transform and combine with specific substances of their own, store and leave in the honey comb to ripen and mature. Besides being of carbohydrate-rich food, honey has been used as a functional food for its potential health benefits. To explain how different kinds of carbohydrate-rich foods directly affect blood sugar, the researchers developed the concept of the “glycemic index” (GI that ranks carbohydrates on a scale based on how quickly and how much they raise blood sugar levels after eating. The diet should include adequate and healthy balance of nutrients, and according to many health professionals the concept of GI provides a useful means of selecting the most appropriate carbohydrate containing foods for the maintenance of health and the treatment of several disease states. There have been some studies on determining the GI of honey. Further more, we need to determine the GI of various honey types with different botanical and geografical origin. Researches on the issue will serve to bring awareness in the public consciousness.

  19. Metabolic Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Correlated Glycemic Control/Complications: A Cross-Sectional Study between Rural and Urban Uygur Residents in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guo-Li; Su, Yin-Xia; Yao, Hua; Zhu, Jun; Ma, Qi; Tuerdi, Ablikm; He, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Xiao, Shan; Wang, Shu-Xia; Su, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a major global public health problem driven by a high prevalence of metabolic risk factors. To describe the differences of metabolic risk factors of type 2 diabetes, as well as glycemic control and complicated diabetic complications between rural and urban Uygur residents in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. This comparative cross-sectional study, conducted among 2879 urban and 918 rural participants in Xinjiang, China, assessed the metabolic risk factors of diabetes and related complications differences between urban and rural settlements. Compared to rural areas, urban participants had higher education level and more average income, little physical activity, less triglycerides and higher HDL-c (p metabolic risk factors by urban/rural residence included overweight or obesity, triglycerides (≥1.71mmol/l), HDL-c (8% (48.1% versus 54.5%, p = 0.019) between rural and urban diabetic participants. No significant difference in the prevalence of type 2 diabetic complications between urban and rural participants (74.9% versus 72.2%; p = 0.263) was detected. Compared to rural participants, the most prevalent modifiable risk factors associated with diabetic complications in urban participants were obesity (BMI ≥ 28 Kg/m2), HDL-c (Urban settlers were significantly more likely to have metabolic risk factors highlighting the need for public health efforts to improve health outcomes for these vulnerable populations. Diabetes related complications risk factors were prevalent amongst rural and urban diabetes settlers.

  20. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Masala

    Full Text Available A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI or glycemic load (GL may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83% and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories with those with low MBD (N1+P1 through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048 while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further

  1. Glycemic Index Diet: What's Behind the Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating By Mayo Clinic Staff A glycemic index diet is an eating plan ... 01, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/glycemic-index- ...

  2. Organizational and Personality Factors Predicting Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings indicated that need for achievement and need for affiliation significantly independently predicted knowledge sharing intention among bankers, whereas need for power, organizational culture and organizational trust did not. This implies that emphasis should not be placed on need for power, organizational culture, ...

  3. Psychosocial factors predicting risky sexual behaviour among long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-27

    Nov 27, 2017 ... Psychosocial factors predicting risky sexual behaviour among long distance truck drivers in. Lagos, Nigeria. Abiodun Musbau Lawal & Benjamin Oladapo Olley. To cite this article: Abiodun Musbau Lawal & Benjamin Oladapo Olley (2017) Psychosocial factors predicting risky sexual behaviour among long ...

  4. Predictive risk factors for persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464...... patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...... risk factors for PPP were collected preoperatively (pain from the groin hernia, preoperative AAS score, pain from other body regions, and psychometric assessment). Pain scores were collected on days 7 and 30 postoperatively. Sensory functions including pain response to tonic heat stimulation were...

  5. Skin Autofluorescence and Glycemic Variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, M. J.; Lefrandt, J. D.; Graaff, R.; Smit, A. J.

    Background: Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is accelerated during glycemic and oxidative stress and is an important predictor of complications in diabetes mellitus (DM). Study Design: Here we both review and present original data on the relationship between skin

  6. Psychosocial Factors Predicting School Violence Tendencies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times, researchers and laymen have observed high incidence of violence in higher institutions of learning worldwide, particularly in Nigeria. This study therefore examined the influence of psychosocial factors on school violence behaviour among students in tertiary institutions in Ibadan. Two hundred volunteered ...

  7. Factors predicting dropout in student nursing assistants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dropout rate among student nursing assistants (NAs) in Danish health and social care education is high at >20%. AIMS: To explore if recent low back pain (LBP) history is a predictor of dropout among NA students, taking into account conventional risk factors for LBP, general health...

  8. Psychosocial Factors Predicting Severity of Depression Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-06

    Mar 6, 2017 ... and anticipated discrimination are differentially associated with severity of depression. Materials and Methods: The present study using a multivariate design investigated the role of stigma, anticipated discrimination, self-esteem,. HIV-related factors (e.g., drug use combination, knowledge of duration of HIV.

  9. Approaches to reduce the glycemic response of gluten-free products: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, V D; Arêas, J A G

    2016-03-01

    This article aims to discuss the current approaches used to reduce the postprandial glycemic response (GR) of starchy gluten-free products (GFP) and to provide some further prospects. The GR is evaluated through in vivo trials to determine the glycemic index (GI) and the glycemic load (GL) of foods or using the in vitro starch digestibility method to predict the GI. The reviewed studies demonstrated that a reduction in the GR of GFP can be achieved by replacing traditionally used refined flours and starches with nutrient-dense alternative raw materials due to an increase in dietary fiber, resistant starch and protein contents, which can alter the rate of starch digestion, reduce the GI and dilute the amount of available carbohydrate; both the factors contribute to reduce the GL. The addition of viscous dietary fibers could also be a successful way to reduce the GR of GFP. Some studies have demonstrated the potential of germination of GF grains and sourdough fermentation in decreasing the GR of GF bread. Further studies could evaluate alternative GF flours, soluble fibers, resistant starch, and other formulation factors that may affect the GR of different types of GFP. New studies should be performed to test and optimize processing methods by considering the reduction of GR of GFP. Another key aspect for further investigation is the confirmation of the promising results obtained through in vitro assays by in vivo GI evaluation.

  10. Impact of Physical Activity on Glycemic Control and Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A Cross-sectional Multicenter Study of 18,028 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Barbara; Herbst, Antje; Pfeifer, Martin; Krakow, Dietmar; Zimny, Stefan; Kopp, Florian; Melmer, Andreas; Steinacker, Jürgen M; Holl, Reinhard W

    2015-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) can improve cardiovascular risk in the general population and in patients with type 2 diabetes. Studies also indicate an HbA(1c)-lowering effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. Since reports in patients with type 1 diabetes are scarce, this analysis aimed to investigate whether there is an association between PA and glycemic control or cardiovascular risk in subjects with type 1 diabetes. A total of 18,028 adults (≥18 to control, diabetes-related comorbidities, and cardiovascular risk factors. Data were adjusted for sex, age, and diabetes duration. P values for trend were given. SAS 9.4 was used for statistical analysis. An inverse association between PA and HbA(1c), diabetic ketoacidosis, BMI, dyslipidemia (all P control, diabetes-related comorbidities, and cardiovascular risk factors without an increase of adverse events. Hence, our data underscore the recommendation for subjects with type 1 diabetes to perform regular PA. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  11. Effects of dietary fiber and low glycemic index diet on glucose control in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorek, Sarah A; Morello, Candis M

    2010-11-01

    To review the effects of dietary fiber and a low glycemic index diet on glycemic risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or T2DM and dyslipidemia. Literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, The Natural Standard, and The Natural Medicines through July 2010 using the terms type 2 diabetes mellitus, dietary fiber, psyllium, and glycemic index. Articles included were randomized controlled studies or meta-analyses examining the effects of dietary interventions (dietary fiber, low glycemic index diet, or psyllium) on glycemic risk factors (glycosylated hemoglobin A₁(c) [A1C] or postprandial plasma glucose [PPG] concentrations) in subjects with T2DM or T2DM and dyslipidemia. Both psyllium supplementation and low glycemic index diets have been studied as monotherapy in the treatment of T2DM. Seven studies were reviewed (3 randomized crossover studies, 1 randomized parallel study, 3 randomized blinded parallel studies). Individually, psyllium supplementation and a low glycemic index diet improved glycemic risk factors. PPG and A1C decreased with psyllium 10.2 g per day, while A1C decreased with a low glycemic index diet (average glycemic index 59). However, the results for the low glycemic index diet are controversial. One study was underpowered to detect changes in A1C, while another study had psyllium fiber as a confounding variable. Psyllium supplementation might be an additional therapeutic option for people with T2DM who are already receiving diabetes medication and who still experience elevated PPG concentrations. Further well-designed clinical trials and adjustment for confounding variables are needed to determine the role of a low glycemic index diet in the treatment of T2DM.

  12. Predictive factors for intraoperative excessive bleeding in Graves’ disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosho Yamanouchi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: A huge goiter presented as a predictive factor for excessive bleeding during surgery for Graves’ disease, and preparation for blood transfusion should be considered in cases where thyroids weigh more than 200 g.

  13. Using the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire to Predict Teacher Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Rebecca S.; Cage, Bob N.; Batley, Valerie S.; Davis, Debrah

    2011-01-01

    Faculty involved in pre-service teacher education often debate whether individual characteristics can predict effective teachers. Research is inconclusive with respect to the factors being capable of predicting effective teaching. This paper reports the results of a longitudinal study that identified self-reported characteristics of pre-service…

  14. Glycemic Control and the Risk of Tuberculosis: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Hui Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB and is increasingly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of TB is high. Glycemic control has the potential to modify the risk of TB. However, there are few studies on the association between glycemic control and TB risk, and the results are inconsistent.We assembled a cohort using 123,546 individuals who participated in a community-based health screening service in northern Taiwan from 5 March 2005 to 27 July 2008. Glycemic control was measured using fasting plasma glucose (FPG at the time of screening. The cohort was followed up to 31 December 2012 for the occurrence of TB by cross-matching the screening database to the national health insurance database. Multiple imputation was used to handle missing information. During a median follow-up of 4.6 y, 327 cases of TB occurred. In the multivariable Cox regression model, diabetic patients with poor glycemic control (FPG > 130 mg/dl had a significantly higher hazard of TB (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.21, 95% CI 1.63-2.99, p < 0.001 compared to those without diabetes. The hazard of TB in diabetic patients with good glycemic control (FPG ≤ 130 mg/dl did not differ significantly from that in nondiabetic individuals (aHR 0.69, 95% CI 0.35-1.36, p = 0.281. In the linear dose-response analysis, the hazard of TB increased with FPG (aHR 1.06 per 10-mg/dl increase in FPG, 95% CI 1.03-1.08, p < 0.001. Assuming the observed association between glycemic control and TB was causal, an estimated 7.5% (95% CI 4.1%-11.5% of incident TB in the study population could be attributed to poor glycemic control. Limitations of the study include one-time measurement of fasting glucose at baseline and voluntary participation in the health screening service.Good glycemic control could potentially modify the risk of TB among diabetic patients and may contribute to the control of TB in settings where diabetes and TB are prevalent.

  15. Identifying older diabetic patients at risk of poor glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzei Bruno

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal glycemic control prevents the onset of diabetes complications. Identifying diabetic patients at risk of poor glycemic control could help promoting dedicated interventions. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of poor short-term and long-term glycemic control in older diabetic in-patients. Methods A total of 1354 older diabetic in-patients consecutively enrolled in a multicenter study formed the training population (retrospective arm; 264 patients consecutively admitted to a ward of general medicine formed the testing population (prospective arm. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c was measured on admission and one year after the discharge in the testing population. Independent correlates of a discharge glycemia ≥ 140 mg/dl in the training population were assessed by logistic regression analysis and a clinical prediction rule was developed. The ability of the prediction rule and that of admission HbA1c to predict discharge glycemia ≥ 140 mg/dl and HbA1c > 7% one year after discharge was assessed in the testing population. Results Selected admission variables (diastolic arterial pressure 218 mg/dl, history of insulinic or combined hypoglycemic therapy, Charlson's index > 2 were combined to obtain a score predicting a discharge fasting glycemia ≥ 140 mg/dl in the training population. A modified score was obtained by adding 1 if admission HbA1c exceeded 7.8%. The modified score was the best predictor of both discharge glycemia ≥ 140 mg/dl (sensitivity = 79%, specificity = 63% and 1 year HbA1c > 7% (sensitivity = 72%, specificity = 71% in the testing population. Conclusion A simple clinical prediction rule might help identify older diabetic in-patients at risk of both short and long term poor glycemic control.

  16. Factors predictive of abnormal semen parameters in male partners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Semen analysis has remained useful for investigation of male factor infertility. Objective. To assess the pattern of semen parameters, and predictive factors associated with ... Seminal fluid from the male partners was analysed in the laboratory using ... economic deprivation, social neglect, marital instability, emotional.

  17. Using Emotional and Social Factors To Predict Student Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Mary E.; Wilson, Gregory S.

    2003-01-01

    College academic success and retention have traditionally been predicted using demographic and academic variables. This study moved beyond traditional predictors. A survey of 218 undergraduate students revealed that emotional and social factors (e.g., stress, frequency of alcohol consumption) related to GPA and emotional factors (e.g.,…

  18. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to glucose intolerance among Greenland's Inuit population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Aerde, Marieke A; Witte, Daniel Rinse; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Intake of carbohydrates which elicit a large glycemic response is hypothesized to increase the risk of diabetes. However, studies assessing the relationship between glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and diabetes are inconsistent. Only few studies have studied the relationship between GI ...

  19. The concept of low glycemic index and glycemic load foods as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This article examines the concepts of low glycemic indices (GIs) and glycemic load (GL) foods as key drivers in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes as well as their shortcomings. The controversies arising from the analysis of glycemic index (GI) and GL of foods such as their reproducibility as well as their ...

  20. A systems biology approach to transcription factor binding site prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhou

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The elucidation of mammalian transcriptional regulatory networks holds great promise for both basic and translational research and remains one the greatest challenges to systems biology. Recent reverse engineering methods deduce regulatory interactions from large-scale mRNA expression profiles and cross-species conserved regulatory regions in DNA. Technical challenges faced by these methods include distinguishing between direct and indirect interactions, associating transcription regulators with predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs, identifying non-linearly conserved binding sites across species, and providing realistic accuracy estimates.We address these challenges by closely integrating proven methods for regulatory network reverse engineering from mRNA expression data, linearly and non-linearly conserved regulatory region discovery, and TFBS evaluation and discovery. Using an extensive test set of high-likelihood interactions, which we collected in order to provide realistic prediction-accuracy estimates, we show that a careful integration of these methods leads to significant improvements in prediction accuracy. To verify our methods, we biochemically validated TFBS predictions made for both transcription factors (TFs and co-factors; we validated binding site predictions made using a known E2F1 DNA-binding motif on E2F1 predicted promoter targets, known E2F1 and JUND motifs on JUND predicted promoter targets, and a de novo discovered motif for BCL6 on BCL6 predicted promoter targets. Finally, to demonstrate accuracy of prediction using an external dataset, we showed that sites matching predicted motifs for ZNF263 are significantly enriched in recent ZNF263 ChIP-seq data.Using an integrative framework, we were able to address technical challenges faced by state of the art network reverse engineering methods, leading to significant improvement in direct-interaction detection and TFBS-discovery accuracy. We estimated the accuracy

  1. The Importance of Social Support on Glycemic Control in Low-Income Latinos with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotberg, Britt; Junqueira, Yasmine; Gosdin, Lucas; Mejia, Roberto; Umpierrez, Guillermo E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Latino population exhibits poorer glycemic control than the white population, leading to more frequent health complications and greater disease severity. Social support has been shown a significant factor in health and well-being. Purpose: To determine the association between glycemic control and social support in patients…

  2. Basic fibroblast growth factor predicts cardiovascular disease occurrence in participants from the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B Zimering

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to test whether plasma basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF levels predict future cardiovascular disease (CVD occurrence in adults from the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial. Methods: Nearly four- hundred veterans, 40 years of age or older, having a mean baseline diabetes duration of 11.4 years were recruited from outpatient clinics at six geographically distributed sites in the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT. Within the VADT, they were randomly assigned to intensive or standard glycemic treatment, with follow-up as much as seven and one-half years. Cardiovascular disease occurrence was examined at baseline in the patient population and during randomized treatment. Plasma bFGF was determined with a sensitive, specific two-site enzyme-linked immunoassay at the baseline study visit in all 399 subjects. Results: One hundred-five first cardiovascular events occurred in these 399 subjects. The best fit model of risk factors associated with the time to first cardiovascular disease occurrence (in the study over a seven and one-half year period had as significant predictors: prior cardiovascular event, (hazard ratio [HR] 3.378; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 3.079- 3.807; P < .0001, baseline plasma bFGF (HR 1.008; 95% CI 1.002-1.014; P =.01, age, (HR 1.027; 95% CI 1.004-1.051; P =.019, baseline plasma triglycerides, (HR 1.001; 95% CI 1.000-1.002; P =.02 and diabetes duration-treatment interaction (P =.03. Intensive glucose-lowering was associated with significantly decreased hazard ratios for CVD occurrence (0.38-0.63 in patients with known diabetes duration of 0-10 years, and non-significantly increased hazard ratios for CVD occurrence (0.82-1.78 in patients with longer diabetes duration. Conclusion: High level ofplasma basic fibroblast growth factor is a predictive biomarker of future cardiovascular

  3. Glycemic Index Biscuits Formulation of Pedada Flour (Sonneratia caseolaris) with Tubers Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyah; Susiloningsih, E. K. B.; Nilasari, K.

    2018-01-01

    The glycemic index of food is the level of food according to its effect on blood glucose levels. Foods with low glycemic index have been shown to improve glucose and fat levels in people with diabetes mellitus and improve insulin resistance. Pedada Fruits (Sonneratia caseolaris) is the one of mangrove fruits has a high fiber content, so it can be used as a raw material in biscuits production. The aim of this research to evaluate the glycemic index on the formula biscuit from the pedada flour and starch from white sweet potato, arrowroot, taro, potato and cassava mixed. This research used completely randomized design in factorial patern with one factor and five levels on formulation biscuit of pedada flour with tubers starch (20% : 80%). The biscuits product were measured of the proximate, crude fiber, glycemic index and glycemic load on wistar rats. The best treatment was 20% of pedada flour with 80% of taro starch which produced biscuit with 76.24% of yield, 2.58% of protein, 15.55% of fat, 2.72% of crude fiber, 48.83 of glycemic index and 7.39 of glycemic load.

  4. Analytical prediction of turbulent friction factor for a rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jun Ho; Park, Joo Hwan

    2011-01-01

    An analytical calculation has been performed to predict the turbulent friction factor in a rod bundle. For each subchannel constituting a rod bundle, the geometry parameters are analytically derived by integrating the law of the wall over each subchannel with the consideration of a local shear stress distribution. The correlation equations for a local shear stress distribution are supplied from a numerical simulation for each subchannel. The explicit effect of a subchannel shape on the geometry parameter and the friction factor is reported. The friction factor of a corner subchannel converges to a constant value, while the friction factor of a central subchannel steadily increases with a rod distance ratio. The analysis for a rod bundle shows that the friction factor of a rod bundle is largely affected by the characteristics of each subchannel constituting a rod bundle. The present analytic calculations well predict the experimental results from the literature with rod bundles in circular, hexagonal, and square channels.

  5. Preoperative predictive factors for hearing preservation in vestibular schwannoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohit; Piccirillo, Enrico; Jain, Yogesh; Augurio, Angela; Sanna, Mario

    2006-01-01

    We performed a retrospective chart review to evaluate the various predictive factors for postoperative hearing preservation in the surgical management of vestibular schwannoma. Of 792 patients operated on for vestibular schwannoma between April 1987 and July 2002, 107 were candidates for hearing preservation surgery. These patients were divided into group 1 (hearing preserved) and group 2 (hearing not preserved), and both of these groups were evaluated for age, sex, pure tone average, sound discrimination score, tumor size, and auditory brain stem response parameters. A corrected chi2 test and a corrected t-test were used for statistical analysis. Multiple regression analysis was further done to evaluate independent predictive factors, either alone or in combination. The results were evaluated by use of the modified Sanna classification and the guidelines of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS). Preoperative pure tone average and tumor size were the 2 predictive factors in our study. A Pearson correlation test showed that there was no multicollinearity between the factors. On multiple regression analysis by backward elimination of nonsignificant factors, we found that tumor size is an independent predictive factor for postoperative hearing. According to the modified Sanna classification, postoperative hearing was preserved in 11.2% of patients (equivalent to class A of AAO-HNS guidelines). In our series, preoperative pure tone average and tumor size were found to be predictors of postoperative hearing levels.

  6. SHMF: Interest Prediction Model with Social Hub Matrix Factorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyuan Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social networks, microblog has become the major social communication tool. There is a lot of valuable information such as personal preference, public opinion, and marketing in microblog. Consequently, research on user interest prediction in microblog has a positive practical significance. In fact, how to extract information associated with user interest orientation from the constantly updated blog posts is not so easy. Existing prediction approaches based on probabilistic factor analysis use blog posts published by user to predict user interest. However, these methods are not very effective for the users who post less but browse more. In this paper, we propose a new prediction model, which is called SHMF, using social hub matrix factorization. SHMF constructs the interest prediction model by combining the information of blogs posts published by both user and direct neighbors in user’s social hub. Our proposed model predicts user interest by integrating user’s historical behavior and temporal factor as well as user’s friendships, thus achieving accurate forecasts of user’s future interests. The experimental results on Sina Weibo show the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed model.

  7. Glycemic instability in type 1 diabetic patients: Possible role of ketosis or ketoacidosis at onset of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Mariko; Yamada, Yuichiro; Hosokawa, Masaya; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Toyoda, Kentaro; Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Seino, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2008-08-01

    In type 1 diabetic patients, some have glycemic instability while others glycemic stability. We have developed criteria for evaluating glycemic instability and investigated the factors responsible. Glycemic instability in 52 type 1 diabetic patients was assessed by the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) and M-value, and clinical characteristics of good, fair and poor control groups were compared. The median MAGE and M-value was 6.6mmol/L and 18.7, respectively. Then MAGE >or=6.6mmol/L and M-value >or=18.7 was defined as poor control. In the 32 patients without detectable C-peptide levels, 18 patients (56%) showed poor control. The frequency of ketosis or ketoacidosis at onset of diabetes was dramatically higher in the poor control group not only in the patients as a whole but also in those without detectable C-peptide levels. A decreased level of C-peptide is a significant factor in glycemic instability. However, some patients have glycemic stability though beta-cell function is completely depleted. The presence of ketosis or ketoacidosis at onset of diabetes may be a factor in later glycemic instability, suggesting the importance of examining patients in detail at onset of diabetes for careful follow-up to prevent progression of acute and chronic complications of diabetes.

  8. PREDICTION OF THE EXTREMAL SHAPE FACTOR OF SPHEROIDAL PARTICLES

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    Daniel Hlubinka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the stereological unfolding problem for spheroidal particles the extremal shape factor is predicted. The theory of extreme values has been used to show that extremes of the planar shape factor of particle sections tend to the same limit distribution as extremes of the original shape factor for both the conditional and marginal distribution. Attention is then paid to the extreme shape factor conditioned by the particle size. Normalizing constants are evaluated for a parametric model and the numerical procedure is tested on real data from metallography.

  9. Carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Sabrina; Chan, Doris S M; Vingeliene, Snieguole; Vieira, Ana R; Abar, Leila; Polemiti, Elli; Stevens, Christophe A T; Greenwood, Darren C; Aune, Dagfinn; Norat, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    The investigation of dose-response associations between carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of breast cancer stratified by menopausal status, hormone receptor status, and body mass index (BMI) remains inconclusive. A systematic review and dose-response meta-analyses was conducted to investigate these associations. As part of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Continuous Update Project, PubMed was searched up to May 2015 for relevant studies on these associations. Prospective studies reporting associations between carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, or glycemic load and breast cancer risk were included. Two investigators independently extracted data from included studies. Random-effects models were used to summarize relative risks (RRs) and 95%CIs. Heterogeneity between subgroups, including menopausal status, hormone receptor status, and BMI was explored using meta-regression. Nineteen publications were included. The summary RRs (95%CIs) for breast cancer were 1.04 (1.00-1.07) per 10 units/d for glycemic index, 1.01 (0.98-1.04) per 50 units/d for glycemic load, and 1.00 (0.96-1.05) per 50 g/d for carbohydrate intake. For glycemic index, the association appeared slightly stronger among postmenopausal women (summary RR per 10 units/d, 1.06; 95%CI, 1.02-1.10) than among premenopausal women, though the difference was not statistically significant (Pheterogeneity = 0.15). Glycemic load and carbohydrate intake were positively associated with breast cancer among postmenopausal women with estrogen-negative tumors (summary RR for glycemic load, 1.28; 95%CI, 1.08-1.52; and summary RR for carbohydrates, 1.13; 95%CI, 1.02-1.25). No differences in BMI were detected. Menopausal and hormone receptor status, but not BMI, might be potential influencing factors for the associations between carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and breast cancer. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press

  10. Glycemic Control and the Risk of Tuberculosis: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pin-Hui; Fu, Han; Lai, Ting-Chun; Chiang, Chen-Yuan; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Lin, Hsien-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) and is increasingly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of TB is high. Glycemic control has the potential to modify the risk of TB. However, there are few studies on the association between glycemic control and TB risk, and the results are inconsistent. We assembled a cohort using 123,546 individuals who participated in a community-based health screening service in northern Taiwan from 5 March 2005 to 27 July 2008. Glycemic control was measured using fasting plasma glucose (FPG) at the time of screening. The cohort was followed up to 31 December 2012 for the occurrence of TB by cross-matching the screening database to the national health insurance database. Multiple imputation was used to handle missing information. During a median follow-up of 4.6 y, 327 cases of TB occurred. In the multivariable Cox regression model, diabetic patients with poor glycemic control (FPG > 130 mg/dl) had a significantly higher hazard of TB (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.21, 95% CI 1.63-2.99, p diabetes. The hazard of TB in diabetic patients with good glycemic control (FPG ≤ 130 mg/dl) did not differ significantly from that in nondiabetic individuals (aHR 0.69, 95% CI 0.35-1.36, p = 0.281). In the linear dose-response analysis, the hazard of TB increased with FPG (aHR 1.06 per 10-mg/dl increase in FPG, 95% CI 1.03-1.08, p diabetic patients and may contribute to the control of TB in settings where diabetes and TB are prevalent.

  11. Transcription factor binding sites prediction based on modified nucleosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Talebzadeh

    Full Text Available In computational methods, position weight matrices (PWMs are commonly applied for transcription factor binding site (TFBS prediction. Although these matrices are more accurate than simple consensus sequences to predict actual binding sites, they usually produce a large number of false positive (FP predictions and so are impoverished sources of information. Several studies have employed additional sources of information such as sequence conservation or the vicinity to transcription start sites to distinguish true binding regions from random ones. Recently, the spatial distribution of modified nucleosomes has been shown to be associated with different promoter architectures. These aligned patterns can facilitate DNA accessibility for transcription factors. We hypothesize that using data from these aligned and periodic patterns can improve the performance of binding region prediction. In this study, we propose two effective features, "modified nucleosomes neighboring" and "modified nucleosomes occupancy", to decrease FP in binding site discovery. Based on these features, we designed a logistic regression classifier which estimates the probability of a region as a TFBS. Our model learned each feature based on Sp1 binding sites on Chromosome 1 and was tested on the other chromosomes in human CD4+T cells. In this work, we investigated 21 histone modifications and found that only 8 out of 21 marks are strongly correlated with transcription factor binding regions. To prove that these features are not specific to Sp1, we combined the logistic regression classifier with the PWM, and created a new model to search TFBSs on the genome. We tested the model using transcription factors MAZ, PU.1 and ELF1 and compared the results to those using only the PWM. The results show that our model can predict Transcription factor binding regions more successfully. The relative simplicity of the model and capability of integrating other features make it a superior method

  12. Analysis of significant factors for dengue fever incidence prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriyasatien, Padet; Phumee, Atchara; Ongruk, Phatsavee; Jampachaisri, Katechan; Kesorn, Kraisak

    2016-04-16

    Many popular dengue forecasting techniques have been used by several researchers to extrapolate dengue incidence rates, including the K-H model, support vector machines (SVM), and artificial neural networks (ANN). The time series analysis methodology, particularly ARIMA and SARIMA, has been increasingly applied to the field of epidemiological research for dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and other infectious diseases. The main drawback of these methods is that they do not consider other variables that are associated with the dependent variable. Additionally, new factors correlated to the disease are needed to enhance the prediction accuracy of the model when it is applied to areas of similar climates, where weather factors such as temperature, total rainfall, and humidity are not substantially different. Such drawbacks may consequently lower the predictive power for the outbreak. The predictive power of the forecasting model-assessed by Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE)-is improved by including the new parameters for dengue outbreak prediction. This study's selected model outperforms all three other competing models with the lowest AIC, the lowest BIC, and a small MAPE value. The exclusive use of climate factors from similar locations decreases a model's prediction power. The multivariate Poisson regression, however, effectively forecasts even when climate variables are slightly different. Female mosquitoes and seasons were strongly correlated with dengue cases. Therefore, the dengue incidence trends provided by this model will assist the optimization of dengue prevention. The present work demonstrates the important roles of female mosquito infection rates from the previous season and climate factors (represented as seasons) in dengue outbreaks. Incorporating these two factors in the model significantly improves the predictive power of dengue hemorrhagic fever forecasting

  13. Non-pharmaceutical factors for poor glycemic control in 13,970 Chinese women with drug-treated type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional survey in 77 tertiary hospitals in four Chinese cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Juming Lu,1,* Jianping Weng,2,* Weijun Gu,1 Xiaohui Guo,3 Wenying Yang,4 Dajin Zou,5 Zhiguang Zhou,6 Dalong Zhu,7 Qiuhe Ji,8 Linong Ji,9 Xilin Yang10 1Department of Endocrinology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 2Department of Endocrinology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 3Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of Peking University, Beijing, 4Department of Endocrinology, Sino-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, 5Department of Endocrinology, Changhai Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai, 6Department of Endocrinology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, 7Department of Endocrinology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, Jiansu, 8Department of Endocrinology, Xijing Hospital affiliated to 4th Military Medical University, Xi’an, 9Department of Endocrinology, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing, 10Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to the manuscript Background: Achieving good glycemic control improves clinical outcomes among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. This study aimed to explore non-pharmaceutical factors for poor glycemic control in Chinese women with T2D who used antidiabetic drug(s. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in March to June 2011 in 77 top tertiary hospitals in Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, and Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China (the coverage rates of the 3A hospitals: 74.4%, 76%, 55%, and 29.3%, respectively. Of 29,502 patients with T2D who used oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs alone or combined with insulin, 13,970 were women and used in the analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of factors for hyperglycemia defined as HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin ≥77 mmol/mol (7.0%.Results: The mean age was 60.3 (standard deviation

  14. Factors related to glycemic control in IDDM and insulin-treated NIDDM patients in current practice. A comparison of care policies. SIEMTIC Group. Studio Italiano Epidemiologico Multicentrico su Terapia Insulin e Controllo Metabolico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garancini, M P; Gallus, G; Cucinotta, D; Rossi, A; Riccardi, G

    1997-11-01

    To evaluate, under routine conditions, the relation between different diabetes care policies and glycemic control through a by-center analysis procedure aimed at reducing some drawbacks of cross-sectional data. A survey on insulin-treated diabetes care management (IDDM and NIDDM) involved 16 Italian randomly selected diabetes outpatient clinics. A total of 2,142 representative patients were investigated. The standardized HbA1c average value of each center was related, by regression models, to some indicators of center care policy (average number of injections, average BMI, proportion of cases with recent fundus oculi examinations, or frequent visits) as well as to patients' average social levels (employment type). Homogeneity in patient admission criteria is assumed among the investigated centers as a basic condition for the procedure validity. Some known imbalance were controlled for both design and analysis. HbA1c showed a univariate inverse relation with daily number of injections in IDDM (P = 0.0009, r2 = 0.56) but not in NIDDM (P = 0.33). It was inversely related to both fundus examination (IDDM P = 0.04; NIDDM P = 0.099) and qualified employment (IDDM P = 0.06; NIDDM P = 0.026). A stepwise regression analysis left in the model insulin injections (P = 0.0002) in IDDM (total r2 = 0.68) and qualified employment (P = 0.016) and fundus examination (P = 0.14) in NIDDM (total r2 = 0.53), after controlling for age, sex, disease duration, insulin therapy starting delay, and insulin dose per kilogram. These results suggest that the confirmed benefits of a multiple-injection regimen in IDDM cannot be simply extrapolated to NIDDM, where patients' awareness and medical attention to complications proved to be the most important factors in current practice.

  15. Predictive risk factors for moderate to severe hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Macedo de Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe predictive factors for severity of neonataljaundice in newborn infants treated at the University Neonatal Clinic,highlighting maternal, obstetric and neonatal factors. Methods: Acohort retrospective study by means of review of medical charts todefine risk factors associated with moderate and severe jaundice.The cohort consisted of newborns diagnosed with indirect neonatalhyperbilirubinemia and submitted to phototherapy. Risk was classifiedas maternal, prenatal, obstetric and neonatal factors; risk estimationwas based on the odds ratio (95% confidence interval; a bi-variantmultivariate regression logistic analysis was applied to variables forp < 0.1. Results: Of 818 babies born during the studied period, 94(11% had jaundice prior to hospital discharge. Phototherapy was usedon 69 (73% patients. Predictive factors for severity were multiparity;prolonged rupture of membranes, dystocia, cephalohematoma, a lowApgar score, prematurity and small-for-date babies. Following birth,breastfeeding, sepsis, Rh incompatibility, and jaundice presentingbefore the third day of life were associated with an increased risk ofhyperbilirubinemia and the need for therapy. Conclusion: Other thanthose characteristics that are singly associated with phototherapy,we concluded that multiparity, presumed neonatal asphyxia, low birthweight and infection are the main predictive factors leading to moderateand severe jaundice in newborn infants in our neonatal unit.

  16. Mathematical models for prediction of safety factors for a simply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the results obtained, mathematical prediction models were developed using a least square regression analysis for bending, shear and deflection modes of failure considered in the study. The results showed that the safety factors for material, dead and live load are not unique, but they are influenced by safety index ...

  17. Factors which predict violence victimization in Nigeria | Fry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Violence is a major public health issue, globally as well as in the African continent. This paper looks at Nigeria and begins the process of identifying the factors that predict interpersonal violence in that country. The purpose is to interpret the implications of the results presented here for violence prevention ...

  18. Predictive factors for psychiatric morbidity among women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Predictive factors; Psychiatric morbidity; Infertility; Nigeria. Received: 16-09-2008. Accepted: 14-11-2008 ... through the limbic system affect Gonadotrophin Releasing. Hormone pulsatility, cause low serotonin ... of the immune system which may have a negative influence on fertility-related antibodies.7 Infertility, ...

  19. Learning Approaches, Demographic Factors to Predict Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Minh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to predict academic outcome in math and math-related subjects using learning approaches and demographic factors. Design/Methodology/Approach: ASSIST was used as the instrumentation to measure learning approaches. The study was conducted in the International University of Vietnam with 616 participants. An…

  20. Assessment of knowledge and factors that may predict willingness to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-03

    Jul 3, 2014 ... Background: Malaria as a leading cause of death in many developing countries requires urgent interventions. In order to improve access to healthcare, trained volunteers are used to distribute health commodities. The present study aims at determining knowledge and factors that may predict willingness to ...

  1. Psychosocial factors predicting risky sexual behaviour among long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social factors that included age, number of years of education, number of wives, number of intercourses in the last three months, number of partners apart from primary partners, and number of weeks spent outside home significantly jointly predicted sexual risk behaviour (R2 = .15, F(6, 147) = 4.39; p < .05) by accounting for ...

  2. Potential predictive factors of positive prostate biopsy in the Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... Therefore, it might be inappropriate that we apply these western models to the. Chinese population that has a lower incidence of PCa. Therefore, this retrospective study aimed to determine predictive factors for a positive prostate biopsy in Chinese men. Our ultimate goal is to develop a simple model for ...

  3. Lactic acidosis, risk factors and predictive laboratory markers: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The incidence of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-induced lactic acidosis and its associated mortality may be reduced by appropriate dosing, risk stratification and early detection. Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of lactic acidosis, define the risk factors and identify predictive laboratory markers in the context ...

  4. Factors predicting mortality in elderly patients admitted to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The median age was 70 years (interquartile range 67 - 75 years). The overall ICU mortality was 44.7%, and 64% of deaths occurred within 5 days of admission. On univariate analysis, the factors predicting mortality were alcohol misuse (p=0.09), pneumonia (p.0.001), shock (p=0.001), dehydration (p=0.007), urine output ...

  5. Psychosocial factors predicting risky sexual behaviour among long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-27

    Nov 27, 2017 ... how large his sample size needs to be to ensure a reasonable accuracy of ... graphic variables and standardised scales with acceptable .... risk behaviour. This result implies that drivers with high. Table 2. Shows multiple regression of psychological factors predicting sexual risk behaviours of. LDTDs. Model.

  6. Factors predicting mortality in elderly patients admitted to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors predicting mortality in elderly patients admitted to a Moroccan medical intensive care unit. Jihane Belayachi, Mina El khayari, Tarek Dendane, Naoufel Madani, Khalid Abidi, Redouane Abouqal, Amine Ali Zeggwagh. Medical Intensive Care Unit, Ibn Sina University Hospital, Rabat, Morocco. Jihane Belayachi, MD.

  7. Predictive Factors Influencing the Sexual Behaviour of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated predictive factors that can influence the sexual behaviour of Nigerian adolescents. The research deviates from the conventional dichotomy and perception of determining sexual behaviour among adolescents as those who have had sexual intercourse or not. The research assumption is based on the ...

  8. Bread Affects Clinical Parameters and Induces Gut Microbiome-Associated Personal Glycemic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korem, Tal; Zeevi, David; Zmora, Niv; Weissbrod, Omer; Bar, Noam; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Avnit-Sagi, Tali; Kosower, Noa; Malka, Gal; Rein, Michal; Suez, Jotham; Goldberg, Ben Z; Weinberger, Adina; Levy, Avraham A; Elinav, Eran; Segal, Eran

    2017-06-06

    Bread is consumed daily by billions of people, yet evidence regarding its clinical effects is contradicting. Here, we performed a randomized crossover trial of two 1-week-long dietary interventions comprising consumption of either traditionally made sourdough-leavened whole-grain bread or industrially made white bread. We found no significant differential effects of bread type on multiple clinical parameters. The gut microbiota composition remained person specific throughout this trial and was generally resilient to the intervention. We demonstrate statistically significant interpersonal variability in the glycemic response to different bread types, suggesting that the lack of phenotypic difference between the bread types stems from a person-specific effect. We further show that the type of bread that induces the lower glycemic response in each person can be predicted based solely on microbiome data prior to the intervention. Together, we present marked personalization in both bread metabolism and the gut microbiome, suggesting that understanding dietary effects requires integration of person-specific factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Link prediction based on non-negative matrix factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bolun; Li, Fenfen; Hu, Ronglin; Chen, Ling

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of internet, the complex networks has become high-dimensional, sparse and redundant. Besides, the problem of link prediction in such networks has also obatined increasingly attention from different types of domains like information science, anthropology, sociology and computer sciences. It makes requirements for effective link prediction techniques to extract the most essential and relevant information for online users in internet. Therefore, this paper attempts to put forward a link prediction algorithm based on non-negative matrix factorization. In the algorithm, we reconstruct the correlation between different types of matrix through the projection of high-dimensional vector space to a low-dimensional one, and then use the similarity between the column vectors of the weight matrix as the scoring matrix. The experiment results demonstrate that the algorithm not only reduces data storage space but also effectively makes the improvements of the prediction performance during the process of sustaining a low time complexity. PMID:28854195

  10. Link prediction based on non-negative matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bolun; Li, Fenfen; Chen, Senbo; Hu, Ronglin; Chen, Ling

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of internet, the complex networks has become high-dimensional, sparse and redundant. Besides, the problem of link prediction in such networks has also obatined increasingly attention from different types of domains like information science, anthropology, sociology and computer sciences. It makes requirements for effective link prediction techniques to extract the most essential and relevant information for online users in internet. Therefore, this paper attempts to put forward a link prediction algorithm based on non-negative matrix factorization. In the algorithm, we reconstruct the correlation between different types of matrix through the projection of high-dimensional vector space to a low-dimensional one, and then use the similarity between the column vectors of the weight matrix as the scoring matrix. The experiment results demonstrate that the algorithm not only reduces data storage space but also effectively makes the improvements of the prediction performance during the process of sustaining a low time complexity.

  11. Prediction of software operational reliability using testing environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1995-01-01

    A number of software reliability models have been developed to estimate and to predict software reliability. However, there are no established standard models to quantify software reliability. Most models estimate the quality of software in reliability figures such as remaining faults, failure rate, or mean time to next failure at the testing phase, and they consider them ultimate indicators of software reliability. Experience shows that there is a large gap between predicted reliability during development and reliability measured during operation, which means that predicted reliability, or so-called test reliability, is not operational reliability. Customers prefer operational reliability to test reliability. In this study, we propose a method that predicts operational reliability rather than test reliability by introducing the testing environment factor that quantifies the changes in environments

  12. Perioperative Factors Predicting Prolonged Postoperative Ileus After Major Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Kotaro; Kawaguchi, Yoshikuni; Nomura, Yukihiro; Suka, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Keishi; Uemura, Yukari; Koike, Daisuke; Nagai, Motoki; Furuya, Takatoshi; Tanaka, Nobutaka

    2017-11-08

    Prolonged postoperative ileus (PPOI) is among the common complications adversely affecting postoperative outcomes. Predictors of PPOI after major abdominal surgery remain unclear, although various PPOI predictors have been reported in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. This study aimed to devise a model for stratifying the probability of PPOI in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Between 2012 and 2013, 841 patients underwent major abdominal surgery after excluding patients who underwent less-invasive abdominal surgery, ileus-associated surgery, and emergency surgery. Postoperative managements were generally based on enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program. The definition of PPOI was based on nausea, no oral diet, flatus absence, abdominal distension, and radiographic findings. A nomogram was devised by evaluating predictive factors for PPOI. Of the 841 patients, 73 (8.8%) developed PPOI. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed smoking history (P = 0.025), colorectal surgery (P = 0.004), and an open surgical approach (P = 0.002) to all be independent predictive factors for PPOI. A nomogram was devised by employing these three significant predictive factors. The prediction model showed relatively good discrimination performance, the concordance index of which was 0.71 (95%CI 0.66-0.77). The probability of PPOI in patients with a smoking history who underwent open colorectal surgery was calculated to be 19.6%. Colorectal surgery, open abdominal surgery, and smoking history were found to be independent predictive factors for PPOI in patients who underwent major abdominal surgery. A nomogram based on these factors was shown to be useful for identifying patients with a high probability of developing PPOI.

  13. A low-glycemic-index diet reduces plasma PAI-1 activity in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    to decrease during weight loss. However, the beneficial effects of healthy diets on PAI-1 levels may not solely depend on weight loss, but other factors may also play a role. For example better glycemic control has been observed in diabetic patients after a low glycemic index (GI) diet compared to a high GI......Introduction An elevated level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in plasma is a core feature of the metabolic syndrome. Plasma PAI-1 is elevated in obesity and might be responsible for some of the secondary effects of obesity as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. PAI-1 has been shown...... diet. Still, the relevance of GI in preventing the metabolic syndrome is controversial. Objectives The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 10 weeks intake of a low glycemic index vs. a high glycemic index high-carbohydrate, low fat ad libitum diet on plasma PAI-1 activity...

  14. Microvascular Complications Associated With Rapid Improvements in Glycemic Control in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Christopher H; Goebel-Fabbri, Ann

    2017-07-01

    Aggressive glycemic control has become the standard clinical approach to diabetes care. Unintended consequences have included the development of microvascular complications that are related to the rapidity of glycemic improvement. Diabetic neuropathy may develop in up to 10% of individuals secondary to aggressive glycemic control. The neuropathy is predominantly small fiber sensory and autonomic, and the severity of the neuropathy is tied to the change in the glycosylated hemoglobin A1C. Other microvascular complications such as retinopathy and nephropathy are common and may occur in parallel with the neuropathy. Eating disorders are a common comorbid risk factor. Individuals with uncontrolled diabetes for prolonged periods, particularly those with a history of eating disorders involving insulin restriction for calorie purging, are at high risk for developing treatment-induced microvascular complications. Gradual glycemic improvements should be encouraged but future research is needed to optimize treatment and prevention strategies.

  15. Psychosocial family factors and glycemic control among children aged 1-15 years with type 1 diabetes: a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugstvedt Anne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being the parents of children with diabetes is demanding. Jay Belsky's determinants of parenting model emphasizes both the personal psychological resources, the characteristics of the child and contextual sources such as parents' work, marital relations and social network support as important determinants for parenting. To better understand the factors influencing parental functioning among parents of children with type 1 diabetes, we aimed to investigate associations between the children's glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and 1 variables related to the parents' psychological and contextual resources, and 2 frequency of blood glucose measurement as a marker for diabetes-related parenting behavior. Methods Mothers (n = 103 and fathers (n = 97 of 115 children younger than 16 years old participated in a population-based survey. The questionnaire comprised the Life Orientation Test, the Oslo 3-item Social Support Scale, a single question regarding perceived social limitation because of the child's diabetes, the Relationship Satisfaction Scale and demographic and clinical variables. We investigated associations by using regression analysis. Related to the second aim hypoglycemic events, child age, diabetes duration, insulin regimen and comorbid diseases were included as covariates. Results The mean HbA1c was 8.1%, and 29% had HbA1c ≤ 7.5%. In multiple regression analysis, lower HbA1c was associated with higher education and stronger perceptions of social limitation among the mothers. A higher frequency of blood glucose measurement was significantly associated with lower HbA1c in bivariate analysis. Higher child age was significantly associated with higher HbA1c both in bivariate and multivariate analysis. A scatterplot indicated this association to be linear. Conclusions Most families do not reach recommended treatment goals for their child with type 1 diabetes. Concerning contextual sources of stress and support, the families who

  16. Factores de riesgo cardiovascular en niños con diabetes tipo 1 y su relación con el control de la glucemia Cardiovascular risk factors in children with type 1 diabetes and their relationship with the glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela V. Abregú

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Los pacientes con diabetes tienen un riesgo incrementado de desarrollar enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar factores de riesgo de ECV en niños con diabetes tipo 1 y su asociación con el grado de control glucémico. Se estudiaron 52 pacientes, entre 5 y 15 años, tratados con insulina corriente y NPH, comparados con 37 controles. Se investigó el grado de control glucémico, perfil lipídico, fibrinógeno plasmático, microalbuminuria y presión arterial. Los pacientes se agruparon en diabéticos con buen control glucémico [DBCG: hemoglobina glicosilada (HA1c 8%. La población con diabetes presentó valores incrementados de colesterol total (4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 3.1 ± 0.7 mmol/l, p = 0.0008, LDL-colesterol (2.4 ± 0.9 vs. 1.7 ± 0.7 mmol/l, p = 0.0001, HDL-colesterol (1.2 ± 0.3 vs. 1.0 ± 0.2 mmol/l, p = 0.0002, respecto a los sujetos controles. El 83% mostró un pobre control glucémico. No hubo diferencias significativas en el perfil lipídico entre DBCG y DPCG, excepto para HDL-colesterol que fue mayor en los DPCG (p = 0.007. Los niveles de fibrinógeno fueron mayores en DPCG que en DBCG (265 ± 46 vs. 229 ± 22 mg/dl, p = 0.02. Se detectaron tres pacientes con microalbuminuria y ninguno con hipertensión arterial. En la población estudiada los factores de riesgo cardiovascular más pronunciados fueron la dislipemia y la hiperglucemia, evidenciando la necesidad de la detección temprana de estos factores y un control metabólico riguroso.Diabetics have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors in infant-juvenile type 1 diabetics and their association with the degree of glycemic control. A total of 52 patients, aged 5-15 years, were studied and compared with 37 control subjects. The degree of glycemic control, lipid profile, plasma fibrinogen, microalbuminuria and blood pressure were investigated. The patients were grouped in

  17. A randomized study of raisins versus alternative snacks on glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold; Weiter, Kathy; Anderson, James

    2015-02-01

    Just as the type and duration of physical activity can have variable effects on the glucose levels and other cardiometabolic parameters among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), so can the types of foods have variable effects as well. This 12-week randomized study of 51 study participants evaluated the impact of routine consumption of dark raisins versus alternative processed snacks on glucose levels and other cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type T2DM. In this study, compared to alternative processed snacks, those who consumed raisins had a significant 23% reduction in postprandial glucose levels (P = 0.024). Also compared to snacks, those who consumed raisins had a 19% reduction in fasting glucose and 0.12% reduction in hemoglobin A1c, although these latter findings did not achieve statistical significance. Regarding blood pressure, compared to alternative processed snacks, those who consumed raisins had a significant 8.7 mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure (P = 0.035) (7.5% [P = 0.031]) but did not experience a significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure. Compared to alternative processed snacks, those who consumed raisins did not have a significant improvement in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), triglyceride, or non-HDL cholesterol levels. Overall, these data support raisins as a healthy alternative compare to processed snacks in patients with T2DM.

  18. Glycemic index and glycemic load of commercial Italian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scazzina, F; Dall'Asta, M; Casiraghi, M C; Sieri, S; Del Rio, D; Pellegrini, N; Brighenti, F

    2016-05-01

    The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are useful parameters in the nutritional classification of carbohydrate foods. Diets characterized by a low GI and/or a low GL have been repeatedly and independently associated with decreased risk of diabetes and other chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to report the GI and GL value of carbohydrate-rich foods available on the Italian market and mostly consumed in Italy. GI values were determined according to FAO/WHO (1997) and ISO (2010). Overall, the 141 commercial foods that were analyzed represent food categories that are the source of >80% carbohydrate intake in Italy. The food items chosen were based mainly on the market share of the brand within each food category and grouped into 13 food categories: 1) beverages: fermented milk drink, juice, smoothie, soft drink; 2) biscuits; 3) breads; 4) bread substitutes; 5) breakfast cereals; 6) cakes and snacks; 7) candy and confectionery; 8) cereals; 9) desserts and ice-creams; 10) marmalade and jam; 11) pasta; 12) pizza; 13) sugar and sweetener. This database of commercial Italian foods partly overcomes the lack of information on GI and GL of local foods, contributing to a better understanding of the association between GI/GL and health and providing a more informed choice to Italian consumers and health practitioners. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Glycemic index and glycemic load of selected Chinese traditional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Jun; Sun, Feng-Hua; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Huang, Ya-Jun

    2010-03-28

    To determine the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values of Chinese traditional foods in Hong Kong. Fifteen healthy subjects (8 males and 7 females) volunteered to consume either glucose or one of 23 test foods after 10-14 h overnight fast. The blood glucose concentrations were analyzed immediately before, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption using capillary blood samples. The GI value of each test food was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) value for the test food as a percentage of each subject's average IAUC value for the glucose. The GL value of each test food was calculated as the GI value of the food multiplied by the amount of the available carbohydrate in a usual portion size, divided by 100. Among all the 23 Chinese traditional foods tested, 6 of them belonged to low GI foods (Tuna Fish Bun, Egg Tart, Green Bean Dessert, Chinese Herbal Jelly, Fried Rice Vermicelli in Singapore-style, and Spring Roll), 10 of them belonged to moderate GI foods (Baked Barbecued Pork Puff, Fried Fritter, "Mai-Lai" Cake, "Pineapple" Bun, Fried Rice Noodles with Sliced Beef, Barbecue Pork Bun, Moon Cakes, Glutinous Rice Ball, Instant Sweet Milky Bun, and Salted Meat Rice Dumpling), the others belonged to high GI foods (Fried Rice in Yangzhou-Style, Sticky Rice Wrapped in Lotus Leaf, Steamed Glutinous Rice Roll, Jam and Peanut Butter Toast, Plain Steamed Vermicelli Roll, Red Bean Dessert, and Frozen Sweet Milky Bun). The GI and GL values for these Chinese traditional foods will provide some valuable information to both researchers and public on their food preference.

  20. Diabetes, glycemic control, and urinary incontinence in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Lefevre, Roger; Hacker, Michele R.; Golen, Toni H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate the association between urinary incontinence and glycemic control in women ages 20 to 85. METHODS We included 7,270 women from the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, stratified into three groups of glycemic control defined by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c): i) those below the diagnostic threshold (HbA1c8.5%) to allow for a different relationship between glycemic control and urinary incontinence within each group. The primary outcomes were the presence of any, only stress, only urgency, and mixed urinary incontinence. We calculated adjusted risk ratios using Poisson regressions with robust variance estimates. RESULTS The survey-weighted prevalence was 52.9% for any, 27.2% for only stress, 9.9% for only urgency, and 15.8% for mixed urinary incontinence. Among women with relatively controlled diabetes, each one-unit increase in HbA1c was associated with a 13% (95% CI: 1.03–1.25) increase for any urinary incontinence and a 34% (95% CI 1.06–1.69) increase in risk for only stress incontinence but was not significantly associated with only urgency and mixed incontinence. Other risk factors included body mass index, hormone replacement therapy, smoking, and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS Worsening glycemic control is associated with an increased risk for stress incontinence for women with relatively controlled diabetes. For those either below the diagnostic threshold or with poorly controlled diabetes, the risk may be driven by other factors. Further prospective investigation of HbA1c as a modifiable risk factor may motivate measures to improve continence in women with diabetes. PMID:26313496

  1. Prediction of gas compressibility factor using intelligent models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Mohamadi-Baghmolaei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The gas compressibility factor, also known as Z-factor, plays the determinative role for obtaining thermodynamic properties of gas reservoir. Typically, empirical correlations have been applied to determine this important property. However, weak performance and some limitations of these correlations have persuaded the researchers to use intelligent models instead. In this work, prediction of Z-factor is aimed using different popular intelligent models in order to find the accurate one. The developed intelligent models are including Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Fuzzy Interface System (FIS and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy System (ANFIS. Also optimization of equation of state (EOS by Genetic Algorithm (GA is done as well. The validity of developed intelligent models was tested using 1038 series of published data points in literature. It was observed that the accuracy of intelligent predicting models for Z-factor is significantly better than conventional empirical models. Also, results showed the improvement of optimized EOS predictions when coupled with GA optimization. Moreover, of the three intelligent models, ANN model outperforms other models considering all data and 263 field data points of an Iranian offshore gas condensate with R2 of 0.9999, while the R2 for best empirical correlation was about 0.8334.

  2. Multiple-Factor Based Sparse Urban Travel Time Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of travel time is challenging given the sparseness of real-time traffic data and the uncertainty of travel, because it is influenced by multiple factors on the congested urban road networks. In our paper, we propose a three-layer neural network from big probe vehicles data incorporating multi-factors to estimate travel time. The procedure includes the following three steps. First, we aggregate data according to the travel time of a single taxi traveling a target link on working days as traffic flows display similar traffic patterns over a weekly cycle. We then extract feature relationships between target and adjacent links at 30 min interval. About 224,830,178 records are extracted from probe vehicles. Second, we design a three-layer artificial neural network model. The number of neurons in input layer is eight, and the number of neurons in output layer is one. Finally, the trained neural network model is used for link travel time prediction. Different factors are included to examine their influence on the link travel time. Our model is verified using historical data from probe vehicles collected from May to July 2014 in Wuhan, China. The results show that we could obtain the link travel time prediction results using the designed artificial neural network model and detect the influence of different factors on link travel time.

  3. The Effect of Two Different Doses of Cuminum Cyminum Extract on Serum Glycemic Indices and Inflammatory Factors in Patients with Diabetes Type II: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Jafari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder considered as one of the most common chronic diseases in many countries, including Iran. One of the reducing factors in insulin sensitivity is increased serum levels of inflammatory factors like hsCRP and TNF-α. On the other hand, in recent years, Cuminum Cyminum is known as one of the potent herbs in the treatment of diabetes type 2 in animal studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two doses of 50 and 100 mg of Cuminum Cyminum extract on glycemic indices and indicators of inflammation in human subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This study is a double blind randomized clinical trial performed in Urmia city on 2015. Samples were selected based on inclusion criteria and randomly divided into 3 groups: two groups receiving Cuminum Cyminum extract of 50 and 100 mg per day and the control (placebo group. Before and 8 weeks after intervention, fasting blood sugar, serum insulin and inflammatory profile of hsCRP and TNF-α were measured. Data were analyzed by SPSS and the effect of supplementation was studied. Results: The mean age of the all participants was 47.33±6.36. Results showed that the mean fasting blood sugar (FBS, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, and serum insulin reduced significantly in the both groups receiving Cuminum extract of  50 and 100 mg(p<0.01., but increased in the placebo group. Average hsCRP and TNF-α levels have shown significant reduction at the beginning and end of the study in either group receiving 50 and 100 mg of supplementation (p<0.01. Conclusion: This study indicates that short-term daily supplementation of Cuminum Cyminum extract at the doses of 50 or 100mg in patients with type 2 diabetes during 8 weeks may act to reduce the serum levels of insulin, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and hsCRP and TNF-α levels, and also may be fruitful for control of this disease.

  4. Reply #1 to: Glycemic Choreoballism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cosentino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This Author Reply Letter was written in response to a Letter to the Editor:Lee D, Ahn T. Glycemic choreoballism. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2016; 6. doi: 10.7916/D8QJ7HNFThe Letter to the Editor, above, was written in response to these two Case Reports:Roy U, Das SK, Mukherjee A, et al. Irreversible hemichoreahemiballism in a case of nonketotic hyperglycemia presenting as the initial manifestation of diabetes mellitus. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2016; 6. doi: 10.7916/D8QZ2B3FCosentino C, Torres L, Nuñez Y, et al. Hemichorea/hemiballism associated with hyperglycemia: report of twenty cases. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2016; 6. doi: 10.7916/D8DN454P

  5. Clinical Prediction Making: Examining Influential Factors Related to Clinician Predictions of Recidivism among Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calley, Nancy G.; Richardson, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined factors influencing clinician predictions of recidivism for juvenile offenders, including youth age at initial juvenile justice system involvement, youth age at discharge, program completion status, clinician perception of strength of the therapeutic relationship, and clinician perception of youth commitment to treatment.…

  6. Do psychosocial factors predict readmission among diabetic elderly patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Alavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite advances in diabetes treatment, the rate of readmission is still relatively high among these patients, especially in older population. Various factors may predict readmission in these patients; hence, the aim of this study was to assess the role of psychosocial factors in predicting readmission among diabetic elderly hospitalized in selected hospitals of Isfahan. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted from January to September 2016, 150 diabetic elderly hospitalized in selected hospitals affiliated with Isfahan University of medical sciences were chosen using a convenient sampling method. The initial information was collected by a three-part questionnaire consisting of (a demographic characteristics, (b 21-item depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21, and (c multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS. Further information about readmission was gathered 3 months after completing the questionnaires through a phone call follow-up. Descriptive and inferential statistics (discriminant function analysis test were used to analyze the data. Results: During 3 months after discharge, 44% of hospitalized diabetic elderly were readmitted. Analytical model predicted the readmission status of 109 individuals (of total 150 persons in the studied units (success rate of 72.2%. Among predicting factors, depression and social support had the most and the least important roles in predicting readmission rate, respectively. Conclusions: Interventions to improve mental status (i.e., decreasing levels of depression, anxiety, and stress and develop social support are suggested to reduce the risk of readmission among diabetic elderly patients. Nevertheless, future studies are needed to verify the value of such interventions.

  7. Predictive factors for cosmetic surgery: a hospital-based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Li, Qian; Zhou, Bei; Gao, Yanli; Ma, Jiehua; Li, Jingyun

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic surgery is becoming increasingly popular in China. However, reports on the predictive factors for cosmetic surgery in Chinese individuals are scarce in the literature. We retrospectively analyzed 4550 cosmetic surgeries performed from January 2010 to December 2014 at a single center in China. Data collection included patient demographics and type of cosmetic surgery. Predictive factors were age, sex, marital status, occupational status, educational degree, and having had children. Predictive factors for the three major cosmetic surgeries were determined using a logistic regression analysis. Patients aged 19-34 years accounted for the most popular surgical procedures (76.9 %). The most commonly requested procedures were eye surgery, Botox injection, and nevus removal. Logistic regression analysis showed that higher education level (college, P = 0.01, OR 1.21) was predictive for eye surgery. Age (19-34 years, P = 0.00, OR 33.39; 35-50, P = 0.00, OR 31.34; ≥51, P = 0.00, OR 16.42), female sex (P = 0.00, OR 9.19), employment (service occupations, P = 0.00, OR 2.31; non-service occupations, P = 0.00, OR 1.76), and higher education level (college, P = 0.00, OR 1.39) were independent predictive factors for Botox injection. Married status (P = 0.00, OR 1.57), employment (non-service occupations, P = 0.00, OR 1.50), higher education level (masters, P = 0.00, OR 6.61), and having children (P = 0.00, OR 1.45) were independent predictive factors for nevus removal. The principal three cosmetic surgeries (eye surgery, Botox injection, and nevus removal) were associated with multiple variables. Patients employed in non-service occupations were more inclined to undergo Botox injection and nevus removal. Cohort study, Level III.

  8. Prediction of software operational reliability using testing environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1995-01-01

    For many years, many researches have focused on the quantification of software reliability and there are many models developed to quantify software reliability. Most software reliability models estimate the reliability with the failure data collected during the test assuming that the test environments well represent the operation profile. The experiences show that the operational reliability is higher than the test reliability User's interest is on the operational reliability rather than on the test reliability, however. With the assumption that the difference in reliability results from the change of environment, testing environment factors comprising the aging factor and the coverage factor are defined in this study to predict the ultimate operational reliability with the failure data. It is by incorporating test environments applied beyond the operational profile into testing environment factors. The application results are close to the actual data

  9. Prediction of postpartum blood transfusion – risk factors and recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikkelsø, Anne J; Hjortøe, Sofie; Gerds, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    in a hospital that reported transfusion of red blood cells to a national database: A total of 96 545 women were included. RESULTS: Retained placental tissue explained more than all other risk factors in vaginal deliveries. Retained placental tissue at first delivery was associated with postpartum transfusion...... transfusion is difficult. Retained placental tissue is the strongest predictor of postpartum blood transfusion in vaginal deliveries. Retained placental tissue is usually diagnosed for the first time when the bleeding starts, which limits the clinical value of prediction. We need tools for an early diagnosis......OBJECTIVE: The aim was to find clinically useful risk factors for postpartum transfusion and to assess the joint predictive value in a population of women with a first and second delivery. METHODS: All Danish women with a first and second delivery from January 2001 to September 2009 who gave birth...

  10. Predictive factors for somatization in a trauma sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Unexplained somatic symptoms are common among trauma survivors. The relationship between trauma and somatization appears to be mediated by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, only few studies have focused on what other psychological risk factors may predispose...... a trauma victim towards developing somatoform symptoms. METHODS: The present paper examines the predictive value of PTSD severity, dissociation, negative affectivity, depression, anxiety, and feeling incompetent on somatization in a Danish sample of 169 adult men and women who were affected by a series...... of incompetence significantly predicted somatization in the trauma sample whereas dissociation, depression, and anxiety were not associated with degree of somatization. PTSD as a risk factor was mediated by negative affectivity....

  11. Factors predicting successful discontinuation of continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, S; Uchino, S; Uji, M; Ohnuma, T; Namba, Y; Kawarazaki, H; Toki, N; Takeda, K; Yasuda, H; Izawa, J; Tokuhira, N; Nagata, I

    2016-07-01

    This multicentre, retrospective observational study was conducted from January 2010 to December 2010 to determine the optimal time for discontinuing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) by evaluating factors predictive of successful discontinuation in patients with acute kidney injury. Analysis was performed for patients after CRRT was discontinued because of renal function recovery. Patients were divided into two groups according to the success or failure of CRRT discontinuation. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, urine output at discontinuation, creatinine level and CRRT duration were found to be significant variables (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for urine output, 0.814). In conclusion, we found that higher urine output, lower creatinine and shorter CRRT duration were significant factors to predict successful discontinuation of CRRT.

  12. [Predictive factors of smoking behaviour in secondary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Cruz, G; Barrueco Ferrero, M; Maderuelo Fernández, A; Aparicio Coca, I; Torrecilla García, M

    2008-05-01

    Many factors have been reported as being responsible for starting smoking during school age, but it is still not well known which cognitive determinants may be used as predictive factors of tobacco use. A prospective, longitudinal, study, including 417 pupils from 12 to 17 years, was carried out over three years in two rural Secondary Education Institutes in Castilla y León. The ESFA questionnaire was used, which included scales on attitudes and beliefs, social influences, self-efficacy, intention to smoke in the future and smoker behaviour. Of the 417 pupils studied, 36.7 % were smokers (38.6 % females and 34.4 % males). The mean of starting smoking was 12 years (11.83-12.15). In the initial analysis there was a clear relationship between cognitive determinants and smoker behaviour. The advertising and peer pressure lost predictive value after 3 years. The multivariate analysis showed that the determining factors of tobacco use are, besides age (OR = 3.85; 95 % CI, 1.27-11.64), to have a favourable attitude to smoking, (OR = 4.47; 95 % CI, 2.15-9.32), and the conduct perceived among peers (OR = 5.05; 95 % CI, 2.50-10.19). The determining factors that demonstrates a clear relationship with smoker behaviour are, age, favourable attitude of pupils towards smoking, and the perceived behaviour by smoker friends. Smoking prevention programs should take these factors into accounts when designing their activities.

  13. Incidence and predicting factors of falls of older inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Cristina de Almeida Abreu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and predicting factors associated with falls among older inpatients. METHODS Prospective cohort study conducted in clinical units of three hospitals in Cuiaba, MT, Midwestern Brazil, from March to August 2013. In this study, 221 inpatients aged 60 or over were followed until hospital discharge, death, or fall. The method of incidence density was used to calculate incidence rates. Bivariate analysis was performed by Chi-square test, and multiple analysis was performed by Cox regression. RESULTS The incidence of falls was 12.6 per 1,000 patients/day. Predicting factors for falls during hospitalization were: low educational level (RR = 2.48; 95%CI 1.17;5.25, polypharmacy (RR = 4.42; 95%CI 1.77;11.05, visual impairment (RR = 2.06; 95%CI 1.01;4.23, gait and balance impairment (RR = 2.95; 95%CI 1.22;7.14, urinary incontinence (RR = 5.67; 95%CI 2.58;12.44 and use of laxatives (RR = 4.21; 95%CI 1.15;15.39 and antipsychotics (RR = 4.10; 95%CI 1.38;12.13. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of falls of older inpatients is high. Predicting factors found for falls were low education level, polypharmacy, visual impairment, gait and balance impairment, urinary incontinence and use of laxatives and antipsychotics. Measures to prevent falls in hospitals are needed to reduce the incidence of this event.

  14. Relation of Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load to Coronary Artery Calcium in Asymptomatic Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kim, Boyoung; Ahn, Jiin; Kim, Chan-Won; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Yiyi; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-15

    The relation between glycemic index, glycemic load, and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between energy-adjusted glycemic index, glycemic load, and coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study was cross-sectional analysis of 28,429 asymptomatic Korean men and women (mean age 41.4 years) without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent a health screening examination between March 2011 and April 2013, and dietary intake over the preceding year was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cardiac computed tomography was used for CAC scoring. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 12.4%. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of glycemic index and glycemic load were 1.74 (1.08 to 2.81; p trend = 0.03) and 3.04 (1.43 to 6.46; p trend = 0.005), respectively. These associations did not differ by clinical subgroups, including the participants at low cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, these findings suggest that high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were associated with a greater prevalence and degree of CAC, with glycemic load having a stronger association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictive factors associated with death of elderly in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kiwol

    2014-06-01

    An increasing elderly population reflects a great need for readily accessible, clinically useful methods to identify mortality-related factors in nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with the deaths of nursing home residents. Data was collected from a Minimal Data Set of 195 elderly nursing home residents, followed by analysis of demographic factors, disease and nursing condition factors, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), cognitive function, behavioral patterns, and dysfunctional status. Major factors associated with death among nursing home residents were identified as dyspnea (odds ratio [OR] = 4.88), problematic behaviors (OR = 3.95), and ADL (OR = 3.61). These variables accounted for 31.1% of the variance in death. Dyspnea, problematic behaviors, and ADL data were identified as the key factors associated with death among nursing home residents. Future plans for the prediction of death among nursing home residents can be made by nursing staff, factoring in these identified variables, to ensure more comfortable conditions and more responsive care. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Impact of different dietary approaches on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes: a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Chaimani, Anna; Hoffmann, Georg; Schwedhelm, Carolina; Boeing, Heiner

    2017-03-20

    Dietary advice is one of the cornerstones in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American Diabetes Association recommended a hypocaloric diet for overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes in order to induce weight loss. However, there is limited evidence on the optimal approaches to control hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes patients. The aim of the present study is to assess the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches on glycemic control and blood lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a systematic review including a standard pairwise and network meta-analysis of randomized trials. We will conduct searches in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on the Cochrane Library, PubMed (from 1966), and Google Scholar. Citations, abstracts, and relevant papers will be screened for eligibility by two reviewers independently. Randomized controlled trials (with a control group or randomized trials with at least two intervention groups) will be included if they meet the following criteria: (1) include type 2 diabetes mellitus, (2) include patients aged ≥18 years, (3) include dietary intervention (different type of diets: e.g., Mediterranean dietary pattern, low-carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, vegetarian diet, high protein diet); either hypo, iso-caloric, or ad libitum diets, (4) minimum intervention period of 12 weeks. For each outcome measure of interest, random effects pairwise and network meta-analyses will be performed in order to determine the pooled relative effect of each intervention relative to every other intervention in terms of the post-intervention values (or mean differences between the changes from baseline value scores). Subgroup analyses are planned for study length, sample size, age, and sex. This systematic review will synthesize the available evidence on the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches in the management of glycosylated hemoglobin (primary outcome), fasting glucose

  17. Impact of different dietary approaches on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes: a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Chaimani, Anna; Hoffmann, Georg; Schwedhelm, Carolina; Boeing, Heiner

    2017-01-01

    Background Dietary advice is one of the cornerstones in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American Diabetes Association recommended a hypocaloric diet for overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes in order to induce weight loss. However, there is limited evidence on the optimal approaches to control hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes patients. The aim of the present study is to assess the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches on glycemic control and blood lipi...

  18. Psychosocial factors predicting the motivation to undergo cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soest, Tilmann; Kvalem, Ingela L; Skolleborg, Knut Chr; Roald, Helge E

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates psychological factors expected to predict the motivation to undergo cosmetic surgery. It is hypothesized that body image, self-esteem, teasing history, acceptance of cosmetic surgery in the individual's environment, and self-monitoring relate to motivation to have cosmetic surgery. Questionnaire data were obtained from 907 participants who responded to a survey distributed to a representative sample of Norwegian women aged 22 to 55 years. A second sample of 195 female prospective cosmetic surgery patients was recruited from a plastic surgery clinic. Measures of the hypothesized predictor variables were obtained from both samples. Surgery motivation was operationalized in two different ways. First, the women in the first sample were asked to indicate whether they wished to undergo cosmetic surgery, such that women who wished to have surgery could be compared with those who did not. Second, prospective patients were compared with women from the first sample who indicated that they did not wish to have cosmetic surgery. Analyses revealed all predictor variables but self-esteem to be related to either the wish or the decision to undergo surgery, or to both. Social acceptance of cosmetic surgery and body image were the strongest predictors of cosmetic surgery motivation. The study gives new insights into psychological factors predicting cosmetic surgery motivation. Furthermore, the influence of social factors on cosmetic surgery motivation is emphasized, and it is suggested that these factors be included in future research designs.

  19. Predictive factors for anterior chamber fibrin formation after vitreoretinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Provetti Cunha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate possible predictive factors related to anterior chamber fibrin formation after vitreoretinal surgery in a large series of patients. Methods: The data of 185 eyes of 185 patients submitted to vitreoretinal surgery was reviewed. The following variables were evaluated: the postoperatively presence of fibrin, age, diabetes mellitus, the vitrectomy system gauge (20, 23 or 25 gauge, the type of vitreous substitute, the influence of prior surgical procedures and the combination with cataract extraction. To evaluate predictive factors for anterior chamber fibrin formation, univariate analysis was performed. A multivariate stepwise logistic regression model was adjusted to investigate factors associated with fibrin formation (p<0.05. Results: Fibrinoid anterior chamber reaction was found in 12 (6.4% patients. For multivariate logistic regression analysis, balanced salt solution (BSS, the chance of fibrin occurrence was 5 times greater (odds ratio 4.83, CI 95% 1.302 - 17.892; p=0.019, while combination with phacoemulsification increased the chance of fibrin formation by 20 times (odds ratio 20, CI 95% 2.480 - 161.347; p=0.005. No significant difference was found regarding other variables. Conclusion: Anterior chamber fibrin formation is an unwanted complication after vitreoretinal surgery. Factors such as combined performance of phacoemulsification and the use of balanced salt solution as a vitreous substitute may predispose the occurrence of this complication.

  20. Predictive factors of recurrent bleeding in Mallory-Weiss syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Woo; Kim, Hyun Soo; Byun, Jong Won; Won, Chan Sik; Jee, Myeong Gwan; Park, Yong Soon; Baik, Soon Koo; Kwon, Sang Ok; Lee, Dong Ki

    2005-12-01

    Although the majority of patients with Mallory-Weiss syndrome (MWS) have a benign course, MWS patients with recurrent bleeding have an unfavorable outcome and require intensive care. Therefore, this study was carried out to identify the risk factors for recurrent bleeding in MWS patients. The medical records of patients with MWS between January 1999 and December 2003, were reviewed retrospectively. Demographics, initial clinical and laboratory parameters, and endoscopic findings of the patients with and without recurrent bleeding were compared and the potential risk factors predicting recurrent bleeding in MWS were evaluated. A total of one hundred and fifty-nine patients (22 women, 137 men, mean age 48.1 years old) were enrolled in the study. Recurrent bleeding was observed in 17 patients (10.7%). Those patients with recurrent bleeding showed higher frequency for the presence of shock at initial manifestation, combined liver cirrhosis and endoscopic findings of active bleeding, lower hemoglobin level and platelet count, higher amount of transfusions and epinephrine-mixed fluid injections, and longer hospital stay than those patients without recurrent bleeding. Significant risk factors predicting the recurrent bleeding in MWS were the presence of shock at initial manifestation (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.07-14.90) and the evidence of active bleeding on endoscopic examination (OR 9.89, 95% CI 1.88-51.98) on multivariate analysis. Intensive care with close monitoring is required for the patients with shock on initial manifestation or with evidence of active bleeding on endoscopic examinations since these are independent risk factors predicting the recurrent bleeding in MWS patients.

  1. Readmission to medical intensive care units: risk factors and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Suk; Lee, Yeon Joo; Park, Jong Sun; Yoon, Ho Il; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Cho, Young-Jae

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to find factors related to medical intensive care unit (ICU) readmission and to develop a prediction index for determining patients who are likely to be readmitted to medical ICUs. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 343 consecutive patients who were admitted to the medical ICU of a single medical center from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012. We analyzed a broad range of patients' characteristics on the day of admission, extubation, and discharge from the ICU. Of the 343 patients discharged from the ICU alive, 33 (9.6%) were readmitted to the ICU unexpectedly. Using logistic regression analysis, the verified factors associated with increased risk of ICU readmission were male sex [odds ratio (OR) 3.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-8.48], history of diabetes mellitus (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.29-7.09), application of continuous renal replacement therapy during ICU stay (OR 2.78, 95% CI 0.85-9.09), white blood cell count on the day of extubation (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.21), and heart rate just before ICU discharge (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06). We established a prediction index for ICU readmission using the five verified risk factors (area under the curve, 0.76, 95% CI 0.66-0.86). By using specific risk factors associated with increased readmission to the ICU, a numerical index could be established as an estimation tool to predict the risk of ICU readmission.

  2. miRNA-Disease Association Prediction with Collaborative Matrix Factorization

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    Zhen Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the factors in the noncoding RNA family, microRNAs (miRNAs are involved in the development and progression of various complex diseases. Experimental identification of miRNA-disease association is expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, it is necessary to design efficient algorithms to identify novel miRNA-disease association. In this paper, we developed the computational method of Collaborative Matrix Factorization for miRNA-Disease Association prediction (CMFMDA to identify potential miRNA-disease associations by integrating miRNA functional similarity, disease semantic similarity, and experimentally verified miRNA-disease associations. Experiments verified that CMFMDA achieves intended purpose and application values with its short consuming-time and high prediction accuracy. In addition, we used CMFMDA on Esophageal Neoplasms and Kidney Neoplasms to reveal their potential related miRNAs. As a result, 84% and 82% of top 50 predicted miRNA-disease pairs for these two diseases were confirmed by experiment. Not only this, but also CMFMDA could be applied to new diseases and new miRNAs without any known associations, which overcome the defects of many previous computational methods.

  3. Imputation for transcription factor binding predictions based on deep learning.

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    Qian Qin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the cell-specific binding patterns of transcription factors (TFs is fundamental to studying gene regulatory networks in biological systems, for which ChIP-seq not only provides valuable data but is also considered as the gold standard. Despite tremendous efforts from the scientific community to conduct TF ChIP-seq experiments, the available data represent only a limited percentage of ChIP-seq experiments, considering all possible combinations of TFs and cell lines. In this study, we demonstrate a method for accurately predicting cell-specific TF binding for TF-cell line combinations based on only a small fraction (4% of the combinations using available ChIP-seq data. The proposed model, termed TFImpute, is based on a deep neural network with a multi-task learning setting to borrow information across transcription factors and cell lines. Compared with existing methods, TFImpute achieves comparable accuracy on TF-cell line combinations with ChIP-seq data; moreover, TFImpute achieves better accuracy on TF-cell line combinations without ChIP-seq data. This approach can predict cell line specific enhancer activities in K562 and HepG2 cell lines, as measured by massively parallel reporter assays, and predicts the impact of SNPs on TF binding.

  4. Drug-Target Interaction Prediction with Graph Regularized Matrix Factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Ali; Zhao, Peilin; Wu, Min; Li, Xiao-Li; Kwoh, Chee-Keong

    2017-01-01

    Experimental determination of drug-target interactions is expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, there is a continuous demand for more accurate predictions of interactions using computational techniques. Algorithms have been devised to infer novel interactions on a global scale where the input to these algorithms is a drug-target network (i.e., a bipartite graph where edges connect pairs of drugs and targets that are known to interact). However, these algorithms had difficulty predicting interactions involving new drugs or targets for which there are no known interactions (i.e., "orphan" nodes in the network). Since data usually lie on or near to low-dimensional non-linear manifolds, we propose two matrix factorization methods that use graph regularization in order to learn such manifolds. In addition, considering that many of the non-occurring edges in the network are actually unknown or missing cases, we developed a preprocessing step to enhance predictions in the "new drug" and "new target" cases by adding edges with intermediate interaction likelihood scores. In our cross validation experiments, our methods achieved better results than three other state-of-the-art methods in most cases. Finally, we simulated some "new drug" and "new target" cases and found that GRMF predicted the left-out interactions reasonably well.

  5. Link Prediction via Convex Nonnegative Matrix Factorization on Multiscale Blocks

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    Enming Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low rank matrices approximations have been used in link prediction for networks, which are usually global optimal methods and lack of using the local information. The block structure is a significant local feature of matrices: entities in the same block have similar values, which implies that links are more likely to be found within dense blocks. We use this insight to give a probabilistic latent variable model for finding missing links by convex nonnegative matrix factorization with block detection. The experiments show that this method gives better prediction accuracy than original method alone. Different from the original low rank matrices approximations methods for link prediction, the sparseness of solutions is in accord with the sparse property for most real complex networks. Scaling to massive size network, we use the block information mapping matrices onto distributed architectures and give a divide-and-conquer prediction method. The experiments show that it gives better results than common neighbors method when the networks have a large number of missing links.

  6. Determinants of Long-Term Durable Glycemic Control in New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Kyoung Jin Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLong-term durable glycemic control is a difficult goal in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We evaluated the factors associated with durable glycemic control in a real clinical setting.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 194 new-onset, drug-naïve patients with T2DM who were diagnosed between January 2011 and March 2013, and were followed up for >2 years. Glycemic durability was defined as the maintenance of optimal glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] <7.0% for 2 years without substitution or adding other glucose-lowering agents. Clinical factors and glycemic markers associated with glycemic durability were compared between two groups: a durability group and a non-durability group.ResultsPatients in the durability group had a higher baseline body mass index (26.1 kg/m2 vs. 24.9 kg/m2 and lower HbA1c (8.6% vs. 9.7% than the non-durability group. The initial choice of glucose-lowering agents was similar in both groups, except for insulin and sulfonylureas, which were more frequently prescribed in the non-durability group. In multiple logistic regression analyses, higher levels of education, physical activity, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β were associated with glycemic durability. Notably, lower HbA1c (<7.0% at baseline and first follow-up were significantly associated with glycemic durability (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 7.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.51 to 22.3 (adjusted OR, 9.27; 95% CI, 1.62 to 53.1, respectively, after adjusting for confounding variables including the types of glucose-lowering agents.ConclusionEarly achievement of HbA1c level within the glycemic target was a determinant of long-term glycemic durability in new-onset T2DM, as were higher levels of education, physical activity, and HOMA-β.

  7. Scoring functions for transcription factor binding site prediction

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    Friberg Markus

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factor binding site (TFBS prediction is a difficult problem, which requires a good scoring function to discriminate between real binding sites and background noise. Many scoring functions have been proposed in the literature, but it is difficult to assess their relative performance, because they are implemented in different software tools using different search methods and different TFBS representations. Results Here we compare how several scoring functions perform on both real and semi-simulated data sets in a common test environment. We have also developed two new scoring functions and included them in the comparison. The data sets are from the yeast (S. cerevisiae genome. Our new scoring function LLBG (least likely under the background model performs best in this study. It achieves the best average rank for the correct motifs. Scoring functions based on positional bias performed quite poorly in this study. Conclusion LLBG may provide an interesting alternative to current scoring functions for TFBS prediction.

  8. Can the big five factors of personality predict lymphocyte counts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ožura, Ana; Ihan, Alojz; Musek, Janek

    2012-03-01

    Psychological stress is known to affect the immune system. The Limbic Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (LHPA) axis has been identified as the principal path of the bidirectional communication between the immune system and the central nervous system with significant psychological activators. Personality traits acted as moderators of the relationship between life conflicts and psychological distress. This study focuses on the relationship between the Big Five factors of personality and immune regulation as indicated by Lymphocyte counts. Our study included 32 professional soldiers from the Slovenian Army that completed the Big Five questionnaire (Goldberg IPIP-300). We also assessed their white blood cell counts with a detailed lymphocyte analysis using flow cytometry. The correlations between personality variables and immune system parameters were calculated. Furthermore, regression analyses were performed using personality variables as predictors and immune parameters as criteria. The results demonstrated that the model using the Big Five factors as predictors of Lymphocyte counts is significant in predicting the variance in NK and B cell counts. Agreeableness showed the strongest predictive function. The results offer support for the theoretical models that stressed the essential links between personality and immune regulation. Further studies with larger samples examining the Big five factors and immune system parameters are needed.

  9. Predictive factors for lower extremity amputations in diabetic foot infections

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    Zameer Aziz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of diabetic foot infections (DFIs and its predictive factors for lower extremity amputations. A prospective study of 100 patients with DFIs treated at the National University Hospital of Singapore were recruited in the study during the period of January 2005–June 2005. A protocol was designed to document patient's demographics, type of DFI, presence of neuropathy and/or vasculopathy and its final outcome. Predictive factors for limb loss were determined using univariate and stepwise logistic regression analysis. The mean age of the study population was 59.8 years with a male to female ratio of about 1:1 and with a mean follow-up duration of about 24 months. All patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Common DFIs included abscess (32%, wet gangrene (29%, infected ulcers (19%, osteomyelitis (13%, necrotizing fasciitis (4% and cellulitis (3%. Thirteen patients were treated conservatively, while surgical debridement or distal amputation was performed in 59 patients. Twenty-eight patients had major amputations (below or above knee performed. Forty-eight percent had monomicrobial infections compared with 52% with polymicrobial infections. The most common pathogens found in all infections (both monomicrobial and polymicrobial were Staphylococcus aureus (39.7%, Bacteroides fragilis (30.3%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.0% and Streptococcus agalactiae (21.0%. Significant univariate predictive factors for limb loss included age above 60 years, gangrene, ankle-brachial index (ABI <0.8, monomicrobial infections, white blood cell (WBC count ≥ 15.0×109/L, erythrocyte sedimentation rate ≥100 mm/hr, C-reactive protein ≥15.0 mg/dL, hemoglobin (Hb ≤10.0g/dL and creatinine ≥150 µmol/L. Upon stepwise logistic regression, only gangrene, ABI <0.8, WBC ≥ 15.0×109/L and Hb ≤10.0g/dL were significant.

  10. Carbohydrate and protein but not fat or fiber affects glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values have been calculated using data derived from instruments designed to estimate daily food intake. Since the absolute amount of carbohydrate (CHO) and combination of CHO with other macronutrients and fiber is highly variable among...

  11. Health Literacy, Diabetes Self-Care, and Glycemic Control in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Bains, Sujeev S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Although limited health literacy is a barrier to disease management and has been associated with poor glycemic control, the mechanisms underlying the relationships between health literacy and diabetes outcomes are unknown. We examined the relationships between health literacy, determinants of diabetes self-care, and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients with diabetes were recruited from an outpatient primary care clinic. We collected information on demographics, health literacy, diabetes knowledge, diabetes fatalism, social support, and diabetes self-care, and hemoglobin A1c values were extracted from the medical record. Structural equation models tested the predicted pathways linking health literacy to diabetes self-care and glycemic control. Results No direct relationship was observed between health literacy and diabetes self-care or glycemic control. Health literacy had a direct effect on social support (r = −0.20, P fatalism (r = −0.22, P < 0.05), and more social support (r = 0.27, P < 0.01) were independent, direct predictors of diabetes self-care and through self-care were related to glycemic control (r = −0.20, P < 0.05). Conclusions Our findings suggest health literacy has an indirect effect on diabetes self-care and glycemic control through its association with social support. This suggests that for patients with limited health literacy, enhancing social support would facilitate diabetes self-care and improved glycemic control. PMID:20879964

  12. Relationships among diabetic retinopathy, antioxidants, and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carly S Y; Benzie, Iris F F; Choi, Siu Wai; Chan, Lily Y L; Yeung, Vincent T F; Woo, George C

    2011-02-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is increasing worldwide and affects ∼11% of the Hong Kong population. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common cause of vision loss in type 2 DM. Risk of DR is increased by poor glycemic control, elevated lipids, and blood pressure, but it is not possible to predict the development or progression of DR at an individual level. Increased oxidative stress is thought to play a role. The use of a wider biomarker profile incorporating biomarkers of antioxidant status and oxidative stress may aid identification of individuals at higher risk or at very early stages of developing DR. Four hundred twenty type 2 DM subjects without diabetic complications were investigated. Eyes were examined for DR and anterior and posterior ocular segment pathology. DR was graded according to Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study criteria. Demographic data were collected. Traditional risk factors plus biomarkers of antioxidant status and oxidative stress in fasting blood and urine were determined. Overall DR prevalence was 89%. No significant differences in any demographic measures or biomarkers were found among those subjects with different DR grades, or in those without DR. Significant correlations (p < 0.0001) between HbA1c and DNA damage, (ρ = 0.32) and fasting plasma glucose and DNA damage (ρ = 0.52) were seen. DNA damage was also significantly and inversely correlated (p < 0.0001) with both plasma ascorbic acid (ρ = -0.41) and plasma total antioxidant level (ρ = -0.21). DR prevalence was very high in this group, but no biomarker differences were seen in those with DR compared to those free of DR, or in those with different degrees of severity of DR. This group of 420 subjects is being followed up to investigate whether the extended biomarker profile at baseline is related to progression of and/or incident DR.

  13. Association between unfavorable lipid profile and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klisic, Aleksandra; Kavaric, Nebojsa; Jovanovic, Milovan; Zvrko, Elvir; Skerovic, Verica; Scepanovic, Andjelka; Medin, Darko; Ninic, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies hypothesize that dyslipidemia can predict glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and could be important contributing factor to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the influence of lipid parameters on long-term glycemic control in DM2. A total of 275 sedentary DM2 (mean [±standard deviation] age 60.6 [±10.0] years) who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study were enrolled. Anthropometric (body weight, body hight, and waist circumference), biochemical parameters (fasting glucose, HbA1c, lipid parameters, creatinine), as well as blood pressure were obtained. Total cholesterol (odds ratio [OR] =1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.02-1.66], P = 0.032), triglycerides (OR = 1.34, 95% CI (1.07-1.67), P = 0.010), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 1.42, 95% CI [1.10-1.83], P = 0.006) were the independent predictors of higher HBA1c, and as they increased by 1 mmol/L each, probabilities of higher HBA1c increased by 30%, 34%, and 42%, respectively. Low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was found to be the independent predictor of higher HBA1c (OR = 0.44, 95% CI [0.20-0.67], P = 0.039), and increase in HDL-c by 1 mmol/L, reduced the probability of higher HBA1c by 56%. Unfavorable lipid profile can predict HbA1c level in DM2 patients. Early diagnosis of dyslipidemia, as well as its monitoring and maintaining good lipids control can be used as a preventive measure for optimal long-term glycemic control.

  14. Association between unfavorable lipid profile and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Klisic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies hypothesize that dyslipidemia can predict glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and could be important contributing factor to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the influence of lipid parameters on long-term glycemic control in DM2. Materials and Methods: A total of 275 sedentary DM2 (mean [±standard deviation] age 60.6 [±10.0] years who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study were enrolled. Anthropometric (body weight, body hight, and waist circumference, biochemical parameters (fasting glucose, HbA1c, lipid parameters, creatinine, as well as blood pressure were obtained. Results: Total cholesterol (odds ratio [OR] =1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.02–1.66], P = 0.032, triglycerides (OR = 1.34, 95% CI (1.07–1.67, P = 0.010, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 1.42, 95% CI [1.10–1.83], P = 0.006 were the independent predictors of higher HBA1c, and as they increased by 1 mmol/L each, probabilities of higher HBA1c increased by 30%, 34%, and 42%, respectively. Low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c was found to be the independent predictor of higher HBA1c (OR = 0.44, 95% CI [0.20–0.67], P = 0.039, and increase in HDL-c by 1 mmol/L, reduced the probability of higher HBA1c by 56%. Conclusion: Unfavorable lipid profile can predict HbA1c level in DM2 patients. Early diagnosis of dyslipidemia, as well as its monitoring and maintaining good lipids control can be used as a preventive measure for optimal long-term glycemic control.

  15. [Predictive factors of drug prescription: profile of the overprescribing physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espigares Arroyo, M; Montes Salas, G; Altimiras Roset, J; Iglesias Sánchez, J M; Brioso Jerez, F

    1994-01-01

    Because of increasing pharmaceutical costs, several programs aimed at optimizing physician's prescription have been set up in the last years. However, factors determining prescription volume are not well known yet. The aim of study is to determine which the characteristics of the practitioner (GP) or the working place are related with a higher amount of drug prescription. With data obtained from PE-29, PE-20, and the managing center Human Resources Department databases, concerning the whole GP staff (N = 293), via a multiple regression model, we were able to determine the following factors predicting higher prescription:rural work place, longer distance to reference specialty center, care to children, lack of postgraduate education, short term work contract, and part time staff.

  16. Inflammatory genes and psychological factors predict induced shoulder pain phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steven Z; Parr, Jeffrey J; Wallace, Margaret R; Wu, Samuel S; Borsa, Paul A; Dai, Yunfeng; Fillingim, Roger B

    2014-10-01

    The pain experience has multiple influences, but little is known about how specific biological and psychological factors interact to influence pain responses. The current study investigated the combined influences of genetic (pro-inflammatory) and psychological factors on several preclinical shoulder pain phenotypes. An exercise-induced shoulder injury model was used, and a priori selected genetic (IL1B, TNF/LTA region, and IL6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)) and psychological (anxiety, depression symptoms, pain catastrophizing, fear of pain, and kinesiophobia) factors were included as the predictors of interest. The phenotypes were pain intensity (5-d average and peak reported on numerical rating scale), upper extremity disability (5-d average and peak reported on the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand instrument), and duration of shoulder pain (d). After controlling for age, sex, and race, the genetic and psychological predictors were entered separately as main effects and interaction terms in regression models for each pain phenotype. Results from the recruited cohort (n = 190) indicated strong statistical evidence for the interactions between 1) TNF/LTA SNP rs2229094 and depression symptoms for average pain intensity and duration and 2) IL1B two SNP diplotype and kinesiophobia for average shoulder pain intensity. Moderate statistical evidence for prediction of additional shoulder pain phenotypes included interactions of kinesiophobia, fear of pain, or depressive symptoms with TNF/LTA rs2229094 and IL1B. These findings support the combined predictive ability of specific genetic and psychological factors for shoulder pain phenotypes by revealing novel combinations that may merit further investigation in clinical cohorts to determine their involvement in the transition from acute to chronic pain conditions.

  17. Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: predictive factors of intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbos, Florent; Bertrand, Gérald; Croisille, Laure; Ansart-Pirenne, Hélène; Bierling, Philippe; Kaplan, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    In Caucasians, fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is most frequently caused by maternal alloimmunization against the human platelet antigen HPA-1a. The most serious complication of severe FNAIT is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). ICH mainly occurs in utero; therefore, there is a need to identify noninvasive predictive factors of ICH to facilitate early identification of this condition and to determine response to maternal therapy. We studied gynecologic and immunogenetic variables of severe cases of anti-HPA-1a FNAIT within three groups: Group I, FNAIT without ICH; Group II, FNAIT with ICH; and Group III, suspected FNAIT cases without detectable maternal anti-HPA-1a alloantibodies. ICH was associated with a poor outcome because it led to death in 59% of cases. Multigravida (two or more pregnancies) was overrepresented in Group II, consistent with the high concentrations of maternal HPA-1a alloantibody and the frequent detection of a strong newborn-specific HLA class I antibody response at delivery. The proportion of HLA-DRB4*01:01P (*01:01 or *01:03) women was similar in Groups I and II, but this allele was overrepresented in Group III, in which FNAIT was less severe than in the other two groups. Finally, antenatal intravenous immunoglobulin therapy tended to be more effective in HLA-DRB3*01:01(+)/HLA-DRB4*01:01P(+) women than for HLA-DRB3*01:01(+)/HLA-DRB4*01:01P(-) women. The number of gestations is a predictive factor of ICH in anti-HPA-1a-alloimmunized women. Maternal immunogenetic variables should be investigated in the context of maternal immunization and may predict response to maternal therapy in subsequent pregnancies. © 2015 AABB.

  18. Induction of labour: clinical predictive factors for success and failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinelli, Laura; Serafini, Andrea; Nante, Nicola; Petraglia, Felice; Severi, Filiberto Maria; Messina, Gabriele

    2018-04-01

    Induction of labour (IOL) is a widely-used practice in obstetrics. Our aim was to evaluate predictors of vaginal delivery in postdate pregnancies induced with prostaglandins. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study with analytic component. A total of 145 women, admitted for IOL after the 41st week of gestation, were induced with a vaginal pessary releasing prostaglandins. Type of delivery, whether vaginal or caesarean, was the outcome. Several maternal and foetal variables were investigated. The Kaplan-Maier curves, monovariate and a multivariate logistic regression were carried out. In our population, 80.7% of women had vaginal delivery after the induction. Multiparity and a high Bishop score at the beginning of the IOL were protective factors for a vaginal delivery (respectively OR 0.16, p = .028 and OR 0.62, p = .034) while age >35 years, and the foetal birth weight >3500 g at the birth, resulted in being risk factors for caesarean section (respectively OR 4.20, p = .006 and OR 3.63, p = .013). IMPACT STATEMENT What is already known on this subject: Induction of labour (IOL) is a widely used practice in obstetrics. Scientific literature shows several predictors of successful induction, although there is no unanimity except for 'multiparity' and 'favourable Bishop score' which are associated with positive outcome of the induction. The main difficulty in finding other predictive factors is the heterogeneity of this field (different local protocols in each hospital, type of induction, populations and outcomes chosen in each study). In addition to that, populations are not always comparable due to the different gestation. For this reason, we decided to select a specific population of women, such as low risk postterm pregnancies induced with prostaglandins, in order to detect possible predictive factors for the success of the IOL for women with uncomplicated pregnancies. What the results of this study add: Our study agrees with existing

  19. Serum Fructosamine: A Simple and Inexpensive Test for Assessing Preoperative Glycemic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohat, Noam; Tarabichi, Majd; Tischler, Eric H; Jabbour, Serge; Parvizi, Javad

    2017-11-15

    Although the medical community acknowledges the importance of preoperative glycemic control, the literature is inconclusive and the proper metric for assessment of glycemic control remains unclear. Serum fructosamine reflects the mean glycemic control in a shorter time period compared with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Our aim was to examine its role in predicting adverse outcomes following total joint arthroplasty. Between 2012 and 2013, we screened all patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty preoperatively using serum HbA1c, fructosamine, and blood glucose levels. On the basis of the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, 7% was chosen as the cutoff for HbA1c being indicative of poor glycemic control. This threshold correlated with a fructosamine level of 292 μmol/L. All patients were followed and total joint arthroplasty complications were evaluated. We were particularly interested in retrieving details on surgical-site infection (superficial and deep). Patients with fructosamine levels of ≥292 μmol/L were compared with those with fructosamine levels of simple and inexpensive test that appears to be a good predictor of adverse outcome in patients with known diabetes and those with unrecognized diabetes or hyperglycemia. Our findings suggest that fructosamine can serve as an alternative to HbA1c in the setting of preoperative glycemic assessment. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  20. Predictive factors for oropharyngeal dysphagia after prolonged orotracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Carolina Martins de; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Salomão, Marina Silva; Bougo, Graziela Chamarelli; Vicente, Laélia Cristina Caseiro

    2017-09-13

    Lesions in the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx due to endotracheal intubation can cause reduction in the local motility and sensitivity, impairing the swallowing process, resulting in oropharyngeal dysphagia. To verify the predictive factors for the development of oropharyngeal dysphagia and the risk of aspiration in patients with prolonged orotracheal intubation admitted to an intensive care unit. This is an observational, analytical, cross-sectional and retrospective data collection study of 181 electronic medical records of patients submitted to prolonged orotracheal intubation. Data on age; gender; underlying disease; associated comorbidities; time and reason for orotracheal intubation; Glasgow scale on the day of the Speech Therapist assessment; comprehension; vocal quality; presence and severity of dysphagia; risk of bronchoaspiration; and the suggested oral route were collected. The data were analyzed through logistic regression. The level of significance was set at 5%, with a 95% Confidence Interval. The prevalence of dysphagia in this study was 35.9% and the risk of aspiration was 24.9%. As the age increased, the altered vocal quality and the degree of voice impairment increased the risk of the presence of dysphagia by 5-; 45.4- and 6.7-fold, respectively, and of aspiration by 6-; 36.4- and 4.8-fold. The increase in the time of orotracheal intubation increased the risk of aspiration by 5.5-fold. Patients submitted to prolonged intubation who have risk factors associated with dysphagia and aspiration should be submitted to an early speech-language/audiology assessment and receive appropriate and timely treatment. The recognition of these predictive factors by the entire multidisciplinary team can minimize the possibility of clinical complications inherent to the risk of dysphagia and aspiration in extubated patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  1. Glycemic control and antidiabetic drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with renal complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huri HZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hasniza Zaman Huri,1,2 Lay Peng Lim,1 Soo Kun Lim3 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 2Clinical Investigation Centre, University Malaya Medical Centre, 3Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Good glycemic control can delay the progression of kidney diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients with renal complications. To date, the association between antidiabetic agents and glycemic control in this specific patient population is not well established.Purpose: This study aimed to identify antidiabetic regimens as well as other factors that associated with glycemic control in T2DM patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD.Patients and methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study involved 242 T2DM inpatients and outpatients with renal complications from January 2009 to March 2014 and was conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C was used as main parameter to assess patients’ glycemic status. Patients were classified to have good (A1C <7% or poor glycemic control (A1C ≥7% based on the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association.Results: Majority of the patients presented with CKD stage 4 (43.4%. Approximately 55.4% of patients were categorized to have poor glycemic control. Insulin (57.9% was the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic medication, followed by sulfonylureas (43%. Of all antidiabetic regimens, sulfonylureas monotherapy (P<0.001, insulin therapy (P=0.005, and combination of biguanides with insulin (P=0.038 were found to be significantly associated with glycemic control. Other factors including duration of T2DM (P=0.004, comorbidities such as anemia (P=0.024 and retinopathy (P=0.033, concurrent medications such as erythropoietin therapy (P=0.047, a-blockers (P=0.033, and antigouts (P=0.003 were also correlated with A1C.Conclusion: Identification of

  2. The obesity epidemic: is glycemic index the key to unlocking a hidden addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, Simon; McRobbie, Hayden; Eyles, Helen; Walker, Natalie; Simmons, Greg

    2008-11-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is an important cause of a range of diseases and is estimated to be the seventh leading cause of death globally. In this paper we discuss evidence that food consumption shows similarities to features of other addictive behaviours, such as automaticity and loss of control. Glycemic index is hypothesised to be the element of food that predicts its addictive potential. Although we do not have substantive evidence of a withdrawal syndrome from high glycemic food abstinence, anecdotal reports exist. Empirical scientific and clinical studies support an addictive component of eating behaviour, with similar neurotransmitters and neural pathways triggered by food consumption, as with other drugs of addiction. The public health implications of such a theory are discussed, with reference to tobacco control. Subtle changes in the preparation and manufacturing of commonly consumed food items, reducing glycemic index through regulatory channels, may break such a cycle of addiction and draw large public health benefits.

  3. Periodontitis and glycemic control in diabetes: NHANES 2009 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Dina; Tarima, Sergey; Okunseri, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    This study examines the association between periodontitis, diabetes (DM), and glycemic control. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for 2009 to 2012 were analyzed. Periodontitis status of each participant was assessed using the full-mouth periodontal examination protocol, classified using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology surveillance case definition for total periodontitis. Self-reported DM status was defined as yes or no. Glycemic control was assessed using glycohemoglobin data at cutoff points of 7.0%, 7.5%, 8.0%, 8.5%, and 9.0%. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed, and all analyses were adjusted for the survey design. Overall, 7,042 adults ≥30 years old with complete data were included in the study. The mean glycohemoglobin levels for individuals with and without periodontitis were 5.9% and 5.6%, respectively, and increased to 7.4% and 7.0% for participants with DM. The majority of participants with and without periodontitis were aged 50 to 64 and 35 to 49 years (37.4% versus 44.5%), respectively. In the bivariate analysis, several demographic factors were significantly associated with having periodontitis, including self-reported DM status and glycemic control. In the multivariate analysis, demographic factors, glycohemoglobin cutoff values of 8.0%, 8.5%, and 9.0%, and mean glycohemoglobin level remained significant, but self-reported DM status was not. This study demonstrates that glycohemoglobin and demographic factors are significantly associated with periodontitis, but not self-reported status.

  4. STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF THE EDUCATIONAL HOSPITALIZATION FOR DIABETES IMPLEMENTING CRITICAL PATHWAY ON LONG-TERM GLYCEMIC CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Kaga, Midori; Narita, Takuma; Yamada, Yuichiro

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of diabetes educational hospitalization utilizing the critical pathway (CP) on long-term glycemic control after discharge in type 2 diabetic patients by comparing changes in HbA1c in 18 patients admitted before CP introduction with those in 18 patients admitted after CP introduction. We also investigated the factors related to worsening of glycemic control after discharge from diabetes educational hospitalization. In the patients admitted before CP introduction, HbA1c ...

  5. Application of BASNEF educational model for nutritional education among elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: improving the glycemic control

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Sharifirad; Arash Najimi; Akbar Hassanzadeh; Leila Azadbakht

    2011-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of nutritional educational program on glycemic control of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In this parallel randomized controlled educational trial, 100 diabetic elderly patients (≥60 years) were chosen (50 in control and 50 in test group). Nutrition education based on beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms and enabling factors (BASNEF model) was conducted. Dietary intake and glycemic indices as well as the ...

  6. Effect of glycemic control on diabetic dyslipidemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Arshad, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether good glycemic control has an effect on lipid profile in diabetics After taking relevant history and physical examination, serum urea, creatinine, thyroid stimulating hormone, bilirubin, alanine transaminase and HbA1c were measured. Blood samples for determination of fasting plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL levels were collected in a fasting state. Patients were divided into two groups based on HbA1c levels. They were compared using SPSS 13. 42 patients had good glycemic control and 58 had poor control. The two groups were age and weight matched. 43 patients had abnormal lipid profiles. Serum total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower and HDL levels higher in the good control group but serum LDL levels were equal. Conclusion: Good glycemic control improves lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (author)

  7. Do Demographic Factors Moderate How Well Criminal Thinking Predicts Recidivism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Johanna B; Stuewig, Jeffrey B; Blasko, Brandy L; Caudy, Michael; Martinez, Andres G; Maass, Stephanie; Taxman, Faye S; Tangney, June P

    2017-02-01

    Is the relationship between criminal thinking and recidivism the same for criminal justice-involved individuals from varying demographic backgrounds? Relying on two independent samples of offenders and two measures of criminal thinking, the current studies examined whether four demographic factors-gender, race, age, and education-moderated the relationship between criminal thinking and recidivism. Study 1 consisted of 226 drug-involved probationers enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Study 2 consisted of 346 jail inmates from a longitudinal study. Logistic regression models suggested that the strength of the relationship between criminal thinking and subsequent recidivism did not vary based on participant demographics, regardless of justice system setting or measure of criminal thinking. Criminal thinking predicts recidivism similarly for people who are male, female, Black, White, older, younger, and more or less educated.

  8. Factors predicting pituitary adenoma invasiveness in acromegalic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, A; Rainov, N G; Ebel, H; Sanchin, L; Shibib, K; Helfrich, C; Hoffmann, O; Burkert, W

    1997-01-01

    Forty-four adult acromegalic patients carrying growth hormone-producing pituitary macroadenomas were investigated with neuroradiological and endocrinological techniques. Plasma growth hormone and somatomedin-C levels were repeatedly measured before surgical removal of tumors and during the follow-up period. Twenty-five patients presented preoperatively with an invasive adenoma that involved the cavernous sinus (CS). Diagnosis of tumor invasivity was made according to distinct neuroradiological criteria and was confirmed or rejected during surgery Significantly higher basal growth hormone levels were found in patients with CS invasion than in cases without tumor growth in the CS. Evidence is presented that plasma growth hormone level in acromegalics is a more sensitive indicator for predicting tumor invasiveness than somatomedin-C. Growth hormone basal values before surgery and the extent of their decrease after removal of tumor correlate with adenoma growth in the parasellar compartments and should be used as a prognostic factor to aid in planing adjuvant tumor treatment.

  9. Laparascopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: Can preoperative factors predict conversion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Iftikhar A.; El-Tinay, Omer E.

    2004-01-01

    To determine if preoperative clinical, laboratory and radiology data can predict conversion of laparascopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis to open procedure. Retrospective analysis of 44 laparascopic cholecystectomies were performed for acute cholecystitisbetween August 2000 and July 2002 at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data related to age and sex of patients, maximum body temprature,white blood cell count, gallbladder wall thickness or ultrasonography and timing of surgery from onset of symptoms were collected.The procedure was converted from laparascopic to open cholecystectomy in 10 patients (23%). Conversion rate was significantly high (33% versus zero; p=0.01) if the gallbladder wall was thickened. Conversion rate was significantly low ( Zero versus 32%: p=0.01) if the procedure was performed within 48 hours from the onset of the symptoms. The data relawted to age, sex, white blood cell count and body temprature did not reliably predict conversion of laparascopic cholecystectomy (LD) for acute cholecystitis to open procedure. There was no mortality or major morbidity. Laparascopic cholecystectomy is a safe modality of treatment for acute cholecystitis. Factors associated with increased conversion rate are thickened gallbladder wall on ultrasonographyand delay in surgery for more than 48 hours from the onset of symptoms. (author)

  10. Predicting the bioconcentration factor of highly hydrophobic organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajni; Smith, Carr J

    2014-07-01

    Bioconcentration refers to the process of uptake and buildup of chemicals in living organisms. Experimental measurement of bioconcentration factor (BCF) is time-consuming and expensive, and is not feasible for a large number of chemicals of regulatory concern. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are used for estimating BCF values to help in risk assessment of a chemical. This paper presents the results of a QSAR study conducted to address an important problem encountered in the prediction of the BCF of highly hydrophobic chemicals. A new QSAR model is derived using a dataset of diverse organic chemicals previously tested in a United States Environmental Protection Agency laboratory. It is noted that the linear relationship between the BCF and hydrophobic parameter, i.e., calculated octanol-water partition coefficient (ClogP), breaks down for highly hydrophobic chemicals. The parabolic QSAR equation, log BCF=3.036 ClogP-0.197 ClogP(2)-0.808 MgVol (n=28, r(2)=0.817, q(2)=0.761, s=0.558) (experimental log BCF range=0.44-5.29, ClogP range=3.16-11.27), suggests that a non-linear relationship between BCF and the hydrophobic parameter, along with inclusion of additional molecular size, weight and/or volume parameters, should be considered while developing a QSAR model for more reliable prediction of the BCF of highly hydrophobic chemicals. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute Appendicitis in Pregnancy: Predictive Clinical Factors and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilen, Lauren H; Mellnick, Vincent M; Shanks, Anthony L; Tuuli, Methodius G; Odibo, Anthony O; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2017-05-01

    Objective  The objective of this study was to identify clinical factors predictive of appendicitis in pregnant women and associated obstetric outcomes. Study Design  We performed a single-center, retrospective cohort study of pregnant women who underwent magnetic resonance imaging for suspected appendicitis from 2007 to 2012. Rates and odds of appendicitis based on presenting signs and symptoms were estimated. We also estimated rates and odds of adverse obstetric outcomes among women with a diagnosis of appendicitis. Results  Of 171 pregnant women evaluated, 14 (8.2%) had pathology-confirmed appendicitis. White blood cell (WBC) count on admission was moderately predictive of appendicitis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.74). A WBC count > 18,000 made the diagnosis of appendicitis more than 10 times more likely (adjusted odds ratio, 10.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.67-43.1). Of 127 women with complete pregnancy follow-up, women with appendicitis had a higher rate of pregnancy loss appendicitis. Appendicitis diagnosed in the first trimester was associated with increased risk of pregnancy loss  18,000 on admission is significantly associated with appendicitis in pregnant women undergoing evaluation for appendicitis. Appendicitis during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with previable pregnancy loss. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Prediction of software operational reliability using testing environment factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung

    1995-02-01

    Software reliability is especially important to customers these days. The need to quantify software reliability of safety-critical systems has been received very special attention and the reliability is rated as one of software's most important attributes. Since the software is an intellectual product of human activity and since it is logically complex, the failures are inevitable. No standard models have been established to prove the correctness and to estimate the reliability of software systems by analysis and/or testing. For many years, many researches have focused on the quantification of software reliability and there are many models developed to quantify software reliability. Most software reliability models estimate the reliability with the failure data collected during the test assuming that the test environments well represent the operation profile. User's interest is on the operational reliability rather than on the test reliability, however. The experiences show that the operational reliability is higher than the test reliability. With the assumption that the difference in reliability results from the change of environment, testing environment factor comprising the aging factor and the coverage factor are defined in this work to predict the ultimate operational reliability with the failure data. It is by incorporating test environments applied beyond the operational profile into testing environment factor Test reliability can also be estimated with this approach without any model change. The application results are close to the actual data. The approach used in this thesis is expected to be applicable to ultra high reliable software systems that are used in nuclear power plants, airplanes, and other safety-critical applications

  13. Diameter of common bile duct: what are the predicting factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Adibi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: This was a study to determine the correlation between the common bile duct (CBD diameter and demographic data, fasting, and the history of opium addiction.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on 375 patients (>16 years old including 219 females and 156 males. They had no evident hepatobiliary or pancreatic disease and underwent abdominopelvic ultrasonography for measurement of their CBD diameter. Ultrasound (US was performed to measure CBD diameter at the porta hepatis (proximal part and behind the head of the pancreas (distal part. Correlation coefficients for the association between CBD diameter and predictive factors were calculated. t-test was applied to compare the means between the groups.
    RESULTS: The mean CBD diameter (1 standard deviation, in proximal and distal parts were 3.64 mm (±1.2 and 3.72 mm (±1.2, respectively. The CBD diameters (proximal and distal were significantly (P<0.05 correlated with age (r = 0.55 and 0.54, respectively, BMI (r = 0.25 and 0.27, respectively and portal vein diameter (r = 0.24 and 0.22, respectively. Distal diameter of CBD was significantly larger in opium addicts (5.66 ± 2.65 in comparison with non addicts (3.68 ± 1.17, P = 0.04.
    CONCLUSIONS: CBD diameter associates with age, BMI, portal vein diameter and opium addiction. CBD dilatation, if it can not be explained by age, opium usage or large BMI, should be evaluated further to rule out obstruction.
    KEY WORDS: Common bile duct, predicting factors, ultrasonography.

  14. Factors Predicting an Escalation of Restrictive Eating During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynos, Ann F; Watts, Allison W; Loth, Katie A; Pearson, Carolyn M; Neumark-Stzainer, Dianne

    2016-10-01

    To examine longitudinal risk factors and short-term risk correlates for the development of extreme forms of restrictive eating among adolescent dieters. Data from Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults, a population-based study of 2,516 students aged 12-18 years, were collected in 1998-1999 (Time 1) and 5 years later (Time 2). Within this sample, 243 adolescents who reported dieting but not engaging in disordered forms of restrictive eating (e.g., fasting, skipping meals) at Time 1 were followed to determine the self-reported psychological, familial, and social variables predicting initiation of disordered restrictive eating at Time 2. To investigate short-term risk correlates of initiating disordered restrictive eating, the same risk factors were also compared cross-sectionally at Time 2 between the dieters who had and had not initiated disordered restrictive eating. Poisson regression models with robust standard errors were fit for each predictor adjusted for covariates. Depressive symptoms and low self-esteem were significantly associated with the initiation of disordered restrictive eating in both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses. Poor family communication/caring and maternal dieting significantly predicted long-term risk for escalating restrictive eating severity; whereas, individual body image issues (i.e., weight concerns, body dissatisfaction) and social concerns (i.e., weight-related teasing, peer dieting) were significant short-term correlates of initiating disordered restrictive eating. Depressive symptoms and low self-esteem may be especially important targets for risk identification and prevention for disordered restrictive eating. Intervening on family influences may decrease long-term risk, whereas intervening on body image and responses to social influences may decrease short-term risk for disordered restrictive eating. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. The next generation of transcription factor binding site prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Mathelier

    Full Text Available Finding where transcription factors (TFs bind to the DNA is of key importance to decipher gene regulation at a transcriptional level. Classically, computational prediction of TF binding sites (TFBSs is based on basic position weight matrices (PWMs which quantitatively score binding motifs based on the observed nucleotide patterns in a set of TFBSs for the corresponding TF. Such models make the strong assumption that each nucleotide participates independently in the corresponding DNA-protein interaction and do not account for flexible length motifs. We introduce transcription factor flexible models (TFFMs to represent TF binding properties. Based on hidden Markov models, TFFMs are flexible, and can model both position interdependence within TFBSs and variable length motifs within a single dedicated framework. The availability of thousands of experimentally validated DNA-TF interaction sequences from ChIP-seq allows for the generation of models that perform as well as PWMs for stereotypical TFs and can improve performance for TFs with flexible binding characteristics. We present a new graphical representation of the motifs that convey properties of position interdependence. TFFMs have been assessed on ChIP-seq data sets coming from the ENCODE project, revealing that they can perform better than both PWMs and the dinucleotide weight matrix extension in discriminating ChIP-seq from background sequences. Under the assumption that ChIP-seq signal values are correlated with the affinity of the TF-DNA binding, we find that TFFM scores correlate with ChIP-seq peak signals. Moreover, using available TF-DNA affinity measurements for the Max TF, we demonstrate that TFFMs constructed from ChIP-seq data correlate with published experimentally measured DNA-binding affinities. Finally, TFFMs allow for the straightforward computation of an integrated TF occupancy score across a sequence. These results demonstrate the capacity of TFFMs to accurately model DNA

  16. Factors Predicting Survival after Transarterial Chemoembolization of Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farina M. Hanif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transarterial chemoembolization is the preferred treatment for unresectable, intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. Survival after transarterial chemoembolization can be highly variable. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that predict overall survival of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma who undergo transarterial chemoembolization as the initial therapy. Methods:We included patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization from 2007 to 2012 in this study. Patient’s age, gender, cause of cirrhosis, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score, model of end-stage liver disease score, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score, Okuda stage, alpha- fetoprotein level, site, size and number of tumors were recorded. Radiological response to transarterial chemoembolization was assessed by computerized tomography scan at 1 and 3 months after the procedure. Repeat sessions of transarterial chemoembolization were performed according to the response. We performed survival assessment and all patients were assessed for survival at the last follow-up. Results: Included in this study were 71 patients of whom there were 57 (80.3 % males, with a mean age of 51.9±12.1 years (range: 18-76 years. The mean follow-up period was 12.5±10.7 months. A total of 31 (43.7% patients had only one session of transarterial chemoembolization, 17 (23.9% underwent 2 and 11 (15.5% had 3 or more sessions. On univariate analysis, significant factors that predicted survival included serum bilirubin (P=0.02, esophageal varices (P=0.002, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score (P=0.003, tumor size (P=0.005, >3 sessions of transarterial chemoembolization (P=0.006 and patient's age (P=0.001. Cox regression analysis showed that tumor size of 1 transarterial chemoembolization session (P=0.004 were associated with better survival. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that survival after transarterial chemoem- bolization is predicted by tumor size

  17. Multinational study in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: association of age, ketoacidosis, HLA status, and autoantibodies on residual beta-cell function and glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H.B.; Swift, P.G.F.; Holl, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    .005), and by stimulated C-peptide (p IA; p = 0.02) and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA; p = 0.0004) at 1 month. HbA1c at 12 months was predicted by HbA1c at diagnosis (p ... (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Younger age, ketoacidosis at diagnosis, and IA and GADA 1 month after diagnosis were the strongest explanatory factors for residual beta-cell function at 12 months. Glycemic control at 12 months was influenced predominantly by ethnicity, HbA1c at diagnosis, and GADA at 1......Objective: To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Subjects and Methods: Clinical information and blood samples were collected from 275 children. HbA1c, antibodies, HLA typing and mixed meal...

  18. Osteoporosis-Related Mortality: Time-Trends and Predictive Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Ziadé

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is one of the leading causes of handicap worldwide and a major contributor to the global burden of diseases. In particular, osteoporosis is associated with excess mortality. We reviewed the impact of osteoporosis on mortality in a population by defining three categories: mortality following hip fractures, mortality following other sites of fractures, and mortality associated with low bone mineral density (BMD. Hip fractures, as well as other fractures at major sites are all associated with excess mortality, except at the forearm site. This excess mortality is higher during the first 3-6 months after the fracture and then declines over time, but remains higher than the mortality of the normal population up to 22 years after the fracture. Low BMD is also associated with high mortality, with hazard ratios of around 1.3 for every decrease in 1 standard deviation of bone density at 5 years, independently of fractures, reflecting a more fragile population. Finally predictors of mortality were identified and categorised in demographic known factors (age and male gender and in factors reflecting a poor general health status such as the number of comorbidities, low mental status, or level of social dependence. Our results indicate that the management of a patient with osteoporosis should include a multivariate approach that could be based on predictive models in the future.

  19. Impact Factors and Prediction of Popular Topics in a Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M B; Seitz, K.

    2016-01-01

    the average number of citations of articles published in the journal in the two previous years.While authors frequently cite the IF as a determining factor for submission, the IF does not predict how many times individual articles will be cited. In a study from a peer-reviewed cardiovascular journal, nearly...... half of all published articles were poorly cited, i. e., less than five citations in five years 3. A similar percentage seems to apply to our journal. In nearly all journals we estimate that the majority of citations relate to a minority of the articles. Some articles are never cited. 13...... IF for an article is to be considered fraud and is inexcusable.One aspect of using impact factors as a measure of the quality of a journal is that the IF only goes back two years. There may be differences between journals for different medical specialties since the citations in some areas seem to "burn out" within...

  20. Factors predicting barriers to exercise in midlife Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Amanda; Seib, Charrlotte; Anderson, Debra

    2016-05-01

    Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. They are, though, largely attributable to modifiable lifestyle risk factors, including lack of exercise. This study aims to investigate what factors predict perceptions of barriers to exercise in midlife women. This cross-sectional descriptive study collected data from midlife Australian women by online questionnaire. Volunteers aged between 40 and 65 years were recruited following media publicity about the study. The primary outcome measure was perceived exercise barriers (EBBS Barriers sub-scale). Other self-report data included: exercise, smoking, alcohol, fruit and vegetable consumption, body mass index, physical and mental health and well-being (MOS SF-12v2) and exercise self-efficacy. On average, the 225 participants were aged 50.9 years (SD=5.9). The significant predictors of perceived barriers to exercise were perceived benefits of exercise, exercise self-efficacy, physical well-being and mental well-being. These variables explained 41% of the variance in the final model (F (8219)=20.1, pexercise correlate with beliefs about the health benefits of exercise, exercise self-efficacy, physical and mental well-being. These findings have application to health promotion interventions targeting exercise behaviour change in midlife women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting College Success: The Relative Contributions of Five Social/Personality Factors, Five Cognitive/Learning Factors and SAT Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    To-date, studies have examined simultaneously the relative predictive powers of two or three factors on GPA. The present study examines the relative powers of five social/personality factors, five cognitive/learning factors, and SAT scores to predict freshmen and non-freshmen (sophomores, juniors, seniors) academic success (i.e., GPA). The results…

  2. Predictive factors of small bowel patency in Crohn's disease patients

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    Andreia Albuquerque

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patency capsule was developed to avoid small bowel video capsule endoscopy retention, namely in patients with Crohn's disease. Aims: To evaluate the predictive factors of small bowel patency in Crohn's disease patients. Patients and methods: Retrospective analysis including 151 Crohn's disease patients submitted to patency capsule (Agile® Patency Capsule from 2011 to 2012. Patients that excreted the intact patency capsule were classified as having a patent small bowel (without patency capsule retention, other patients were considered to have negative patency of the small bowel (patency capsule retention. Results: Patients had a mean age of 41±14 years, 54% were female and 25% had been previously submitted to surgery. Stricturing disease was seen in 20% of cases and penetrating disease in 16% of cases. Left-sided colonic lesions and ileal strictures were observed at colonoscopy in 13% and 9% of patients, respectively. In our sample, 28% of patients had negative patency of the small bowel (patency capsule retention. In multivariate analysis, independent factors that were associated with negative patency of the small bowel in Crohn's disease patients were stricturing (OR 10.16, p < 0.001 and penetrating phenotypes (OR 11.73, p = 0.001, left-sided colonic lesions (OR 3.77, p = 0.038, ileal stricture (OR 9.76, p = 0.003; previous intestinal surgery was found to be protective (OR 0.16, p = 0.006. Conclusions: Stricturing or penetrating disease, ileal strictures, no previous surgery and left-sided colonic lesions were the factors associated with negative small bowel patency in Crohn's disease patients.

  3. Determinants of glycemic control among persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Niger Delta

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    Chukwuani Ufuoma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rising burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM with its attendant′s complication can be successively steamed in the face of appropriate self-care management. The latter is positively imparted by the level of knowledge of the disease itself, its impact on quality of life and available basic technique of its control. Aims: The study is, therefore, aimed to assess the level of glycemic control and its determinants among type 2 subjects attending a secondary hospital in Niger Delta. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred consenting adult type 2 diabetes patients of age more than 40 years and attended diabetes outpatient clinics at the Central Hospital Warri between March and August 2014 were used for this cross-sectional study. Two different questionnaires were administered to all the participants to collect the necessary information on diabetes knowledge as well as factors that might affect their glycemic control. Blood samples were collected for fasting blood glucose (FBG and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c for all the respondents. Weight and height were also measured to the nearest 0.5 kilogram and centimeter using standardized equipment. Body mass index was then calculated as the ratio of weight in kilogram and height in meters square (kg/m 2 . Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Science Version 16 was used to compute the data generated. Results: The mean age and diabetic duration of all participants were 54.8 ± 11.9 years and 8.5 ± 3.2 years, respectively. The overall mean knowledge score of the subjects was 6.90 ± 1.8 (69.0 ± 18.2% The mean FBG level and HbA1c of respondents were 7.89 ± 3.6 mmol/L (range 4-20 mmol/L and 8.2%, respectively, with 55% of the population having poor glycemic control and 45% good glycemic control. The diabetic knowledge scoring of those with poor glycemic control was significantly lower than those with good glycemic control. In addition, diabetics′ with poor glycemic control

  4. Factors Predicting the Ocular Surface Response to Desiccating Environmental Stress

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    Alex, Anastasia; Edwards, Austin; Hays, J. Daniel; Kerkstra, Michelle; Shih, Amanda; de Paiva, Cintia S.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To identify factors predicting the ocular surface response to experimental desiccating stress. Methods. The ocular surfaces of both eyes of 15 normal and 10 dry eye subjects wearing goggles were exposed to a controlled desiccating environment (15%–25% relative humidity and 2–5 L/min airflow) for 90 minutes. Eye irritation symptoms, blink rate, tear meniscus dimensions, noninvasive (RBUT) and invasive tear break-up time, and corneal fluorescein and conjunctival lissamine green-dye staining were recorded before and after desiccating stress. Pre- and postexposure measurements were compared, and Pearson correlations between clinical parameters before and after desiccating stress were calculated. Results. Corneal and conjunctival dye staining significantly increased in all subjects following 90-minute exposure to desiccating environment, and the magnitude of change was similar in normal and dry eye subjects; except superior cornea staining was greater in dry eye. Irritation severity in the desiccating environment was associated with baseline dye staining, baseline tear meniscus height, and blink rate after 45 minutes. Desiccation-induced change in corneal fluorescein staining was inversely correlated to baseline tear meniscus width, whereas change in total ocular surface dye staining was inversely correlated to baseline dye staining, RBUT, and tear meniscus height and width. Blink rate from 30 to 90 minutes in desiccating environment was higher in the dry eye than normal group. Blink rate significantly correlated to baseline corneal fluorescein staining and environmental-induced change in corneal fluorescein staining. Conclusions. Ocular surface dye staining increases in response to desiccating stress. Baseline ocular surface dye staining, tear meniscus height, and blink rate predict severity of ocular surface dye staining following exposure to a desiccating environment. PMID:23572103

  5. Interaction between functional health literacy, patient activation, and glycemic control

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    Woodard LD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available LeChauncy D Woodard, Cassie R Landrum, Amber B Amspoker, David Ramsey, Aanand D Naik Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety, Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Section of Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Background: Functional health literacy (FHL and patient activation can impact diabetes control through enhanced diabetes self-management. Less is known about the combined effect of these characteristics on diabetes outcomes. Using brief, validated measures, we examined the interaction between FHL and patient activation in predicting glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c control among a cohort of multimorbid diabetic patients.Methods: We administered a survey via mail to 387 diabetic patients with coexisting ­hypertension and ischemic heart disease who received outpatient care at one regional VA medical center between November 2010 and December 2010. We identified patients with the study conditions using the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision-Clinical ­Modification (ICD-9-CM diagnoses codes and Current Procedure Terminology (CPT ­procedures codes. Surveys were returned by 195 (50.4% patients. We determined patient activation levels based on participant responses to the 13-item Patient Activation Measure and FHL levels using the single-item screening question, “How confident are you filling out medical forms by yourself?” We reviewed patient medical records to assess glycemic control. We used multiple logistic regression to examine whether activation and FHL were individually or jointly related to HbA1c control.Results: Neither patient activation nor FHL was independently related to glycemic control in the unadjusted main effects model; however, the interaction between the two was significantly associated with glycemic control (odds ratio 1.05 [95% confidence

  6. Successful External Cephalic Version: Factors Predicting Vaginal Birth

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    Pei Shan Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the maternal and fetal outcomes of successful external cephalic version (ECV as well as factors predicting vaginal birth. Methods. The ECV data over a period of three years at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC between 1 September 2008 and 30 September 2010 was reviewed. Sixty-seven patients who had successful ECV were studied and reviewed for maternal, fetal, and labour outcomes. The control group comprised patients with cephalic singletons of matching parity who delivered following the index cases. Results. The mean gestational age at ECV was 263±6.52 days (37.5 weeks ± 6.52 days. Spontaneous labour and transient cardiotocographic (CTG changes were the commonest early adverse effects following ECV. The reversion rate was 7.46%. The mean gestational age at delivery of the two groups was significantly different (P=0.000 with 277.9±8.91 days and 269.9±9.68 days in the study group and control groups, respectively. The study group needed significantly more inductions of labour. They required more operative deliveries, had more blood loss at delivery, a higher incidence of meconium-stained liquor, and more cord around the neck. Previous flexed breeches had a threefold increase in caesarean section rate compared to previous extended breeches (44.1% versus 15.2%, P=0.010. On the contrary, an amniotic fluid index (AFI of 13 or more is significantly associated with a higher rate of vaginal birth (86.8% versus 48.3%, P=0.001. Conclusions. Patients with successful ECV were at higher risk of carrying the pregnancy beyond 40 weeks and needing induction of labour, with a higher rate of caesarean section and higher rates of obstetrics complications. Extended breech and AFI 13 or more were significantly more likely to deliver vaginally postsuccessful ECV. This additional information may be useful to caution a patient with breech that ECV does not bring them to behave exactly like a normal cephalic, so that they

  7. Body image mediates negative family climate and deteriorating glycemic control for single adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Amy C; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Laursen, Brett

    2015-12-01

    Glycemic control declines during adolescence, as youth with diabetes struggle with pubertal changes and a changing social world. The present study tests whether body image mediates longitudinal links between family climate and changes in adolescent glycemic control. Mediation was hypothesized for nondating adolescents but not for dating adolescents, because the former are thought to remain more family oriented than the latter. Participants were German adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (51 girls, 58 boys; M = 15.84 years, SD = 1.44). Participants reported body image and family climate. Physicians assayed blood HbA1c levels (M = 8.22%, SD = 1.80%) to measure glycemic control. For nondating adolescents, body image mediated associations between family climate and longitudinal changes in glycemic control. Poorer family climate was associated with poorer body image, which predicted deteriorating glycemic control. For dating adolescents, family climate was unassociated with changes in glycemic control. Nondating adolescents may look to parents for feedback on body image, which affects how they manage the challenges of diabetes. Parents and practitioners alike should be alert to the fact that family climate continues to be an important determinant of adolescent adjustment, particularly for those who have not moved into romantic relationships. We know that body image matters to adolescents, but for some youth, body image may be the difference between health and serious physical problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Predictive factors for failure of salpingostomy in ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayatas, Semra; Demirci, Oya; Kumru, Pinar; Mahmutoglu, Didar; Saribrahim, Bahar; Arinkan, Sevcan Arzu

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to review our experience with ectopic pregnancy management and to evaluate major predictive factors for failure of conservative linear salpingostomy. Seven hundred and ninety-seven cases that were treated for ectopic pregnancy in our clinic between October 2005 and September 2011 were analyzed retrospectively for incidence and treatment options. We defined failure as rising or plateauing postoperative serum β-hCG levels that required additional medical or surgical treatment after initial removal of the ectopic pregnancy by laparoscopy or by laparotomy. We examined the risk factors consisting of preoperative β-hCG, size and location of ectopic lesions, the presence of fetal heart beat and tubal condition that can influence the failure or success of conservative salpingostomy. In total, 403 patients were treated conservatively. These conservative managements consist of 334 salpingostomies performed by laparoscopy and 69 by laparotomy. Because of persistent ectopic pregnancy, 16 patients underwent medical treatment. In total, 387 patients were treated successfully with conservative management and 16 patients were treated unsuccessfully with conservative management. When variables of P ectopic pregnancy of 33.5 mm or greater and fimbrial and isthmic region ectopic pregnancies were significantly associated with the failure rate. The size of the ectopic pregnancy and fimbrial and isthmic region ectopic pregnancies were determinant of failure of conservative surgery. Our success rate in the ruptured group is not an underestimated value to dissuade patients wishing to maintain fertility by undergoing salpingectomy. So, the conservative approach to ectopic pregnancy should be undertaken after careful patient evaluation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Predictive factors of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folla, Cynthia de Oliveira; Melo, Cinthia Cristina de Santana; Silva, Rita de Cassia Gengo E

    2016-01-01

    To analyze predictive demographic and perioperative variables of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients who underwent exclusively coronary artery bypass grafting. This was a retrospective cohort. We randomly selected 105 medical records of patients who underwent exclusively coronary artery bypass grafting in 2014. Demographic, clinical (preoperative and immediate postoperative) data and related with surgical procedure were collected from medical records. The occurrence of postoperative atrial fibrillation was considered until the third day after the surgery. Variables were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. To identify predictive factors of postoperative atrial fibrillation we used a decision tree model with Classification and Regression Trees algorithm. Atrial fibrillation incidence was 19.0% (n=20). Patients with left atrial >40.5mm and aged >64.5 years were more likely to develop the arrhythmia during the post-surgical period. Left atrial diameter and advanced age were predictive factors of atrial fibrillation in patients who underwent exclusively coronary artery bypass grafting. Analisar as variáveis demográficas e perioperatórias preditivas de fibrilação atrial pós-operatória em pacientes brasileiros submetidos exclusivamente à cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio. Trata-se de coorte retrospectiva. A amostra foi constituída de 105 prontuários de pacientes submetidos exclusivamente à revascularização do miocárdio no ano de 2014, selecionados aleatoriamente. Dados demográficos, clínicos (préoperatórios e do pós-operatório imediato) e relacionados ao procedimento cirúrgico foram coletados por meio de consulta ao prontuário. A ocorrência de fibrilação atrial no pós-operatório foi considerada até o terceiro dia após a cirurgia. As variáveis foram analisadas por estatística descritiva e inferencial. Para identificar os fatores preditivos de fibrilação atrial no pós-operatório, utilizou-se um

  10. Synoptic Factors Affecting Structure Predictability of Hurricane Alex (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aleman, J. J.; Evans, J. L.; Kowaleski, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    On January 7, 2016, a disturbance formed over the western North Atlantic basin. After undergoing tropical transition, the system became the first hurricane of 2016 - and the first North Atlantic hurricane to form in January since 1938. Already an extremely rare hurricane event, Alex then underwent extratropical transition [ET] just north of the Azores Islands. We examine the factors affecting Alex's structural evolution through a new technique called path-clustering. In this way, 51 ensembles from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Ensemble Prediction System (ECMWF-EPS) are grouped based on similarities in the storm's path through the Cyclone Phase Space (CPS). The differing clusters group various possible scenarios of structural development represented in the ensemble forecasts. As a result, it is possible to shed light on the role of the synoptic scale in changing the structure of this hurricane in the midlatitudes through intercomparison of the most "realistic" forecast of the evolution of Alex and the other physically plausible modes of its development.

  11. Factors predicting the outcome of acute renal failure in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khana, N.; Akhtar, F.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the factors predicting renal outcome in patients developing acute renal failure in pregnancy. Study Design: Descriptive cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Nephrology Unit of Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, from October 2006 to March 2007. Methodology: Patients with acute renal failure due to complications of pregnancy, with normal size of both the kidneys on ultrasound were enrolled, and followed for a period of 60 days or until recovery of renal function. Patient's age and parity, presence of antenatal care, type of complication of pregnancy, foetal outcome and duration of oliguria were compared between patients who remained dialysis dependent and those who recovered renal function. Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and student's t-test, were used for determining the association of categorical and continuous variables with dialysis dependency. Results: The mean age was 29 +- 6 years. Most patients came from rural areas of interior Sindh. Sixty eight percent did not have antenatal checkups. Antepartum haemorrhage (p=0.002) and prolonged duration of oliguria (35 +- 15.7 days, p= < 0.001) were associated with dialysis dependency, which was observed in 50% of the study group. Conclusion: Ante-partum haemorrhage and prolonged oliguria were strong predictors of irreversible renal failure. This highlights the need for early recognition and referral, and the importance of trained birth attendants and antenatal care. (author)

  12. Modeling the Underlying Predicting Factors of Tobacco Smoking among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarabadi, M Asghari; Allahverdipour, H; Bashirian, S; Jannati, A

    2012-01-01

    With regard to the willing and starting tobacco smoking among young people in Iran. The aim of the study was to model the underlying factors in predicting the behavior of tobacco smoking among employed youth and students in Iran. In this analytical cross-sectional study, based on a random cluster sampling were recruited 850 high school students, employed and unemployed youth age ranged between 14 and 19 yr from Iran. The data of demographic and tobacco smoking related variables were acquired via a self-administered questionnaire. A series of univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed respectively for computing un-adjusted and adjusted Odds Ratios utilizing SPSS 17 software. A number of 189 persons (25.6%) were smoker in the study and the mean smoking initiation age was 13.93 (SD= 2.21). In addition, smoker friend, peer persistence, leaving home, and smoking in one and six month ago were obtained as independent predictors of tobacco smoking. The education programs on resistance skills against the persistence of the peers, improvement in health programs by governmental interference and policy should be implemented.

  13. Predictive factors of abortion among teenagers with obstetric experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Thatiana Araújo; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; Barros, Idna de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the predictive factors of abortion among teenagers with gestational history. Cross-sectional study carried out with 464 teenagers aged between 15 and 19 years, from Teresina, Piauí, who completed a pregnancy in the first quarter of 2006 in six city maternity hospitals. Data were collected from May to December 2008, at the teenagers' home, after their identification in the hospital records. For the univariate analysis of data, descriptive statistics was used, and for bivariate analysis, Pearson's χ2-test and Z-test were applied. Multivariate analysis was performed by means of the Multiple logistic regression (MLR), with significance level of 5%. Teenagers who had more than one pregnancy were almost nine times more likely to have an abortion when compared to those who had only one pregnancy (p = 0.002). Furthermore, the teenagers who reported being pressured by the partner to have an abortion were four times and a half more likely to do it, when compared to those pressured by relatives and friends (p = 0.007). The teenagers who had two or more pregnancies and were pressured by the partner to have an abortion were more prone to do it. Thus, it is necessary that programs of Family Planning include the teenagers more effectively, aiming at avoiding unwanted pregnancies among this population and, consequently, abortion induced in poor conditions.

  14. A psychosocial risk index for poor glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David D; Axelrad, Marni E; Anderson, Barbara J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a psychosocial screening tool to predict risk for poor glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes. Participants seen for psychological screening were 196 children aged 3-18 yr at diabetes diagnosis. A psychosocial risk index was developed to predict poor glycemic control [mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 9.5%; 80 mmol/mol] 1-4 yr post diagnosis. Cutoff scores were derived for multiple levels of risk from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and likelihood ratios (LRs). Discrimination and calibration were examined in the sample, and validated in 1000 bootstrap samples. Ability to predict diabetes-related emergency-room (ER) visits and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was also tested. The risk index accounted for 16.2% of variance in mean HbA1c, discriminated between children with and without poor glycemic control [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.814, 0.713-0.915; p risk for poor glycemic control of approximately 10% (LRs = 1.7, 3.2, 5.8, and 9.3). Sensitivity and specificity were 0.68 (0.43-0.86) and 0.79 (0.72-0.84) for detecting patients at moderate risk, and 0.53 (0.29-0.75) and 0.91 (0.85-0.95) for detecting high-risk patients. The index performed equally well in validation samples. This paper presents the first psychosocial risk index for poor glycemic control in children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. It is brief, easily administered, and provides a single score that translates directly into an estimate of risk that can help guide routine diabetes care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Assessment of factors influencing finite element vertebral model predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alison C; Wilcox, Ruth K

    2007-12-01

    This study aimed to establish model construction and configuration procedures for future vertebral finite element analysis by studying convergence, sensitivity, and accuracy behaviors of semiautomatically generated models and comparing the results with manually generated models. During a previous study, six porcine vertebral bodies were imaged using a microcomputed tomography scanner and tested in axial compression to establish their stiffness and failure strength. Finite element models were built using a manual meshing method. In this study, the experimental agreement of those models was compared with that of semiautomatically generated models of the same six vertebrae. Both manually and semiautomatically generated models were assigned gray-scale-based, element-specific material properties. The convergence of the semiautomatically generated models was analyzed for the complete models along with material property and architecture control cases. A sensitivity study was also undertaken to test the reaction of the models to changes in material property values, architecture, and boundary conditions. In control cases, the element-specific material properties reduce the convergence of the models in comparison to homogeneous models. However, the full vertebral models showed strong convergence characteristics. The sensitivity study revealed a significant reaction to changes in architecture, boundary conditions, and load position, while the sensitivity to changes in material property values was proportional. The semiautomatically generated models produced stiffness and strength predictions of similar accuracy to the manually generated models with much shorter image segmentation and meshing times. Semiautomatic methods can provide a more rapid alternative to manual mesh generation techniques and produce vertebral models of similar accuracy. The representation of the boundary conditions, load position, and surrounding environment is crucial to the accurate prediction of the

  16. The application of the glycemic index and glycemic load in weight loss: A review of the clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Amin; Wong, Julia M W; Mirrahimi, Arash; Villa, Chris R; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is rapidly becoming a global epidemic. As it is a significant risk factor for several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, it is imperative to study dietary and lifestyle approaches that help reduce its prevalence. Recently, due to its possible link to appetite control and metabolism, several clinical studies have assessed the effect of low glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) diets on weight loss. To determine the application of GI/GL in the prevention and treatment of obesity, we searched several databases and identified 23 clinical trials that examined low GI/GL diets and weight loss as the primary outcome measure. In general, these studies showed much inconsistency in their findings. While a few studies found significantly greater weight loss on the low GI/GL diets, most of the other studies showed a non-significant trend that favored low GI/GL diets; suggesting that factors other than GI/GL may play a role. It would be helpful if a pooled analysis were undertaken to clarify the current findings and outline the limitations of these studies. There is also a need for more long-term randomized, controlled trials that not only focus on weight loss but also on weight maintenance and body composition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effects of Carbohydrate and Dietary Fiber Intake, Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load on HDL Metabolism in Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Abe, Shinichi; Tada, Norio; Sako, Akahito

    2014-10-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a lipoprotein which has anti-atherogenic property by reverse cholesterol transport from the peripheral tissues to liver. Low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with the development of coronary artery diseases (CADs). Various epidemiological studies have suggested that the development of CAD increase in individuals with less than 40 mg/dL of HDL-C. In spite of accumulation of evidences which suggest a significant association between low HDL-C and cardiovascular diseases, effects of dietary factors on HDL metabolism remained largely unknown. There may be interracial differences in effects of dietary factors on HDL metabolism. Here we reviewed published articles about effects of carbohydrate and dietary fiber intake, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), on HDL-C metabolism, regarding meta-analyses and clinical studies performed in Asian population as important articles. Low carbohydrate intake, GI and GL may be beneficially associated with HDL metabolism. Dietary fiber intake may be favorably associated with HDL metabolism in Asian populations.

  18. Factores predictivos de las infecciones posoperatorias Prediction factors of the postoperative infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pascual Bestard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la génesis de las infecciones posquirúrgicas es multifactorial. Existen estudios internacionales que evidencian los diversos factores predictivos relacionados con la aparición de estas complicaciones, las que todavía afectan a un número considerable de pacientes intervenidos, todo lo cual justifica el interés en la realización de este trabajo. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento de algunos de los factores predictivos relacionados con la aparición de las infecciones posoperatorias en nuestro medio. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal de los pacientes ingresados y operados que presentaron infecciones posquirúrgicas en el servicio de cirugía general del Hospital Provincial Docente "Saturnino Lora" de Santiago de Cuba, durante el año 2008, según posibles factores predictivos seleccionados. Resultados: con relación al grado de contaminación, la tasa global de infección posoperatoria y la de heridas limpias estuvo en límites universalmente aceptados, aunque fueron más elevadas en las intervenciones urgentes, sucias y contaminadas para las localizadas en el sitio quirúrgico, así como en enfermos con estado físico preoperatorio según la American Society of Anaesthesiology (ASA ASA II Y ASA III, con independencia de su estado nutricional y el tiempo quirúrgico en que se efectuaron las intervenciones. Conclusiones: las tasas de infecciones posquirúrgicas aumentaron en la medida en que fueron desfavorables las condiciones bajo las que se efectuaron las operaciones, y los factores predictivos seleccionados se relacionaron principalmente para las localizadas en el sitio quirúrgico, con el grado de contaminación, el tipo de intervención y el estado físico preoperatorio del paciente.Introduction: the genesis of the postsurgical infections is multifactor. The are many international studies evidencing the different prediction factors related to the appearance of these complications

  19. Factors predicting a home death among home palliative care recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ming-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Ping; Lien, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Jia-Yi; Woung, Lin-Chung; Chan, Shang-Yih

    2017-10-01

    Awareness of factors affecting the place of death could improve communication between healthcare providers and patients and their families regarding patient preferences and the feasibility of dying in the preferred place.This study aimed to evaluate factors predicting home death among home palliative care recipients.This is a population-based study using a national representative sample retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Subjects receiving home palliative care, from 2010 to 2012, were analyzed to evaluate the association between a home death and various characteristics related to illness, individual, and health care utilization. A multiple-logistic regression model was used to assess the independent effect of various characteristics on the likelihood of a home death.The overall rate of a home death for home palliative care recipients was 43.6%. Age; gender; urbanization of the area where the patients lived; illness; the total number of home visits by all health care professionals; the number of home visits by nurses; utilization of nasogastric tube, endotracheal tube, or indwelling urinary catheter; the number of emergency department visits; and admission to intensive care unit in previous 1 year were not significantly associated with the risk of a home death. Physician home visits increased the likelihood of a home death. Compared with subjects without physician home visits (31.4%) those with 1 physician home visit (53.0%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.93-5.42) and those with ≥2 physician home visits (43.9%, AOR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.06-4.70) had higher likelihood of a home death. Compared with subjects with hospitalization 0 to 6 times in previous 1 year, those with hospitalization ≥7 times in previous 1 year (AOR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34-0.95) had lower likelihood of a home death.Among home palliative care recipients, physician home visits increased the likelihood of a home death. Hospitalizations ≥7

  20. Patterns, incidence and predictive factors for pain after interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, A.; Tam, C.L.; Thacker, D.E.; Walker, A.L.; Parkinson, A.S.; DeMello, W.; Bradley, A.J.; Tuck, J.S.; Laasch, H.-U.; Butterfield, J.S.; Ashleigh, R.J.; England, R.E.; Martin, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate prospectively the pattern, severity and predictive factors of pain after interventional radiological procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients undergoing non-arterial radiological interventional procedures were assessed using a visual-analogue scale (VAS) for pain before and at regular intervals for 24 h after their procedure. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty patients (87 men, mean age 62 years, range 18-92 years) were entered into the study. Significant increases in VAS score occurred 8 h after percutaneous biliary procedures (+47.7 mm, SD 14.9 mm; p=0.001), 6 h after central venous access and gastrostomy insertion (+23.7 mm, SD 19.5 mm; p=0.001 and +28.4 mm, SD 9.7 mm; p=0.007, respectively) and 4 h after oesophageal stenting (+27.8 mm, SD 20.2 mm, p=0.001). Non-significant increases in VAS pain score were observed after duodenal and colonic stenting (duodenal: +5.13 mm, SD 7.47 mm; p=0.055, colonic: +23.3 mm, SD 13.10 mm, p=0.250) at a mean of 5 h (range 4-6 h). Patients reported a significant reduction in pain score for nephrostomy insertion (-28.4 mm, SD 7.11 mm, p=0.001). Post-procedural analgesia was required in 99 patients (69.2%), 40 (28.0%) requiring opiates. Maximum post-procedural VAS pain score was significantly higher in patients who had no pre-procedural analgesia (p=0.003). CONCLUSION: Post-procedural pain is common and the pattern and severity of pain between procedures is variable. Pain control after interventional procedures is often inadequate, and improvements in pain management are required

  1. Early Glycemic Control and Magnitude of HbA1cReduction Predict Cardiovascular Events and Mortality: Population-Based Cohort Study of 24,752 Metformin Initiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Baggesen, Lisbeth M; Johnsen, Søren P; Pedersen, Lars; Nørrelund, Helene; Buhl, Esben S; Haase, Christiane L; Thomsen, Reimar W

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the association of early achieved HbA 1c level and magnitude of HbA 1c reduction with subsequent risk of cardiovascular events or death in patients with type 2 diabetes who initiate metformin. This was a population-based cohort study including all metformin initiators with HbA 1c tests in Northern Denmark, 2000-2012. Six months after metformin initiation, we classified patients by HbA 1c achieved (controlling for baseline HbA 1c and other confounding factors. We included 24,752 metformin initiators (median age 62.5 years, 55% males) with a median follow-up of 2.6 years. The risk of a combined outcome event gradually increased with rising levels of HbA 1c achieved compared with a target HbA 1c of HR) 1.18 (95% CI 1.07-1.30) for 6.5-6.99%, HR 1.23 (1.09-1.40) for 7.0-7.49%, HR 1.34 (1.14-1.57) for 7.5-7.99%, and HR 1.59 (1.37-1.84) for ≥8%. Results were consistent for individual outcome events and robust by age-group and other patient characteristics. A large absolute HbA 1c reduction from baseline also predicted outcome: adjusted HR 0.80 (0.65-0.97) for Δ = -4, HR 0.98 (0.80-1.20) for Δ = -3, HR 0.92 (0.78-1.08) for Δ = -2, and HR 0.99 (0.89-1.10) for Δ = -1 compared with no HbA 1c change (Δ = 0). A large initial HbA 1c reduction and achievement of low HbA 1c levels within 6 months after metformin initiation are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events and death in patients with type 2 diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  2. Suboptimal glycemic control in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pouwer, F; Denollet, J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies examining the relationship between depression and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes have yielded mixed findings. One explanation may lie in the heterogeneity of depression. Therefore, we examined whether distinct features of depression...... were differentially associated with suboptimal glycemic control. Cross-sectional baseline data from a dynamic cohort study of primary care patients with type 2 diabetes from the Eindhoven region, The Netherlands, were analyzed. A total of 5772 individuals completed baseline measurements of demographic...... adjustment for the other depression measures (OR 1.33, 1.11-1.59). Alcohol consumption and physical activity met criteria for mediation, but did not attenuate the association between anhedonia and glycemic control by more than 5%. Although diabetes duration was identified as a confounder and controlled for...

  3. Glycemic control of diabetes patients under continuous rocket attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskolne, Varda; Dekel, Rachel; Vinker, Shlomo

    2016-01-01

    Evidence regarding the detrimental effects of exposure to stress on glycemic control among diabetes patients has mainly focused on personal life events or acute trauma. However, the effects of continuous exposure to extreme stress on type 2 diabetes patients have rarely been studied. The aim of the current study was to examine the association of continuous exposure to rocket attacks with glycemic control and with risk factors for diabetes complications among civilian type 2 diabetes patients. We focus on patients residing in the Western Negev in the south of Israel that has been subjected to rocket attacks fired from Gaza since the end of 2001. A two-arm retrospective cohort study of type 2 diabetes patients, aged 35-70 years, residing in a region with chronic exposure to rocket attacks (N = 1697) and in a non-exposed comparison region in Israel (N = 3000). Data were retrieved from the Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)'s database for four time periods representing exposure: chronic-2008; elevated-2009 (post'Cast Lead' operation); return to chronic-2010, 2011. Data included socio-demographic variables, HbA 1c , BMI, LDL cholesterol, blood pressure. General Linear Models (GLM) were used for analysis. For HbA 1c , the model yielded a significant main effect for time, a borderline significance main effect for region, and a significant time by region interaction: no differences in HbA 1c levels between the regions in 2008 and 2009, followed by significant differences between the regions in 2010 and 2011 when HbA 1c continued to increase in the exposed region but decreased in the comparison region. Regarding risk factors, a significant main effect for time for LDL cholesterol only, and significant main effects for region were found in all factors: BMI and LDL cholesterol were higher in the exposed than in the comparison region, but blood pressure values were lower. Continuous exposure to rocket attacks is associated with glycemic control and risk factors in a

  4. Glycemic load, glycemic index, bread and incidence of overweight/obesity in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente-Arrillaga, Carmen; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Zazpe, Itziar; Vazquez-Ruiz, Zenaida; Benito-Corchon, Silvia; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2014-10-22

    To evaluate prospectively the relationship between white, or whole grain bread, and glycemic index, or glycemic load from diet and weight change in a Mediterranean cohort. We followed-up 9 267 Spanish university graduates for a mean period of 5 years. Dietary habits at baseline were assessed using a semi-quantitative 136-item food-frequency questionnaire. Average yearly weight change was evaluated according to quintiles of baseline glycemic index, glycemic load, and categories of bread consumption. We also assessed the association between bread consumption, glycemic index, or glycemic load, and the incidence of overweight/obesity. White bread and whole-grain bread were not associated with higher weight gain. No association between glycemic index, glycemic load and weight change was found.White bread consumption was directly associated with a higher risk of becoming overweight/obese (adjusted OR (≥2 portions/day) versus (≤1 portion/week): 1.40; 95% CI: 1.08-1.81; p for trend: 0.008). However, no statistically significant association was observed between whole-grain bread, glycemic index or glycemic load and overweight/obesity. Consumption of white bread (≥2 portions/day) showed a significant direct association with the risk of becoming overweight/obese.

  5. A study of risk factors and predictive factors in intraoperative floppy iris syndrome during phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Xin Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the incidence of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome(IFISin patients undergoing phacoemulsification in a Chinese hospital, and to assess new risk factors and predictive factors for IFIS. METHODS: A prospective, observational case series. In the consecutive cataract surgeries performed in one year, the medicine administration, pupil size(PSbefore and after mydriasis, and signs of IFIS were recorded. RESULTS: Totally 807 patients(1 068 eyesunderwent cataract surgeries. Among the 1 068 eyes, signs of IFIS were noted in 34 eyes. Strong positive correlations were showed between finasteride(6.4%, OR=5.885, tamsulosin(25%, OR=21.578, reserpine(16.7%, OR=12.947, clozapine(66.7%, OR=139.467, post-panretinal photocoagulation(14.3%, OR=10.789and IFIS. Pupil size was inversely related to IFIS incidence(PPCONCLUSION: The incidence rate of IFIS was 3.18%. Reserpine, clozapine and post-panretinal photocoagulation emerged as new risk factors for IFIS. A small dilated pupil may imply IFIS occurrence.

  6. Predictive Factors associated with Death of Elderly in Nursing Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Kiwol Sung, PhD, RN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: An increasing elderly population reflects a great need for readily accessible, clinically useful methods to identify mortality-related factors in nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with the deaths of nursing home residents. Methods: Data was collected from a Minimal Data Set of 195 elderly nursing home residents, followed by analysis of demographic factors, disease and nursing condition factors, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), co...

  7. Risk factors that predict future onset of each DSM-5 eating disorder: Predictive specificity in high-risk adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Gau, Jeff M; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Because no single report has examined risk factors that predict future onset each type of eating disorder and core symptom dimensions that crosscut disorders, we addressed these aims to advance knowledge regarding risk factor specificity. Data from 3 prevention trials that targeted young women with body dissatisfaction (N = 1,272; Mage = 18.5, SD = 4.2) and collected annual diagnostic interview data over 3-year follow-up were combined to identify predictors of subthreshold/threshold anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD). Negative affect and functional impairment predicted onset of all eating disorders. Thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, overeating, and mental health care predicted onset of subthreshold/threshold BN, BED, and PD; positive thinness expectations, denial of cost of pursuing the thin ideal, and fasting predicted onset of 2 of these 3 disorders. Similar risk factors predicted core eating disorder symptom onset. Low BMI and dieting specifically predicted onset of subthreshold/threshold AN or low BMI. Only a subset of factors showed unique predictive effects in multivariate models, likely due to moderate correlations between the risk factors (M r = .14). Results provide support for the theory that pursuit of the thin ideal and the resulting body dissatisfaction, dieting, and unhealthy weight control behaviors increase risk for binge/purge spectrum eating disorders, but suggest that youth who are inherently lean, rather than purposely pursuing the thin ideal, are at risk for AN. Impaired interpersonal functioning and negative affect are transdiagnostic risk factors, suggesting these factors should be targeted in prevention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Uchôa Passos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases. Nine fruits were investigated: coconut water (for the purpose of this study, coconut water was classified as a “fruit”, guava, tamarind, passion fruit, custard apple, hog plum, cashew, sapodilla, and soursop. The GI and GL were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization protocol. The GL was calculated taking into consideration intake recommendation guidelines; 77.8% of the fruits had low GI although significant oscillations were observed in some graphs, which may indicate potential risks of disease. Coconut water and custard apple had a moderate GI, and all fruits had low GL. The fruits evaluated are healthy and can be consumed following the daily recommended amount. However, caution is recommended with fruits causing early glycemic peak and the fruits with moderated GI (coconut water and custard apple.

  9. Clinical factors that predict remission of diabetes after different bariatric surgical procedures: interdisciplinary group of bariatric surgery of Verona (G.I.C.O.V.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenti, Maria Grazia; Rubbo, Ilaria; Ceradini, Giulia; Rinaldi, Elisabetta; Nadalini, Luisa; Battistoni, Marco; Genna, Michele; Bonora, Enzo; Zoppini, Giacomo

    2015-10-01

    The aims of the study were to investigate weight loss and glycemic control parameters after different bariatric surgical procedures in type 2 diabetes (T2D) obese patients and identify patients' factors that predict diabetes remission. The study included 105 obese T2D patients (66 women and 39 men) who underwent laparoscopic gastric banding (LAGB, 11 subjects, age 47 ± 10 years, BMI 42.3 ± 8.3 kg/m(2)), or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYBP, 77 subjects, age 50 ± 8 years, BMI 45.7 ± 6.8 kg/m(2)), or sleeve gastrectomy (SG, 17 subjects, age 49 ± 11 years, BMI 50.2 ± 8.8 kg/m(2)) during 2005-2012 period. The average percentage of weight loss at 12 months after surgery was 26.4 ± 9.8 %, and it was maintained at 24 and 36 months of follow-up. Diabetes remission occurred in 68.6 % of study participants (4/11 of LAGB, 54/77 of RYBP and 14/17 of SG). In multivariate Cox analysis, age, duration of diabetes, surgical procedure and glycated hemoglobin Bariatric surgical procedures that modify the upper gastrointestinal tract anatomy (RYBP and SG) are more successful in producing weight loss and remission of T2D than those that simply restrict stomach capacity (LAGB). Younger age, short duration of diabetes and better glucose control confer higher probability of achieving remission of diabetes.

  10. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Alvarez-Aguirre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents.METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used.RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year.CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users.

  11. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users. PMID:25591103

  12. Correlation between glycemic variability and gastroesophageal reflux in adolescentswith type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I L Alimova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To estimate an impact of glycemic variability on the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM.Materials and methods. We enrolled 33 patients with T1DM aged from 12 to 17 years. 24-h pH-monitoring was performed with “Gas- troskan 24” system (Istok-Sistema, Fryazino; 24-h continuous glucose monitoring utilized CGMS MMT-7310 (Medtronic Minimed, USA with subsequent night-time analysis.Results. As compared to stable night-time glycemia controls (SD <2.0 mmol/L, patients with higher night-time glycemic variability (SD>2.0 mmol/L showed longer period of esophageal acidification (17% [2–58]; p<0.001, higher incidence of acid reflux events with duration above 5 min (2 ev. [1-10]; p<0.001, longer period of most protracted acid reflux event (63 min [5–132]; p<0.001, as well as higher prevalence of pathologic acid GER events (76.4%; χ2=17.11; p<0.001 during night-time. Increase in glycemic in- stability positively correlated with incidence and severity of acid GER events. 6-8 months follow-up supported these findings. Conclusion. Glycemic variability in adolescents with T1DM is a significant risk factor for development of GERD with hypomotor dys- function according to pH-monitoring.

  13. High dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged women : a population-based follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, Joline W. J.; de Bruijne, Leonie M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this work was to assess whether high dietary glycemic load and glycemic index are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Background The associations of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load with risk of CVD are not well established, particularly

  14. The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the severity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No African-based studies have reported the prevalence or severity of injuries, risk factors associated with injuries or return-to-play (RTP) time. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of injuries and associated risk factors, as well as severity of injuries sustained by professional male MMA athletes competing at the Extreme ...

  15. Predicting factors influencing crop raiding by elephants in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nyirenda et al.

    investigations on underlying African elephant (Loxodonta africana) crop raiding processes and patterns, neither reliable predictive ... elephants prefer to move little, drink easily, eat well, and avoid people (Harris et al., 2008). .... forest within the study area were geo-referenced in GIS environ- ment. The farm area dimensions ...

  16. Índice glicêmico: uma abordagem crítica acerca de sua utilização na prevenção e no tratamento de fatores de risco cardiovasculares Glycemic index: a critical analysis of its use as a tool to prevent and treat cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Queiroz Carvalho

    2008-10-01

    amount. The glycemic index is an indicator of carbohydrate quality. Its use in free living conditions has been questioned, due to the interference of several factors which are difficult to control under such conditions. The aim of this paper was to critically analyze studies that evaluated the effect of the glycemic index of foods in the manifestation of cardiovascular diseases and its risk factors.

  17. Multinational study in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: association of age, ketoacidosis, HLA status, and autoantibodies on residual beta-cell function and glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H.B.; Swift, P.G.F.; Holl, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    .005), and by stimulated C-peptide (p glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA; p = 0.0004) at 1 month. HbA1c at 12 months was predicted by HbA1c at diagnosis (p ethnicity...... (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Younger age, ketoacidosis at diagnosis, and IA and GADA 1 month after diagnosis were the strongest explanatory factors for residual beta-cell function at 12 months. Glycemic control at 12 months was influenced predominantly by ethnicity, HbA1c at diagnosis, and GADA at 1...

  18. Association between glycemic control and morning blood surge with vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Kumari Nuthalapati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Morning blood pressure surge (MBPS is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. However, little is known about the association between glycemic control and MBPS, and its effect on vascular injury in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The current study examined the association between glycemic control and MBPS and the involvement of MBPS in the development of vascular dysfunction in T2DM patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-two consecutive T2DM outpatients from the Department of Cardiology and Endocrinology were enrolled in this study. We did MBPS in T2DM patients, 85 (male (69.7% patients and 37 (female patients (30.3%; mean age 60.1 ± 9.39; (n = 122 using 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and assessed vascular function by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD. Results: The correlation between MBPS and various clinical variables were examined by single regression analysis in all subjects. MBPS showed significant and positive correlation with pulse rate (P = 0.01, fasting blood sugar (P = 0.002, and postprandial blood sugar (P = 0.05. To further confirm the association of insulin resistance (IR with MBPS in T2DM patients, we examined the correlation between homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR, an established marker of IR and MBPS in diabetic (DM patients who were not taking insulin no significant association with MBPS in T2DM patients (P = 0.41, angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blocker (P = 0.07. We examined the relationship between MBPS and vascular injury by measuring endothelium-dependent FMD and endothelium-independent NMD in T2DM patients. Among the various traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis such as DM duration (P = 0.04, platelet reactivity (P = 0.04 and morning surge (P = 0.002 emerged as significant factors. HOMA-IR was a negative correlation with FMD. Conclusions: The current study demonstrated that

  19. Cognitive deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors: Identification of predictive factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Tonny Solveig; Ehrenfels, Susanne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2003-01-01

    To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors.......To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors....

  20. The Role of Socioeconomic Factors in the Prediction of Persistence in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dika, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    While research literature suggests that socioeconomic factors play a role in predicting educational attainment, very little research has been done to examine these relationships using data from Puerto Rico. A logistic regression approach was adopted to investigate the extent to which family and school socioeconomic factors predict retention from…

  1. Predictive factors of self-reported hand eczema in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heede, N G; Thyssen, J P; Thuesen, B H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information about predictive factors of hand eczema is crucial for primary prevention. OBJECTIVES: To investigate predictive factors of hand eczema in adult Danes from the general population. METHODS: Participants from a cross-sectional 5-year follow-up study in the general population...

  2. Block factorization of step response model predictive control problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kufoalor, D. K.M.; Frison, Gianluca; Imsland, L.

    2017-01-01

    implemented in the HPMPC framework, and the performance is evaluated through simulation studies. The results confirm that a computationally fast controller is achieved, compared to the traditional step response MPC scheme that relies on an explicit prediction formulation. Moreover, the tailored condensing......By introducing a stage-wise prediction formulation that enables the use of highly efficient quadratic programming (QP) solution methods, this paper expands the computational toolbox for solving step response MPC problems. We propose a novel MPC scheme that is able to incorporate step response data...... algorithm exhibits superior performance and produces solution times comparable to that achieved when using a condensing scheme for an equivalent (but much smaller) state-space model derived from first-principles. Implementation aspects necessary for high performance on embedded platforms are discussed...

  3. The prevalence and determinants of poor glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzaheb RA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Riyadh A Alzaheb,1 Abdullah H Altemani2 1Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia Background: Although the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is rising sharply in Saudi Arabia, data on glycemic control, crucial to reducing diabetes mellitus complications, remain scarce. This study therefore investigated glycemic control status and the factors influencing poor glycemic control among adult T2DM patients in Saudi Arabia.Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 423 T2DM patients at a diabetic center in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia between September 2016 and July 2017. Glycemic levels were measured via fasting blood glucose (FBG levels, and “poor glycemic control” was defined as FBG >130 mg/dL. Poor glycemic control’s risk factors were identified using a logistic regression.Results: In the sample, 74.9% of the patients had poor blood glycemic control. Logistic regression revealed that T2DM patients had an increased chance of poorly controlled diabetes if they had family histories of diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =7.38, 95% CI 4.09–13.31, longer diabetic durations (AOR =2.33, 95% CI 1.14–4.78 for 5–10 years and AOR =5.19, 95% CI 2.50–10.69 for >10 years, insufficient physical exercise (AOR =19.02, 95% CI 6.23–58.06, or were overweight (AOR =3.79, 95% CI 2.00–7.18, or obese (AOR =5.35, 95% CI 2.72–12.59.Conclusion: A high proportion of the sampled patients had poor glycemic control, therefore, health care professionals should manage the associated risk factors to limit disease complications and improve the health of patients with diabetes. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, glycemic control, Saudi Arabia

  4. Conversion Factors for Predicting Unshielded Dose Rates in Shielded Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapham, M.; Seamans Jr, J.V.; Arbon, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the methodology developed and used by the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project for determining the activity content and the unshielded surface dose rate for lead lined containers contaminated with transuranic waste. Several methods were investigated: - Direct measurement of the dose rate after removing the shielding. - Use of a MicroShield R derived dose conversion factor, (mRem/hr unshielded )/(mRem/hr shielded ), applied to the measured surface dose rate to estimate the unshielded surface dose rate. - Use of a MicroShield R derived activity conversion factor, mRem/hr unshielded /Ci, applied to the measured activity to estimate the unshielded dose rate. - Use of an empirically derived activity conversion factor, mRem/hr unshielded /Ci, applied to the measured activity to estimate the unshielded dose rate. The last approach proved to be the most efficacious by using a combination of nondestructive assay and empirically defined dose rate conversion factors. Empirically derived conversion factors were found to be highly dependent upon the matrix of the waste. Use of conversion factors relied on activity values corrected to address the presence of a lead liner. (authors)

  5. Hyperbilirubinemia as a predictive factor in acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, T; Tombalak, E; Ozemir, I A; Leblebici, M; Ziyade, S; Ekinci, O; Alimoglu, O

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to establish the role of hyperbilirubinemia as a predictive parameter for the prediction of either acute, or gangrenous/perforated appendicitis as well as to compare other parameters in a similar role. Medical files of the patients who underwent appendectomies between September 2013 and September 2014 were evaluated. Age, gender, preoperative white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil count (NEU), neutrophil percentage (NEU%), C-reactive protein (CRP), total/direct/indirect bilirubin levels, and the postoperative histopathological findings were recorded. The Fisher's exact, Pearson's χ (2), ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests while logistic regression for multivariate analysis was performed. p appendicitis in 100 (62 %), and appendiceal gangrene/perforation in 41 (25 %) patients. WBC, NEU, NEU%, and CRP levels were significantly higher in cases of acute and gangrenous/perforated appendicitis (p appendicitis (p < 0.01). According to multivariate analysis, elevated CRP levels were associated with 14 times, elevated total bilirubin levels were associated with five times, and elevated direct bilirubin levels were associated with 36 times greater risk for appendiceal gangrene/perforation (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). Hyperbilirubinemia, especially with elevated direct bilirubin levels, may be considered as an important marker for the prediction of appendiceal gangrene/perforation.

  6. Predictors of poor glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients attending public hospitals in Dar es Salaam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamuhabwa AR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Appolinary R Kamuhabwa, Emmanuel CharlesUnit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground: Tanzania has recently experienced a significant rise in the burden of diabetes, and it is estimated that more than 400,000 people are living with diabetes. A major concern in the management of diabetes is the occurrence of diabetic complications that occur as a result of poor glycemic control. Identification of the factors associated with poor glycemic control is important in order to institute appropriate interventions for the purpose of improving glycemic control and prevention of chronic complications.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the level of glycemic control and explore the factors associated with poor glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out at the diabetic clinics for T2DM patients at the national and municipal hospitals in Dar es Salaam. A total of 469 patients were enrolled over a period of 8 weeks from March 2013 to May 2013. Patients' information such as sociodemographic characteristics, self-care management behaviors, and medication adherence were obtained through interviews. Blood pressure, weight, and height were measured during the day of the interview. All available last readings for fasting blood glucose (FBG measurements, lipid profile, and other clinical characteristics were obtained from patients' records.Results: The mean age of patients was 54.93 years. The majority (63.5% of patients were females and only eight patients had records of lipid profile measurements. Out of 469 patients, 69.7% had FBG of ≥7.2 mmol/L, indicating poor glycemic control. Females aged between 40 years and 59 years had significantly higher poor glycemic control (76.1% as compared with their male counterparts. Thirty-eight percent of patients had poor medication adherence

  7. Association between nighttime sleep duration, midday naps, and glycemic levels in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Shinya; Hirose, Sachie; Kakutani, Miki; Fujiwara, Masayoshi; Nishiyama, Mitsuru; Terada, Yoshio; Ninomiya, Hitoshi

    2018-04-01

    To clarify the relationship between nighttime sleep duration, midday naps, and glycemic control in Japanese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (n = 355) or impaired glucose tolerance (n = 43). A total of 398 patients completed a self-administered questionnaire on sleep duration/quality and were divided into five groups according to their self-reported nighttime sleep duration: 8 h. Each group was further divided into two subgroups each according to the presence or absence of midday naps. Poor glycemic control was defined as HbA1c ≥ 7.0%. Short nighttime sleep (<5 h), poor sleep induction, daytime sleepiness, and low sleep satisfaction were associated with high HbA1c levels. HbA1c was higher in the short nighttime sleep/no nap group than in non-nappers with different nighttime sleep duration, whereas the short nighttime sleep/nap group showed similar HbA1c levels to the other nap subgroups. In multivariate logistic regression models, after adjusting for a number of potential confounders, short (<5 h) nighttime sleep without nap was significantly associated with poor glycemic control compared with 6-7 h nighttime sleep without nap (OR [95% CI]: 7.14 [2.20-23.20]). However, taking naps reduced this risk for poor glycemic control in short sleepers. Other risk factors for poor glycemic control were low sleep satisfaction (1.73 [1.10-2.70]) and poor sleep induction (1.69 [1.14-2.50]). Poor sleep quality and quantity could aggravate glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Midday naps could mitigate the deleterious effects of short nighttime sleep on glycemic control. UMIN 000017887. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictive Factors of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altino, Denise Meira; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite; Lopes, Juliana de Lima

    2017-12-01

    To identify the predictive factors of anxiety and depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Cross-sectional and retrospective study conducted with 120 patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome. Factors interfering with anxiety and depression were assessed. Anxiety was related to sex, stress, years of education, and depression, while depression was related to sex, diabetes mellitus, obesity, years of education, and trait-anxiety. Obesity and anxiety were considered predictive factors for depression, while depression and fewer years of education were considered predictive factors for anxiety. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Equivalent glycemic load (EGL: a method for quantifying the glycemic responses elicited by low carbohydrate foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spolar Matt

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycemic load (GL is used to quantify the glycemic impact of high-carbohydrate (CHO foods, but cannot be used for low-CHO foods. Therefore, we evaluated the accuracy of equivalent-glycemic-load (EGL, a measure of the glycemic impact of low-CHO foods defined as the amount of CHO from white-bread (WB with the same glycemic impact as one serving of food. Methods Several randomized, cross-over trials were performed by a contract research organization using overnight-fasted healthy subjects drawn from a pool of 63 recruited from the general population by newspaper advertisement. Incremental blood-glucose response area-under-the-curve (AUC elicited by 0, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50 g CHO portions of WB (WB-CHO and 3, 5, 10 and 20 g glucose were measured. EGL values of the different doses of glucose and WB and 4 low-CHO foods were determined as: EGL = (F-B/M, where F is AUC after food and B is y-intercept and M slope of the regression of AUC on grams WB-CHO. The dose-response curves of WB and glucose were used to derive an equation to estimate GL from EGL, and the resulting values compared to GL calculated from the glucose dose-response curve. The accuracy of EGL was assessed by comparing the GL (estimated from EGL values of the 4 doses of oral-glucose with the amounts actually consumed. Results Over 0–50 g WB-CHO (n = 10, the dose-response curve was non-linear, but over the range 0–20 g the curve was indistinguishable from linear, with AUC after 0, 5, 10 and 20 g WB-CHO, 10 ± 1, 28 ± 2, 58 ± 5 and 100 ± 6 mmol × min/L, differing significantly from each other (n = 48. The difference between GL values estimated from EGL and those calculated from the dose-response curve was 0 g (95% confidence-interval, ± 0.5 g. The difference between the GL values of the 4 doses of glucose estimated from EGL, and the amounts of glucose actually consumed was 0.2 g (95% confidence-interval, ± 1 g. Conclusion EGL, a measure of the glycemic impact of

  10. Predictive factors for relapse in patients on buprenorphine maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Michael; Finlayson, Alistair J Reid; Wang, Li; Martin, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in the use of buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid dependence, clinical outcomes of this treatment approach continue to need evaluation. This study examines factors associated with relapse and retention during buprenorphine treatment in a sample of opioid dependent outpatients. In a retrospective chart review of 62 patients with opioid dependence, relapse was determined by self-report, urine toxicology screens, and by checking the state controlled substance monitoring database. Data was analyzed using two-way tests of association and logistic regression. Patients with comorbid anxiety disorders, active benzodiazepine use (contrary to clinic policy), or active alcohol abuse, were significantly more likely to relapse. Patients who relapsed were also more likely to be on a higher buprenorphine maintenance dose. This study identifies relapse risk factors during buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence. Future research is needed to determine whether modifying these factors may lead to improved treatment outcomes. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  11. Prevalence of microalbuminuria with relation to glycemic control in type-2 diabetic patients in Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.A.; Baig, J.A.; Iqbal, T.; Kazmi, T.; Baig, M.; Husain, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine disorders characterized by hyperglycaemia. Diabetic nephropathy is a consequence of long standing diabetes. The prevalence of microalbuminuria predicts progression to diabetic nephropathy. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria in relation to duration of diabetes, BMI, Serum Creatinine and HbA1c in an ethnic group of Type 2 diabetes mellitus residing in Karachi. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a community diabetic centre, located at Garden East Karachi from July to December 2007. One hundred known Type 2 diabetic patients with age 30 - 70 years were included in the study. Informed consent and a structured questionnaire of each patient were recorded. Fasting venous blood and morning urine sample was collected for analysis of creatinine, HbA1c and microalbuminuria respectively. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 13.0. Pearson correlation was applied to observe association of microalbuminuria with different parameters. All p-values 7%) or heredity factors. Screening for microalbuminuria and HbA1c test should be done in both newly and already diagnosed Type 2 diabetic patients as an early marker of renal dysfunction and glycemic control. (author)

  12. Prevalence and predictive factors of dental anxiety in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Ricardo Wathson Feitosa; de Carvalho Bezerra Falcão, Paulo Germano; de Luna Campos, Gustavo José; de Souza Andrade, Emanuel Sávio; do Egito Vasconcelos, Belmiro Cavalcanti; da Silva Pereira, Maria Auxiliadora

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and predicitve factors of dental anxiety among Brazilian adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 340 Brazilian adolescents, done between 2005 and 2010. Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale and an objective questionnaire were used to determine the degree of dental anxiety. The prevalence of moderate to severe dental anxiety was approximately 18%. Dental anxiety was correlated with the following factors: gender (Pdental pain (P=.002). Dental fear and anxiety in Brazilian adolescents are associated with lack of economic resources, negligence of oral health, low educational level, female gender, and younger age.

  13. Predictive and Prognostic Factors in Colorectal Cancer: A Personalized Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Rockall

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is an exciting time for all those engaged in the treatment of colorectal cancer. The advent of new therapies presents the opportunity for a personalized approach to the patient. This approach considers the complex genetic mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis in addition to classical clinicopathological staging. The potential predictive and prognostic biomarkers which have stemmed from the study of the genetic basis of colorectal cancer and therapeutics are discussed with a focus on mismatch repair status, KRAS, BRAF, 18qLOH, CIMP and TGF-β.

  14. Glycemic Index values of some Jaffna fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selladurai Pirasath

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has recently increased in developing countries. Scientific data on glycemic index values of common meals is essential to modify the diets for diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain, ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain, and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya. The results will be helpful to physicians and the general public to decide the benefits ofthe consumption of fruits, particularly by diabetic and coronary heart disease patients.Methods: Healthy volunteers (20 Nos. of 21.05(±0.92 years, 53.90 (±9.36 kg body weights, 153.92 (±9.15 m heights, and 20.55 (±2.22 kgm-2body mass indexes were selected with their written consent. After overnight fasting, 75g glucose and each test fruit containing 75g digestible carbohydrate were administered at different instances and blood glucose levels were measured half hourly for two hours. The glycemic response and GI values were calculated and analyzed by Randomized Complete Block Design using SAS analytical package.Results: The mean GI values of the ‘Kathali’, ‘Kappal’, ‘Itharai’ varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya were 54.45 (±9.26, 50.43 (±5.79, 48.47 (±10.13, 65.36 (±8.00 and 34.80 (±12.78 % respectively. The GI value of papaya differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits. The GI value of ‘Itharai’ variety of plantain differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits except the ‘Kappal’ varietyof plantain.Conclusion: The three varieties of plantains and papaya were low GI fruits, and jack fruit was found to be an intermediate GI fruit. The presence of dietary fiber, esp. soluble fiber, reduces the glycemicresponse and glycemic index of foods.

  15. mathematical models for prediction of safety factors for a simply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    The reliability-based calibration of safety factors for the design of a simply supported steel beam, based on BS5950. (2000) is presented in this research work. The calibration was undertaken using a specialized computer program in. Microsoft excel environment developed by the Joint Committee for Structural Safety (JCSS) ...

  16. Predictive factors for psychiatric morbidity among women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the psychosocial and clinical factors that are associated with psychiatric morbidity among women with infertility attending ... difference in the rate of psychiatric morbidity between women with primary infertility and those with secondary infertility (χ2 = ..... Emotional distress of infertile women in Japan.

  17. Evaluation of Glycemic Indices of Rice (served with stew) prepared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The increasing rate of diabetic patients in Nigeria calls for concern. There is also the need for enough information on the glycemic index (GI) of many commonly consumed foods in Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to determine the glycemic indices of local varieties of rice produced in Abakaliki and to ...

  18. Glycemic allostasis during mental activities on fasting in non alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glycemic allostasis is the process by which blood glucose stabilization is achieved through the balancing of glucose consumption rate and release into the blood stream under a variety of stressors.This paper reviews findings on the dynamics of glycemic levels during mental activities on fasting in non‑alcohol users and ...

  19. Medical and sociodemographic factors predict persistent smoking after coronary events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverre, Elise; Otterstad, Jan Erik; Gjertsen, Erik; Gullestad, Lars; Husebye, Einar; Dammen, Toril; Moum, Torbjørn; Munkhaugen, John

    2017-09-06

    Understanding the determinants of persistent smoking after a coronary event constitutes the basis of modelling interventions of smoking cessation in secondary prevention programs. We aim to identify the potentially modifiable medical, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, comprising the study factors, associated with unfavourable risk factor control after CHD events. A cross-sectional explorative study used logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between study factors and smoking status in 1083 patients hospitalized with myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization. Hospital record data, a self-report questionnaire, clinical examination and blood samples were applied. At the index hospitalization, 390 patients were smoking and at follow-up after 2-36 months 167 (43%) of these had quit, while 230 reported persistent smoking. In adjusted analyses, unemployed or disability benefits (Odds ratio (OR) 4.1), low education (OR 3.5), longer smoking duration (OR 2.3) and not having ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as index event (OR 2.3) were significantly associated with persistent smoking. Psychosocial factors at follow-up were not associated with persistent smoking. Smokers reported high motivation for cessation, with 68% wanting help to quit. Only 42% had been offered nicotine replacement therapy or other cessation aids. Smokers rated use of tobacco as the most important cause of their coronary disease (6.8 on a 1-10 Likert scale). Low socioeconomic status, prior duration of smoking, and not having STEMI as index event were associated with persisting smoking. Persistent smokers in this study seem to have an acceptable risk perception and were motivated to cease smoking, but needed assistance through cessation programs including prescription of pharmacological aids. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02309255 , registered retrospectively.

  20. Predictive models and prognostic factors for upper tract urothelial carcinoma: a comprehensive review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbeutcha, Aurélie; Mathieu, Romain; Rouprêt, Morgan; Gust, Kilian M; Briganti, Alberto; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Shariat, Shahrokh F

    2016-10-01

    In the context of customized patient care for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), decision-making could be facilitated by risk assessment and prediction tools. The aim of this study was to provide a critical overview of existing predictive models and to review emerging promising prognostic factors for UTUC. A literature search of articles published in English from January 2000 to June 2016 was performed using PubMed. Studies on risk group stratification models and predictive tools in UTUC were selected, together with studies on predictive factors and biomarkers associated with advanced-stage UTUC and oncological outcomes after surgery. Various predictive tools have been described for advanced-stage UTUC assessment, disease recurrence and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Most of these models are based on well-established prognostic factors such as tumor stage, grade and lymph node (LN) metastasis, but some also integrate newly described prognostic factors and biomarkers. These new prediction tools seem to reach a high level of accuracy, but they lack external validation and decision-making analysis. The combinations of patient-, pathology- and surgery-related factors together with novel biomarkers have led to promising predictive tools for oncological outcomes in UTUC. However, external validation of these predictive models is a prerequisite before their introduction into daily practice. New models predicting response to therapy are urgently needed to allow accurate and safe individualized management in this heterogeneous disease.

  1. Situational and Dispositional Factors that Predict Motivation: a Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Espejel, Heriberto Antonio; López-Walle, Jeanette; Tomás, Inés

    2017-03-30

    This study aimed to test a multilevel mediation model which examined the relationship between the perceived motivational climate created by coaches at team level and motivational regulations towards sport at individual level, as mediated by individual goal orientations. 211 university athletes from 20 teams training in different types of sport completed a battery of instruments that measured the variables included in the model. The statistics significance level was .05. Results of the multilevel mediation model revealed that the task-involving climate at team level positively predicted individual task orientation (γ01 = .77, p .05). The results are in line with previous research that have focused in the study of motivational climate at individual level, but the present study make a novel contribution by providing the perspective of a multilevel mediation model and thereby clarifying the phenomenon at team level.

  2. Kinesthetic neuropsychological factor difficulties predict possible problems in writing acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmiento-Bolaños, Maria Jimena; Universidade Federal do Paraná; Rojas Ríos, Inés Adriana; Instituto Colombiano de Neurociencias; Moreno Carrillo, María Jeimy; Universidad de San Buenaventura; Gomez-A, Alexander; Center for alcohol studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated a group of boys and girls, from first to third grade of primary school, with difficulties in writing acquisition in comparison with a control group. The results obtained by using the “Evaluación Neuropsicológica infantil ‘Puebla-Sevilla’” show significant differences between the experimental and the control group in the Kinetic, Kinesthesic and the Global Spatial Perception neuropsychological factors. Similar results were also obtained in the writing tasks that ar...

  3. Predictive factors for cesarean delivery : a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Sónia; Saraiva, Alexandra; Lagarto, Filipa; Susano, Maria João; Oliveira, Ricardo; Nunes, Catarina S.; Pina, Pedro; Lemos, Paulo; Machado, Humberto S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cesarean section rates have risen markedly worldwide. Considering the potential harm caused by this mode of delivery, and the general concern in reducing its incidence, it would be useful to individualize the risk of non-planned cesareans, and if there is any possibility, reduce that risk, and anesthesiologists should take part of this risk evaluation. In recent studies, many factors have been related with a higher risk of cesarean, and controversy still surrounds labor analges...

  4. Factors predicting the initiation of prenatal care in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelopana, Ana M; Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Salazar, Bertha C

    2009-06-01

    to describe factors related to the initiation of prenatal care (PNC) among pregnant Mexican women. descriptive correlational. public prenatal clinic in Monterrey, Mexico. 253 pregnant Mexican women aged 13-46 years. structured interviews were conducted to obtain information concerning demographics, reproductive history, current pregnancy, perceptions of benefits and barriers of PNC, negative attitudes towards pregnancy and social support. Late initiation of PNC was reported by 47% of participants. Factors related to PNC initiation were education, perceived benefits or barriers, and negative attitudes towards pregnancy. Women who initiated PNC at an early stage were more likely to live with a partner, had a higher educational level and anticipated desirable personal benefits of PNC. Perceptions of barriers to PNC impeded early initiation of care. Social support did not influence PNC initiation. Negative attitudes towards pregnancy increased the likelihood of late PNC initiation. screening for negative attitudes towards pregnancy, partner status, educational level and perceived health-care barriers among pregnant Mexican women is important. Health-care providers may then address these psychosocial risk factors through PNC interventions promoting early initiation of care.

  5. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Lajous, Martin; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Vasilopoulo, Effie; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Van-der-A, Daphne; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H M; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Asli, Lene Angell; Rodriguez, Laudina; Navarro, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Sanchez, Maria-José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Buckland, Genevieve; Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Key, Timothy J; Allen, Naomi E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2012-08-01

    The glycemic potential of a diet is associated with chronically elevated insulin concentrations, which may augment breast cancer (BC) risk by stimulating insulin receptor or by affecting insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-mediated mitogenesis. It is unclear whether this effect differs by BC phenotype. The objective was to investigate the relation between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and total carbohydrate intake with BC by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We identified 11,576 women with invasive BC among 334,849 EPIC women aged 34-66 y (5th to 95th percentiles) at baseline over a median follow-up of 11.5 y. Dietary GI and GL were calculated from country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to quantify the association between GI, GL, and carbohydrate intake and BC risk. BC tumors were classified by receptor status. Overall GI, GL, and carbohydrates were not related to BC. Among postmenopausal women, GL and carbohydate intake were significantly associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) BC when extreme quintiles (Q) were compared [multivariable HR(Q5-Q1) (95% CI) = 1.36 (1.02, 1.82; P-trend = 0.010) and HR(Q5-Q1) = 1.41 (1.05, 1.89; P-trend = 0.009), respectively]. Further stratification by progesterone receptor (PR) status showed slightly stronger associations with ER(-)/PR(-) BC [HR(Q5-Q1) (95% CI) = 1.48 (1.07, 2.05; P-trend = 0.010) for GL and HR(Q5-Q1) = 1.62 (1.15, 2.30; P-trend = 0.005) for carbohydrates]. No significant association with ER-positive BC was observed. Our results indicate that a diet with a high GL and carbohydrate intake is positively associated with an increased risk of developing ER(-) and ER(-)/PR(-) BC among postmenopausal women.

  6. Dietary Fiber, Carbohydrates, Glycemic Index, and Glycemic Load in Relation to Breast Cancer Prognosis in the HEAL Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, F.N.; Kampman, E.; McTiernan, A.; Bernstein, L.; Baumgartner, K.; Baumgartner, R.; Ambs, A.; Ballard-Barbash, R.; Neuhouser, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary intake of fiber, carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) may influence breast cancer survival, but consistent and convincing evidence is lacking. Methods: We investigated associations of dietary fiber, carbohydrates, GI, and GL with breast cancer prognosis among

  7. Dietary fiber, carbohydrates, glycemic index, and glycemic load in relation to breast cancer prognosis in the HEAL cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, F.N.; Kampman, E.; McTiernan, A.; Bernstein, L.; Baumgartner, K.; Baumgartner, R.; Ambs, A.; Ballard-Barbash, R.; Neuhouser, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary intake of fiber, carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) may influence breast cancer survival, but consistent and convincing evidence is lacking. METHODS: We investigated associations of dietary fiber, carbohydrates, GI, and GL with breast cancer prognosis among

  8. A Randomized Trial about Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Improves Outcomes among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla K.; Gutschall, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Glycemic index (GI) represents the postprandial glucose response of carbohydrate foods, and glycemic load (GL) represents the quantity and quality of carbohydrate consumed. A diet lower in GI and GL may improve diabetes management. A 9-week intervention regarding GI and GL was evaluated among adults in the age range of 40-70 years who had had type…

  9. Nutritional composition, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptical quality of glucomannan-enriched soy milk ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adah, S.; Candra, O. M.; Nugrahani, G.; Pramono, A.; Afifah, D. N.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decades, the number of childhood obesity cases has increased significantly, which led to an increase in the number of adults suffering from degenerative diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Glucomannan-Enriched Soy Milk Ice Cream (GSMIC) may prevent obesity in children. The aim of the study was to test the level of carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fiber, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality of GSMIC. This experiment used a completely randomized design to test three formulations of glucomannan flour and soy milk (0.5%, 1.5%, and 2.5%). The products were tested for nutritional composition, and evaluated on glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality. GSMIC 2.5% had higher levels of dietary fiber and high carbohydrate, protein, and fat content compared to ice cream (3.99%, 30.7%, 1.50%, 1.33%, respectively). The glycemic index of ice cream and 2.5% GSMIC were 75.83 (75%) and 51.48 (51%), respectively, while the glycemic load of ice cream and 2.5% GSMIC were 9.04 and 11.61, respectively. Based on the organoleptic analysis, formulation preferred by the panellists was 2.5% glucomannan flour. Glucomannan flour affected the level of carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fiber, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality in soy milk ice cream.

  10. Kiwifruit, carbohydrate availability, and the glycemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, John A

    2013-01-01

    An appreciable proportion, about 10%, of the dry weight of kiwifruit consists of primary cell walls. About 80% of dry matter is available carbohydrate consisting of glucose, fructose, and sucrose, and about 10% is digestible protein. The cell wall component, being nonstarch polysaccharide, is undigested in the stomach and small intestine, so the component increases in relative concentration in the gut lumen where its physicochemical properties may be important in modulating carbohydrate digestion and absorption. Released from the constraint of fruit structure, the dietary fiber swells to four times its original volume during in vitro digestion. When the digested remnants are allowed to settle into a packed but uncompressed state, as in the gut, they reduce the rate of glucose diffusion by about 40% and profoundly reduce digesta mixing, especially in the presence of a low background of soluble viscous polysaccharide. An in vitro estimation of the glycemic index (GI) of carbohydrate in kiwifruit, and in vivo estimates show the carbohydrate to be of low GI. On a whole fruit basis because of the high water content of kiwifruit, a 100g kiwifruit would be equivalent to about 5g (1 teaspoon) of glucose in its effect on blood glucose; thus, kiwifruit have low glycemic impact and are suitable for those with diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Profiling healthy eaters: determining factors that predict healthy eating practices among Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swan, E.; Bouwman, L.; Hiddink, G.J.; Aarts, N.; Koelen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's

  12. Profiling healthy eaters. Determining factors that predict healthy eating practices among Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swan, E.C.; Bouwman, L.I.; Hiddink, G.J.; Aarts, N.; Koelen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's

  13. Predictive factors for pharyngocutaneous fistulization after total laryngectomy: a Dutch Head and Neck Society audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansaat, Liset; van der Noort, Vincent; Bernard, Simone E; Eerenstein, Simone E J; Plaat, Boudewijn E C; Langeveld, Ton A P M; Lacko, Martin; Hilgers, Frans J M; de Bree, Remco; Takes, Robert P; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2018-03-01

    Incidences of pharyngocutaneous fistulization (PCF) after total laryngectomy (TL) reported in the literature vary widely, ranging from 2.6 to 65.5%. Comparison between different centers might identify risk factors, but also might enable improvements in quality of care. To enable this on a national level, an audit in the 8 principle Dutch Head and Neck Centers (DHNC) was initiated. A retrospective chart review of all 324 patients undergoing laryngectomy in a 2-year (2012 and 2013) period was performed. Overall PCF%, PCF% per center and factors predictive for PCF were identified. Furthermore, a prognostic model predicting the PCF% per center was developed. To provide additional data, a survey among the head and neck surgeons of the participating centers was carried out. Overall PCF% was 25.9. The multivariable prediction model revealed that previous treatment with (chemo)radiotherapy in combination with a long interval between primary treatment and TL, previous tracheotomy, near total pharyngectomy, neck dissection, and BMI factors established in the prediction model. However, these factors explain enough of the differences that, compensating for these factors, hospital is no longer independently predictive for PCF. This nationwide audit has provided valid comparative PCF data confirming the known risk factors from the literature which are important for counseling on PCF risks. Data show that variations in PCF% in the DHNCs (in part) are explainable by the variations in these predictive factors. Since elective neck dissection is a major risk factor for PCF, it only should be performed on well funded indication.

  14. [Biological and psychosocial factors that predict health promoting lifestyles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid H, Patricia; Merino E, José Manuel; Stiepovich B, Jasna

    2006-12-01

    One of the goals of the national health reform is to promote a healthy lifestyle in all the population. The determinants of healthy lifestyles need to be identified to guide people towards this purpose. To analyze the health promoting lifestyle (HLP) in a community of Concepción and to identify the personal factors that might be predictors of such lifestyle. Pender's health promotion model was used as the conceptual framework for exploring the HLP among 360 persons aged from 15 to 64 years, free from chronic diseases. Data were obtained by a semi structured questionnaire and the following scales were used to measure HLP: perceived health status, perceived self esteem, and perceived self efficacy. Relationships between personal factors and HLP were studied. Data were processed with SAS software and analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Only 52.2% of the sample had a healthy lifestyle. The variables sex, age, occupation, access to health care, self esteem, perceived health status and perceived self efficacy had a significant effect on HLP. A regression model showed that self esteem, self efficacy, sex, age, occupation and access to health care explained 30% of the variation in health lifestyle. Only half of the studied sample had a healthy lifestyle. The variables obtained with the regression model, should be considered to create effective interventions encouraging persons to integrate healthy behaviors to their life.

  15. Effect of Poor Glycemic Control in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahishale, Vinay; Avuthu, Sindhuri; Patil, Bhagyashri; Lolly, Mitchelle; Eti, Ajith; Khan, Sujeer

    2017-03-01

    There is growing evidence that diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). A significant number of DM patients have poor glycemic control. This study was carried out to find the impact of poor glycemic control on newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus in a tertiary care hospital. In a hospital-based prospective study, newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary TB with DM patients were classified as poorly controlled diabetes (HBA 1C ≥7%) and optimal control diabetics (HbA1ctuberculosis.

  16. Factors predicting hyperkalemia in patients with cirrhosis receiving spironolactone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Z.; Mumtaz, K.; Salam, A.; Jafri, W.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors leading to hyperkalemia in patients with cirrhosis receiving spironolactone. Results: Patients with hyperkalemia (K>5 mmol/l) had higher blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and bilirubin levels (p=0.004, 0.001 and 0.044 respectively). Their serum sodium and albumin levels were lower (p=0.000 and 0.017 respectively). They had advanced cirrhosis with high Pugh score (p=0.003). These patients were on higher dose of spironolactone (p=0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that dose of spironolactone > 100 mg/day, serum creatinine >1.3 mg/dl, persistence of ascites and edema, and female gender were important predictors of development of hyperkalemia. Conclusion: Patients with cirrhosis receiving high dose of the diuretic, having edema, ascites and high serum creatinine are at the greater risk of developing hyperkalemia during spironolactone therapy. (author)

  17. Predictive risk factors for multiple intracranial aneurysms rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jue; Zhao Yuwu; Li Minghua; Lu Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the risk factors inducing the rupture of multiple intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Between July 2007 and July 2011, a total of 134 patients with 294 aneurysms were admitted to the hospital. Of the 294 aneurysms, 50 were ruptured and 244 were unruptured. Every patient had two or more aneurysms. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis methods were used to analyze the risk factors, including age, gender, site and size, for multiple intracranial aneurysms. Results: The 134 patients were divided into three groups according to patient's age, including <4.5 group, (45-6.5) group and > 65 group. The rupture incidence of aneurysm in the (4.5-65) group was highest in the three groups. The difference was significant (P=0.001). Of 35 patients with anterior communicating arterial aneurysms, 13 (37.1%) were ruptured, accounting for 26% of all ruptured aneurysms, and the rupture rate of anterior communicating arterial aneurysms was significantly higher than that of the aneurysms located at other sites (P= 0.001). Of all 294 aneurysms, 88.1% were <5 mm, 58.2% were <3 mm. Of the ruptured aneurysms, 680-/o were <5 mm. Conclusion: This study indicates that the rupture of multiple intracranial aneurysm is closely related to the patient's age, the size and location of aneurysm. Therefore, patient's age, the size and location of aneurysm should be taken into consideration when to make the therapeutic plan. In multiple intracranial aneurysms, the anterior communicating arterial aneurysm is most prone to bleeding. (authors)

  18. Family Factors Predict Treatment Outcome for Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youth receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods We analyzed data from a sample of youth who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; mean age = 12.43 years) as part of a larger randomized clinical trial. Youngsters and their families were assessed by an independent evaluator (IE) pre- and post- FCBT using a standardized battery of measures evaluating family functioning and OCD symptom severity. Family conflict and cohesion were measured via parent self-report on the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994) and parental blame was measured using parent self-report on the Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale (PABS; Peris, 2008b). Symptom severity was rated by IE’s using the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS; Scahill et al., 1997). Results Families with lower levels of parental blame and family conflict and higher levels of family cohesion at baseline were more likely to have a child who responded to FCBT treatment even after adjusting for baseline symptom severity compared to families who endorsed higher levels of dysfunction prior to treatment. In analyses using both categorical and continuous outcome measures, higher levels of family dysfunction and difficulty in higher number of domains of family functioning were associated with lower rates of treatment response. In addition, changes in family cohesion predicted response to FCBT controlling for baseline symptom severity. Conclusions Findings speak to the role of the family in treatment for childhood OCD and highlight potential targets for future family interventions. PMID:22309471

  19. Factors that predict consumer acceptance of enriched processed meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liran C; Henchion, Maeve; De Brún, Aoife; Murrin, Celine; Wall, Patrick G; Monahan, Frank J

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to understand predictors of consumers' purchase intention towards processed meat based functional foods (i.e. enriched processed meat). A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 486 processed meat consumers in spring 2016. Results showed that processed meats were perceived differently in healthiness, with sausage-type products perceived less healthy than cured meat products. Consumers were in general more uncertain than positive about enriched processed meat but differences existed in terms of the attitudes and purchase intention. Following regression analysis, consumers' purchase intention towards enriched processed meat was primarily driven by their attitudes towards the product concept. Perceived healthiness of existing products and eating frequency of processed meat were also positively associated with the purchase intention. Other factors such as general food choice motives, socio-demographic characteristics, consumer health and the consumption of functional foods and dietary supplements in general, were not significant predictors of the purchase intention for enriched processed meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hemodynamic and metabolic factors in the prediction of diastolic dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Pareek, M.; Olesen, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    glucose, 2-hour glucose during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), oral disposition index (DIo), and Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) derived indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-2B), insulin sensitivity (HOMA-2S), and insulin resistance (HOMA-2IR)), other traditional cardiovascular risk factors......-hour glucose levels, HOMA-2B, HOMA- 2S, HOMA-2IR, and the time elapsed between inclusion and echocardiography. In multivariable analysis (significance level 0.20), sex (odds ratio (OR) = 6.08 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-29.25); p = 0.02), heart rate (OR = 1.02 (95% CI, 0.996-1.05); p = 0.......1), HOMA-2B (OR = 1.01 (95% CI, 1.00-1.01); p = 0.051), and time span (OR = 1.84 (95% CI, 1.73-1.96); p = 0.01), remained significantly associated with diastolic dysfunction, whereas age was forced into the model (OR = 1.03 (95% CI, 0.96-1.11); p = 0.41). We did not detect any significant interactions...

  1. Glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, A; Mediavilla, J J; Miñambres, I; González-Segura, D

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the degree of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes in Spain and identify factors associated with glycemic control. This was a cross-sectional, multicenter, epidemiological study that used consecutive sampling and was conducted in primary care practices in Spain. A total of 5591 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus lasting more than 1 year and who were treated with hypoglycemic agents for more than 3 months were included in the study. At a single visit, HbA1c levels were measured (A1cNow+ system) and demographic and clinical variables related to diabetes and its treatment were recorded. During the visit, CV risk factors (CVRF), the presence of target-organ damage (TOD), the presence of hypoglycemia and body weight changes within the previous year were recorded. We analyzed data from 5382 patients (mean age 66.7 [10.8] years, mean duration of the diabetes 8.8 [6.3] years). TOD was present in 43.6% of the patients and 59.1% were taking 2 or more drugs. The patients' mean HbA1c was 7.1 (1.1)%, and 48.6% had HbA1c levels 70 years were associated with improved glycemic control. Patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus are highly prevalent in Spain. Factors associated with poorer glycemic control include the complexity of both the disease and the hypoglycemic therapy, a history of hypoglycemia and weight gain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Frost tolerance in wild potatoes : Assessing the predictivity of taxonomic, geographic and ecological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.; Jacobs, M.; Bamberg, J.B.; Spooner, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    The use of genetic resources could be more effective and efficient if we were able to predict the presence or absence of useful traits in different populations or accessions. We analyzed the extent to which taxonomic, geographic and ecological factors can predict the presence of frost tolerance in

  3. Cfh genotype interacts with dietary glycemic index to modulate age-related macular degeneration-like features in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Genetics and diet contribute to the relative risk for developing AMD, but their interactions are poorly understood. Genetic variations in Complement Factor H (CFH), and dietary glycemic index (GI) are major ris...

  4. Paliperidone palmitate: factors predicting continuation with treatment at 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David M; Sparshatt, Anna; O'Hagan, Maria; Dzahini, Olubanke

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to determine factors relating to continuation with treatment with paliperidone palmitate long-acting injection (PP) in a 2 year, non-interventional, observational study of the use of PP in consecutive patients treated in a secondary care environment. We followed-up 300 consecutive patients; 24 (8%) were lost to follow-up (7 deceased and 17 left the care of the trust). Overall, 107 patients of the remaining 276 who were not lost to follow-up (38.7%) completed 2 years' continuous treatment. A further 21 (7.6%) patients discontinued PP but restarted it after >2 months, 11 (4.0%) of whom were still receiving PP at 2 years. Median treatment time for PP was 465 days (95% CI 333, 583 days). Prior treatment with risperidone reduced the risk of discontinuation by 39% (RR 0.61 (95% CI -0.44, 0.86, p=0.004)); being initiated as an out-patient by 49% (RR 0.51 (95% CI 0.36, 0.73 p=0.001)). Risk of discontinuation was increased by 63% when the reason for prescribing PP was poor tolerability of prior treatment (RR 1.63 (95% CI 1.05, 2.51 p=0.028)). The rate of continuation with PP at 2 years was higher than that seen with other long acting depot formulations. Likelihood of continuation can be vastly improved by targeting PP for those most likely to benefit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors predicting physical activity among children with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Shahram; Yee, Chu Tang; Chung, Paul J

    2013-07-18

    Obesity is especially prevalent among children with special needs. Both lack of physical activity and unhealthful eating are major contributing factors. The objective of our study was to investigate barriers to physical activity among these children. We surveyed parents of the 171 children attending Vista Del Mar School in Los Angeles, a nonprofit school serving a socioeconomically diverse group of children with special needs from kindergarten through 12th grade. Parents were asked about their child's and their own physical activity habits, barriers to their child's exercise, and demographics. The response rate was 67%. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of children being physically active at least 3 hours per week. Parents reported that 45% of the children were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38% with autism, and 34% with learning disabilities; 47% of children and 56% of parents were physically active less than 3 hours per week. The top barriers to physical activity were reported as child's lack of interest (43%), lack of developmentally appropriate programs (33%), too many behavioral problems (32%), and parents' lack of time (29%). However, child's lack of interest was the only parent-reported barrier independently associated with children's physical activity. Meanwhile, children whose parents were physically active at least 3 hours per week were 4.2 times as likely to be physically active as children whose parents were less physically active (P = .01). In this group of students with special needs, children's physical activity was strongly associated with parental physical activity; parent-reported barriers may have had less direct effect. Further studies should examine the importance of parental physical activity among children with special needs.

  6. Biological lifestyle factors in adult distance education: predicting cognitive and learning performance

    OpenAIRE

    Gijselaers, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to explore the characteristics of different student groups (i.e., successful, non-successful, and non-starting). The second aim was to examine whether biological lifestyle factors (e.g. physical activity, sleep, and nutrition) predicted learning performance. Third, it aimed to investigate whether these biological lifestyle factors predicted cognitive performance, as this can be a predictor for learning in traditional education. The final aim was to determine w...

  7. Internet gambling is a predictive factor of Internet addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critselis, Elena; Janikian, Mari; Paleomilitou, Noni; Oikonomou, Despoina; Kassinopoulos, Marios; Kormas, George; Tsitsika, Artemis

    2013-12-01

    Adolescent Internet gambling is associated with concomitant addictive behaviors. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of Internet gambling practices, its impact upon psychosocial development and to evaluate the association between gambling practices and Internet addictive behavior among Cypriot adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample (n = 805) of adolescents attending selected public schools (9th and 10th grades) in Cyprus. Anonymous self-completed questionnaires were used including the Internet Addiction Test and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Among the study population (n = 805), approximately one third (n = 28; 34.9%) reported Internet gambling. Internet gamblers were twice as likely to utilize Internet café portals (adjusted odds ratio for gender and age, AOR: 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 1.56-2.91) for interactive game-playing (AOR: 6.84; 95% CI: 4.23-11.07), chat-rooms (AOR: 2.57; 95% CI: 1.31-4.85), and retrieval of sexual information (AOR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.42-2.81). Among Internet gamblers 26.0% (n = 73) reported borderline addictive Internet use and 4.3% (n = 12) addictive behavior. Internet gamblers more often had comprehensive psychosocial and emotional maladjustment (AOR: 4.00; 95% CI: 1.97-8.13), including Abnormal Conduct Problems (AOR: 3.26; 95% CI: 2.00-5.32), Emotional Symptoms (AOR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.02-3.11), and Peer Problems (AOR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.08-5.48) scores. The multivariate regression analyses indicated that the single independent predictor associated with Internet addictive behavior was Internet gambling (AOR: 5.66; 95% CI: 1.45-22.15). Internet gambling is associated with addictive Internet use, as well as emotional maladjustment and behavioral problems, among Cypriot adolescents. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate whether Internet gambling constitutes a risk factor for the development of Internet addictive behavior among adolescents.

  8. High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, D S; Majzoub, J A; Al-Zahrani, A; Dallal, G E; Blanco, I; Roberts, S B

    1999-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent years. However, the role of dietary composition in body weight regulation remains unclear. The purpose of this work was to investigate the acute effects of dietary glycemic index (GI) on energy metabolism and voluntary food intake in obese subjects. Twelve obese teenage boys were evaluated on three separate occasions using a crossover study protocol. During each evaluation, subjects consumed identical test meals at breakfast and lunch that had a low, medium, or high GI. The high- and medium-GI meals were designed to have similar macronutrient composition, fiber content, and palatability, and all meals for each subject had equal energy content. After breakfast, plasma and serum concentrations of metabolic fuels and hormones were measured. Ad libitum food intake was determined in the 5-hour period after lunch. Voluntary energy intake after the high-GI meal (5.8 megajoule [mJ]) was 53% greater than after the medium-GI meal (3.8 mJ), and 81% greater than after the low-GI meal (3.2 mJ). In addition, compared with the low-GI meal, the high-GI meal resulted in higher serum insulin levels, lower plasma glucagon levels, lower postabsorptive plasma glucose and serum fatty acids levels, and elevation in plasma epinephrine. The area under the glycemic response curve for each test meal accounted for 53% of the variance in food intake within subjects. The rapid absorption of glucose after consumption of high-GI meals induces a sequence of hormonal and metabolic changes that promote excessive food intake in obese subjects. Additional studies are needed to examine the relationship between dietary GI and long-term body weight regulation.

  9. Shared Responsibility for Type 1 Diabetes Care Is Associated With Glycemic Variability and Risk of Glycemic Excursions in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Arwen M; Noser, Amy E; Clements, Mark A; Patton, Susana R

    2018-01-01

    We examined how parent and youth responsibility for type 1 diabetes (T1D) care is related to adherence and glycemic outcomes, namely, glycemic variability and risk of glycemic excursions. One hundred thirty-five parent-youth dyads (10-16 years old; diagnosed with T1D for at least 6 months) participated in this study. Percent responsibility of T1D care attributed to the youth, parent, or shared was measured using the Diabetes Family Responsibility Questionnaire. We collected youth's hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glucometer downloads to examine relationships between responsibility and HbA1c, frequency of blood glucose monitoring (self-monitoring blood glucose, SMBG), risk of glycemic excursions, and actual glycemic variability using bivariate correlations and path analysis. Participants reported shared responsibility for almost half of T1D self-care tasks. Bivariate correlations showed shared responsibility was associated with less variability, whereas parent responsibility was associated with greater glycemic variability and risk for glycemic excursions. Youth responsibility was associated with lower frequency of SMBG. The path analyses confirmed our correlational findings (pshypothesis that shared T1D responsibility is associated with better diabetes outcomes in youth. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Novel Data Fusion Method and Exploration of Multiple Information Sources for Transcription Factor Target Gene Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaofeng; Yli-Harja, Olli; Lähdesmäki, Harri

    2010-12-01

    Background. Revealing protein-DNA interactions is a key problem in understanding transcriptional regulation at mechanistic level. Computational methods have an important role in predicting transcription factor target gene genomewide. Multiple data fusion provides a natural way to improve transcription factor target gene predictions because sequence specificities alone are not sufficient to accurately predict transcription factor binding sites. Methods. Here we develop a new data fusion method to combine multiple genome-level data sources and study the extent to which DNA duplex stability and nucleosome positioning information, either alone or in combination with other data sources, can improve the prediction of transcription factor target gene. Results. Results on a carefully constructed test set of verified binding sites in mouse genome demonstrate that our new multiple data fusion method can reduce false positive rates, and that DNA duplex stability and nucleosome occupation data can improve the accuracy of transcription factor target gene predictions, especially when combined with other genome-level data sources. Cross-validation and other randomization tests confirm the predictive performance of our method. Our results also show that nonredundant data sources provide the most efficient data fusion.

  11. School Violence in Taiwan: Examining How Western Risk Factors Predict School Violence in an Asian Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2010-01-01

    The current study explores whether theorized risk factors in Western countries can be used to predict school violence perpetration in an Asian cultural context. The study examines the associations between risk factors and school violence perpetration in Taiwan. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 14,022 students from…

  12. Ileum resection is the most predictive factor for osteoporosis in patients with Crohn's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hogezand, R. A.; Bänffer, D.; Zwinderman, A. H.; McCloskey, E. V.; Griffioen, G.; Hamdy, N. A. T.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Crohn's disease is associated with a host of factors potentially increasing the risk for osteoporosis and fractures. The aim of our study was to identify the most predictive factors for skeletal pathology in this patients. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, 146 randomly

  13. Predictive factors of unfavorable prostate cancer in patients who underwent prostatectomy but eligible for active surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seol Ho Choo

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: A significant proportion of patients who were candidates for active surveillance had unfavorable prostate cancer. Age, PSA density, and two positive cores were independent significant predictive factors for unfavorable prostate cancer. These factors should be considered when performing active surveillance.

  14. Population-Level Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes From Claims Data and Analysis of Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavian, Narges; Blecker, Saul; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Nigam, Somesh; Sontag, David

    2015-12-01

    We present a new approach to population health, in which data-driven predictive models are learned for outcomes such as type 2 diabetes. Our approach enables risk assessment from readily available electronic claims data on large populations, without additional screening cost. Proposed model uncovers early and late-stage risk factors. Using administrative claims, pharmacy records, healthcare utilization, and laboratory results of 4.1 million individuals between 2005 and 2009, an initial set of 42,000 variables were derived that together describe the full health status and history of every individual. Machine learning was then used to methodically enhance predictive variable set and fit models predicting onset of type 2 diabetes in 2009-2011, 2010-2012, and 2011-2013. We compared the enhanced model with a parsimonious model consisting of known diabetes risk factors in a real-world environment, where missing values are common and prevalent. Furthermore, we analyzed novel and known risk factors emerging from the model at different age groups at different stages before the onset. Parsimonious model using 21 classic diabetes risk factors resulted in area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.75 for diabetes prediction within a 2-year window following the baseline. The enhanced model increased the AUC to 0.80, with about 900 variables selected as predictive (p process of diabetes development compared with obesity-related factors such as hypertension and high hemoglobin A1c. In conclusion, population-level risk prediction for type 2 diabetes using readily available administrative data is feasible and has better prediction performance than classical diabetes risk prediction algorithms on very large populations with missing data. The new model enables intervention allocation at national scale quickly and accurately and recovers potentially novel risk factors at different stages before the disease onset.

  15. Predictive Factors for the Uptake of Coping Strategies by Spousal Dementia Caregivers: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Lauren; MacCann, Carolyn; Croot, Karen

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of spousal dementia caregivers' coping strategies and their predictive factors is imperative for caregivers' well-being. Although several reviews have explored the relationship between coping strategies and outcomes, no review has investigated factors that predict caregivers' use of one type of coping strategy over another. The current review aimed to identify factors that predict caregivers' coping strategies. Within this, we attempted to identify caregivers who are more likely to adopt dysfunctional coping strategies and be at risk of adverse outcomes. Several electronic databases were systematically searched. Twenty-one studies were eligible for review, describing 18 caregiver and care-recipient factors related to the 3 coping strategies. No factors were classified "predictive," however, 16 factors were "potentially predictive." Younger, more highly educated caregivers with greater emotional supports and knowledge of dementia were associated with solution-focused coping. Younger, less educated caregivers were associated with emotional support/acceptance-based coping strategies. Whereas nonwhite caregivers with less emotional supports caregiving for persons with more behavioral problems were associated with dysfunctional coping strategies. Enhancing caregiver self-efficacy, knowledge of dementia, improving social supports, linking to support groups, managing behavioral problems, as well as coaching adaptive coping strategies while flagging caregivers at risk for dysfunctional coping may improve outcomes for caregivers.

  16. Predictive factors for pancreatitis and cholecystitis in endoscopic covered metal stenting for distal malignant biliary obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Shuya; Naitoh, Itaru; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Hayashi, Kazuki; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Kondo, Hiromu; Yoshida, Michihiro; Yamashita, Hiroaki; Umemura, Shuichiro; Hori, Yasuki; Ohara, Hirotaka; Joh, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatitis and cholecystitis are major complications after self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement in distal malignant biliary obstruction. We aimed to clarify predictive factors for pancreatitis and cholecystitis after covered SEMS placement. We retrospectively reviewed 74 consecutive patients with distal malignant biliary obstruction who underwent initial endoscopic drainage using covered SEMS. Predictive factors for pancreatitis and cholecystitis were evaluated in the 74 patients described above and in 66 patients who had not undergone cholecystectomy. The incidences of pancreatitis and cholecystitis were 10.8% (8/74) and 6.1% (4/66), respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that non-pancreatic cancer (P = 0.018) and contrast injection into the pancreatic duct (P = 0.030) were significant predictive factors for pancreatitis. Multivariate analysis revealed that non-pancreatic cancer (odds ratio [OR], 4.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63-14.18; P = 0.007) and contrast injection into the pancreatic duct (OR, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.33-9.60; P = 0.016) were significant independent predictive factors for pancreatitis. On the other hand, univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that tumor involvement to the orifice of the cystic duct (OCD) was a significant independent predictive factor for cholecystitis (OR, 5.85; 95% CI, 1.91-27.74; P = 0.005). Non-pancreatic cancer and contrast injection into the pancreatic duct were predictive factors for pancreatitis, and tumor involvement to the OCD was a positive predictive factor for cholecystitis after endoscopic covered SEMS placement for distal malignant biliary obstruction. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Using TESS to predict transcription factor binding sites in DNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    This unit describes how to use the Transcription Element Search System (TESS). This Web site predicts transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in DNA sequence using two different kinds of models of sites, strings and positional weight matrices. The binding of transcription factors to DNA is a major part of the control of gene expression. Transcription factors exhibit sequence-specific binding; they form stronger bonds to some DNA sequences than to others. Identification of a good binding site in the promoter for a gene suggests the possibility that the corresponding factor may play a role in the regulation of that gene. However, the sequences transcription factors recognize are typically short and allow for some amount of mismatch. Because of this, binding sites for a factor can typically be found at random every few hundred to a thousand base pairs. TESS has features to help sort through and evaluate the significance of predicted sites.

  18. Fathers' involvement in preadolescents' diabetes adherence and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Marisa E; Rohan, Jennifer M; Carle, Adam C; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan; Drotar, Dennis

    2011-09-01

    To examine the relationship of paternal involvement in diabetes care with adherence and glycemic control. One hundred and thirty-six mothers and fathers of preadolescents (aged 9-12 years) with type 1 diabetes reported on paternal involvement. Adherence was measured by interview and blood glucose meter downloads. Mothers' and fathers' ratings of paternal involvement in diabetes care were compared. We evaluated three structural equation models linking paternal involvement with adherence and glycemic control. Mothers and fathers reported similar amounts of paternal involvement, yet mothers rated paternal involvement as more helpful. The data supported a model indicating links between more paternal involvement and higher HbA1c and between lower adherence and higher HbA1c. Mediation and moderation models were not supported. Although paternal involvement was not directly associated with treatment adherence, it was associated with poorer glycemic control. Some fathers may increase their involvement in response to suboptimal glycemic outcomes.

  19. Systematic review of prognostic factors predicting outcome in non-surgically treated patients with sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwoerd, A J H; Luijsterburg, P A J; Lin, C W C; Jacobs, W C H; Koes, B W; Verhagen, A P

    2013-09-01

    Identification of prognostic factors for surgery in patients with sciatica is important to be able to predict surgery in an early stage. Identification of prognostic factors predicting persistent pain, disability and recovery are important for better understanding of the clinical course, to inform patient and physician and support decision making. Consequently, we aimed to systematically review prognostic factors predicting outcome in non-surgically treated patients with sciatica. A search of Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Cinahl, up to March 2012 was performed for prospective cohort studies on prognostic factors for non-surgically treated sciatica. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion and assessed the risk of bias. Outcomes were pain, disability, recovery and surgery. A best evidence synthesis was carried out in order to assess and summarize the data. The initial search yielded 4392 articles of which 23 articles reporting on 14 original cohorts met the inclusion criteria. High clinical, methodological and statistical heterogeneity among studies was found. Reported evidence regarding prognostic factors predicting the outcome in sciatica is limited. The majority of factors that have been evaluated, e.g., age, body mass index, smoking and sensory disturbance, showed no association with outcome. The only positive association with strong evidence was found for leg pain intensity at baseline as prognostic factor for subsequent surgery. © 2013 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  20. Pathways for the relationship between diabetes distress, depression, fatalism and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuzu, Christopher C; Walker, Rebekah J; Williams, Joni Strom; Egede, Leonard E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanism by which depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, and diabetes fatalism together influence diabetes outcomes using structured equation modeling. 615 adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited from two primary care clinics in the southeastern United States. Psychosocial factors found to be associated with diabetes outcomes were measured using validated questionnaires. Structured equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate the relationship between diabetes fatalism, depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, self-care and glycemic control. The final model (chi 2 (903)=24,088.91, pfatalism, and glycemic control or self-care. There was, however, an indirect association between increased depressive symptoms and increased fatalism, explained through the direct association with diabetes distress in that higher depressive symptoms (0.76, pfatalism (0.11, pfatalism impact both glycemic control and self-care. In addition, pathways between diabetes distress and both self-care behaviors and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes remained separate, suggesting the need to address both psychological and behavioral factors in standard diabetes care, rather than focusing on psychological care primarily through support for self-management and treatment of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-Rated Health and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: Race by Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Piette, John D; Aikens, James E

    2017-08-04

    Although some studies have shown a link between self-rated health (SRH) and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (DM), other studies have failed to support this association. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these equivocal findings can be explained by specific interactions between gender, race, and SRH, as suggested by the intersectionality literature. This cross-sectional study included 287 patients with DM (85 Black men, 78 Black women, 64 White men, and 60 White women). After adjusting for demographic and medical factors, we regressed HbA1c on SRH with and without interactions between gender, race, and SRH. We conducted additional subgroup analyses to further characterize gender by race group differences. Although there was no main effect of SRH upon HbA1c (b = .16, 95% CI: .08-.39), we found a significant interaction between gender and SRH on HbA1c (b = -.50, 95% CI: -.97 to -.03). In race by gender-stratified models, SRH (b = .53, 95% CI: .00-1.07) was associated with HbA1c in Black men. SRH was not associated with HbA1c in White men, White women, or Black women. Combined race and gender differences may exist in the link between SRH and glycemic control in DM. Specifically, Black men with DM may be more attuned to the relationship between their overall health and their glycemic control.

  2. Association among individual deprivation, glycemic control, and diabetes complications: the EPICES score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihan, Hélène; Laurent, Silvana; Sass, Catherine; Nguyen, Gérard; Huot, Caroline; Moulin, Jean Jacques; Guegen, René; Le Toumelin, Philippe; Le Clésiau, Hervé; La Rosa, Emilio; Reach, Gérard; Cohen, Régis

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have related poor glycemic control and/or some diabetes complications to low socioeconomic status. Some aspects of socioeconomic status have not been assessed in these studies. In the present study, we used an individual index of deprivation, the Evaluation de la Précarité et des Inégalités de santé dans les Centres d'Examens de Santé (Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers [EPICES]) score, to determine the relationship among glycemic control, diabetes complications, and individual conditions of deprivation. We conducted a cross-sectional prevalence study in 135 consecutive diabetic patients (age 59.41 +/- 13.2 years [mean +/- SD]) admitted in the hospitalization unit of a French endocrine department. Individual deprivation was assessed by the EPICES score, calculated from 11 socioeconomic questions. Glycemic control, lipid levels, blood pressure, retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy were assessed. HbA(1c) level was significantly correlated with the EPICES score (r = 0.366, P < 0.001). The more deprived patients were more likely than the less deprived patients to have poor glycemic control (beta = 1.984 [SE 0.477], P < 0.001), neuropathy (odds ratio 2.39 [95% CI 1.05-5.43], P = 0.037), retinopathy (3.66 [1.39-9.64], P = 0.009), and being less often admitted for 1-day hospitalization (0.32 [0.14-0.74], P = 0.008). No significant relationship was observed with either nephropathy or cardiovascular risk factors. Deprivation status is associated with poor metabolic control and more frequent microvascular complications, i.e., retinopathy and neuropathy. The medical and economic burden of deprived patients is high.

  3. Gastritis in patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy: Prevalence, ethnic distribution, and impact on glycemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath-Wolfson, Lea; Varona, Roy; Bubis, Golan; Tatarov, Alexander; Koren, Rumelia; Ram, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a therapeutic option in severely obese patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) gastritis and non-Helicobacter gastritis in the gastrectomy specimens, and its association to other variables.One hundred six sleeve gastrectomy specimens were examined histopathologically for the presence of gastritis and its relation to other factors like ethnicity, glycemic control, and postoperative complications.Twelve patients had HP gastritis, 39 had non-HP gastritis, and 55 had normal mucosa. There was a statistical difference between the Arab and Jewish Israeli patients in our study. Twenty-eight of the Arab patients had HP gastritis and 48% had non-HP gastritis. In the Jewish population 6% had HP gastritis and 34% had non-HP gastritis. The preoperative glycemic control was worse in the gastritis group with a mean HbA1c of 8.344% while in the normal mucosa group the mean HbA1c was 6.55. After operation the glycemic control reverted to normal in most the diabetic patients. There were few postoperative complications however, they were not related to HP.There is a high incidence of gastritis in obese patients. The incidence of gastritis in the Arab population in our study was higher than that in the Jewish population. The glycemic control before surgery was worse in patients with gastritis than in the normal mucosa group. HP bares no risk for postoperative complications after LSG and does not affect weight loss. However a larger cohort of patients must be studied to arrive at conclusive results.

  4. Glycated Albumin versus Glycated Hemoglobin as a Glycemic Indicator in Diabetic Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Kobayashi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, glycated albumin (GA is superior in estimating glycemic control in diabetic patients on hemodialysis (HD. However, the better index for assessment of glycemic control in diabetic patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD and the impact of protein loss on GA are unknown. Twenty diabetic patients on HD were matched by age, sex, and baseline postprandial plasma glucose (PG levels to 20 PD patients. PG, HbA1c, GA, and serum albumin levels were measured for six months. Protein loss in PD patients was estimated by measuring the protein concentration in the peritoneal dialysate and by 24 h urine collection. Although PG and HbA1c did not differ significantly between the groups, the PD group had significantly lower GA (17.8% versus 20.8%, p < 0.001 and GA/HbA1c ratio (2.95% versus 3.45%, p < 0.0001 than the HD group. Although the PG level correlated significantly with the GA levels in both groups, it was not correlated with the HbA1c levels in both groups. HbA1c level was negatively associated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA dose in both groups, whereas GA was not significantly associated with serum albumin, hemoglobin concentration, ESA dose, and protein loss. Multiple regression analysis identified GA as the only independent factor associated with PG in PD patients. Our results suggested that GA was not significantly associated with protein loss, hemoglobin, serum albumin, and ESA dose. Although GA might underestimate glycemic status, it provided a significantly better measure for estimating glycemic control than HbA1c, even in PD patients.

  5. Assessment of Predictive Response Factors to Intragastric Balloon Therapy for the Treatment of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Eduardo; Madeira, Miguel; Guedes, Erika Paniago; Mafort, Thiago Thomaz; Neto, Leonardo Vieira; de Oliveira Moreira, Rodrigo; de Pinho, Paulo Roberto Alves; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is difficult to control with non-invasive treatments, which usually present poor results. In this context, the intragastric balloon (IGB) is an important tool that presents a mean body weight loss (BWL) estimated at approximately 12%, although individual responses are highly variable. This study assesses whether there are factors that can predict responses to IGB therapy either before or early after placement of the device. A total of 50 obese patients underwent insertion of IGB placed endoscopically, and patients were monitored for 6 months. The evaluated predictive factors involved general characteristics and psychological, social, and dyspeptic aspects, and the preliminary results obtained in the first month after balloon placement. The mean weight loss was 11.5%, and 48% of the participants presented BWL >10%. Among the factors analyzed before IGB placement, only advanced age (P = .04) and higher scores obtained in the social relationships domain of a shorter version of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life questionnaire (P = .02) were significant. Analysis of the factors evaluated after IGB placement revealed that the BWL amounts observed in week 2 (P = .001) and week 4 (P < .001) and the intensity of dyspeptic symptoms in week 2 (P < .001) were positive predictive factors. The assessment of predictive factors may help to manage patients with IGB.

  6. Association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and body mass index in the Inter99 study: is underreporting a problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Toft, U.; Tetens, Inge

    2006-01-01

    Background: The few studies examining the potential associations between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and body mass index (BMI) have provided no clear pictures. Underreporting of energy intake may be one explanation for this. Objective: We examined the associations between GI, GL...... a positive association between GI, GL, and BMI. Energy adjustment and the exclusion of LERs significantly affected the results of the analysis; thus, we stress the importance of energy adjustment....

  7. An analysis of predictive factors for concurrent acute-on-chronic liver failure and hepatorenal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Yanfang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo learn the clinical characteristics of concurrent acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS, and to investigate the predictive factors for HRS in patients with ACLF. MethodsA total of 806 patients with ACLF who were admitted to our hospital from January 2012 to May 2014 were selected and divided into two groups according to the incidence of concurrent HRS. Clinical indices and laboratory test results were analyzed in the two groups, and the multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to figure out independent indices for the prediction of HRS in patients with ACLF. A prediction model was established and the receiver operating characteristic curve was drawn to evaluate the accuracy of the prediction model. Comparison of continuous data between the two groups was made by t test, and comparison of categorical data between the two groups was made by χ2 test. ResultsIn all patients with ACLF, 229 had HRS and 577 had no HRS. The univariate logistic regression analysis showed that hepatic encephalopathy, peritonitis, infection, age, cystatin C (Cys-C, serum creatinine (SCr, blood urea nitrogen, albumin, prealbumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, total cholesterol, K+, Na+, phosphorus, Ca2+, prothrombin time, prothrombin activity, international normalized ratio, and hematocrit were significant predictive factors for HRS. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that concurrent peritonitis, Cys-C, SCr, and HCO3- were independent predictive factors for HRS in patients with ACLF (OR=3.155, P<0.01; OR=30.773, P<0.01; OR=1062, P<0.01; OR=0.915, P<0.05. The model was proved of great value in prediction. ConclusionConcurrent peritonitis, Cys-C, SCr, and HCO3- are effective predictive factors for HRS in patients with ACLF.

  8. Predictors of glycemic control in the first year of diagnosis of childhood onset type 1 diabetes: A systematic review of quantitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarello Paes, Veena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitrios; Edge, Julie; Taylor-Robinson, David; Stephenson, Terence; Amin, Rakesh

    2018-02-01

    Early glycemic control is associated with reduced future vascular complications risk in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to systematically review evidence on the predictors of glycemic control within 12 months of diagnosis of childhood onset T1D. Inclusion criteria for the electronic search were: interventional and observational studies that assessed and quantified an association between the predictor and glycemic control within 12 months of diagnosis of childhood onset T1D. A total of 17 915 articles were identified from 6 databases and 20 studies were finally included in the analysis. Harvest plots and narrative synthesis were used to summarize data from intervention (n = 0), prospective/retrospective cohort (n = 15), and cross-sectional (n = 5) studies. Significant predictors of poorer glycemic control 0 to 3 months after diagnosis were older age and female gender. Non-white ethnicity, diabetes autoantibody positivity, measures of deprivation, and non-private health insurance were potential predictors. Predictors of poorer glycemic control 4 to 12 months after diagnosis were: older age, non-white ethnicity, a single parent family, high hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels at diagnosis, longer T1D duration, and non-intensive insulin therapy. Potential predictors included: family with health issues, clinical factors, and comorbidities at diagnosis. Most significant predictors of poor glycemic control within 12 months of diagnosis of childhood onset T1D are non-modifiable. These factors need to be recognized and addressed through individualized and multidisciplinary diabetes care. Further research is required to confirm the association of potential predictors with early glycemic control. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of glycemic index on obesity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elisângela Vitoriano; Costa, Jorge de Assis; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Evaluate the effect of glycemic index (GI) on biochemical parameters, food intake, energy metabolism, anthropometric measures and body composition in overweight subjects. Simple blind study, in which nineteen subjects were randomly assigned to consume in the laboratory two daily low GI (n = 10) or high GI (n = 9) meals, for forty-five consecutive days. Habitual food intake was assessed at baseline. Food intake, anthropometric measures and body composition were assessed at each 15 days. Energy metabolism and biochemical parameters were evaluated at baseline and the end of the study. Low GI meals increased fat oxidation, and reduced waist circumference and HOMA-IR, while high GI meals increased daily dietary fiber and energy intake compared to baseline. There was a higher reduction on waist circumference and body fat, and a higher increase on postprandial fat oxidation in response to the LGI meals than after high GI meals. High GI meals increased fasting respiratory coefficient compared to baseline and low GI meals. The results of the present study showed that the consumption of two daily low GI meals for forty-five consecutive days has a positive effect on obesity control, whereas, the consumption of high GI meals result has the opposite effect.

  10. Pomegranate juice, but not an extract, confers a lower glycemic response on a high-glycemic index food: randomized, crossover, controlled trials in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimi, Asimina; Nyambe-Silavwe, Hilda; Gauer, Julia S; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Williamson, Gary

    2017-12-01

    Background: Low-glycemic index diets have demonstrated health benefits associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Objectives: We tested whether pomegranate polyphenols could lower the glycemic response of a high-glycemic index food when consumed together and the mechanism by which this might occur. Design: We compared the acute effect of a pomegranate juice and a polyphenol-rich extract from pomegranate (supplement) on the bread-derived postprandial blood glucose concentration in 2 randomized, crossover, controlled studies (double-blinded for the supplements), each on 16 healthy volunteers. An additional randomized, crossover, controlled study on 16 volunteers consuming constituent fruit acids in a pH-balanced solution (same pH as pomegranate) and bread was conducted to determine any contributions to postprandial responses caused by acidic beverages. Results: As primary outcome, the incremental area under the curve for bread-derived blood glucose (-33.1% ± 18.1%, P = 0.000005) and peak blood glucose (25.4% ± 19.3%, P = 0.0004) were attenuated by pomegranate juice, compared with a control solution containing the equivalent amount of sugars. In contrast, the pomegranate supplement, or a solution containing the malic and citric acid components of the juice, was ineffective. The pomegranate polyphenol punicalagin was a very effective inhibitor of human α-amylase in vitro, comparable to the drug acarbose. Neither the pomegranate extract nor the individual component polyphenols inhibited 14 C-D-glucose transport across differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers, but they inhibited uptake of 14 C-glucose into Xenopus oocytes expressing the human glucose transporter type 2. Further, some of the predicted pomegranate gut microbiota metabolites modulated 14 C-D-glucose and 14 C-deoxy-D-glucose uptake into hepatic HepG2 cells. Conclusions: These data indicate that pomegranate polyphenols, when present in a beverage but not in a supplement, can reduce the

  11. Binding site graphs: a new graph theoretical framework for prediction of transcription factor binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy E Reddy

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Computational prediction of nucleotide binding specificity for transcription factors remains a fundamental and largely unsolved problem. Determination of binding positions is a prerequisite for research in gene regulation, a major mechanism controlling phenotypic diversity. Furthermore, an accurate determination of binding specificities from high-throughput data sources is necessary to realize the full potential of systems biology. Unfortunately, recently performed independent evaluation showed that more than half the predictions from most widely used algorithms are false. We introduce a graph-theoretical framework to describe local sequence similarity as the pair-wise distances between nucleotides in promoter sequences, and hypothesize that densely connected subgraphs are indicative of transcription factor binding sites. Using a well-established sampling algorithm coupled with simple clustering and scoring schemes, we identify sets of closely related nucleotides and test those for known TF binding activity. Using an independent benchmark, we find our algorithm predicts yeast binding motifs considerably better than currently available techniques and without manual curation. Importantly, we reduce the number of false positive predictions in yeast to less than 30%. We also develop a framework to evaluate the statistical significance of our motif predictions. We show that our approach is robust to the choice of input promoters, and thus can be used in the context of predicting binding positions from noisy experimental data. We apply our method to identify binding sites using data from genome scale ChIP-chip experiments. Results from these experiments are publicly available at http://cagt10.bu.edu/BSG. The graphical framework developed here may be useful when combining predictions from numerous computational and experimental measures. Finally, we discuss how our algorithm can be used to improve the sensitivity of computational predictions of

  12. Factors predicting the diagnostic yield and intervention in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding investigated using capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Reena; Sanders, David S; Kapur, Kapil; Leeds, John S; McAlindon, Mark E

    2009-09-01

    In patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGB), capsule endoscopy (CE) is the investigation of choice after negative conventional endoscopy. However, there is paucity of data on which clinical factors predict the ability of CE to detect pathology and alter management. To investigate clinical factors which predict a higher diagnostic yield and a change in management in patients presenting with OGB. Data was collected in patients with OGB for type of OGB [overt (OB) or iron deficiency anaemia (IDA)], co-morbidity, use of anticoagulants, transfusion dependence, subsequent CE diagnosis and follow up data. Factors that predicted a higher yield and a change in management were identified using logistic regression. There were 427 patients (IDA 74%) with a mean age of 58 years (range 17-92).The diagnostic yield was 50% with a change in management in 30% of patients. The commonest finding was angiodysplasia in 52% of patients. There was no significant difference in the diagnostic yield between the two groups (OB: 56%, IDA 48%, p=0.15). On logistic regression, age (p=0.001), the use of warfarin (p=0.02) and liver co-morbidity (p=0.001) were significant factors which predicted a higher yield with CE. Factors which predicted a change in management included the presence of co-morbidity (p=0.02) and having a diagnosis of angiodysplasia on CE (p=0.001). This is a large series of CE in OGB. Increasing age, anti-coagulation and liver co-morbidity are significant predictors of a positive diagnostic yield whilst the presence of co-morbidity or a diagnosis of angiodysplasia may predict a change in management.

  13. Glycemic control in diabetes in three Danish counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lone G M; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Heickendorff, Lene; Møller, Holger Jon; Hendel, Jørn; Christensen, Cramer; Schmitz, Anita; Reinholdt, Birgitte; Lund, Erik D; Christensen, Niels J; Hansen, Erik Kjaersgaard; Hastrup, Jens; Skjødt, Hanne; Eriksen, Ebbe Wendel; Brandslund, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a proxy measure for glycemic control in diabetes. We investigated the trend for glycemic control in patients from three Danish counties using HbA1c measurements. We studied 2454 patients from a population of 807,000 inhabitants for whom routine monitoring of diabetes using HbA1c-DCCT aligned was initiated in 2001. We estimated the incidence of monitored patients in the population. The progress in patients with originally diabetic HbA1c levels was investigated by cumulative probability plots, and the individual trend in clinical outcome was investigated by a modified difference plot. The age-standardized incidence of monitored patients was or=6.62% HbA1c) showed on average 15% improved glycemic control in the first year. Further improvement was limited. The overall percentage above the treatment target (>or=6.62% HbA1c) was 51% in 2003 compared to 59% in 2001, and the percentage with poor glycemic control (>or=10.0% HbA1c) was reduced from 19% to 4%. Of patients with originally diabetic HbA1c levels, 15% showed progress in glycemic control, and 28% reached treatment targets. In patients with originally normal HbA1c, 75% showed an upward trend in HbA1c levels, which reached diabetic concentrations in 17%. Patients with diabetic first HbA1c concentrations (>or=6.62% HbA1c) showed on average 15% improved glycemic control in the first year. Further improvement was limited. In individual patients, 75% with originally diabetic HbA1c levels showed improved glycemic control after 3 years, while 78% with originally normal concentrations showed an upward trend in HbA1c levels.

  14. HOMA-IR Values are Associated With Glycemic Control in Japanese Subjects Without Diabetes or Obesity: The KOBE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Takumi; Higashiyama, Aya; Kubota, Yoshimi; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kadota, Aya; Nishida, Yoko; Imano, Hironori; Nishikawa, Tomofumi; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that insulin resistance was a major risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals without diabetes or obesity. We aimed to clarify the association between insulin resistance and glycemic control in Japanese subjects without diabetes or obesity. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study including 1083 healthy subjects (323 men and 760 women) in an urban area. We performed multivariate regression analyses to estimate the association between the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values and markers of glycemic control, including glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, after adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with the lowest tertile of HOMA-IR values, the highest tertile was significantly associated with HbA1c and FPG levels after adjustment for potential confounders, both in men (HbA1c: β = 1.83, P = 0.001; FPG: β = 0.49, P HOMA-IR values was inversely associated with 1,5-AG levels compared with the lowest tertile (β = -18.42, P = 0.009) only in men. HOMA-IR values were associated with markers of glycemic control in Japanese subjects without diabetes or obesity. Insulin resistance may influence glycemic control even in a lean, non-diabetic Asian population.

  15. Aspect-Aware Latent Factor Model: Rating Prediction with Ratings and Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Zhiyong; Ding, Ying; Zhu, Lei; Kankanhalli, Mohan

    2018-01-01

    Although latent factor models (e.g., matrix factorization) achieve good accuracy in rating prediction, they suffer from several problems including cold-start, non-transparency, and suboptimal recommendation for local users or items. In this paper, we employ textual review information with ratings to tackle these limitations. Firstly, we apply a proposed aspect-aware topic model (ATM) on the review text to model user preferences and item features from different aspects, and estimate the aspect...

  16. Comparing Cattell-Horn-Carroll factor models: differences between bifactor and higher order factor models in predicting language achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujean, A Alexander; Parkin, Jason; Parker, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    Previous research using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities has shown a relationship between cognitive ability and academic achievement. Most of this research, however, has been done using the Woodcock-Johnson family of instruments with a higher order factor model. For CHC theory to grow, research should be done with other assessment instruments and tested with other factor models. This study examined the relationship between different factor models of CHC theory and the factors' relationships with language-based academic achievement (i.e., reading and writing). Using the co-norming sample for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--4th Edition and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test--2nd Edition, we found that bifactor and higher order models of the subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th Edition produced a different set of Stratum II factors, which, in turn, have very different relationships with the language achievement variables of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test--2nd Edition. We conclude that the factor model used to represent CHC theory makes little difference when general intelligence is of major interest, but it makes a large difference when the Stratum II factors are of primary concern, especially when they are used to predict other variables. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Glycemic index and glycemic load in the Opuntia ficus-indica fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Salas, María de Jesús; Novelo-Huerta, Hilda Irene; De León-Salas, Marcela Alejandra; Sánchez-Murillo, Mayra Elisa; Mata-Obregón, María Del Carmen; Garza-Juárez, Aurora de Jesús

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that support the clinical usage of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in the prevention of chronic disease. To determine the GI and GL of the Opuntia ficus-indica fruit. An analytic, transversal study was made involving 25 healthy volunteers accepted by an informed consent with a normal body mass index, glucose, glycoside hemoglobin, cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The homogeneity of the population was evaluated with anthropometrical and biochemical data using principal component analysis (PCA). The equivalent of 50 g of carbohydrates test food (tuna) and 50 g of dextrose as food standard was provided for the measure of the glucose curve. The GI was determined by calculating the area under the curve by the triangulation method. The CG was reported as the product of IG by carbohydrate loading provided. The IG of the tuna was 48.01 ± 17.4, classified as low, while the CG was 24.0 ± 8.7 rated as high. The chemometric analysis by PCA showed that the selection of the normal population for determining the IG, it is important to consider the values of cholesterol and triglycerides. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  18. Development and predictive effects of eating disorder risk factors during adolescence: Implications for prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Marti, C Nathan

    2015-03-01

    Although several prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating disorders, little is known about when these risk factors emerge and escalate, or when they begin to predict future eating disorder onset. The objective of this report was to address these key research gaps. Data were examined from a prospective study of 496 community female adolescents (M = 13.5, SD = 0.7 at baseline) who completed eight annual assessments of potential risk factors and eating disorders from preadolescence to young adulthood. Three variables exhibited positive linear increases: Perceived pressure to be thin, thin-ideal internalization, and body dissatisfaction; three were best characterized as quadratic effects: dieting (essentially little change); negative affectivity (overall decrease), and BMI (overall increase). Elevated body dissatisfaction at ages 13, 14, 15, and 16 predicted DSM-5 eating disorders onset in the 4-year period after each assessment, but the predictive effects of other risk factors were largely confined to age 14; BMI did not predict eating disorders at any age. The results imply that these risk factors are present by early adolescence, although eating disorders tend to emerge in late adolescence and early adulthood. These findings emphasize the need for efficacious eating disorder prevention programs for early adolescent girls, perhaps targeting 14-year olds, when risk factors seem to be most predictive. In early adolescence, it might be fruitful to target girls with body dissatisfaction, as this was the most consistent predictor of early eating disorder onset in this study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. An investigation of factors predicting the type of bladder antimuscarinics initiated in Medicare nursing homes residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moga, Daniela C; Wu, Qishan; Doshi, Pratik; Goodin, Amie J

    2017-12-28

    To examine factors predicting type of bladder antimuscarinics (BAM) initiated in nursing home (NH) residents. Incident BAM initiators following NH admission were identified by constructing a retrospective cohort from Medicare files and Minimum Data Set (MDS). Participants included all residents 65 years and older admitted in Medicare-certified NH between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008 who were prescribed BAM and had continuous Medicare (Part A, B, and D) enrollment. Patient characteristics, medications, and comorbidities were derived from Medicare enrollment and claims. NH characteristics and health status were derived from MDS assessments. The outcome was defined as type of BAM initiated after admission (selective, non-selective extended release, non-selective immediate release). Multinomial logistic regression using generalized estimating equation methodology determined which factors predicted the type of BAM initiated. Twelve thousand eight hundred ninety-nine NH residents initiating BAM therapy were identified; 13.38% of new users were prescribed selective BAM, 45.56% non-selective extended release, and 41.07% non-selective immediate release medications. In both sexes, significant predictors of BAM included region of nursing home, body mass index, cognitive performance score, frailty measures, activities of daily living, and measures of bladder continence. In women, history of fracture and fall-related injuries were significant predictors of type of BAM use, while race and indicators of balance were significant predictors of type of BAM use in men. Non-pharmacological continence management strategies were not predictive of type of BAM initiation. Several factors are important in predicting type of BAM initiation in both women and men, but other factors are sex-specific. Some observed factors predicting the type of BAM initiated, such as other medications use, body mass index, or provider-related factors are potentially modifiable and could be used in

  20. Semen parameters can be predicted from environmental factors and lifestyle using artificial intelligence methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girela, Jose L; Gil, David; Johnsson, Magnus; Gomez-Torres, María José; De Juan, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    Fertility rates have dramatically decreased in the last two decades, especially in men. It has been described that environmental factors as well as life habits may affect semen quality. In this paper we use artificial intelligence techniques in order to predict semen characteristics resulting from environmental factors, life habits, and health status, with these techniques constituting a possible decision support system that can help in the study of male fertility potential. A total of 123 young, healthy volunteers provided a semen sample that was analyzed according to the World Health Organization 2010 criteria. They also were asked to complete a validated questionnaire about life habits and health status. Sperm concentration and percentage of motile sperm were related to sociodemographic data, environmental factors, health status, and life habits in order to determine the predictive accuracy of a multilayer perceptron network, a type of artificial neural network. In conclusion, we have developed an artificial neural network that can predict the results of the semen analysis based on the data collected by the questionnaire. The semen parameter that is best predicted using this methodology is the sperm concentration. Although the accuracy for motility is slightly lower than that for concentration, it is possible to predict it with a significant degree of accuracy. This methodology can be a useful tool in early diagnosis of patients with seminal disorders or in the selection of candidates to become semen donors.

  1. PRISM offers a comprehensive genomic approach to transcription factor function prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Wenger, A. M.

    2013-02-04

    The human genome encodes 1500-2000 different transcription factors (TFs). ChIP-seq is revealing the global binding profiles of a fraction of TFs in a fraction of their biological contexts. These data show that the majority of TFs bind directly next to a large number of context-relevant target genes, that most binding is distal, and that binding is context specific. Because of the effort and cost involved, ChIP-seq is seldom used in search of novel TF function. Such exploration is instead done using expression perturbation and genetic screens. Here we propose a comprehensive computational framework for transcription factor function prediction. We curate 332 high-quality nonredundant TF binding motifs that represent all major DNA binding domains, and improve cross-species conserved binding site prediction to obtain 3.3 million conserved, mostly distal, binding site predictions. We combine these with 2.4 million facts about all human and mouse gene functions, in a novel statistical framework, in search of enrichments of particular motifs next to groups of target genes of particular functions. Rigorous parameter tuning and a harsh null are used to minimize false positives. Our novel PRISM (predicting regulatory information from single motifs) approach obtains 2543 TF function predictions in a large variety of contexts, at a false discovery rate of 16%. The predictions are highly enriched for validated TF roles, and 45 of 67 (67%) tested binding site regions in five different contexts act as enhancers in functionally matched cells.

  2. Development of scaling factor prediction method for radionuclide composition in low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak

    1995-02-01

    Low-level radioactive waste management require the knowledge of the natures and quantities of radionuclides in the immobilized or packaged waste. U. S. NRC rules require programs that measure the concentrations of all relevant nuclides either directly or indirectly by relating difficult-to-measure radionuclides to other easy-to-measure radionuclides with application of scaling factors. Scaling factors previously developed through statistical approach can give only generic ones and have many difficult problem about sampling procedures. Generic scaling factors can not take into account for plant operation history. In this study, a method to predict plant-specific and operational history dependent scaling factors is developed. Realistic and detailed approach are taken to find scaling factors at reactor coolant. This approach begin with fission product release mechanisms and fundamental release properties of fuel-source nuclide such as fission product and transuranic nuclide. Scaling factors at various waste streams are derived from the predicted reactor coolant scaling factors with the aid of radionuclide retention and build up model. This model make use of radioactive material balance within the radioactive waste processing systems. Scaling factors at reactor coolant and waste streams which can include the effects of plant operation history have been developed according to input parameters of plant operation history

  3. Factors predicting kidney damage in Puumala virus infected patients in Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarphedinsson, S; Thiesson, H C; Shakar, S A

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, infections with Puumala hantavirus cause nephropathia epidemica. Presently the risk factors predicting severe kidney damage after Puumala virus infection are not well known. The objective of the study was to investigate environmental and individual factors predicting severe kidney damage...... caused by serologically established Puumala infections. In a nationwide cohort study we investigated all serologically established Puumala infections in Southern Denmark from 1996 to 2012. A total of 184 patients had serologically verified Puumala virus infection. In patients with Puumala virus...... infections the decrease of platelet counts preceded acute kidney failure. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that recent activities in the forest, platelet counts, and flu-like symptoms predicted estimated glomerular filtration rates less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m², but not age, gender, fever, nor...

  4. Verbal Sexual Coercion among a US College Sample: Patterns of Sexual Boundary Violations and Predictive Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Hadjicharalambous

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined verbal sexual coercion. The behaviors which fall under the general label verbal sexual coercion are examined in more depth and categorized in seven behaviors named 'sexual boundary violations' (SBVs. We aimed to explore patterns of SBVs and hypothesized that impulsivity and psychopathy predict SBVs. We analyzed secondary data gathered from a 2009 online survey of sexual behaviors. The participants were 430 sophomores (296 females and 134 males from an urban south-western university in the US. We ran three stages of analysis: factor analyses to detect patterns of SBVs; hierarchical regression models to determine the predictive value of the hypothesized traits; and t-tests to explore sex differences. The results showed that men used SBVs more often than women. Two factors emerged, labelled “Disguised” and “Undisguised” SBVs. Male sex, sensitivity to temptation, and poorer executive functioning predicted undisguised SBVs. We discuss how these findings can inform future interventions.

  5. Cowpeas in Northern Ghana and the Factors that Predict Caregivers’ Intention to Give Them to Schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abizari, A.R.; Pilime, N.; Armar-Klemesu, M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cowpeas are important staple legumes among the rural poor in northern Ghana. Our objectives were to assess the iron and zinc content of cowpea landraces and identify factors that predict the intention of mothers/caregivers to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. Methods and Findings We

  6. Predictive Factors for Mortality and Morbidity of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Shiraishi

    2012-04-01

    Conclusions: Emergency open repair can be safely performed in patients for infrarenal rAAA. In particular, we identified specific independent predictive factors of clinical examination and laboratory studies for mortality, major morbidity and renal insufficiency. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(2.000: 94-101

  7. Factors of Participants and Blogs That Predict Blogging Activeness during Teaching Practice and Induction Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luik, Piret; Taimalu, Merle

    2016-01-01

    The blog as a type of social software has been used in education for several years, and its positive effect in the field has been asserted in many studies. This study presents the factors of participants and blogs that predict blogging activeness during teaching practice and induction year. During the teaching practice and induction year all…

  8. The Predictive Effect of Big Five Factor Model on Social Reactivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study tested a model of providing a predictive explanation of Big Five Factor on social reactivity among secondary school adolescents of Cross River State, Nigeria. A sample of 200 students randomly selected across 12 public secondary schools in the State participated in the study (120 male and 80 female). Data ...

  9. Serum Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in the Prediction of Preterm Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Brad; Garvin, Sicily; Grove, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a soluble mediator that helps govern the interaction between cytokines and stress hormones (e.g. cortisol). We determined if maternal MIF levels predicted subsequent preterm delivery (PTD). Study Design: A nested case-control study...

  10. Identification of the Predictive Power of Five Factor Personality Traits for Individual Instrument Performance Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Gökhan; Dalkiran, Esra

    2017-01-01

    This study, with the aim of identifying the predictive power of the five-factor personality traits of music teacher candidates on individual instrument performance anxiety, was designed according to the relational screening model. The study population was students attending the Music Education branch of Fine Arts Education Departments in…

  11. System-related Factors that Predict Students'Satisfaction with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined students' satisfaction with the Blackboard Learning System and the factors that predict their levels of satisfaction. The sample for the study comprised 503 undergraduate students of the University of Botswana selected from seven faculties and 42 departments of the university. Data were collected ...

  12. Contextual Predictive Factors of Child Sexual Abuse: The Role of Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Clemencia; Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Botero, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the Colombian coasts, as well as to assess the role of parent-child interactions on its occurrence and to identify factors from different environmental levels that predict it. Methods: This cross-sectional study explores the results of 1,089 household interviews responded by mothers.…

  13. Factors of Predicted Learning Disorders and their Interaction with Attentional and Perceptual Training Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friar, John T.

    Two factors of predicted learning disorders were investigated: (1) inability to maintain appropriate classroom behavior (BEH), (2) perceptual discrimination deficit (PERC). Three groups of first-graders (BEH, PERC, normal control) were administered measures of impulse control, distractability, auditory discrimination, and visual discrimination.…

  14. The Predictive Effect of Big Five Factor Model on Social Reactivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Predictive Effect of Big Five Factor Model on Social Reactivity among Adolescents in Cross River State, Nigeria: Personality Assessment and Basis for Counselling. ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the ...

  15. Biological lifestyle factors in adult distance education: Predicting cognitive and learning performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to explore the characteristics of different student groups (i.e., successful, non-successful, and non-starting). The second aim was to examine whether biological lifestyle factors (e.g. physical activity, sleep, and nutrition) predicted learning performance. Third,

  16. Dealing with Interpretability Issues in Predicting Firm Growth: Factor Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilandžić Ana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alongside the theoretical progress made in understanding the factors that influence firm growth, many methodological challenges are yet to be overcome. Authors point to the notion of interpretability of growth prediction models as an important prerequisite for further advancement of the field as well as enhancement of models’ practical values.

  17. The Factors Predicting Stress, Anxiety and Depression in the Parents of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Nicholas Henry; Norris, Kimberley; Quinn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The factors predicting stress, anxiety and depression in the parents of children with autism remain poorly understood. In this study, a cohort of 250 mothers and 229 fathers of one or more children with autism completed a questionnaire assessing reported parental mental health problems, locus of control, social support, perceived parent-child…

  18. Factors That Predict Marijuana Use and Grade Point Average among Undergraduate College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Marlena B.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors that predict marijuana use and grade point average among undergraduate college students using the Core Institute national database. The Core Alcohol and Drug Survey was used to collect data on students' attitudes, beliefs, and experiences related to substance use in college. The sample used in this…

  19. Incidence of sleep apnea in patients with various types of glycemic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Dreval'

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To assess the risk for sleep apnea in patients with various types of glycemic disorders by means of Epworth Sleepiness Scale andSleep Apnea Screening Questionnaire.Materials and Methods. We examined 744 residents of Mozhaisk Region, that were considered to have high risk for development of type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, as estimated by FINDRISK Questionnaire. Patients, who scored 12+ were cleared for participation in this study. Combined score from Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Sleep Apnea Screening Questionnaire was applied for diagnosis of sleep apnea, supplemented with specific questions about snoring and episodes of apnea. Glycemic disorders were diagnosed with standard glucose tolerance test.Results. 42.7% of examined patients (n=318 were diagnosed with various types of glucose disorders. Prevalence of abdominal obe- sity (according to waist circumference measurement comprised 59.3% in male patients and 54.1% in females. We observed positive correlation between body mass index (BMI and snoring – 0.3 (p=0.0001, BMI and apnea – 0.2 (p=0.0001, BMI and daytime sleepiness – 0.1 (p=0.007; we also observed direct correlation between age and snoring – 0.2 (p=0.0001, as well as age and sleep apnea – 0.1 (p=0.028. Risk for sleep apnea was found to be 4.7 times higher in patients with arterial hypertension. After adjustment71Диагностика, контроль и лечениеСахарный диабет. 2013;(1:71–77Сахар ный диабетfor age risk of apnea remained 2.8 times higher in patients with T2DM, 1.9 times higher in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and1.6 times higher in subjects with impaired fasting glycaemia. Relative risk for snoring in patients with various types of glycemic disorders was 1.1-1.2 against normoglycemic controls. We estimated that all types of glycemic disorders increase risk for apnea 1.2–1.6 times. Conclusion. Glycemic disorders, body weight excess, obesity and arterial

  20. [The glycemic index of some foods common in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; Roca-Vides, R A; López-Pérez, R J; de Vivero, I; Ruiz-Velazco, M

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the increase of glycemia due to the ingestion of usual food in Mexico, portions with 50 g of carbohydrate form white corn tortilla, yellow corn tortilla, spaghetti, rice, potatoes, beans brown and black, nopal (prickle pear cactus) and peanuts, compared with white bread, were given to 21 healthy and 27 non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Serum glucose and insulin were measured every 30 min for 180 min long. Glycemic index was obtained as: (area under curve of glucose with test food/area under curve of glucose with white bread) X 100. A corrected index was calculated subtracting the area corresponding to initial values. Insulin index was obtained similarly. Each sample was studied 14-18 times. Glycemic and insulin indexes of white and yellow corn tortilla, spaghetti, rice and potatoes were not different from bread (P greater than 0.05). Corrected glycemic indexes of brown beans (54 +/- 15, +/- SE) and black beans (43 +/- 17) were low (p less than 0.05), as well as corrected insulin indexes (69 +/- 11 and 64 +/- 10 respectively, (P less than 0.02). Peanuts had low glycemic (33 +/- 17, P less than 0.01), but normal insulin index. Nopal had very low glycemic and insulin indexes (10 +/- 17 and 10 +/- 16, P less than 0.0001). These data might be useful in prescribing diets for diabetic subjects.

  1. The use of patient factors to improve the prediction of operative duration using laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiels, Cornelius A; Yu, Denny; Abdelrahman, Amro M; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Hallbeck, Susan; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Bingener, Juliane

    2017-01-01

    Reliable prediction of operative duration is essential for improving patient and care team satisfaction, optimizing resource utilization and reducing cost. Current operative scheduling systems are unreliable and contribute to costly over- and underestimation of operative time. We hypothesized that the inclusion of patient-specific factors would improve the accuracy in predicting operative duration. We reviewed all elective laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed at a single institution between 01/2007 and 06/2013. Concurrent procedures were excluded. Univariate analysis evaluated the effect of age, gender, BMI, ASA, laboratory values, smoking, and comorbidities on operative duration. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed using the significant factors (p model was compared to the traditional surgical scheduling system estimates, which uses historical surgeon-specific and procedure-specific operative duration. External validation was done using the ACS-NSQIP database (n = 11,842). A total of 1801 laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients met inclusion criteria. Female sex was associated with reduced operative duration (-7.5 min, p vs. male sex) while increasing BMI (+5.1 min BMI 25-29.9, +6.9 min BMI 30-34.9, +10.4 min BMI 35-39.9, +17.0 min BMI 40 + , all p vs. normal BMI), increasing ASA (+7.4 min ASA III, +38.3 min ASA IV, all p vs. ASA I), and elevated liver function tests (+7.9 min, p vs. normal) were predictive of increased operative duration on univariate analysis. A model was then constructed using these predictive factors. The traditional surgical scheduling system was poorly predictive of actual operative duration (R 2  = 0.001) compared to the patient factors model (R 2  = 0.08). The model remained predictive on external validation (R 2  = 0.14).The addition of surgeon as a variable in the institutional model further improved predictive ability of the model (R 2  = 0.18). The use of routinely available pre

  2. Factors predicting postoperative complications following spinal fusions in children with cerebral palsy scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishnianidze, Tristan; Bayhan, Ilhan A; Abousamra, Oussama; Sees, Julieanne; Rogers, Kenneth J; Dabney, Kirk W; Miller, Freeman

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the postoperative complications after posterior spinal fusion (PSF) in cerebral palsy (CP) scoliosis and identify the predictive preoperative risk factors. All PSFs consecutively performed for CP scoliosis between 2004 and 2013 were reviewed. Preoperative risk score (ORS) and postoperative complications score (POCS) were used as measures of all recorded preoperative risk factors and postoperative complications, respectively. The review included 303 children with a mean age of 14.6 ± 3.0 years. Mean hospitalization was 16 days. Dependence on G-tube feeding was associated with higher POCS (P = 0.027). Postoperative fever, seizures, and septicemia were associated with higher ORS (P scoliosis. Children with G-tube need special perioperative care. No other specific preoperative risk factor predicted postoperative complications.

  3. Evaluation of non-negative matrix factorization of grey matter in age prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varikuti, Deepthi P; Genon, Sarah; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Schwender, Holger; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Patil, Kaustubh R; Jockwitz, Christiane; Caspers, Svenja; Moebus, Susanne; Amunts, Katrin; Davatzikos, Christos; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2018-03-06

    The relationship between grey matter volume (GMV) patterns and age can be captured by multivariate pattern analysis, allowing prediction of individuals' age based on structural imaging. Raw data, voxel-wise GMV and non-sparse factorization (with Principal Component Analysis, PCA) show good performance but do not promote relatively localized brain components for post-hoc examinations. Here we evaluated a non-negative matrix factorization (NNMF) approach to provide a reduced, but also interpretable representation of GMV data in age prediction frameworks in healthy and clinical populations. This examination was performed using three datasets: a multi-site cohort of life-span healthy adults, a single site cohort of older adults and clinical samples from the ADNI dataset with healthy subjects, participants with Mild Cognitive Impairment and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) subsamples. T1-weighted images were preprocessed with VBM8 standard settings to compute GMV values after normalization, segmentation and modulation for non-linear transformations only. Non-negative matrix factorization was computed on the GM voxel-wise values for a range of granularities (50-690 components) and LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) regression were used for age prediction. First, we compared the performance of our data compression procedure (i.e., NNMF) to various other approaches (i.e., uncompressed VBM data, PCA-based factorization and parcellation-based compression). We then investigated the impact of the granularity on the accuracy of age prediction, as well as the transferability of the factorization and model generalization across datasets. We finally validated our framework by examining age prediction in ADNI samples. Our results showed that our framework favorably compares with other approaches. They also demonstrated that the NNMF based factorization derived from one dataset could be efficiently applied to compress VBM data of another dataset and that

  4. Predictive Factors of Hospitalization and Dialysis Requirement in Alcohol Poisoning; a Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tagizadieh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol abuse is one of the health problems that all societies have involved with. Although in Iran the percent of alcohol consuming due to social and cultural preventions is lesser that other countries, its outcome and predictive factors are not accessible. Thus, this study was designed with the aim of determining the consequences of alcohol consuming and finding its effective factors in Tabriz. Method: This cross-sectional study has been done through September 2013 to July 2014 in Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. All individuals with alcohol poisoning referred to the emergency department were included in the study. Demographic and clinical factors of patients, laboratory tests, dialysis and hospitalization in hospital wards were evaluated. Finally, independent effective factors for dialysis and hospitalization were assessed by using multivariate logistic regression. Results: At the end, 81(91.4% male patients with the mean age of 27.9±10.4 years were entered to the study. Ten (12.3% patients needed dialysis and 34 (42.0% were hospitalized. Increasing the serum creatinine level (OR-1.6; 95% Cl: 1.004-2.4; p-0.048 and time interval between consumption until referring to the emergency (OR-1.1; 95% Cl: 1.03-1.15; p-0.004 were the independent predictive factors of dialysis. Also, predictive agents of hospitalization included smoking (OR-3.4; 95% Cl: 1.6-5.5; p-0.01 and need to do dialysis (OR-7.9; 95% Cl: 5.4-10.5; p<0.001. Conclusion: In the present project 12.3% of patients needed dialysis. Increasing the serum creatinine and time interval between alcohol consuming until referring to the emergency were the most important predictive factors. In addition, the probability of hospitalization for smoking and dialyzed poisoned persons in hospital wards was more than other patients.

  5. Predictive factors for gastroduodenal toxicity based on endoscopy following radiotherapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, H. [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Health Sciences and Technology; Oh, D.; Park, H.C.; Han, Y.; Lim, D.H. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kang, S.W. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiologic Science; Paik, S.W. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Medicine

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to determine predictive factors for gastroduodenal (GD) toxicity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who were treated with radiotherapy (RT). Patients and methods: A total of 90 HCC patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) before and after RT were enrolled. RT was delivered as 30-50 Gy (median 37.5 Gy) in 2-5 Gy (median 3.5 Gy) per fraction. All endoscopic findings were reviewed and GD toxicities related to RT were graded by the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. The predictive factors for the {>=} grade 2 GD toxicity were investigated. Results: Endoscopic findings showed erosive gastritis in 14 patients (16 %), gastric ulcers in 8 patients (9 %), erosive duodenitis in 15 patients (17 %), and duodenal ulcers in 14 patients (16 %). Grade 2 toxicity developed in 19 patients (21 %) and grade 3 toxicity developed in 8 patients (9 %). V{sub 25} for stomach and V{sub 35} for duodenum (volume receiving a RT dose of more than x Gy) were the most predictive factors for {>=} grade 2 toxicity. The gastric toxicity rate at 6 months was 2.9 % for V{sub 25} {<=} 6.3 % and 57.1 % for V{sub 25} > 6.3 %. The duodenal toxicity rate at 6 months was 9.4 % for V{sub 35} > 5.4 % and 45.9 % for V{sub 35} > 5.4 %. By multivariate analysis including the clinical factors, V{sub 25} for stomach and V{sub 35} for duodenum were the significant factors. Conclusion: EGD revealed that GD toxicity is common following RT for HCC. V{sub 25} for the stomach and V{sub 35} for the duodenum were the significant factors to predict {>=} grade 2 GD toxicity. (orig.)

  6. Predicting College Success: The Relative Contributions of Five Social/Personality Factors, Five Cognitive/Learning Factors, and SAT Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    To-date, studies have examined simultaneously the relative predictive powers of two or three factors on GPA. The present study examines the relative powers of five social/personality factors, five cognitive/learning factors, and SAT scores to predict freshmen and non-freshmen (sophomores, juniors, seniors) academic success (i.e., GPA). The results revealed many significant predictors of GPA for both freshmen and non-freshmen. However, subsequent regressions showed that only academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning, and high-knowledge integration explained unique variance in GPA (19%-freshmen, 23.2%-non-freshmen). Further for freshmen, SAT scores explained an additional unique 10.6% variance after the influences attributed to these three predictors was removed whereas for non-freshmen, SAT scores failed to explain any additional variance. These results highlight the unique and important contributions of academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning and high-knowledge integration to GPA beyond other previously-identified predictors. PMID:25568884

  7. Predicting College Success: The Relative Contributions of Five Social/Personality Factors, Five Cognitive/Learning Factors, and SAT Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2014-10-01

    To-date, studies have examined simultaneously the relative predictive powers of two or three factors on GPA. The present study examines the relative powers of five social/personality factors, five cognitive/learning factors, and SAT scores to predict freshmen and non-freshmen (sophomores, juniors, seniors) academic success (i.e., GPA). The results revealed many significant predictors of GPA for both freshmen and non-freshmen. However, subsequent regressions showed that only academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning, and high-knowledge integration explained unique variance in GPA (19%-freshmen, 23.2%-non-freshmen). Further for freshmen, SAT scores explained an additional unique 10.6% variance after the influences attributed to these three predictors was removed whereas for non-freshmen, SAT scores failed to explain any additional variance. These results highlight the unique and important contributions of academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning and high-knowledge integration to GPA beyond other previously-identified predictors.

  8. The effect of a low glycemic load diet on acne vulgaris and the fatty acid composition of skin surface triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robyn N; Braue, Anna; Varigos, George A; Mann, Neil J

    2008-04-01

    Dietary factors have long been implicated in acne pathogenesis. It has recently been hypothesized that low glycemic load diets may influence sebum production based on the beneficial endocrine effects of these diets. To determine the effect of a low glycemic load diet on acne and the fatty acid composition of skin surface triglycerides. Thirty-one male acne patients (aged 15-25 years) completed sebum sampling tests as part of a larger 12-week, parallel design dietary intervention trial. The experimental treatment was a low glycemic load diet, comprised of 25% energy from protein and 45% from low glycemic index carbohydrates. In contrast, the control situation emphasized carbohydrate-dense foods without reference to the glycemic index. Acne lesion counts were assessed during monthly visits. At baseline and 12-weeks, the follicular sebum outflow and composition of skin surface triglycerides were assessed using lipid absorbent tapes. At 12 weeks, subjects on the experimental diet demonstrated increases in the ratio of saturated to monounsaturated fatty acids of skin surface triglycerides when compared to controls [5.3+/-2.0% (mean+/-S.E.M.) vs. -2.7+/-1.7%, P=0.007]. The increase in the saturated/monounsaturated ratio correlated with acne lesion counts(r=-0.39, P=0.03). Increased follicular sebum outflow was also associated with an increase in the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids in sebum (r=0.49, P=0.006). This suggests a possible role of desaturase enzymes in sebaceous lipogenesis and the clinical manifestation of acne. However, further work is needed to clarify the underlying role of diet in sebum gland physiology.

  9. Graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization for temporal link prediction in dynamic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoke; Sun, Penggang; Wang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    Many networks derived from society and nature are temporal and incomplete. The temporal link prediction problem in networks is to predict links at time T + 1 based on a given temporal network from time 1 to T, which is essential to important applications. The current algorithms either predict the temporal links by collapsing the dynamic networks or collapsing features derived from each network, which are criticized for ignoring the connection among slices. to overcome the issue, we propose a novel graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm (GrNMF) for the temporal link prediction problem without collapsing the dynamic networks. To obtain the feature for each network from 1 to t, GrNMF factorizes the matrix associated with networks by setting the rest networks as regularization, which provides a better way to characterize the topological information of temporal links. Then, the GrNMF algorithm collapses the feature matrices to predict temporal links. Compared with state-of-the-art methods, the proposed algorithm exhibits significantly improved accuracy by avoiding the collapse of temporal networks. Experimental results of a number of artificial and real temporal networks illustrate that the proposed method is not only more accurate but also more robust than state-of-the-art approaches.

  10. Major controlling factors and predictions for cadmium transfer from the soil into spinach plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenfei; Ding, Qiong; Wei, Dongpu; Li, Jumei; Chen, Shibao; Ma, Yibing

    2013-07-01

    Predicting the mobility, bioavailability and transfer of cadmium (Cd) in the soil-plant system is of great importance with regards to food safety and environmental management. In this study, the transfer characteristics of Cd (exogenous salts) from a wide range of Chinese soils to spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) were investigated. The major controlling factors and prediction equations for Cd transfer in the soil-plant system were also investigated. The results showed that plant Cd concentration was positively correlated with soil Cd concentration. The maximum transfer factor (ratio of the Cd concentration in the plant to that in the soil) was found in acid soils. The extended Freundlich-type function was able to describe the Cd transfer from soil to spinach plants. Combining soil total Cd, pH and organic carbon (OC) content in the prediction equation greatly improved the correlation performance compared with predictions based on total Cd only. A slight protection effect of OC on Cd uptake was observed at low soil Cd concentrations. The results are a useful tool that can be used to predict Cd transfer from soil to plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Personality and Defense Styles: Clinical Specificities and Predictive Factors of Alcohol Use Disorder in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribadier, Aurélien; Dorard, Géraldine; Varescon, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated personality traits and defense styles in order to determine clinical specificities and predictive factors of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in women. A female sample, composed of AUD outpatients (n = 48) and a control group (n = 50), completed a sociodemographic self-report and questionnaires assessing personality traits (BFI), defense mechanisms and defense styles (DSQ-40). Comparative and correlational analyses, as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regressions, were performed. AUD women presented with higher neuroticism and lower extraversion and conscientiousness. They used less mature and more neurotic and immature defense styles than the control group. Concerning personality traits, high neuroticism and lower conscientiousness were predictive of AUD, as well as low mature, high neurotic, and immature defense styles. Including personality traits and defense styles in a logistic model, high neuroticism was the only AUD predictive factor. AUD women presented clinical specificities and predictive factors in personality traits and defense styles that must be taken into account in AUD studies. Implications for specific treatment for women are discussed.

  12. Predictive factors for mortality in Fournier' gangrene: a series of 59 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Marín, Andrés; Turégano Fuentes, Fernando; Cuadrado Ayuso, Marta; Andueza Lillo, Juan Antonio; Cano Ballesteros, Juan Carlos; Pérez López, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) is the necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genital area and presents a high mortality rate. The aim was to assess prognostic factors for mortality, create a new mortality predictive scale and compare it with previously published scales in patients diagnosed with FG in our Emergency Department. Retrospective analysis study between 1998 and 2012. Of the 59 patients, 44 survived (74%) (S) and 15 died (26%) (D). Significant differences were found in peripheral vasculopathy (S 5 [11%]; D 6 [40%]; P=.023), hemoglobin (S 13; D 11; P=.014), hematocrit (S 37; D 31.4; P=.009), white blood cells (S 17,400; D 23,800; P=.023), serum urea (S 58; D 102; PFournier's gangrene severity index score (FGSIS) (S 4; D 7; P=.002) and Uludag Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index (UFGSI) (S 9; D 13; P=.004). Independent predictive factors were peripheral vasculopathy, serum potassium and severe sepsis criteria, and a model was created with an area under the ROC curve of 0.850 (0.760-0.973), higher than FGSIS (0.746 [0.601-0.981]) and UFGSI (0.760 [0.617-0.904]). FG showed a high mortality rate. Independent predictive factors were peripheral vasculopathy, potassium and severe sepsis criteria creating a predictive model that performed better than those previously described. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship Among Mothers' Glycemic Level, Periodontitis, and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Filho, Isaac S; Pereira, Eliesita C; Cruz, Simone S; Adan, Luis Fernando F; Vianna, Maria Isabel P; Passos-Soares, Johelle S; Trindade, Soraya C; Oliveira, Ernesto P; Oliveira, Michelle T; Cerqueira, Eneida de M M; Pereira, Antonio Luis; Barreto, Maurício L; Seymour, Gregory John

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the influence of glycemic level on the relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (LBW). A case-control study was conducted with 372 females divided into cases (109 mothers of newborns with birth weight periodontal status. Results were analyzed using logistic regression. The likelihood of having children with LBW among the mothers with periodontitis was six times greater than that observed among mothers without periodontitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR adjusted] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.47 to 15.17), even after adjustment. There was also a strong, statistically significant relationship between periodontitis and LBW in both the normal glycemic-level group (HbA1c levels Periodontitis and glycemic levels appeared to have opposing influences on birth weight, with periodontitis being associated with LBW and the magnitude of the association being altered depending on maternal blood glucose level.

  14. Adiposity and Glycemic Control in Children Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie G.; Rossing, Laura I.; Grontved, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to explore whether childhood exposure to perfluorinated and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), widely used stain- and grease-repellent chemicals, is associated with adiposity and markers of glycemic control. Materials and Methods: Body mass index, skinfold thickness......, waist circumference, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations were assessed in 8- to 10-year-old children in 1997 in a subset of the European Youth Heart Study, Danish component. Plasma PFC concentrations were available from 499 children. Linear regression models were...... performed to determine the association between PFC exposure and indicators of adiposity and markers of glycemic control. Results: There was no association between PFC exposures and adiposity or markers of glycemic control in normal-weight children. Among overweight children, an increase of 10 ng...

  15. Predictive factors of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for the response to transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil Hyo Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsThe predictive role of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS before performing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE has not been determined. We assessed the possible predictive factors of CEUS for the response to TACE.MethodsSeventeen patients with 18 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC underwent TACE. All of the tumors were studied with CEUS before TACE using a second-generation ultrasound contrast agent (SonoVue®, Bracco, Milan, Italy. The tumor response to TACE was classified with a score between 1 and 4 according to the remaining enhancing-tumor percentage based on modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (mRECIST: 1, enhancing tumor <25%; 2, 25%≤enhancing tumor<50%; 3, 50%≤enhancing tumor<75%; and 4, enhancing tumor≥75%. A score of 1 was defined as a "good response" to TACE. The predictive factors for the response to TACE were evaluated during CEUS based on the maximum tumor diameter, initial arterial enhancing time, arterial enhancing duration, intensity of arterial enhancement, presence of a hypoenhanced pattern, and the feeding artery to the tumor.ResultsThe median tumor size was 3.1 cm. The distribution of tumor response scores after TACE in all tumors was as follows: 1, n=11; 2, n=4; 3, n=2; and 4, n=1. Fifteen tumors showed feeding arteries. The presence of a feeding artery and the tumor size (≤5 cm were the predictive factors for a good response (P=0.043 and P=0.047, respectively.ConclusionsThe presence of a feeding artery and a tumor size of less than 5 cm were the predictive factors for a good response of HCC to TACE on CEUS.

  16. Perioperative glycemic control in diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ehab A. Wahby; Mohamed M. Abo Elnasr; Michael I. Eissa; Sahbaa M. Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: The concept of perioperative glycemic control in cardiac surgery patients was conducted in many studies, however, it remains unclear how tight the glycemic control should be. Our aim is to study the effect of perioperative tight glycemic control versus moderate glycemic control on the outcome of diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: This study is a randomized prospective study conducted on 135 diabetic patients planned for CABG surge...

  17. Correlation between glycemic excursion by CGMS and diabetic retinopathy among Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Li; Ji Ning; Zhu Wei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate correlation between glycemic excursion by CGMS and diabetic retinopathy among type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Used continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) to monitoring glycemic excursion within a day of twenty four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inspect fundus photography, correlation was analyzed. Results: Glycemic excursion might reveal the risk for diabetic retinopathy better than HbA1c does. Conclusion: Diabetic retinopathy may correlate with glycemic excursion. (authors)

  18. Environmental Factors Affecting Asthma and Allergies: Predicting and Simulating Downwind Exposure to Airborne Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Huete, Alfredo; Solano, Ramon; Ratana, Piyachat; Jiang, Zhangyan; Flowers, Len; Zelicoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the environmental factors that affect asthma and allergies and work to predict and simulate the downwind exposure to airborne pollen. Using a modification of Dust REgional Atmosphere Model (DREAM) that incorporates phenology (i.e. PREAM) the aim was to predict concentrations of pollen in time and space. The strategy for using the model to simulate downwind pollen dispersal, and evaluate the results. Using MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to get seasonal sampling of Juniper, the pollen chosen for the study, land cover on a near daily basis. The results of the model are reviewed.

  19. Analysis of predictive factors for rapid virologic response in treating patients with chronic hepatitis C

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    ZHANG Dandan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo analyze the predictive factors for rapid virologic response (RVR in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC who received combination therapy with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN and ribavirin. MethodsA total of 127 CHC patients who were admitted to our department from 2010 to 2012 and received PEG-IFN combined with ribavirin were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. The patients were divided into RVR group and non-RVR (NRVR group according to their virologic responses after 4 weeks of antiviral therapy. Demographic characteristics and the clinical features prior to treatment were compared between the two groups, and the potential factors that contributed to the acquisition of RVR were analyzed. Comparison of categorical data between groups was made by chi-square test, predictive factors were analyzed by nonparametric test for two independent samples (Mann-Whitney U test, independent predictive factors were tested by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and the continuous variables of predictive factors were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curves. ResultsOf the 127 CHC patients, 86 were males and 41 females. There were 11 confirmed cases of liver cirrhosis. There were 100 patients (78.74% who achieved an RVR, and 27 (21.26% with NRVR. Nonparametric analysis showed that eight factors, which were age, time of infection, level of pre-treatment alanine aminotransferase, level of pre-treatment hyaluronic acid, development of hypertension, type of interferon, pathway of infection, and hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype, were significantly different between the RVR and NRVR groups (P<0.05. The logistic regression analysis identified the following factors as independent predictive factors for RVR: non-genotype 1 (OR: 0.203, 95%CI: 0.051-0.802, P<0.05, time of infection (OR: 0.925, 95%CI: 0.868-0.987, P<0.05, and absence of hypertension (OR: 0.129, 95%CI: 0.032-0.521, P<0.05. Conclusion

  20. A novel method for improved accuracy of transcription factor binding site prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Khamis, Abdullah M.

    2018-03-20

    Identifying transcription factor (TF) binding sites (TFBSs) is important in the computational inference of gene regulation. Widely used computational methods of TFBS prediction based on position weight matrices (PWMs) usually have high false positive rates. Moreover, computational studies of transcription regulation in eukaryotes frequently require numerous PWM models of TFBSs due to a large number of TFs involved. To overcome these problems we developed DRAF, a novel method for TFBS prediction that requires only 14 prediction models for 232 human TFs, while at the same time significantly improves prediction accuracy. DRAF models use more features than PWM models, as they combine information from TFBS sequences and physicochemical properties of TF DNA-binding domains into machine learning models. Evaluation of DRAF on 98 human ChIP-seq datasets shows on average 1.54-, 1.96- and 5.19-fold reduction of false positives at the same sensitivities compared to models from HOCOMOCO, TRANSFAC and DeepBind, respectively. This observation suggests that one can efficiently replace the PWM models for TFBS prediction by a small number of DRAF models that significantly improve prediction accuracy. The DRAF method is implemented in a web tool and in a stand-alone software freely available at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/DRAF.

  1. Predictive factors for the Nursing Diagnoses in people living with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo; Costa, Romanniny Hévillyn Silva; Nelson, Ana Raquel Cortês; Duarte, Fernando Hiago da Silva; Prado, Nanete Caroline da Costa; Rodrigues, Eduardo Henrique Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to identify the predictive factors for the nursing diagnoses in people living with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Method: a cross-sectional study, undertaken with 113 people living with AIDS. The data were collected using an interview script and physical examination. Logistic regression was used for the data analysis, considering a level of significance of 10%. Results: the predictive factors identified were: for the nursing diagnosis of knowledge deficit-inadequate following of instructions and verbalization of the problem; for the nursing diagnosis of failure to adhere - years of study, behavior indicative of failure to adhere, participation in the treatment and forgetfulness; for the nursing diagnosis of sexual dysfunction - family income, reduced frequency of sexual practice, perceived deficit in sexual desire, perceived limitations imposed by the disease and altered body function. Conclusion: the predictive factors for these nursing diagnoses involved sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, defining characteristics, and related factors, which must be taken into consideration during the assistance provided by the nurse. PMID:27384466

  2. Endovascular Treatment of Malignant Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: Results and Predictive Factors of Clinical Efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagedet, Dorothee, E-mail: DFagedet@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de medecine interne, Pole Pluridisciplinaire de Medecine (France); Thony, Frederic, E-mail: FThony@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de radiologie et imagerie medicale, Pole d' Imagerie (France); Timsit, Jean-Francois, E-mail: JFTimsit@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de reanimation, Pole Medecine Aiguee Communautaire (France); Rodiere, Mathieu, E-mail: MRodiere@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de radiologie et imagerie medicale, Pole d' Imagerie (France); Monnin-Bares, Valerie, E-mail: v-monnin@chu-montpellier.fr [CHRU Arnaud de Villeneuve, Imagerie Medicale Thoracique Cardiovasculaire (France); Ferretti, Gilbert R., E-mail: GFerretti@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de radiologie et imagerie medicale, Pole d' Imagerie (France); Vesin, Aurelien; Moro-Sibilot, Denis, E-mail: DMoro.pneumo@chu-grenoble.fr [University Grenoble 1 e Albert Bonniot Institute, Inserm U823 (France)

    2013-02-15

    To demonstrate the effectiveness of endovascular treatment (EVT) with self-expandable bare stents for malignant superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) and to analyze predictive factors of EVT efficacy. Retrospective review of the 164 patients with malignant SVCS treated with EVT in our hospital from August 1992 to December 2007 and followed until February 2009. Endovascular treatment includes angioplasty before and after stent placement. We used self-expandable bare stents. We studied results of this treatment and looked for predictive factors of clinical efficacy, recurrence, and complications by statistical analysis. Endovascular treatment was clinically successful in 95% of cases, with an acceptable rate of early mortality (2.4%). Thrombosis of the superior vena cava was the only independent factor for EVT failure. The use of stents over 16 mm in diameter was a predictive factor for complications (P = 0.008). Twenty-one complications (12.8%) occurred during the follow-up period. Relapse occurred in 36 patients (21.9%), with effective restenting in 75% of cases. Recurrence of SVCS was significantly increased in cases of occlusion (P = 0.01), initial associated thrombosis (P = 0.006), or use of steel stents (P = 0.004). Long-term anticoagulant therapy did not influence the risk of recurrence or complications. In malignancy, EVT with self-expandable bare stents is an effective SVCS therapy. These results prompt us to propose treatment with stents earlier in the clinical course of patients with SVCS and to avoid dilatation greater than 16 mm.

  3. Endovascular Treatment of Malignant Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: Results and Predictive Factors of Clinical Efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagedet, Dorothée; Thony, Frederic; Timsit, Jean-François; Rodiere, Mathieu; Monnin-Bares, Valérie; Ferretti, Gilbert R.; Vesin, Aurélien; Moro-Sibilot, Denis

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the effectiveness of endovascular treatment (EVT) with self-expandable bare stents for malignant superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) and to analyze predictive factors of EVT efficacy. Retrospective review of the 164 patients with malignant SVCS treated with EVT in our hospital from August 1992 to December 2007 and followed until February 2009. Endovascular treatment includes angioplasty before and after stent placement. We used self-expandable bare stents. We studied results of this treatment and looked for predictive factors of clinical efficacy, recurrence, and complications by statistical analysis. Endovascular treatment was clinically successful in 95% of cases, with an acceptable rate of early mortality (2.4%). Thrombosis of the superior vena cava was the only independent factor for EVT failure. The use of stents over 16 mm in diameter was a predictive factor for complications (P = 0.008). Twenty-one complications (12.8%) occurred during the follow-up period. Relapse occurred in 36 patients (21.9%), with effective restenting in 75% of cases. Recurrence of SVCS was significantly increased in cases of occlusion (P = 0.01), initial associated thrombosis (P = 0.006), or use of steel stents (P = 0.004). Long-term anticoagulant therapy did not influence the risk of recurrence or complications. In malignancy, EVT with self-expandable bare stents is an effective SVCS therapy. These results prompt us to propose treatment with stents earlier in the clinical course of patients with SVCS and to avoid dilatation greater than 16 mm.

  4. Influence of the informal primary caretaker on glycemic control among prepubertal pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Nallely Zurita-Cruz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: In prepubertal type 1 diabetic patients (DM1, the availability of an informal primary caregiver (ICP is critical to making management decisions; in this study, the ICP-related risk factors associated with glycemic control were identified. Patients, materials, and methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was performed. Fifty-five patients with DM1 under the age of 11 years were included. The patient-related factors associated with glycemic control evaluated were physical activity, DM1 time of evolution, and adherence to medical indications. The ICP-related factors evaluated were education, employment aspects, depressive traits (Beck questionnaire, family functionality (family APGAR, support of another person in patient care, stress (Perceived Stress Scale, and socioeconomic status (Bronfman questionnaire. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Results: The patients' median age was 8 years; 29 patients had good glycemic control, and 26 were uncontrolled. The main risk factor associated with glycemic dyscontrol was stress in the ICP (OR 24.8; 95% CI 4.06-151.9, p = 0.001. While, according to the linear regression analysis it was found that lower level of education (β 0.991, 95% CI 0.238-1.743, p = 0.011 and stress (β 1.918, 95% CI 1.10-2.736, p = 0.001 in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction (β 1.256, 95% CI 0.336-2.177, p = 0.008 were associated with higher levels of glycated hemoglobin. Conclusions: Level of education and stress in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction, are factors that influence the lack of controlled blood glucose levels among prepubertal DM1 patients.

  5. Factors predicting work outcome in Japanese patients with schizophrenia: role of multiple functioning levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Sumiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia suggest recovery of cognitive, everyday, and social functioning. Specifically improvement of work status is considered to be most important for their independent living and self-efficacy. The main purposes of the present study were 1 to identify which outcome factors predict occupational functioning, quantified as work hours, and 2 to provide cut-offs on the scales for those factors to attain better work status. Forty-five Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 111 healthy controls entered the study. Cognition, capacity for everyday activities, and social functioning were assessed by the Japanese versions of the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB, the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment-Brief (UPSA-B, and the Social Functioning Scale Individuals’ version modified for the MATRICS-PASS (Modified SFS for PASS, respectively. Potential factors for work outcome were estimated by multiple linear regression analyses (predicting work hours directly and a multiple logistic regression analyses (predicting dichotomized work status based on work hours. ROC curve analyses were performed to determine cut-off points for differentiating between the better- and poor work status. The results showed that a cognitive component, comprising visual/verbal learning and emotional management, and a social functioning component, comprising independent living and vocational functioning, were potential factors for predicting work hours/status. Cut-off points obtained in ROC analyses indicated that 60–70% achievements on the measures of those factors were expected to maintain the better work status. Our findings suggest that improvement on specific aspects of cognitive and social functioning are important for work outcome in patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Wind Power predictability a risk factor in the design, construction and operation of Wind Generation Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesen, J.; Gulstad, L.; Ristic, I.; Maric, T.

    2010-09-01

    Summit: The wind power predictability is often a forgotten decision and planning factor for most major wind parks, both onshore and offshore. The results of the predictability are presented after having examined a number of European offshore and offshore parks power predictability by using three(3) mesoscale model IRIE_GFS and IRIE_EC and WRF. Full description: It is well known that the potential wind production is changing with latitude and complexity in terrain, but how big are the changes in the predictability and the economic impacts on a project? The concept of meteorological predictability has hitherto to some degree been neglected as a risk factor in the design, construction and operation of wind power plants. Wind power plants are generally built in places where the wind resources are high, but these are often also sites where the predictability of the wind and other weather parameters is comparatively low. This presentation addresses the question of whether higher predictability can outweigh lower average wind speeds with regard to the overall economy of a wind power project. Low predictability also tends to reduce the value of the energy produced. If it is difficult to forecast the wind on a site, it will also be difficult to predict the power production. This, in turn, leads to increased balance costs and a less reduced carbon emission from the renewable source. By investigating the output from three(3) mesoscale models IRIE and WRF, using ECMWF and GFS as boundary data over a forecasting period of 3 months for 25 offshore and onshore wind parks in Europe, the predictability are mapped. Three operational mesoscale models with two different boundary data have been chosen in order to eliminate the uncertainty with one mesoscale model. All mesoscale models are running in a 10 km horizontal resolution. The model output are converted into "day a head" wind turbine generation forecasts by using a well proven advanced physical wind power model. The power models

  7. Glycemic control in cardiac surgery: Rationale and current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Girish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies in cardiac surgical patients have shown an association of hyperglycemia with increased incidences of sepsis, mediastinitis, prolonged mechanical ventilation, cardiac arrhythmias and longer intensive care and hospital stay. There is considerable controversy regarding appropriate glycemic management in these patients and in the definition of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia or the blood sugar levels at which therapy should be initiated. There is also dilemma regarding the usage of "tight glycemic control" with studies showing conflicting evidences. Part of the controversy can be explained by the differing designs of these studies and the variable definitions of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.

  8. Fruit and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Allan Stubbe; Viggers, Lone; Gregersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals often advise subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) to restrict fruit intake. We show here that there is no supportive scientific evidence for this. At least 19 studies have tested intake of fruit on postprandial glucose in T2D. Only two long-term intervention studies have inves...... under normal conditions has deleterious health effects. In summary, we find no evidence for a negative impact of fruit on glycemic control in T2D. Subjects with T2D should eat fruit just as the general population, without fearing worsening of their glycemic control....

  9. Glycemic index in the management of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Juanola Falgarona, Martí

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) are one of the main causes of disability and death worldwide. It has been proposed that high glycemic index (GI) and high glycemic load (GL) diets are associated with increased risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, MetS and cardiovascular disease. To date, evidence suggests possible benefits of the GI/GL for the prevention and management of obesity and MetS. We aimed to analyze the association between dietary GI and GL and the risk of to develop Met...

  10. Do diabetes mellitus patients adhere to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and is this associated with glycemic control? Experiences from a SMBG program in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambui Charity, K; Kumar, Ajay M V; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund; Chinnakali, Palanivel; Pastakia, Sonak D; Kamano, Jemimah

    2016-02-01

    Among diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with poor glycemic control enrolled into a self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) program in Kenya, to assess the level of SMBG adherence, its associated factors and its relation to glycemic control (defined as HbA1c glucose tests performed by the number recommended. A level of ≥ 80% was considered 'good adherence'. Glycemic control was considered as absolute change from baseline of 2%. Of 164 patients (59% female; 76% rural), the proportions with good SMBG adherence were 34%, 17%, 15% and 10% during 0-6, 7-12, 13-18 and 19-24 months into the HGM program respectively. In multivariate analysis, male gender, urban place of residence and payment for glucostrips were associated with poor adherence during 0-12 months. The mean reduction in HbA1c compared to baseline was 1.2%, 1.1%, 0.8% and 0.7% at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, respectively. We did not find any association between SMBG adherence and glycemic control. Adherence to SMBG was sub-optimal, especially among those who had to pay for glucostrips. Patient education and provision of free glucostrips are recommended to improve adherence and glycemic control. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrating the ICF with positive psychology: Factors predicting role participation for mothers with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Ruth S; Kern, Margaret L; Brusilovsky, Eugene

    2015-05-01

    Being a mother has become a realizable life role for women with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Identifying psychosocial factors that facilitate participation in important life roles-including motherhood-is essential to help women have fuller lives despite the challenge of their illness. By integrating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and a positive psychology perspective, this study examined how environmental social factors and positive personal factors contribute to daily role participation and satisfaction with parental participation. One hundred and 11 community-dwelling mothers with MS completed Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales, the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey, the Short Form-36, and the Parental Participation Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses examined associations between social support and positive personal factors (environmental mastery, self-acceptance, purpose in life) with daily role participation (physical and emotional) and satisfaction with parental participation. One-way ANOVAs tested synergistic combinations of social support and positive personal factors. Social support predicted daily role participation (fewer limitations) and greater satisfaction with parental participation. Positive personal factors contributed additional unique variance. Positive personal factors and social support synergistically predicted better function and greater satisfaction than either alone. Integrating components of the ICF and positive psychology provides a useful model for understanding how mothers with MS can thrive despite challenge or impairment. Both positive personal factors and environmental social factors were important contributors to positive role functioning. Incorporating these paradigms into treatment may help mothers with MS participate more fully in meaningful life roles. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Predicting stuttering from linguistic factors for German speakers in two age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworzynski, Katharina; Howell, Peter; Natke, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    Brown's factors [J. Speech Disorders 10 (1945) 181] predict the likely loci of disfluency in English-speaking adults who stutter. A word is more likely to be stuttered for these speakers if it is a content word, starts with a consonant, is positioned at the beginning of a sentence, and if it is a long word. These same factors were examined in native German-speaking children and adults who stutter. Speech data of 15 German adults and 17 children were coded according to Brown's factors. For the adult group, it was predicted that words starting with consonants would not lead to as much of an increase in disfluencies compared with English samples, because of cross-linguistic differences in syllable onset properties. It was predicted that stuttering would be more likely in later sentence positions in German because in German the verb is usually near the end of a sentence. There were no obvious reasons to expect differences on the two remaining factors, content words and word length. With children, it was hypothesised that Brown's factors that specify level of linguistic difficulty would not be such a good predictor of stuttering rate. Specifically, it was predicted that the difference in stuttering rate between function and content words would be lower in children. For the adults both word type (content/function) and word length increased stuttering rate significantly, whereas changes in stuttering rate for the other two factors were non-significant. It was also found that when word difficulty (based on a combined measure of all factors) increased, stuttering rate rose. With children, only the word-length factor was significant, and stuttering rate was not governed to the same extent by overall word difficulty. Conclusions are drawn as to the effect of linguistic and motor influences on stuttering. The reader will learn about and be able to describe: (1) how linguistic factors affect stuttering rates in German; (2) the different patterns of adults and children who

  13. What are the most crucial soil factors for predicting the distribution of alpine plant species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, A.; Pinto-Figueroa, E.; Yashiro, E.; Guisan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays the use of species distribution models (SDM) is common to predict in space and time the distribution of organisms living in the critical zone. The realized environmental niche concept behind the development of SDM imply that many environmental factors must be accounted for simultaneously to predict species distributions. Climatic and topographic factors are often primary included, whereas soil factors are frequently neglected, mainly due to the paucity of soil information available spatially and temporally. Furthermore, among existing studies, most included soil pH only, or few other soil parameters. In this study we aimed at identifying what are the most crucial soil factors for explaining alpine plant distributions and, among those identified, which ones further improve the predictive power of plant SDMs. To test the relative importance of the soil factors, we performed plant SDMs using as predictors 52 measured soil properties of various types such as organic/inorganic compounds, chemical/physical properties, water related variables, mineral composition or grain size distribution. We added them separately to a standard set of topo-climatic predictors (temperature, slope, solar radiation and topographic position). We used ensemble forecasting techniques combining together several predictive algorithms to model the distribution of 116 plant species over 250 sites in the Swiss Alps. We recorded the variable importance for each model and compared the quality of the models including different soil proprieties (one at a time) as predictors to models having only topo-climatic variables as predictors. Results show that 46% of the soil proprieties tested become the second most important variable, after air temperature, to explain spatial distribution of alpine plants species. Moreover, we also assessed that addition of certain soil factors, such as bulk soil water density, could improve over 80% the quality of some plant species models. We confirm that soil p

  14. Estimating the reliability of glycemic index values and potential sources of methodological and biological variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Meng, Huicui; Tighiouart, Hocine; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2016-10-01

    The utility of glycemic index (GI) values for chronic disease risk management remains controversial. Although absolute GI value determinations for individual foods have been shown to vary significantly in individuals with diabetes, there is a dearth of data on the reliability of GI value determinations and potential sources of variability among healthy adults. We examined the intra- and inter-individual variability in glycemic response to a single food challenge and methodologic and biological factors that potentially mediate this response. The GI value for white bread was determined by using standardized methodology in 63 volunteers free from chronic disease and recruited to differ by sex, age (18-85 y), and body mass index [BMI (in kg/m 2 ): 20-35]. Volunteers randomly underwent 3 sets of food challenges involving glucose (reference) and white bread (test food), both providing 50 g available carbohydrates. Serum glucose and insulin were monitored for 5 h postingestion, and GI values were calculated by using different area under the curve (AUC) methods. Biochemical variables were measured by using standard assays and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean ± SD GI value for white bread was 62 ± 15 when calculated by using the recommended method. Mean intra- and interindividual CVs were 20% and 25%, respectively. Increasing sample size, replication of reference and test foods, and length of blood sampling, as well as AUC calculation method, did not improve the CVs. Among the biological factors assessed, insulin index and glycated hemoglobin values explained 15% and 16% of the variability in mean GI value for white bread, respectively. These data indicate that there is substantial variability in individual responses to GI value determinations, demonstrating that it is unlikely to be a good approach to guiding food choices. Additionally, even in healthy individuals, glycemic status significantly contributes to the variability in GI value

  15. Methods of MicroRNA Promoter Prediction and Transcription Factor Mediated Regulatory Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuming; Wang, Fang; Chen, Su; Wan, Jun; Wang, Guohua

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (~22 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs and disseminated throughout the genome, either in the intergenic regions or in the intronic sequences of protein-coding genes. MiRNAs have been proved to play important roles in regulating gene expression. Hence, understanding the transcriptional mechanism of miRNA genes is a very critical step to uncover the whole regulatory network. A number of miRNA promoter prediction models have been proposed in the past decade. This review summarized several most popular miRNA promoter prediction models which used genome sequence features, or other features, for example, histone markers, RNA Pol II binding sites, and nucleosome-free regions, achieved by high-throughput sequencing data. Some databases were described as resources for miRNA promoter information. We then performed comprehensive discussion on prediction and identification of transcription factor mediated microRNA regulatory networks.

  16. A longitudinal population-based study of factors in adolescence predicting homelessness in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bree, Marianne B M; Shelton, Katherine; Bonner, Adrian; Moss, Sebastian; Thomas, Hollie; Taylor, Pamela J

    2009-12-01

    Almost everything known about risk factors for homelessness is based on cross-sectional studies of non-random samples. Furthermore, most studies have focused on a small number of risk factors and have not evaluated their relative importance. Our aim was to examine which factors, in a population-based sample of adolescents, independently predict homelessness in young adults. Participants (n = 10,433) in the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were initially selected through systematic random sampling of US high schools. Interviews were conducted at home in 1994-1995 when the participants were 11-18 years of age and again in 2001 when participants were 18-28 years of age. We examined the relationships between a range of risk factors reported in adolescence (mood-related problems, substance involvement, delinquency, personality, quality of family relations, neighborhood quality, school adjustment, religious affiliation, perpetration of violence, and experiences of victimization) and experiences of homelessness reported in young adulthood, using regression analysis. Each risk factor predicted homelessness. However, only family relationship quality (odds ratio [OR] = .79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .69-.90), school adjustment problems (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.35-1.82), and experiences of victimization (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.11-1.45) were found to independently predict homelessness. Among a range of well-established risk factors, a troubled family background, school adjustment problems and experiences of victimization were found to be the strongest predictors of homelessness in a general population of young people. Our findings suggest possibilities for the early identification of young persons at risk for homelessness through schools, agencies offering family-based support, and clinical services.

  17. A six-factor model of brand personality and its predictive validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Marko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines applicability and usefulness of HEXACO-based model in the description of brand personality. Following contemporary theoretical developments in human personality research, Study 1 explored the latent personality structure of 120 brands using descriptors of six personality traits as defined in HEXACO model: Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness. The results of exploratory factor analyses have supported HEXACO personality six-factor structure to a large extent. In Study 2 we addressed the question of predictive validity of HEXACO-based brand personality. Brand personality traits, but predominantly Honesty-Humility, accounted for substantial amount of variance in prediction of important aspects of consumer-brand relationship: attitude toward brand, perceived quality of a brand, and brand loyalty. The implications of applying HEXACO-based brand personality in marketing research are discussed. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 179018 and Grant no. 175012

  18. Fuzzy Regression Prediction and Application Based on Multi-Dimensional Factors of Freight Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mengting; Li, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Based on the reality of the development of air cargo, the multi-dimensional fuzzy regression method is used to determine the influencing factors, and the three most important influencing factors of GDP, total fixed assets investment and regular flight route mileage are determined. The system’s viewpoints and analogy methods, the use of fuzzy numbers and multiple regression methods to predict the civil aviation cargo volume. In comparison with the 13th Five-Year Plan for China’s Civil Aviation Development (2016-2020), it is proved that this method can effectively improve the accuracy of forecasting and reduce the risk of forecasting. It is proved that this model predicts civil aviation freight volume of the feasibility, has a high practical significance and practical operation.

  19. Predictive factors for the development of diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P.; Kühl, C.; Bertelsen, Aksel

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of diabetes in women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and to identify predictive factors for development of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Two to 11 years post partum, glucose tolerance was investigated in 241...... women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and 57 women without previous gestational diabetes mellitus (control group). RESULTS: Diabetes developed in 42 (17.4%) women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (3.7% insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 13.7% non......-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). Diabetes did not develop in any of the controls. Predictive factors for diabetes development were fasting glucose level at diagnosis (high glucose, high risk), preterm delivery, and an oral glucose tolerance test result that showed diabetes 2 months post partum. In a subgroup...

  20. Predictive Factors for Differentiating Between Septic Arthritis and Lyme Disease of the Knee in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Keith D; Brusalis, Christopher M; Nduaguba, Afamefuna M; Sankar, Wudbhav N

    2016-05-04

    Differentiating between septic arthritis and Lyme disease of the knee in endemic areas can be challenging and has major implications for patient management. The purpose of this study was to identify a prediction rule to differentiate septic arthritis from Lyme disease in children presenting with knee pain and effusion. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients younger than 18 years of age with knee effusions who underwent arthrocentesis at our institution from 2005 to 2013. Patients with either septic arthritis (positive joint fluid culture or synovial white blood-cell count of >60,000 white blood cells/mm(3) with negative Lyme titer) or Lyme disease (positive Lyme immunoglobulin G on Western blot analysis) were included. To avoid misclassification bias, undiagnosed knee effusions and joints with both a positive culture and positive Lyme titers were excluded. Historical, clinical, and laboratory data were compared between groups to identify variables for comparison. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictive variables. One hundred and eighty-nine patients were studied: 23 with culture-positive septic arthritis, 26 with culture-negative septic arthritis, and 140 with Lyme disease. Multivariate binary logistic regression identified pain with short arc motion, history of fever reported by the patient or a family member, C-reactive protein of >4 mg/L, and age younger than 2 years as independent predictive factors for septic arthritis. A simpler model was developed that showed that the risk of septic arthritis with none of these factors was 2%, with 1 of these factors was 18%, with 2 of these factors was 45%, with 3 of these factors was 84%, or with all 4 of these factors was 100%. Although septic arthritis of the knee and Lyme monoarthritis share common features that can make them difficult to distinguish clinically, the presence of pain with short arc motion, C-reactive protein of >4.0 mg/L, patient-reported history of

  1. Risk factors for severity and manifestations in systemic sclerosis and prediction of disease course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mike O; Riemekasten, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc, or scleroderma) is a rheumatic disease with distinct features that encompass autoimmunity, vascular lesions (vasculopathy) and tissue fibrosis. The disease has a high morbidity and mortality compared with other rheumatic diseases. This review discusses risk factors and markers that predict the disease course and the occurrence of disease manifestations, with an emphasis on major organ involvement. In addition, risk factors will be described that are associated with mortality in SSc patients. The review addresses the impact of recent developments on screening, diagnosis and risk stratification as well as the need for further research where data are lacking.

  2. Predictive Factors for Radiation Pneumonitis in Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Receiving Combined-Modality Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Amy M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); 21st Century Oncology, Fort Myers, FL (United States); Dosoretz, Arie P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Mauch, Peter M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, Yu-Hui [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Fisher, David C.; LaCasce, Ann S.; Freedman, Arnold S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Silver, Barbara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Ng, Andrea K., E-mail: ang@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: This study sought to quantify the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients receiving mediastinal radiation therapy (RT) and to identify predictive factors for RP. Methods and Materials: We identified 75 patients with newly diagnosed HL treated with mediastinal RT and 17 patients with relapsed/refractory HL treated with mediastinal RT before or after transplant. Lung dose-volumetric parameters including mean lung dose and percentage of lungs receiving 20 Gy were calculated. Factors associated with RP were explored by use of the Fisher exact test. Results: RP developed in 7 patients (10%) who received mediastinal RT as part of initial therapy (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 1 in 6 cases). A mean lung dose of 13.5 Gy or greater (p = 0.04) and percentage of lungs receiving 20 Gy of 33.5% or greater (p = 0.009) significantly predicted for RP. RP developed in 6 patients (35%) with relapsed/refractory HL treated with peri-transplant mediastinal RT (Grade 3 in 4 cases). Pre-transplant mediastinal RT, compared with post-transplant mediastinal RT, significantly predicted for Grade 3 RP (57% vs. 0%, p = 0.015). Conclusions: We identified threshold lung metrics predicting for RP in HL patients receiving mediastinal RT as part of initial therapy, with the majority of cases being of mild severity. The risk of RP is significantly higher with peri-transplant mediastinal RT, especially among those who receive pre-transplant RT.

  3. Predictive Factors for Radiation Pneumonitis in Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Receiving Combined-Modality Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Amy M.; Dosoretz, Arie P.; Mauch, Peter M.; Chen, Yu-Hui; Fisher, David C.; LaCasce, Ann S.; Freedman, Arnold S.; Silver, Barbara; Ng, Andrea K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to quantify the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients receiving mediastinal radiation therapy (RT) and to identify predictive factors for RP. Methods and Materials: We identified 75 patients with newly diagnosed HL treated with mediastinal RT and 17 patients with relapsed/refractory HL treated with mediastinal RT before or after transplant. Lung dose–volumetric parameters including mean lung dose and percentage of lungs receiving 20 Gy were calculated. Factors associated with RP were explored by use of the Fisher exact test. Results: RP developed in 7 patients (10%) who received mediastinal RT as part of initial therapy (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 1 in 6 cases). A mean lung dose of 13.5 Gy or greater (p = 0.04) and percentage of lungs receiving 20 Gy of 33.5% or greater (p = 0.009) significantly predicted for RP. RP developed in 6 patients (35%) with relapsed/refractory HL treated with peri-transplant mediastinal RT (Grade 3 in 4 cases). Pre-transplant mediastinal RT, compared with post-transplant mediastinal RT, significantly predicted for Grade 3 RP (57% vs. 0%, p = 0.015). Conclusions: We identified threshold lung metrics predicting for RP in HL patients receiving mediastinal RT as part of initial therapy, with the majority of cases being of mild severity. The risk of RP is significantly higher with peri-transplant mediastinal RT, especially among those who receive pre-transplant RT.

  4. Evaluation of prognostic and predictive factors in breast cancer in Cuba. Its role in personalized therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez Goyanes, Rosa Irene

    2011-01-01

    The identification of prognostic and predictive factors in breast cancer has allowed applying personalized therapeutic programs without achieving, still, the individualization for all patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of estrogen receptors, progesterone and HER2 along with the expression of the EGFR1 and ganglioside NglicolilGM3. 1509 patients found the frequency of expression of the aforementioned receivers, which were correlated with the morphological and General variables. It was compared the AcM recognition ior egf/r3 with a game of diagnosis - shopping, and the AcM 14F7 vitro tissue fresh and included in paraffin and in vivo labelled with 99mTc. It was obtained the frequency in Cuba of these prognostic and prediction markers of response, noting her hormone dependence of tumor associated with less aggressive features. The AcM 14F7 showed a broad recognition that was not correlated with prognostic factors, but was able to detect live in primary breast tumors. The ior egf/r3 exhibited 100% specificity and positive predictive value, as well as a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 68 and 73% respectively. The recognition of the AcM 14F7 and ior egf/r3 opens a new possibility of therapeutic directed against these targets for breast cancer (author)

  5. Predictive factors for radiation pneumonitis in Hodgkin lymphoma patients receiving combined-modality therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Amy M; Dosoretz, Arie P; Mauch, Peter M; Chen, Yu-Hui; Fisher, David C; LaCasce, Ann S; Freedman, Arnold S; Silver, Barbara; Ng, Andrea K

    2012-05-01

    This study sought to quantify the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients receiving mediastinal radiation therapy (RT) and to identify predictive factors for RP. We identified 75 patients with newly diagnosed HL treated with mediastinal RT and 17 patients with relapsed/refractory HL treated with mediastinal RT before or after transplant. Lung dose-volumetric parameters including mean lung dose and percentage of lungs receiving 20 Gy were calculated. Factors associated with RP were explored by use of the Fisher exact test. RP developed in 7 patients (10%) who received mediastinal RT as part of initial therapy (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 1 in 6 cases). A mean lung dose of 13.5 Gy or greater (p = 0.04) and percentage of lungs receiving 20 Gy of 33.5% or greater (p = 0.009) significantly predicted for RP. RP developed in 6 patients (35%) with relapsed/refractory HL treated with peri-transplant mediastinal RT (Grade 3 in 4 cases). Pre-transplant mediastinal RT, compared with post-transplant mediastinal RT, significantly predicted for Grade 3 RP (57% vs. 0%, p = 0.015). We identified threshold lung metrics predicting for RP in HL patients receiving mediastinal RT as part of initial therapy, with the majority of cases being of mild severity. The risk of RP is significantly higher with peri-transplant mediastinal RT, especially among those who receive pre-transplant RT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors Predictive of Re-excision After Oncoplastic Breast-conserving Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Maria-Ida; Mazouni, Chafika; Guimond, Cathie; Sarfati, Benjamin; Leymarie, Nicolas; Cloutier, Alexis-Simon; Bentivegna, Enrica; Garbay, Jean-Rémi; Kolb, Frédéric; Rimareix, Françoise

    2015-07-01

    Oncoplastic surgery (OPS) consists of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) that allows for oncologically safe breast conservation and breast remodeling, thus reducing postoperative deformities. The purpose of the present study was to identify factors determining the risk of re-excision and complications after OPS. A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients who underwent OPS between 2009 and 2013, regardless of whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered. Clinical and pathological factors were evaluated. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was used to build regression trees for the prediction of re-excision. Amongst the 129 patients treated by OPS procedures, 30.3% required re-excision. Predictive factors for re-excision were: being overweight (p=0.02), the presence of microcalcifications on mammography (p=0.003), and tumor multifocality (p=0.03). The RPA identified five terminal nodes based on microcalcifications on mammography, being overweight and the presence of ductal carcinoma in situ. Another model included minimal invasive margins (p<0.001), being overweight (p=0.02) and the presence of microcalcifications (p=0.01) on mammography yielded a model with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.875. Microcalcifications, tumor multifocality and being overweight were the factors identified as predictors of re-excision after OPS. These factors can serve as decisional tools before surgery. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Predictive factors of rebleeding and mortality following endoscopic hemostasis in bleeding peptic ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratanic, Andre; Puljiz, Zeljko; Ljubicicz, Neven; Caric, Tea; Jelicic, Ivo; Puljiz, Mario; Perko, Zdravko

    2013-01-01

    To identify predictive factors of rebleeding and mortality after endoscopic therapy in patients with high risk peptic ulcers. Patients hospitalized due to bleeding from high-risk peptic ulcers (Forrest classes Ia, Ib, IIa and IIb) during a five-year study, received endoscopic hemostatic therapy (diluted epinephrine injection, clipping or both) in addition to proton pump inhibitors. We looked for clinical, endoscopic and laboratory parameters that had influenced rebleeding and mortality in these patients. Among all patients (804) with peptic ulcer bleeding, 251 high-risk ulcer pateints received endoscopic hemostasis treatment. Thirty-four of them (13.5%) experienced in-hospital rebleeding. Majority of these achieved permanent hemostasis after second endoscopic treatment, while 14 (5.6%) needed surgery. Eighteen patients died (7.2%). Among parameters studied, severe anaemia, systolic and diastolic hypotension, shock presence, low Rockall score, ulcer size and time to hemostasis were factors which predicted rebleeding. Mortality predictive factors were: severe anaemia, hypotension, shock presence, lower Rockall and physical status scores, ulcer size and Forrest class. Conclusions: Early assesment of clinical and endoscopic predictive factors of rebleeding and mortality in patients with high-risk peptic ulcer bleeding could provide optimal therapeutical measures and follow-up. It could further reduce rebleeding and mortality rates in these patients.-16 months vs. 59.5 months, IQR=37.5-68.5 months, p<0.001) and the rate of death was lower (16.7% [2/12] vs. 83.3% [5/6], p=0.006). Logistic regression showed that a shorter duration of endoscopic interval increased the rate of resectability of gastric cancer (p<0.001) and a higher rate of unresectable gastric cancer and longer duration of endoscopic interval increased death (p=0.029 and p=0.004, respectively). After treatment of esophageal cancer, endoscopic examination at 12-month intervals is important to lower the rate

  8. Predicting the change of child’s behavior problems: sociodemographic and maternal parenting stress factors

    OpenAIRE

    Viduolienė, Evelina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: evaluate 1) whether child’s externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2) the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3) which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child’s externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach: participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months) with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990) and ...

  9. Semantic Factors Predict the Rate of Lexical Replacement of Content Words

    OpenAIRE

    Vejdemo, Susanne; H?rberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The rate of lexical replacement estimates the diachronic stability of word forms on the basis of how frequently a proto-language word is replaced or retained in its daughter languages. Lexical replacement rate has been shown to be highly related to word class and word frequency. In this paper, we argue that content words and function words behave differently with respect to lexical replacement rate, and we show that semantic factors predict the lexical replacement rate of content words. For t...

  10. Incidental, small (< 3 cm), unilocular, pancreatic cysts: Factors that predict lesion progression during imaging surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Go Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Soo; Kim, Jin Woong; Heo, Suk Hee; Lim, Hyo Soon; Jun, Chung Hwan; Jeong, Yong Yeon [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To explore the features that predict size increase and development of potential malignant features in incidentally detected, unilocular cystic pancreatic lesions (CPLs) less than 3 cm in diameter, during subsequent follow-up. We retrieved data of patients diagnosed with unilocular CPLs less than 3 cm in diameter during the period from November 2003 through December 2014, using a computerized search. All serial CT and MR images were analyzed to identify the number, size, and location of CPLs; dilatation of the main pancreatic duct; and occurrence of worrisome features and high-risk stigmata of malignancy in the lesion. The characteristics of CPLs were compared between the increase (i.e., size increase during subsequent follow-up) and no-increase groups. For CPLs in the increase group, subgroup analysis was performed according to the lesion size at the last follow-up (< 3 cm vs. ≥ 3 cm). Among 553 eligible patients, 132 (23.9%) had CPLs that increased in size, and 421 (76.1%) had CPLs that did not, during follow-up. Of the 132, 12 (9.1%) CPLs increased to diameters ≥ 3 cm at the final follow-up. Among the various factors, follow-up duration was a significant independent factor for an interval size increase of CPLs (p < 0.001). In the increase group, initial cyst size was a significant independent factor to predict later size increase to or beyond 3 cm in diameter (p < 0.001), and the initial cyst diameter ≥ 1.5 cm predicted such a growth with a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 72%, respectively. No significant factors to predict the development of potential malignant features were identified. Follow-up duration was associated with an interval size increase of CPLs. Among the growing CPLs, initial cyst size was associated with future lesion growth to and beyond 3 cm.

  11. Predictive factors for compliance with transanal irrigation for the treatment of defecation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildstein, Clémence; Melchior, Chloé; Gourcerol, Guillaume; Boueyre, Estelle; Bridoux, Valérie; Vérin, Eric; Leroi, Anne-Marie

    2017-03-21

    To investigate compliance with transanal irrigation (TAI) one year after a training session and to identify predictive factors for compliance. The compliance of one hundred eight patients [87 women and 21 men; median age 55 years (range 18-83)] suffering from constipation or fecal incontinence (FI) was retrospectively assessed. The patients were trained in TAI over a four-year period at a single institution. They were classified as adopters if they continued using TAI for at least one year after beginning the treatment or as non-adopters if they stopped. Predictive factors of compliance with TAI were based on pretreatment assessments and training progress. The outcomes of the entire cohort of patients who had been recruited for the TAI treatment were expressed in terms of intention-to-treat. Forty-six of the 108 (43%) trained patients continued to use TAI one year after their training session. The patients with FI had the best results, with 54.5% remaining compliant with TAI. Only one-third of the patients who complained of slow transit constipation or obstructed defecation syndrome continued TAI. There was an overall discontinuation rate of 57%. The most common reason for discontinuing TAI was the lack of efficacy (41%). However, 36% of the patients who discontinued TAI gave reasons independent of the efficacy of the treatment such as technical problems (catheter expulsion, rectal balloon bursting, instilled water leakage or retention, pain during irrigation, anal bleeding, anal fissure) while 23% said that there were too many constraints. Of the patients who reported discontinuing TAI, the only predictive factor was the progress of the training (OR = 4.9, 1.3-18.9, P = 0.02). The progress of the training session was the only factor that predicted patient compliance with TAI.

  12. Intrinsic predictive factors for ankle sprain in active university students: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noronha, M; França, L C; Haupenthal, A; Nunes, G S

    2013-10-01

    The ankle is the joint most affected among the sports-related injuries. The current study investigated whether certain intrinsic factors could predict ankle sprains in active students. The 125 participants were submitted to a baseline assessment in a single session were then followed-up for 52 weeks regarding the occurrence of sprain. The baseline assessment were performed in both ankles and included the questionnaire Cumberland ankle instability tool - Portuguese, the foot lift test, dorsiflexion range of motion, Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), the side recognition task, body mass index, and history of previous sprain. Two groups were used for analysis: one with those who suffered an ankle sprain and the other with those who did not suffer an ankle sprain. After Cox regression analysis, participants with history of previous sprain were twice as likely to suffer subsequent sprains [hazard ratio (HR) 2.21 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-4.57] and people with better performance on the SEBT in the postero-lateral (PL) direction were less likely to suffer a sprain (HR 0.96 and 95% CI 0.92-0.99). History of previous sprain was the strongest predictive factor and a weak performance on SEBT PL was also considered a predictive factor for ankle sprains. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Predictive factors for resolution of childhood immune thrombocytopenia: Experience from a single tertiary center in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotsampancharoen, Thirachit; Sripornsawan, Pornpun; Duangchoo, Sarapee; Wongchanchailert, Malai; McNeil, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Initial clinical factors that can reliably predict a successful within-1-year resolution of childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) are still unclear. This study aimed to determine factors associated with within-12-month resolution of newly diagnosed childhood ITP. The hospital records of 417 consecutive children aged less than 15 years with ITP were reviewed retrospectively and data related to the initial presentation were noted. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine which presenting features were associated with a favorable outcome within 12 months. Significant clinical and laboratory predictors for resolution of newly diagnosed childhood ITP within 12 months were abrupt onset less than 14 days, age less than 5 years, and platelet count at 4 weeks postdiagnosis of at least 100 × 10 9 l -1 . With these three significant predictors, the rate of within-1-year recovery was more than 97.2%, with a positive predictive value of 97.8% for newly diagnosed childhood ITP. Age less than 5 years, onset of bleeding less than 14 days, and follow-up platelet count at 4 weeks of at least 100 × 10 9 l -1 are significant predictive factors for disease resolution among children with newly diagnosed ITP. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Multivariate linear regression analysis to identify general factors for quantitative predictions of implant stability quotient values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Huang

    Full Text Available This study identified potential general influencing factors for a mathematical prediction of implant stability quotient (ISQ values in clinical practice.We collected the ISQ values of 557 implants from 2 different brands (SICace and Osstem placed by 2 surgeons in 336 patients. Surgeon 1 placed 329 SICace implants, and surgeon 2 placed 113 SICace implants and 115 Osstem implants. ISQ measurements were taken at T1 (immediately after implant placement and T2 (before dental restoration. A multivariate linear regression model was used to analyze the influence of the following 11 candidate factors for stability prediction: sex, age, maxillary/mandibular location, bone type, immediate/delayed implantation, bone grafting, insertion torque, I-stage or II-stage healing pattern, implant diameter, implant length and T1-T2 time interval.The need for bone grafting as a predictor significantly influenced ISQ values in all three groups at T1 (weight coefficients ranging from -4 to -5. In contrast, implant diameter consistently influenced the ISQ values in all three groups at T2 (weight coefficients ranging from 3.4 to 4.2. Other factors, such as sex, age, I/II-stage implantation and bone type, did not significantly influence ISQ values at T2, and implant length did not significantly influence ISQ values at T1 or T2.These findings provide a rational basis for mathematical models to quantitatively predict the ISQ values of implants in clinical practice.

  15. Predictive factors of cytomegalovirus seropositivity among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Diaye, Dieynaba S; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Krivine, Anne; Andrieu, Thibaut; Rozenberg, Flore; Picone, Olivier; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Goffinet, François; Launay, Odile

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate predictive factors for CMV seronegativity in a cohort of pregnant women in Paris, France. Pregnant women enrolled in a prospective cohort during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic were tested for CMV IgG antibodies. Variables collected were age, geographic origin, lifestyle, work characteristics, socioeconomic status, gravidity, parity and number of children at home. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictive factors for CMV seropositivity. Among the 826 women enrolled, 389 (47.1%) were primiparous, and 552 (67.1%) had Metropolitan France as a geographic origin. Out of these, 355 (i.e. 57.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI): [53.6%-60.4%]) were CMV seropositive: 43.7% (95% CI:[39.5%-47.9%]) in those whose geographic origin was Metropolitan France and 84.1% in those with other origins (95% CI:[79.2%-88.3%]). Determinants associated with CMV seropositivity in a multivariate logistic regression model were: (i) geographic origin (ppregnant women, a geographic origin of Metropolitan France and a low gravidity were predictive factors for CMV low seropositivity. Such women are therefore the likely target population for prevention of CMV infection during pregnancy in France.

  16. Incremental validity of positive orientation: predictive efficiency beyond the five-factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Roland Miciuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The relation of positive orientation (a basic predisposition to think positively of oneself, one’s life and one’s future and personality traits is still disputable. The purpose of the described research was to verify the hypothesis that positive orientation has predictive efficiency beyond the five-factor model. Participants and procedure One hundred and thirty participants (at the mean age M = 24.84 completed the following questionnaires: the Self-Esteem Scale (SES, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R, the Positivity Scale (P-SCALE, the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCC, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES and the Life Engagement Test (LET. Results The introduction of positive orientation as an additional predictor in the second step of regression analyses led to better prediction of the following variables: purpose in life, self-concept clarity and generalized self-efficacy. This effect was the strongest for predicting purpose in life (i.e. 14% increment of the explained variance. Conclusions The results confirmed our hypothesis that positive orientation can be characterized by incremental validity – its inclusion in the regression model (in addition to the five main factors of personality increases the amount of explained variance. These findings may provide further evidence for the legitimacy of measuring positive orientation and personality traits separately.

  17. The occurrence and predictive factors of sleep paralysis in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lišková, Monika; Janečková, Denisa; Klůzová Kráčmarová, Lucie; Mladá, Karolína; Bušková, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence and predictive factors of sleep paralysis (SP) in Czech university students. Our sample included 606 students who had experienced at least one episode of SP. The participants completed an online battery of questionnaires involving questionnaires focused on describing their sleep habits and SP episodes, the 18-item Boundary Questionnaire (BQ-18), the Modified Tellegen Absorption Scale (MODTAS), the Dissociative Experience Scale Taxon, the Beck Depression Inventory II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The strongest predictive factor for the frequency of SP episodes was nightmares. The strongest predictive factor for the intensity of fear was dream occurrences. In our study sample, SP was more common in women than in men. Those who scored higher in BQ-18 experienced more often pleasant episodes of SP and those who scored higher in MODTAS were more likely to experience SP accompanied with hallucinations. While 62% of respondents answered that their SP was accompanied by intense fear, 16% reported that they experienced pleasant feelings during SP episodes. We suggest that not only the known rapid eye movement sleep dysregulation but also some personality variables may contribute to the characteristics of SP.

  18. A perturbation-based framework for link prediction via non-negative matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Cai, Fei; Jiao, Pengfei; Pan, Lin

    2016-12-15

    Many link prediction methods have been developed to infer unobserved links or predict latent links based on the observed network structure. However, due to network noises and irregular links in real network, the performances of existed methods are usually limited. Considering random noises and irregular links, we propose a perturbation-based framework based on Non-negative Matrix Factorization to predict missing links. We first automatically determine the suitable number of latent features, which is inner rank in NMF, by Colibri method. Then, we perturb training set of a network by perturbation sets many times and get a series of perturbed networks. Finally, the common basis matrix and coefficients matrix of these perturbed networks are obtained via NMF and form similarity matrix of the network for link prediction. Experimental results on fifteen real networks show that the proposed framework has competitive performances compared with state-of-the-art link prediction methods. Correlations between the performances of different methods and the statistics of networks show that those methods with good precisions have similar consistence.

  19. Structure-aided prediction of mammalian transcription factor complexes in conserved non-coding elements

    KAUST Repository

    Guturu, H.

    2013-11-11

    Mapping the DNA-binding preferences of transcription factor (TF) complexes is critical for deciphering the functions of cis-regulatory elements. Here, we developed a computational method that compares co-occurring motif spacings in conserved versus unconserved regions of the human genome to detect evolutionarily constrained binding sites of rigid TF complexes. Structural data were used to estimate TF complex physical plausibility, explore overlapping motif arrangements seldom tackled by non-structure-aware methods, and generate and analyse three-dimensional models of the predicted complexes bound to DNA. Using this approach, we predicted 422 physically realistic TF complex motifs at 18% false discovery rate, the majority of which (326, 77%) contain some sequence overlap between binding sites. The set of mostly novel complexes is enriched in known composite motifs, predictive of binding site configurations in TF-TF-DNA crystal structures, and supported by ChIP-seq datasets. Structural modelling revealed three cooperativity mechanisms: direct protein-protein interactions, potentially indirect interactions and \\'through-DNA\\' interactions. Indeed, 38% of the predicted complexes were found to contain four or more bases in which TF pairs appear to synergize through overlapping binding to the same DNA base pairs in opposite grooves or strands. Our TF complex and associated binding site predictions are available as a web resource at http://bejerano.stanford.edu/complex.

  20. Predicting Short-Term Subway Ridership and Prioritizing Its Influential Factors Using Gradient Boosting Decision Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between short-term subway ridership and its influential factors is crucial to improving the accuracy of short-term subway ridership prediction. Although there has been a growing body of studies on short-term ridership prediction approaches, limited effort is made to investigate the short-term subway ridership prediction considering bus transfer activities and temporal features. To fill this gap, a relatively recent data mining approach called gradient boosting decision trees (GBDT is applied to short-term subway ridership prediction and used to capture the associations with the independent variables. Taking three subway stations in Beijing as the cases, the short-term subway ridership and alighting passengers from its adjacent bus stops are obtained based on transit smart card data. To optimize the model performance with different combinations of regularization parameters, a series of GBDT models are built with various learning rates and tree complexities by fitting a maximum of trees. The optimal model performance confirms that the gradient boosting approach can incorporate different types of predictors, fit complex nonlinear relationships, and automatically handle the multicollinearity effect with high accuracy. In contrast to other machine learning methods—or “black-box” procedures—the GBDT model can identify and rank the relative influences of bus transfer activities and temporal features on short-term subway ridership. These findings suggest that the GBDT model has considerable advantages in improving short-term subway ridership prediction in a multimodal public transportation system.

  1. Factors that predict walking ability with a prosthesis in lower limb amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Identification of predictive factors for walking ability with a prosthesis, after lower limb amputation, is very important in order to define patient’s potentials and realistic rehabilitation goals, however challenging they are. Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate whether variables determined at the beginning of rehabilitation process are able to predict walking ability at the end of the treatment using support vector machines (SVMs. Methods. This research was designed as a retrospective clinical case series. The outcome was defined as three-leveled ambulation ability. SVMs were used for predicting model forming. Results. The study included 263 patients, average age 60.82 Ѓ} 9.27 years. In creating SVM models, eleven variables were included: age, gender, cause of amputation, amputation level, period from amputation to prosthetic rehabilitation, Functional Comorbidity Index (FCI, presence of diabetes, presence of a partner, restriction concerning hip or knee extension, residual limb hip extensor strength, and mobility at admission. Six SVM models were created with four, five, six, eight, 10, and 11 variables, respectively. Genetic algorithm was used as an optimization procedure in order to select the best variables for predicting the level of walking ability. The accuracy of these models ranged from 72.5% to 82.5%. Conclusion. By using SVM model with four variables (age, FCI, level of amputation, and mobility at admission we are able to predict the level of ambulation with a prosthesis in lower limb amputees with high accuracy.

  2. Simplified method to predict mutual interactions of human transcription factors based on their primary structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Schmeier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical interactions between transcription factors (TFs are necessary for forming regulatory protein complexes and thus play a crucial role in gene regulation. Currently, knowledge about the mechanisms of these TF interactions is incomplete and the number of known TF interactions is limited. Computational prediction of such interactions can help identify potential new TF interactions as well as contribute to better understanding the complex machinery involved in gene regulation. METHODOLOGY: We propose here such a method for the prediction of TF interactions. The method uses only the primary sequence information of the interacting TFs, resulting in a much greater simplicity of the prediction algorithm. Through an advanced feature selection process, we determined a subset of 97 model features that constitute the optimized model in the subset we considered. The model, based on quadratic discriminant analysis, achieves a prediction accuracy of 85.39% on a blind set of interactions. This result is achieved despite the selection for the negative data set of only those TF from the same type of proteins, i.e. TFs that function in the same cellular compartment (nucleus and in the same type of molecular process (transcription initiation. Such selection poses significant challenges for developing models with high specificity, but at the same time better reflects real-world problems. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of our predictor compares well to those of much more complex approaches for predicting TF and general protein-protein interactions, particularly when taking the reduced complexity of model utilisation into account.

  3. Simplified method to predict mutual interactions of human transcription factors based on their primary structure

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian

    2011-07-05

    Background: Physical interactions between transcription factors (TFs) are necessary for forming regulatory protein complexes and thus play a crucial role in gene regulation. Currently, knowledge about the mechanisms of these TF interactions is incomplete and the number of known TF interactions is limited. Computational prediction of such interactions can help identify potential new TF interactions as well as contribute to better understanding the complex machinery involved in gene regulation. Methodology: We propose here such a method for the prediction of TF interactions. The method uses only the primary sequence information of the interacting TFs, resulting in a much greater simplicity of the prediction algorithm. Through an advanced feature selection process, we determined a subset of 97 model features that constitute the optimized model in the subset we considered. The model, based on quadratic discriminant analysis, achieves a prediction accuracy of 85.39% on a blind set of interactions. This result is achieved despite the selection for the negative data set of only those TF from the same type of proteins, i.e. TFs that function in the same cellular compartment (nucleus) and in the same type of molecular process (transcription initiation). Such selection poses significant challenges for developing models with high specificity, but at the same time better reflects real-world problems. Conclusions: The performance of our predictor compares well to those of much more complex approaches for predicting TF and general protein-protein interactions, particularly when taking the reduced complexity of model utilisation into account. © 2011 Schmeier et al.

  4. Assessing the model transferability for prediction of transcription factor binding sites based on chromatin accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Zibetti, Cristina; Wan, Jun; Wang, Guohua; Blackshaw, Seth; Qian, Jiang

    2017-07-27

    Computational prediction of transcription factor (TF) binding sites in different cell types is challenging. Recent technology development allows us to determine the genome-wide chromatin accessibility in various cellular and developmental contexts. The chromatin accessibility profiles provide useful information in prediction of TF binding events in various physiological conditions. Furthermore, ChIP-Seq analysis was used to determine genome-wide binding sites for a range of different TFs in multiple cell types. Integration of these two types of genomic information can improve the prediction of TF binding events. We assessed to what extent a model built upon on other TFs and/or other cell types could be used to predict the binding sites of TFs of interest. A random forest model was built using a set of cell type-independent features such as specific sequences recognized by the TFs and evolutionary conservation, as well as cell type-specific features derived from chromatin accessibility data. Our analysis suggested that the models learned from other TFs and/or cell lines performed almost as well as the model learned from the target TF in the cell type of interest. Interestingly, models based on multiple TFs performed better than single-TF models. Finally, we proposed a universal model, BPAC, which was generated using ChIP-Seq data from multiple TFs in various cell types. Integrating chromatin accessibility information with sequence information improves prediction of TF binding.The prediction of TF binding is transferable across TFs and/or cell lines suggesting there are a set of universal "rules". A computational tool was developed to predict TF binding sites based on the universal "rules".

  5. Bronchoalveolar lavage amylase is associated with risk factors for aspiration and predicts bacterial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Curtis H; Moazed, Farzad; DiBardino, David; Swaroop, Mamta; Wunderink, Richard G

    2013-03-01

    Aspiration of oropharyngeal or gastric contents into the respiratory tract leads to a spectrum of disorders with high morbidity. Aspiration is a diagnostic dilemma, because clinical characteristics and diagnostic tests are not effective predicting or confirming aspiration. We sought to determine whether α-amylase, a protein secreted by salivary glands and the pancreas, is elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens in patients with clinical risk factors for aspiration and whether bronchoalveolar lavage amylase predicts bacterial pneumonia. Retrospective analysis. Five adult ICUs at a tertiary care urban medical center. Mechanically ventilated patients who underwent either bronchoscopic or nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage within 72 hrs of endotracheal intubation between August 1, 2008 and June 30, 2010. A total of 296 bronchoalveolar lavage amylase results from 280 patients were included in the analysis, and 155 bronchoalveolar lavage amylase specimens were obtained from patients with at least one predefined preintubation risk factor (altered consciousness, swallowing dysfunction, difficult intubation, peri-intubation vomiting, or cardiac arrest). Bronchoalveolar lavage amylase concentration increased as the number of preintubation risk factors increased (p bronchoalveolar lavage amylase was elevated in patients with bacterial pneumonia (cfu/mL ≥ 10) (p bronchoalveolar lavage amylase to differentiate between positive and negative bronchoalveolar lavage culture was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.75). The lower 95% confidence interval for bronchoalveolar lavage amylase in patients with at least one preintubation risk factor for aspiration was 125.9 units/L. In multivariate analysis, bronchoalveolar lavage amylase bronchoalveolar lavage amylase is associated with risk factors for aspiration and may predict bacterial pneumonia. Bronchoalveolar lavage amylase may be useful as an early screening tool to guide management of patients suspected of

  6. Risk factors and prediction for functional and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to determine mainly significant risk factors and prediction for development of functional bowel disease and chronic non-ulcerative non-specific colitis in infants. Materials and methods. Retrospective studies were conducted using the method of questioning parents and analysis of medical records of 344 infants in the age from 6 months to 3 years of life, including 134 infants with functional constipation (FC , 64 infants with functional diarrhea (FD and 146 children with chronic non-specific not-ulcerative colitis (CNNC. The control group included 50 healthy children of similar age and gender. In groups of children retrospectively determined the frequency of risk factors. To compare the data between different groups was used analysis of Pearson c2 criteria and relative risks (relative risk, RR with 95% confidence intervals. Prediction for the development of FC, FD and CNNC was applied the method of discriminant function analysis based on the analysis of 51 essential marks. Results. Mathematical analysis of risk factors for bowel diseases allowed to identify the most important of them, in particular, family history of diseases of the digestive system, including bowel disease, complications during pregnancy and at birth disorders, women chronic extragenital diseases, chronic diseases of women characterized by prolonged exposure in the body to opportunistic or pathogenic bacteria, nutritional and feeding disorders, high infection index and history of infectious diseases. Revealed by the discriminant function analysis significant risk factors, represent their important role in the development of functional bowel disorders and chronic non-specific non-ulcerative colitis. Conclusions. Identifying the risk factors for the development and application of prediction algorithm for functional bowel diseases and chronic non-specific non-ulcerative colitis is enable to develop the effective treatment and preventive measures to reduce the

  7. Using an artificial neural network to predict carbon dioxide compressibility factor at high pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohagheghian, Erfan [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada); Zafarian-Rigaki, Habiballah; Motamedi-Ghahfarrokhi, Yaser; Hemmati-Sarapardeh, Abdolhossein [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Carbon dioxide injection, which is widely used as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method, has the potential of being coupled with CO{sub 2} sequestration and reducing the emission of greenhouse gas. Hence, knowing the compressibility factor of carbon dioxide is of a vital significance. Compressibility factor (Z-factor) is traditionally measured through time consuming, expensive and cumbersome experiments. Hence, developing a fast, robust and accurate model for its estimation is necessary. In this study, a new reliable model on the basis of feed forward artificial neural networks is presented to predict CO{sub 2} compressibility factor. Reduced temperature and pressure were selected as the input parameters of the proposed model. To evaluate and compare the results of the developed model with pre-existing models, both statistical and graphical error analyses were employed. The results indicated that the proposed model is more reliable and accurate compared to pre-existing models in a wide range of temperature (up to 1,273.15 K) and pressure (up to 140MPa). Furthermore, by employing the relevancy factor, the effect of pressure and temprature on the Z-factor of CO{sub 2} was compared for below and above the critical pressure of CO{sub 2}, and the physcially expected trends were observed. Finally, to identify the probable outliers and applicability domain of the proposed ANN model, both numerical and graphical techniques based on Leverage approach were performed. The results illustrated that only 1.75% of the experimental data points were located out of the applicability domain of the proposed model. As a result, the developed model is reliable for the prediction of CO{sub 2} compressibility factor.

  8. Beyond the first episode: candidate factors for a risk prediction model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brendan P

    2010-01-01

    Many early psychosis services are financially compromised and cannot offer a full tenure of care to all patients. To maintain viability of services it is important that those with schizophrenia are identified early to maximize long-term outcomes, as are those with better prognoses who can be discharged early. The duration of untreated psychosis remains the mainstay in determining those who will benefit from extended care, yet its ability to inform on prognosis is modest in both the short and medium term. There are a number of known or putative genetic and environmental risk factors that have the potential to improve prognostication, though a multivariate risk prediction model combining them with clinical characteristics has yet to be developed. Candidate risk factors for such a model are presented, with an emphasis on environmental risk factors. More work is needed to corroborate many putative factors and to determine which of the established factors are salient and which are merely proxy measures. Future research should help clarify how gene-environment and environment-environment interactions occur and whether risk factors are dose-dependent, or if they act additively or synergistically, or are redundant in the presence (or absence) of other factors.

  9. Factors Predictive of the Status of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Melanoma Patients from a Large Multicenter Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Richard L.; Ayers, Gregory D.; Stell, Virginia H.; Ding, Shouluan; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Salo, Jonathan C.; Pockaj, Barbara A.; Essner, Richard; Faries, Mark; Charney, Kim James; Avisar, Eli; Hauschild, Axel; Egberts, Friederike; Averbook, Bruce J.; Garberoglio, Carlos A.; Vetto, John T.; Ross, Merrick I.; Chu, David; Trisal, Vijay; Hoekstra, Harald; Whitman, Eric; Wanebo, Harold J.; DeBonis, Daniel; Vezeridis, Michael; Chevinsky, Aaron; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed; Shyr, Yu; Berry, Lynne; Zhao, Zhiguo; Soong, Seng-jaw; Leong, Stanley P. L.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous predictive factors for cutaneous melanoma metastases to sentinel lymph nodes have been identified; however, few have been found to be reproducibly significant. This study investigated the significance of factors for predicting regional nodal disease in cutaneous melanoma using a large

  10. [Partial nephrectomy on solitary kidney: Renal function outcome and predictive factors of impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierquet, G; Zongo, D; Robert, G; Pasticier, G; Maurice-Tison, S; Bensadoun, H; Ballanger, P; Rouget, B; Ferriere, J-M; Bernhard, J-C

    2016-01-01

    To assess the postoperative functional outcome of PN in solitary kidney and define some predictive factors of renal change. A monocentric series of 45 partial nephrectomies on solitary kidneys, performed between 1988 and 2014, was retrospectively analyzed. Pre-, per- and postoperative clinicopathological data were collected in the UroCCR database. The evolution of early, medium and long-term postoperative Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) was evaluated. Predictive factors of GFR decline and hemodialysis were assessed in multivariate analysis. Mean age was 61 years old (±10.8). Mean preoperative GFR and tumor size were respectively 59.6 mL/min (±18.7) and 3.9 cm (±2.6). Vascular clamping was performed in 41 cases (91%). Median time of warm ischemia was 20 minutes (2-60). Mean follow-up was 66 months (±47). Mean GFR at day 5, 1 month and last follow-up were respectively 46.4 mL/min, 50.3 mL/min and 53.1 mL/min. At day 5 and at last follow-up, a GFR decrease ≥ 20% was found in 20 patients (44.4%) and in 16 patients (35.5%), respectively. Five patients (11%) required definitive hemodialysis (HD) at last follow-up. At day 5, tumor size>4 cm (0.006) and operative time (P=0.003) were independent predictive factors of GFR decline. At 1 year, RENAL ns ≥ 10 was the only independent predictive factor of GFR alteration (P=0.0007). Preoperative GFR was significantly associated with final hemodialysis (P=0.023). Partial nephrectomy allows most of the patients presenting with renal cell carcinoma on solitary kidney to be free of hemodialysis. Tumor complexity, tumor size and preoperative GFR seems to play a determinant role on postoperative functional outcome. These non-modifiable predictive factors should be recognized and taken into account to better select patients with high risk of postoperative renal failure. 5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of processing on in vitro glycemic indices and carbohydrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of processing on in vitro glycemic indices and carbohydrate catabolizing enzyme inhibitory properties of some tropical grain legumes. ... used as a measure of how a particular food can elicit rise in blood glucose and low GI foods have often been advocated as therapeutically important in managing hyperglycemia.

  12. Gastrointestinal Tolerance and Glycemic Response of Isomaltooligosaccharides in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnupriya Gourineni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ingredients delivering functional and nutritional benefits are of interest to food manufacturers. Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs which serve as alternate sweeteners fit into this category. IMOs are a mixture of α-(1 → 6 and α-(1 → 4-linked glucose oligomers, synthesized by an enzymatic reaction from starch (corn, tapioca. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentability and glycemic response of IMO in a healthy population. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over human studies were conducted. In the first study (n = 26, participants’ breath hydrogen over 24 h, gastrointestinal tolerance, and glycemic and insulinemic response to BIOLIGOTM IL5040 isomaltooligosaccharide were measured. In another study (n = 10, participants’ two-hour post-prandial glycemic response to BIOLIGOTM IL5040 isomaltooligosaccharide and BIOLIGOTM IL7010 isomaltooligosaccharide was measured compared to dextrose (control. The IMOs differed in the composition of mono and di-saccharide sugars. IMO syrup dose was matched for 50 g of total carbohydrates and was consumed by mixing in water (237 mL/8 oz.. Mean composite gastrointestinal score was not significantly different (p = 0.322 between the control (1.42 and IMO (1.38. Lack of difference in glycemic response (p = 0.662, with no impact on breath hydrogen (24 h; p = 0.319 and intestinal tolerance, demonstrates that IMO is digestible and can be used to replace sugars in product formulations.

  13. Glycemic index of chocolate fortified with pumpkin ( Cucurbita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine Glycemic Index of chocolate fortified with pumpkin and taro powder and observed its effect on mood and cognitive functions of UniSZA female students. Two groups of female students (n = 30) were asked to consume control chocolate (Group A) and fortified chocolate (Group B) for four weeks.

  14. The Effect Of Glycemic Control On Serum Lipids And Calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect Of Glycemic Control On Serum Lipids And Calcium – Phosphate Profiles In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. ... control levels in type 2 diabetic patients on the serum lipids and lipoprotein profiles and the serum levels of calcium, ... The patients were classified into two groups depending on their glycosylated

  15. Factors Predicting Treatment Failure in Patients Treated with Iodine-131 for Graves’ Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, Kuruva; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Bhoil, Amit; Bhattacharya, Anish; Dutta, Pinaki; Bhansali, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of Graves' disease with iodine-131 ( 131 I) is well-known; however, all patients do not respond to a single dose of 131 I and may require higher and repeated doses. This study was carried out to identify the factors, which can predict treatment failure to a single dose of 131 I treatment in these patients. Data of 150 patients with Graves' disease treated with 259-370 MBq of 131 I followed-up for at least 1-year were retrospectively analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict factors which can predict treatment failure, such as age, sex, duration of disease, grade of goiter, duration of treatment with anti-thyroid drugs, mean dosage of anti-thyroid drugs used, 99m Tc-pertechnetate ( 99m TcO 4 - ) uptake at 20 min, dose of 131 I administered, total triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels. Of the 150 patients, 25 patients required retreatment within 1 year of initial treatment with 131 I. Logistic regression analysis revealed that male sex and 99m TcO 4 - uptake were associated with treatment failure. On receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, area under the curve (AUC) was significant for 99m TcO 4 - uptake predicting treatment failure (AUC = 0.623; P = 0.039). Optimum cutoff for 99m TcO 4 - uptake was 17.75 with a sensitivity of 68% and specificity of 66% to predict treatment failure. Patients with >17.75% 99m TcO 4 - uptake had odds ratio of 3.14 (P = 0.014) for treatment failure and male patients had odds ratio of 1.783 for treatment failure. Our results suggest that male patients and patients with high pre-treatment 99m TcO 4 - uptake are more likely to require repeated doses of 131 I to achieve complete remission

  16. Lateral balance factors predict future falls in community-living older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Marjorie Johnson; Martinez, Katherine M; Janssen, Imke; Edwards, Beatrice; Mille, Marie-Laure; Zhang, Yunhui; Rogers, Mark W

    2008-09-01

    To prospectively determine the capacity of measures of mediolateral (ML) protective stepping performance, maximum hip abduction torque, and trunk mobility, in order to predict the risk of falls among community-living older people. Cross-sectional study. A balance and falls research laboratory. Medically screened and functionally independent community-living older adult volunteers (N=51). Not applicable. Measures included: (1) protective stepping responses: percentage of trials with multiple balance recovery steps and sidestep/crossover step recovery patterns, and first step length following motor-driven waist-pull perturbations of ML standing balance; (2) hip abduction strength and axial mobility: (3) peak isokinetic hip abduction joint torque and trunk functional axial rotation (FAR) range of motion; and (4) fall incidence: monthly mail-in reporting of fall occurrences with follow-up contact for 1 year post-testing. One- and 2-variable logistic regression analysis models determined which single and combined measures optimally predicted fall status. The single variable model with the strongest predictive value for falls was the use of multiple steps in all trials (100% multiple steps) (odds ratio, 6.2; P=.005). Two-variable models, including 100% multiple steps and either hip abduction torque or FAR variables, significantly improved fall prediction over 100% multiple steps alone. The hip abduction and FAR logistic regression optimally predicted fall status. The findings identify new predictor variables for risk of falling that underscore the importance of dynamic balance recovery performance through ML stepping in relation to neuromusculoskeletal factors contributing to lateral balance stability. The results also highlight focused risk factors for falling that are amenable to clinical interventions for enhancing lateral balance function and preventing falls.

  17. Prediction of safety critical software operational reliability from test reliability using testing environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1999-01-01

    It has been a critical issue to predict the safety critical software reliability in nuclear engineering area. For many years, many researches have focused on the quantification of software reliability and there have been many models developed to quantify software reliability. Most software reliability models estimate the reliability with the failure data collected during the test assuming that the test environments well represent the operation profile. User's interest is however on the operational reliability rather than on the test reliability. The experiences show that the operational reliability is higher than the test reliability. With the assumption that the difference in reliability results from the change of environment, from testing to operation, testing environment factors comprising the aging factor and the coverage factor are developed in this paper and used to predict the ultimate operational reliability with the failure data in testing phase. It is by incorporating test environments applied beyond the operational profile into testing environment factors. The application results show that the proposed method can estimate the operational reliability accurately. (Author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  18. Predictive factors in patients eligible for pegfilgrastim prophylaxis focusing on RDI using ordered logistic regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbayashi, Yuko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Kanazawa, Motohiro; Nakajima, Yuki; Kawano, Rumi; Tabuchi, Yusuke; Yoshioka, Tomoko; Ihara, Norihiko; Hosokawa, Toyoshi; Takayama, Koichi; Shikata, Keisuke; Taguchi, Tetsuya

    2018-03-16

    Although pegfilgrastim prophylaxis is expected to maintain the relative dose intensity (RDI) of chemotherapy and improve safety, information is limited. However, the optimal selection of patients eligible for pegfilgrastim prophylaxis is an important issue from a medical economics viewpoint. Therefore, this retrospective study identified factors that could predict these eligible patients to maintain the RDI. The participants included 166 cancer patients undergoing pegfilgrastim prophylaxis combined with chemotherapy in our outpatient chemotherapy center between March 2015 and April 2017. Variables were extracted from clinical records for regression analysis of factors related to maintenance of the RDI. RDI was classified into four categories: 100% = 0, 85% or predictive factors in patients eligible for pegfilgrastim prophylaxis to maintain the RDI. Threshold measures were examined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis curve. Age [odds ratio (OR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.11; P maintenance. ROC curve analysis of the group that failed to maintain the RDI indicated that the threshold for age was 70 years and above, with a sensitivity of 60.0% and specificity of 80.2% (area under the curve: 0.74). In conclusion, younger age, anemia (less), and administration of pegfilgrastim 24-72 h after chemotherapy were significant factors for RDI maintenance.

  19. Personal Models of Diabetes in Relation to Self-Care, Well-Being and Glycemic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chas Skinner, T.; Hampson, Sarah E.

    2001-01-01

    .005). CONCLUSIONS - This study provides further support for the role of personal models of illness in determining responses to illness. As adolescents take responsibility for the management of their diabetes, parents, clinicians, educators, and interventionists should consider these adolescents' beliefs about......OBJECTIVE - Personal models of diabetes have been shown to be proximal determinants of self-care behavior in adults with diabetes, both cross-sectionally and prospectively. This study set out to test the predictive utility of this approach in adolescents with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS...... follow-up. GHb assays performed as part of the patients' usual diabetes care were used to assess glycemic control. RESULTS - After controlling for baseline anxiety, change in perceived impact of diabetes prospectively predicted adolescents' anxiety (β = -0.21; t = -2.65; P

  20. Factors Predicting Recovery of Oral Intake in Stroke Survivors with Dysphagia in a Convalescent Rehabilitation Ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Yasunori; Nakayama, Sayaka; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Ohori, Isao; Komatsu, Nahoko; Nishimura, Hitoshi; Katsuki, Yasuo

    2017-05-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy may be performed in dysphagic stroke patients. However, some patients regain complete oral intake without gastrostomy. This study aimed to investigate the predictive factors of intake, thereby determining gastrostomy indications. Stroke survivors admitted to our convalescent rehabilitation ward who underwent gastrostomy or nasogastric tube placement from 2009 to 2015 were divided into 2 groups based on intake status at discharge. Demographic data and Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Dysphagia Severity Scale (DSS), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores on admission were compared between groups. We evaluated the factors predicting intake using a stepwise logistic regression analysis. Thirty-four patients recovered intake, whereas 38 achieved incomplete intake. Mean age was lower, mean body mass index (BMI) was higher, and mean time from stroke onset to admission was shorter in the complete intake group. The complete intake group had less impairment in terms of GCS, FIM, and DSS scores. In the stepwise logistic regression analysis, BMI, FIM-cognitive score, and DSS score were significant independent factors predicting intake. The formula of BMI × .26 + FIM cognitive score × .19 + DSS score × 1.60 predicted recovery of complete intake with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 84.2%. Stroke survivors with dysphagia with a high BMI and FIM-cognitive and DSS scores tended to recover oral intake. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and predictive factors of depression and anxiety in patients with pancreatic cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Nobuya; Shimizu, Ken; Asai, Mariko; Nakano, Tomohito; Okusaka, Takuji; Shimada, Kazuaki; Inoguchi, Hironobu; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Fujimori, Maiko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    It is known that depression and anxiety occur more frequently in pancreatic cancer patients than in those with other malignancies. However, few studies have assessed depression and anxiety using reliable psychiatric diagnostic tools. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression and anxiety among pancreatic cancer patients before and 1 month after the start of anticancer treatment using reliable psychiatric diagnostic tools, and to identify factors that predict their occurrence. Pancreatic cancer patients were consecutively recruited. Structured clinical interviews were used to determine the presence of affective disorders, anxiety disorders and adjustment disorders. Baseline interviews were performed prior to initiation of anticancer treatment, while follow-up interviews were performed 1 month after treatment was started. Medical, demographic and psychosocial backgrounds were also assessed as predictive factors. One hundred and ten patients participated in the baseline interview and 91 in the follow-up interview. Depression and anxiety were observed in 15 patients (13.6%) at the baseline, and 15 patients (16.5%) at the follow-up. Lack of confidants was associated with depression and anxiety at the baseline. At the baseline, sadness, lower Karnofsky Performance Status and prior experience with the death of a family member due to cancer predicted newly diagnosed depression and anxiety at the follow-up. A considerable percentage of pancreatic cancer patients experienced depression and anxiety. Multidimensional psychosocial predictive factors were found and optimal psychological care should incorporate early detection of sadness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Factors Predicting the Provision of Smoking Cessation Services Among Occupational Health Nurses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatdokmaiprai, Kannikar; Kalampakorn, Surintorn; McCullagh, Marjorie; Lagampan, Sunee; Keeratiwiriyaporn, Sansanee

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors predicting occupational health nurses' provision of smoking cessation services. Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 254 occupational health nurses in Thailand. Analysis by structural equation modeling revealed that self-efficacy directly and positively influenced smoking cessation services, and mediated the relationship between workplace factors, nurse factors, and smoking cessation services. The final model had good fit to the data, accounting for 20.4% and 38.0% of the variance in self-efficacy and smoking cessation services, respectively. The findings show that self-efficacy is a mediator that influences provision of smoking cessation services by occupational health nurses. Interventions to enhance nurses' self-efficacy in providing smoking cessation services are expected to promote provision of smoking cessation services to workers.

  3. [Predictive and prognostic factors of preeclampsia: Interest of PlGF and sFLT-1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieillefosse, S; Guibourdenche, J; Atallah, A; Haddad, B; Fournier, T; Tsatsaris, V; Lecarpentier, E

    2016-11-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by the association of hypertension and a de novo proteinuria in the second half of pregnancy. Currently, obstetrical teams do not have any tool to detect during the first trimester of pregnancy, in low risk population, the patients likely to develop early and severe preeclampsia. On the other hand, there is no diagnostic/prognostic tool in case of strong suspicion of preeclampsia. The Placental Growth Factor (PIGF) and soluble receptor of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (sFlt-1) are respectively two molecules pro- and anti-angiogenic released mainly by the placenta during pregnancy. Numerous experimental and clinical results suggest that an imbalance of pro/anti-angiogenic factors is involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. We selected and analyzed the main studies that have evaluated the predictive, diagnostic and prognostic value of these two biomarkers for preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Sleep and glycemic control in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Mark Thomaz Ugliara; Wey, Daniela; Schorr, Fabiola; Franco, Denise Reis; Carra, Mario Kehdi; Lorenzi Filho, Geraldo; Menna-Barreto, Luiz

    2015-02-01

    Our aim in the present study was to elucidate how type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and sleep parameters interact, which was rarely evaluated up to the moment. Eighteen T1DM subjects without chronic complications, and 9 control subjects, matched for age and BMI, were studied. The following instruments used to evaluate sleep: the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, sleep diaries, actimeters, and polysomnography in a Sleep Lab. Glycemic control in T1DM individuals was evaluated through: A1C, home fingertip glucometer for 10 days (concomitant with the sleep diary and actimeter), and CGM or concomitant with continuous glucose monitoring (during the polysomnography night). Comparing with the control group, individuals with diabetes presented more pronounced sleep extension from weekdays to weekends than control subjects (p = 0.0303). Among T1DM, glycemic variability (SD) was positively correlated with sleep latency (r = 0.6525, p = 0.0033); full awakening index and arousal index were positively correlated with A1C (r = 0.6544, p = 0.0081; and r = 0.5680, p = 0.0272, respectively); and mean glycemia values were negatively correlated with sleep quality in T1DM individuals with better glycemic control (mean glycemia < 154 mg/dL). Our results support the hypothesis of an interaction between sleep parameters and T1DM, where the glycemic control plays an important role. More studies are needed to unveil the mechanisms behind this interaction, which may allow, in the future, clinicians and educators to consider sleep in the effort of regulating glycemic control.

  5. Sleep in Type 1 Diabetes: Implications for Glycemic Control and Diabetes Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Katia M; Hamburger, Emily R; Lyttle, Morgan; Williams, Rodayne; Bergner, Erin; Kahanda, Sachini; Cobry, Erin; Jaser, Sarah S

    2018-02-05

    To highlight recent findings from studies of sleep in type 1 diabetes (T1D), with a focus on the role of sleep in self-management, the cognitive and psychosocial outcomes related to sleep disturbances, and factors associated with sleep disturbances specific to T1D. People with T1D experience higher rates of sleep disturbances than people without diabetes, and these disturbances have negative implications for glycemic control and diabetes management, as well as psychosocial and cognitive outcomes. Inconsistent sleep timing (bedtime and wake time) has emerged as a potential target for interventions, as variability in sleep timing has been linked with poorer glycemic control and adherence to treatment. Sleep-promoting interventions and new diabetes technology have the potential to improve sleep in people with T1D. Sleep is increasingly considered a critical factor in diabetes management, but more multi-method and longitudinal research is needed. We emphasize the importance of sufficient and consistent sleep for people with T1D, and the need for providers to routinely assess sleep among patients with T1D.

  6. Glycemic control and adipokines after periodontal therapy in patients with Type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunqin Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The mechanism by which chronic periodontitis (CP affects type 2 diabetes (T2DM remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of periodontal therapy (PT on the glycemic control and adipokines of patients with T2DM and CP with the purpose of elucidating the possible mechanisms by which CP influences T2DM. Forty-four patients with T2DM and CP were randomly divided into two groups according to whether they underwent PT. Periodontal status, blood glucose, and the levels of serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin (APN, and fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21 were measured at baseline and after 3 months. The results revealed that the probing depth (PD and attachment loss (AL were significantly improved, the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly decreased, and APN and FGF-21 exhibited substantial increases in the intervention group after 3 months (p < 0.05, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group. The glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels in both groups decreased significantly after 3 months compared with baseline (p < 0.05, but the intervention group exhibited a significantly greater change (p < 0.05. In conclusion, PT may relieve periodontal inflammation, which causes a reduction of insulin-antagonizing adipokines and an increase in insulin-sensitizing adipokines, thereby eliciting an improvement in glycemic control.

  7. Comprehensive prediction in 78 human cell lines reveals rigidity and compactness of transcription factor dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Aleksander; Szczurek, Ewa; Jauch, Ralf; Tiuryn, Jerzy; Prabhakar, Shyam

    2013-01-01

    The binding of transcription factors (TFs) to their specific motifs in genomic regulatory regions is commonly studied in isolation. However, in order to elucidate the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, it is essential to determine which TFs bind DNA cooperatively as dimers and to infer the precise nature of these interactions. So far, only a small number of such dimeric complexes are known. Here, we present an algorithm for predicting cell-type–specific TF–TF dimerization on DNA on a large scale, using DNase I hypersensitivity data from 78 human cell lines. We represented the universe of possible TF complexes by their corresponding motif complexes, and analyzed their occurrence at cell-type–specific DNase I hypersensitive sites. Based on ∼1.4 billion tests for motif complex enrichment, we predicted 603 highly significant cell-type–specific TF dimers, the vast majority of which are novel. Our predictions included 76% (19/25) of the known dimeric complexes and showed significant overlap with an experimental database of protein–protein interactions. They were also independently supported by evolutionary conservation, as well as quantitative variation in DNase I digestion patterns. Notably, the known and predicted TF dimers were almost always highly compact and rigidly spaced, suggesting that TFs dimerize in close proximity to their partners, which results in strict constraints on the structure of the DNA-bound complex. Overall, our results indicate that chromatin openness profiles are highly predictive of cell-type–specific TF–TF interactions. Moreover, cooperative TF dimerization seems to be a widespread phenomenon, with multiple TF complexes predicted in most cell types. PMID:23554463

  8. Demographic Factors and Hospital Size Predict Patient Satisfaction Variance- Implications for Hospital Value-Based Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C.; Ornstein, Katherine; Holcombe, Randall F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) incentivizes quality performance based healthcare by linking payments directly to patient satisfaction scores obtained from Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) surveys. Lower HCAHPS scores appear to cluster in heterogeneous population dense areas and could bias CMS reimbursement. Objective Assess nonrandom variation in patient satisfaction as determined by HCAHPS. Design Multivariate regression modeling was performed for individual dimensions of HCAHPS and aggregate scores. Standardized partial regression coefficients assessed strengths of predictors. Weighted Individual (hospital) Patient Satisfaction Adjusted Score (WIPSAS) utilized four highly predictive variables and hospitals were re-ranked accordingly. Setting 3,907 HVBP-participating hospitals. Patients 934,800 patient surveys, by most conservative estimate. Measurements 3,144 county demographics (U.S. Census), and HCAHPS. Results Hospital size and primary language (‘non-English speaking’) most strongly predicted unfavorable HCAHPS scores while education and white ethnicity most strongly predicted favorable HCAHPS scores. The average adjusted patient satisfaction scores calculated by WIPSAS approximated the national average of HCAHPS scores. However, WIPSAS changed hospital rankings by variable amounts depending on the strength of the predictive variables in the hospitals’ locations. Structural and demographic characteristics that predict lower scores were accounted for by WIPSAS that also improved rankings of many safety-net hospitals and academic medical centers in diverse areas. Conclusions Demographic and structural factors (e.g., hospital beds) predict patient satisfaction scores even after CMS adjustments. CMS should consider WIPSAS or a similar adjustment to account for the severity of patient satisfaction inequities that hospitals could strive to correct. PMID:25940305

  9. A comprehensive performance evaluation on the prediction results of existing cooperative transcription factors identification algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fu-Jou; Chang, Hong-Tsun; Huang, Yueh-Min; Wu, Wei-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic transcriptional regulation is known to be highly connected through the networks of cooperative transcription factors (TFs). Measuring the cooperativity of TFs is helpful for understanding the biological relevance of these TFs in regulating genes. The recent advances in computational techniques led to various predictions of cooperative TF pairs in yeast. As each algorithm integrated different data resources and was developed based on different rationales, it possessed its own merit and claimed outperforming others. However, the claim was prone to subjectivity because each algorithm compared with only a few other algorithms and only used a small set of performance indices for comparison. This motivated us to propose a series of indices to objectively evaluate the prediction performance of existing algorithms. And based on the proposed performance indices, we conducted a comprehensive performance evaluation. We collected 14 sets of predicted cooperative TF pairs (PCTFPs) in yeast from 14 existing algorithms in the literature. Using the eight performance indices we adopted/proposed, the cooperativity of each PCTFP was measured and a ranking score according to the mean cooperativity of the set was given to each set of PCTFPs under evaluation for each performance index. It was seen that the ranking scores of a set of PCTFPs vary with different performance indices, implying that an algorithm used in predicting cooperative TF pairs is of strength somewhere but may be of weakness elsewhere. We finally made a comprehensive ranking for these 14 sets. The results showed that Wang J's study obtained the best performance evaluation on the prediction of cooperative TF pairs in yeast. In this study, we adopted/proposed eight performance indices to make a comprehensive performance evaluation on the prediction results of 14 existing cooperative TFs identification algorithms. Most importantly, these proposed indices can be easily applied to measure the performance of new

  10. Predictive factors of occult neck metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fortes Bittar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: It is well established that cervical lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. The definition of parameters and classifications that could separate patients in groups of low, intermediate and high-risk is being attempted for several years. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine possible predictive factors related to the occurrence of occult cervical lymph node metastasis through the analysis of histopathological reports of surgical specimens obtained after oral squamous cell carcinoma resection and selective neck dissections of patients initially classified as N0. METHODS: This was a primary, retrospective, observational, case-control study. Histopathological reports were reviewed to determine if some findings were related to the occurrence of occult lymph node metastasis. The events analyzed were oral cavity subsites, pT-stage, muscular infiltration, desmoplasia, vascular emboli, perineural infiltration, tumor thickness and compromised margins. RESULTS: Occult cervical metastasis accounted for 19.10 percent of the cases. Desmoplasia, perineural infiltration, tumor thickness and pT4a stage are predictive factors of occult neck metastasis (p-value = 0.0488, 0.0326, 0.0395, 0.0488, respectively. CONCLUSION: The accurate definition of predictive factors of occult cervical metastasis may guide the selection of patients that should be referred to radiotherapy, avoiding the unnecessary exposure of low-risk patients to radiation and allowing a better regional control of the disease in those of moderate or high risk.

  11. Identifying Factors That Predict Worse Constipation Symptoms in Palliative Care Patients: A Secondary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Katherine; Lam, Lawrence T; Talley, Nicholas J; Phillips, Jane L; Currow, David C

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether variables identified as likely to impact the experience of constipation in other clinical settings similarly affected the experiences of constipated palliative care patients. The majority of palliative care patients with cancer are likely to be bothered by constipation symptoms at some point in their disease trajectory. Despite this, it remains unclear as to which factors predict more severe problems. This study was conducted in a sample of 94 constipated palliative care patients who were asked to voluntarily complete a series of questions regarding their demographic and other characteristics, including whether they had chronic constipation symptoms, that is, constipation symptoms for 12 months. Other variables included age, body mass index, sex, performance status, and regular opioids and their doses. At the same time, they were asked to complete the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms (PAC-SYM) and Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life (PAC-QOL) questionnaires. Descriptive statistics summarized baseline data. Unadjusted associations between the selected variables on PAC-SYM were examined by using bi-variate analyses. Significant variables identified on bi-variate analyses were included in a multivariate analysis. The final results identified that only the chronicity of constipation symptoms predicted more severe symptoms. This relationship persisted when this single variable was retained in the final model, illustrating that PAC-SYM scores are 0.41 higher in patients with chronic constipation compared with those without it (p = 0.02). In contrast, regular opioid use was not identified as a significant factor (p = 0.56). This study suggests that the factor most likely to predict worse constipation symptoms was the duration that people had experienced problems. Further, those who perceived their constipation symptoms to be more severe had a poorer quality of life. More work is required to

  12. Validation of a multifactorial risk factor model used for predicting future caries risk with nevada adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobley Connie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to measure the validity and reliability of a multifactorial Risk Factor Model developed for use in predicting future caries risk in Nevada adolescents in a public health setting. Methods This study examined retrospective data from an oral health surveillance initiative that screened over 51,000 students 13-18 years of age, attending public/private schools in Nevada across six academic years (2002/2003-2007/2008. The Risk Factor Model included ten demographic variables: exposure to fluoridation in the municipal water supply, environmental smoke exposure, race, age, locale (metropolitan vs. rural, tobacco use, Body Mass Index, insurance status, sex, and sealant application. Multiple regression was used in a previous study to establish which significantly contributed to caries risk. Follow-up logistic regression ascertained the weight of contribution and odds ratios of the ten variables. Researchers in this study computed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PVP, negative predictive value (PVN, and prevalence across all six years of screening to assess the validity of the Risk Factor Model. Results Subjects' overall mean caries prevalence across all six years was 66%. Average sensitivity across all six years was 79%; average specificity was 81%; average PVP was 89% and average PVN was 67%. Conclusions Overall, the Risk Factor Model provided a relatively constant, valid measure of caries that could be used in conjunction with a comprehensive risk assessment in population-based screenings by school nurses/nurse practitioners, health educators, and physicians to guide them in assessing potential future caries risk for use in prevention and referral practices.

  13. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and metabolic profile in children with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, F; Pellegrini, N; Salvatici, E; Rovelli, V; Banderali, G; Radaelli, G; Scazzina, F; Giovannini, M; Verduci, E

    2017-02-01

    No data exist in the current literature on the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of the diet of phenylketonuric (PKU) children. The aims of this study were to examine the dietary GI and GL in PKU children on a low-phenylalanine (Phe)-diet and to evaluate whether an association may exist between the carbohydrate quality and the metabolic profile. Twenty-one PKU children (age 5-11 years) and 21 healthy children, gender and age matched, were enrolled. Dietary (including GI and GL) and blood biochemical assessments were performed. No difference was observed for daily energy intake between PKU and healthy children. Compared to healthy controls, PKU children consumed less protein (p = 0.001) and fat (p = 0.028), and more carbohydrate (% of total energy, p = 0.004) and fiber (p = 0.009). PKU children had higher daily GI than healthy children (mean difference (95% confidence interval), 13.7 (9.3-18.3)) and higher GL (31.7 (10.1-53.2)). PKU children exhibited lower blood total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels (p < 0.01) and higher triglyceride level (p = 0.014) than healthy children, while glucose and insulin concentrations did not differ. In PKU children the dietary GL was associated with triglyceride glucose index (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.515, p = 0.034). In PKU children a relationship of the dietary treatment with GI and GL, blood triglycerides and triglyceride glucose index may exist. Improvement towards an optimal diet for PKU children could include additional attention to the management of dietary carbohydrate quality. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. FACTORS THAT CAN INVALIDATE THE RESULTS OF GLYCEMIC LEVELS IN DOGS USING A PORTABLE GLUCOMETER FATORES QUE PODEM INVALIDAR OS RESULTADOS DA MENSURAÇÃO DOS NÍVEIS GLICÊMICOS EM CÃES UTILIZANDO O GLICOSÍMETRO PORTÁTIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodomir Guedes Lopes Júnior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The portable glucometer is a very useful tool for the human or veterinary health care professionals to obtain information about the patient’s glycemic state. The equipment is easy to handle and still gives precise results, however there are some factors that can alter its accuracy. Those should be avoided, so that inadequate therapeutic decisions are not made and dangerous situations for the patient’s life do not pass unnoticed. The object of this trial was to show the main factors of risk that can alter the results obtained with a portable glucometer. For the study 53 canines were used. 17 did not have precise results because they presented low hematocrit, the amount of blood collected was not enough or either a part was over the test strip or still, the accomplishment of the test passed the 15 seconds recommended by the manufacturer. It was concluded that those factors are susceptible to happen when a portable glucometer is used, and that the results obtained in those situations are not accurate, therefore, when observing them during the accomplishment of a glucose exam, the test should be repeated. KEY WORDS: Accuracy, glycemia, glucose monitor. O glicosímetro portátil é uma ferramenta útil para os profissionais da área de saúde, seja humana ou veterinária, obterem informações relacionadas ao estado glicêmico dos seus pacientes. O aparelho é de fácil manuseio e ainda fornece resultados precisos, apesar da possiblidade de alguns fatores alterarem a sua acurácia. Tais fatores, portanto, devem ser evitados, para impedir que decisões terapêuticas inadequadas sejam tomadas e para que o paciente não seja exposto a situações de risco para sua saúde. Assim, neste trabalho relatam-se os principais fatores que podem alterar os resultados obtidos com um glicosímetro portátil, medinate estudo em que se utilizaram 53 animais da espécie canina. Desses, dezessete não tiveram resultados precisos, porque apresentavam baixo hemat

  15. Human Factors Predicting Failure and Success in Hospital Information System Implementations in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Frank; Karara, Gustave; Nyssen, Marc

    2015-01-01

    From 2007 through 2014, the authors participated in the implementation of open source hospital information systems (HIS) in 19 hospitals in Rwanda, Burundi, DR Congo, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, and Mali. Most of these implementations were successful, but some failed. At the end of a seven-year implementation effort, a number of risk factors, facilitators, and pragmatic approaches related to the deployment of HIS in Sub-Saharan health facilities have been identified. Many of the problems encountered during the HIS implementation process were not related to technical issues but human, cultural, and environmental factors. This study retrospectively evaluates the predictive value of 14 project failure factors and 15 success factors in HIS implementation in the Sub-Saharan region. Nine of the failure factors were strongly correlated with project failure, three were moderately correlated, and one weakly correlated. Regression analysis also confirms that eight factors were strongly correlated with project success, four moderately correlated, and two weakly correlated. The study results may help estimate the expedience of future HIS projects.

  16. Evidence of a cumulative effect for risk factors predicting low bone mass among male adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrack, Michelle T; Fredericson, Michael; Tenforde, Adam S; Nattiv, Aurelia

    2017-02-01

    Limited research has evaluated risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) in male adolescent athletes. To evaluate predictors of low BMD (defined as BMD Z-score athletes. Male adolescent athletes completed a survey characterising sports participation, nutrition, stress fracture history, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured BMD and body composition. Independent t-tests and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) evaluated group differences; logistic regression evaluated low BMD risk factors. Runners (n=51) exhibited a lower body weight (p=0.02), body mass index (BMI) (kg/m 2 ) (p=0.02), per cent expected weight (p=0.02) and spine BMD Z-score (p=0.002) compared with non-runners (n=18). Single risk factors of low BMD included 30 in the past year (OR=6.4, 95% CI 1.5 to 27.1). The strongest two-variable and three-variable risk factors included weekly mileage >30+ stress fracture history (OR=17.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 185.6) and weekly mileage >30+stress fracture history (OR=17.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 185.6), respectively. Risk factors were cumulative when predicting low BMD (including 30, stress fracture history and <1 serving of calcium-rich food/day): 0-1 risk factors (11.1%), 2 risk factors (42.9%), or 3-4 risk factors (80.0%), p<0.001). Male adolescent runners exhibited lower body weight, BMI and spine BMD Z-score values. The risk of low BMD displayed a graded relationship with increasing risk factors, highlighting the importance of using methods to optimise bone mass in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Factors predicting quality of life in older people with diabetes in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassana Choowattanapakorn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate factors affecting the quality of life of older persons with diabetes. Data were collected on 345 persons from 5 regional hospitals in Thailand. The instruments measured characteristic, quality of life, resilience and selfcare behavior. Participants exhibited low-level physical and mental health quality of life ( x =45.78, 47.60; SD=8.963, 8.93. Resilience and self-care behavior showed a moderate level ( x=121.89, 38.2; SD=21.084, 7.363. Stepwise regression indicated that resilience, self-care behavior, age, education and gender were predictive of physical health quality of life. Mental health quality of life was found to be predicted by resilience, self-care behavior and marital status. We determined that resilience, personal characteristics, self-care behavior and demographic factors were predictive of quality of life among older diabetics. Health care professionals need to be aware of individual differences among older diabetics towards promoting better quality of life.

  18. Subchannel friction factors for rod bundles: laminar flow predictions and their application to turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.P.

    1979-02-01

    For the calculation of friction factors the use of correlations validated for smooth circular tubes along with the duct hydraulic diameter is known to be inappropriate for certain non-circular geometries. In order to test the validity and range of application of such correlations to the subchannels of rod bundles a computer programme has been written for the prediction of subchannel laminar velocity distributions and friction coefficients for fully developed flow. The theoretical basis and development of the programme is described along with comparisons between predictions and existing solutions for some simple geometries. Using the computer programme a wide range of calculations have been carried out for flow sections representing edge, corner and internal subchannels of rod bundles with particular emphasis on those of in-line pin bundle geometries. Where comparison can be made the predicted laminar coefficients are in excellent agreement with existing solutions. Although the approach adopted here could be used as the basis of a model for the subchannel axial friction factor, careful account should be taken of enhanced turbulent momentum transfer in situations where the flow is not unidirectional. (UK)

  19. Neighborhood Regularized Logistic Matrix Factorization for Drug-Target Interaction Prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In pharmaceutical sciences, a crucial step of the drug discovery process is the identification of drug-target interactions. However, only a small portion of the drug-target interactions have been experimentally validated, as the experimental validation is laborious and costly. To improve the drug discovery efficiency, there is a great need for the development of accurate computational approaches that can predict potential drug-target interactions to direct the experimental verification. In this paper, we propose a novel drug-target interaction prediction algorithm, namely neighborhood regularized logistic matrix factorization (NRLMF. Specifically, the proposed NRLMF method focuses on modeling the probability that a drug would interact with a target by logistic matrix factorization, where the properties of drugs and targets are represented by drug-specific and target-specific latent vectors, respectively. Moreover, NRLMF assigns higher importance levels to positive observations (i.e., the observed interacting drug-target pairs than negative observations (i.e., the unknown pairs. Because the positive observations are already experimentally verified, they are usually more trustworthy. Furthermore, the local structure of the drug-target interaction data has also been exploited via neighborhood regularization to achieve better prediction accuracy. We conducted extensive experiments over four benchmark datasets, and NRLMF demonstrated its effectiveness compared with five state-of-the-art approaches.

  20. Predictive factors for the methotrexate treatment outcome in ectopic pregnancy: A comparative study of 400 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Lucie; Pedreiro, Cécile; Moret, Stéphanie; Chene, Gautier; Gaucherand, Pascal; Lamblin, Géry

    2017-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the global success rate of intramuscular methotrexate for the treatment of ectopic pregnancy, identify factors predictive of treatment success or failure, and study methotrexate tolerability in a large patient cohort. For this single-center retrospective observational study, we retrieved the records of all women who had a clinically or echographically confirmed ectopic pregnancy with a Fernandez score ectopic pregnancy. The medical treatment protocol was effective for 314 patients, i.e., an overall success rate of 78.5%. A single methotrexate dose was sufficient for 63.5% of the women and a second dose was successful for 73.2% of the remaining women. The medical treatment success rate fell as initial hCG levels climbed. The main factors associated with methotrexate failure included day (D) 0, D4 and D7 hCG levels, pretherapeutic blood progesterone, hematosalpinx at D0 and pain at D7. Early favorable kinetics of hCG levels was predictive of success. Methotrexate treatment was successful in 90% of women who had D0 hCG ectopic pregnancy was 80.7%. In this study, we showed that an initial hCG value ectopic pregnancy by methotrexate, and hematosalpinx and pretherapeutic blood progesterone >5ng/ml at diagnosis were predictive of its failure. We also confirmed good tolerability for single-dose methotrexate protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neighborhood Regularized Logistic Matrix Factorization for Drug-Target Interaction Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Wu, Min; Miao, Chunyan; Zhao, Peilin; Li, Xiao-Li

    2016-02-01

    In pharmaceutical sciences, a crucial step of the drug discovery process is the identification of drug-target interactions. However, only a small portion of the drug-target interactions have been experimentally validated, as the experimental validation is laborious and costly. To improve the drug discovery efficiency, there is a great need for the development of accurate computational approaches that can predict potential drug-target interactions to direct the experimental verification. In this paper, we propose a novel drug-target interaction prediction algorithm, namely neighborhood regularized logistic matrix factorization (NRLMF). Specifically, the proposed NRLMF method focuses on modeling the probability that a drug would interact with a target by logistic matrix factorization, where the properties of drugs and targets are represented by drug-specific and target-specific latent vectors, respectively. Moreover, NRLMF assigns higher importance levels to positive observations (i.e., the observed interacting drug-target pairs) than negative observations (i.e., the unknown pairs). Because the positive observations are already experimentally verified, they are usually more trustworthy. Furthermore, the local structure of the drug-target interaction data has also been exploited via neighborhood regularization to achieve better prediction accuracy. We conducted extensive experiments over four benchmark datasets, and NRLMF demonstrated its effectiveness compared with five state-of-the-art approaches.

  2. Combining transcription factor binding affinities with open-chromatin data for accurate gene expression prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Florian; Gasparoni, Nina; Gasparoni, Gilles; Gianmoena, Kathrin; Cadenas, Cristina; Polansky, Julia K; Ebert, Peter; Nordström, Karl; Barann, Matthias; Sinha, Anupam; Fröhler, Sebastian; Xiong, Jieyi; Dehghani Amirabad, Azim; Behjati Ardakani, Fatemeh; Hutter, Barbara; Zipprich, Gideon; Felder, Bärbel; Eils, Jürgen; Brors, Benedikt; Chen, Wei; Hengstler, Jan G; Hamann, Alf; Lengauer, Thomas; Rosenstiel, Philip; Walter, Jörn; Schulz, Marcel H

    2017-01-09

    The binding and contribution of transcription factors (TF) to cell specific gene expression is often deduced from open-chromatin measurements to avoid costly TF ChIP-seq assays. Thus, it is important to develop computational methods for accurate TF binding prediction in open-chromatin regions (OCRs). Here, we report a novel segmentation-based method, TEPIC, to predict TF binding by combining sets of OCRs with position weight matrices. TEPIC can be applied to various open-chromatin data, e.g. DNaseI-seq and NOMe-seq. Additionally, Histone-Marks (HMs) can be used to identify candidate TF binding sites. TEPIC computes TF affinities and uses open-chromatin/HM signal intensity as quantitative measures of TF binding strength. Using machine learning, we find low affinity binding sites to improve our ability to explain gene expression variability compared to the standard presence/absence classification of binding sites. Further, we show that both footprints and peaks capture essential TF binding events and lead to a good prediction performance. In our application, gene-based scores computed by TEPIC with one open-chromatin assay nearly reach the quality of several TF ChIP-seq data sets. Finally, these scores correctly predict known transcriptional regulators as illustrated by the application to novel DNaseI-seq and NOMe-seq data for primary human hepatocytes and CD4+ T-cells, respectively. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. [Lightning-caused fire, its affecting factors and prediction: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Li; Bi, Wu; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Zi-Bo; Li, Di-Fei

    2013-09-01

    Lightning-caused fire is the most important natural fire source. Its induced forest fire brings enormous losses to human beings and ecological environment. Many countries have paid great attention to the prediction of lightning-caused fire. From the viewpoint of the main factors affecting the formation of lightning-caused fire, this paper emphatically analyzed the effects and action mechanisms of cloud-to-ground lightning, fuel, meteorology, and terrain on the formation and development process of lightning-caused fire, and, on the basis of this, summarized and reviewed the logistic model, K-function, and other mathematical methods widely used in prediction research of lightning-caused fire. The prediction methods and processes of lightning-caused fire in America and Canada were also introduced. The insufficiencies and their possible solutions for the present researches as well as the directions of further studies were proposed, aimed to provide necessary theoretical basis and literature reference for the prediction of lightning-caused fire in China.

  4. Predicting protein-protein interactions from multimodal biological data sources via nonnegative matrix tri-factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Huang, Heng; Ding, Chris; Nie, Feiping

    2013-04-01

    Protein interactions are central to all the biological processes and structural scaffolds in living organisms, because they orchestrate a number of cellular processes such as metabolic pathways and immunological recognition. Several high-throughput methods, for example, yeast two-hybrid system and mass spectrometry method, can help determine protein interactions, which, however, suffer from high false-positive rates. Moreover, many protein interactions predicted by one method are not supported by another. Therefore, computational methods are necessary and crucial to complete the interactome expeditiously. In this work, we formulate the problem of predicting protein interactions from a new mathematical perspective--sparse matrix completion, and propose a novel nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF)-based matrix completion approach to predict new protein interactions from existing protein interaction networks. Through using manifold regularization, we further develop our method to integrate different biological data sources, such as protein sequences, gene expressions, protein structure information, etc. Extensive experimental results on four species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens, and Caenorhabditis elegans, have shown that our new methods outperform related state-of-the-art protein interaction prediction methods.

  5. Impact of sleep behavior on glycemic control in type 1 diabetes: the role of social jetlag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Sandra; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Lablanche, Sandrine; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Benhamou, Pierre-Yves; Borel, Anne-Laure

    2016-11-01

    Sleep behavior is changing toward shorter sleep duration and a later chronotype. It results in a sleep debt that is acquitted on work-free days, inducing a small but recurrent sleep misalignment each week, referred to as "social jetlag". These sleep habits could affect health through misalignment with circadian rhythms. The primary objective is to address the impact of sleep behavior on glycemic control, assessed by HbA1c, in patients with type 1 diabetes, independently of other lifestyle or sleep-related factors. The secondary objective is to address whether circadian phase affects glycemic control. In total, 80 adult patients with type 1 diabetes (46% female) were included in a clinical cohort study. Sleep behavior was addressed objectively by a 7-day actimetry, lifestyle by questionnaires, sleep breathing disorders by nocturnal oximetry and circadian phase by dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). Univariate analyses showed that chronotype (r = 0.23, P = 0.042) and social jetlag (r = 0.30, P = 0.008) were significantly associated with HbA1c. In multivariable analysis, social jetlag was the only sleep habit independently associated with HbA1c (β = 0.012 (0.006; 0.017), P < 0.001). HbA1c was lower in patients with a social jetlag below versus above the median (7.7% (7.1-8.7) and 8.7% (7.6-9.8), P = 0.011). DLMO was not associated with HbA1c. However, the later the DLMO, the worse the sleep efficiency (r = -0.41, P < 0.001) and fragmentation index (r = 0.35, P = 0.005). Social jetlag, a small but recurrent circadian misalignment, is associated with worse glycemic control in type 1 diabetes, whereas circadian phase is not. Further intervention studies should address the potential improvement of glycemic control by correcting social jetlag. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Predictive factors for malignancy in incidental pulmonary nodules detected in breast cancer patients at baseline CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Mark M.; Mortani Barbosa, Eduardo J. [University of Pennsylvania, Division of Cardiothoracic Imaging, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Pulmonary nodules are commonly encountered at staging CTs in patients with extrathoracic malignancies, but their significance on a per-patient basis remains uncertain. We undertook a retrospective analysis of pulmonary nodules identified in patients with a diagnosis of breast cancer from 2010 - 2015, evaluating nodules present at a baseline CT (i.e. prevalent nodules). We reviewed 211 patients with 248 individual nodules. The rate of malignancy in prevalent nodules is low, approximately 13 %. Variables associated with metastasis include pleural studding, hilar lymphadenopathy and the presence of extrapulmonary metastasis, as well as number of nodules, nodule size and nodule shape. Using a combination of these factors, we have developed an evidence-based multivariate decision tree to predict which nodules are malignant in these patients, which is 91 % accurate and 100 % sensitive for metastasis. We propose a simplified clinical prediction algorithm to guide radiologists and oncologists in managing patients with breast cancer and incidental pulmonary nodules. (orig.)

  7. Risk factors predict post-traumatic stress disorder differently in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: About twice as many women as men develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), even though men as a group are exposed to more traumatic events. Exposure to different trauma types does not sufficiently explain why women are more vulnerable. METHODS: The present work examines...... the effect of age, previous trauma, negative affectivity (NA), anxiety, depression, persistent dissociation, and social support on PTSD separately in men and women. Subjects were exposed to either a series of explosions in a firework factory near a residential area or to a high school stabbing incident....... RESULTS: Some gender differences were found in the predictive power of well known risk factors for PTSD. Anxiety predicted PTSD in men, but not in women, whereas the opposite was found for depression. Dissociation was a better predictor for PTSD in women than in men in the explosion sample...

  8. Predictive factors of user acceptance on the primary educational mathematics aids product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, I.; Margunani; Dwijanto

    2018-03-01

    Mathematics learning in primary schools requires instructional media. According to Piaget's theory, students are still in the concrete operational stage. For this reason, the development of the primary level mathematics aids is needed to support the development of successful mathematics learning. The stages of this research are the stages of commercialization with preparatory, marketing, and measurement analysis procedures. Promotion as part of marketing is done by doing a demonstration to the teacher. Measurements were performed to explore the predictive factors of user feasibility in adopting the product. Measurements were conducted using the concept of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Measurement variables include external variables, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude, intention to use, and actual use. The result of this research shows that the contribution of predictive factors of mathematics teachers on the teaching aids product as follows: the external variable and perceived ease of use at 74%, perceived usefulness at 72%, intention to use (behavioral) at 58%, attitude at 52%, and the consequence factor (actual use) at 42%.

  9. Nutrition factors predict earlier acquisition of motor and language milestones among young children in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora; Jean Louis Dulience, Sherlie; Wolff, Patricia; Cox, Katherine; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Kohl, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    To examine the nutrition-related factors associated with motor and language development among young children living in a poor urban area of Haiti. Children aged 6-11 months (n = 583) were enrolled and followed monthly for one year. World Health Organization motor developmental milestones and vowel and consonant counts were assessed. Longitudinal regression models were applied to assess the association of anthropometric, dietary intake, infectious disease morbidity and socio-economic and demographic factors on developmental outcomes. At baseline, 9.4% were stunted or length-for-age Z score < -2, and 30.2% were mild-to-moderately stunted or length-for-age Z score < -1. Stunting status was significantly associated with motor and phonetic language acquisition at each time point during infancy. Several nutrition factors significantly predicted earlier achievement of motor and language development outcomes in longitudinal models: child anthropometry; breastfeeding and complementary feeding frequencies; dietary diversity; egg and oil intake; and reduced infectious disease morbidities. Increases in the length-for-age Z score significantly predicted all motor and language outcomes and yielded the best fit models compared to other anthropometric indicators (p < 0.001). Child development interventions may be enhanced by incorporating nutrition strategies such as improved diet quality, breastfeeding promotion and diarrhoeal disease mitigation. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Quality of life and predictive factors in patients undergoing assisted reproduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, M; Tenías, J M; Rocio, R; Amparo, F; Calleja, M A; Valenzuela, J C

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of a cohort of women undergoing assisted reproduction techniques (ART), to compare two QOL questionnaires [Short Form 36 (SF36) and FertiQoL], and to identify the predictive factors related to QOL. Women who received infertility medication from a hospital pharmacist during a one-year period were included in this study. Two standardized validated questionnaires - FertiQoL and SF36 - were used. Multivariate analyses were used to assess predictive factors for QOL. Sixty-one women participated in this study. Median QOL scores ranged from 58 to 100. Comparisons between the two questionnaires revealed lower QOL scores when using FertiQoL. Most correlations between the questionnaires were positive, and significant for the majority of SF36 mental dimensions. The major predictors of QOL were: accompanied to the pharmacist's visit by partner, nationality, ART (in vitro fertilization or artificial insemination), employment status (employed or unemployed), tobacco consumption, age, number of cycles, infertility factor and treatment results (pregnancy, no pregnancy or treatment cancellation). FertiQoL examines dimensions such as partner and social relationships. As such, it is recommended that FertiQoL should be used together with a short version of SF36 to investigate QOL among patients undergoing ART. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictive factors for functional improvement following intravitreal bevacizumab injections after central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januschowski, Kai; Feltgen, Nicolas; Pielen, Amelie; Spitzer, Bernhard; Rehak, Matus; Spital, Georg; Dimopoulos, Spyridon; Meyer, Carsten H; Szurman, Gesine B

    2017-03-01

    Vision loss in central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is mostly caused by macular edema (ME) and can be treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections. The goal of this study was to identify predictive factors for improvement in visual acuity. Three hundred and sixteen eyes of six centres having received intravitreal bevacizumab for ME due to CRVO were enrolled in this multicentre, retrospective, interventional case series. The follow-up time was 24 to 48 weeks. Investigated patient characteristics were pretreatment, duration of CRVO prior to the first injection, initial best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), baseline central retinal thickness as measured by optical coherence tomography, gender, eye, age, comorbidity with glaucoma, systemic hypertension, or diabetes mellitus. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the following baseline predictive factors for an increase in visual acuity: low BCVA (p  0.1). Intravitreal injections of bevacizumab in a routine clinical setting effectively improved and stabilized BCVA in CRVO. Our large multicenter study identified initial BCVA, baseline CRT, and pre-treatment as prognostic factors for visual improvement.

  12. Exchange rate prediction with multilayer perceptron neural network using gold price as external factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fathian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of predicting the exchange rate time series in the foreign exchange rate market is going to be solved using a time-delayed multilayer perceptron neural network with gold price as external factor. The input for the learning phase of the artificial neural network are the exchange rate data of the last five days plus the gold price in two different currencies of the exchange rate as the external factor for helping the artificial neural network improving its forecast accuracy. The five-day delay has been chosen because of the weekly cyclic behavior of the exchange rate time series with the consideration of two holidays in a week. The result of forecasts are then compared with using the multilayer peceptron neural network without gold price external factor by two most important evaluation techniques in the literature of exchange rate prediction. For the experimental analysis phase, the data of three important exchange rates of EUR/USD, GBP/USD, and USD/JPY are used.

  13. Prospective study of preoperative factors predicting intraoperative difficulty during laparoscopic transperitoneal simple nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pratik; Ganpule, Arvind; Mishra, Shashikant; Sabnis, Ravindra; Desai, Mahesh R

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively study and identify, the preoperative factors which predict intraoperative difficulty in laparoscopic transperitoneal simple nephrectomy. Seventy seven patients (41 males and 36 females) with mean age of 43 ± 17 years, undergoing transperitoneal laparoscopic simple nephrectomy at our institute between February 2012 to May 2013 were included in this study. Preoperative patients' characteristics recorded were: Gender of patients, history of intervention, palpable lump, BMI, urine culture, side, size of kidney, fixity of kidney on USG, perinephric fat stranding on preoperative CT scan, periureteral fat stranding, perinephric collection, enlarged hilar lymph nodes, renal vascular anomalies, differential renal function on renogram. Preoperative factors of these patients were noted and intraoperative difficulty in the surgery was scored between 1 (easiest) to 10 (most difficult or open conversion) by a single surgeon (who was a part of all studies either as operating surgeon or assistant). Using SPSS 15.0 software, multivariate and univariate analysis was done. In multivariate analysis presence of pyonephrosis on preoperative evaluation and BMI fixity of kidney on USG with surrounding structures. Our findings suggest that presence of pyonephrosis as identified on preoperative imaging and a BMI of less than 25 Kg/m(2) are the most significant factors predicting intraoperative difficulty during laparoscopic simple nephrectomy.

  14. Clinicopathologic Predictive Factors of Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ronghao; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Kun; Fan, Jinchuan; Li, Guojun; Song, Xicheng; Li, Chao

    2017-11-18

    Cervical lymph node metastasis (LNM) has been proven to be a predictor for locoregional recurrence in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Clinicopathological features could be effective predictive factors for central and lateral LNM of DTC, and provide references to surgeons for cervical neck dissection. Retrospective analysis of clinicopathological data was performed on 420 patients who underwent initial surgery from 2010 to 2015. The incidence of central and lateral LNM was calculated. Of 420 patients, 247 (58.8%) exhibited central LNM, and 185 (44.1%) exhibited lateral LNM. There were 29 (6.9%) cases confirmed to have skip metastasis. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that tumour location, tumour size, multifocality, capsular invasion, affected lobes, and age were independent predictors of central LNM. Tumour location, capsular invasion, affected lobes, and tumour size were independent predictors of lateral LNM. Our findings suggest that tumour location, affected lobes, capsular invasion, age, tumour size and multifocality may be taken as predictive factors for cervical LNM of DTC. Meticulous perioperative evaluation of cervical LNM and prophylactic cervical lymph node dissection that aims to remove the occult lymph nodes may be an option for DTC with risk factors. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  15. Relationship between Glycemic Levels and Treatment Outcome among Critically Ill Children admitted into Emergency Room in Enugu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uleanya, Nwachinemere Davidson; Aniwada, Elias Chikee; Nwokoye, Ikenna Chidiebele; Ndu, Ikenna Kingsley; Eke, Christopher Bismarck

    2017-05-16

    Critically ill children are those in need of immediate attention on arrival to an emergency room. The importance of glycemic level measurement as well as maintaining the patency of the airway, effective breathing and circulation cannot be overemphasied. It has been highlighted that the peak hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia predict poor prognosis, longer lengths of hospital stay and higher mortality. The study aims to assess the relationship between glycemic level and treatment outcomes as well as length of hospital stay. Analytical cross sectional method was used to study critically ill children aged ≥1 month to ≤10 years admitted into the Children Emergency Room of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Their admission blood glucose was done. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information including sociodemographics, duration of hospitalization and outcome of treatment. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20. Chi square, logistic regressions and Kruskal Wallis tests were done as appropriate. A total of 300 patients were recruited. One hundred and seventeen (39%) had hyperglycemia, 62 (20.7%) patients had hypoglycaemia and 121 (40.3%) had euglycemia. Two hundred and fifty two (84%) were discharged while 48 (16%) died. There was significant association between glycemic levels and treatment outcome (p = presentation were about 4.7 times (UOR = 0.21, 95% Cl: 0.08-0.38) and adjusted, about 5 times (AOR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.09-0.47) less likely to survive compared with those with euglycemia. Although not statistically significant, those with hyperglycemia were about 1.3 times less likely to survive compared with euglycemic children, adjusted and unadjusted (UOR = 0.75, 95% Cl: 0.33-1.68). While both hypo- and hyperglycemia are associated with mortality, hypoglycaemia had a greater effect than hyperglycemia. Glycemic levels significantly affects treatment outcome.

  16. UTAUT2 Based Predictions of Factors Influencing the Technology Acceptance of Phablets by DNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yo Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The smart mobile devices have emerged during the past decade and have become one of the most dominant consumer electronic products. Therefore, exploring and understanding the factors which can influence the acceptance of novel mobile technology have become the essential task for the vendors and distributors of mobile devices. The Phablets, integrated smart devices combining the functionality and characteristics of both tablet PCs and smart phones, have gradually become possible alternatives for smart phones. Therefore, predicting factors which can influence the acceptance of Phablets have become indispensable for designing, manufacturing, and marketing of such mobile devices. However, such predictions are not easy. Meanwhile, very few researches tried to study related issues. Consequently, the authors aim to explore and predict the intentions to use and use behaviors of Phablets. The second generation of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2 is introduced as a theoretic basis. The Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL based Network Process (DNP will be used to construct the analytic framework. In light of the analytic results, the causal relationships being derived by the DEMATEL demonstrate the direct influence of the habit on other dimensions. Also, based on the influence weights being derived, the use intention, hedonic motivation, and performance expectancy are the most important dimensions. The analytic results can serve as a basis for concept developments, marketing strategy definitions, and new product designs of the future Phablets. The proposed analytic framework can also be used for predicting and analyzing consumers’ preferences toward future mobile devices.

  17. Predictive factors of bacterial meningitis in the patients seen in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Casado, María Isabel; Julián-Jiménez, Agustín; Lobato-Casado, Paula; Cámara-Marín, Belén; Pérez-Matos, Julio Alberto; Martínez-Maroto, Tamara

    2017-04-01

    To analyse and compare predictive factors of bacterial meningitis in the patients seen in the Emergency Departments (ED) due to an episode of acute meningitis (AM). A prospective, observational study was carried out in patients aged 15 years and older seen in ED due to AM between August 2009 and November 2015. Thirty-two variables for predicting bacterial meningitis were assessed. They covered epidemiological, comorbidity, clinical and analytical factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. The study included 154 patients. The diagnosis was bacterial meningitis in 53 (34.4%) patients. Four variables were significantly associated with bacterial aetiology: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate concentration ≥33mg/dl (odds ratio [OR] 50.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.63-119.47, P<.001), serum procalcitonin (PCT) ≥0.8ng/ml (OR 46.34; 95%CI: 19.71-108.89; P<.001), CSF glucose <60% of blood value (OR 20.82; 95%CI: 8.86-48.96; P=.001), CSF polymorphonuclears greater than 50% (OR 20.19; 95%CI: 8.31-49.09; P=.002]. The area under the curve for the model serum PCT≥0.8ng/ml plus CSF lactate ≥33mg/dl was 0.992 (95%CI: 0.979-1; P<.001), and achieved 99% sensitivity and 98% specificity for predicting bacterial meningitis. Serum PCT with CSF lactate, CSF glucose and CSF polymorphonuclears evaluated in an initial assessment in the ED for patients with AM, achieved an excellent diagnostic usefulness for predicting bacterial meningitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. A study on improvement of scaling factor prediction using artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Chul; Hwang, Ki Ha; Kang, Sang Hee; Lee, Kun Jai

    2003-01-01

    Final disposal of radioactive waste generated from Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) requires the detailed knowledge of the natures and quantities of radionuclides in waste package. Many of these radionuclides are difficult to measure and expensive to assay. Thus it is suggested to the indirect method by which the concentrations of DTM (Difficult-to Measure) nuclide is decided using the relation of concentrations (Scaling Factor) between Key (Easy-to-Measure) nuclide and DTM nuclide with measured concentrations of Key nuclide. In general, scaling factor is determined by using of log mean average (LMA) and regression. These methods are adequate to apply most corrosion product nuclides. But in case of fission product nuclides and some corrosion product nuclides, the predicted values aren't well matched with the original values. In this study, the models using artificial neural network (ANN) for C-14 and Sr-90 are compared with those using LMA and regression. The assessment of models is executed in the two parts divided by a training part and a validation part. For all of two nuclides in the training part, the predicted values using ANN are well matched with the measured values compared with those using LMA and regression. In the validation part, the accuracy of the predicted values using ANN is better than that using LMA and is similar to or better than that using regression. It is concluded that the predicted values using ANN model are better than those using conventional model in some nuclides and ANN model can be used as the complement of LMA and regression model

  19. Evaluation of glycated albumin (GA) and GA/HbA1c ratio for diagnosis of diabetes and glycemic control: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Sara; Rabiee, Mohammad; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Abdolrahim, Mojgan; Rajab, Asadollah; Jazayeri, Hossein E; Tayebi, Lobat

    2017-06-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic high blood glucose concentrations (hyperglycemia). When it is left untreated or improperly managed, it can lead to acute complications including diabetic ketoacidosis and non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma. In addition, possible long-term complications include impotence, nerve damage, stroke, chronic kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, foot ulcers, and retinopathy. Historically, universal methods to measure glycemic control for the diagnosis of diabetes included fasting plasma glucose level (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2HP), and random plasma glucose. However, these measurements did not provide information about glycemic control over a long period of time. To address this problem, there has been a switch in the past decade to diagnosing diabetes and its severity through measurement of blood glycated proteins such as Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glycated albumin (GA). Diagnosis and evaluation of diabetes using glycated proteins has many advantages including high accuracy of glycemic control over a period of time. Currently, common laboratory methods used to measure glycated proteins are high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), immunoassay, and electrophoresis. HbA1c is one of the most important diagnostic factors for diabetes. However, some reports indicate that HbA1c is not a suitable marker to determine glycemic control in all diabetic patients. GA, which is not influenced by changes in the lifespan of erythrocytes, is thought to be a good alternative indicator of glycemic control in diabetic patients. Here, we review the literature that has investigated the suitability of HbA1c, GA and GA:HbA1c as indicators of long-term glycemic control and demonstrate the importance of selecting the appropriate glycated protein based on the patient's health status in order to provide useful and modern point-of-care monitoring and treatment.

  20. Predictive factors for anti-HBs status after 1 booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, I-Cheng; Jean, Mei-Chu Yen; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chen, Wei-Hung; Perng, Daw-Shyong; Lin, Chih-Wen; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2016-09-01

    In Taiwan, infants need to receive 3 doses of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine under the public health policy from the government. However, there are many young adults who even though received complete HBV vaccination in their childhood would lose the positive response of anti-hepatitis B surface antibody (HBs) and need the booster dose of HBV vaccine. The aim of our study is to determine the powerful predictive factor for screening the candidates who need only 1 booster dose of HB vaccine then they can regain positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL) or protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL).We recruited 103 university freshmen who were born after July 1986 with complete HBV vaccination in childhood, but displayed negative results for hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HBs levels at their health examinations upon university entry. They received 1 booster dose of HB vaccine, and their anti-HBs titers were rechecked 4 weeks after the booster administration. Multivariate analysis logistic regression for positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL, model 1) and protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL, model 2) was done with predictive factors of prebooster anti-HBs level, body mass index, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase level, and sex.Twenty-four students got positive postbooster anti-HBs status (10-100 mIU/mL) and 50 students got protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL). In the model of multivariate analysis logistic regression for positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL), prebooster anti-HBs level was the strongest predictive factor. The odds ratio was 218.645 and the P value was 0.001. Even in the model of multivariate analysis logistic regression for protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL), prebooster anti-HBs level was still the strongest predictive factor, but the odds ratio of a protective booster effect was 2.143, with 95% confidence interval between 1

  1. Can MRI-derived factors predict the survival in glioblastoma patients treated with postoperative chemoradiation therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hideo Nakamura, Hideo [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto, (Japan); Murakami, Ryuji [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)], e-mail: murakami@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Hirai, Toshinori; Kitajima, Mika; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Background: Advanced diagnostic and therapeutic developments may yield novel prognostic factors in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Purpose: To validate the predictive values of pretreatment quantitative diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI performed within 72 h after surgery in patients with GBM. Material and Methods: Between January 2000 and September 2009, 138 patients with GBM underwent postoperative chemoradiation therapy (chemo-RT) and longitudinal MRI before surgery, in the early postoperative period, and at 1-month intervals thereafter. The role of the patient age, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) score, minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on pretreatment DW-MRI, and gross residual tumor on early postoperative MRI were assessed by factor analysis of overall survival (OS). Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method; the multivariate Cox's proportional hazards model was used to adjust for the influence of prognostic factors. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-recursive partitioning analysis (RTOG-RPA) criteria were used to validate the predictive value of the MRI-derived factors. Results: Substantial independent prognostic factors were the KPS score (hazard ratio [HR], 1.812), minimum ADC (HR, 2.365), and gross residual tumor (HR, 1.777). Based on MRI-derived factors, we assigned the patients to different prognostic groups in the RTOG-RPA classification and grouped them according to the level of risk, i.e. a high-risk group with low minimum ADCs (<0.93 X 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) with gross residual tumor and a low-risk group with high minimum ADCs ({>=}0.93 X 10{sup -}3 mm{sup 2}/s) without gross residual tumor; the other patients were assigned to the intermediate-risk group. Median OS for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 28.2, 14.7, and 10.8 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The minimum ADC on pretreatment DW-MRI and gross residual tumor on early

  2. Factors predicting persistence of early wheezing through childhood and adolescence: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Martinez CE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carlos E Rodríguez-Martínez,1,2 Monica P Sossa-Briceño,3 Jose A Castro-Rodriguez4 1Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, Colombia; 2Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidad El Bosque, Bogota, Colombia; 3Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, Colombia; 4Division of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile Background: For the early identification of persistent asthma symptoms among young children with recurrent wheezing, it would be helpful to identify all available studies that have identified at least one factor for predicting the persistence of early wheezing. The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review of all studies that have identified factors that predict the persistence of symptoms among young patients with recurring wheezing. Methods: A systematic review of relevant studies was conducted through searching in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, and SCOPUS databases up to June 2016. Studies that identified predictors of persistence of wheezing illness among young children with recurrent wheezing were retrieved. Two independent reviewers screened the literature and extracted relevant data. Results: The literature search returned 649 references, 619 of which were excluded due to their irrelevance. Five additional studies were identified from reference lists, and 35 studies were finally included in the review. Among all the identified predictors, the most frequently identified ones were the following: family asthma or atopy; personal history of atopic diseases; allergic sensitization early in life; and frequency, clinical pattern, or severity of wheezing/symptoms. Conclusion: Parental asthma (especially maternal, parental allergy, eczema, allergic rhinitis, persistent wheezing, wheeze without colds, exercise

  3. Optimal factors of diffusion tensor imaging predicting cortico spinal tract injury in patients with brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Zhi Gang; Niu, Chen; Zhang, Qiu Li; Zhang, Ming [Dept. of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Qian, Yu Cheng [Dept. of Medical Imaging, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China)

    2017-09-15

    To identify the optimal factors in diffusion tensor imaging for predicting corticospinal tract (CST) injury caused by brain tumors. This prospective study included 33 patients with motor weakness and 64 patients with normal motor function. The movement of the CST, minimum distance between the CST and the tumor, and relative fractional anisotropy (rFA) of the CST on diffusion tensor imaging, were compared between patients with motor weakness and normal function. Logistic regression analysis was used to obtain the optimal factor predicting motor weakness. In patients with motor weakness, the displacement (8.44 ± 6.64 mm) of the CST (p = 0.009), minimum distance (3.98 ± 7.49 mm) between the CST and tumor (p < 0.001), and rFA (0.83 ± 0.11) of the CST (p < 0.001) were significantly different from those of the normal group (4.64 ± 6.65 mm, 14.87 ± 12.04 mm, and 0.98 ± 0.05, respectively) (p = 0.009, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001). The frequencies of patients with the CST passing through the tumor (6%, p = 0.002), CST close to the tumor (23%, p < 0.001), CST close to a malignant tumor (high grade glioma, metastasis, or lymphoma) (19%, p < 0.001), and CST passing through infiltrating edema (19%, p < 0.001) in the motor weakness group, were significantly different from those of the patients with normal motor function (0, 8, 1, and 10%, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that decreased rFA and CST close to a malignant tumor were effective variables related to motor weakness. Decreased fractional anisotropy, combined with closeness of a malignant tumor to the CST, is the optimal factor in predicting CST injury caused by a brain tumor.

  4. Improved USLE-K factor prediction: A case study on water erosion areas in China

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    Bin Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility (K-factor is an essential factor in soil erosion prediction and conservation practises. The major obstacles to any accurate, large-scale soil erodibility estimation are the lack of necessary data on soil characteristics and the misuse of variable K-factor calculators. In this study, we assessed the performance of available erodibility estimators Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE, Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC and the Geometric Mean Diameter based (Dg model for different geographic regions based on the Chinese soil erodibility database (CSED. Results showed that previous estimators overestimated almost all K-values. Furthermore, only the USLE and Dg approaches could be directly and reliably applicable to black and loess soil regions. Based on the nonlinear best fitting techniques, we improved soil erodibility prediction by combining Dg and soil organic matter (SOM. The NSE, R2 and RE values were 0.94, 0.67 and 9.5% after calibrating the results independently; similar model performance was showed for the validation process. The results obtained via the proposed approach were more accurate that the former K-value predictions. Moreover, those improvements allowed us to effectively establish a regional soil erodibility map (1:250,000 scale of water erosion areas in China. The mean K-value of Chinese water erosion regions was 0.0321 (t ha h·(ha MJ mm−1 with a standard deviation of 0.0107 (t ha h·(ha MJ mm−1; K-values present a decreasing trend from North to South in water erosion areas in China. The yield soil erodibility dataset also satisfactorily corresponded to former K-values from different scales (local, regional, and national.

  5. Clinical features, predictive factors and outcome of hyperglycaemic emergencies in a developing country

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    Unachukwu Chioma

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperglycaemic emergencies are common acute complications of diabetes mellitus (DM but unfortunately, there is a dearth of published data on this entity from Nigeria. This study attempts to describe the clinical and laboratory scenario associated with this complication of DM. Methods This study was carried out in DM patients who presented to an urban hospital in Nigeria with hyperglycaemic emergencies (HEs. The information extracted included biodata, laboratory data and hospitalization outcome. Outcome measures included mortality rates, case fatality rates and predictive factors for HEs mortality. Statistical tests used are χ2, Student's t test and logistic regression. Results A total of 111 subjects with HEs were recruited for the study. Diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA and hyperosomolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS accounted for 94 (85% and 17 (15% respectively of the HEs. The mean age (SD of the subjects was 53.9 (14.4 years and their ages ranged from 22 to 86 years. DKA occurred in all subjects with type 1 DM and 73 (81% of subjects with type 2 DM. The presence of HSS was noted in 17 (19% of the subjects with type 2 DM. Hypokalaemia (HK was documented in 41 (37% of the study subjects. Elevated urea levels and hyponatraemia were noted more in subjects with DKA than in those subjects with HHS (57.5%,19% vs 53%,18%. The mortality rate for HEs in this report is 20% and the case fatality rates for DKA and HHS are 18% and 35% respectively. The predictive factors for HEs mortality include, sepsis, foot ulceration, previously undetected DM, hypokalaemia and being elderly. Conclusion HHS carry a higher case fatality rate than DKA and the predictive factors for hyperglycaemic emergencies' mortality in the Nigerian with DM include foot ulcers, hypokalaemia and being elderly.

  6. Predictive factors for breast cancer in patients diagnosed atypical ductal hyperplasia at core needle biopsy

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    Lee Ahwon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Percutaneous core needle biopsy (CNB is considered to be the standard technique for histological diagnosis of breast lesions. But, it is less reliable for diagnosing atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH. The purpose of the present study was to predict, based on clinical and radiological findings, which cases of ADH diagnosed by CNB would be more likely to be associated with a more advanced lesion on subsequent surgical excision. Methods Between February 2002 and December 2007, consecutive ultrasound-guided CNBs were performed on suspicious breast lesions at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. A total of 69 CNBs led to a diagnosis of ADH, and 45 patients underwent follow-up surgical excision. We reviewed the medical records and analyses retrospectively. Results Sixty-nine patients were diagnosed with ADH at CNB. Of these patients, 45 underwent surgical excision and 10 (22.2% were subsequently diagnosed with a malignancy (ductal carcinoma in situ, n = 8; invasive cancer, n = 2. Univariate analysis revealed age (≥ 50-years at the time of core needle biopsy (p = 0.006, size (> 10 mm on imaging (p = 0.033, and combined mass with microcalcification on sonography (p = 0.029 to be associated with underestimation. When those three factors were included in multivariate analysis, only age (p = 0.035, HR 6.201, 95% CI 1.135-33.891 was an independent predictor of malignancy. Conclusion Age (≥ 50 at the time of biopsy is an independent predictive factor for breast cancer at surgical excision in patients with diagnosed ADH at CNB. For patients diagnosed with ADH at CNB, only complete surgical excision is the suitable treatment option, because we could not find any combination of factors that can safely predict the absence of DCIS or invasive cancer in a case of ADH.

  7. Factors predicting outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a developing country: the Siriraj cardiopulmonary resuscitation registry.

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    Krittayaphong, Rungroj; Saengsung, Panisara; Chawaruechai, Tanawin; Yindeengam, Ahthit; Udompunturak, Suthipol

    2009-05-01

    Outcomes of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are not usually evaluated or monitored extensively in developing countries. To determine the outcome of CPR and the factors predicting its outcome. Siriraj Hospital is a 2,400-bed, 17-building, university hospital. Data were analyzed from the Siriraj CPR registry which was modified from the Utstein template. Data entry consisted of demographic data, reason for cardiac arrest, rhythm causing cardiac arrest, type of ward, type of department, status of patients before the event as well as sequence of action including the use of medications and outcome of CPR. The primary outcomes were rated to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to discharge. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed. Approximately 95,000 patients were admitted to the hospital each year. There were a total of 2,747 CPR reports during the time frame from January 2003 to December 2006. Of these 57.9% were males. The average age was 53.3 +/- 25.2 years. Most cardiac arrests occurred in the medicine, surgery and pediatric wards. Basic life support (BLS) was started within 1 minute in 83.1% and advanced life support (ALS) was started within 4 minutes in 78.6%. Of 516 (18.8%) patients were terminal cases. Outcomes of CPR were as follows: 49.8% had ROSC, 21% survived at 24 hours, and 7.4% survived to discharge. From a logistic regression analysis, predicting factors for both ROSC and survival to discharge included non-terminal cases, witnessed arrest, non-cardiac, non-sepsis causes, and arrest during daytime. The rate of ROSC and survival to discharge from the Siriraj CPR registry were 49.8% and 7.4% respectively. Several factors can be used to predict the immediate outcome of CPR. The present analysis should help monitor the quality of CPR and post-resuscitation care and aid in the strategic planning to improve CPR outcomes.

  8. [Apnoea in infants with bronchiolitis: Incidence and risk factors for a prediction model].

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    Ramos-Fernández, José Miguel; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Ramírez-Álvarez, María; Martínez García, Yasmina; Artacho-González, Lourdes; Urda-Cardona, Antonio

    2017-05-04

    The presence of apnoea in acute bronchiolitis (AB) varies between 1.2% and 28.8%, depending on the series, and is one of its most fearsome complications. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of apnoea in hospitalised patients diagnosed with AB, and to define their associated risk factors in order to construct a prediction model. A retrospective observational study of patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in the last 5 years with a diagnosis of AB, according to the classic criteria. Data was collected on the frequency of apnoea and related clinical variables to find risk factors in a binary logistic regression model for the prediction of apnoea. A ROC curve was developed with the model. Apnoea was recorded during the admission of 53 (4.4%) patients out of a total 1,197 cases found. The risk factors included in the equation were: Female (OR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.27-1.37), Caesarean delivery (OR: 3.44, 95% CI: 1.5-7.7), Postmenstrual age ≤43 weeks (OR: 6.62, 95% CI: 2.38-18.7), Fever (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.09-1.97), Low birth weight (OR: 5.93, 95% CI: 2.23-7.67), Apnoea observed by caregivers before admission (OR: 5.93, 95% CI: 2.64-13.3), and severe bacterial infection (OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.68-9.46). The optimal sensitivity and specificity of the model in the ROC curve was 0.842 and 0.846, respectively (P<.001). The incidence of apnoea during admission was 4.4 per 100 admissions of AB and year. The estimated prediction model equation may be of help to the clinician in order to classify patients with increased risk of apnoea during admission due to AB. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  9. The occurrence and predictive factors of sleep paralysis in university students

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    Lišková M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Monika Lišková,1,2 Denisa Janečková,1 Lucie Klůzová Kráčmarová,3 Karolína Mladá,1 Jitka Bušková1,2 1Institute of Sleep Medicine, National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, 2Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, 3Olomouc University Social Health Institute, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence and predictive factors of sleep paralysis (SP in Czech university students. Our sample included 606 students who had experienced at least one episode of SP. The participants completed an online battery of questionnaires involving questionnaires focused on describing their sleep habits and SP episodes, the 18-item Boundary Questionnaire (BQ-18, the Modified Tellegen Absorption Scale (MODTAS, the Dissociative Experience Scale Taxon, the Beck Depression Inventory II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The strongest predictive factor for the frequency of SP episodes was nightmares. The strongest predictive factor for the intensity of fear was dream occurrences. In our study sample, SP was more common in women than in men. Those who scored higher in BQ-18 experienced more often pleasant episodes of SP and those who scored higher in MODTAS were more likely to experience SP accompanied with hallucinations. While 62% of respondents answered that their SP was accompanied by intense fear, 16% reported that they experienced pleasant feelings during SP episodes. We suggest that not only the known rapid eye movement sleep dysregulation but also some personality variables may contribute to the characteristics of SP. Keywords: sleep paralysis, absorption, personality boundaries, dissociation, nightmares

  10. Predictive factors for pregnancy hypertension in primiparous adolescents: analysis of prenatal care, ABPM and microalbuminuria.

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    de Carvalho, Regina Coeli Marques; Campos, Henry de Holanda; Bruno, Zenilda Vieira; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani

    2006-10-01

    To quantify PH prevalence in primiparous adolescents; define predictive factors for the occurrence of PH and its impact on newborns. We followed 29 primiparous adolescents from the prenatal period through the 12th week of the puerperium, with a mean of sixteen years of age, served at the Outpatient Facility for Adolescents of Maternidade Escola Assis Chateaubriand (MEAC) of Universidade Federal do Ceará (Fortaleza, Brazil). The pregnant adolescents were divided into two groups, that is, those who remained normotensive (Group I) and those who developed PH (Group II). The variables investigated in the assessment of the value of predictability for the development of PH were anthropometric measures, socioeconomic aspects, smoking habit, inheritance for SAH (father/mother), prenatal tests requested in the first prenatal care visit in addition to microalbuminuria and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in the 28th week of gestation. The pregnant adolescents were followed up at delivery and late puerperium (12th week after the puerperium). The newborns to the mothers included in our study were assessed at birth according to the Apgar score and the Capurro method, for weight, height and perinatal hypoxia. The prevalence of PH was 51.7%. Inheritance for SAH presented the highest predictive value for PH with an odds ratio of 10.99. Diastolic arterial pressure equal to or above 70 mmHg at the gestational age of 35 weeks was statistically significant as a predictive value for PH. At ABPM we found a predictive value for PH: diastolic pressure load during alertness, diastolic and systolic pressure load during night sleep, pressure variability and maximum diastolic pressure during sleep. Specifically a maximum diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) at ABPM during the period of night sleep (3)64 mmHg presented an odds ratio of 6 for PH with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 60% for the development of PH. The research for PH predictive factors in primiparous adolescents

  11. Epidemiology of distal radius fractures and factors predicting risk and prognosis.

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    MacIntyre, Norma J; Dewan, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Literature Review. For optimal Distal Radius Fracture (DRF) rehabilitation and fracture prevention, it is important to understand the epidemiology and factors predictive of injury, chronic pain, chronic disability, and subsequent fracture. To summarize the literature reporting on DRF epidemiology, risk factors, and prognostic factors. Literature synthesis. Although incidence varies globally, DRFs are common across the lifespan and appear to be on the rise. Risk of DRF is determined by personal factors (age, sex/gender, lifestyle, health condition) and environmental factors (population density, climate). For example, age and sex influence risk such that DRF is most common in boys/young men and older women. The most common causes of DRF in the pediatric and young adult age groups include playing/sporting activities and motor vehicle accidents. In contrast, the most common mechanism of injury in older adults is a low-energy trauma because of a fall from a standing height. Poorer health outcomes are associated with older age, being female, poor bone healing (or having an associated fracture of the ulnar styloid), having a compensated injury, and a lower socioeconomic status. Risk stratification according to predictors of chronic pain and disability enable therapists to identify those patients who will benefit from advocacy for more comprehensive assessment, targeted interventions, and tailored educational strategies. The unique opportunity for secondary prevention of osteoporotic fracture after DRF has yet to be realized by treating therapists in the orthopedic community. V. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors predicting the outcome following medical treatment of mesial temporal epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

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    Sànchez, Javier; Centanaro, Mirella; Solís, Juanita; Delgado, Fabrizio; Yépez, Luis

    2014-06-01

    There is a lack of information from South America regarding factors that predict the clinical outcomes of patients treated medically for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). This study was conducted to determine which of these factors are the most important. This study included 110 South American patients with MTLE-HS treated with antiepileptic drugs. The factors considered included age, gender, age of epilepsy onset, interval between the lesion and the first seizure, central nervous system infection, traumatic brain injury, perinatal asphyxia, febrile convulsion, history of status epilepticus, types of seizures, site of hippocampal sclerosis (HS), extrahippocampal pathology, and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. The patients were divided into two groups based on the response to treatment: Group I, seizure free for at least two years; and Group II, not seizure free. On the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with a poor prognosis in terms of seizure frequency and control following treatment included the presence of an early onset of seizure, more than 10 seizures per month before treatment, and EEG abnormalities. The recognition of risk factors, such as early onset of seizures, more than 10 seizures per month before treatment, and EEG abnormalities, could lead to the identification of risk groups among patients with MTLE-HS and refractory epilepsy, possibly designating these individuals as candidates for early epilepsy surgery. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary glycemic load and glycemic index and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in Dutch men and women: the EPIC-MORGEN study.

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    Koert N J Burger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The associations of glycemic load (GL and glycemic index (GI with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD are not well-established, particularly in men, and may be modified by gender. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether high dietary GL and GI increase the risk of CVD in men and women. METHODS: A large prospective cohort study (EPIC-MORGEN was conducted within the general Dutch population among 8,855 men and 10,753 women, aged 21-64 years at baseline (1993-1997 and free of diabetes and CVD. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire and GI and GL were calculated using Foster-Powell's international table of GI. Information on morbidity and mortality was obtained through linkage with national registries. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR